International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Labaune, C.; Fuchs, J.; Bandulet, H.
2002-01-01
Imprint elimination, smoothing and preheat control are considerable problems in inertial fusion and their possible solution can be achieved by using low-density porous materials as a buffer in target design. The articles gathered in this document present various aspects of the laser-plasma interaction, among which we have noticed: -) numerical algorithmic improvements of the Vlasov solver toward the simulation of the laser-plasma interaction are proposed, -) the dependence of radiation temperatures and X-ray conversion efficiencies of hohlraum on the target structures and laser irradiation conditions are investigated, -) a study of laser interaction with ultra low-density (0,5 - 20 mg/cm 3 ) porous media analyzing backscattered light at incident laser frequency ω 0 and its harmonics 3*ω 0 /2 and 2*ω 0 is presented, -) investigations of laser interaction with solid targets and crater formation are carried out with the objective to determine the ablation loading efficiency, -) a self organization in an intense laser-driven plasma and the measure of the relative degree of order of the states in an open system based on the S-theorem are investigated, and -) the existence and stability of electromagnetic solitons generated in a relativistic interaction of an intense laser light with uniform under-dense cold plasma are studied
Spatio-temporal evolution of magnetosonic wave in the laser plasma interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, R. P.; Singh, Ram Kishor; Sharma, Swati; Tiwary, Prem Pyari; Modi, K. V.; Satsangi, V. R.
2015-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical model for the transient response of nonlinear coupling between magnetosonic wave and ion acoustic wave in the overdense plasma. Filamentation of magnetosonic wave has been considered to be responsible for magnetic turbulence during the laser plasma interaction. The ion acoustic wave gets excited due to the ponderomotive force exerted by magnetosonic wave and this ion acoustic wave in turn generates perturbation in the background density in the form of spatial density harmonics. Numerical simulation has been carried out for dimensionless coupled equations of magnetosonic wave and ion acoustic wave; and the results show quite complex localized structures that grow with time. The power spectrum has also been studied which shows that the spectral index follows an approximate scaling of the order of ∼k −2.4 at smaller scales. The data obtained from numerical simulation are used in semi analytical model to better understand the mechanism of nonlinear evolution of magnetosonic wave. The results indicate considerable randomness in the spatial structure of the magnetic field profile which gives sufficient indication of turbulence
Spatio-temporal evolution of magnetosonic wave in the laser plasma interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharma, R. P., E-mail: rpsharma@ces.iitd.ac.in; Singh, Ram Kishor, E-mail: ram007kishor@gmail.com; Sharma, Swati, E-mail: swati.sharma704@gmail.com [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Delhi 110016 (India); Tiwary, Prem Pyari, E-mail: prempyari@gmail.com [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Delhi 110016 (India); Department of Physics and Computer Science, Dayal Bagh Educational Institute(Deemed University), DayalBagh, Agra 282005 (India); Modi, K. V., E-mail: kvmodi.iitd@gmail.com [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Delhi 110016 (India); Mechanical Engineering Department, Government Engineering College Valsad, Gujarat 396001 (India); Satsangi, V. R. [Department of Physics and Computer Science, Dayal Bagh Educational Institute(Deemed University), DayalBagh, Agra 282005 (India)
2015-05-15
This paper presents a theoretical model for the transient response of nonlinear coupling between magnetosonic wave and ion acoustic wave in the overdense plasma. Filamentation of magnetosonic wave has been considered to be responsible for magnetic turbulence during the laser plasma interaction. The ion acoustic wave gets excited due to the ponderomotive force exerted by magnetosonic wave and this ion acoustic wave in turn generates perturbation in the background density in the form of spatial density harmonics. Numerical simulation has been carried out for dimensionless coupled equations of magnetosonic wave and ion acoustic wave; and the results show quite complex localized structures that grow with time. The power spectrum has also been studied which shows that the spectral index follows an approximate scaling of the order of ∼k{sup −2.4} at smaller scales. The data obtained from numerical simulation are used in semi analytical model to better understand the mechanism of nonlinear evolution of magnetosonic wave. The results indicate considerable randomness in the spatial structure of the magnetic field profile which gives sufficient indication of turbulence.
Nonlinear plasma wave models in 3D fluid simulations of laser-plasma interaction
Chapman, Thomas; Berger, Richard; Arrighi, Bill; Langer, Steve; Banks, Jeffrey; Brunner, Stephan
2017-10-01
Simulations of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) conditions require multi-mm spatial scales due to the typical laser beam size and durations of order 100 ps in order for numerical laser reflectivities to converge. To be computationally achievable, these scales necessitate a fluid-like treatment of light and plasma waves with a spatial grid size on the order of the light wave length. Plasma waves experience many nonlinear phenomena not naturally described by a fluid treatment, such as frequency shifts induced by trapping, a nonlinear (typically suppressed) Landau damping, and mode couplings leading to instabilities that can cause the plasma wave to decay rapidly. These processes affect the onset and saturation of stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering, and are of direct interest to the modeling and prediction of deleterious LPI in ICF. It is not currently computationally feasible to simulate these Debye length-scale phenomena in 3D across experimental scales. Analytically-derived and/or numerically benchmarked models of processes occurring at scales finer than the fluid simulation grid offer a path forward. We demonstrate the impact of a range of kinetic processes on plasma reflectivity via models included in the LPI simulation code pF3D. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Laser plasma interactions in hohlraums
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kruer, W.L.
1994-10-05
Lasers plasma instabilities are an important constraint in x-ray driven inertial confinement fusion. In hohlraums irradiated with 1.06 {mu}m light on the Shiva laser, plasma instabilities were extremely deleterious, driving the program to the use of shorter wavelength light. Excellent coupling has been achieved in hohlraums driven with 0.35 {mu}m light on the Nova laser. Considerable attention is being given to the scaling of this excellent coupling to the larger hohlraums for an ignition target. Various instability control mechanisms such as large plasma wave damping and laser beam incoherence are discussed, as well as scaling experiments to check the instability levels.
Nonlinear laser-plasma interactions
Kaw, P. K.
2017-12-01
laser plasma experiments and have become the backbone of our present understanding of how lasers nonlinearly interact with fully ionized fusion plasmas. A review of this early work will be presented. We shall also present a review of our involvement in the recent work on nonlinear penetration of light into overdense plasmas with gradual and sharp interfaces.
Laser-plasma interactions and applications
Neely, David; Bingham, Robert; Jaroszynski, Dino
2013-01-01
Laser-Plasma Interactions and Applications covers the fundamental and applied aspects of high power laser-plasma physics. With an internationally renowned team of authors, the book broadens the knowledge of young researchers working in high power laser-plasma science by providing them with a thorough pedagogical grounding in the interaction of laser radiation with matter, laser-plasma accelerators, and inertial confinement fusion. The text is organised such that the theoretical foundations of the subject are discussed first, in Part I. In Part II, topics in the area of high energy density physics are covered. Parts III and IV deal with the applications to inertial confinement fusion and as a driver of particle and radiation sources, respectively. Finally, Part V describes the principle diagnostic, targetry, and computational approaches used in the field. This book is designed to give students a thorough foundation in the fundamental physics of laser-plasma interactions. It will also provide readers with knowl...
Electron plasma waves in CO/sub 2/ laser plasma interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baldis, H.A.; Villeneuve, D.M.; Walsh, C.J.
1984-01-01
During the past few years, the use of Thomson scattering in CO/sub 2/ laser produced plasmas has permitted the identification and study of electron plasma waves and ion waves, driven by various instabilities in the plasma corona, such as Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS), two plasmon decay, and Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS). Since these instabilities may coexist in the plasma, the density fluctuations associated with one wave may influence the behaviour of one or more of the other instabilities. The authors discuss the experimental evidence of such effects and, in particular, the consequences of a recent experiment in which the ion waves driven by SBS were observed to adversely affect the production of the electron plasma waves driven by SRS. In that experiment, a strong correlation was observed between the onset of SBS and the disappearance of the electron plasma waves driven by SRS at low densities (n/sub e/ n/sub e/ > 0.05 n/sub c/)
Laser-plasma interactions in magnetized environment
Shi, Yuan; Qin, Hong; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2018-05-01
Propagation and scattering of lasers present new phenomena and applications when the plasma medium becomes strongly magnetized. With mega-Gauss magnetic fields, scattering of optical lasers already becomes manifestly anisotropic. Special angles exist where coherent laser scattering is either enhanced or suppressed, as we demonstrate using a cold-fluid model. Consequently, by aiming laser beams at special angles, one may be able to optimize laser-plasma coupling in magnetized implosion experiments. In addition, magnetized scattering can be exploited to improve the performance of plasma-based laser pulse amplifiers. Using the magnetic field as an extra control variable, it is possible to produce optical pulses of higher intensity, as well as compress UV and soft x-ray pulses beyond the reach of other methods. In even stronger giga-Gauss magnetic fields, laser-plasma interaction enters a relativistic-quantum regime. Using quantum electrodynamics, we compute a modified wave dispersion relation, which enables correct interpretation of Faraday rotation measurements of strong magnetic fields.
Wave function of free electron in a strong laser plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Shitong; Shen Wenda; Guo Qizhi
1993-01-01
The wave function of free electron in a strong laser plasma is obtained by solving exactly the Dirac equation in a curved space-time with optical metric for the laser plasma. When the laser field is diminished to zero, the wave function is naturally reduced to relativistic wave function of free electron. The possible application of the wave function is discussed
Compendium of laser plasma interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bobin, J.-L.
1981-10-01
Basic mechanisms, linear and non linear, are reviewed. Absorption through inverse Bremsstrahlung, through wave-wave couplings; resonant absorption; wave breaking; ponderomotive force; harmonic generation; magnetic field generation. Subsequent plasma flows are described [fr
Quasilinear theory of laser-plasma interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neil, A.J.
1992-01-01
The interaction of a high intensity laser beam with a plasma is generally susceptible to the filamentation instability due to nonuniformities in the laser profile. In ponderomotive filamentation high intensity spots in the beam expell plasma by pondermotive force, lowering the local density, causing even more light to be focused into the already high intensity region. The result-the beam is broken up into a filamentary structure. Several optical smoothing techniques have been proposed to eliminate this problem. In the Random Phase Plates (RPS) approach, the beam is split into a very fine scale, time-stationary interference pattern. The irregularities in this pattern are small enough that thermal diffusion is then responsible for smoothing the illumination. In the Induced Spatial Incoherence (ISI) approach the beam is broken up into a larger scale but non-time-stationary interference pattern. In this dissertation the author proposes that the photons in an ISI beam resonantly interact with the sound waves in the wake of the beam. Such a resonant interaction induces diffusion in the velocity space of the photons. The diffusion will tend to spread the distribution of photons, thus if the diffusion time is much shorter than the e-folding time of the filamentation instability, the instability will be suppressed. Using a wave-kinetic description of laser-plasma interactions the author has applied quasilinear theory to model the resonant interactions of the photons in an ISI beam with the beam's wake field. An analytic expression is derived for the transverse diffusion coefficient. The quasilinear hypothesis was tested numerically and shown to yield an underestimate of the diffusion rate. By comparing the quasilinear diffusion rate with the maximum growth rate for the ponderomotive filamentation of a uniform beam, the author derived a worst case criterion for stability against ponderomotive filamentation
Laser-plasma interactions for fast ignition
Kemp, A. J.; Fiuza, F.; Debayle, A.; Johzaki, T.; Mori, W. B.; Patel, P. K.; Sentoku, Y.; Silva, L. O.
2014-05-01
In the electron-driven fast-ignition (FI) approach to inertial confinement fusion, petawatt laser pulses are required to generate MeV electrons that deposit several tens of kilojoules in the compressed core of an imploded DT shell. We review recent progress in the understanding of intense laser-plasma interactions (LPI) relevant to FI. Increases in computational and modelling capabilities, as well as algorithmic developments have led to enhancement in our ability to perform multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of LPI at relevant scales. We discuss the physics of the interaction in terms of laser absorption fraction, the laser-generated electron spectra, divergence, and their temporal evolution. Scaling with irradiation conditions such as laser intensity are considered, as well as the dependence on plasma parameters. Different numerical modelling approaches and configurations are addressed, providing an overview of the modelling capabilities and limitations. In addition, we discuss the comparison of simulation results with experimental observables. In particular, we address the question of surrogacy of today's experiments for the full-scale FI problem.
Interplay of Laser-Plasma Interactions and Inertial Fusion Hydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strozzi, D. J.; Bailey, D. S.; Michel, P.; Divol, L.; Sepke, S. M.
2017-01-01
The effects of laser-plasma interactions (LPI) on the dynamics of inertial confinement fusion hohlraums are investigated in this work via a new approach that self-consistently couples reduced LPI models into radiation-hydrodynamics numerical codes. The interplay between hydrodynamics and LPI—specifically stimulated Raman scatter and crossed-beam energy transfer (CBET)—mostly occurs via momentum and energy deposition into Langmuir and ion acoustic waves. This spatially redistributes energy coupling to the target, which affects the background plasma conditions and thus, modifies laser propagation. In conclusion, this model shows reduced CBET and significant laser energy depletion by Langmuir waves, which reduce the discrepancy between modeling and data from hohlraum experiments on wall x-ray emission and capsule implosion shape.
Electron trajectory evaluation in laser-plasma interaction for effective output beam
Zobdeh, P.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.; Afarideh, H.
2010-06-01
Using the ellipsoidal cavity model, the quasi-monoenergetic electron output beam in laser-plasma interaction is described. By the cavity regime the quality of electron beam is improved in comparison with those generated from other methods such as periodic plasma wave field, spheroidal cavity regime and plasma channel guided acceleration. Trajectory of electron motion is described as hyperbolic, parabolic or elliptic paths. We find that the self-generated electron bunch has a smaller energy width and more effective gain in energy spectrum. Initial condition for the ellipsoidal cavity is determined by laser-plasma parameters. The electron trajectory is influenced by its position, energy and cavity electrostatic potential.
Confirmation of radiation pressure effects in laser--plasma interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Attwood, D.T.; Sweeney, D.W.; Auerbach, J.M.; Lee, P.H.Y.
1977-10-01
Interferometric data resolved in 1μm and 15 psec confirms the dominant role of radiation pressure during high intensity laser-plasma interactions. Specifically observed manifestations include electron density profiles steepened to 1 μm scale length, clearly defined upper and lower density shelves, and small and large scale deformation of transverse isodensity surfaces
Investigation of electron heating in laser-plasma interaction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A Parvazian
2013-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS and electron heating in laser plasma propagating along the plasma fusion is investigated by particle-in cell simulation. Applying an external magnetic field to plasma, production of whistler waves and electron heating associated with whistler waves in the direction perpendicular to external magnetic field was observed in this simulation. The plasma waves with low phase velocities, generated in backward-SRS and dominateing initially in time and space, accelerated the backward electrons by trapping them. Then these electrons promoted to higher energies by the forward-SRS plasma waves with high phase velocities. This tow-stage electron acceleration is more efficient due to the coexistence of these two instabilities.
Investigation of electron heating in laser-plasma interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parvazian, A.; Haji Sharifi, K.
2013-01-01
In this paper, stimulated Raman scattering and electron heating in laser plasma propagating along the plasma fusion is investigated by particle-in cell simulation. Applying an external magnetic field to plasma, production of whistler waves and electron heating associated with whistler waves in the direction perpendicular to external magnetic field was observed in this simulation. The plasma waves with low phase velocities, generated in backward-stimulated Raman scattering and dominating initially in time and space, accelerated the backward electrons by trapping them. Then these electrons promoted to higher energies by the forward-stimulated Raman scattering plasma waves with high phase velocities. This two-stage electron acceleration is more efficient due to the coexistence of these two instabilities.
PIC Simulation of Laser Plasma Interactions with Temporal Bandwidths
Tsung, Frank; Weaver, J.; Lehmberg, R.
2015-11-01
We are performing particle-in-cell simulations using the code OSIRIS to study the effects of laser plasma interactions in the presence of temperal bandwidths under conditions relevant to current and future shock ignition experiments on the NIKE laser. Our simulations show that, for sufficiently large bandwidth, the saturation level, and the distribution of hot electrons, can be effected by the addition of temporal bandwidths (which can be accomplished in experiments using smoothing techniques such as SSD or ISI). We will show that temporal bandwidth along play an important role in the control of LPI's in these lasers and discuss future directions. This work is conducted under the auspices of NRL.
Progress in Long Scale Length Laser-Plasma Interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glenzer, S H; Arnold, P; Bardsley, G; Berger, R L; Bonanno, G; Borger, T; Bower, D E; Bowers, M; Bryant, R; Buckman, S.; Burkhart, S C; Campbell, K; Chrisp, M P; Cohen, B I; Constantin, G; Cooper, F; Cox, J; Dewald, E; Divol, L; Dixit, S; Duncan, J; Eder, D; Edwards, J; Erbert, G; Felker, B; Fornes, J; Frieders, G; Froula, D H; Gardner, S D; Gates, C; Gonzalez, M; Grace, S; Gregori, G; Greenwood, A; Griffith, R; Hall, T; Hammel, B A; Haynam, C; Heestand, G; Henesian, M; Hermes, G; Hinkel, D; Holder, J; Holdner, F; Holtmeier, G; Hsing, W; Huber, S; James, T; Johnson, S; Jones, O S; Kalantar, D; Kamperschroer, J H; Kauffman, R; Kelleher, T; Knight, J; Kirkwood, R K; Kruer, W L; Labiak, W; Landen, O L; Langdon, A B; Langer, S; Latray, D; Lee, A; Lee, F D; Lund, D; MacGowan, B; Marshall, S; McBride, J; McCarville, T; McGrew, L; Mackinnon, A J; Mahavandi, S; Manes, K; Marshall, C; Mertens, E; Meezan, N; Miller, G; Montelongo, S; Moody, J D; Moses, E; Munro, D; Murray, J; Neumann, J; Newton, M; Ng, E; Niemann, C; Nikitin, A; Opsahl, P; Padilla, E; Parham, T; Parrish, G; Petty, C; Polk, M; Powell, C; Reinbachs, I; Rekow, V; Rinnert, R; Riordan, B; Rhodes, M.
2003-01-01
The first experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have employed the first four beams to measure propagation and laser backscattering losses in large ignition-size plasmas. Gas-filled targets between 2 mm and 7 mm length have been heated from one side by overlapping the focal spots of the four beams from one quad operated at 351 nm (3ω) with a total intensity of 2 x 10 15 W cm -2 . The targets were filled with 1 atm of CO 2 producing of up to 7 mm long homogeneously heated plasmas with densities of n e = 6 x 10 20 cm -3 and temperatures of T e = 2 keV. The high energy in a NIF quad of beams of 16kJ, illuminating the target from one direction, creates unique conditions for the study of laser plasma interactions at scale lengths not previously accessible. The propagation through the large-scale plasma was measured with a gated x-ray imager that was filtered for 3.5 keV x rays. These data indicate that the beams interact with the full length of this ignition-scale plasma during the last ∼1 ns of the experiment. During that time, the full aperture measurements of the stimulated Brillouin scattering and stimulated Raman scattering show scattering into the four focusing lenses of 6% for the smallest length (∼2 mm). increasing to 12% for ∼7 mm. These results demonstrate the NIF experimental capabilities and further provide a benchmark for three-dimensional modeling of the laser-plasma interactions at ignition-size scale lengths
Laser--plasma interaction in a theta-pinch geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armstrong, W.T.
1978-06-01
Prompt stimulated Brillouin scatter (SBS) is studied in an experiment wherein a high power, pulsed CO 2 laser irradiates an independently produced, theta-pinch plasma. SBS does not significantly affect laser heating of the plasma. Measurements of density profiles and temperature histories permitted examination of laser refraction, local heating and net absorption. Refractive containment of the CO 2 laser beam by an on-axis density minimum was observed at early times during the laser pulse. However, refractive containment was lost at late times due to the diffusive loss of the density minimum. Classical modeling of the expected heating required ''bleached'' absorption to account for the observed heating. A plasma absorptivity of approximately 46% was inferred from calorimetry measurements at 250 mtorr fill pressure. These results confirm that classical heating and refraction dominated the laser-plasma interaction
60th Scottish Universities Summer School in Physics: 6th Laser-plasma interactions
Cairns, R A; Jaroszinski, D A
2009-01-01
Presents diagnostic methods, experimental techniques, and simulation tools used to study and model laser-plasma interactions. This book discusses the basic theory of the interaction of intense electromagnetic radiation fields with matter.
Discrete Variational Approach for Modeling Laser-Plasma Interactions
Reyes, J. Paxon; Shadwick, B. A.
2014-10-01
The traditional approach for fluid models of laser-plasma interactions begins by approximating fields and derivatives on a grid in space and time, leading to difference equations that are manipulated to create a time-advance algorithm. In contrast, by introducing the spatial discretization at the level of the action, the resulting Euler-Lagrange equations have particular differencing approximations that will exactly satisfy discrete versions of the relevant conservation laws. For example, applying a spatial discretization in the Lagrangian density leads to continuous-time, discrete-space equations and exact energy conservation regardless of the spatial grid resolution. We compare the results of two discrete variational methods using the variational principles from Chen and Sudan and Brizard. Since the fluid system conserves energy and momentum, the relative errors in these conserved quantities are well-motivated physically as figures of merit for a particular method. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-SC0008382 and by the National Science Foundation under Contract No. PHY-1104683.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drouin, M.
2009-11-01
This research thesis proposes a new formulation of the relativistic implicit direct method, based on the weak formulation of the wave equation which is solved by means of a Newton algorithm. The first part of this thesis deals with the properties of the explicit particle-in-cell (PIC) methods: properties and limitations of an explicit PIC code, linear analysis of a numerical plasma, numerical heating phenomenon, interest of a higher order interpolation function, and presentation of two applications in high density relativistic laser-plasma interaction. The second and main part of this report deals with adapting the direct implicit method to laser-plasma interaction: presentation of the state of the art, formulating of the direct implicit method, resolution of the wave equation. The third part concerns various numerical and physical validations of the ELIXIRS code: case of laser wave propagation in vacuum, demonstration of the adjustable damping which is a characteristic of the proposed algorithm, influence of space-time discretization on energy conservation, expansion of a thermal plasma in vacuum, two cases of plasma-beam unsteadiness in relativistic regime, and then a case of the overcritical laser-plasma interaction
Ion Acceleration by Laser Plasma Interaction from Cryogenic Microjets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Propp, Adrienne [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)
2015-08-16
Processes that occur in extreme conditions, such as in the center of stars and large planets, can be simulated in the laboratory using facilities such as SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Jupiter Laser Facility (JLF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). These facilities allow scientists to investigate the properties of matter by observing their interactions with high-power lasers. Ion acceleration from laser plasma interaction is gaining greater attention today due to its widespread potential applications, including proton beam cancer therapy and fast ignition for energy production. Typically, ion acceleration is achieved by focusing a high power laser on thin foil targets through a mechanism called Target Normal Sheath Acceleration. However, this mechanism is not ideal for creating the high-energy proton beams needed for future applications. Based on research and recent experiments, we hypothesized that a pure liquid cryogenic jet would be an ideal target for exploring new regimes of ion acceleration. Furthermore, it would provide a continuous, pure target, unlike metal foils which are consumed in the interaction and easily contaminated. In an effort to test this hypothesis, we used the 527 nm split beam, frequency-doubled TITAN laser at JLF. Data from the cryogenic jets was limited due to the flow of current up the jet into the nozzle during the interaction, heating the jet and damaging the orifice. However, we achieved a pure proton beam with evidence of a monoenergetic feature. Furthermore, data from gold and carbon wires showed surprising and interesting results. Preliminary analysis of data from two ion emission diagnostics, Thomson parabola spectrometers (TPs) and radio chromic films (RCFs), suggests that shockwave acceleration occurred rather than target normal sheath acceleration, the standard mechanism of ion acceleration. Upon completion of the experiment at TITAN, I researched the possibility of transforming our liquid cryogenic
Ion Acceleration by Laser Plasma Interaction from Cryogenic Microjets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Propp, Adrienne
2015-01-01
Processes that occur in extreme conditions, such as in the center of stars and large planets, can be simulated in the laboratory using facilities such as SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Jupiter Laser Facility (JLF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). These facilities allow scientists to investigate the properties of matter by observing their interactions with high-power lasers. Ion acceleration from laser plasma interaction is gaining greater attention today due to its widespread potential applications, including proton beam cancer therapy and fast ignition for energy production. Typically, ion acceleration is achieved by focusing a high power laser on thin foil targets through a mechanism called Target Normal Sheath Acceleration. However, this mechanism is not ideal for creating the high-energy proton beams needed for future applications. Based on research and recent experiments, we hypothesized that a pure liquid cryogenic jet would be an ideal target for exploring new regimes of ion acceleration. Furthermore, it would provide a continuous, pure target, unlike metal foils which are consumed in the interaction and easily contaminated. In an effort to test this hypothesis, we used the 527 nm split beam, frequency-doubled TITAN laser at JLF. Data from the cryogenic jets was limited due to the flow of current up the jet into the nozzle during the interaction, heating the jet and damaging the orifice. However, we achieved a pure proton beam with evidence of a monoenergetic feature. Furthermore, data from gold and carbon wires showed surprising and interesting results. Preliminary analysis of data from two ion emission diagnostics, Thomson parabola spectrometers (TPs) and radio chromic films (RCFs), suggests that shockwave acceleration occurred rather than target normal sheath acceleration, the standard mechanism of ion acceleration. Upon completion of the experiment at TITAN, I researched the possibility of transforming our liquid cryogenic
Target Surface Area Effects on Hot Electron Dynamics from High Intensity Laser-Plasma Interactions
2016-08-19
Science, University ofMichigan, AnnArbor,MI 48109-2099, USA E-mail: czulick@umich.edu Keywords: laser- plasma ,mass-limited, fast electrons , sheath...New J. Phys. 18 (2016) 063020 doi:10.1088/1367-2630/18/6/063020 PAPER Target surface area effects on hot electron dynamics from high intensity laser... plasma interactions CZulick, ARaymond,AMcKelvey, VChvykov, AMaksimchuk, AGRThomas, LWillingale, VYanovsky andKKrushelnick Center forUltrafast Optical
Coherent nonlinear backscattering by laser-plasma interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, D.; Wilhelmsson, H.
1974-01-01
A theoretical analysis is carried out for the problem of coherent nonlinear backscattering of laser radiation by a high density plasma. A number of effects of direct interest to the DT-pellet fusion research is investigated. A simple physical description is introduced, which relies on a nonlinear potential formulation of the scattering equations. The simplicity and the unified nature of the approach enables one to evaluate and compare the influence on the radiation reflectivity of different effects, such as e.g. inhomogeneities, blow-off velocities, temperature gradients, laser band width and relativistic oscillatory velocities. The understanding of the role played by the various phenomena has consequently improved and it is thought that this approach should be useful for the interpretation of laser-plasma data obtained by computer simulation or laboratory experiments. The results may also be utilized to estimate how and to what extent one may avoid undesired anomalous reflection when planning new laser-plasma devices. (Auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Jiatai
1994-01-01
From the theory of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) three wave interaction, a new method of detecting the electron temperature in laser-plasma is obtained. SRS spectrum obtained from Shenguang No. 12 Nd-laser experiments are analysed. Using the wave length of short wave cut off of SRS, the electron temperature in corona plasma region is calculated consistently. These results agree reasonable with X-ray spectrum experiments
Self-generated magnetic fields and energy transport by ultra-intense laser-plasma interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abudurexiti, A.; Tuniyazi, P.; Wang Qian
2011-01-01
The electromagnetic instability (Weibel instability) and its mechanism in ultra-intense laser-plasma interactions are studied by using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The transport of energy in electron thermal conduction is analyzed by the Spitzer-Harm theory, and the election's vertical pyrogenation phenomenon that resulted from anisotropic heating of laser is observed. The results indicate that the strong magnetic field excited by Weibel instability makes the electron beam deposit its energy within a very short distance, and it restrains the electron thermal flux formed when the laser ponderomotive force bursts through the electron. With the increase of the self-generated magnetic field, the electron will be seized by the wave of magnetic field, and the transport of heat will be restricted. (authors)
The study of waves, instabilities, and turbulence using Thomson scattering in laser plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drake, R.P.
1995-01-01
Much basic work in plasma physics has been devoted to the study of wave properties in plasmas, one of the nonlinear development of driven waves, and of the instabilities in which such waves may participate. The use of laser-plasma techniques has allowed one to extend such studies into new regimes. Such techniques and their results are the subject here. Once one chooses a physical problem within this subject area, it is now possible to design a laser-plasma experiment that is optimized for the study of that problem. The plasma can be designed to have a variety of density and flow-velocity profiles, the damping of ion acoustic waves and of electron plasma waves can be independently controlled, and the waves can be driven weakly or strongly. By using Nd-glass lasers and their harmonics one can non-invasively drive and diagnose the waves, using separate laser beams to produce the plasma, drive the waves, and diagnose their properties. The author uses as examples some recent work with his collaborators, including the first experimental detection of ion plasma waves and the first direct observation of the plasma wave driven by the acoustic decay of laser light
High speed photography diagnostics in laser-plasma interaction experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andre, M.L.
1988-01-01
The authors report on their effort in the development of techniques involved in laser-plasma experiments. This includes not only laser technology but also diagnostics studies and targets design and fabrication. Among the different kind of diagnostics currently used are high speed streak cameras, fast oscilloscopes and detectors sensitive in the i.r., visible, the u.v. region and the x-rays. In this presentation the authors describe the three high power lasers which are still in operation (P 102, OctAL and PHEBUS) and the main diagnostics used to characterize the plasma
Laser plasma interaction in rugby-shaped hohlraums
Masson-Laborde, P.-E.; Philippe, F.; Tassin, V.; Monteil, M.-C.; Gauthier, P.; Casner, A.; Depierreux, S.; Seytor, P.; Teychenne, D.; Loiseau, P.; Freymerie, P.
2014-10-01
Rugby shaped-hohlraum has proven to give high performance compared to a classical similar-diameter cylinder hohlraum. Due to this performance, this hohlraum has been chosen as baseline ignition target for the Laser MegaJoule (LMJ). Many experiments have therefore been performed during the last years on the Omega laser facility in order to study in details the rugby hohlraum. In this talk, we will discuss the interpretation of these experiments from the point of view of the laser plasma instability problem. Experimental comparisons have been done between rugby, cylinder and elliptical shape rugby hohlraums and we will discuss how the geometry differences will affect the evolution of laser plasma instabilities (LPI). The efficiency of laser smoothing techniques on these instabilities will also be discussed as well as gas filling effect. The experimental results will be compared with FCI2 hydroradiative calculations and linear postprocessing with Piranah. Experimental Raman and Brillouin spectrum, from which we can infer the location of the parametric instabilities, will be compared to simulated ones, and will give the possibility to compare LPI between the different hohlraum geometries.
Theoretical studies of some nonlinear laser-plasma interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, B.I.
1975-01-01
The nonlinear coupling of intense, monochromatic, electromagnetic radiation with plasma is considered in a number of special cases. The first part of the thesis serves as an introduction to three-wave interactions. A general formulation of the stimulated scattering of transverse waves by longitudinal modes in a warm, unmagnetized, uniform plasma is constructed. A general dispersion relation is derived that describes Raman and Brillouin scattering, modulational instability, and induced Thomson scattering. Raman scattering (the scattering of a photon into another photon and an electron plasma wave) is investigated as a possible plasma heating scheme. Analytic theory complemented by computer simulation is presented describing the nonlinear mode coupling of laser light with small and large amplitude, resonantly excited electron plasma waves. The simulated scattering of a coherent electromagnetic wave by low frequency density perturbations in homogeneous plasma is discussed. A composite picture of the linear dispersion relations for filamentation and Brillouin scattering is constructed. The absolute instability of Brillouin weak and strong coupling by analytic and numerical means is described
The Validity of a Paraxial Approximation in the Simulation of Laser Plasma Interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hyole, E. M.
2000-01-01
The design of high-power lasers such as those used for inertial confinement fusion demands accurate modeling of the interaction between lasers and plasmas. In inertial confinement fusion, initial laser pulses ablate material from the hohlraum, which contains the target, creating a plasma. Plasma density variations due to plasma motion, ablating material and the ponderomotive force exerted by the laser on the plasma disrupt smooth laser propagation, undesirably focusing and scattering the light. Accurate and efficient computational simulations aid immensely in developing an understanding of these effects. In this paper, we compare the accuracy of two methods for calculating the propagation of laser light through plasmas. A full laser-plasma simulation typically consists of a fluid model for the plasma motion and a laser propagation model. These two pieces interact with each other as follows. First, given the plasma density, one propagates the laser with a refractive index determined by this density. Then, given the laser intensities, the calculation of one time step of the plasma motion provides a new density for the laser propagation. Because this procedure repeats over many time steps, each piece must be performed accurately and efficiently. In general, calculation of the light intensities necessitates the solution of the Helmholtz equation with a variable index of refraction. The Helmholtz equation becomes extremely difficult and time-consuming to solve as the problem size increases. The size of laser-plasma problems of present interest far exceeds current capabilities. To avoid solving the full Helmholtz equation one may use a partial approximation. Generally speaking the partial approximation applies when one expects negligible backscattering of the light and only mild scattering transverse to the direction of light propagation. This approximation results in a differential equation that is first-order in the propagation direction that can be integrated
Experimental study of laser-plasma interaction physics with short laser wavelength
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Labaune, C.; Amiranoff, F.; Fabre, E.; Matthieussent, G.; Rousseaux, C.; Baton, S.
1989-01-01
Many non-linear processes can affect laser-plasma coupling in fusion experiments. The interaction processes of interest involve three or more waves, including the incident electromagnetic wave and various selections of electromagnetic, electrostatic and accoustic waves. Whenever plasma waves are involved (stimulated Raman scattering, two-plasmon decay instability, parametric decay instability and others), energetic electrons are created through the various damping processes of these waves: these energetic electrons in turn deleteriously affect the compression phase in laser fusion experiments through pre-heating of the fuel core. Some parametric processes lead primarily to loss of incident laser energy (stimulated Brillouin scattering) while others, such as filamentation, lead to strongly enhanced local laser intensities through the focusing of part (or all) of the laser beam into filaments of very small dimensions with a concomitant expulsion of the plasma out of these regions. So filamentation destroys the uniformity of energy deposition in the plasma and prevents high compression efficiency of the target. These interaction effects are typically of parametric nature, with their thresholds and growth rates depending critically on plasma scale lengths. Since these scale lengths increase with available laser energy and since millimeter sized plasmas are expected from reactor targets which will be used in direct drive implosion experiments, a good understanding of these processes and their saturation mechanisms becomes imperative. We report here the results on absolute energy measurements and time-resolved spectra of SRS and SBS obtained in various types of plasmas where the major changes were the inhomogeneity scale lengths. (author) 7 refs., 7 figs
Laser-plasma interaction physics for shock ignition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Goyon C.
2013-11-01
Full Text Available In the shock ignition scheme, the ICF target is first compressed with a long (nanosecond pulse before creating a convergent shock with a short (∼100 ps pulse to ignite thermonuclear reactions. This short pulse is typically (∼2.1015–1016 W/cm2 above LPI (Laser Plasma Instabilities thresholds. The plasma is in a regime where the electron temperature is expected to be very high (2–4 keV and the laser coupling to the plasma is not well understood. Emulating LPI in the corona requires large and hot plasmas produced by high-energy lasers. We conducted experiments on the LIL (Ligne d'Integration Laser, 10 kJ at 3ω and the LULI2000 (0.4 kJ at 2ω facilities, to approach these conditions and study absorption and LPI produced by a high intensity beam in preformed plasmas. After introducing the main risks associated with the short pulse propagation, we present the latest experiment we conducted on LPI in relevant conditions for shock ignition.
Topics in high-intensity laser plasma interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leemans, W.P.
1991-01-01
The interaction of high intensity laser pulses with pre-formed and laser-produced plasmas is studied. Through experiments and simulations we have investigated stimulated Compton scattering in preformed plasmas and the plasma physics aspects of tunnel-ionized gases. A theoretical study is presented on the nonlinear dynamics of relativistic plasma waves driven by colinear optical mixing. The electron density-fluctuation spectra induced by stimulated Compton scattering have been directly observed for the first time. A CO2 laser was focused into pre-formed plasmas with densities n(e) varied from 0.4-6 x 10(exp 16) cu cm. The fluctuations corresponding to backscatter were probed using Thomson scattering. At low n(e), the scattered spectra peak at a frequency shift Delta omega is approximately kv e and appears to be in a linear regime. At the highest n(e), a nonlinear saturation of the SCS instability is observed due to a self-induced perturbation of the electron distribution function. Tunnel-ionized plasmas have been studied through experiments and particle simulations. Experimentally, qualitative evidence for plasma temperature control by varying the laser polarization was obtained by the measurement of stimulated Compton scattering fluctuation spectra and x-ray emission from such plasmas. A higher parallel temperature than expected from the single-particle tunneling model was observed. Simulations indicate that stochastic heating and the Weibel instability play an important role in plasma heating in all directions and isotropization. The non-linear dynamics associated with beatwave (Delta omega, Delta k) excited long wavelength plasma waves in the presence of strong, short wavelength density ripple have been examined, using the relativistic Lagrangian oscillator model. This model shows period doubling that roughly follows Feigenbaum scaling, and a transition to chaos
Electron self-injection and acceleration in the bubble regime of laser-plasma interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostyukov, I.; Nerush, E.
2010-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. The intense laser-plasma and beam-plasma interactions are highly nonlinear-phenomena, which besides being of fundamental interest, attract a great attention due to a number of important applications. One of the key applications is particle acceleration based on excitation of the strong plasma wakefield by laser pulse. In the linear regime of interaction when the laser intensity is low the plasma wake is the linear plasma wave. Moreover, the ponderomotive force of the laser pulse pushes out the plasma electrons from high intensity region leaving behind the laser pulse the plasma cavity - bubble, which is almost free from the plasma electrons. This is the bubble the laser-plasma interaction. Although the bubble propagates with velocity, which is close to speed of light, the huge charge of unshielded ions inside the plasma cavity can trap the cold plasma electrons. Moreover, the electrons are trapped in the accelerated phase of the bubble plasma field thereby leading to efficient electron acceleration. The electron self-injection is an important advantage of the plasma-based acceleration, which allows to exclude the beam loading system requiring accurate synchronization and additional space. The recent experiments have demonstrated high efficiency of the electron self-injection. The beam quality is often of crucial importance in many applications ranging from inertial confinement fusion to the x-ray free electron lasers. Despite a great interest there is still a little theory for relativistic electron dynamics in the plasma wake in multidimensional geometry including electron self-injection. The dynamics of the self-injected electrons can be roughly divided into three stage: (i) electron scattering by the laser pulse, (ii) electron trapping by the bubble, (iii) electron acceleration in the bubble. We developed two analytical models for electron dynamics in the bubble field and verify them by direct measurements of model parameters
The elimination of pump depletion in laser-plasma beat-wave accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Jinxiu; Xu Zhizhan
1988-01-01
The pump depletion is a severe problem which hinders the laser-plasma beat-wave accelerator concept from being practical. Starting with the weak relativistic equation of beat-wave excitation of electron plasma waves, the authors have derived the condition for eliminating the pump depletion in the fame moving with the light pulse for arbitrary pulse shapes. It is shown that the depletion can be eliminated by a phase jump of π at the center of the pump pulse and by the appropriated choice of initial plasma density detuning. The numerical calculation have yielded the dependence of the initial detuning on the pump intensity for square pump pulses, and have supported the methods used in this paper
Towards modeling of nonlinear laser-plasma interactions with hydrocodes: The thick-ray approach
Colaïtis, A.; Duchateau, G.; Nicolaï, P.; Tikhonchuk, V.
2014-03-01
This paper deals with the computation of laser beam intensity in large-scale radiative hydrocodes applied to the modeling of nonlinear laser-plasma interactions (LPIs) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The paraxial complex geometrical optics (PCGO) is adapted for light waves in an inhomogeneous medium and modified to include the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption and the ponderomotive force. This thick-ray model is compared to the standard ray-tracing (RT) approach, both in the chic code. The PCGO model leads to different power deposition patterns and better diffraction modeling compared to standard RT codes. The intensity-reconstruction technique used in RT codes to model nonlinear LPI leads to artificial filamentation and fails to reproduce realistic ponderomotive self-focusing distances, intensity amplifications, and density channel depletions, whereas PCGO succeeds. Bundles of Gaussian thick rays can be used to model realistic non-Gaussian ICF beams. The PCGO approach is expected to improve the accuracy of ICF simulations and serve as a basis to implement diverse LPI effects in large-scale hydrocodes.
Advanced diagnostics for laser plasma interaction studies and some recent experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaurasia, S.; Munda, D.S.; Dhareshwar, L.J.
2008-10-01
The complete characterization of Laser plasma interaction studies related to inertial confinement fusion laser and Equation of state (EOS) studies needs many diagnostics to explain the several physical phenomena occurring simultaneously in the laser produced plasma. This involves many on ion emission are important to understand physical phenomena which are responsible for generation of laser plasma as well as its interaction with an intense laser. In this report we describe the development of various x-ray diagnostics which are used in determining temporal, spatial and spectral properties of x-rays radiated from laser produced plasma. Diagnostics which have been used in experiments for investigation of laser-produced plasma as a source of ions are also described. Techniques using an optical streak camera and VISAR which are being used in the Equation of States (EOS) studies of various materials, which are important for material science, astrophysics as well as ICF is described in details. (author)
Progress of laser-plasma interaction simulations with the particle-in-cell code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakagami, Hitoshi; Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Taguchi, Toshihiro
2005-01-01
As the laser-plasma interaction is a non-equilibrium, non-linear and relativistic phenomenon, we must introduce a microscopic method, namely, the relativistic electromagnetic PIC (Particle-In-Cell) simulation code. The PIC code requires a huge number of particles to validate simulation results, and its task is very computation-intensive. Thus simulation researches by the PIC code have been progressing along with advances in computer technology. Recently, parallel computers with tremendous computational power have become available, and thus we can perform three-dimensional PIC simulations for the laser-plasma interaction to investigate laser fusion. Some simulation results are shown with figures. We discuss a recent trend of large-scale PIC simulations that enable direct comparison between experimental facts and computational results. We also discharge/lightning simulations by the extended PIC code, which include various atomic and relaxation processes. (author)
Space-Time Characterization of Laser Plasma Interactions in the Warm Dense Matter Regime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cao, L F; Uschmann, I; Forster, E; Zamponi, F; Kampfer, T; Fuhrmann, A; Holl, A; Redmer, R; Toleikis, S; Tschentsher, T; Glenzer, S H
2008-04-30
Laser plasma interaction experiments have been performed using a fs Titanium Sapphire laser. Plasmas have been generated from planar PMMA targets using single laser pulses with 3.3 mJ pulse energy, 50 fs pulse duration at 800 nm wavelength. The electron density distributions of the plasmas in different delay times have been characterized by means of Nomarski Interferometry. Experimental data were compared with hydrodynamic simulation. First results to characterize the plasma density and temperature as a function of space and time are obtained. This work aims to generate plasmas in the warm dense matter (WDM) regime at near solid-density in an ultra-fast laser target interaction process. Plasmas under these conditions can serve as targets to develop x-ray Thomson scattering as a plasma diagnostic tool, e.g., using the VUV free-electron laser (FLASH) at DESY Hamburg.
Radiation sources based on laser-plasma interactions
Jaroszynski, D.A.; Bingham, R.; Brunetti, E.; Ersfeld, B.; Gallacher, J.G.; Geer, van der S.B.; Issac, R.; Jamison, S.P.; Jones, D.; Loos, de M.J.; Lyachev, A.; Pavlov, V.M.; Reitsma, A.J.W.; Saveliev, Y.M.; Vieux, G.; Wiggins, S.M.
2006-01-01
Plasma waves excited by intense laser beams can be harnessed to produce femtosecond duration bunches of electrons with relativistic energies. The very large electrostatic forces of plasma density wakes trailing behind an intense laser pulse provide field potentials capable of accelerating charged
High density ultrashort relativistic positron beam generation by laser-plasma interaction
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Gu, Yanjun; Klimo, Ondřej; Weber, Stefan A.; Korn, Georg
2016-01-01
Roč. 18, č. 11 (2016), 1-7, č. článku 113023. ISSN 1367-2630 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : radation reaction effect * pair creation * laser-plasma interaction Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.786, year: 2016
Numerical simulation of filamentation in laser-plasma interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicholas, D.J.; Sajjadi, S.G.
1986-01-01
Numerical studies of beam filamentation in laser-produced plasma are presented. This involves the numerical solution of the parabolic wave equation, known as the Schroedinger equation, coupled with the thermal transport equations for both ions and electrons, in two dimensions. The solution of the resulting equation with non-linear refractive index due to thermal and pondermotive forces, shows self-focusing and a variety of strong aberration effects. Intensity amplification at the final focus is found to be between one and two orders of magnitude greater than the initial beam intensity, governed in general by diffraction and aberration effects within the beam. (author)
Numerical simulation of filamentation in laser-plasma interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nicholas, D.J.; Sajjadi, S.G.
1986-05-14
Numerical studies of beam filamentation in laser-produced plasma are presented. This involves the numerical solution of the parabolic wave equation, known as the Schroedinger equation, coupled with the thermal transport equations for both ions and electrons, in two dimensions. The solution of the resulting equation with non-linear refractive index due to thermal and pondermotive forces, shows self-focusing and a variety of strong aberration effects. Intensity amplification at the final focus is found to be between one and two orders of magnitude greater than the initial beam intensity, governed in general by diffraction and aberration effects within the beam.
Study of laser plasma interactions in the relativistic regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Umstadter, D.
1997-01-01
We discuss the first experimental demonstration of electron acceleration by a laser wakefield over instances greater than a Rayleigh range (or the distance a laser normally propagates in vacuum). A self-modulated laser wakefield plasma wave is shown to have a field gradient that exceeds that of an RF linac by four orders of magnitude (E => 200 GV/m) and accelerates electrons with over 1-nC of charge per bunch in a beam with space-charge-limited emittance (1 mm-mrad). Above a laser power threshold, a plasma channel, created by the intense ultrashort laser pulse (I approx. 4 x1018 W/CM2, gamma = 1 micron, r = 400 fs), was found to increase the laser propagation distance, decrease the electron beam divergence, and increase the electron energy. The plasma wave, directly measured with coherent Thomson scattering is shown to damp-due to beam loading-in a duration of 1.5 ps or approx. 100 plasma periods. These results may have important implications for the proposed fast ignitor concept
Femtosecond laser-plasma interaction with prepulse-generated liquid metal microjets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uryupina, D. S.; Ivanov, K. A.; Savel' ev, A. B.; Volkov, R. V. [Faculty of Physics and International Laser Center of M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow, Leninskie Gory (Russian Federation); Brantov, A. V.; Bychenkov, V. Yu. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Povarnitsyn, M. E. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tikhonchuk, V. T. [CELIA, University of Bordeaux - CNRS - CEA, 33405 Talence (France)
2012-01-15
Ultrashort laser pulse interaction with a microstructured surface of a melted metal is a promising source of hard x-ray radiation. Microstructuring is achieved by a weak prepulse that produces narrow high-density microjets. As an x-ray source, the interaction of the main laser pulse with such jets is shown to be nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient than the interaction with ordinary metal targets. This paper presents the results of optical and x-ray studies of laser-plasma interaction physics under such conditions supported by numerical simulations of microjet formation and fast-electron generation.
Femtosecond laser-plasma interaction with prepulse-generated liquid metal microjets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uryupina, D. S.; Ivanov, K. A.; Savel'ev, A. B.; Volkov, R. V.; Brantov, A. V.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Povarnitsyn, M. E.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.
2012-01-01
Ultrashort laser pulse interaction with a microstructured surface of a melted metal is a promising source of hard x-ray radiation. Microstructuring is achieved by a weak prepulse that produces narrow high-density microjets. As an x-ray source, the interaction of the main laser pulse with such jets is shown to be nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient than the interaction with ordinary metal targets. This paper presents the results of optical and x-ray studies of laser-plasma interaction physics under such conditions supported by numerical simulations of microjet formation and fast-electron generation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hao Dongshan; Xie Hongjun
2006-01-01
By comparing the kinematical equation of a shock wave in free air, the study of transmission characteristics of the laser plasma shock wave in Compton scattering is presented. The results show that the attenuation course of the kinematics of he laser plasma shock wave is related not only with the explosion fountainhead and the characteristics of the explosion course, total energy release, air elastic, but also with multi-photon nonlinear Compton scattering. Because of the scattering the initial radius of the shock wave increases, the attenuation course shortens, the energy metastasis efficiency rises. The results of the numerical analysis and the actual values of the shock waves in air by a way intense explosion are very tallying. (authors)
Laser-plasma interaction physics in the context of fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Labaune, C.; Fuchs, J.; Depierreux, S.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.; Baldis, H.A.; Pesme, D.; Myatt, J.; Huller, S.; Laval, G.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.
2000-01-01
Of vital importance for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) are the understanding and control of the nonlinear processes which can occur during the propagation of the laser pulses through the underdense plasma surrounding the fusion capsule. The control of parametric instabilities has been studied experimentally, using LULI six-beam laser facility, and also theoretically and numerically. New results based on the direct observation of plasma waves with Thomson scattering of a short wavelength probe beam have revealed the occurrence of the Langmuir decay instability. This secondary instability may play an important role in the saturation of stimulated Raman scattering. Another mechanism for inducing the growth of the scattering instabilities is the so-called 'plasma-induced incoherence'. Namely, recent theoretical studies have shown that the propagation of laser beams through the underdense plasma can increase their spatial and temporal incoherence. This plasma-induced beam smoothing can reduce the levels of parametric instabilities. One signature of this process is a large increase of the spectral width of the laser light after propagation through the plasma. Comparison of the experimental results with numerical propagation through the plasma. Comparison of the experimental results with numerical simulations shows an excellent agreement between the observed and calculated time-resolved spectra of the transmitted laser light at various laser intensities. (authors)
Parametric study of transport beam lines for electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction
Scisciò, M.; Lancia, L.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Antici, P.
2016-03-01
In the last decade, laser-plasma acceleration of high-energy electrons has attracted strong attention in different fields. Electrons with maximum energies in the GeV range can be laser-accelerated within a few cm using multi-hundreds terawatt (TW) lasers, yielding to very high beam currents at the source (electron bunches with up to tens-hundreds of pC in a few fs). While initially the challenge was to increase the maximum achievable electron energy, today strong effort is put in the control and usability of these laser-generated beams that still lack of some features in order to be used for applications where currently conventional, radio-frequency (RF) based, electron beam lines represent the most common and efficient solution. Several improvements have been suggested for this purpose, some of them acting directly on the plasma source, some using beam shaping tools located downstream. Concerning the latter, several studies have suggested the use of conventional accelerator magnetic devices (such as quadrupoles and solenoids) as an easy implementable solution when the laser-plasma accelerated beam requires optimization. In this paper, we report on a parametric study related to the transport of electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction, using conventional accelerator elements and tools. We focus on both, high energy electron beams in the GeV range, as produced on petawatt (PW) class laser systems, and on lower energy electron beams in the hundreds of MeV range, as nowadays routinely obtained on commercially available multi-hundred TW laser systems. For both scenarios, our study allows understanding what are the crucial parameters that enable laser-plasma accelerators to compete with conventional ones and allow for a beam transport. We show that suitable working points require a tradeoff-combination between low beam divergence and narrow energy spread.
Nuclear diagnostics of high intensity laser plasma interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krushelnick, K.; Santala, M.I.K.; Beg, F.N.; Clark, E.L.; Dangor, A.E.; Tatarakis, M.; Watts, I.; Wei, M.S.; Zepf, M.; Ledingham, K.W.D.; McCanny, T.; Spencer, I.; Clarke, R.J.; Norreys, P.A.
2002-01-01
Nuclear activation has been observed in materials exposed to energetic protons and heavy ions generated from high intensity laser-solid interactions (at focused intensities up to 5x10 19 W/cm 2 ). The energy spectrum of the protons is determined through the use of these nuclear activation techniques and is found to be consistent with other ion diagnostics. Heavy ion fusion reactions and large neutron fluxes from the (p, n) reactions were also observed. The reduction of proton emission and increase in heavy ion energy using heated targets was also observed
Microwave simulation of laser plasma interactions. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1977-01-01
Various electron and ion current, electric field, and magnetic field probes were developed and tested during the course of the investigation. A three dimensional probe drive system was constructed in order to investigate two and three dimensional phenomena occurring in the microwave plasma interaction. In most of the experiments reported here, a 1 GHz, 40 kilowatt, pulsed rf source (Applied Microwave), was used. The antenna was a 20 0 horn. A dipole fed parabolic antenna system capable of producing a focussed microwave beam at 2.3 GHz was developed and bench tested. This system will be used in future investigations at higher power levels
Microwave modeling of laser plasma interactions. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1983-08-01
For a large laser fusion targets and nanosecond pulse lengths, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and self-focusing are expected to be significant problems. The goal of the contractual effort was to examine certain aspects of these physical phenomena in a wavelength regime (lambda approx.5 cm) more amenable to detailed diagnostics than that characteristic of laser fusion (lambda approx.1 micron). The effort was to include the design, fabrication and operation of a suitable experimental apparatus. In addition, collaboration with Dr. Neville Luhmann and his associates at UCLA and with Dr. Curt Randall of LLNL, on analysis and modelling of the UCLA experiments was continued. Design and fabrication of the TRW experiment is described under ''Experiment Design'' and ''Experimental Apparatus''. The design goals for the key elements of the experimental apparatus were met, but final integration and operation of the experiment was not accomplished. Some theoretical considerations on the interaction between Stimulated Brillouin Scattering and Self-Focusing are also presented
Laser-plasma interactions and implosion symmetry in rugby hohlraums
Michel, Pierre; Berger, R. L.; Lasinski, B. F.; Ross, J. S.; Divol, L.; Williams, E. A.; Meeker, D.; Langdon, B. A.; Park, H.; Amendt, P.
2011-10-01
Cross-beam energy transfer is studied in the context of ``rugby''-hohlraum experiments at the Omega laser facility in FY11, in preparation for future NIF experiments. The transfer acts in opposite direction between rugby and cylinder hohlraums due to the different beam pointing geometries and flow patterns. Its interaction with backscatter is also different as both happen in similar regions inside rugby hohlraums. We will analyze the effects of non-linearities and temporal beam smoothing on energy transfer using the code pF3d. Calculations will be compared to experiments at Omega; analysis of future rugby hohlraum experiments on NIF will also be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Simulation of intense short-pulse laser-plasma interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamagiwa, Mitsuru
2000-01-01
We have completed the massive parallelization of a 2-dimensional giga-particle code and have achieved a 530-fold acceleration rate with 512 processing elements (PE's). Using this we have implemented a simulation of the interaction of a solid thin film and a high intensity laser and have discovered a phenomenon in which high quality short pulses from the far ultraviolet to soft X-rays are generated at the back surface of the thin layer. We have also introduced the atomic process database code (Hullac) and have the possibility for high precision simulations of X-ray laser radiation. With respect to laser acceleration we have the possibility to quantitatively evaluate relativistic self-focusing assumed to occur in higher intensity fields. Ion acceleration from a solid target and an underdense plasma irradiated by an intense and an ultra intense laser, respectively, has also been studied by particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. (author)
Dense monoenergetic proton beams from chirped laser-plasma interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galow, Benjamin J.; Keitel, Christoph H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg (Germany); Salamin, Yousef I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Physics, American University of Sharjah, POB 26666, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Liseykina, Tatyana V. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Harman, Zoltan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)
2012-07-01
Interaction of a frequency-chirped laser pulse with single protons and a hydrogen gas target is studied analytically and by means of particle-in-cell simulations, respectively. Feasibility of generating ultra-intense (10{sup 7} particles per bunch) and phase-space collimated beams of protons (energy spread of about 1%) is demonstrated. Phase synchronization of the protons and the laser field, guaranteed by the appropriate chirping of the laser pulse, allows the particles to gain sufficient kinetic energy (around 250 MeV) required for such applications as hadron cancer therapy, from state-of-the-art laser systems of intensities of the order of 10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2}.
Dense monoenergetic proton beams from chirped laser-plasma interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Jianxing; Galow, Benjamin J.; Keitel, Christoph H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg (Germany); Salamin, Yousef I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Physics, American University of Sharjah, POB 26666, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Harman, Zoltan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)
2013-07-01
Interactions of linearly and radially polarized frequency-chirped laser pulses with single protons and hydrogen gas targets are studied analytically and by means of particle-in-cell simulations, respectively. The feasibility of generating ultra-intense (10{sup 7} particles per bunch) and phase-space collimated beams of protons is demonstrated. Phase synchronization of the protons and the laser field, guaranteed by the appropriate chirping of the laser pulse, allows the particles to gain sufficient kinetic energy (around 250 MeV) required for such applications as hadron cancer therapy, from state-of-the-art laser systems of intensities of the order of 10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2}.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saikia, P.
1981-01-01
The spectrum of stimulated Brillouin scattering from an inhomogeneous moving laser plasma is analyzed. The damping of acoustic waves and scattered electromagnetic waves is taken into account. Spectra are derived for various scattering angles and for various radii of the laser beam. For all observation angles the center of the spectral line is at an unshifted frequency. As the observation angle increases, the width of the red wing in the spectrum increases. The intensity of the scattered light is very anisotropic
Physics of laser-plasma interaction for shock ignition of fusion reactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tikhonchuk, V T; Colaïtis, A; Vallet, A; Llor Aisa, E; Duchateau, G; Nicolaï, Ph; Ribeyre, X
2016-01-01
The shock ignition scheme is an alternative approach, which aims to achieve ignition of fusion reactions in two subsequent steps: first, the target is compressed at a low implosion velocity and second, a strong converging shock is launched during the stagnation phase and ignites the hot spot. In this paper we describe the major elements of this scheme and recent achievements concerning the laser-plasma interaction, the crucial role of hot electrons in the shock generation, the shock amplification in the imploding shell and the ignition conditions. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rechatin, C.
2009-09-01
In any particle accelerator, the injector plays a crucial role since it determines most of the characteristics of the accelerated beam. This is also true for laser-plasma accelerators, that are based on the interaction of an ultra short, ultra intense laser with an underdense plasma. However, due to the compactness of these accelerators, injection is a real challenge: to obtain a good beam quality, injected electron beams have to be ultra short and precisely synchronized with the laser. In this manuscript, the relevance of an optical injector, that relies on a second laser pulse, is experimentally demonstrated. With this injector, mono energetic electron beams have been produced in a stable manner. Moreover, this injector gives control over the electron beam parameters. Using the parameters of the second laser pulse, it has been proven that the energy, the charge and the energy spread of the accelerated beam can be simply tuned. Those additional controls make it possible to study in great details the physical phenomena at play during the acceleration. Beam loading effects, due to the interaction of the accelerated bunch with the plasma, have been identified and studied. With optimized injector parameters, the narrowest electron beams measured to date in the laser plasma interaction have been obtained, with a relative energy spread of 1%. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kato, Susumu; Takahashi, Eiichi; Miura, Eisuke; Owadano, Yoshiro; Nakamura, Tatsufumi; Kato, Tomokazu
2002-01-01
The scaling of hot electron temperature and the spectrum of electron energy by intense laser plasma interactions are reexamined from a viewpoint of the difference in laser wavelength. Laser plasma interaction such as parametric instabilities is usually determined by the Iλ2 scaling, where I and λ is the laser intensity and wavelength, respectively. However, the hot electron temperature is proportional to (ncr/ne0)1/2 [(1 + a 0 2 ) 1/2 - 1] rather than [(1 + a 0 2 ) 1/2 - 1] at the interaction with overdense plasmas, where ne0 is a electron density of overdense plasmas and a0 is a normalized laser intensity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kemp, Gregory Elijah [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)
2013-01-01
Ultra-intense laser (> 1018 W/cm2) interactions with matter are capable of producing relativistic electrons which have a variety of applications in state-of-the-art scientific and medical research conducted at universities and national laboratories across the world. Control of various aspects of these hot-electron distributions is highly desired to optimize a particular outcome. Hot-electron generation in low-contrast interactions, where significant amounts of under-dense pre-plasma are present, can be plagued by highly non-linear relativistic laser-plasma instabilities and quasi-static magnetic field generation, often resulting in less than desirable and predictable electron source characteristics. High-contrast interactions offer more controlled interactions but often at the cost of overall lower coupling and increased sensitivity to initial target conditions. An experiment studying the differences in hot-electron generation between high and low-contrast pulse interactions with solid density targets was performed on the Titan laser platform at the Jupiter Laser Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. To date, these hot-electrons generated in the laboratory are not directly observable at the source of the interaction. Instead, indirect studies are performed using state-of-the-art simulations, constrained by the various experimental measurements. These measurements, more-often-than-not, rely on secondary processes generated by the transport of these electrons through the solid density materials which can susceptible to a variety instabilities and target material/geometry effects. Although often neglected in these types of studies, the specularly reflected light can provide invaluable insight as it is directly influenced by the interaction. In this thesis, I address the use of (personally obtained) experimental specular reflectivity measurements to indirectly study hot-electron generation in the context of high-contrast, relativistic
Colaïtis, A.; Chapman, T.; Strozzi, D.; Divol, L.; Michel, P.
2018-03-01
A three-dimensional laser propagation model for computation of laser-plasma interactions is presented. It is focused on indirect drive geometries in inertial confinement fusion and formulated for use at large temporal and spatial scales. A modified tesselation-based estimator and a relaxation scheme are used to estimate the intensity distribution in plasma from geometrical optics rays. Comparisons with reference solutions show that this approach is well-suited to reproduce realistic 3D intensity field distributions of beams smoothed by phase plates. It is shown that the method requires a reduced number of rays compared to traditional rigid-scale intensity estimation. Using this field estimator, we have implemented laser refraction, inverse-bremsstrahlung absorption, and steady-state crossed-beam energy transfer with a linear kinetic model in the numerical code Vampire. Probe beam amplification and laser spot shapes are compared with experimental results and pf3d paraxial simulations. These results are promising for the efficient and accurate computation of laser intensity distributions in holhraums, which is of importance for determining the capsule implosion shape and risks of laser-plasma instabilities such as hot electron generation and backscatter in multi-beam configurations.
Electrons trajectories around a bubble regime in intense laser plasma interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, Ding; Xie, Bai-Song; Ali Bake, Muhammad; Sang, Hai-Bo; Zhao, Xue-Yan; Wu, Hai-Cheng
2013-01-01
Some typical electrons trajectories around a bubble regime in intense laser plasma interaction are investigated theoretically. By considering a modification of the fields and ellipsoid bubble shape due to the presence of residual electrons in the bubble regime, we study in detail the electrons nonlinear dynamics with or without laser pulse. To examine the electron dynamical behaviors, a set of typical electrons, which locate initially at the front of the bubble, on the transverse edge and at the bottom of the bubble respectively, are chosen for study. It is found that the range of trapped electrons in the case with laser pulse is a little narrower than that without laser pulse. The partial phase portraits for electrons around the bubble are presented numerically and their characteristic behaviors are discussed theoretically. Implication of our results on the high quality electron beam generation is also discussed briefly
Laser-plasma interactions with a Fourier-Bessel particle-in-cell method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andriyash, Igor A., E-mail: igor.andriyash@gmail.com [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); LOA, ENSTA ParisTech, CNRS, Ecole polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, 828 bd des Maréchaux, 91762 Palaiseau cedex (France); Lehe, Remi [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Lifschitz, Agustin [LOA, ENSTA ParisTech, CNRS, Ecole polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, 828 bd des Maréchaux, 91762 Palaiseau cedex (France)
2016-03-15
A new spectral particle-in-cell (PIC) method for plasma modeling is presented and discussed. In the proposed scheme, the Fourier-Bessel transform is used to translate the Maxwell equations to the quasi-cylindrical spectral domain. In this domain, the equations are solved analytically in time, and the spatial derivatives are approximated with high accuracy. In contrast to the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) methods, that are used commonly in PIC, the developed method does not produce numerical dispersion and does not involve grid staggering for the electric and magnetic fields. These features are especially valuable in modeling the wakefield acceleration of particles in plasmas. The proposed algorithm is implemented in the code PLARES-PIC, and the test simulations of laser plasma interactions are compared to the ones done with the quasi-cylindrical FDTD PIC code CALDER-CIRC.
Ultra-intense, short pulse laser-plasma interactions with applications to the fast ignitor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilks, S.C.; Kruer, W.L.; Young, P.E.; Hammer, J.; Tabak, M.
1995-04-01
Due to the advent of chirped pulse amplification (CPA) as an efficient means of creating ultra-high intensity laser light (I > 5{times}10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}) in pulses less than a few picoseconds, new ideas for achieving ignition and gain in DT targets with less than 1 megajoule of input energy are currently being pursued. Two types of powerful lasers are employed in this scheme: (1) channeling beams and (2) ignition beams. The current state of laser-plasma interactions relating to this fusion scheme will be discussed. In particular, plasma physics issues in the ultra-intense regime are crucial to the success of this scheme. We compare simulation and experimental results in this highly nonlinear regime.
Ultra-intense, short pulse laser-plasma interactions with applications to the fast ignitor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilks, S.C.; Kruer, W.L.; Young, P.E.; Hammer, J.; Tabak, M.
1995-04-01
Due to the advent of chirped pulse amplification (CPA) as an efficient means of creating ultra-high intensity laser light (I > 5x10 17 W/cm 2 ) in pulses less than a few picoseconds, new ideas for achieving ignition and gain in DT targets with less than 1 megajoule of input energy are currently being pursued. Two types of powerful lasers are employed in this scheme: (1) channeling beams and (2) ignition beams. The current state of laser-plasma interactions relating to this fusion scheme will be discussed. In particular, plasma physics issues in the ultra-intense regime are crucial to the success of this scheme. We compare simulation and experimental results in this highly nonlinear regime
Simple collision operators for direct Vlasov simulations of laser plasma interaction and transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arber, T D; Sircombe, N J
2010-01-01
Non-local electron transport effects have a direct influence on the compression of cryogenic targets in laser driven ICF and target heating in high energy density experiments. There is a growing need for self-consistent models of laser plasma interactions coupled to nonlocal transport. We present a direct Vlasov solver that includes multiple species and a simple collision operator. This BGK model operator - which conserves particle density, energy and momentum - is fully implicit. For collisionless plasmas it has been shown that a double layer may be formed in which an accelerated, kinetic ion population satisfies the zero current condition. Here we extend this result to collisionalities of interest to laser driven ignition to assess the validity of nonlocal electron transport models based on fluid ions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Starkov, Konstantin E. [CITEDI-IPN, Avenue del Parque 1310, Mesa de Otay, Tijuana, BC (Mexico)], E-mail: konst@citedi.mx
2009-02-28
In this paper we consider the localization problem of compact invariant sets of the system describing the laser-plasma interaction. We establish that this system has an ellipsoidal localization for simple restrictions imposed on its parameters. Then we improve this localization by applying other localizing functions. In addition, we give sufficient conditions under which the origin is the unique compact invariant set.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Starkov, Konstantin E.
2009-01-01
In this paper we consider the localization problem of compact invariant sets of the system describing the laser-plasma interaction. We establish that this system has an ellipsoidal localization for simple restrictions imposed on its parameters. Then we improve this localization by applying other localizing functions. In addition, we give sufficient conditions under which the origin is the unique compact invariant set.
Synchrotron radiation based on laser-plasma interaction in the relativistic range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albert, F.
2007-12-01
This work illustrates the experimental characterization of a new compact X-ray source: the Betatron X-ray source. It is the first time that collimated hard X-ray source is produced by laser. Through the focusing of an ultra-intense laser radiation (30 TW, 30 fs) on a helium plasma, the ponderomotive force linked to the light intensity gradient expels the plasma electrons forming an accelerating cavity in the wake of the laser plasma. Some electrons trapped in the back of this structure, are accelerated and oscillate to produce X-radiation. This document is composed of 8 chapters. The first one is a presentation of the topic. The second chapter gives an account of the physics behind the laser-plasma interaction in the relativistic range and for ultra-short pulses. The third chapter presents the theoretical characteristics of the Betatron X-ray source. This chapter begins with an analogy with current synchrotron radiation and the radiation emitted by an electron undergoing Betatron oscillations is described in terms of power, spectral intensity and photon flux. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the numerical simulation of the Betatron radiation. The trajectories of the electrons are computed from the equation of motion, taking into account longitudinal and transverse forces. The radiation emission term is then computed from the radiation equation detailed in the previous chapter. The fifth chapter presents the experimental setting to produce Betatron X-rays. The sixth chapter gives the experimental characterization of the source (size, divergence and spectrum) on one hand, and on the other hand studies how source flux and spectra vary when laser and plasma parameters change. The seventh chapter presents experimental methods used to characterize the electrons trajectories in the plasma wiggler. The last chapter draws some perspectives on this source in terms of improvement and uses. (A.C.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quesnel, Brice
1998-01-01
This research thesis reports a theoretical and numeric study of the behaviour of two non linear phenomena of the laser-plasma interaction physics in a relativistic regime: the electronic parametric instabilities, and the ponderomotive force. In a first part, the author establishes the three-dimensional scattering relationship of electron parametric instabilities for a circularly polarised wave propagating in a homogeneous and cold plasma, without limitations of wave intensity, nor of plasma density. Results are verified by comparison with those of two-dimensional numerical simulations. The Weibel instability is also briefly studied in relativistic regime. In the second part, the author establishes an expression of the ponderomotive force exerted by an ultra-intense laser pulse in the vacuum about the focus point. A numerical code of integration of equations of motion of an electron in the laser field is used for the different expressions corresponding different approximation degrees. Results are used to interpret a recent experiment, and to critic other theoretical works [fr
Measuring the coherence properties of light emission from laser-plasma interactions. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batha, S.H.
1998-01-01
Several detrimental instabilities can be excited when a high-intensity laser interacts with plasma. The temporal evolution and spectra of the scattered light emitted by many of these instabilities are used to characterize the instabilities and to benchmark theories. It has been difficult to image the emission region with sufficient resolution to make quantitative comparisons with theory. Direct measurement of the emission region would yield information on ponderomotive steepening phenomena, the true emission zone of convective instabilities, and on the saturation of absolute instabilities. The increase in laser intensity caused by the filamentation instability is conjectured to elevate the levels of parametric instabilities found in high-energy laser-plasma interactions. Because the diameter of the filaments is very small (on the order of 10 microm), it is impossible to image the emission sites directly and either to prove or to disprove this conjecture. The research reported here examines an alternate method of measuring the emission region of scattered light from parametric instabilities. This report provides a brief background of coherence theory by defining the relevant parameters in Section 2. A concrete example of the effect that multiple scattering sites would have on the proposed measurement is provided in Section 3. The following section briefly describes experiments that might be able to demonstrate the proposed technique. The conclusion raises the issue of coherence and its effect on the expected angular distribution of scattering light from parametric instabilities
Bright ultrashort x-rays from intense subpicosecond laser-plasma interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Umstadter, D.
1995-01-01
Short-pulse, high-intensity lasers interacting with solid targets make possible the study of a new class of laser-plasma interactions. They are unique because during the ultrashort laser pulse relatively little expansion occurs, and the density scale length remains much less than the laser wavelength. This makes possible the direct deposition of a significant amount of the laser energy at close to solid density. Steep plasma temperature and density gradients subsequently cause rapid cooling, resulting in highly non-equilibrium conditions and the concurrent emission of extremely bright ultrashort x-ray pulses. In this study, the latter are investigated experimentally with temporally and spectrally resolved soft x-ray diagnostics. The emitted x-ray spectra from solid targets with various atomic numbers are characterized for a laser pulse width τ l ∼ 400 fs. These ultrashort x rays may be used as (1) a diagnostic of solid-density plasma conditions, (2) a tool for the study of radiation hydrodynamics in a parameter regime that is otherwise inaccessible, and (3) a source for time-resolved diffraction, spectroscopy, or microscopy studies of transient chemical, biological or physical phenomena
Modeling Laser-Plasma Interaction over a Suite of NIF Experiments
Strozzi, D. J.; Berger, R. L.; Jones, O. S.; Chapman, T.; Woods, D. T.; MacLaren, S. A.; Michel, P.; Divol, L.
2017-10-01
We systematically study laser-plasma interaction (LPI) on NIF indirect-drive experiments, namely backscatter and cross-beam energy transfer. LLNL's best practice radiation-hydrodynamic simulation methodology in the Lasnex simulation code is employed without ad-hoc tuning to match experimental data. This entails converged numerical resolution, an improved DCA model for coronal (ne 1 keV) gold opacity, electron heat flux strongly limited to 0.03neTe3 / 2 me- 1 / 2 , and the inline CBET model. The rad-hydro plasma conditions are used for LPI analysis, namely linear instability gains, and the paraxial-envelope code pF3D. Simulated scattered-light spectra are also compared to measurements. We initially focus on shots with low backscatter, so its self-consistent treatment should not be important. These shots have low hohlraum fill density and short laser pulses, and the only significant backscatter is outer-beams Brillouin. Our long-term goals are to understand reflectivity trends to guide target design and develop LPI mitigation strategies. Work performed under auspices of US DoE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Reyes, Jonathan; Shadwick, B. A.
2016-10-01
Modeling the evolution of a short, intense laser pulse propagating through an underdense plasma is of particular interest in the physics of laser-plasma interactions. Numerical models are typically created by first discretizing the equations of motion and then imposing boundary conditions. Using the variational principle of Chen and Sudan, we spatially discretize the Lagrangian density to obtain discrete equations of motion and a discrete energy conservation law which is exactly satisfied regardless of the spatial grid resolution. Modifying the derived equations of motion (e.g., enforcing boundary conditions) generally ruins energy conservation. However, time-dependent terms can be added to the Lagrangian which force the equations of motion to have the desired boundary conditions. Although some foresight is needed to choose these time-dependent terms, this approach provides a mechanism for energy to exit the closed system while allowing the conservation law to account for the loss. An appropriate time discretization scheme is selected based on stability analysis and resolution requirements. We present results using this variational approach in a co-moving coordinate system and compare such results to those using traditional second-order methods. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-SC0008382 and by the National Science Foundation under Contract No. PHY- 1104683.
Design of an Experiment to Observe Laser-Plasma Interactions on NIKE
Phillips, L.; Weaver, J.; Manheimer, W.; Zalesak, S.; Schmitt, A.; Fyfe, D.; Afeyan, B.; Charbonneau-Lefort, M.
2007-11-01
Recent proposed designs (Obenschain et al., Phys. Plasmas 13 056320 (2006)) for direct-drive ICF targets for energy applications involve high implosion velocities combined with higher laser irradiances. The use of high irradiances increases the likelihood of deleterious laser plasma instabilities (LPI) that may lead, for example, to the generation of fast electrons. The proposed use of a 248 nm KrF laser to drive these targets is expected to minimize LPI; this is being studied by experiments at NRL's NIKE facility. We used a modification of the FAST code that models laser pulses with arbitrary spatial and temporal profiles to assist in designing these experiments. The goal is to design targets and pulseshapes to create plasma conditions that will produce sufficient growth of LPI to be observable on NIKE. Using, for example, a cryogenic DT target that is heated by a brief pulse and allowed to expand freely before interacting with a second, high-intensity pulse, allows the development of long scalelengths at low electron temperatures and leads to a predicted 20-efold growth in two-plasmon amplitude.
First laser-plasma interaction and hohlraum experiments on the National Ignition Facility
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dewald, E L; Glenzer, S H; Landen, O L; Suter, L J; Jones, O S; Schein, J; Froula, D; Divol, L; Campbell, K; Schneider, M S; Holder, J; McDonald, J W; Niemann, C; Mackinnon, A J; Hammel, B A [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, PO Box 808, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)
2005-12-15
Recently the first laser-plasma interaction and hohlraum experiments have been performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in support of indirect drive inertial confinement fusion designs. The effects of laser beam smoothing by spectral dispersion and polarization smoothing on the intense (2 x 10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}) beam propagation in gas-filled tubes has been studied at up to 7 mm plasma scales as found in indirect drive gas filled ignition hohlraum designs. These experiments have shown the expected full propagation without filamentation and beam break up when using full laser smoothing. In addition, vacuum hohlraums have been irradiated with laser powers up to 6 TW, 1-9 ns pulse lengths and energies up to 17 kJ to activate several diagnostics, to study the hohlraum radiation temperature scaling with the laser power and hohlraum size, and to make contact with hohlraum experiments performed at the Nova and Omega laser facilities. Subsequently, novel long laser pulse hohlraum experiments have tested models of hohlraum plasma filling and long pulse hohlraum radiation production. The validity of the plasma filling assessment using in analytical models and radiation hydrodynamics calculations with the code LASNEX has been proven in these studies. The comparison of these results with modelling will be discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Naiyan; Shan Yusheng; Ma Weiyi; Yao Gang; Zhou Chuangzhi; Tang Xiuzhang; Tang Zhihong; Gao Junsi; Wang Ganchang.
1994-01-01
A high power KrF laser system is under development in China Institute of Atomic Energy. The system consists of a front end, two-stage KrF amplifiers and two-stage Raman amplifiers, providing 100J, 1ns KrF laser with maximum average power density about 10 14 W/cm 2 on target for laser plasma interaction research. Some important technologies, such as front-end system, Angular Multiplexer, and injection locked oscillator are discussed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prokopov, P A; Zakharov, Yu P; Tishchenko, V N; Shaikhislamov, I F; Boyarintsev, E L; Melekhov, A V; Ponomarenko, A G; Posukh, V G; Terekhin, V A
2016-01-01
Generation of Alfven waves propagating along external magnetic field B 0 and Collisionless Shock Waves propagating across B 0 are studied in experiments with laser- produced plasma and magnetized background plasma. The collisionless interaction of interpenetrating plasma flows takes place through a so-called Magnetic Laminar Mechanism (MLM) or Larmor Coupling. At the edge of diamagnetic cavity LP-ions produce induction electric field E φ which accelerates BP-ions while LP-ions rotate in opposite direction. The ions movement generates sheared azimuthal magnetic field B φ which could launches torsional Alfven wave. In previous experiments at KI-1 large scale facility a generation of strong perturbations propagating across B 0 with magnetosonic speed has been studied at a moderate value of interaction parameter δ∼0.3. In the present work we report on experiments at conditions of 5∼R2 and large Alfven-Mach number M A ∼10 in which strong transverse perturbations traveling at a scale of ∼1 m in background plasma at a density of ∼3*10 13 cm -3 is observed. At the same conditions but smaller M A ∼ 2 a generation, the structure and dynamic of Alfven wave with wavelength ∼0.5 m propagating along fields B 0 ∼100÷500 G for a distance of ∼2.5 m is studied. (paper)
Spectrochemical analysis using laser plasma excitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radziemski, L.J.
1989-01-01
This paper reports on analyses of gases, liquids, particles, and surfaces in which laser plasma is used to vaporize and excite a material. The authors present a discussion of the interaction between laser radiation and a solid and some recent analytical results using laser plasma excitation on metals. The use of laser plasmas as an ablation source is also discussed
A laser plasma beatwave accelerator experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebrahim, N.A.
1987-03-01
An experiment to test the laser plasma beatware accelerator concept is outlined. A heuristic estimate of the relevant experimental parameters is obtained from fluid theory and considerations of wave-particle interactions. Acceleration of 10 MeV electrons to approximately 70 MeV over a plasma length of 3 cm appears to be feasible. This corresponds to an accelerating gradient of approximately 2.5 GeV/m
Anisimov, V. N.; Kozolupenko, A. P.; Sebrant, A. Yu
1988-12-01
An experimental investigation was made of the plasma transparency to heating radiation in capillaries when absorption waves propagated in these capillaries as a result of interaction with a CO2 laser pulse of 5-μs duration. When the length of the capillary was in excess of 20 mm, total absorption of the radiation by the plasma was observed at air pressures of 1-100 kPa. When the capillary length was 12 mm, a partial recovery of the transparency took place. A comparison was made with the dynamics and recovery of the plasma transparency when breakdown of air took place near the free surface.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yaohua Chen
2017-03-01
Full Text Available We present our recent laser-plasmas instability (LPI comparison experiment at the SGIII laser facility between the spherical and cylindrical hohlraums. Three kinds of filling are considered: vacuum, gas-filling with or without a capsule inside. A spherical hohlraum of 3.6 mm in diameter, and a cylindrical hohlraum of 2.4 mm × 4.3 mm are used. The capsule diameter is 0.96 mm. A flat-top laser pulse with 3 ns duration and up to 92.73 kJ energy is used. The experiment has shown that the LPI level in the spherical hohlraum is close to that of the outer beam in the cylindrical hohlraum, while much lower than that of the inner beam. The experiment is further simulated by using our 2-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic code LARED-Integration, and the laser back-scattering fraction and the stimulated Raman scatter (SRS spectrum are post-processed by the high efficiency code of laser interaction with plasmas HLIP. According to the simulation, the plasma waves are strongly damped and the SRS is mainly developed at the plasma conditions of electron density from 0.08 nc to 0.1 nc and electron temperature from 1.5 keV to 2.0 keV inside the hohlraums. However, obvious differences between the simulation and experiment are found, such as that the SRS back-scattering is underestimated, and the numerical SRS spectrum peaks at a larger wavelength and at a later time than the data. These differences indicate that the development of a 3D radiation hydrodynamic code, with more accurate physics models, is mandatory for spherical hohlraum study.
Production of ultrahigh ion current densities at skin-layer subrelativistic laser-plasma interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Badziak, J [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Glowacz, S [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Jablonski, S [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Parys, P [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Wolowski, J [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Hora, H [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia); Krasa, J [Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Laska, L [Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic); Rohlena, K [Institute of Physics, ASCR, Prague (Czech Republic)
2004-12-01
Some applications of fast ions driven by a short ({<=}1 ps) laser pulse (e.g. fast ignition of ICF targets, x-ray laser pumping, laboratory astrophysics research or some nuclear physics experiments) require ion beams of picosecond (or shorter) time durations and of very high ion current densities ({approx}10{sup 10} A cm{sup -2} or higher). A possible way of producing ion beams with such extreme parameters is ballistic focusing of fast ions generated by a target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) mechanism at relativistic laser intensities. In this paper we discuss another method, where the production of short-pulse ion beams of ultrahigh current densities is possible in a planar geometry at subrelativistic laser intensities and at a low energy ({<=}1 J) of the laser pulse. This method-referred to as skin-layer ponderomotive acceleration (S-LPA)-uses strong ponderomotive forces induced at the skin-layer interaction of a short laser pulse with a proper preplasma layer in front of a solid target. The basic features of the high-current ion generation by S-LPA were investigated using a simplified theory, numerical hydrodynamic simulations and measurements. The experiments were performed with subjoule 1 ps laser pulses interacting with massive or thin foil targets at intensities of up to 2 x 10{sup 17} W cm{sup -2}. It was found that both in the backward and forward directions highly collimated high-density ion beams (plasma blocks) with current densities at the ion source (close to the target) approaching 10{sup 10} A cm{sup -2} are produced, in accordance with the theory and numerical calculations. These ion current densities were found to be comparable to (or even higher than) those estimated from recent short-pulse TNSA experiments with relativistic laser intensities. Apart from the simpler physics of the laser-plasma interaction, the advantage of the considered method is the low energy of the driving laser pulses allowing the production of ultrahigh
Skin depth theory explaining anomalous picosecond-terawatt laser plasma interaction
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hora, H.; Osman, F.; Höpfl, R.; Badziak, J.; Parys, P.; Wolowski, J.; Woryna, E.; Boody, F.; Jungwirth, Karel; Králiková, Božena; Krása, Josef; Láska, Leoš; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Rohlena, Karel; Skála, Jiří; Ullschmied, Jiří
2002-01-01
Roč. 52, Suppl. D (2002), s. D349-D359 ISSN 0011-4626. [Plasma Physics and Technology. Prague, 10.06.2002-13.06.2002] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/00/1217 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : laser plasma * ion acceleration Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Laser s Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2002
Scaling of laser-plasma interactions with laser wavelength and plasma size
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Max, C.E.; Campbell, E.M.; Mead, W.C.; Kruer, W.L.; Phillion, D.W.; Turner, R.E.; Lasinski, B.F.; Estabrook, K.G.
1983-01-01
Plasma size is an important parameter in wavelength-scaling experiments because it determines both the threshold and potential gain for a variety of laser-plasma instabilities. Most experiments to date have of necessity produced relatively small plasmas, due to laser energy and pulse-length limitations. We have discussed in detail three recent Livermore experiments which had large enough plasmas that some instability thresholds were exceeded or approached. Our evidence for Raman scatter, filamentation, and the two-plasmon decay instability needs to be confirmed in experiments which measure several instability signatures simultaneously, and which produce more quantitative information about the local density and temperature profiles than we have today
Scaling of laser-plasma interactions with laser wavelength and plasma size
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Max, C.E.; Campbell, E.M.; Mead, W.C.; Kruer, W.L.; Phillion, D.W.; Turner, R.E.; Lasinski, B.F.; Estabrook, K.G.
1983-01-25
Plasma size is an important parameter in wavelength-scaling experiments because it determines both the threshold and potential gain for a variety of laser-plasma instabilities. Most experiments to date have of necessity produced relatively small plasmas, due to laser energy and pulse-length limitations. We have discussed in detail three recent Livermore experiments which had large enough plasmas that some instability thresholds were exceeded or approached. Our evidence for Raman scatter, filamentation, and the two-plasmon decay instability needs to be confirmed in experiments which measure several instability signatures simultaneously, and which produce more quantitative information about the local density and temperature profiles than we have today.
High-performance modeling of plasma-based acceleration and laser-plasma interactions
Vay, Jean-Luc; Blaclard, Guillaume; Godfrey, Brendan; Kirchen, Manuel; Lee, Patrick; Lehe, Remi; Lobet, Mathieu; Vincenti, Henri
2016-10-01
Large-scale numerical simulations are essential to the design of plasma-based accelerators and laser-plasma interations for ultra-high intensity (UHI) physics. The electromagnetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) approach is the method of choice for self-consistent simulations, as it is based on first principles, and captures all kinetic effects, and also scale favorably to many cores on supercomputers. The standard PIC algorithm relies on second-order finite-difference discretization of the Maxwell and Newton-Lorentz equations. We present here novel formulations, based on very high-order pseudo-spectral Maxwell solvers, which enable near-total elimination of the numerical Cherenkov instability and increased accuracy over the standard PIC method for standard laboratory frame and Lorentz boosted frame simulations. We also present the latest implementations in the PIC modules Warp-PICSAR and FBPIC on the Intel Xeon Phi and GPU architectures. Examples of applications will be given on the simulation of laser-plasma accelerators and high-harmonic generation with plasma mirrors. Work supported by US-DOE Contracts DE-AC02-05CH11231 and by the European Commission through the Marie Slowdoska-Curie fellowship PICSSAR Grant Number 624543. Used resources of NERSC.
Ivanov, V. V.; Maximov, A. V.; Swanson, K. J.; Wong, N. L.; Sarkisov, G. S.; Wiewior, P. P.; Astanovitskiy, A. L.; Covington, A. M.
2018-03-01
An experimental platform for the studying of high-intensity laser plasma interactions in strong magnetic fields has been developed based on the 1 MA Zebra pulsed power generator coupled with the 50-TW Leopard laser. The Zebra generator produces 100-300 T longitudinal and transverse magnetic fields with different types of loads. The Leopard laser creates plasma at an intensity of 1019 W/cm2 in the magnetic field of coil loads. Focusing and targeting systems are integrated in the vacuum chamber of the pulsed power generator and protected from the plasma debris and strong mechanical shock. The first experiments with plasma at laser intensity >2 × 1018 W/cm2 demonstrated collimation of the laser produced plasma in the axial magnetic field strength >100 T.
Laser-Plasma Interactions on NIKE and the Fusion Test Facility
Phillips, Lee; Weaver, James
2008-11-01
Recent proposed designs for a Fusion Test Facility (FTF) (Obenchain et al., Phys. Plasmas 13 056320 (2006)) for direct-drive ICF targets for energy applications involve high implosion velocities combined with higher laser irradiances. The use of high irradiances increases the likelihood of deleterious laser plasma instabilities (LPI) but the proposed use of a 248 nm KrF laser to drive these targets is expected to minimize the LPI risk. We examine, using simulation results from NRL's FAST hydrocode, the proposed operational regimes of the FTF in relation to the thresholds for the SRS, SBS, and 2-plasmon instabilities. Simulations are also used to help design and interpret ongoing experiments being conducted at NRL's NIKE facility for the purpose of generating and studying LPI. Target geometries and laser pulseshapes were devised in order to create plasma conditions with long scalelengths and low electron temperatures that allow the growth of parametric instabilities. These simulations include the effects of finite beam angles through the use of raytracing.
Scisciò, M; Migliorati, M; Mostacci, A; Palumbo, L; Papaphilippou, Y; Antici, P
2016-01-01
In the last decade, laser-plasma acceleration of high-energy electrons has attracted strong attention in different fields. Electrons with maximum energies in the GeV range can be laser-accelerated within a few cm using multi-hundreds terawatt (TW) lasers, yielding to very high beam currents at the source (electron bunches with up to tens-hundreds of pC in a few fs). While initially the challenge was to increase the maximum achievable electron energy, today strong effort is put in the control and usability of these laser-generated beams that still lack of some features in order to be used for applications where currently conventional, radio-frequency (RF) based, electron beam lines represent the most common and efficient solution. Several improvements have been suggested for this purpose, some of them acting directly on the plasma source, some using beam shaping tools located downstream. Concerning the latter, several studies have suggested the use of conventional accelerator magnetic devices (such as quadrupo...
Plasma effects in attosecond pulse generation from ultra-relativistic laser-plasma interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyd, T.J.M.
2010-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Particle-in-cell simulations were performed to examine the influence of plasma effects on high harmonic spectra from the interaction of ultra-intense p-polarized laser pulses with overdense plasma targets. Furthermore, a theoretical model is proposed to explain the radiation mechanism that leads to attosecond pulse generation in the reflected field. It is shown that plasma harmonic emission affects the spectral characteristics, causing deviations in the harmonic power decay as compared with the so-called universal 8/3-decay. These deviations may occur, in a varying degree, as a consequence of the extent to which the plasma line and its harmonics affect the emission. It is also found a strong correlation of the emitted attosecond pulses with electron density structures within the plasma, responsible to generate intense localised electrostatic fields. A theoretical model based on the excitation of Langmuir waves by the re-entrant Brunel electron beams in the plasma and their electromagnetic interaction with the laser field is proposed to explain the flatter power spectral emission - described by a weaker 5/3 index and observed in numerical simulations - than that of the universal decay.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tutt, T.E.
1994-12-01
When a solid target is irradiated by a laser beam, the material is locally heated to a high temperature and a plasma forms. The interaction of the laser with plasma can produce energetic electrons. By observing the behavior of these {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} electrons, we hope to obtain a better understanding of Laser/Plasma Interactions. In this work we employ a layered-fluorescer technique to study the transport, and therefore the energetics, of the electrons. The plasma forms on a thin foil of metallic Pd which is bonded to thin layer of metallic Sn. Electrons formed from the plasma penetrate first the Pd and then the Sn. In both layers the energetic electrons promote inner (K) shell ionization of the metallic atoms which leads to the emission of characteristic K{sub {alpha}} x-rays of the fluorescers. By recording the x-ray spectrum emitted by the two foils, we can estimate the energy-dependent range of the electrons and their numbers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1998-03-01
Records of the First JAERI-Kansai International Workshop, which focused on the subject of 'Ultrashort-Pulse Ultrahigh-Power Lasers and Simulation for Laser-Plasma Interactions', are contained in this issue. The First JAERI-Kansai International Workshop was held as Joint ICFA/JAERI-Kansai International Workshop '97 with International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA). This report consists of 24 contributed papers. (J.P.N.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1998-03-01
Records of the First JAERI-Kansai International Workshop, which focused on the subject of `Ultrashort-Pulse Ultrahigh-Power Lasers and Simulation for Laser-Plasma Interactions`, are contained in this issue. The First JAERI-Kansai International Workshop was held as Joint ICFA/JAERI-Kansai International Workshop `97 with International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA). This report consists of 24 contributed papers. (J.P.N.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henry C. Kapteyn
2005-01-01
In this project, we use coherent short-wavelength light generated using high-order harmonic generation as a probe of laser-plasma dynamics and phase transitions on femtosecond time-scales. The interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with materials and plasmas is relevant to stockpile stewardship, to understanding the equation of state of matter at high pressures and temperatures, and to plasma concepts such as the fast-ignitor ICF fusion concept and laser-based particle acceleration. Femtosecond laser technology makes it possible to use a small-scale setup to generate 20fs pulses with average power >10W at multiple kHz repetition rates, that can be focused to intensities in excess of 1017W/cm2. These lasers can be used either to rapidly heat materials to initiate phase transitions, or to create laser plasmas over a wide parameter space. These lasers can also be used to generate fully spatially coherent XUV beams with which to probe these materials and plasma systems. We are in process of implementing imaging studies of plasma hydrodynamics and warm, dense matter. The data will be compared with simulation codes of laser-plasma interactions, making it possible to refine and validate these codes
Calculating the radiation characteristics of accelerated electrons in laser-plasma interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, X. F.; Yu, Q.; Qu, J. F.; Kong, Q.; Gu, Y. J.; Ma, Y. Y.; Kawata, S.
2016-01-01
In this paper, we studied the characteristics of radiation emitted by electrons accelerated in a laser–plasma interaction by using the Lienard–Wiechert field. In the interaction of a laser pulse with a underdense plasma, electrons are accelerated by two mechanisms: direct laser acceleration (DLA) and laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA). At the beginning of the process, the DLA electrons emit most of the radiation, and the DLA electrons emit a much higher peak photon energy than the LWFA electrons. As the laser–plasma interaction progresses, the LWFA electrons become the major radiation emitter; however, even at this stage, the contribution from DLA electrons is significant, especially to the peak photon energy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perrier, V.
2007-07-01
This work deals with the modelling and simulation of compressible flows. A seven equations model is obtained by homogenizing the Euler system. Fluctuation terms are modeled as relaxation terms. When the relaxation terms tend to infinity, which means that the phases are well mixed, a five equations model is obtained via an asymptotic expansion. This five equations model is strictly hyperbolic, but nonconservative. The discretization of this model is obtained by an asymptotic expansion of a scheme for the seven equations model. The numerical method is implemented, validated on analytic cases, and compared with experiments in the case of multiphase shocks. We are then interested in the modelling of phase transition with two equations of state. Optimization of the mixture entropy leads to the fact that three zones can be separated: one in which the pure liquid is the most stable, one in which the pure gas is the most stable, and one in which a mixture with equality of temperature, pressure and chemical potentials is the most stable. Conditions are given on the coupling of the two equations of state for ensuring that the mixture equation of state is convex, and that the system is strictly hyperbolic. In order to take into account phase transition, a vaporization wave is introduced in the solution of the Riemann problem, that is modeled as a deflagration wave. It is then proved that the usual closure, the Chapman-Jouguet closure, is wrong in general, and a correct closure in the case when both fluids have a perfect gas equation of state. Last, the solution of the Riemann problem is implemented in a multiphase code, and validated on analytic cases. In the same code, models of laser release and thermal conduction are implemented to simulate laser ablation. The results are comparable to the ones obtained with scale laws. The last chapter, fully independent, is concerned with correctors in stochastic homogenization in the case of heavy tails process. (author)
Suppression of stochastic pulsation in laser-plasma interaction by smoothing methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hora, H.; Aydin, M.
1992-01-01
The control of the very complex behavior of a plasma with laser interaction by smoothing with induced spatial incoherence or other methods was related to improving the lateral uniformity of the irradiation. While this is important, it is shown from numerical hydrodynamic studies that the very strong temporal pulsation (stuttering) will mostly be suppressed by these smoothing methods too
Inovenkov, I. N.; Echkina, E. Yu.; Nefedov, V. V.; Ponomarenko, L. S.
2017-12-01
In this paper we discuss how a particles-in-cell computation code can be combined with methods of multicriterion optimization (in particular the Pareto optimal solutions of the multicriterion optimization problem) and a hierarchy of computational models approach to create an efficient tool for solving a wide array of problems related to the laser-plasma interaction. In case of the computational experiment the multicriterion optimization can be applied as follows: the researcher defines the objectives of the experiment - some computable scalar values (i.e. high kinetic energy of the ions leaving the domain, least possible number of electrons leaving domain in the given direction, etc). After that the parameters of the experiment which can be varied to achieve these objectives and the constrains on these parameters are chosen (e.g. amplitude and wave-length of the laser radiation, dimensions of the plasma slab(s)). The Pareto optimality of the vector of the parameters can be seen as this: x 0 is Pareto optimal if there exists no vector which would improve some criterion without causing a simultaneous degradation in at least one other criterion. These efficient set of parameter and constrains can be selected based on the preliminary calculations in the simplified models (one or two-dimensional) either analytical or numerical. The multistage computation of the Pareto set radically reduces the number of variants which are to be evaluated to achieve the given accuracy. During the final stage we further improve the results by recomputing some of the optimal variants on the finer grids, with more particles and/or in the frame of a more detailed model. As an example we have considered the ion acceleration caused by interaction of very intense and ultra-short laser pulses with plasmas and have calculated the optimal set of experiment parameters for optimizing number and average energy of high energy ions leaving the domain in the given direction and minimizing the expulsion
Study of electrons distribution produced by laser-plasma interaction on x-ray generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikzad, L.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.
2010-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. In the present work, X-ray beams are generated from interaction of relativistic electron beams produced by interaction of 500 mJ, 30 femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser pulses with thin solid targets such as lead, molybdenum and tungsten. After interaction of an intense pulsed laser with He gas-jet, a micron-scale laser produced plasma, creates and accelerates electron bunches, which propagate in the ion channel produced in the wake of the laser pulse. When an electron bunch is injected into the bubble in phase with its field, it will gain relativistic energies within very short distance. These accelerated electrons with Megaelectron-Volt energy and different distributions, can interact with targets to generate X-ray radiation with Kiloelectron-Volt energy, providing to be close enough to the gas-jet, where the relativistic accelerated electrons exist. Here, to determine the results, Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP-4C code) is employed to present Bremsstrahlung and characteristic X-ray production by quasi-Maxwellian and quasi-monoenergetic electron beams for three samples with different thicknesses. The outcome shows that for one specific electron spectrum and one definite target, the energy which the maximum characteristic x-ray flux takes place, varies with thickness. Also, for each material the energy which this maximum happens is constant for all thicknesses, for both produced electron spectra. For each sample, x-ray flux is calculated for different thicknesses and the thickness which the maximum characteristic x-ray flux occurs is obtained. Besides, it is concluded that by increasing the atomic number of the target, maximum X-ray flux moves towards higher energy. Also, comparison of the results for three targets and two electron distributions shows that by using quasi-monoenergetic electron spectra, more intense and narrower characteristic X-ray can be produced compared to the quasi-Maxwellian electron distribution, almost for all
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Darrow, C.; Lane, S.; Klem, D.; Perry, M.D.
1993-01-01
In this paper the authors present work in progress in their experimental investigation of the coupling of intense, subpicosecond laser pulses with plasmas preformed on solid targets. (This situation is to be contrasted with the interaction of intense laser fields with solid-density matter. A subject which has generated considerable interest in the last several years.) The characterization of the energy distribution of energetic electrons which escape a solid target irradiated by an intense laser is discussed. The authors have also performed experiments to study the excitation of parametric instabilities near the quarter-critical layer and second-harmonic generation near the critical layer in the plasma. They discuss some preliminary scattered light spectroscopy measurements
Splitter target for controlling magnetic reconnection in relativistic laser plasma interactions
Gu, Y. J.; Bulanov, S. S.; Korn, G.; Bulanov, S. V.
2018-04-01
The utilization of a conical target irradiated by a high power laser is proposed to study fast magnetic reconnection in relativistic plasma interactions. Such target, placed in front of the near critical density gas jet, splits the laser pulse, forming two parallel laser pulses in the 2D case and a donut shaped pulse in the 3D case. The magnetic annihilation and reconnection occur in the density downramp region of the subsequent gas jet. The magnetic field energy is converted into the particle kinetic energy. As a result, a backward accelerated electron beam is obtained as a signature of reconnection. The above mechanisms are demonstrated using particle-in-cell simulations in both 2D and 3D cases. Facilitating the synchronization of two laser beams, the proposed approach can be used in designing the corresponding experiments on studying fundamental problems of relativistic plasma physics.
Laser-plasma interaction with an adaptive optics wavefront-corrected laser beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewis, K.
2008-12-01
The propagation of an intense laser beam trough a preformed plasma is of particular interest in order to achieve laser inertial confinement fusion. Experiments carried out with a near-diffraction limited laser beam, producing a single hot spot interacting with the plasma, delivered new results, presented in this Ph.D. dissertation. In particular the first experimental observation of the filament instability confirms the numerous theoretical and numerical studies on the subject. Beam spreading and filament-ion thresholds are studied thanks to near-field and far-field images, with respect to laser intensity, time and space, and plasma transverse velocity. Same diagnostics have been applied to the stimulated Brillouin scattered light, enabling the first observation of the transverse Brillouin activity in the plasma. (author)
Ultra-relativistic ion acceleration in the laser-plasma interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Yongsheng; Wang Naiyan; Tang Xiuzhang; Shi Yijin; Xueqing Yan
2012-01-01
An analytical relativistic model is proposed to describe the relativistic ion acceleration in the interaction of ultra-intense laser pulses with thin-foil plasmas. It is found that there is a critical value of the ion momentum to make sure that the ions are trapped by the light sail and accelerated in the radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) region. If the initial ion momentum is smaller than the critical value, that is in the classical case of RPA, the potential has a deep well and traps the ions to be accelerated, as the same described before by simulation results [Eliasson et al., New J. Phys. 11, 073006 (2009)]. There is a new ion acceleration region different from RPA, called ultra-relativistic acceleration, if the ion momentum exceeds the critical value. In this case, ions will experience a potential downhill. The dependence of the ion momentum and the self-similar variable at the ion front on the acceleration time has been obtained. In the ultra-relativistic limit, the ion momentum at the ion front is proportional to t 4/5 , where t is the acceleration time. In our analytical hydrodynamical model, it is naturally predicted that the ion distribution from RPA is not monoenergetic, although the phase-stable acceleration mechanism is effective. The critical conditions of the laser and plasma parameters which identify the two acceleration modes have been achieved.
Short wavelength laser-plasma interaction experiments in a spherical geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keck, R.L.
1984-01-01
Short wavelength (250 to 500 nm) lasers should provide reduced fast electron preheat and increased laser-pellet coupling efficiency when used as laser fusion drivers. As part of an ongoing effort to study short wavelength laser plasm interaction, six beams of the 24 beam OMEGA Nd-glass laser system have been converted to operation at the third harmonic. This system is capable of providing in excess of 250 Joules of 351 nm light on spherical targets at intensities up to 2 x 10/sup 15/ W/cm/sup 2/. To date, experiments have been performed to study the uniformity of irradiation, laser absorption, fast electron production and preheat, energy transport within the target and underdense plasma instabilities. Both x-ray continuum measurements and Kα line measurements indicate that the absorption is dominated by inverse bremsstrahlung. Electron energy transport has been studied using x-ray burn-through and charge collector measurements. The results show that with 351 nm irradiation ablation pressures of order 100 Mbars are generated at intensities of 10/sup 15/ W/cm/sup 2/
Ultra-relativistic ion acceleration in the laser-plasma interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang Yongsheng; Wang Naiyan; Tang Xiuzhang; Shi Yijin [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing 102413 (China); Xueqing Yan [Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
2012-09-15
An analytical relativistic model is proposed to describe the relativistic ion acceleration in the interaction of ultra-intense laser pulses with thin-foil plasmas. It is found that there is a critical value of the ion momentum to make sure that the ions are trapped by the light sail and accelerated in the radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) region. If the initial ion momentum is smaller than the critical value, that is in the classical case of RPA, the potential has a deep well and traps the ions to be accelerated, as the same described before by simulation results [Eliasson et al., New J. Phys. 11, 073006 (2009)]. There is a new ion acceleration region different from RPA, called ultra-relativistic acceleration, if the ion momentum exceeds the critical value. In this case, ions will experience a potential downhill. The dependence of the ion momentum and the self-similar variable at the ion front on the acceleration time has been obtained. In the ultra-relativistic limit, the ion momentum at the ion front is proportional to t{sup 4/5}, where t is the acceleration time. In our analytical hydrodynamical model, it is naturally predicted that the ion distribution from RPA is not monoenergetic, although the phase-stable acceleration mechanism is effective. The critical conditions of the laser and plasma parameters which identify the two acceleration modes have been achieved.
Fast ions and hot electrons in the laser--plasma interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gitomer, S.J.; Jones, R.D.; Begay, F.; Ehler, A.W.; Kephart, J.F.; Kristal, R.
1986-01-01
Data on the emission of energetic ions produced in laser--matter interactions have been analyzed for a wide variety of laser wavelengths, energies, and pulse lengths. Strong correlation has been found between the bulk energy per AMU for fast ions measured by charge cups and the x-ray-determined hot electron temperature. Five theoretical models have been used to explain this correlation. The models include (1) a steady-state spherically symmetric fluid model with classical electron heat conduction, (2) a steady-state spherically symmetric fluid model with flux limited electron heat conduction, (3) a simple analytic model of an isothermal rarefaction followed by a free expansion, (4) the lasneX hydrodynamics code [Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 2, 85 (1975)], calculations employing a spherical expansion and simple initial conditions, and (5) the lasneX code with its full array of absorption, transport, and emission physics. The results obtained with these models are in good agreement with the experiments and indicate that the detailed shape of the correlation curve between mean fast ion energy and hot electron temperature is due to target surface impurities at the higher temperatures (higher laser intensities) and to the expansion of bulk target material at the lower temperatures (lower laser intensities)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colaitis, Arnaud
2015-01-01
This manuscript presents a novel formulation of the Laser-Plasma Interaction (LPI) at hydrodynamical scales, that couples the plasma dynamics with linear and nonlinear LPI processes. The standard Ray Tracing model, based on Geometrical Optics, is not well suited for that purpose because it does not readily describe the laser intensity distribution in plasma. We propose an alternative model formulated for a Lagrangian hydrodynamic code. It is based on the ray-based Paraxial Complex Geometrical Optics (PCGO) that describes Gaussian optical beamlets. A method for modeling non-Gaussian laser beams smoothed by Phase Plates is presented, that allows to create intensity variations that reproduce the beam envelope, contrast and high-intensity statistics predicted by paraxial laser propagation codes. We propose in line reduced models for the non-linear laser-plasma interaction, in the case of the Cross-Beam Energy Transfer (CBET) and the generation of Hot Electrons (HE). The in line CBET model is validated against a time-dependent conventional paraxial electromagnetic wave propagation code, in a well-defined plasma configuration with density and velocity profiles corresponding to an inhomogeneous plasma. Good agreement is found past a transient period on the picosecond time scale, notably for the spatial distribution of density perturbations and laser intensities in the interaction region. Application of the model to a direct-drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) configuration shows that CBET significantly degrades the irradiation symmetry by amplifying low frequency modes and reducing the laser-capsule coupling efficiency, ultimately leading to large modulations of the shell areal density and lower convergence ratios. The LPI/HE model predicts the HE fluxes, temperatures, angular dispersion and direction from the laser intensity of PCGO beamlets from simplified expressions based on theoretical models and scaling laws obtained in kinetic simulations. The HE beams
Laser-Plasma Interactions in Drive Campaign targets on the National Ignition Facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinkel, D E; Callahan, D A; Moody, J D; Amendt, P A; Lasinski, B F; MacGowan, B J; Meeker, D; Michel, P A; Ralph, J; Rosen, M D; Ross, J S; Schneider, M B; Storm, E; Strozzi, D J; Williams, E A
2016-01-01
The Drive campaign [D A Callahan et al., this conference] on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser [E. I. Moses, R. N. Boyd, B. A. Remington, C. J. Keane, R. Al-Ayat, Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] has the focused goal of understanding and optimizing the hohlraum for ignition. Both the temperature and symmetry of the radiation drive depend on laser and hohlraum characteristics. The drive temperature depends on the coupling of laser energy to the hohlraum, and the symmetry of the drive depends on beam-to-beam interactions that result in energy transfer [P. A. Michel, S. H. Glenzer, L. Divol, et al, Phys. Plasmas 17, 056305 (2010).] within the hohlraum. To this end, hohlraums are being fielded where shape (rugby vs. cylindrical hohlraums), gas fill composition (neopentane at room temperature vs. cryogenic helium), and gas fill density (increase of ∼ 150%) are independently changed. Cylindrical hohlraums with higher gas fill density show improved inner beam propagation, as should rugby hohlraums, because of the larger radius over the capsule (7 mm vs. 5.75 mm in a cylindrical hohlraum). Energy coupling improves in room temperature neopentane targets, as well as in hohlraums at higher gas fill density. In addition cross-beam energy transfer is being addressed directly by using targets that mock up one end of a hohlraum, but allow observation of the laser beam uniformity after energy transfer. Ideas such as splitting quads into “doublets” by re-pointing the right and left half of quads are also being pursued. LPI results of the Drive campaign will be summarized, and analyses of future directions presented. (paper)
Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Monteil, M. C.; Tassin, V.; Philippe, F.; Gauthier, P.; Casner, A.; Depierreux, S.; Neuville, C.; Villette, B.; Laffite, S.; Seytor, P.; Fremerye, P.; Seka, W.; Teychenné, D.; Debayle, A.; Marion, D.; Loiseau, P.; Casanova, M.
2016-02-01
Gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums have demonstrated high performances compared to a classical similar diameter cylinder hohlraum with a nearly 40% increase of x-ray drive, 10% higher measured peak drive temperature, and an increase in neutron production. Experimental comparisons have been done between rugby, cylinder, and elliptical hohlraums. The impact of these geometry differences on the laser plasma instabilities is examined. Using comparisons with hydrodynamic simulations carried out with the code FCI2 and postprocessed by Piranah, we have been able to reproduce the stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering spectrum of the different beams. Using a methodology based on a statistical analysis for the gain calculations, we show that the behavior of the laser plasma instabilities in rugby hohlraums can be reproduced. The efficiency of laser smoothing techniques to mitigate these instabilities are discussed, and we show that while rugby hohlraums exhibit more laser plasma instabilities than cylinder hohlraum, the latter can be mitigated in the case of an elliptical hohlraum.
Betatron radiation from a laser-plasma accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schnell, Michael
2014-01-01
The presented thesis investigates the processes which lead to the generation of highenergetic X-ray radiation, also known as ''betatron radiation'', by means of a relativistic laser-plasma interaction. The generated betatron radiation has been extensively characterized by measuring its radiated intensity, energy distribution, far-field beam profile, and source size. It was shown for the first time that betatron radiation can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool to retrieve very subtle information on the electron acceleration dynamics within the plasma wave. Furthermore, a compact polarimeter setup has been developed in a unique experiment in which the polarization state of the laser-plasma generated betatron radiation was measured in single-shot mode. This lead to a detailed study of the orientation of the electron trajectory within the plasma interaction. By controlling the injection of the electrons into the plasma wave it was demonstrated that one can tune the polarization state of the emitted X-rays. This result is very promising for further applications, particularly for feeding the electrons into an additional conventional accelerator or a permanent magnet based undulator for the production of intense X-ray beams. During this work, the experimental setup for accelerating electrons and generating high-energy X-ray beams was consistently improved: to enhance both its reliability and stability. Subsequently, the betatron radiation was used as a reliable diagnostic tool of the electron dynamics within the plasma. Parallel to the experimental work, 3-Dimensional Particle-In-Cell (3D-PlC) simulations were performed together with colleagues from the University of Duesseldorf. The simulations included the electron acceleration and the X-ray generation processes together with the recoil force acting on an accelerating electron caused by the emitted radiation during which one can also ascertain its polarization state. The simulations proved to be in good agreement
Prospective application of laser plasma propulsion in rocket technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Xin; Zhang Jie; Li Yingjun
2002-01-01
Interest in laser plasma propulsion is growing intensively. The interaction of high intensity short laser pulses with materials can produce plasma expansion with a velocity of hundreds of km/s. The specific impulse of ablative laser propulsion can be many tens of times greater than that of chemical rockets. The development and potential application of laser plasma propulsion are discussed
Labaune, Christine
2016-10-01
Laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) relies on the use of high-energy laser beams to compress and ignite a the1monuclear fuel with the ultimate goal of producing energy. Fusion is the holy grail of energy sources-combining abundant fuel with no greenhouse gas emissions, minimal waste products and a scale that can meet mankind's long-term energy demands. The quality and the efficiency of the coupling of the laser beams with the target are an essential step towards the success of laser fusion. A long-te1m program on laser-plasma interaction physics has been pursued to understand the propagation and the coupling of laser pulses in plasmas for a wide range of parameters.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Labaune Christine
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF relies on the use of high-energy laser beams to compress and ignite a thermonuclear fuel with the ultimate goal of producing energy. Fusion is the holy grail of energy sources–combining abundant fuel with no greenhouse gas emissions, minimal waste products and a scale that can meet mankind's long-term energy demands. The quality and the efficiency of the coupling of the laser beams with the target are an essential step towards the success of laser fusion. A long-term program on laser-plasma interaction physics has been pursued to understand the propagation and the coupling of laser pulses in plasmas for a wide range of parameters.
May, Joshua Joseph
The continued development of the chirped pulse amplification technique has allowed for the development of lasers with powers of in excess of 10 15W, for pulse lengths with durations of between .01 and 10 picoseconds, and which can be focused to energy densities greater than 100 giga-atmospheres. When such lasers are focused onto material targets, the possibility of creating particle beams with energy fluxes of comparable parameters arises. Such interactions have a number of theorized applications. For instance, in the Fast Ignition concept for Inertial Confinement Fusion [1], a high-intensity laser efficiently transfers its energy into an electron beam with an appropriate spectra which is then transported into a compressed target and initiate a fusion reaction. Another possible use is the so called Radiation Pressure Acceleration mechanism, in which a high-intensity, circularly polarized laser is used to create a mono-energetic ion beam which could then be used for medical imaging and treatment, among other applications. For this latter application, it is important that the laser energy is transferred to the ions and not to the electrons. However the physics of such high energy-density laser-matter interactions is highly kinetic and non-linear, and presently not fully understood. In this dissertation, we use the Particle-in-Cell code OSIRIS [2, 3] to explore the generation and transport of relativistic particle beams created by high intensity lasers focused onto solid density matter at normal incidence. To explore the generation of relativistic electrons by such interactions, we use primarily one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D), and a few three-dimensional simulations (3D). We initially examine the idealized case of normal incidence of relatively short, plane-wave lasers on flat, sharp interfaces. We find that in 1D the results are highly dependent on the initial temperature of the plasma, with significant absorption into relativistic electrons only
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guenther, M. M.; Sonnabend, K.; Harres, K.; Roth, M.; Brambrink, E.; Vogt, K.; Bagnoud, V.
2011-01-01
We present a novel nuclear activation-based method for the investigation of high-energy bremsstrahlung produced by electrons above 7 MeV generated by a high-power laser. The main component is a novel high-density activation target that is a pseudo alloy of several selected isotopes with different photo-disintegration reaction thresholds. The gamma spectrum emitted by the activated targets is used for the reconstruction of the bremsstrahlung spectrum using an analysis method based on Penfold and Leiss. This nuclear activation-based technique allows for the determination of the number of bremsstrahlung photons per energy bin in a wide range energy without any anticipated fit procedures. Furthermore, the analysis method also allows for the determination of the absolute yield, the energy distribution, and the temperature of high-energy electrons at the relativistic laser-plasma interaction region. The pyrometry is sensitive to energies above 7 MeV only, i.e., this diagnostic is insensitive to any low-energy processes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guenther, M. M.; Sonnabend, K.; Harres, K.; Roth, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Schlossgartenstr. 9, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Brambrink, E. [Laboratoire pour l' Utilisation des Lasers Intenses, UMR 7605 CNRS-CEA-Ecole Polytechnique-Universite Paris VI, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Vogt, K.; Bagnoud, V. [GSI - Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)
2011-08-15
We present a novel nuclear activation-based method for the investigation of high-energy bremsstrahlung produced by electrons above 7 MeV generated by a high-power laser. The main component is a novel high-density activation target that is a pseudo alloy of several selected isotopes with different photo-disintegration reaction thresholds. The gamma spectrum emitted by the activated targets is used for the reconstruction of the bremsstrahlung spectrum using an analysis method based on Penfold and Leiss. This nuclear activation-based technique allows for the determination of the number of bremsstrahlung photons per energy bin in a wide range energy without any anticipated fit procedures. Furthermore, the analysis method also allows for the determination of the absolute yield, the energy distribution, and the temperature of high-energy electrons at the relativistic laser-plasma interaction region. The pyrometry is sensitive to energies above 7 MeV only, i.e., this diagnostic is insensitive to any low-energy processes.
Bogodaev, N. V.; Zozulya, A. A.; Ivleva, Lyudmila I.; Korshunov, A. S.; Mamaev, A. V.; Polozkov, N. M.
1992-05-01
Most photorefractive crystals suitable for four-wave systems of phase self-conjugation and mutual conjugation have a fairly high level of light-induced scattering (fanning). This may imply that the nonlinearity of a crystal is too strong for optimal operation and a reduction in this nonlinearity would improve the characteristics. This statement is illustrated theoretically and experimentally using the geometry of a loop parametric oscillator as an example.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perrier, V
2007-07-15
This work deals with the modelling and simulation of compressible flows. A seven equations model is obtained by homogenizing the Euler system. Fluctuation terms are modeled as relaxation terms. When the relaxation terms tend to infinity, which means that the phases are well mixed, a five equations model is obtained via an asymptotic expansion. This five equations model is strictly hyperbolic, but nonconservative. The discretization of this model is obtained by an asymptotic expansion of a scheme for the seven equations model. The numerical method is implemented, validated on analytic cases, and compared with experiments in the case of multiphase shocks. We are then interested in the modelling of phase transition with two equations of state. Optimization of the mixture entropy leads to the fact that three zones can be separated: one in which the pure liquid is the most stable, one in which the pure gas is the most stable, and one in which a mixture with equality of temperature, pressure and chemical potentials is the most stable. Conditions are given on the coupling of the two equations of state for ensuring that the mixture equation of state is convex, and that the system is strictly hyperbolic. In order to take into account phase transition, a vaporization wave is introduced in the solution of the Riemann problem, that is modeled as a deflagration wave. It is then proved that the usual closure, the Chapman-Jouguet closure, is wrong in general, and a correct closure in the case when both fluids have a perfect gas equation of state. Last, the solution of the Riemann problem is implemented in a multiphase code, and validated on analytic cases. In the same code, models of laser release and thermal conduction are implemented to simulate laser ablation. The results are comparable to the ones obtained with scale laws. The last chapter, fully independent, is concerned with correctors in stochastic homogenization in the case of heavy tails process. (author)
Prospects of the surfatron laser plasma accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katsouleas, T.; Joshi, C.; Mori, W.; Dawson, J.M.
1983-01-01
The surfatron concept is proposed as a possible solution to the problem of staging in the laser-plasma beat wave accelerator scheme. Prospects of a 100 GeV particle accelerator based on the surfatron concept are explored. Finite angle optical mixing appears to be a promising solution for drastically reducing the width of the plane wave, thereby, making the required laser power and the device size realizable for a proof-of-principle experiment. Our conclusions are based mainly on analytical theory and one-dimensional particle simulations
Holec, M.; Nikl, J.; Vranic, M.; Weber, S.
2018-04-01
Interaction of high-power lasers with solid targets is in general strongly affected by the limited contrast available. The laser pre-pulse ionizes the target and produces a pre-plasma which can strongly modify the interaction of the main part of the laser pulse with the target. This is of particular importance for future experiments which will use laser intensities above 1021 W cm-2 and which are subject to the limited contrast. As a consequence the main part of the laser pulse will be modified while traversing the pre-plasma, interacting with it partially. A further complication arises from the fact that the interaction of a high-power pre-pulse with solid targets very often takes place under nonlocal transport conditions, i.e. the characteristic mean-free-path of the particles and photons is larger than the characteristic scale-lengths of density and temperature. The classical diffusion treatment of radiation and heat transport in the hydrodynamic model is then insufficient for the description of the pre-pulse physics. These phenomena also strongly modify the formation of the pre-plasma which in turn affects the propagation of the main laser pulse. In this paper nonlocal radiation-hydrodynamic simulations are carried out and serve as input for subsequent kinetic simulations of ultra-high intensity laser pulses interacting with the plasma in the ultra-relativistic regime. It is shown that the results of the kinetic simulations differ considerably whether a diffusive or nonlocal transport is used for the radiation-hydrodynamic simulations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nafari, F.; Yazdani, E.; Malekynia, B.; Ghoranneviss, M.
2010-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. Anomalous interaction of picosecond laser pulses of terawatt to petawatt power is due to suppression of relativistic self-focusing if prepulses are cut-off by a contrast ratio higher than 10 8 . Resulting non-linear ponderomotive forces induced at the skin-layer interaction of a short laser-pulse with a proper preplasma layer produced by the laser prepulse in front of a solid target accelerate two thin (a few μm) quasi-neutral plasma blocks, propagating in forward and backward directions, backward moving against the laser light (ablation) and forward moving into the target. This compressed block produces an ion current density of above 10 11 A/cm 2 . This may support the requirement to produce a fast ignition deuterium tritium fusion at densities not much higher than the solid state by a single shot pw-ps laser pulse. With studying skin-layer subrelativistic interaction of a short (≤ 1 ps) laser pulse with an initial Rayleigh density profile in genuine two-fluid hydrodynamic model, time and spatial distributions of ion block temperature are presented.
Osman, Frederick; Ghahramani, Nader; Hora, Heinrich
2005-10-01
The studies of laser ablation have lead to a new theory of nuclei, endothermic nuclei generation, and quark-gluon plasmas. The surface of ablated plasma expanding into vacuum after high power laser irradiation of targets contains an electric double layer having the thickness of the Debye length. This led to the discovery of surface tension in plasmas, and led to the internal dynamic electric fields in all inhomogeneous plasmas. The surface tension causes stabilization by short length surface wave smoothing the expanding plasma plume and to stabilization against the Rayleigh Taylor instability. Generalizing this to the degenerate electrons in a metal with the Fermi energy instead of the temperature resulted in the first quantum theory of surface tension of metals in agreement with measurements. Taking the Fermi energy in the Debye length for nucleons results in a theory of nuclei with stable confinement of protons and neutrons just at the well-known nuclear density, and the Debye lengths equal to the Hofstadter decay of the nuclear surface. Increasing the nuclear density by a factor of 10 leads to a change of the Fermi energy into its relativistic branch where no surface energy is possible and the particle mass is not defined, permitting the quark gluon plasma. Expansion of this higher density at the big bang or in super-nova results in nucleation and element generation. The Boltzmann equilibrium permits the synthesis of nuclei even in the endothermic range, however with the limit to about uranium. A relation for the magic numbers leads to a quark structure of nuclear shells that can be understood as a duality property of nuclei with respect to nucleons and quarks
Collaborative Research: Tomographic imaging of laser-plasma structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Downer, Michael [University of Texas at Austin
2018-01-18
The interaction of intense short laser pulses with ionized gases, or plasmas, underlies many applications such as acceleration of elementary particles, production of energy by laser fusion, generation of x-ray and far-infrared “terahertz” pulses for medical and materials probing, remote sensing of explosives and pollutants, and generation of guide stars. Such laser-plasma interactions create tiny electron density structures (analogous to the wake behind a boat) inside the plasma in the shape of waves, bubbles and filaments that move at the speed of light, and evolve as they propagate. Prior to recent work by the PI of this proposal, detailed knowledge of such structures came exclusively from intensive computer simulations. Now “snapshots” of these elusive, light-velocity structures can be taken in the laboratory using dynamic variant of holography, the technique used to produce ID cards and DVDs, and dynamic variant of tomography, the technique used in medicine to image internal bodily organs. These fast visualization techniques are important for understanding, improving and scaling the above-mentioned applications of laser-plasma interactions. In this project, we accomplished three things: 1) We took holographic pictures of a laser-driven plasma-wave in the act of accelerating electrons to high energy, and used computer simulations to understand the pictures. 2) Using results from this experiment to optimize the performance of the accelerator, and the brightness of x-rays that it emits. These x-rays will be useful for medical and materials science applications. 3) We made technical improvements to the holographic technique that enables us to see finer details in the recorded pictures. Four refereed journal papers were published, and two students earned PhDs and moved on to scientific careers in US National Laboratories based on their work under this project.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scott, R. H. H.; Norreys, P. A. [Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxford OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Perez, F.; Baton, S. D. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR 7605, CNRS/CEA/UPMC, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Santos, J. J.; Nicolai, Ph.; Hulin, S. [Univ. Bordeaux/CNRS/CEA, CELIA, UMR 5107, 33405 Talence (France); Ridgers, C. P. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Davies, J. R. [GoLP, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear - Laboratorio Associado, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Lancaster, K. L.; Trines, R. M. G. M. [Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxford OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Bell, A. R.; Tzoufras, M. [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxford OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Rose, S. J. [Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2012-05-15
A systematic experimental and computational investigation of the effects of three well characterized density scalelengths on fast electron energy transport in ultra-intense laser-solid interactions has been performed. Experimental evidence is presented which shows that, when the density scalelength is sufficiently large, the fast electron beam entering the solid-density plasma is best described by two distinct populations: those accelerated within the coronal plasma (the fast electron pre-beam) and those accelerated near or at the critical density surface (the fast electron main-beam). The former has considerably lower divergence and higher temperature than that of the main-beam with a half-angle of {approx}20 Degree-Sign . It contains up to 30% of the total fast electron energy absorbed into the target. The number, kinetic energy, and total energy of the fast electrons in the pre-beam are increased by an increase in density scalelength. With larger density scalelengths, the fast electrons heat a smaller cross sectional area of the target, causing the thinnest targets to reach significantly higher rear surface temperatures. Modelling indicates that the enhanced fast electron pre-beam associated with the large density scalelength interaction generates a magnetic field within the target of sufficient magnitude to partially collimate the subsequent, more divergent, fast electron main-beam.
Albert, Felicie
2017-10-01
Bright sources of x-rays, such as synchrotrons and x-ray free electron lasers (XFEL) are transformational tools for many fields of science. They are used for biology, material science, medicine, or industry. Such sources rely on conventional particle accelerators, where electrons are accelerated to gigaelectronvolts (GeV) energies. The accelerated particles are wiggled in magnetic structures to emit x-ray radiation that is commonly used for molecular crystallography, fluorescence studies, chemical analysis, medical imaging, and many other applications. One of the drawbacks of these machines is their size and cost, because electric field gradients are limited to about 100 V/M in conventional accelerators. Particle acceleration in laser-driven plasmas is an alternative to generate x-rays via betatron emission, Compton scattering, or bremsstrahlung. A plasma can sustain electrical fields many orders of magnitude higher than that in conventional radiofrequency accelerator structures. When short, intense laser pulses are focused into a gas, it produces electron plasma waves in which electrons can be trapped and accelerated to GeV energies. X-ray sources, driven by electrons from laser-wakefield acceleration, have unique properties that are analogous to synchrotron radiation, with a 1000-fold shorter pulse. An important use of x-rays from laser plasma accelerators is in High Energy Density (HED) science, which requires laser and XFEL facilities to create in the laboratory extreme conditions of temperatures and pressures that are usually found in the interiors of stars and planets. To diagnose such extreme states of matter, the development of efficient, versatile and fast (sub-picosecond scale) x-ray probes has become essential. In these experiments, x-ray photons can pass through dense material, and absorption of the x-rays can be directly measured, via spectroscopy or imaging, to inform scientists about the temperature and density of the targets being studied. Performed
The application of laser plasma in ophthalmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Yujiang; Luo Le; Sun Yabing
2000-01-01
The production and development of laser plasma are introduced, and the contribution of laser biomedicine and laser plasma technology to ophthalmology is analyzed. The latest three progresses (laser photocoagulation, photo-refractive keratotomy and laser iridectomy) of laser plasma applications in ophthalmology are presented
Controlling Laser Plasma Instabilities Using Temporal Bandwidth
Tsung, Frank; Weaver, J.; Lehmberg, R.
2016-10-01
We are performing particle-in-cell simulations using the code OSIRIS to study the effects of laser plasma interactions in the presence of temporal bandwidth under conditions relevant to current and future experiments on the NIKE laser. Our simulations show that, for sufficiently large bandwidth (where the inverse bandwidth is comparable with the linear growth time), the saturation level, and the distribution of hot electrons, can be effected by the addition of temporal bandwidths (which can be accomplished in experiments using beam smoothing techniques such as ISI). We will quantify these effects and investigate higher dimensional effects such as laser speckles. This work is supported by DOE and NRL.
Borets-Pervak, I. Yu; Vorob'ev, V. S.
1995-04-01
An analysis is made of a model of the formation of a surface laser plasma which takes account of the heating and vaporisation of thermally insulated surface microdefects. This model is used in an interpretation of experiments in which such a plasma has been formed by irradiation of a titanium target with microsecond CO2 laser pulses. A comparison with the experimental breakdown intensities is used to calculate the average sizes of microdefects and their concentration: the results are in agreement with the published data. The dependence of the delay time of plasma formation on the total energy in a laser pulse is calculated.
Wave Interactions and Fluid Flows
Craik, Alex D. D.
1988-07-01
This up-to-date and comprehensive account of theory and experiment on wave-interaction phenomena covers fluids both at rest and in their shear flows. It includes, on the one hand, water waves, internal waves, and their evolution, interaction, and associated wave-driven means flow and, on the other hand, phenomena on nonlinear hydrodynamic stability, especially those leading to the onset of turbulence. This study provide a particularly valuable bridge between these two similar, yet different, classes of phenomena. It will be of value to oceanographers, meteorologists, and those working in fluid mechanics, atmospheric and planetary physics, plasma physics, aeronautics, and geophysical and astrophysical fluid dynamics.
Interaction of High Intensity Electromagnetic Waves with Plasmas: Final Report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shvets, G.
2008-01-01
The focus of our work during the duration of this grant was on the following areas: (a) the fundamental plasma physics of intense laser-plasma interactions, including the nonlinear excitation of plasma waves for accelerator applications, as well as the recently discovered by us phenomenon of the relativistic bi-stability of relativistic plasma waves driven by a laser beatwave; (b) interaction of high power microwave beams with magnetized plasma, including some of the recently discovered by us phenomena such as the Undulator Induced Transparency (UIT) as well as the new approaches to dynamic manipulation of microwave pulses; (c) investigations of the multi-color laser pulse interactions in the plasma, including the recently discovered by us phenomenon of Electromagnetic Cascading (EC) and the effect of the EC of three-dimensional dynamics of laser pulses (enhanced/suppressed selffocusing etc.); (d) interaction of high-current electron beams with the ambient plasma in the context of Fast Ignitor (FI) physics, with the emphasis on the nonlinear dynamics of the Weibel instability and beam filamentation.
Interaction of gravitational plane waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrari, V.
1988-01-01
The mathematical theory of colliding, infinite-fronted, plane gravitational waves is presented. The process of focusing, the creation of singularities and horizons, due to the interaction, and the lens effect due to a beam-like gravitational wave are discussed
Principles of laser-plasma accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malka, V.; Mora, P.
2009-01-01
The continuing development of powerful laser systems has permitted to extend the interaction of laser beams with matter far into the relativistic domain in which extremely high electric and magnetic fields are generated. Thanks to these tremendous fields, that only plasma can support and sustain, new and compact approaches for producing energetic particle beams have been recently achieved (for example the bubble regime and the colliding laser pulses scheme). The incredible progress of these laser-plasma accelerators has allowed physicists to produce high quality beams of energetic radiation and particles. These beams have interesting properties such as shortness, brightness and spatial quality, and could lend themselves to applications in many fields, including medicine (radiotherapy, proton therapy, imaging), radiation biology (short-time-scale), chemistry (radiolysis), physics and material science (radiography, electron and photon diffraction), security (material inspection), and of course accelerator science. Stimulated by the advent of compact and powerful lasers, with moderate costs and high repetition rate, this research field has witnessed considerable growth in the past few years, and the promises of laser-plasma accelerators are in tremendous progress. The recent years in particular have seen spectacular progress in the acceleration of electrons and of ions, both in terms of energy and in terms of quality of the beams. (authors)
Precedent Research on Compact Laser-plasma based Gantry for Cancer Therapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hee, Park Seong; Jeong, Young Uk; Lee, Ki Tae; Kim, Kyung Nam; Cha, Young Ho
2012-03-01
This is the precedent R and D to develop the technology of next generation compact particle cancer treatment system based on laser-plasma interaction and to deduce a big project. The subject of this project are the survey of application technology of laser-plasma based particle beam and the design of compact laser-plasma based gantry. The survey of characteristic of particle beam for cancer therapy and present status can be adapted to develop new system. The comparison between particle beams from the existing system and new one based on laser-plasma acceleration will be important to new design and design optimization. The project includes design of multi-dimensional laser transfer beamline, minimization of laser-plasma acceleration chamber, design of effective energy separation/selection system, and radiation safety and local shielding
Optimization and application of electron acceleration in relativistic laser plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koenigstein, Thomas
2013-01-01
This thesis describes experiments and simulations of the acceleration of electrons to relativistic energies (toward γ e ∼ 10 3 ) by structures in plasmas which are generated by ultrashort (pulse length < 10 -14 s) laser pulses. The first part of this work discusses experiments in a parameter space where quasimonoenergetic electron bunches are generated in subcritical (gaseous) plasmas and compares them to analytical scalings. A primary concern in this work is to optimize the stability of the energy and the pointing of the electrons. The second part deals with acceleration of electrons along the surface of solid substrates by laser-plasma interaction. The measurements show good agreement with existing analytical scalings and dedicated numerical simulations. In the third part, two new concepts for multi-stage acceleration will be presented and parameterised by analytical considerations and numerical simulations. The first method uses electron pairs, as produced in the first part, to transfer energy from the first bunch to the second by means of a plasma wave. The second method utilizes a low intensity laser pulse in order to inject electrons from a neutral gas into the accelerating phase of a plasma wave. The final chapter proposes and demonstrates a first application that has been developed in collaboration with ESA. The use of electron beams with exponential energy distribution, as in the second part of this work, offers the potential to investigate the resistance of electronic components against space radiation exposure.
Interaction of langmuir and ion acoustic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Hee Jae
1991-01-01
Interaction of Langmuir and ion acoustic waves in a plasma is described by Landau-Ginzburg type of equation when the group velocity of the Langmuir wave is equal to the wave velocity of ion acoustic wave. (Author)
Linear interaction of gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ciubotariu, C.D.
1992-01-01
Starting with the linearized Einstein equations written in the same form as Maxwell equations, a damping term is found in the wave equation. The analogy with the propagation of the electromagnetic wave in ohmic media is obvious if we introduce an 'ohmic relation' for gravitational interaction. The possibility of the amplification of gravitational waves by a suitable choice of the velocity field of a dust ('dust with negative viscosity'), for example by the use of the free-electron laser principle, is indicated. (Author)
Laser-plasma based electron acceleration studies planned at CAT, Indore
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naik, P.A.; Gupta, P.D.
2005-01-01
The Laser Plasma Division at the Centre for Advanced Technology is engaged in a variety of R and D activities on laser-plasma interaction with special emphasis on laser-matter interaction at ultra-high intensities. An important aspect of our future work is studies in laser-plasma based acceleration using an elaborate infrastructural set-up of ultra-fast laser and plasma diagnostic systems and recently acquired 10 TW, 50 fs Ti: Sapphire laser system. This paper presents outline of the planned studies in this field. (author)
Design considerations for the use of laser-plasma accelerators for advanced space radiation studies
Königstein, T.; Karger, O.; Pretzler, G.; Rosenzweig, J. B.; Hidding, B.; Hidding
2012-08-01
We present design considerations for the use of laser-plasma accelerators for mimicking space radiation and testing space-grade electronics. This novel application takes advantage of the inherent ability of laser-plasma accelerators to produce particle beams with exponential energy distribution, which is a characteristic shared with the hazardous relativistic electron flux present in the radiation belts of planets such as Earth, Saturn and Jupiter. Fundamental issues regarding laser-plasma interaction parameters, beam propagation, flux development, and experimental setup are discussed.
Interacting electromagnetic waves in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Griffiths, J.B.
1976-01-01
The problem is considered of finding exact solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations which describe the physical situation of two colliding and subsequently interacting electromagnetic waves. The general theory of relativity predicts a nonlinear interaction between electromagnetic waves. The situation is described using an approximate geometrical method, and a new exact solution describing two interacting electromagnetic waves is given. This describes waves emitted from two sources mutually focusing each other on the opposite source. (author)
Interaction between electromagnetic waves and plasma waves in motional plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, S. Y.; Gao, M.; Tang, C. J.; Peng, X. D.
2009-01-01
The electromagnetic wave (EM wave) behavior and the electromagnetic instability caused by the interaction between an EM wave and a plasma wave in motional plasma are studied. The dispersion relation of EM waves and the dielectric tensor of motional plasma are derived by magnetohydrodynamics, and the wave phenomenon in motional plasma is displayed. As a result, the electromagnetic instability, which is excited by the interaction between the EM waves and the plasma waves, is revealed. The mechanism of the instability is the coupling between high frequency electromagnetic field and the transverse electron oscillation derived from the deflection of longitudinal electron oscillation due to self-magnetic field. The present research is useful with regard to the new type of plasma radiation source, ion-focusing accelerator, and plasma diagnostic technique.
Probing electron acceleration and x-ray emission in laser-plasma accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thaury, C.; Ta Phuoc, K.; Corde, S.; Brijesh, P.; Lambert, G.; Malka, V.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Bloom, M. S.; Kneip, S.
2013-01-01
While laser-plasma accelerators have demonstrated a strong potential in the acceleration of electrons up to giga-electronvolt energies, few experimental tools for studying the acceleration physics have been developed. In this paper, we demonstrate a method for probing the acceleration process. A second laser beam, propagating perpendicular to the main beam, is focused on the gas jet few nanosecond before the main beam creates the accelerating plasma wave. This second beam is intense enough to ionize the gas and form a density depletion, which will locally inhibit the acceleration. The position of the density depletion is scanned along the interaction length to probe the electron injection and acceleration, and the betatron X-ray emission. To illustrate the potential of the method, the variation of the injection position with the plasma density is studied
Absorption of turbulent laser plasma radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silin, V.P.
1979-02-01
Some theoretical results relating to the interaction of high-power laser radiation with a plasma are presented including the development of a theory of parametric instabilities in an inhomogeneous laser plasma which shows that the size of the spatial region in which the turbulent state develops is comparable with the characteristic dimension of a several-fold fluctuation in the plasma density close to its critical value. The conditions are identified under which parametric turbulence gives an anomalous effective collision frequency substantially greater than the normal electron-ion collision frequency. Even during the build-up of strong parametric turbulence, conditions are found for the development of anomalous dissipation which results in heating of the bulk of the electrons. Under opposite conditions, the dynamic behaviour due to the influence of the ponderomotive forces associated with the p component of the radiation field shows that under slow plasma flow conditions, a considerable proportion of the laser energy absorbed by the plasma is transferred to the fast electrons. Suppression of the Cherenkov mechanism for generation of the fast electron component is observed on transition to fast plasma flow conditions. (author)
The Interaction of Ocean Waves and Wind
Janssen, Peter
2004-10-01
Describing in detail the two-way interaction between wind and ocean waves, this book discusses ocean wave evolution in accordance with the energy balance equation. An extensive overview of nonlinear transfer is given, and the role of four-wave interactions in the generation of extreme events as well as the effects on ocean circulation is included. The volume will interest ocean wave modellers, physicists, applied mathematicians, and engineers.
Porous models for wave-seabed interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jeng, Dong-Sheng [Shanghai Jiaotong Univ., SH (China)
2013-02-01
Detailed discussion about the phenomenon of wave-seabed interactions. Novel models for wave-induced seabed response. Intensive theoretical derivations for wave-seabed interactions. Practical examples for engineering applications. ''Porous Models for Wave-seabed Interactions'' discusses the Phenomenon of wave-seabed interactions, which is a vital issue for coastal and geotechnical engineers involved in the design of foundations for marine structures such as pipelines, breakwaters, platforms, etc. The most important sections of this book will be the fully detailed theoretical models of wave-seabed interaction problem, which are particularly useful for postgraduate students and junior researchers entering the discipline of marine geotechnics and offshore engineering. This book also converts the research outcomes of theoretical studies to engineering applications that will provide front-line engineers with practical and effective tools in the assessment of seabed instability in engineering design.
En Route: next-generation laser-plasma-based electron accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hidding, Bernhard
2008-05-01
Accelerating electrons to relativistic energies is of fundamental interest, especially in particle physics. Today's accelerator technology, however, is limited by the maximum electric fields which can be created. This thesis presents results on various mechanisms aiming at exploiting the fields in focussed laser pulses and plasma waves for electron acceleration, which can be orders of magnitude higher than with conventional accelerators. With relativistic, underdense laser-plasma-interaction, quasimonoenergetic electron bunches with energies up to ∼50 MeV and normalized emittances of the order of 5mmmrad have been generated. This was achieved by focussing the ∼80 fs, 1 J pulses of the JETI-laser at the FSU Jena to intensities of several 10 19 W=cm 2 into gas jets. The experimental observations could be explained via ''bubble acceleration'', which is based on self-injection and acceleration of electrons in a highly nonlinear breaking plasma wave. For the rst time, this bubble acceleration was achieved explicitly in the self-modulated laser wakefield regime (SMLWFA). This quasimonoenergetic SMLWFA-regime stands out by relaxing dramatically the requirements on the driving laser pulse necessary to trigger bubble acceleration. This is due to self-modulation of the laser pulse in high-density gas jets, leading to ultrashort laser pulse fragments capable of initiating bubble acceleration. Electron bunches with durations < or similar 5 fs can thus be created, which is at least an order of magnitude shorter than with conventional accelerator technology. In addition, more than one laser pulse fragment can be powerful enough to drive a bubble. Distinct double peaks have been observed in the electron spectra, indicating that two quasimonoenergetic electron bunches separated by only few tens of fs have formed. This is backed up by PIC-Simulations (Particle-in-Cell). These results underline the feasibility of the construction of small table-top accelerators, while at the
Investigation of relativistic laser-plasmas using nuclear diagnostics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guenther, Marc M.
2011-01-01
The present work explores with the development of a novel nuclear diagnostic method for the investigation of the electron dynamics in relativistic laser-plasma interactions. An additional aim of this work was the determination of the real laser peak intensity via the interaction of an intense laser short-pulse with a solid target. The nuclear diagnostics is based on a photo-neutron disintegration nuclear activation method. The main constituent of the nuclear diagnostic are novel pseudoalloic activation targets as a kind of calorimeter to measure the high-energy bremsstrahlung produced by relativistic electrons. The targets are composed of several stable isotopes with different (γ,xn)-reaction thresholds. The activated nuclides were identified via the characteristic gamma-ray decay spectrum by using high-resolution gamma spectroscopy after the laser irradiation. Via the gamma spectroscopy the (γ,xn)-reaction yields were determined. The high-energy bremsstrahlung spectrum has been deconvolved using a novel analysis method based on a modified Penfold-Leiss method. This facilitates the reconstruction of the spectrum of bremsstrahlung photons without any anticipated fit procedures. Furthermore, the characterization of the corresponding bremsstrahlung electrons in the interaction zone is accessible immediately. The consolidated findings about the properties of the relativistic electrons were used to determine the real peak intensity at the laser-plasma interaction zone. In the context of this work, experiments were performed at three different laser facilities. First Experiments were carried out at the 100 TW laser facility at Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intense (LULI) in France and supplementary at the Vulcan laser facility at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in United Kingdom. The main part of the activation experiments were performed at the PHELIX laser facility (Petawatt High Energy Laser for heavy Ion EXperiments) at GSI-Helmholtzzentrum fuer
LDRD Final Report: Adaptive Methods for Laser Plasma Simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorr, M R; Garaizar, F X; Hittinger, J A
2003-01-01
The goal of this project was to investigate the utility of parallel adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) in the simulation of laser plasma interaction (LPI). The scope of work included the development of new numerical methods and parallel implementation strategies. The primary deliverables were (1) parallel adaptive algorithms to solve a system of equations combining plasma fluid and light propagation models, (2) a research code implementing these algorithms, and (3) an analysis of the performance of parallel AMR on LPI problems. The project accomplished these objectives. New algorithms were developed for the solution of a system of equations describing LPI. These algorithms were implemented in a new research code named ALPS (Adaptive Laser Plasma Simulator) that was used to test the effectiveness of the AMR algorithms on the Laboratory's large-scale computer platforms. The details of the algorithm and the results of the numerical tests were documented in an article published in the Journal of Computational Physics [2]. A principal conclusion of this investigation is that AMR is most effective for LPI systems that are ''hydrodynamically large'', i.e., problems requiring the simulation of a large plasma volume relative to the volume occupied by the laser light. Since the plasma-only regions require less resolution than the laser light, AMR enables the use of efficient meshes for such problems. In contrast, AMR is less effective for, say, a single highly filamented beam propagating through a phase plate, since the resulting speckle pattern may be too dense to adequately separate scales with a locally refined mesh. Ultimately, the gain to be expected from the use of AMR is highly problem-dependent. One class of problems investigated in this project involved a pair of laser beams crossing in a plasma flow. Under certain conditions, energy can be transferred from one beam to the other via a resonant interaction with an ion acoustic wave in the crossing region. AMR provides an
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ocana, J. L.; Morales, M.; Molpeceres, C.; Porro, J. A.
2010-01-01
Profiting by the increasing availability of laser sources delivering intensities above 109 W/cm 2 with pulse energies in the range of several Joules and pulse widths in the range of nanoseconds, laser shock processing (LSP) is consolidating as an effective technology for the improvement of surface mechanical and corrosion resistance properties of metals. The main advantage of the laser shock processing technique consists on its capability of inducing a relatively deep compression residual stresses field into metallic alloy pieces allowing an improved mechanical behaviour, explicitly, the life improvement of the treated specimens against wear, crack growth and stress corrosion cracking. Although significant work from the experimental side has been contributed to explore the optimum conditions of application of the treatments and to assess their ultimate capability to provide enhanced mechanical behaviour to work-pieces of typical materials, only limited attempts have been developed in the way of full comprehension and predictive assessment of the characteristic physical processes and material transformations with a specific consideration of real material properties. In the present paper, a review on the physical issues dominating the development of LSP processes from a high intensity laser-matter interaction point of view is presented along with the theoretical and computational methods developed by the authors for their predictive assessment and practical results at laboratory scale on the application of the technique to different materials.
Precise Charge Measurement For Laser Plasma Accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Kei; Gonsalves, Anthony; Lin, Chen; Sokollik, Thomas; Shiraishi, Satomi; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Osterhoff, Jens; Donahue, Rich; Rodgers, David; Smith, Alan; Byrne, Warren; Leemans, Wim
2011-01-01
Cross-calibrations of charge diagnostics are conducted to verify their validity for measuring electron beams produced by laser plasma accelerators (LPAs). Employed diagnostics are a scintillating screen, activation based measurement, and integrating current transformer. The diagnostics agreed within ±8 %, showing that they can provide accurate charge measurements for LPAs provided they are used properly.
''Flicker'' in laser-plasma self-focusing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coggeshall, S.V.; Mead, W.C.; Jones, R.D.
1988-01-01
Under certain conditions, a new mode of laser-plasma self-focusing can occur which is characterized by a self-sustaining, continual shifting of filament-produced focal spots and a somewhat chaotic redistribution of light at the critical surface. Associated with this phenomenon is the possibility of significant intensity multiplication due to self-focusing. This flickering of laser light is caused by small amplitude, short wavelength ion acoustic waves which are produced near the foci of the filaments and subsequently propagate and convect toward the laser. As these ion fluctuations move toward the laser, they cause further light ray trajectory changes which shift the locations of the foci. New sound waves are launched and the process is self-perpetuated. 7 refs., 5 figs
Three-wave interactions in a warm plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shivamoggi, B.K.
1983-01-01
The nonlinear resonance interactions between a Langmuir wave and two transverse electromagnetic waves (T-T-L) as well as between an ion-acoustic wave and two transverse electromagnetic waves (T-T-S) in a warm plasma are studied. It is shown that an incident transverse electromagnetic wave decays into another transverse electromagnetic wave and a Langmuir wave in a T-T-L wave-wave interaction as well as into another transverse electromagnetic wave and an ion-acoustic wave in a T-T-S wave-wave interaction. The growth rates of the daughter waves in the T-T-L wave-wave interaction are shown to be smaller than those of the daughter waves in the T-T-S wave-wave interaction. (M.F.W.)
Conservative numerical methods for solitary wave interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duran, A; Lopez-Marcos, M A [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Computacion, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)
2003-07-18
The purpose of this paper is to show the advantages that represent the use of numerical methods that preserve invariant quantities in the study of solitary wave interactions for the regularized long wave equation. It is shown that the so-called conservative methods are more appropriate to study the phenomenon and provide a dynamic point of view that allows us to estimate the changes in the parameters of the solitary waves after the collision.
Resonant interaction of photons with gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mendonca, J.T.; Drury, L. O'C.
2002-01-01
The interaction of photons with a low-amplitude gravitational wave propagating in a flat space-time is studied by using an exact model of photon dynamics. The existence of nearly resonant interactions between the photons and the gravitational waves, which can take place over large distances, can lead to a strong photon acceleration. Such a resonant mechanism can eventually be useful to build consistent new models of gamma-ray emitters
Studies of intense-laser plasma instabilities
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Láska, Leoš; Krása, Josef; Badziak, J.; Jungwirth, Karel; Krouský, Eduard; Margarone, Daniele; Parys, P.
2013-01-01
Roč. 272, May (2013), 94-98 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E09092; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA AV ČR IAA100100715 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laser plasma instabilities * self-generated magnetic field * longitudinal structure of the expanding plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.538, year: 2013
Nonlinear interactions of counter-travelling waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuuchi, Kazuo
1980-01-01
Nonlinear interactions between two waves travelling in opposite directions are investigated. When a nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation is adopted as a model equation, it is shown that such a wave system is governed by a simple set of equations for their complex amplitudes. Steady progressive waves governed by this set are investigated for various cases classified according to the signs of the coefficients. It is then found that one wave travelling in one direction appears from a certain point and the other travelling in the opposite direction has a constant amplitude from that point. This phenomenon may be regarded as a sort of reflection in spite of no rigid boundary. (author)
Shock wave interaction with turbulence: Pseudospectral simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buckingham, A.C.
1986-01-01
Shock waves amplify pre-existing turbulence. Shock tube and shock wave boundary layer interaction experiments provide qualitative confirmation. However, shock pressure, temperature, and rapid transit complicate direct measurement. Computational simulations supplement the experimental data base and help isolate the mechanisms responsible. Simulations and experiments, particularly under reflected shock wave conditions, significantly influence material mixing. In these pseudospectral Navier-Stokes simulations the shock wave is treated as either a moving (tracked or fitted) domain boundary. The simulations assist development of code mix models. Shock Mach number and pre-existing turbulence intensity initially emerge as key parameters. 20 refs., 8 figs
Wave-current interaction in Willapa Bay
Olabarrieta, Maitane; Warner, John C.; Kumar, Nirnimesh
2011-01-01
This paper describes the importance of wave-current interaction in an inlet-estuary system. The three-dimensional, fully coupled, Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system was applied in Willapa Bay (Washington State) from 22 to 29 October 1998 that included a large storm event. To represent the interaction between waves and currents, the vortex-force method was used. Model results were compared with water elevations, currents, and wave measurements obtained by the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers. In general, a good agreement between field data and computed results was achieved, although some discrepancies were also observed in regard to wave peak directions in the most upstream station. Several numerical experiments that considered different forcing terms were run in order to identify the effects of each wind, tide, and wave-current interaction process. Comparison of the horizontal momentum balances results identified that wave-breaking-induced acceleration is one of the leading terms in the inlet area. The enhancement of the apparent bed roughness caused by waves also affected the values and distribution of the bottom shear stress. The pressure gradient showed significant changes with respect to the pure tidal case. During storm conditions the momentum balance in the inlet shares the characteristics of tidal-dominated and wave-dominated surf zone environments. The changes in the momentum balance caused by waves were manifested both in water level and current variations. The most relevant effect on hydrodynamics was a wave-induced setup in the inner part of the estuary.
Tunable Laser Plasma Accelerator based on Longitudinal Density Tailoring
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shiraishi, Satomi; Sokollik, Thomas; Benedetti, Carlo; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Tilborg, Jeroen van; Osterhoff, Jens; Esarey, Eric; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim
2011-07-15
Laser plasma accelerators have produced high-quality electron beams with GeV energies from cm-scale devices and are being investigated as hyperspectral fs light sources producing THz to {gamma}-ray radiation and as drivers for future high-energy colliders. These applications require a high degree of stability, beam quality and tunability. Here we report on a technique to inject electrons into the accelerating field of a laser-driven plasma wave and coupling of this injector to a lower-density, separately tunable plasma for further acceleration. The technique relies on a single laser pulse powering a plasma structure with a tailored longitudinal density profile, to produce beams that can be tuned in the range of 100-400 MeV with percent-level stability, using laser pulses of less than 40 TW. The resulting device is a simple stand-alone accelerator or the front end for a multistage higher-energy accelerator.
Lasers plasmas and magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albertazzi, Bruno
2014-01-01
We studied the coupling between a laser produced plasmas and a magnetic field in two cases: 1) in the context of Inertial Fusion Confinement (ICF), we first studied how magnetic fields are self generated during the interaction between a target and a laser, then 2) to progress in the understanding of the large-scale shaping of astrophysical jets, we studied the influence of an externally applied magnetic field on the dynamics of a laser-produced plasma expanding into vacuum. The first part of this thesis is thus dedicated to a numerical and experimental study of the self generated magnetic fields that are produced following the irradiation of a solid target by a high power laser (having pulse duration in the nanosecond and picosecond regimes). These fields play an important role in the frame of ICF since they influence the dynamics of the electrons produced during the laser-matter interaction, and thus condition the success of ICF experiments. The second part of this thesis is a numerical and experimental study of the influence of an externally applied magnetic field on the morphology of a laser produced plasma freely otherwise expanding into vacuum. This work aims at better understanding the observed large-scale collimation of astrophysical jets which cannot be understood in the frame of existing models. We notably show that a purely axial magnetic field can force an initially isotropic laboratory flow, scaled to be representative of a flow emerging from a Young Star Object, in a re-collimation shock, from which emerges a narrow, well collimated jet. We also show that the plasma heating induced at the re-collimation point could explain the 'puzzling' observations of stationary X ray emission zones embedded within astrophysical jets. (author) [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hidding, Bernhard
2008-05-15
Accelerating electrons to relativistic energies is of fundamental interest, especially in particle physics. Today's accelerator technology, however, is limited by the maximum electric fields which can be created. This thesis presents results on various mechanisms aiming at exploiting the fields in focussed laser pulses and plasma waves for electron acceleration, which can be orders of magnitude higher than with conventional accelerators. With relativistic, underdense laser-plasma-interaction, quasimonoenergetic electron bunches with energies up to {approx}50 MeV and normalized emittances of the order of 5mmmrad have been generated. This was achieved by focussing the {approx}80 fs, 1 J pulses of the JETI-laser at the FSU Jena to intensities of several 10{sup 19}W=cm{sup 2} into gas jets. The experimental observations could be explained via 'bubble acceleration', which is based on self-injection and acceleration of electrons in a highly nonlinear breaking plasma wave. For the rst time, this bubble acceleration was achieved explicitly in the self-modulated laser wakefield regime (SMLWFA). This quasimonoenergetic SMLWFA-regime stands out by relaxing dramatically the requirements on the driving laser pulse necessary to trigger bubble acceleration. This is due to self-modulation of the laser pulse in high-density gas jets, leading to ultrashort laser pulse fragments capable of initiating bubble acceleration. Electron bunches with durations
Consecutive opposed interactions of light waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volkov, V V; Chirkin, Anatolii S
1999-01-01
The conditions were determined for the occurrence of the opposed interaction of waves having multiple frequencies in two consecutive three-frequency processes in periodically inhomogeneous nonlinear optical crystals. The necessary nonlinear susceptibility modulation period was calculated for an MgO:LiNbO 3 crystal. The characteristic features of the energy exchange between counterpropagating waves with parametric amplification in a low-frequency pump field were investigated. (nonlinear optical phenomena)
WAVE: Interactive Wave-based Sound Propagation for Virtual Environments.
Mehra, Ravish; Rungta, Atul; Golas, Abhinav; Ming Lin; Manocha, Dinesh
2015-04-01
We present an interactive wave-based sound propagation system that generates accurate, realistic sound in virtual environments for dynamic (moving) sources and listeners. We propose a novel algorithm to accurately solve the wave equation for dynamic sources and listeners using a combination of precomputation techniques and GPU-based runtime evaluation. Our system can handle large environments typically used in VR applications, compute spatial sound corresponding to listener's motion (including head tracking) and handle both omnidirectional and directional sources, all at interactive rates. As compared to prior wave-based techniques applied to large scenes with moving sources, we observe significant improvement in runtime memory. The overall sound-propagation and rendering system has been integrated with the Half-Life 2 game engine, Oculus-Rift head-mounted display, and the Xbox game controller to enable users to experience high-quality acoustic effects (e.g., amplification, diffraction low-passing, high-order scattering) and spatial audio, based on their interactions in the VR application. We provide the results of preliminary user evaluations, conducted to study the impact of wave-based acoustic effects and spatial audio on users' navigation performance in virtual environments.
Wave-particle interactions in rotating mirrorsa)
Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2011-05-01
Wave-particle interactions in E ×B rotating plasmas feature an unusual effect: particles are diffused by waves in both potential energy and kinetic energy. This wave-particle interaction generalizes the alpha channeling effect, in which radio frequency waves are used to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. In rotating plasmas, the alpha particles may be removed at low energy through the loss cone, and the energy lost may be transferred to the radial electric field. This eliminates the need for electrodes in the mirror throat, which have presented serious technical issues in past rotating plasma devices. A particularly simple way to achieve this effect is to use a high azimuthal mode number perturbation on the magnetic field. Rotation can also be sustained by waves in plasmas without a kinetic energy source. This type of wave has been considered for plasma centrifuges used for isotope separation. Energy may also be transferred from the electric field to particles or waves, which may be useful for ion heating and energy generation.
Wave-particle Interactions In Rotating Mirrors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch
2011-01-11
Wave-particle interactions in E×B rotating plasmas feature an unusual effect: particles are diffused by waves in both potential energy and kinetic energy. This wave-particle interaction generalizes the alpha channeling effect, in which radio frequency waves are used to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. In rotating plasmas, the alpha particles may be removed at low energy through the loss cone, and the energy lost may be transferred to the radial electric field. This eliminates the need for electrodes in the mirror throat, which have presented serious technical issues in past rotating plasma devices. A particularly simple way to achieve this effect is to use a high azimuthal mode number perturbation on the magnetic field. Rotation can also be sustained by waves in plasmas without a kinetic energy source. This type of wave has been considered for plasma centrifuges used for isotope separation. Energy may also be transferred from the electric field to particles or waves, which may be useful for ion heating and energy generation.
Wave-particle interactions in rotating mirrors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2011-01-01
Wave-particle interactions in ExB rotating plasmas feature an unusual effect: particles are diffused by waves in both potential energy and kinetic energy. This wave-particle interaction generalizes the alpha channeling effect, in which radio frequency waves are used to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. In rotating plasmas, the alpha particles may be removed at low energy through the loss cone, and the energy lost may be transferred to the radial electric field. This eliminates the need for electrodes in the mirror throat, which have presented serious technical issues in past rotating plasma devices. A particularly simple way to achieve this effect is to use a high azimuthal mode number perturbation on the magnetic field. Rotation can also be sustained by waves in plasmas without a kinetic energy source. This type of wave has been considered for plasma centrifuges used for isotope separation. Energy may also be transferred from the electric field to particles or waves, which may be useful for ion heating and energy generation.
Wave-particle Interactions In Rotating Mirrors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2011-01-01
Wave-particle interactions in E-B rotating plasmas feature an unusual effect: particles are diffused by waves in both potential energy and kinetic energy. This wave-particle interaction generalizes the alpha channeling effect, in which radio frequency waves are used to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. In rotating plasmas, the alpha particles may be removed at low energy through the loss cone, and the energy lost may be transferred to the radial electric field. This eliminates the need for electrodes in the mirror throat, which have presented serious technical issues in past rotating plasma devices. A particularly simple way to achieve this effect is to use a high azimuthal mode number perturbation on the magnetic field. Rotation can also be sustained by waves in plasmas without a kinetic energy source. This type of wave has been considered for plasma centrifuges used for isotope separation. Energy may also be transferred from the electric field to particles or waves, which may be useful for ion heating and energy generation.
Interaction dynamics of electrostatic solitary waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. L. Krasovsky
1999-01-01
Full Text Available Interaction of nonlinear electrostatic pulses associated with electron phase density holes moving in a collisionless plasma is studied. An elementary event of the interaction is analyzed on the basis of the energy balance in the system consisting of two electrostatic solitary waves. It is established that an intrinsic property of the system is a specific irreversibility caused by a nonadiabatic modification of the internal structure of the holes and their effective heating in the process of the interaction. This dynamical irreversibility is closely connected with phase mixing of the trapped electrons comprising the holes and oscillating in the varying self-consistent potential wells. As a consequence of the irreversibility, the "collisions" of the solitary waves should be treated as "inelastic" ones. This explains the general tendency to the merging of the phase density holes frequently observed in numerical simulation and to corresponding coupling of the solitary waves.
Workshop on wave-ice interaction
Wadhams, Peter; Squire, Vernon; Rottier, Philip; Liu, Antony; Dugan, John; Czipott, Peter; Shen, Hayley
The subject of wave-ice interaction has been advanced in recent years by small groups of researchers working on a similar range of topics in widely separated geographic locations. Their recent studies inspired a workshop on wave-ice interaction held at the Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, England, December 16-18, 1991, where theories in all aspects of the physics of wave-ice interaction were compared.Conveners of the workshop hoped that plans for future observational and theoretical work dealing with outstanding issues in a collaborative way would emerge. The workshop, organized by the Commission on Sea Ice of the International Association for Physical Sciences of the Ocean (IAPSO), was co-chaired by Vernon Squire, professor of mathematics and statistics at the University of Otago, New Zealand, and Peter Wadhams, director of the Scott Polar Research Institute. Participants attended from Britain, Finland, New Zealand, Norway, and the United States.
Nonlinear instability and chaos in plasma wave-wave interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kueny, C.S.
1993-01-01
Conventional linear stability analysis may fail for fluid systems with an indefinite free energy functional. When such a system is linearly stable, it is said to possess negative energy modes. Instability may then occur either via dissipation of the negative energy modes. Instability may then occur either via dissipation of the negative energy modes. Instability may then occur either via dissipitation of the negative energy modes, or nonlinearly via resonant wave-wave coupling, which leads to explosive growth. In the dissipationaless case, it is conjectured that intrinsic chaotic behavior may allow initially non-resonant systems to reach resonance by diffusion in phase space. This is illustrated for a simple equilibrium involving cold counter-streaming ions. The system is described in the fluid approximation by a Hamilitonian functional and associated noncanonical Poisson bracket. By Fourier decomposition and appropriate coordinate transformations, the Hamilitonian for the perturbed energy is expressed in action-angle form. The normal modes correspond to Doppler-shifted ion-acoustic waves of positive and negative energy. Nonlinear coupling leads to decay instability via two-wave interactions, which occur generically for long enough wavelengths. Three-wave interactions which occur in isolated, but numerous, regions of parameter space can drive either decay instability or explosive instability. When the resonance for explosive growth is detuned, a stable region exists around the equilibrium point in phase space, while explosive growth occurs outside of a separatrix. These interactions may be described exactly if only one resonance is considered, while multiple nonlinear terms make the Hamiltonian nonintegradable. Simple Hamiltonians of two and three degrees of freedom are studied numerically using symplectic integration algorithms, including an explicit algorithm derived using Lie algebraic methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corde, S; Thaury, C; Phuoc, K Ta; Lifschitz, A; Lambert, G; Lundh, O; Brijesh, P; Sebban, S; Rousse, A; Faure, J; Malka, V; Arantchuk, L
2012-01-01
Betatron x-ray emission in laser plasma accelerators is a promising compact source that may be an alternative to conventional x-ray sources, based on large scale machines. In addition to its potential as a source, precise measurements of betatron emission can reveal crucial information about relativistic laser–plasma interaction. We show that the emission length and the position of the x-ray emission can be obtained by placing an aperture mask close to the source, and by measuring the beam profile of the betatron x-ray radiation far from the aperture mask. The position of the x-ray emission gives information on plasma wave breaking and hence on the laser non-linear propagation. Moreover, the measurement of the longitudinal extension helps one to determine whether the acceleration is limited by pump depletion or dephasing effects. In the case of multiple injections, it is used to retrieve unambiguously the position in the plasma of each injection. This technique is also used to study how, in a capillary discharge, the variations of the delay between the discharge and the laser pulse affect the interaction. The study reveals that, for a delay appropriate for laser guiding, the x-ray emission only occurs in the second half of the capillary: no electrons are injected and accelerated in the first half. (paper)
Ignition target and laser-plasma instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laffite, S.; Loiseau, P.
2010-01-01
For the first time indirect drive ignition targets have been designed with the constraint of limiting laser-plasma instabilities. The amplification of these instabilities is directly proportional to the luminous flux density, it means to the sizes of the focal spots too. This study shows that increasing the sizes of the focal spots does not reduce linear amplification gains in a proportional way because the global optimization of the target implies changes in hydrodynamical conditions that in turn have an impact on the value of the amplification gain. The design of the target is a 2-step approach: the first step aims at assuring a uniform irradiation and compression of the target. The first step requires information concerning the laser focusing spots, the dimensions of the hohlraum, the inert gas contained in it, the materials of the wall. The second step is an optimization approach whose aim is to reduce the risk of laser-plasmas instabilities. This optimization is made through simulations of the amplification gains of stimulated Raman and Brillouin backscattering. This method has allowed us to design an optimized target for a rugby-shaped hohlraum. (A.C.)
Experimental investigation of shock wave - bubble interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alizadeh, Mohsen
2010-04-09
In this work, the dynamics of laser-generated single cavitation bubbles exposed to lithotripter shock waves has been investigated experimentally. The energy of the impinging shock wave is varied in several steps. High-speed photography and pressure field measurements simultaneously with image acquisition provide the possibility of capturing the fast bubble dynamics under the effect of the shock wave impact. The pressure measurement is performed using a fiber optic probe hydrophone (FOPH) which operates based on optical diagnostics of the shock wave propagating medium. After a short introduction in chapter 1 an overview of the previous studies in chapter 2 is presented. The reported literatures include theoretical and experimental investigations of several configurations of physical problems in the field of bubble dynamics. In chapter 3 a theoretical description of propagation of a shock wave in a liquid like water has been discussed. Different kinds of reflection of a shock wave at an interface are taken into account. Undisturbed bubble dynamics as well as interaction between a planar shock wave and an initially spherical bubble are explored theoretically. Some physical parameters which are important in this issue such as the velocity of the shock-induced liquid jet, Kelvin impulse and kinetic energy are explained. The shock waves are generated in a water filled container by a focusing piezoelectric generator. The shock wave profile has a positive part with pulse duration of ∼1 μs followed by a longer tension tail (i.e. ∼3 μs). In chapter 4 high-speed images depict the propagation of a shock wave in the water filled tank. The maximum pressure is also derived for different intensity levels of the shock wave generator. The measurement is performed in the free field (i.e. in the absence of laser-generated single bubbles). In chapter 5 the interaction between lithotripter shock waves and laserinduced single cavitation bubbles is investigated experimentally. An
Summary Report of Working Group 6: Laser-Plasma Acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leemans, Wim P.; Downer, Michael; Siders, Craig
2006-01-01
A summary is given of presentations and discussions in the Laser-Plasma Acceleration Working Group at the 2006 Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop. Presentation highlights include: widespread observation of quasi-monoenergetic electrons; good agreement between measured and simulated beam properties; the first demonstration of laser-plasma acceleration up to 1 GeV; single-shot visualization of laser wakefield structure; new methods for measuring <100 fs electron bunches; and new methods for 'machining' laser-plasma accelerator structures. Discussion of future direction includes: developing a roadmap for laser-plasma acceleration beyond 1 GeV; a debate over injection and guiding; benchmarking simulations with improved wake diagnostics; petawatt laser technology for future laser-plasma accelerators
Shock wave interactions with detonable clouds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ripley, R.C.; Josey, T.; Donahue, L.; Whitehouse, D.R.
2004-01-01
This paper presents results from the numerical simulation of compressible multi-species gases in an unstructured mesh CFD code called Chinook. Multiple species gases are significant to a wide range of CFD applications that involve chemical reactions, in particular detonation. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the interaction of shock waves with localized regions of reactive and non-reactive gas species. Test cases are chosen to highlight shock reflection and acceleration through combustion products resulting from the detonation of an explosive charge, and detonation wave propagation through a fuel-air cloud. Computations are performed in a 2D axi-symmetric framework. (author)
Solitary Wave Interactions in Granular Media
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WEN Zhen-Ying; WANG Shun-Jin; ZHANG Xiu-Ming; LI Lei
2007-01-01
We numerically study the interactions of solitary waves in granular media, by considering a chain of beads, which repel upon contact via the Hertz-type potential, V ∝δn, with 5/2 ≤n≤3 and δ≥0,δbeing the bead-bead overlap. There are two collision types of solitary waves, overtaking collision and head-on collision, in the chain of beads. Our quantitative results show that after collision the large solitary wave gains energy and the small one loses energy for overtaking type while the large one loses energy, and the small one gains energy for head-on type. The scattering effects decrease with n for overtaking collision whereas increase with n for head-on collision.
Tsung, Frank; Weaver, J.; Lehmberg, R.
2017-10-01
We are performing particle-in-cell simulations using the code OSIRIS to study the effects of laser plasma interactions in the presence of temporal bandwidth under plasma conditions relevant to experiments on the Nike laser with induced spatial incoherence (ISI). With ISI, the instantaneous laser intensity can be 3-4 times larger than the average intensity, leading to the excitation of additional TPD modes and producing electrons with larger angular spread. In our simulations, we observe that although ISI can increase the interaction regions for short bursts of time, time-averaged (over many pico-seconds) laser plasma interactions can be reduced by a factor of 2 in systems with sufficiently large bandwidths (where the inverse bandwidth is comparable with the linear growth time). We will quantify these effects and investigate higher dimensional effects such as laser speckles and the effects of Coulomb collisions. Work supported by NRL, NNSA, and NSF.
Staging of laser-plasma accelerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steinke, S., E-mail: ssteinke@lbl.gov; Tilborg, J. van; Benedetti, C.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Nakamura, K.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Daniels, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Swanson, K. K.; Shaw, B. H.; Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
2016-05-15
We present results of an experiment where two laser-plasma-accelerator stages are coupled at a short distance by a plasma mirror. Stable electron beams from the first stage were used to longitudinally probe the dark-current-free, quasi-linear wakefield excited by the laser of the second stage. Changing the arrival time of the electron beam with respect to the second stage laser pulse allowed reconstruction of the temporal wakefield structure, determination of the plasma density, and inference of the length of the electron beam. The first stage electron beam could be focused by an active plasma lens to a spot size smaller than the transverse wake size at the entrance of the second stage. This permitted electron beam trapping, verified by a 100 MeV energy gain.
Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, K.; Gonsalves, A.J.; Lin, C.; Sokollik, T.; Smith, A.; Rodgers, D.; Donahue, R.; Bryne, W.; Leemans, W.P.
2010-01-01
The electron energy dependence of a scintillating screen (Lanex Fast) was studied with sub-nanosecond electron beams ranging from 106 MeV to 1522 MeV at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron booster accelerator. The sensitivity of the Lanex Fast decreased by 1percent per 100 MeV increase of the energy. The linear response of the screen against the charge was verified with charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm2 and 0.4 pC/ps/mm2, respectively. For electron beams from the laser plasma accelerator, a comprehensive study of charge diagnostics has been performed using a Lanex screen, an integrating current transformer, and an activation based measurement. The charge measured by each diagnostic was found to be within +/-10 percent.
Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, K.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Lin, C.; Sokollik, T.; Smith, A.; Rodgers, D.; Donahue, R.; Bryne, W.; Leemans, W. P.
2010-01-01
The electron energy dependence of a scintillating screen (Lanex Fast) was studied with sub-nanosecond electron beams ranging from 106 MeV to 1522 MeV at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron booster accelerator. The sensitivity of the Lanex Fast decreased by 1% per 100 MeV increase of the energy. The linear response of the screen against the charge was verified with charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm 2 and 0.4 pC/ps/mm 2 , respectively. For electron beams from the laser plasma accelerator, a comprehensive study of charge diagnostics has been performed using a Lanex screen, an integrating current transformer, and an activation based measurement. The charge measured by each diagnostic was found to be within ±10%.
Magnetization of a warm plasma by the nonstationary ponderomotive force of an electromagnetic wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shukla, Nitin; Shukla, P. K.; Stenflo, L.
2009-01-01
It is shown that magnetic fields can be generated in a warm plasma by the nonstationary ponderomotive force of a large-amplitude electromagnetic wave. In the present Brief Report, we derive simple and explicit results that can be useful for understanding the origin of the magnetic fields that are produced in intense laser-plasma interaction experiments.
Three dimensional imaging technique for laser-plasma diagnostics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Shaoen; Zheng Zhijian; Liu Zhongli
2001-01-01
A CT technique for laser-plasma diagnostic and a three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction program (CT3D) have been developed. The 3D images of the laser-plasma are reconstructed by using a multiplication algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) from five pinhole camera images obtained along different sight directions. The technique has been used to measure the three-dimensional distribution of X-ray of laser-plasma experiments in Xingguang II device, and the good results are obtained. This shows that a CT technique can be applied to ICF experiments
Three dimensional imaging technique for laser-plasma diagnostics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shaoen, Jiang; Zhijian, Zheng; Zhongli, Liu [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Chengdu (China)
2001-04-01
A CT technique for laser-plasma diagnostic and a three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction program (CT3D) have been developed. The 3D images of the laser-plasma are reconstructed by using a multiplication algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) from five pinhole camera images obtained along different sight directions. The technique has been used to measure the three-dimensional distribution of X-ray of laser-plasma experiments in Xingguang II device, and the good results are obtained. This shows that a CT technique can be applied to ICF experiments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antipov, A A; Grasyuk, Arkadii Z; Efimovskii, S V; Kurbasov, Sergei V; Losev, Leonid L; Soskov, V I
1998-01-01
An experimental investigation was made of a laser plasma formed by successive irradiation of a metal target with 30-ps UV and IR laser pulses. The UV prepulse, of 266 nm wavelength, was of relatively low intensity (∼ 10 12 W cm -2 ), whereas the intensity of an IR pulse, of 10.6 μm wavelength, was considerably higher (∼3 x 10 14 W cm -2 ) and it was delayed by 0 - 6 ns (the optimal delay was 2 ns). Such two-frequency UV - IR irradiation produced a laser plasma with an electron temperature 5 times higher than that of a plasma created by singe-frequency IR pulses of the same (∼3 x 10 14 W cm -2 ) intensity. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)
Modeling the astrophysical dynamical process with laser-plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xia Jiangfan; Zhang Jun; Zhang Jie
2001-01-01
The use of the state-of-the-art laser facility makes it possible to create conditions of the same or similar to those in the astrophysical processes. The introduction of the astrophysics-relevant ideas in laser-plasma experiments is propitious to the understanding of the astrophysical phenomena. However, the great difference between the laser-produced plasmas and the astrophysical processes makes it awkward to model the latter by laser-plasma experiments. The author addresses the physical backgrounds for modeling the astrophysical plasmas by laser plasmas, connecting these two kinds of plasmas by scaling laws. Thus, allowing the creation of experimental test beds where observations and models can be quantitatively compared with laser-plasma data. Special attentions are paid on the possibilities of using home-made laser facilities to model astrophysical phenomena
Next Generation Driver for Attosecond and Laser-plasma Physics.
Rivas, D E; Borot, A; Cardenas, D E; Marcus, G; Gu, X; Herrmann, D; Xu, J; Tan, J; Kormin, D; Ma, G; Dallari, W; Tsakiris, G D; Földes, I B; Chou, S-W; Weidman, M; Bergues, B; Wittmann, T; Schröder, H; Tzallas, P; Charalambidis, D; Razskazovskaya, O; Pervak, V; Krausz, F; Veisz, L
2017-07-12
The observation and manipulation of electron dynamics in matter call for attosecond light pulses, routinely available from high-order harmonic generation driven by few-femtosecond lasers. However, the energy limitation of these lasers supports only weak sources and correspondingly linear attosecond studies. Here we report on an optical parametric synthesizer designed for nonlinear attosecond optics and relativistic laser-plasma physics. This synthesizer uniquely combines ultra-relativistic focused intensities of about 10 20 W/cm 2 with a pulse duration of sub-two carrier-wave cycles. The coherent combination of two sequentially amplified and complementary spectral ranges yields sub-5-fs pulses with multi-TW peak power. The application of this source allows the generation of a broad spectral continuum at 100-eV photon energy in gases as well as high-order harmonics in relativistic plasmas. Unprecedented spatio-temporal confinement of light now permits the investigation of electric-field-driven electron phenomena in the relativistic regime and ultimately the rise of next-generation intense isolated attosecond sources.
Overview and future prospects of laser plasma propulsion technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Zhiyuan; Lu Xin; Zhang Jie
2003-01-01
Due to its high cost, low efficiency, complex operation and unsatisfactory recycling, traditional rocket propulsion by chemical fuels has hindered the exploration of outer space to further limits. With the rapid development of laser and space technology, the new technology of laser propulsion exhibits unique advantages and prospects. The mechanism and current development of laser plasma propulsion are reviewed, with mention of the technical problems and focus issues of laser plasma in micro-flight propulsion
Preparation and study of laser plasma diamond
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Collins, C.B.; Davanloo, F.; Juengerman, E.M.; Jander, D.R.; Lee, T.J. (Center for Quantum Electronics, Univ. of Texas, Dallas (USA))
1991-08-01
Films of diamond-like material can be deposited with a laser plasma source of carbon ions in an ultrahigh vacuum environment without involving hydrogen in the growth mechanism. These films are distinguished by transparency at visible wavelengths which is a result of a high percentage of sp{sup 3} bonds. They resemble materials first quenched from ion beams at very slow deposition rates. In our method an Nd:YAG laser was focused on a graphite feedstock in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber at intensities in excess of 5x10{sup 11} W cm{sup -2}. A high current discharge confined to the path of the laser-ignited plasma provided further heat and aided processing of the ion flux. At a laser repetition rate of 10 Hz, a deposition rate of 0.5 {mu}m h{sup -1} over a 100 cm{sup 2} area was attainable with no measurable substrate heating. The substrates required no special preparation or seeding and materials including silicon, fused silica, glass, gold, copper, germanium, InP, ZnS, and polycarbonate and polyimide plastics were readily coated. Complex shapes could be accommodated and spheres of 440C stainless steel were covered successfully. Over 1000 samples were prepared to a variety of specifications with thicknesses reaching 5 {mu}m and hardness exceeding 37 GPa. (orig.).
Optical characteristics of a gallium laser plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shuaibov, A.K.; Shimon, L.L.; Dashchenko, A.I.; Shevera, I.V.; Chuchman, M.P.
2001-01-01
Results are presented from studies of the emission from an erosion gallium laser plasma at a moderate intensity (W = (1-5) x 10 8 W/cm 2 ) of a 1.06-μm laser radiation. It is shown that, under these conditions, the lower excited states of gallium atoms are populated most efficiently. Among the ions, only the most intense GaII lines are observed in the emission spectrum. The populations of GaI and GaII excited states are not related to direct electron excitation, but are determined by the recombination of gallium ions with slow electrons. The recombination times of GaIII and GaII ions in the core of the plasma jet are determined from the waveforms of emission in the GaII and GaI spectral lines and are equal to 10 and 140 ns, respectively. The results obtained are of interest for spectroscopic diagnostics of an erosion plasma produced from gallium-containing layered crystals during the laser deposition of thin films
From laser-plasma accelerators to femtosecond X-ray sources: study, development and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corde, S.
2012-01-01
During the relativistic interaction between a short and intense laser pulse and an underdense plasma, electrons can be injected and accelerated up to hundreds of MeV in an accelerating structure formed in the wake of the pulse: this is the so-called laser-plasma accelerator. One of the major perspectives for laser-plasma accelerators resides in the realization of compact sources of femtosecond x-ray beams. In this thesis, two x-ray sources was studied and developed. The betatron radiation, intrinsic to laser-plasma accelerators, comes from the transverse oscillations of electrons during their acceleration. Its characterization by photon counting revealed an x-ray beam containing 10"9 photons, with energies extending above 10 keV. We also developed an all-optical Compton source producing photons with energies up to hundreds of keV, based on the collision between a photon beam and an electron beam. The potential of these x-ray sources was highlighted by the realization of single shot phase contrast imaging of a biological sample. Then, we showed that the betatron x-ray radiation can be a powerful tool to study the physics of laser-plasma acceleration. We demonstrated the possibility to map the x-ray emission region, which gives a unique insight into the interaction, permitting us for example to locate the region where electrons are injected. The x-ray angular and spectral properties allow us to gain information on the transverse dynamics of electrons during their acceleration. (author)
Seismic wave interaction with underground cavities
Schneider, Felix M.; Esterhazy, Sofi; Perugia, Ilaria; Bokelmann, Götz
2016-04-01
Realization of the future Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) will require ensuring its compliance, making the CTBT a prime example of forensic seismology. Following indications of a nuclear explosion obtained on the basis of the (IMS) monitoring network further evidence needs to be sought at the location of the suspicious event. For such an On-Site Inspection (OSI) at a possible nuclear test site the treaty lists several techniques that can be carried out by the inspection team, including aftershock monitoring and the conduction of active seismic surveys. While those techniques are already well established, a third group of methods labeled as "resonance seismometry" is less well defined and needs further elaboration. A prime structural target that is expected to be present as a remnant of an underground nuclear explosion is a cavity at the location and depth the bomb was fired. Originally "resonance seismometry" referred to resonant seismic emission of the cavity within the medium that could be stimulated by an incident seismic wave of the right frequency and observed as peaks in the spectrum of seismic stations in the vicinity of the cavity. However, it is not yet clear which are the conditions for which resonant emissions of the cavity could be observed. In order to define distance-, frequency- and amplitude ranges at which resonant emissions could be observed we study the interaction of seismic waves with underground cavities. As a generic model for possible resonances we use a spherical acoustic cavity in an elastic full-space. To solve the forward problem for the full elastic wave field around acoustic spherical inclusions, we implemented an analytical solution (Korneev, 1993). This yields the possibility of generating scattering cross-sections, amplitude spectrums and synthetic seismograms for plane incident waves. Here, we focus on the questions whether or not we can expect resonant responses in the wave field scattered from the cavity. We show
Waves in plasmas (part 1 - wave-plasma interaction general background)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dumont, R.
2004-01-01
This document gathers a series of transparencies presented in the framework of the week-long lectures 'hot plasmas 2004' and dedicated to the physics of wave-plasma interaction. The structure of this document is as follows: 1) wave and diverse plasmas, 2) basic equations (Maxwell equations), 3) waves in a fluid plasma, and 4) waves in a kinetic plasma (collisionless plasma)
Blast wave interaction with a rigid surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Josey, T.; Whitehouse, D.R.; Ripley, R.C.; Dionne, J.P.
2004-01-01
A simple model used to investigate blast wave interactions with a rigid surface is presented. The model uses a constant volume energy source analogue to predict pressure histories at gauges located directly above the charge. A series of two-dimensional axi-symmetric CFD calculations were performed, varying the height of the charge relative to the ground. Pressure histories, along with isopycnic plots are presented to evaluate the effects of placing a charge in close proximity to a rigid surface. When a charge is placed near a solid surface the pressure histories experienced at gauges above the charge indicate the presence of two distinct pressure peaks. The first peak is caused by the primary shock and the second peak is a result of the wave reflections from the rigid surface. As the distance from the charge to the wall is increased the magnitude of the second pressure peak is reduced, provided that the distance between the charge and the gauge is maintained constant. The simple model presented is able to capture significant, predictable flow features. (author)
Nonlinear interaction of waves in an inhomogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Istomin, Ya.N.
1988-01-01
Nonlinear wave processes in a weakly inhomogeneous plasma are considered. A quasilinear equation is derived which takes into account the effect of the waves on resonance particles, provided that the inhomogeneity appreciably affects the nature of the resonance interaction. Three-wave interaction is investigated under the same conditions. As an example, the nonlinear interaction in a relativistic plasma moving along a strong curvilinear magnetic field is considered
Nonlinear dynamics of resonant electrons interacting with coherent Langmuir waves
Tobita, Miwa; Omura, Yoshiharu
2018-03-01
We study the nonlinear dynamics of resonant particles interacting with coherent waves in space plasmas. Magnetospheric plasma waves such as whistler-mode chorus, electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, and hiss emissions contain coherent wave structures with various discrete frequencies. Although these waves are electromagnetic, their interaction with resonant particles can be approximated by equations of motion for a charged particle in a one-dimensional electrostatic wave. The equations are expressed in the form of nonlinear pendulum equations. We perform test particle simulations of electrons in an electrostatic model with Langmuir waves and a non-oscillatory electric field. We solve equations of motion and study the dynamics of particles with different values of inhomogeneity factor S defined as a ratio of the non-oscillatory electric field intensity to the wave amplitude. The simulation results demonstrate deceleration/acceleration, thermalization, and trapping of particles through resonance with a single wave, two waves, and multiple waves. For two-wave and multiple-wave cases, we describe the wave-particle interaction as either coherent or incoherent based on the probability of nonlinear trapping.
Wave-particle interaction in the Faraday waves.
Francois, N; Xia, H; Punzmann, H; Shats, M
2015-10-01
Wave motion in disordered Faraday waves is analysed in terms of oscillons or quasi-particles. The motion of these oscillons is measured using particle tracking tools and it is compared with the motion of fluid particles on the water surface. Both the real floating particles and the oscillons, representing the collective fluid motion, show Brownian-type dispersion exhibiting ballistic and diffusive mean squared displacement at short and long times, respectively. While the floating particles motion has been previously explained in the context of two-dimensional turbulence driven by Faraday waves, no theoretical description exists for the random walk type motion of oscillons. It is found that the r.m.s velocity ⟨μ̃(osc)⟩(rms) of oscillons is directly related to the turbulent r.m.s. velocity ⟨μ̃⟩(rms) of the fluid particles in a broad range of vertical accelerations. The measured ⟨μ̃(osc)⟩(rms) accurately explains the broadening of the frequency spectra of the surface elevation observed in disordered Faraday waves. These results suggest that 2D turbulence is the driving force behind both the randomization of the oscillons motion and the resulting broadening of the wave frequency spectra. The coupling between wave motion and hydrodynamic turbulence demonstrated here offers new perspectives for predicting complex fluid transport from the knowledge of wave field spectra and vice versa.
Nonlinear interaction of the surface waves at a plasma boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolgopolov, V.V.; El-Naggar, I.A.; Hussein, A.M.; Khalil, Sh.M.
1976-01-01
Amplitudes of electromagnetic waves with combination frequencies, radiating from the plasma boundary due to nonlinear interaction of the surface waves, have been found. Previous papers on this subject did not take into account that the tangential components of the electric field of waves with combination frequencies were discontinuous at the plasma boundary. (Auth.)
Interaction of externally-driven acoustic waves with compressible convection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, P.; Merryfield, W.
1992-01-01
Two-dimensional numerical simulations are used to examine the interaction of acoustic waves with a compressible convecting fluid. Acoustic waves are forced at the lower boundary of the computational domain and propagate through a three-layer system undergoing vigorous penetrative convection. Energy exchange between the wave and the fluid is analyzed using a work integral formulation
Soft X-Ray amplification in laser plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Louis-Jacquet, M.
1988-01-01
The principles, experiments and theoretical models of soft x-ray, amplification, produced in laser plasmas, are studied. In the discussion of the principles, the laser plasma medium, the definition of the gain, the population inversions, saturation and superradiance are described. The results concerning recombination and collisional excitation experiments, as well as experimental devices are shown. A complete physical simulation to design and interpret x-ray laser experiments is given. Applications of x-ray lasers in grating production techniques, in contact microscopy and holography are considered
Some remarks on coherent nonlinear coupling of waves in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilhelmsson, H.
1976-01-01
The analysis of nonlinear processes in plasma physics has given rise to a basic set of coupled equations. These equations describe the coherent nonlinear evolution of plasma waves. In this paper various possibilities of analysing these equations are discussed and inherent difficulties in the description of nonlinear interactions between different types of waves are pointed out. Specific examples of stimulated excitation of waves are considered. These are the parametric excitation of hybrid resonances in hot magnetized multi-ion component plasma and laser-plasma interactions. (B.D.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guenther, Marc M.
2011-01-19
The present work explores with the development of a novel nuclear diagnostic method for the investigation of the electron dynamics in relativistic laser-plasma interactions. An additional aim of this work was the determination of the real laser peak intensity via the interaction of an intense laser short-pulse with a solid target. The nuclear diagnostics is based on a photo-neutron disintegration nuclear activation method. The main constituent of the nuclear diagnostic are novel pseudoalloic activation targets as a kind of calorimeter to measure the high-energy bremsstrahlung produced by relativistic electrons. The targets are composed of several stable isotopes with different ({gamma},xn)-reaction thresholds. The activated nuclides were identified via the characteristic gamma-ray decay spectrum by using high-resolution gamma spectroscopy after the laser irradiation. Via the gamma spectroscopy the ({gamma},xn)-reaction yields were determined. The high-energy bremsstrahlung spectrum has been deconvolved using a novel analysis method based on a modified Penfold-Leiss method. This facilitates the reconstruction of the spectrum of bremsstrahlung photons without any anticipated fit procedures. Furthermore, the characterization of the corresponding bremsstrahlung electrons in the interaction zone is accessible immediately. The consolidated findings about the properties of the relativistic electrons were used to determine the real peak intensity at the laser-plasma interaction zone. In the context of this work, experiments were performed at three different laser facilities. First Experiments were carried out at the 100 TW laser facility at Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intense (LULI) in France and supplementary at the Vulcan laser facility at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in United Kingdom. The main part of the activation experiments were performed at the PHELIX laser facility (Petawatt High Energy Laser for heavy Ion EXperiments) at GSI
On the interaction of small-scale linear waves with nonlinear solitary waves
Xu, Chengzhu; Stastna, Marek
2017-04-01
In the study of environmental and geophysical fluid flows, linear wave theory is well developed and its application has been considered for phenomena of various length and time scales. However, due to the nonlinear nature of fluid flows, in many cases results predicted by linear theory do not agree with observations. One of such cases is internal wave dynamics. While small-amplitude wave motion may be approximated by linear theory, large amplitude waves tend to be solitary-like. In some cases, when the wave is highly nonlinear, even weakly nonlinear theories fail to predict the wave properties correctly. We study the interaction of small-scale linear waves with nonlinear solitary waves using highly accurate pseudo spectral simulations that begin with a fully nonlinear solitary wave and a train of small-amplitude waves initialized from linear waves. The solitary wave then interacts with the linear waves through either an overtaking collision or a head-on collision. During the collision, there is a net energy transfer from the linear wave train to the solitary wave, resulting in an increase in the kinetic energy carried by the solitary wave and a phase shift of the solitary wave with respect to a freely propagating solitary wave. At the same time the linear waves are greatly reduced in amplitude. The percentage of energy transferred depends primarily on the wavelength of the linear waves. We found that after one full collision cycle, the longest waves may retain as much as 90% of the kinetic energy they had initially, while the shortest waves lose almost all of their initial energy. We also found that a head-on collision is more efficient in destroying the linear waves than an overtaking collision. On the other hand, the initial amplitude of the linear waves has very little impact on the percentage of energy that can be transferred to the solitary wave. Because of the nonlinearity of the solitary wave, these results provide us some insight into wave-mean flow
Ulysses Observations of Nonlinear Wave-wave Interactions in the ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
tribpo
The Ulysses Unified Radio and Plasma Wave Experiment. (URAP) has observed Langmuir, ... gesting that strong turbulence processes, such as modulational instability and soliton formation, often coexist ... Solar and interplanetary type III radio bursts, which occur at the fundamental and the second harmonic of the electron ...
Summary Report of Working Group: Laser-Plasma Acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Esarey, Eric; Schroeder, Carl B.; Tochitsky, Sergei; Milchberg, Howard M.
2004-01-01
A summary is given on the work presented and discussed in the Laser-Plasma Acceleration Working Group at the 2004 Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop, including the Plasma Acceleration Subgroup (Group-Leader: Eric Esarey; Co-Group-Leader: Sergei Tochitsky) and the Plasma Guiding Subgroup (Group-Leader: Howard Milchberg; Co-Group-Leader: Carl Schroeder)
DEVICE FOR INVESTIGATION OF MAGNETRON AND PULSED-LASER PLASMA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. P. Burmakov
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Various modifications of complex pulsed laser and magnetron deposition thin-film structures unit are presented. They include joint and separate variants of layer deposition. Unit realizes the plasma parameters control and enhances the possibility of laser-plasma and magnetron methods of coatings deposition.
China-US-Japan workshop on laser plasma and drivers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1994-01-01
Organized by China Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics (IMPCM) and other 5 organizations, China-US-Japan Workshop on Laser Plasma and Drivers, LPD'94, was held on October 17-21, 1994 at Fragrant Hill Hotel, Beijing, China. Main topics includes: target and plasma physics, ICF Experiments, ICF drivers, etc.. More than 50 pieces of papers are included in the proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Naggar, I.A.; Hussein, A.M.; Khalil, Sh.M.
1992-09-01
Electromagnetic waves radiated with combination frequencies from a semi-bounded plasma due to nonlinear interaction of radiation with surface wave (both of P-polarization) has been investigated. Waves are radiated both into vacuum and plasma are found to be P-polarized. We take into consideration the continuity at the plasma boundary of the tangential components of the electric field of the waves. The case of normal incidence of radiation and rarefield plasma layer is also studied. (author). 7 refs
Magnetic Cavitation and the Reemergence of Nonlocal Transport in Laser Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ridgers, C. P.; Kingham, R. J.; Thomas, A. G. R.
2008-01-01
We present the first fully kinetic Vlasov-Fokker-Planck simulations of nanosecond laser-plasma interactions including self-consistent magnetic fields and hydrodynamic plasma expansion. For the largest magnetic fields externally applied to long-pulse laser-gas-jet experiments (12 T) a significant degree of cavitation of the B field (>40%) will be shown to occur from the laser-heated region in under half a nanosecond. This is due to the Nernst effect and leads to the reemergence of nonlocality even if the initial value of the magnetic field strength is sufficient to localize the transport
An imaging proton spectrometer for short-pulse laser plasma experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Hui; Hazi, A. U.; Maren, R. van; Chen, S. N.; Le Pape, S.; Rygg, J. R.; Shepherd, R.; Fuchs, J.; Gauthier, M.
2010-01-01
The ultraintense short pulse laser pulses incident on solid targets can generate energetic protons. In addition to their potentially important applications such as in cancer treatments and proton fast ignition, these protons are essential to understand the complex physics of intense laser plasma interaction. To better characterize these laser-produced protons, we designed and constructed a novel spectrometer that will not only measure proton energy distribution with high resolution but also provide its angular characteristics. The information obtained from this spectrometer compliments those from commonly used diagnostics including radiochromic film packs, CR39 nuclear track detectors, and nonimaging magnetic spectrometers. The basic characterizations and sample data from this instrument are presented.
An imaging proton spectrometer for short-pulse laser plasma experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen Hui; Hazi, A. U.; Maren, R. van; Chen, S. N.; Le Pape, S.; Rygg, J. R.; Shepherd, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livemore, California 94551 (United States); Fuchs, J.; Gauthier, M. [LULI Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)
2010-10-15
The ultraintense short pulse laser pulses incident on solid targets can generate energetic protons. In addition to their potentially important applications such as in cancer treatments and proton fast ignition, these protons are essential to understand the complex physics of intense laser plasma interaction. To better characterize these laser-produced protons, we designed and constructed a novel spectrometer that will not only measure proton energy distribution with high resolution but also provide its angular characteristics. The information obtained from this spectrometer compliments those from commonly used diagnostics including radiochromic film packs, CR39 nuclear track detectors, and nonimaging magnetic spectrometers. The basic characterizations and sample data from this instrument are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipton, Robert; Polizzi, Anthony
2014-01-01
We employ metamaterial beam-wave interaction structures for tuning the gain and bandwidth of short traveling wave tubes. The interaction structures are made from metal rings of uniform cross section, which are periodically deployed along the length of the traveling wave tube. The aspect ratio of the ring cross sections is adjusted to control both gain and bandwidth. The frequency of operation is controlled by the filling fraction of the ring cross section with respect to the size of the period cell.
Novel wave/ion beam interaction approach to isotope separation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Post, R.F.; Lowder, R.S.; Schwager, L.A.; Barr, W.L.; Warner, B.E.
1993-02-01
Numerical simulations and experimental studies have been made related to the possibility of employing an externally imposed electrostatic potential wave to separate isotopes. This wave/ion interaction is a sensitive function of the wave/ion difference velocity and for the appropriate wave amplitude and wave speed, a lighter faster isotope will be reflected by the wave to a higher energy while leaving heavier, slower isotopes virtually undisturbed in energy -- allowing subsequent ion separation by simple energy discrimination. In these experiments, a set of some 200 individual, electrodes, which surrounded a microamp beam of neon ions, was used to generate the wave. Measurements of the wave amplitudes needed for ion reflection and measurements of the final energies of those reflected ions are consistent with values expected from simple kinetic arguments and with the more detailed results of numeric simulations
Theory and simulation of laser plasma coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kruer, W.L.
1979-01-01
The theory and simulation of these coupling processes are considered. Particular emphasis is given to their nonlinear evolution. First a brief introduction to computer simulation of plasmas using particle codes is given. Then the absorption of light via the generation of plasma waves is considered, followed by a discussion of stimulated scattering of intense light. Finally these calculations are compared with experimental results
Coulomb Final State Interactions for Gaussian Wave Packets
Wiedemann, Urs Achim; Heinz, Ulrich W
1999-01-01
Two-particle like-sign and unlike-sign correlations including Coulomb final state interactions are calculated for Gaussian wave packets emitted from a Gaussian source. We show that the width of the wave packets can be fully absorbed into the spatial and momentum space widths of an effective emission function for plane wave states, and that Coulomb final state interaction effects are sensitive only to the latter, but not to the wave packet width itself. Results from analytical and numerical calculations are compared with recently published work by other authors.
First observations of acceleration of injected electrons in a laser plasma beatwave experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebrahim, N.A.; Martin, F.; Bordeur, P.; Heighway, E.A.; Matte, J.P.; Pepin, H.; Lavigne, P.
1986-01-01
The first experimental observations of acceleration of injected electrons in a laser driven plasma beatwave are presented. The plasma waves were excited in an ionized gas jet, using a short pulse high intensity CO 2 laser with two collinearly propagating beams (at λ = 9.6 μm and 10.6 μm) to excite a fast wave (v/sub p/ = c). The source of electrons was a laser plasma produced on an aluminum slab target by a third, synchronized CO 2 laser beam. A double-focusing dipole magnet was used to energy select and inject electrons into the beatwave, and a second magnetic spectrograph was used to analyze the accelerated electrons. Electron acceleration was only observed when the appropriate resonant plasma density was produced (∼ 10 17 cm -3 ), the two laser lines were incident on the plasma, and electrons were injected into this plasma from an external source
Mayr, Hans G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Huang, F. T.
2010-01-01
As Lindzen (1981) had shown, small-scale gravity waves (GW) produce the observed reversals of the zonal-mean circulation and temperature variations in the upper mesosphere. The waves also play a major role in modulating and amplifying the diurnal tides (DT) (e.g., Waltersheid, 1981; Fritts and Vincent, 1987; Fritts, 1995a). We summarize here the modeling studies with the mechanistic numerical spectral model (NSM) with Doppler spread parameterization for GW (Hines, 1997a, b), which describes in the middle atmosphere: (a) migrating and non-migrating DT, (b) planetary waves (PW), and (c) global-scale inertio gravity waves. Numerical experiments are discussed that illuminate the influence of GW filtering and nonlinear interactions between DT, PW, and zonal mean variations. Keywords: Theoretical modeling, Middle atmosphere dynamics, Gravity wave interactions, Migrating and non-migrating tides, Planetary waves, Global-scale inertio gravity waves.
High-Power, High-Intensity Laser Propagation and Interactions
2014-03-10
intensity as the weighting function. The full refractive index associated with the laser plasma interaction having a parabolic density variation ...radiation in turn enhances the electron density wave further amplifying the radiation. Considering spatial variations in the z direction only the FEL...effL/ at the entrance to the wiggler where effL is the effective interaction length. This requirement can be expressed by the following inequality
Calculation of deuteron wave functions with relativistic interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buck, W.W. III.
1976-01-01
Deuteron wave functions with a repulsive core are obtained numerically from a fully relativistic wave equation introduced by Gross. The numerical technique enables analytic solutions for classes of interactions composed of the relativistic exchanges of a single pion and a single phenomenological meson, sigma. The pion is chosen to interact as a mixture of pseudoscalar and pseudovector. The amount of mixture is determined by a free mixing parameter, lambda, ranging between 1 (pure pseudoscalar) and (pure pseudovector). Each value of lambda corresponds, then, to a different interaction. Solutions are found for lambda = 1, .9, .8, .6, and 0. The wave functions for each interaction come in a group of four. Of the four wave functions, two are the usual S and D state wave functions, while the remaining two, arising out of the relativistic prescription, are identified as 3 P 1 and 1 P 1 wave functions (P state wave functions). For the interactions solved for, the D state probabilities ranged between 5.1 percent and 6.3 percent, while the total P state probabilities ranged between 0.7 percent and 2.7 percent. The method of obtaining solutions was to adjust the sigma meson parameters to give the correct binding energy and a good quadrupole moment. All wave functions obtained are applied to relativistic N-d scattering in the backward direction where the effect of the P states is quite measurable
Wave-particle Interactions in Space and Laboratory Plasmas
An, Xin
This dissertation presents a study of wave-particle interactions in space and in the laboratory. To be concrete, the excitation of whistler-mode chorus waves in space and in the laboratory is studied in the first part. The relaxation of whistler anisotropy instability relevant to whistler-mode chorus waves in space is examined. Using a linear growth rate analysis and kinetic particle-in-cell simulations, the electron distributions are demonstrated to be well-constrained by the whistler anisotropy instability to a marginal-stability state, consistent with measurements by Van Allen Probes. The electron parallel beta beta ∥e separates the excited whistler waves into two groups: (i) quasi-parallel whistler waves for beta∥e > 0.02 and (ii) oblique whistler waves close to the resonance cone for beta∥e cell simulations. Motivated by the puzzles of chorus waves in space and by their recognized importance, the excitation of whistler-mode chorus waves is studied in the Large Plasma Device by the injection of a helical electron beam into a cold plasma. Incoherent broadband whistler waves similar to magnetospheric hiss are observed in the laboratory plasma. Their mode structures are identified by the phase-correlation technique. It is demonstrated that the waves are excited through a combination of Landau resonance, cyclotron resonance and anomalous cyclotron resonance. To account for the finite size effect of the electron beam, linear unstable eigenmodes of whistler waves are calculated by matching the eigenmode solution at the boundary. It is shown that the perpendicular wave number inside the beam is quantized due to the constraint imposed by the boundary condition. Darwin particle-in-cell simulations are carried out to study the simultaneous excitation of Langmuir and whistler waves in a beam-plasma system. The electron beam is first slowed down and relaxed by the rapidly growing Langmuir wave parallel to the background magnetic field. The tail of the core electrons
Catastrophes in the interaction of light waves in anisotropic resonator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mkrtchyan, A.R.; Nersisyan, S.R.; Tabiryan, N.V.
1993-01-01
An origin of jump-like and hysteresical phenomena is predicted theoretically. Those are caused by the ruling of the state of non-linear anisotropic resonator with an orthogonal polarization of light waves. The resonator creates a turned connection as well as causes a complex tying between the waves. The later conditions a whole number of the interacting waves regimes because of a big number of ruling parameters. 5 refs
Computational and theoretical study of the wave-particle interaction of protons and waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. S. Moya
2012-09-01
Full Text Available We study the wave-particle interaction and the evolution of electromagnetic waves propagating through a plasma composed of electrons and protons, using two approaches. First, a quasilinear kinetic theory has been developed to study the energy transfer between waves and particles, with the subsequent acceleration and heating of protons. Second, a one-dimensional hybrid numerical simulation has been performed, with and without including an expanding-box model that emulates the spherical expansion of the solar wind, to investigate the fully nonlinear evolution of this wave-particle interaction. Numerical results of both approaches show that there is an anisotropic evolution of proton temperature.
Interaction of gravitational waves with superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Inan, N.A.; Thompson, J.J. [University of California, Schools of Natural Sciences, Merced, CA (United States); Chiao, R.Y. [University of California, Schools of Natural Sciences and Engineering, Merced, CA (United States)
2017-06-15
Applying the Helmholtz Decomposition theorem to linearized General Relativity leads to a gauge-invariant formulation where the transverse-traceless part of the metric perturbation describes gravitational waves in matter. Gravitational waves incident on a superconductor can be described by a linear London-like constituent equation characterized by a ''gravitational shear modulus'' and a corresponding plasma frequency and penetration depth. Electric-like and magnetic-like gravitational tensor fields are defined in terms of the strain field of a gravitational wave. It is shown that in the DC limit, the magnetic-like tensor field is expelled from the superconductor in a gravitational Meissner-like effect. The Cooper pair density is described by the Ginzburg-Landau theory embedded in curved space-time. The ionic lattice is modeled by quantum harmonic oscillators coupled to gravitational waves and characterized by quasi-energy eigenvalues for the phonon modes. The formulation predicts the possibility of a dynamical Casimir effect since the zero-point energy of the ionic lattice phonons is found to be modulated by the gravitational wave, in a quantum analog of a ''Weber-bar effect.'' Applying periodic thermodynamics and the Debye model in the low-temperature limit leads to a free energy density for the ionic lattice. Lastly, we relate the gravitational strain of space to the strain of matter to show that the response to a gravitational wave is far less for the Cooper pair density than for the ionic lattice. This predicts a charge separation effect in the superconductor as a result of the gravitational wave. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Turbulent spectra from three drift-wave interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terry, P.W.; Horton, W.
1982-02-01
Hydrodynamic equations for the drift-wave instability containing the rvec E x rvec B convective nonlinearity are used to show that the three wave interactions lead to temporal chaos with broad-band frequency spectra in the saturated state. 7 refs., 2 figs
Transonic shock wave. Boundary layer interaction at a convex wall
Koren, B.; Bannink, W.J.
1984-01-01
A standard finite element procedure has been applied to the problem of transonic shock wave – boundary layer interaction at a convex wall. The method is based on the analytical Bohning-Zierep model, where the boundary layer is perturbed by a weak normal shock wave which shows a singular pressure
Wave-particle interaction and Hamiltonian dynamics investigated in a traveling wave tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doveil, Fabrice; Macor, Alessandro
2006-01-01
For wave-particle interaction studies, the one-dimensional (1-D) beam-plasma system can be advantageously replaced by a Traveling Wave Tube (TWT). This led us to a detailed experimental analysis of the self-consistent interaction between unstable waves and a small either cold or warm beam. More recently, a test electron beam has been used to observe its non-self-consistent interaction with externally excited wave(s). The velocity distribution function of the electron beam is investigated with a trochoidal energy analyzer that records the beam energy distribution at the output of the TWT. An arbitrary waveform generator is used to launch a prescribed spectrum of waves along the slow wave structure (a 4 m long helix) of the TWT. The nonlinear synchronization of particles by a single wave responsible for Landau damping is observed. The resonant velocity domain associated to a single wave is also observed, as well as the transition to large-scale chaos when the resonant domains of two waves and their secondary resonances overlap leading to a typical 'devil's staircase' behavior. A new strategy for the control of chaos is tested
Experimental investigation of gravity wave turbulence and of non-linear four wave interactions..
Berhanu, Michael
2017-04-01
Using the large basins of the Ecole Centrale de Nantes (France), non-linear interactions of gravity surface waves are experimentally investigated. In a first part we study statistical properties of a random wave field regarding the insights from the Wave Turbulence Theory. In particular freely decaying gravity wave turbulence is generated in a closed basin. No self-similar decay of the spectrum is observed, whereas its Fourier modes decay first as a time power law due to nonl-inear mechanisms, and then exponentially due to linear viscous damping. We estimate the linear, non-linear and dissipative time scales to test the time scale separation. By estimation of the mean energy flux from the initial decay of wave energy, the Kolmogorov-Zakharov constant of the weak turbulence theory is evaluated. In a second part, resonant interactions of oblique surface gravity waves in a large basin are studied. We generate two oblique waves crossing at an acute angle. These mother waves mutually interact and give birth to a resonant wave whose properties (growth rate, resonant response curve and phase locking) are fully characterized. All our experimental results are found in good quantitative agreement with four-wave interaction theory. L. Deike, B. Miquel, P. Gutiérrez, T. Jamin, B. Semin, M. Berhanu, E. Falcon and F. Bonnefoy, Role of the basin boundary conditions in gravity wave turbulence, Journal of Fluid Mechanics 781, 196 (2015) F. Bonnefoy, F. Haudin, G. Michel, B. Semin, T. Humbert, S. Aumaître, M. Berhanu and E. Falcon, Observation of resonant interactions among surface gravity waves, Journal of Fluid Mechanics (Rapids) 805, R3 (2016)
Interactions of solitary waves and compression/expansion waves in core-annular flows
Maiden, Michelle; Anderson, Dalton; El, Gennady; Franco, Nevil; Hoefer, Mark
2017-11-01
The nonlinear hydrodynamics of an initial step leads to the formation of rarefaction waves and dispersive shock waves in dispersive media. Another hallmark of these media is the soliton, a localized traveling wave whose speed is amplitude dependent. Although compression/expansion waves and solitons have been well-studied individually, there has been no mathematical description of their interaction. In this talk, the interaction of solitons and shock/rarefaction waves for interfacial waves in viscous, miscible core-annular flows are modeled mathematically and explored experimentally. If the interior fluid is continuously injected, a deformable conduit forms whose interfacial dynamics are well-described by a scalar, dispersive nonlinear partial differential equation. The main focus is on interactions of solitons with dispersive shock waves and rarefaction waves. Theory predicts that a soliton can either be transmitted through or trapped by the extended hydrodynamic state. The notion of reciprocity is introduced whereby a soliton interacts with a shock wave in a reciprocal or dual fashion as with the rarefaction. Soliton reciprocity, trapping, and transmission are observed experimentally and are found to agree with the modulation theory and numerical simulations. This work was partially supported by NSF CAREER DMS-1255422 (M.A.H.) and NSF GRFP (M.D.M.).
Interaction of EM Waves with Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Laroussi, Mounir
2000-01-01
.... The focus of the main activities is the generation of large volume, non-thermal, atmospheric pressure plasmas, their diagnostics, and their interactions with EM waves and with the cells of microorganism...
On the interaction between ocean surface waves and seamounts
Sosa, Jeison; Cavaleri, Luigi; Portilla-Yandún, Jesús
2017-12-01
Of the many topographic features, more specifically seamounts, that are ubiquitous in the ocean floor, we focus our attention on those with relatively shallow summits that can interact with wind-generated surface waves. Among these, especially relatively long waves crossing the oceans (swells) and stormy seas are able to affect the water column up to a considerable depth and therefore interact with these deep-sea features. We quantify this interaction through numerical experiments using a numerical wave model (SWAN), in which a simply shaped seamount is exposed to waves of different length. The results show a strong interaction that leads to significant changes in the wave field, creating wake zones and regions of large wave amplification. This is then exemplified in a practical case where we analyze the interaction of more realistic sea conditions with a very shallow rock in the Yellow Sea. Potentially important for navigation and erosion processes, mutatis mutandis, these results are also indicative of possible interactions with emerged islands and sand banks in shelf seas.
Nonlinear wave particle interaction in the Earth's foreshock
Mazelle, C.; LeQueau, D.; Meziane, K.; Lin, R. P.; Parks, G.; Reme, H.; Sanderson, T.; Lepping, R. P.
1997-01-01
The possibility that ion beams could provide a free energy source for driving an ion/ion instability responsible for the ULF wave occurrence is investigated. For this, the wave dispersion relation with the observed parameters is solved. Secondly, it is shown that the ring-like distributions could then be produced by a coherent nonlinear wave-particle interaction. It tends to trap the ions into narrow cells in velocity space centered around a well-defined pitch-angle, directly related to the saturation wave amplitude in the analytical theory. The theoretical predictions with the observations are compared.
Interaction for solitary waves in coasting charged particle beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Shi-Wei; Hong, Xue-Ren; Shi, Yu-Ren; Duan, Wen-shan, E-mail: duanws@nwnu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering and Joint Laboratory of Atomic an Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMPCAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Qi, Xin; Yang, Lei, E-mail: lyang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Han, Jiu-Ning [College of Physics and Electromechanical Engineering, Hexi University, Zhangye 734000 (China)
2014-03-15
By using the extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo perturbation method, the collision of solitary waves in a coasting charged particle beams is studied. The results show that the system admits a solution with two solitary waves, which move in opposite directions and can be described by two Korteweg-deVries equation in small-amplitude limit. The collision of two solitary waves is elastic, and after the interaction they preserve their original properties. Then the weak phase shift in traveling direction of collision between two solitary waves is derived explicitly.
Waves and fluid-solid interaction in stented blood vessels
Frecentese, S.; Argani, L. P.; Movchan, A. B.; Movchan, N. V.; Carta, G.; Wall, M. L.
2018-01-01
This paper focuses on the modelling of fluid-structure interaction and wave propagation problems in a stented artery. Reflection of waves in blood vessels is well documented in the literature, but it has always been linked to a strong variation in geometry, such as the branching of vessels. The aim of this work is to detect the possibility of wave reflection in a stented artery due to the repetitive pattern of the stents. The investigation of wave propagation and possible blockages under time-harmonic conditions is complemented with numerical simulations in the transient regime.
Accelerator for medical applications and electron acceleration by laser plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosokai, Tomonao; Uesaka, Mitsuru
2006-01-01
In this article, the current status of radiation therapies in Japan and updated medical accelerators are reviewed. For medical use, there is a strong demand of a compact and flexible accelerator. At present, however, we have only two choices of the S-band linac with one or two rotation axis combined with the multi leaf collimator, or the X-band linac with a rather flexible robotic arm. In addition, the laser plasma cathode that is the second generation of the laser wake-field accelerator (LWFA) is studied as a high-quality electron source for medical use though it is still at the stage of the basic research. The potential of LWFA as medical accelerator near future is discussed based on updated results of laser plasma cathode experiment in Univ. of Tokyo. (author)
Staging laser plasma accelerators for increased beam energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shu, Anthony; Schroeder, Carl; Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Matlis, Nicholas; Cormier-Michel, Estelle; Plateau, Guillaume; Lin, Chen; Toth, Csaba; Geddes, Cameron; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim
2008-01-01
Staging laser plasma accelerators is an efficient way of mitigating laser pump depletion in laser driven accelerators and necessary for reaching high energies with compact laser systems. The concept of staging includes coupling of additional laser energy and transporting the electron beam from one accelerating module to another. Due to laser damage threshold constraints, in-coupling laser energy with conventional optics requires distances between the accelerating modules of the order of 10m, resulting in decreased average accelerating gradient and complicated e-beam transport. In this paper we use basic scaling laws to show that the total length of future laser plasma accelerators will be determined by staging technology. We also propose using a liquid jet plasma mirror for in-coupling the laser beam and show that it has the potential to reduce distance between stages to the cm-scale.
Current new applications of laser plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hauer, A.A.; Forslund, D.W.; McKinstrie, C.J.; Wark, J.S.; Hargis, P.J. Jr.; Hamil, R.A.; Kindel, J.M.
1988-09-01
This report describes several new applications of laser-produced plasmas that have arisen in the last few years. Most of the applications have been an outgrowth of the active research in laser/matter interaction inspired by the pursuit of laser fusion. Unusual characteristics of high-intensity laser/matter interaction, such as intense x-ray and particle emission, were noticed early in the field and are now being employed in a significant variety of applications outside the fusion filed. Applications range from biology to materials science to pulsed-power control and particle accelerators. 92 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs
MED101: a laser-plasma simulation code. User guide
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodgers, P.A.; Rose, S.J.; Rogoyski, A.M.
1989-12-01
Complete details for running the 1-D laser-plasma simulation code MED101 are given including: an explanation of the input parameters, instructions for running on the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory IBM, Atlas Centre Cray X-MP and DEC VAX, and information on three new graphics packages. The code, based on the existing MEDUSA code, is capable of simulating a wide range of laser-produced plasma experiments including the calculation of X-ray laser gain. (author)
High magnetic field generation for laser-plasma experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pollock, B. B.; Froula, D. H.; Davis, P. F.; Ross, J. S.; Fulkerson, S.; Bower, J.; Satariano, J.; Price, D.; Krushelnick, K.; Glenzer, S. H.
2006-01-01
An electromagnetic solenoid was developed to study the effect of magnetic fields on electron thermal transport in laser plasmas. The solenoid, which is driven by a pulsed power system supplying 30 kJ, achieves magnetic fields of 13 T. The field strength was measured on the solenoid axis with a magnetic probe and optical Zeeman splitting. The measurements agree well with analytical estimates. A method for optimizing the solenoid design to achieve magnetic fields exceeding 20 T is presented
Interaction of two walkers: wave-mediated energy and force.
Borghesi, Christian; Moukhtar, Julien; Labousse, Matthieu; Eddi, Antonin; Fort, Emmanuel; Couder, Yves
2014-12-01
A bouncing droplet, self-propelled by its interaction with the waves it generates, forms a classical wave-particle association called a "walker." Previous works have demonstrated that the dynamics of a single walker is driven by its global surface wave field that retains information on its past trajectory. Here we investigate the energy stored in this wave field for two coupled walkers and how it conveys an interaction between them. For this purpose, we characterize experimentally the "promenade modes" where two walkers are bound and propagate together. Their possible binding distances take discrete values, and the velocity of the pair depends on their mutual binding. The mean parallel motion can be either rectilinear or oscillating. The experimental results are recovered analytically with a simple theoretical framework. A relation between the kinetic energy of the droplets and the total energy of the standing waves is established.
2015-09-30
Interaction of Surface Gravity Waves with Nonlinear Internal Gravity Waves Lian Shen St. Anthony Falls Laboratory and Department of Mechanical...on studying surface gravity wave evolution and spectrum in the presence of surface currents caused by strongly nonlinear internal solitary waves...interaction of surface and internal gravity waves in the South China Sea. We will seek answers to the following questions: 1) How does the wind-wave
Drag Reduction by Laser-Plasma Energy Addition in Hypersonic Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, A. C.; Minucci, M. A. S.; Toro, P. G. P.; Chanes, J. B. Jr; Myrabo, L. N.
2008-01-01
An experimental study was conducted to investigate the drag reduction by laser-plasma energy addition in a low density Mach 7 hypersonic flow. The experiments were conducted in a shock tunnel and the optical beam of a high power pulsed CO 2 TEA laser operating with 7 J of energy and 30 MW peak power was focused to generate the plasma upstream of a hemispherical model installed in the tunnel test section. The non-intrusive schlieren optical technique was used to visualize the effects of the energy addition to hypersonic flow, from the plasma generation until the mitigation of the shock wave profile over the model surface. Aside the optical technique, a piezoelectric pressure transducer was used to measure the impact pressure at stagnation point of the hemispherical model and the pressure reduction could be observed
Laser-plasma sourced, temperature dependent, VUV spectrophotometer using dispersive analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
French, R.H.
1990-01-01
We have developed a vacuum ultraviolet spectrophotometer with wide energy and temperature range coverage, utilizing a laser-plasma light source (LPLS), CO 2 -laser sample heating and time-resolved dispersive analysis. Reflection and transmission spectra can be taken from 1.7 to 40 eV (31-700 nm) on samples at 15-1800 K with a time resolution of 20-400 ns. These capabilities permit the study of the temperature dependence of the electronic structure, encompassing the effects of thermal lattice expansion and electron-phonon interaction, and changes in the electronic structure associated with equilibrium and metastable phase transitions and stress relaxation. The LPLS utilizes a samarium laser-plasma created by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (500 mJ/pulse) to produce high brightness, stable, continuum radiation. The spectrophotometer is of a single beam design using calibrated iridium reference mirrors. White light is imaged off the sample in to the entrance slit of a 1-m polychromator. The resolution is 0.1 to 0.3 nm. The dispersed light is incident on a focal plane phosphor, fiber-optic-coupled to an image-intensified reticon detector. For spectroscopy between 300 and 1800 K, the samples are heated in situ with a 150 Watt CO 2 laser. The signal to noise ratio in the VUV, for samples at 1800 K, is excellent. From 300 K to 15 K samples are cooled using a He cryostat. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glinec, Y.; Faure, J.; Ewald, F.; Lifschitz, A.; Malka, V.
2006-01-01
Plasmas are attractive media for the next generation of compact particle accelerators because they can sustain electric fields larger than those in conventional accelerators by three orders of magnitude. However, until now, plasma-based accelerators have produced relatively poor quality electron beams even though for most practical applications, high quality beams are required. In particular, beams from laser plasma-based accelerators tend to have a large divergence and very large energy spreads, meaning that different particles travel at different speeds. The combination of these two problems makes it difficult to utilize these beams. Here, we demonstrate the production of high quality and high energy electron beams from laser-plasma interaction: in a distance of 3 mm, a very collimated and quasi-monoenergetic electron beam is emitted with a 0.5 nanocoulomb charge at 170 ± 20 MeV. In this regime, we have observed very nonlinear phenomena, such as self-focusing and temporal self-shortenning down to 10 fs durations. Both phenomena increase the excitation of the wakefield. The laser pulse drives a highly nonlinear wakefield, able to trap and accelerate plasma background electrons to a single energy. We will review the different regimes of electron acceleration and we will show how enhanced performances can be reached with state-of-the-art ultrashort laser systems. Applications such as gamma radiography of such electron beams will also be discussed
Waves reflected by solid wall and wave interaction in vapour bubbly liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duong, N.H.; Nguyen, V.T.
2004-01-01
The vapour bubbly liquids are met in many natural and industrial processes, including in energy equipment. In the nuclear power plants this kind of medium appears in reactor cores (PWR, BWR and etc.), in turbine generators and in heat transfer loops. Due to some circumstances (for example, a hit caused by detonations or strong collisions) the pressure waves can appear in the bubbly liquid medium contained in those facilities. These waves propagate in the mixtures and interact with themselves and with structures. It is important that what will occur during mentioned above processes. The knowledge of this kind processes will be useful for analysing the different sorts of the processes occurred in the energy facilities where the vapor bubbly liquids are used as working or heat transfer medium, like nuclear power plants, and also useful in finding the measures for prevention of unfavourable phenomena (for example, during wave interactions maybe appear too high pressures, which could lead into damages of facilities and etc.) and safety operating the equipment. From the physical point of view, the waves in this kind of medium are interesting that owing to non-linear, dispersion and dissipation effects the wave patterns in them may be diverse and easy altered. In the paper the investigation results of the waves reflected by solid wall or structure of the moderate intensity shock waves, and the behaviour of pressure in the process of wave interaction in some mixtures of liquid with vapour bubbles (of radium ∼1 mm) are presented. (author)
Planetary wave-gravity wave interactions during mesospheric inversion layer events
Ramesh, K.; Sridharan, S.; Raghunath, K.; Vijaya Bhaskara Rao, S.; Bhavani Kumar, Y.
2013-07-01
amplitude may get modulated by the interaction between gravity waves and planetary waves. The eddy diffusion associated with gravity wave drag may also cause suppression in the planetary wave activity.
VIGOR: Virtual Interaction with Gravitational Waves to Observe Relativity
Kitagawa, Midori; Kesden, Michael; Tranm, Ngoc; Venlayudam, Thulasi Sivampillai; Urquhart, Mary; Malina, Roger
2017-05-01
In 2015, a century after Albert Einstein published his theory of general relativity, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detected gravitational waves from binary black holes fully consistent with this theory. Our goal for VIGOR (Virtual-reality Interaction with Gravitational waves to Observe Relativity) is to communicate this revolutionary discovery to the public by visualizing the gravitational waves emitted by binary black holes. VIGOR has been developed using the Unity game engine and VR headsets (Oculus Rift DK2 and Samsung Gear VR). Wearing a VR headset, VIGOR users control an avatar to "fly" around binary black holes, experiment on the black holes by manipulating their total mass, mass ratio, and orbital separation, and witness how gravitational waves emitted by the black holes stretch and squeeze the avatar. We evaluated our prototype of VIGOR with high school students in 2016 and are further improving VIGOR based on our findings.
pp waves of conformal gravity with self-interacting source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayon-Beato, Eloy; Hassaine, Mokhtar
2005-01-01
Recently, Deser, Jackiw and Pi have shown that three-dimensional conformal gravity with a source given by a conformally coupled scalar field admits pp wave solutions. In this paper, we consider this model with a self-interacting potential preserving the conformal structure. A pp wave geometry is also supported by this system and, we show that this model is equivalent to topologically massive gravity with a cosmological constant whose value is given in terms of the potential strength
Lagrangian analysis of nonlinear wave-wave interactions in bounded plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carr, A.R.
1979-01-01
In a weakly turbulent nonlinear wave-supporting medium, one of the important nonlinear processes which may occur is resonant three-wave interaction. Whitham's averaged Lagrangian method provides a general formulation of wave evolution laws which is easily adapted to nonlinear dispersive media. In this thesis, the strength of nonlinear interactions between three coherent, axisymmetric, low frequency, magnetohydrodynamic (Alfven) waves propagating in resonance along a cold cylindrical magnetized plasma column is calculated. Both a uniform and a parabolic density distribution have been considered. To account for a non-zero plasma temperature, pressure effects have been included. Distinctive features of the work are the use of cylindrical geometry, the presence of a finite rather than an infinite axial magnetic field, the treatment of a parabolic density distribution, and the inclusion of both ion and electron contributions in all expressions. Two astrophysical applications of the presented theory have been considered. In the first, the possibility of resonant three-wave coupling between geomagnetic micropulsations, which propagate as Alfven or magnetosonic waves along the Earth's magnetic field lines, has been investigated. The second case is the theory of energy transport through the solar chromosphere by upward propagating magnetohydrodynamic waves, which may then couple to heavily damped waves in the corona, causing the observed excess heating in that region
Laser-plasma harmonics with high-contrast pulses and designed prepulses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marjoribanks, R. S.; Zhao, L.; Budnik, F. W.; Kulcsar, G.; Vitcu, A.; Higaki, H.; Wagner, R.; Maksimchuk, A.; Umstadter, D.; Le Blanc, S. P.; Downer, M. C.
1998-01-01
One aspect of the complexity of mid- and high-harmonic generation in high-intensity laser-plasma interactions is that nonlinear hydrodynamics is virtually always folded together with the nonlinear optical conversion process. We have partly dissected this issue in picosecond and subpicosecond interactions with preformed plasma gradients, imaging and spectrally resolving low- and mid-order harmonics. We describe spatial breakup of the picosecond beam in preformed plasmas, concomitant broadening and breakup of the harmonic spectrum, presumably through self-phase modulation, together with data on the sensitivity of harmonics production efficiency to the gradient or extent of preformed plasma. Lastly, we show preliminary data of regular Stokes-like and anti-Stokes-like satellites to the harmonics, accompanied by modification of the forward-scattered beam
Laser-plasma interaction at 10.6 microns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, R.D.; Kindel, J.M.
1983-01-01
The absorption mechanisms at 10.6μm are considered. Given our best theoretical knowledge, at high intensity, CO 2 absorption is a combination of resonant absorption, critical surface decay processes (rippling), and forward and backward Raman scattering. At low intensities (less than 10 14 W/cm 2 ), in short pulse CO 2 experiments, resonant absorption is believed to dominate. The properties of the self generated magnetic fields are considered. These fields greatly affect the hot electron preheat, the lateral transport of energy along the surface of the target, and the enhanced plasma blowoff. And finally, the properties of the enhanced plasma blowoff will be discussed. In directly driven targets, this blowoff represents an energy loss. It has been suggested, however, that the blowoff itself can be used to drive targets
First Laser-Plasma Interaction and Hohlraum Experiments on NIF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dewald, E L; Glenzer, S H; Landen, O L; Suter, L J; Jones, O S; Schein, J; Froula, D; Divol, L; Campbell, K; Schneider, M S; McDonald, J W; Niemann, C; Mackinnon, A J
2005-01-01
Recently the first hohlraum experiments have been performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in support of indirect drive Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) designs. The effects of laser beam smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) and polarization smoothing (PS) on the beam propagation in long scale gas-filled pipes has been studied at plasma scales as found in indirect drive gas filled ignition hohlraum designs. The long scale gas-filled target experiments have shown propagation over 7 mm of dense plasma without filamentation and beam break up when using full laser smoothing. Vacuum hohlraums have been irradiated with laser powers up to 6 TW, 1-9 ns pulse lengths and energies up to 17 kJ to activate several diagnostics, to study the hohlraum radiation temperature scaling with the laser power and hohlraum size, and to make contact with hohlraum experiments performed at the NOVA and Omega laser facilities. Subsequently, novel long laser pulse hohlraum experiments have tested models of hohlraum plasma filling and long pulse hohlraum radiation production. The validity of the plasma filling assessment in analytical models and in LASNEX calculations has been proven for the first time. The comparison of these results with modeling will be discussed
Thermal effects in intense laser-plasma interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shadwick, B.A.; Tarkenton, G.M.; Esarey, E.H.
2004-01-01
We present an overview of a new warm fluid model that incorporates leading-order kinetic corrections to the cold fluid model without making any near-equilibrium assumptions. In the quasi-static limit we obtain analytical expressions for the momentum spread and show excellent agreement with solutions of the full time-dependant equations. It is shown that over a large range of initial plasma temperatures, the fields are relatively insensitive to the pressure force. We discuss implications of this work for model validation
On the interaction of Rayleigh surface waves with structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simpson, I.C.
1976-12-01
A two-dimensional soil-structure interaction analysis is carried out for transient Rayleigh surface waves that are incident on a structure. The structure is modelled by a three-degree of freedom rigid basemat to which is attached a flexible superstructure, modelled by a single mass-spring system. The structural responses to a given Rayleigh wave train are compared with those that would have been obtained if the free-field acceleration-time history had been applied as a normally incident body wave. The results clearly exhibit the 'frequency filtering' effects of the rigid basemat on the incident Rayleigh waves. It is shown that, if seismic excitation of a structure is, in fact, due to Rayleigh surface waves, then an analysis assuming normally incident body waves can considerably over-estimate structural response, both at basemat level for horizontal and vertical oscillations of the superstructure. However, in the examples considered here, relatively large rocking effects were induced by the Rayleigh waves, thus giving maximum horizontal accelerations in the superstructure that were of comparable magnitude for Rayleigh and normally incident body waves. (author)
Guided-wave acousto-optics interactions, devices, and applications
1990-01-01
The field of integrated- or guided-wave optics has experienced significant and continuous growth since its inception in the late 1960s. There has been a considerable increase in research and development activity in this field worldwide and some significant advances in the realization of working in tegrated optic devices and modules have been made in recent years. In fact, there have already been some commercial manufacturing and technical ap plications of such devices and modules. The guided-wave-acoustooptics involving Bragg interactions between guided optical waves and surface acoustic waves is one of the areas of in tegrated-optics that has reached some degree of scientific and technological maturity. This topical volume is devoted to an in-depth treatment of this emerging branch of science and technology. Presented in this volume are concise treatments on bulk-wave acoustooptics, guided-wave optics, and surface acoustic waves, and detailed studies of guided-wave acoustooptic Bragg diffraction in thr...
Wind-waves interactions in the Gulf of Eilat
Shani-Zerbib, Almog; Liberzon, Dan; T-SAIL Team
2017-11-01
The Gulf of Eilat, at the southern tip of Israel, with its elongated rectangular shape and unique diurnal wind pattern is an appealing location for wind-waves interactions research. Results of experimental work will be reported analyzing a continuous, 50 hour long, data. Using a combined array of wind and waves sensing instruments, the wave field statistics and its response to variations of wind forcing were investigated. Correlations between diurnal fluctuations in wind magnitude and direction and the wave field response will be discussed. The directional spread of waves' energy, as estimated by the Wavelet Directional Method, showed a strong response to small variations in wind flow direction attributed to the unique topography of the gulf surroundings and its bathymetry. Influenced by relatively strong winds during the light hours, the wave field was dominated by a significant amount of breakings that are well pronounced in the saturation range of waves spectra. Temporal growth and decay behavior of the waves during the morning and evening wind transition periods was examined. Sea state induced roughness, as experienced by the wind flow turbulent boundary layer, is examined in view of the critical layer theory. Israel Science Foundation Grant # 1521/15.
Wave-current interactions at the FloWave Ocean Energy Research Facility
Noble, Donald; Davey, Thomas; Steynor, Jeffrey; Bruce, Tom; Smith, Helen; Kaklis, Panagiotis
2015-04-01
Physical scale model testing is an important part of the marine renewable energy development process, allowing the study of forces and device behaviour in a controlled environment prior to deployment at sea. FloWave is a new state-of-the-art ocean energy research facility, designed to provide large scale physical modelling services to the tidal and wave sector. It has the unique ability to provide complex multi-directional waves that can be combined with currents from any direction in the 25m diameter circular tank. The facility is optimised for waves around 2s period and 0.4m height, and is capable of generating currents upwards of 1.6m/s. This offers the ability to model metocean conditions suitable for most renewable energy devices at a typical scale of between 1:10 and 1:40. The test section is 2m deep, which can be classed as intermediate-depth for most waves of interest, thus the full dispersion equation must be solved as the asymptotic simplifications do not apply. The interaction between waves and currents has been studied in the tank. This has involved producing in the tank sets of regular waves, focussed wave groups, and random sea spectra including multi-directional sea states. These waves have been both inline-with and opposing the current, as well as investigating waves at arbitrary angles to the current. Changes in wave height and wavelength have been measured, and compared with theoretical results. Using theoretical wave-current interaction models, methods have been explored to "correct" the wave height in the central test area of the tank when combined with a steady current. This allows the wave height with current to be set equal to that without a current. Thus permitting, for example, direct comparison of device motion response between tests with and without current. Alternatively, this would also permit a specific wave height and current combination to be produced in the tank, reproducing recorded conditions at a particular site of interest. The
Symbolic computation of nonlinear wave interactions on MACSYMA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bers, A.; Kulp, J.L.; Karney, C.F.F.
1976-01-01
In this paper the use of a large symbolic computation system - MACSYMA - in determining approximate analytic expressions for the nonlinear coupling of waves in an anisotropic plasma is described. MACSYMA was used to implement the solutions of a fluid plasma model nonlinear partial differential equations by perturbation expansions and subsequent iterative analytic computations. By interacting with the details of the symbolic computation, the physical processes responsible for particular nonlinear wave interactions could be uncovered and appropriate approximations introduced so as to simplify the final analytic result. Details of the MACSYMA system and its use are discussed and illustrated. (Auth.)
An overset grid approach to linear wave-structure interaction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Read, Robert; Bingham, Harry B.
2012-01-01
A finite-difference based approach to wave-structure interaction is reported that employs the overset approach to grid generation. A two-dimensional code that utilizes the Overture C++ library has been developed to solve the linear radiation problem for a floating body of arbitrary form. This sof......A finite-difference based approach to wave-structure interaction is reported that employs the overset approach to grid generation. A two-dimensional code that utilizes the Overture C++ library has been developed to solve the linear radiation problem for a floating body of arbitrary form...
Ultrafast Diagnostics for Electron Beams from Laser Plasma Accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matlis, N.H.; Bakeman, M.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Gonsalves, T.; Lin, C.; Nakamura, K.; Osterhoff, J.; Plateau, G.R.; Schroeder, C.B.; Shiraishi, S.; Sokollik, T.; van Tilborg, J.; Toth, Cs.; Leemans, W.P.
2010-01-01
We present an overview of diagnostic techniques for measuring key parameters of electron bunches from Laser Plasma Accelerators (LPAs). The diagnostics presented here were chosen because they highlight the unique advantages (e.g., diverse forms of electromagnetic emission) and difficulties (e.g., shot-to-shot variability) associated with LPAs. Non destructiveness and high resolution (in space and time and energy) are key attributes that enable the formation of a comprehensive suite of simultaneous diagnostics which are necessary for the full characterization of the ultrashort, but highly-variable electron bunches from LPAs.
XUV radiation from gaseous nitrogen and argon target laser plasmas
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Vrba, Pavel; Vrbová, M.; Brůža, P.; Pánek, D.; Krejčí, F.; Kroupa, M.; Jakůbek, J.
2012-01-01
Roč. 370, č. 1 (2012), s. 012049 ISSN 1742-6588. [Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP 2011)/14/. Mar del Plata, 20.11.2011-25.11.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08024; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Laser plasma source of XUV radiation in water window range * RHMD Z* engine code Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers http://iopscience.iop.org/1742-6596/370/1/012049/pdf/1742-6596_370_1_012049.pdf
Particle physicist's dreams about PetaelectronVolt laser plasma accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vesztergombi, G.
2012-01-01
Present day accelerators are working well in the multi TeV energy scale and one is expecting exciting results in the coming years. Conventional technologies, however, can offer only incremental (factor 2 or 3) increase in beam energies which does not follow the usual speed of progress in the frontiers of high energy physics. Laser plasma accelerators theoretically provide unique possibilities to achieve orders of magnitude increases entering the PetaelectronVolt (PeV) energy range. It will be discussed what kind of new perspectives could be opened for the physics at this new energy scale. What type of accelerators would be required?.
Summary Report of Working Group 1: Laser-Plasma Acceleration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geddes, C.G.R.; Clayton, C.; Lu, W.; Thomas, A.G.R.
2010-06-01
Advances in and physics of the acceleration of particles using underdense plasma structures driven by lasers were the topics of presentations and discussions in Working Group 1 of the 2010 Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop. Such accelerators have demonstrated gradients several orders beyond conventional machines, with quasi-monoenergetic beams at MeV-GeV energies, making them attractive candidates for next generation accelerators. Workshop discussions included advances in control over injection and laser propagation to further improve beam quality and stability, detailed diagnostics and physics models of the acceleration process, radiation generation as a source and diagnostic, and technological tools and upcoming facilities to extend the reach of laser-plasma accelerators.
Ultrafast Diagnostics for Electron Beams from Laser Plasma Accelerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matlis, N. H.; Bakeman, M.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Gonsalves, T.; Lin, C.; Nakamura, K.; Osterhoff, J.; Plateau, G. R.; Schroeder, C. B.; Shiraishi, S.; Sokollik, T.; van Tilborg, J.; Toth, Cs.; Leemans, W. P.
2010-06-01
We present an overview of diagnostic techniques for measuring key parameters of electron bunches from Laser Plasma Accelerators (LPAs). The diagnostics presented here were chosen because they highlight the unique advantages (e.g., diverse forms of electromagnetic emission) and difficulties (e.g., shot-to-shot variability) associated with LPAs. Non destructiveness and high resolution (in space and time and energy) are key attributes that enable the formation of a comprehensive suite of simultaneous diagnostics which are necessary for the full characterization of the ultrashort, but highly-variable electron bunches from LPAs.
Summary Report of Working Group 1: Laser-Plasma Acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geddes, C.G.R.; Clayton, C.; Lu, W.; Thomas, A.G.R.
2010-01-01
Advances in and physics of the acceleration of particles using underdense plasma structures driven by lasers were the topics of presentations and discussions in Working Group 1 of the 2010 Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop. Such accelerators have demonstrated gradients several orders beyond conventional machines, with quasi-monoenergetic beams at MeV-GeV energies, making them attractive candidates for next generation accelerators. Workshop discussions included advances in control over injection and laser propagation to further improve beam quality and stability, detailed diagnostics and physics models of the acceleration process, radiation generation as a source and diagnostic, and technological tools and upcoming facilities to extend the reach of laser-plasma accelerators.
Laser-plasma booster for ion post acceleration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Satoh D.
2013-11-01
Full Text Available A remarkable ion energy increase is demonstrated for post acceleration by a laser-plasma booster. An intense short-pulse laser generates a strong current by high-energy electrons accelerated, when this intense short-pulse laser illuminates a plasma target. The strong electric current creates a strong magnetic field along the high-energy electron current in plasma. During the increase phase in the magnetic field, a longitudinal inductive electric field is induced for the forward ion acceleration by the Faraday law. Our 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations demonstrate a remarkable increase in ion energy by several tens of MeV.
Modeling of Mud-Wave Interaction: Mud-Induced Wave Transport & Wave-Induced Mud Transport
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Winterwerp, Johan C
2007-01-01
.... Also a new rheological model has been proposed to describe liquefaction of soft mud by waves, and the subsequent strength recovery after the passage of the waves. A scheme is presented on how to implement these formulations in Delft3D.
Nonlinear instability and chaos in plasma wave-wave interactions, I., Introduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kueny, C.S.; Morrison, P.J.
1994-11-01
Conventional linear stability analyses may fail for fluid systems with an indefinite free energy functional. When such a system is linearly stable, it is said to possess negative energy modes. Instability may then occur either via dissipation of the negative energy modes, or nonlinearly via resonant wave-wave coupling, leading to explosive growth. In the dissipationless case, it is conjectured that intrinsic chaotic behavior may allow initially nonresonant systems to reach resonance by diffusion in phase space. In this and a companion paper [submitted to Physics of Plasmas], this phenomenon is demonstrated for a simple equilibrium involving cold counterstreaming ions. The system is described in the fluid approximation by a Hamiltonian functional and associated noncanonical Poisson bracket. By Fourier decomposition and appropriate coordinate transformations, the Hamiltonian for the perturbed energy is expressed in action-angle form. The normal modes correspond to Doppler-shifted ion-acoustic waves of positive and negative energy. Nonlinear coupling leads to decay instability via two-wave interactions, and to either decay or explosive instability via three-wave interactions. These instabilities are described for various (integrable) systems of waves interacting via single nonlinear terms. This discussion provides the foundation for the treatment of nonintegrable systems in the companion paper
Nonlinear instability and chaos in plasma wave--wave interactions. I. Introduction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kueny, C.S.; Morrison, P.J.
1995-01-01
Conventional linear stability analyses may fail for fluid systems with an indefinite free-energy functional. When such a system is linearly stable, it is said to possess negative energy modes. Instability may then occur either via dissipation of the negative energy modes, or nonlinearly via resonant wave--wave coupling, leading to explosive growth. In the dissipationless case, it is conjectured that intrinsic chaotic behavior may allow initially nonresonant systems to reach resonance by diffusion in phase space. In this and a companion paper (submitted to Phys. Plasmas), this phenomenon is demonstrated for a simple equilibrium involving cold counterstreaming ions. The system is described in the fluid approximation by a Hamiltonian functional and associated noncanonical Poisson bracket. By Fourier decomposition and appropriate coordinate transformations, the Hamiltonian for the perturbed energy is expressed in action-angle form. The normal modes correspond to Doppler-shifted ion-acoustic waves of positive and negative energy. Nonlinear coupling leads to decay instability via two-wave interactions, and to either decay or explosive instability via three-wave interactions. These instabilities are described for various integrable systems of waves interacting via single nonlinear terms. This discussion provides the foundation for the treatment of nonintegrable systems in the companion paper. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
O Wave Interactions: Explosive Resonant Triads and Critical Layers.
Mahoney, Daniel J.
This thesis considers the phenomenon of explosive resonant triads in weakly nonlinear, dispersive wave systems. These are nearly linear waves with slowly varying amplitudes which become unbounded in finite time. It is shown that such interactions are much stronger than previously thought. These waves can be thought of as a nonlinear instability, in the sense that a weakly nonlinear perturbation to some system grows to such magnitudes that the behavior of the system is governed by strongly nonlinear effects. This may occur for systems which are linearly or neutrally stable. This is contrasted with previous resolutions of this problem, which treated such perturbations as being large amplitude, nearly linear waves. Analytical and numerical evidence is presented to support these claims. These waves represent a potentially important effect in a variety of physical systems, most notably plasma physics. Attention here is turned to their occurrence in fluid mechanics. Here previous work is extended to include flow systems with continuously varying basic velocities and densities. Many of the problems encountered here will be found to be of a singular nature themselves, and the techniques for analyzing these difficulties will be developed. This will involve the concept of a critical layer in a fluid, a level at which a wave phase speed equals the unperturbed fluid velocity in the direction of propagation. Examples of such waves in this context will be presented. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253 -1690.).
Nonlinear wave collapse and strong turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, P.A.
1997-01-01
The theory and applications of wave self-focusing, collapse, and strongly nonlinear wave turbulence are reviewed. In the last decade, the theory of these phenomena and experimental realizations have progressed rapidly. Various nonlinear wave systems are discussed, but the simplest case of collapse and strong turbulence of Langmuir waves in an unmagnetized plasma is primarily used in explaining the theory and illustrating the main ideas. First, an overview of the basic physics of linear waves and nonlinear wave-wave interactions is given from an introductory perspective. Wave-wave processes are then considered in more detail. Next, an introductory overview of the physics of wave collapse and strong turbulence is provided, followed by a more detailed theoretical treatment. Later sections cover numerical simulations of Langmuir collapse and strong turbulence and experimental applications to space, ionospheric, and laboratory plasmas, including laser-plasma and beam-plasma interactions. Generalizations to self-focusing, collapse, and strong turbulence of waves in other systems are also discussed, including nonlinear optics, solid-state systems, magnetized auroral and astrophysical plasmas, and deep-water waves. The review ends with a summary of the main ideas of wave collapse and strong-turbulence theory, a collection of open questions in the field, and a brief discussion of possible future research directions. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Experimental research on crossing shock wave boundary layer interactions
Settles, G. S.; Garrison, T. J.
1994-10-01
An experimental research effort of the Penn State Gas Dynamics Laboratory on the subject of crossing shock wave boundary layer interactions is reported. This three year study was supported by AFOSR Grant 89-0315. A variety of experimental techniques were employed to study the above phenomena including planar laser scattering flowfield visualization, kerosene lampblack surface flow visualization, laser-interferometer skin friction surveys, wall static pressure measurements, and flowfield five-hole probe surveys. For a model configuration producing two intersecting shock waves, measurements were made for a range of oblique shock strengths at freestream Mach numbers of 3.0 and 3.85. Additionally, measurements were made at Mach 3.85 for a configuration producing three intersecting waves. The combined experimental dataset was used to formulate the first detailed flowfield models of the crossing-shock and triple-shock wave/boundary layer interactions. The structure of these interactions was found to be similar over a broad range of interaction strengths and is dominated by a large, separated, viscous flow region.
Solitary wave exchange potential and nucleon-nucleon interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prema, K.; Raghavan, S.S.; Sekhar Raghavan
1986-11-01
Nucleon-nucleon interaction is studied using a phenomenological potential model called solitary wave exchange potential model. It is shown that this simple model reproduces the singlet and triplet scattering data and the deuteron parameters reasonably well. (author). 6 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab
The interaction of katabatic winds and mountain waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poulos, Gregory Steve [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)
1997-01-01
The variation in the oft-observed, thermally-forced, nocturnal katabatic winds along the east side of the Rocky Mountains can be explained by either internal variability or interactions with various other forcings. Though generally katabatic flows have been studied as an entity protected from external forcing by strong thermal stratification, this work investigates how drainage winds along the Colorado Front Range interact with, in particular, topographically forced mountain waves. Previous work has shown, based on measurements taken during the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain 1993 field program, that the actual dispersion in katabatic flows is often greater than reflected in models of dispersion. The interaction of these phenomena is complicated and non-linear since the amplitude, wavelength and vertical structure of mountain waves developed by flow over the Rocky Mountain barrier are themselves partly determined by the evolving atmospheric stability in which the drainage flows develop. Perturbations to katabatic flow by mountain waves, relative to their more steady form in quiescent conditions, are found to be caused by both turbulence and dynamic pressure effects. The effect of turbulent interaction is to create changes to katabatic now depth, katabatic flow speed, katabatic jet height and, vertical thermal stratification. The pressure effect is found to primarily influence the variability of a given katabatic now through the evolution of integrated column wave forcing on surface pressure. Variability is found to occur on two scales, on the mesoscale due to meso-gamma scale mountain wave evolution, and on the microscale, due to wave breaking. Since existing parameterizations for the statically stable case are predominantly based on nearly flat terrain atmospheric measurements under idealized or nearly quiescent conditions, it is no surprise that these parameterizations often contribute to errors in prediction, particularly in complex terrain.
High-energy 4ω probe laser for laser-plasma experiments at Nova
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glenzer, S.H.; Weiland, T.L.; Bower, J.; MacKinnon, A.J.; MacGowan, B.J.
1999-01-01
For the characterization of inertial confinement fusion plasmas, we implemented a high-energy 4ω probe laser at the Nova laser facility. A total energy of >50 J at 4ω, a focal spot size of order 100 μm, and a pointing accuracy of 100 μm was demonstrated for target shots. This laser provides intensities of up to 3x10 14 Wcm -2 and therefore fulfills high-power requirements for laser-plasma interaction experiments. The 4ω probe laser is now routinely used for Thomson scattering. Successful experiments were performed in gas-filled hohlraums at electron densities of n e >2x10 21 cm -3 which represents the highest density plasma so far being diagnosed with Thomson scattering. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics
Secondary Flows and Sediment Transport due to Wave - Current Interaction
Ismail, Nabil; Wiegel, Robert
2015-04-01
Objectives: The main purpose of this study is to determine the modifications of coastal processes driven by wave-current interaction and thus to confirm hydrodynamic mechanisms associated with the interaction at river mouths and tidal inlets where anthropogenic impacts were introduced. Further, the aim of the work has been to characterize the effect of the relative strength of momentum action of waves to the opposing current on the nearshore circulation where river flow was previously effective to entrain sediments along the shoreline. Such analytical information are useful to provide guidelines for sustainable design of coastal defense structures. Methodology and Analysis: Use is made of an earlier study reported by the authors (1983) on the interaction of horizontal momentum jets and opposing shallow water waves at shorelines, and of an unpublished laboratory study (1980). The turbulent horizontal discharge was shore-normal, directed offshore, and the incident wave direction was shore-normal, travelling toward shore. Flow visualization at the smooth bottom and the water surface, velocity and water surface elevation measurements were made. Results were obtained for wave , current modifications as well as the flow pattern in the jet and the induced circulation on both sides of the jet, for a range of wave and jet characteristics. The experimental data, obtained from measurement in the 3-D laboratory basin, showed several distinct flow pattern regimes on the bottom and the water surface. The observed flow circulation regimes were found to depend on the ratio of the wave momentum action on the jet to the jet initial momentum. Based on the time and length scales of wave and current parameters and using the time average of the depth integrated conservation equations, it is found that the relative strength of the wave action on the jet could be represented by a dimensionless expression; Rsm ( ) 12ρSa20g-L0h-Cg- 2 Rsm ≈ (C0 - U) /ρ0U w (1) In the above dimensionless
Nonlinear interaction and wave breaking with a submerged porous structure
Hsieh, Chih-Min; Sau, Amalendu; Hwang, Robert R.; Yang, W. C.
2016-12-01
Numerical simulations are performed to investigate interactive velocity, streamline, turbulent kinetic energy, and vorticity perturbations in the near-field of a submerged offshore porous triangular structure, as Stokes waves of different heights pass through. The wave-structure interaction and free-surface breaking for the investigated flow situations are established based on solutions of 2D Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations in a Cartesian grid in combination with K-ɛ turbulent closure and the volume of fluid methodology. The accuracy and stability of the adopted model are ascertained by extensive comparisons of computed data with the existing experimental and theoretical findings and through efficient predictions of the internal physical kinetics. Simulations unfold "clockwise" and "anticlockwise" rotation of fluid below the trough and the crest of the viscous waves, and the penetrated wave energy creates systematic flow perturbation in the porous body. The interfacial growths of the turbulent kinetic energy and the vorticity appear phenomenal, around the apex of the immersed structure, and enhanced significantly following wave breaking. Different values of porosity parameter and two non-porous cases have been examined in combination with varied incident wave height to reveal/analyze the nonlinear flow behavior in regard to local spectral amplification and phase-plane signatures. The evolution of leading harmonics of the undulating free-surface and the vertical velocity exhibits dominating roles of the first and the second modes in inducing the nonlinearity in the post-breaking near-field that penetrates well below the surface layer. The study further suggests the existence of a critical porosity that can substantially enhance the wave-shoaling and interface breaking.
Trapped electron losses by interactions with coherent VLF waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walt, M.; Inan, U.S.; Voss, H.D.
1996-01-01
VLF whistler waves from lightning enter the magnetosphere and cause the precipitation of energetic trapped electrons by pitch angle scattering. These events, known as Lightning-induced Electron Precipitation (LEP) have been detected by satellite and rocket instruments and by perturbations of VLF waves traveling in the earth-ionosphere waveguide. Detailed comparison of precipitating electron energy spectra and time dependence are in general agreement with calculations of trapped electron interactions with ducted whistler waves. In particular the temporal structure of the precipitation and the dynamic energy spectra of the electrons confirm this interpretation of the phenomena. There are discrepancies between observed and measured electron flux intensities and pitch angle distributions, but these quantities are sensitive to unknown wave intensities and trapped particle fluxes near the loss cone angle. The overall effect of lightning generated VLF waves on the lifetime of trapped electrons is still uncertain. The flux of electrons deflected into the bounce loss cone by a discrete whistler wave has been measured in a few cases. However, the area of the precipitation region is not known, and thus the total number of electrons lost in an LEP event can only be estimated. While the LEP events are dramatic, more important effects on trapped electrons may arise from the small but numerous deflections which increase the pitch angle diffusion rate of the electron population. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Trapped electron losses by interactions with coherent VLF waves
Walt, M.; Inan, U. S.; Voss, H. D.
1996-07-01
VLF whistler waves from lightning enter the magnetosphere and cause the precipitation of energetic trapped electrons by pitch angle scattering. These events, known as Lightning-induced Electron Precipitation (LEP) have been detected by satellite and rocket instruments and by perturbations of VLF waves traveling in the earth-ionosphere waveguide. Detailed comparison of precipitating electron energy spectra and time dependence are in general agreement with calculations of trapped electron interactions with ducted whistler waves. In particular the temporal structure of the precipitation and the dynamic energy spectra of the electrons confirm this interpretation of the phenomena. There are discrepancies between observed and measured electron flux intensities and pitch angle distributions, but these quantities are sensitive to unknown wave intensities and trapped particle fluxes near the loss cone angle. The overall effect of lightning generated VLF waves on the lifetime of trapped electrons is still uncertain. The flux of electrons deflected into the bounce loss cone by a discrete whistler wave has been measured in a few cases. However, the area of the precipitation region is not known, and thus the total number of electrons lost in an LEP event can only be estimated. While the LEP events are dramatic, more important effects on trapped electrons may arise from the small but numerous deflections which increase the pitch angle diffusion rate of the electron population.
Configuration interaction wave functions: A seniority number approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alcoba, Diego R.; Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis; Massaccesi, Gustavo E.; Oña, Ofelia B.
2014-01-01
This work deals with the configuration interaction method when an N-electron Hamiltonian is projected on Slater determinants which are classified according to their seniority number values. We study the spin features of the wave functions and the size of the matrices required to formulate states of any spin symmetry within this treatment. Correlation energies associated with the wave functions arising from the seniority-based configuration interaction procedure are determined for three types of molecular orbital basis: canonical molecular orbitals, natural orbitals, and the orbitals resulting from minimizing the expectation value of the N-electron seniority number operator. The performance of these bases is analyzed by means of numerical results obtained from selected N-electron systems of several spin symmetries. The comparison of the results highlights the efficiency of the molecular orbital basis which minimizes the mean value of the seniority number for a state, yielding energy values closer to those provided by the full configuration interaction procedure
Configuration interaction wave functions: A seniority number approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alcoba, Diego R. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and Instituto de Física de Buenos Aires, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Torre, Alicia; Lain, Luis, E-mail: qfplapel@lg.ehu.es [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, Apdo. 644, E-48080 Bilbao (Spain); Massaccesi, Gustavo E. [Departamento de Ciencias Exactas, Ciclo Básico Común, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Oña, Ofelia B. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CCT La Plata, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas, Diag. 113 y 64 (S/N), Sucursal 4, CC 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)
2014-06-21
This work deals with the configuration interaction method when an N-electron Hamiltonian is projected on Slater determinants which are classified according to their seniority number values. We study the spin features of the wave functions and the size of the matrices required to formulate states of any spin symmetry within this treatment. Correlation energies associated with the wave functions arising from the seniority-based configuration interaction procedure are determined for three types of molecular orbital basis: canonical molecular orbitals, natural orbitals, and the orbitals resulting from minimizing the expectation value of the N-electron seniority number operator. The performance of these bases is analyzed by means of numerical results obtained from selected N-electron systems of several spin symmetries. The comparison of the results highlights the efficiency of the molecular orbital basis which minimizes the mean value of the seniority number for a state, yielding energy values closer to those provided by the full configuration interaction procedure.
179th International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi" : Laser-Plasma Acceleration
Gizzi, L A; Faccini, R
2012-01-01
Impressive progress has been made in the field of laser-plasma acceleration in the last decade, with outstanding achievements from both experimental and theoretical viewpoints. Closely exploiting the development of ultra-intense, ultrashort pulse lasers, laser-plasma acceleration has developed rapidly, achieving accelerating gradients of the order of tens of GeV/m, and making the prospect of miniature accelerators a more realistic possibility. This book presents the lectures delivered at the Enrico Fermi International School of Physics and summer school: "Laser-Plasma Acceleration" , held in Varenna, Italy, in June 2011. The school provided an opportunity for young scientists to experience the best from the worlds of laser-plasma and accelerator physics, with intensive training and hands-on opportunities related to key aspects of laser-plasma acceleration. Subjects covered include: the secrets of lasers; the power of numerical simulations; beam dynamics; and the elusive world of laboratory plasmas. The object...
Anomalous transport of magnetized electrons interacting with EC waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsironis, C; Vlahos, L [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)
2005-01-01
We consider the nonlinear interaction of magnetized electrons with an oblique narrow-band electromagnetic wave-packet. The interaction is analysed over and near the local threshold to chaos. The statistical character of the forcing that controls the trajectories of the particles is also studied. We focus our analysis on issues related to energy and spatial diffusion across the magnetic field by following the evolution of the ensemble mean squares (({gamma} - {gamma}{sub 0}){sup 2}) and ((r{sub perpendicular}-r{sub perpendicular0}){sup 2}) for various values of the wave amplitude and angle of wave propagation. We study, in particular, the interaction of magnetized electrons with waves having strong and moderate amplitudes, near the transition to chaos, where the dynamics is complex and a mixture of periodic and stochastic orbits coexist. The electron diffusions in real and energy spaces are found to obey simple power laws in time, and the scaling exponents are indicative of sub-diffusion. This is a direct consequence of the effect of the resonant phase-space islands in the particle motion.
Particle Dynamics under Quasi-linear Interaction with Electromagnetic Waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Castejon, F.; Eguilior, S.
2003-07-01
Langevin equations for quasi-linear wave particle interaction are obtained taking advantage of the unique vocal equivalence between Fokker-Plank equation and the former ones. Langevin equations are solved numerically and, hence, the evolution of a single particle embedded in an electromagnetic field in momentum space is obtained. The equations are relativistic and valid for any wave. It is also shown that the stochastic part of the equations is negligible in comparison with the deterministic term, except for the momentum to the resonance condition for the main parallel refractive index. (Author) 24 refs.
Particle Dynamics under Quasi-linear Interaction with Electromagnetic Waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castejon, F.; Eguilior, S.
2003-01-01
Langevin equations for quasi-linear wave particle interaction are obtained taking advantage of the unique vocal equivalence between Fokker-Plank equation and the former ones. Langevin equations are solved numerically and, hence, the evolution of a single particle embedded in an electromagnetic field in momentum space is obtained. The equations are relativistic and valid for any wave. It is also shown that the stochastic part of the equations is negligible in comparison with the deterministic term, except for the momentum to the resonance condition for the main parallel refractive index. (Author) 24 refs
Multi-directional random wave interaction with an array of cylinders
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ji, Xinran; Liu, Shuxue; Bingham, Harry B.
2015-01-01
Based on the linear theory of wave interaction with an array of circular bottom-mounted vertical cylinders, systematic calculations are made to investigate the effects of the wave directionality on wave loads in short-crested seas. The multi-directional waves are specified using a discrete form...... of the Mitsuyasu-type spreading function. The time series of multi-directional wave loads, including both the wave run-up and wave force, can be simulated. The effect of wave directionality on the wave run-up and wave loading on the cylinders is investigated. For multi-directional waves, as the distribution...
To the complete integrability of long-wave short-wave interaction equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy Chowdhury, A.; Chanda, P.K.
1984-10-01
We show that the non-linear partial differential equations governing the interaction of long and short waves are completely integrable. The methodology we use is that of Ablowitz et al. though in the last section of our paper we have discussed the problem also in the light of the procedure due to Weiss et al. and have obtained a Baecklund transformation. (author)
Remote recoil: a new wave mean interaction effect
Bühler, Oliver; McIntyre, Michael E.
2003-10-01
We present a theoretical study of a fundamentally new wave mean or wave vortex interaction effect able to force persistent, cumulative change in mean flows in the absence of wave breaking or other kinds of wave dissipation. It is associated with the refraction of non-dissipating waves by inhomogeneous mean (vortical) flows. The effect is studied in detail in the simplest relevant model, the two-dimensional compressible flow equations with a generic polytropic equation of state. This includes the usual shallow-water equations as a special case. The refraction of a narrow, slowly varying wavetrain of small-amplitude gravity or sound waves obliquely incident on a single weak (low Froude or Mach number) vortex is studied in detail. It is shown that, concomitant with the changes in the waves' pseudomomentum due to the refraction, there is an equal and opposite recoil force that is felt, in effect, by the vortex core. This effective force is called a ‘remote recoil’ to stress that there is no need for the vortex core and wavetrain to overlap in physical space. There is an accompanying ‘far-field recoil’ that is still more remote, as in classical vortex-impulse problems. The remote-recoil effects are studied perturbatively using the wave amplitude and vortex weakness as small parameters. The nature of the remote recoil is demonstrated in various set-ups with wavetrains of finite or infinite length. The effective recoil force {bm R}_V on the vortex core is given by an expression resembling the classical Magnus force felt by moving cylinders with circulation. In the case of wavetrains of infinite length, an explicit formula for the scattering angle theta_* of waves passing a vortex at a distance is derived correct to second order in Froude or Mach number. To this order {bm R}_V {~} theta_*. The formula is cross-checked against numerical integrations of the ray-tracing equations. This work is part of an ongoing study of internal-gravity-wave dynamics in the
Numerical Computation of Wave-Plasma Interactions in Multi-Dimensional Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
D. A. D'Ippolito; J. R. Myra
2005-01-01
This project studied two kinds of nonlinear interactions between ion cyclotron range of frequency waves and fusion plasmas. A wavelet technique was also developed for analyzing the complex wave fields produced by wave propagation codes
A 20-Year High-Resolution Wave Resource Assessment of Japan with Wave-Current Interactions
Webb, A.; Waseda, T.; Kiyomatsu, K.
2016-02-01
Energy harvested from surface ocean waves and tidal currents has the potential to be a significant source of green energy, particularly for countries with extensive coastlines such as Japan. As part of a larger marine renewable energy project*, The University of Tokyo (in cooperation with JAMSTEC) has conducted a state-of-the-art wave resource assessment (with uncertainty estimates) to assist with wave generator site identification and construction in Japan. This assessment will be publicly available and is based on a large-scale NOAA WAVEWATCH III (version 4.18) simulation using NCEP and JAMSTEC forcings. It includes several key components to improve model skill: a 20-year simulation to reduce aleatory uncertainty, a four-nested-layer approach to resolve a 1 km shoreline, and finite-depth and current effects included in all wave power density calculations. This latter component is particularly important for regions near strong currents such as the Kuroshio. Here, we will analyze the different wave power density equations, discuss the model setup, and present results from the 20-year assessment (with a focus on the role of wave-current interactions). Time permitting, a comparison will also be made with simulations using JMA MSM 5 km winds. *New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO): "Research on the Framework and Infrastructure of Marine Renewable Energy; an Energy Potential Assessment"
Trends in laser-plasma-instability experiments for laser fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drake, R.P.
1991-01-01
Laser-plasma instability experiments for laser fusion have followed three developments. These are advances in the technology and design of experiments, advances in diagnostics, and evolution of the design of high-gain targets. This paper traces the history of these three topics and discusses their present state. Today one is substantially able to produce controlled plasma conditions and to diagnose specific instabilities within such plasmas. Experiments today address issues that will matter for future laser facilities. Such facilities will irradiate targets with ∼1 MJ of visible or UV light pulses that are tens of nanoseconds in duration, very likely with a high degree of spatial and temporal incoherence. 58 refs., 4 figs
High-order harmonic generation in laser plasma plumes
Ganeev, Rashid A
2013-01-01
This book represents the first comprehensive treatment of high-order harmonic generation in laser-produced plumes, covering the principles, past and present experimental status and important applications. It shows how this method of frequency conversion of laser radiation towards the extreme ultraviolet range matured over the course of multiple studies and demonstrated new approaches in the generation of strong coherent short-wavelength radiation for various applications. Significant discoveries and pioneering contributions of researchers in this field carried out in various laser scientific centers worldwide are included in this first attempt to describe the important findings in this area of nonlinear spectroscopy. "High-Order Harmonic Generation in Laser Plasma Plumes" is a self-contained and unified review of the most recent achievements in the field, such as the application of clusters (fullerenes, nanoparticles, nanotubes) for efficient harmonic generation of ultrashort laser pulses in cluster-containin...
Electron Beam Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Kei; Gonsalves, Anthony; Lin, Chen; Smith, Alan; Rodgers, David; Donahue, Rich; Byrne, Warren; Leemans, Wim
2011-01-01
A comprehensive study of charge diagnostics is conducted to verify their validity for measuring electron beams produced by laser plasma accelerators (LPAs). First, a scintillating screen (Lanex) was extensively studied using subnanosecond electron beams from the Advanced Light Source booster synchrotron, at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Lanex was cross calibrated with an integrating current transformer (ICT) for up to the electron energy of 1.5 GeV, and the linear response of the screen was confirmed for charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm 2 and 0.4 pC/(ps mm 2 ), respectively. After the radio-frequency accelerator based cross calibration, a series of measurements was conducted using electron beams from an LPA. Cross calibrations were carried out using an activation-based measurement that is immune to electromagnetic pulse noise, ICT, and Lanex. The diagnostics agreed within ±8%, showing that they all can provide accurate charge measurements for LPAs.
Asymptotic approach for the nonlinear equatorial long wave interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramirez Gutierrez, Enver; Silva Dias, Pedro L; Raupp, Carlos
2011-01-01
In the present work we use an asymptotic approach to obtain the long wave equations. The shallow water equation is put as a function of an external parameter that is a measure of both the spatial scales anisotropy and the fast to slow time ratio. The values given to the external parameters are consistent with those computed using typical values of the perturbations in tropical dynamics. Asymptotically, the model converge toward the long wave model. Thus, it is possible to go toward the long wave approximation through intermediate realizable states. With this approach, the resonant nonlinear wave interactions are studied. To simplify, the reduced dynamics of a single resonant triad is used for some selected equatorial trios. It was verified by both theoretical and numerical results that the nonlinear energy exchange period increases smoothly as we move toward the long wave approach. The magnitude of the energy exchanges is also modified, but in this case depends on the particular triad used and also on the initial energy partition among the triad components. Some implications of the results for the tropical dynamics are discussed. In particular, we discuss the implications of the results for El Nino and the Madden-Julian in connection with other scales of time and spatial variability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khalil, Sh.M.; El-Sherif, N.; El-Siragy, N.M.; Tanta Univ.; El-Naggar, I.A.; Alexandria Univ.
1985-01-01
Investigation is made for nonlinear interaction between incident radiation and a surface wave in a magnetized plasma layer. Both interacting waves are of P polarization. The generated currents and fields at combination frequencies are obtained analytically. Unlike the S-polarized interacting waves, the magnetic field affects the fundamental waves and leads to an amplification of generated waves when their frequencies approach the cyclotron frequency. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Anders Rønne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich
2011-01-01
A wave equation including nonlinear terms up to the second order for a thermoviscous Newtonian fluid is proposed. In the lossless case this equation results from an expansion to third order of the Lagrangian for the fundamental non-dissipative fluid dynamical equations. Thus it preserves the Hami...... is proposed. The dynamics of the rarefaction wave is approximated by a collective coordinate approach in the energy balance equation. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.......A wave equation including nonlinear terms up to the second order for a thermoviscous Newtonian fluid is proposed. In the lossless case this equation results from an expansion to third order of the Lagrangian for the fundamental non-dissipative fluid dynamical equations. Thus it preserves...... the Hamiltonian structure, in contrast to the Kuznetsov equation, a model often used in nonlinear acoustics. An exact traveling wave front solution is derived from a generalized traveling wave assumption for the velocity potential. Numerical studies of the evolution of a number of arbitrary initial conditions...
Simulation of hypersonic shock wave - laminar boundary layer interactions
Kianvashrad, N.; Knight, D.
2017-06-01
The capability of the Navier-Stokes equations with a perfect gas model for simulation of hypersonic shock wave - laminar boundary layer interactions is assessed. The configuration is a hollow cylinder flare. The experimental data were obtained by Calspan-University of Buffalo (CUBRC) for total enthalpies ranging from 5.07 to 21.85 MJ/kg. Comparison of the computed and experimental surface pressure and heat transfer is performed and the computed §ow¦eld structure is analyzed.
Buoy and Generator Interaction with Ocean Waves: Studies of a Wave Energy Conversion System
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lindroth, Simon
2011-07-01
On March 13th, 2006, the Div. of Electricity at Uppsala Univ. deployed its first wave energy converter, L1, in the ocean southwest of Lysekil. L1 consisted of a buoy at the surface, connected through a line to a linear generator on the seabed. Since the deployment, continuous investigations of how L1 works in the waves have been conducted, and several additional wave energy converters have been deployed. This thesis is based on ten publications, which focus on different aspects of the interaction between wave, buoy, and generator. In order to evaluate different measurement systems, the motion of the buoy was measured optically and using accelerometers, and compared to measurements of the motion of the movable part of the generator - the translator. These measurements were found to correlate well. Simulations of buoy and translator motion were found to match the measured values. The variation of performance of L1 with changing water levels, wave heights, and spectral shapes was also investigated. Performance is here defined as the ratio of absorbed power to incoming power. It was found that the performance decreases for large wave heights. This is in accordance with the theoretical predictions, since the area for which the stator and the translator overlap decreases for large translator motions. Shifting water levels were predicted to have the same effect, but this could not be seen as clearly. The width of the wave energy spectrum has been proposed by some as a factor that also affects the performance of a wave energy converter, for a set wave height and period. Therefore the relation between performance and several different parameters for spectral width was investigated. It was found that some of the parameters were in fact correlated to performance, but that the correlation was not very strong. As a background on ocean measurements in wave energy, a thorough literature review was conducted. It turns out that the Lysekil project is one of quite few projects that
Superstring interactions in a pp-wave background II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spradlin, Marcus; Volovich, Anastasia
2003-01-01
In type-IIB light-cone superstring field theory, the cubic interaction has two pieces: a delta-functional overlap and an operator inserted at the interaction point. In this paper we extend our earlier work by computing the matrix elements of this operator in the oscillator basis of pp-wave string theory for all μ p +α '. By evaluating these matrix elements for large μ p +α ', we check a recent conjecture relating matrix elements of the light-cone string field theory hamiltonian (with prefactor) to certain three-point functions of BMN operators in the gauge theory. We also make several predictions for gauge theory. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Xin; Chen, Yong; Cao, Jianli
2015-01-01
In this paper, we utilize generalized Darboux transformation to study higher-order rogue wave solutions of the three-wave resonant interaction equation, which describes the propagation and mixing of waves with different frequencies in weakly nonlinear dispersive media. A general Nth-order rogue wave solution with two characteristic velocities structural parameters and 3N independent parameters under a determined plane-wave background and a specific parameter condition is derived. As an application, we show that four fundamental rogue waves with fundamental, two kinds of line and quadrilateral patterns, or six fundamental rogue waves with fundamental, triangular, two kinds of quadrilateral and circular patterns can emerge in the second-order rogue waves. Moreover, several important wave characteristics including the maximum values, the corresponding coordinate positions of the humps, and the stability problem for some special higher-order rogue wave solutions such as the fundamental and quadrilateral cases are discussed. (paper)
Advanced computational simulations of water waves interacting with wave energy converters
Pathak, Ashish; Freniere, Cole; Raessi, Mehdi
2017-03-01
Wave energy converter (WEC) devices harness the renewable ocean wave energy and convert it into useful forms of energy, e.g. mechanical or electrical. This paper presents an advanced 3D computational framework to study the interaction between water waves and WEC devices. The computational tool solves the full Navier-Stokes equations and considers all important effects impacting the device performance. To enable large-scale simulations in fast turnaround times, the computational solver was developed in an MPI parallel framework. A fast multigrid preconditioned solver is introduced to solve the computationally expensive pressure Poisson equation. The computational solver was applied to two surface-piercing WEC geometries: bottom-hinged cylinder and flap. Their numerically simulated response was validated against experimental data. Additional simulations were conducted to investigate the applicability of Froude scaling in predicting full-scale WEC response from the model experiments.
The interaction of extreme waves with hull elements
Galiev, Shamil; Flay, Richard
2010-05-01
The problem of the impact of a rogue wave onto a deformable marine structure is formulated in a few publications (see, for example, a short review in http://researchspace.auckland.ac.nz/handle/2292/4474). In this paper the results from numerical and experimental investigations of the effect of cavitation on the deformation of a hull element, loaded by a wall of water, generated by an extreme ocean surface wave are considered. The hull element is modelled as a circular metal plate with the edge of the plate rigidly clamped. The plate surface is much smaller than the surface of the wave front, so that at the initial moment of the interaction, the pressure is constant on the plate surface. At the next instant, because of the plate deformation, axisymmetric loading of the plate occurs. The influences of membrane forces and plastic deformations are ignored, and therefore, the equation of plate motion has the following classical form Eh3(wrrrr+2r -1wrrrr- r-2wrr+r-3wr) = - 121- ν2)[ρhwtt+ δ(r,t)(p+ ρ0a0wt)]. Here w is the plate displacement, subscripts t and rindicate derivatives with respect to time and the radial coordinate, PIC is the plate material density, his the plate thickness, Eis Young's modulus, PIC is Poisson's ratio and p is the pressure of the incident surface wave measured on the wall, PIC is the water density, PIC is the speed of sound in water, and PIC is the normal velocity of the plate. The term PIC takes into account the effect of the deformability of the plate. Obviously, the hull of a vessel is not rigid like a solid wall, but starts to deform and to move. This motion produces a reflected pressure wave, which travels from the hull into the water wave with a magnitude equal to PIC . The normal velocity is positive so the reflected pressure PIC is negative (tensile wave). If the fluid pressure drops below some critical value pk, the wet plate surface separates from the water, and cavitation may be generated. The function δ(r,t) takes into account
Assessment of seismic wave effects on soil-structure interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernreuter, D.L.
1977-01-01
One of the most common hypotheses made for soil-structure interaction analyses is that the earthquake input motion is identical at all points beneath the structure. Several papers have recently shown that this assumption may be overly conservative and that the effect of wave passage is extremely important. These studies typically employ a relatively simple model, namely, the basemat is represented by a rectangular rigid foundation resting on top of the soil and connected to the soil by a continuously distributed set of soil springs. The seismic input is applied at the base of the soil springs and is assumed to be traveling at a constant wave velocity across the site. It ispossible to improve on the soil/structure model by use of finite element methods; however, little is known about how to model the input seismic energy and typically a simple travelling wave is used. In this paper, the author examines the available data to determine: (i) the appropriate wave velocity to use, and (ii) if the currently availble analytic models are adequate. (Auth.)
Electromagnetic interactions in relativistic infinite component wave equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerry, C.C.
1979-01-01
The electromagnetic interactions of a composite system described by relativistic infinite-component wave equations are considered. The noncompact group SO(4,2) is taken as the dynamical group of the systems, and its unitary irreducible representations, which are infinite dimensional, are used to find the energy spectra and to specify the states of the systems. First the interaction mechanism is examined in the nonrelativistic SO(4,2) formulation of the hydrogen atom as a heuristic guide. A way of making a minimal relativistic generalization of the minimal ineractions in the nonrelativistic equation for the hydrogen atom is proposed. In order to calculate the effects of the relativistic minimal interactions, a covariant perturbation theory suitable for infinite-component wave equations, which is an algebraic and relativistic version of the Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory, is developed. The electric and magnetic polarizabilities for the ground state of the hydrogen atom are calculated. The results have the correct nonrelativistic limits. Next, the relativistic cross section of photon absorption by the atom is evaluated. A relativistic expression for the cross section of light scattering corresponding to the seagull diagram is derived. The Born amplitude is combusted and the role of spacelike solutions is discussed. Finally, internal electromagnetic interactions that give rise to the fine structure splittings, the Lamb shifts and the hyperfine splittings are considered. The spin effects are introduced by extending the dynamical group
Eiichirou, Kawamori
2018-04-01
We report the observation of supercontinuum of Langmuir plasma waves, that exhibits broad power spectrum having significant spatio-temporal coherence grown from a monochromatic seed-wave, in one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The Langmuir wave supercontinuum (LWSC) is formed when the seed wave excites side-band fields efficiently by the modulational instabilities. Its identification is achieved by the use of the tricoherence analysis, which detects four wave mixings (FWMs) of plasmons (plasma wave quanta), and evaluation of the first order coherence, which is a measure of temporal coherence, of the wave electric fields. The irreversible evolution to the coherent LWSC from the seed wave is realized by the wave-particle interactions causing stochastic electron motions in the phase space and the coherence of LWSC is maintained by the phase-preserving FWMs of plasmons. The LWSC corresponds to a quasi Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal mode.
Influence of the interaction of ions-dust grains on ion acoustic wave and dust acoustic wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hua Jianjun; Liu Jinyuan; Ma Tengcai
2004-01-01
Based on a set of hydrodynamic equations and a linear time-dependent perturbation theory, the influence of the interaction of ions-dust grains on ion acoustic wave IAW and dust acoustic wave DAW in dusty plasma is analyzed. The results show that the interaction makes IAW more stable and DAW less stable
Feng, Q. S.; Zheng, C. Y.; Liu, Z. J.; Cao, L. H.; Xiao, C. Z.; Wang, Q.; Zhang, H. C.; He, X. T.
2017-08-01
Ion-bulk (IBk) wave, a novel branch with a phase velocity close to the ion’s thermal velocity, discovered by Valentini et al (2011 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 53 105017), is recently considered as an important electrostatic activity in solar wind, and thus of great interest to space physics and also inertial confinement fusion. The harmonic effects on IBk waves has been researched by Vlasov simulation for the first time. The condition of excitation of the large-amplitude IBk waves is given. The nature of nonlinear IBk waves in the condition of kFeng scattering (SFS) has been proposed and also verified by Vlasov-Maxwell code. In CH plasmas, in addition to the stimulated Brillouin scattering from multi ion-acoustic waves, there exists SIBS simultaneously. This research gives an insight into the SIBS in the field of laser plasma interaction.
Laser plasma physics in shock ignition – transition from collisional to collisionless absorption
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Klimo O.
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Shock Ignition is considered as a relatively robust and efficient approach to inertial confinement fusion. A strong converging shock, which is used to ignite the fuel, is launched by a high power laser pulse with intensity in the range of 1015 − 1016 W/cm2 (at the wavelength of 351 nm. In the lower end of this intensity range the interaction is dominated by collisions while the parametric instabilities are playing a secondary role. This is manifested in a relatively weak reflectivity and efficient electron heating. The interaction is dominated by collective effects at the upper edge of the intensity range. The stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering (SBS and SRS respectively take place in a less dense plasma and cavitation provides an efficient collisionless absorption mechanism. The transition from collisional to collisionless absorption in laser plasma interactions at higher intensities is studied here with the help of large scale one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell (PIC simulations. The relation between the collisional and collisionless processes is manifested in the energy spectrum of electrons transporting the absorbed laser energy and in the spectrum of the reflected laser light.
Laser-Plasma Modeling Using PERSEUS Extended-MHD Simulation Code for HED Plasmas
Hamlin, Nathaniel; Seyler, Charles
2017-10-01
We discuss the use of the PERSEUS extended-MHD simulation code for high-energy-density (HED) plasmas in modeling the influence of Hall and electron inertial physics on laser-plasma interactions. By formulating the extended-MHD equations as a relaxation system in which the current is semi-implicitly time-advanced using the Generalized Ohm's Law, PERSEUS enables modeling of extended-MHD phenomena (Hall and electron inertial physics) without the need to resolve the smallest electron time scales, which would otherwise be computationally prohibitive in HED plasma simulations. We first consider a laser-produced plasma plume pinched by an applied magnetic field parallel to the laser axis in axisymmetric cylindrical geometry, forming a conical shock structure and a jet above the flow convergence. The Hall term produces low-density outer plasma, a helical field structure, flow rotation, and field-aligned current, rendering the shock structure dispersive. We then model a laser-foil interaction by explicitly driving the oscillating laser fields, and examine the essential physics governing the interaction. This work is supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration stewardship sciences academic program under Department of Energy cooperative agreements DE-FOA-0001153 and DE-NA0001836.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geddes, Cameron G.R., E-mail: cgrgeddes@lbl.gov; Rykovanov, Sergey; Matlis, Nicholas H.; Steinke, Sven; Vay, Jean-Luc; Esarey, Eric H.; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Nakamura, Kei; Quiter, Brian J.; Schroeder, Carl B.; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim P.
2015-05-01
Near-monoenergetic photon sources at MeV energies offer improved sensitivity at greatly reduced dose for active interrogation, and new capabilities in treaty verification, nondestructive assay of spent nuclear fuel and emergency response. Thomson (also referred to as Compton) scattering sources are an established method to produce appropriate photon beams. Applications are however restricted by the size of the required high-energy electron linac, scattering (photon production) system, and shielding for disposal of the high energy electron beam. Laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs) produce GeV electron beams in centimeters, using the plasma wave driven by the radiation pressure of an intense laser. Recent LPA experiments are presented which have greatly improved beam quality and efficiency, rendering them appropriate for compact high-quality photon sources based on Thomson scattering. Designs for MeV photon sources utilizing the unique properties of LPAs are presented. It is shown that control of the scattering laser, including plasma guiding, can increase photon production efficiency. This reduces scattering laser size and/or electron beam current requirements to scale compatible with the LPA. Lastly, the plasma structure can decelerate the electron beam after photon production, reducing the size of shielding required for beam disposal. Together, these techniques provide a path to a compact photon source system.
Large amplitude waves and fields in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angelis, U. de; Naples Univ.
1990-02-01
In this review, based mostly on the results of the recent workshop on ''Large Amplitude Waves and Fields in Plasmas'' held at ICTP (Trieste, Italy) in May 1989 during the Spring College on Plasma Physics, I will mostly concentrate on underdense, cold, homogeneous plasmas, discussing some of the alternative (to fusion) uses of laser-plasma interaction. In Part I an outline of some basic non-linear processes is given, together with some recent experimental results. The processes are chosen because of their relevance to the applications or because new interesting developments have been reported at the ICTP workshop (or both). In Part II the excitation mechanisms and uses of large amplitude plasma waves are presented: these include phase-conjugation in plasmas, plasma based accelerators (beat-wave, plasma wake-field and laser wake-field), plasma lenses and plasma wigglers for Free Electron Lasers. (author)
Wave chaos in quantum systems with point interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albeverio, S.; Seba, P.
1991-01-01
The authors study perturbations H of the quantized version H 0 of integrable Hamiltonian systems by point interactions. They relate the eigenvalues of H to the zeros of a certain meromorphic function ξ. Assuming the eigenvalues of H 0 are Poisson distributed, they get detailed information on the joint distribution of the zeros of ξ and give bounds on the probability density for the spacings of eigenvalues of H. Their results confirm the wave chaos phenomenon, as different from the quantum chaos phenomenon predicted by random matrix theory
Electron structure of atoms in laser plasma: The Debye shielding model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sako, Tokuei; Okutsu, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Kaoru
2005-01-01
The electronic structure and the energy spectra of multielectron atoms in laser plasmas are examined by the Debye shielding model. The effect of the plasma environment on the electrons bound in an atom is taken into account by introducing the screened Coulomb-type potentials into the electronic Hamiltonian of an atom in place of the standard nuclear attraction and electron repulsion potentials. The capabilities of this new Hamiltonian are demonstrated for He and Li in laser plasmas. (author)
Laser plasma instability experiments with KrF lasers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weaver, J. L.; Karasik, M.; Serlin, V.; Obenschain, S.; Chan, L-Y.; Kehne, D.; Schmitt, A. J.; Colombant, D.; Velikovich, A.; Oh, J.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Afeyan, B.; Phillips, L.; Seely, J.; Brown, C.; Feldman, U.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Mostovych, A. N.; Holland, G.
2007-01-01
Deleterious effects of laser-plasma instability (LPI) may limit the maximum laser irradiation that can be used for inertial confinement fusion. The short wavelength (248 nm), large bandwidth, and very uniform illumination available with krypton-fluoride (KrF) lasers should increase the maximum usable intensity by suppressing LPI. The concomitant increase in ablation pressure would allow implosion of low-aspect-ratio pellets to ignition with substantial gain (>20) at much reduced laser energy. The proposed KrF-laser-based Fusion Test Facility (FTF) would exploit this strategy to achieve significant fusion power (150 MW) with a rep-rate system that has a per pulse laser energy well below 1 MJ. Measurements of LPI using the Nike KrF laser are presented at and above intensities needed for the FTF (I∼2x10 15 W/cm 2 ). The results to date indicate that LPI is indeed suppressed. With overlapped beam intensity above the planar, single beam intensity threshold for the two-plasmon decay instability, no evidence of instability was observed via measurements of (3/2)ω o and (1/2)ω o harmonic emissions
Optical emission spectroscopy of carbon laser plasma ion source
Balki, Oguzhan; Rahman, Md. Mahmudur; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.
2018-04-01
Carbon laser plasma generated by an Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 1064 nm, pulse width 7 ns, fluence 4-52 J cm-2) is studied by optical emission spectroscopy and ion time-of-flight. Up to C4+ ions are detected with the ion flux strongly dependent on the laser fluence. The increase in ion charge with the laser fluence is accompanied by observation of multicharged ion lines in the optical spectra. The time-integrated electron temperature Te is calculated from the Boltzmann plot using the C II lines at 392.0, 426.7, and 588.9 nm. Te is found to increase from ∼0.83 eV for a laser fluence of 22 J cm-2 to ∼0.90 eV for 40 J cm-2. The electron density ne is obtained from the Stark broadened profiles of the C II line at 392 nm and is found to increase from ∼ 2 . 1 × 1017cm-3 for 4 J cm-2 to ∼ 3 . 5 × 1017cm-3 for 40 J cm-2. Applying an external electric field parallel to the expanding plume shows no effect on the line emission intensities. Deconvolution of ion time-of-flight signal with a shifted Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution for each charge state results in an ion temperature Ti ∼4.7 and ∼6.0 eV for 20 and 36 J cm-2, respectively.
Measured emittance dependence on injection method in laser plasma accelerators
Barber, Samuel; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Schroeder, Carl; Lehe, Remi; Tsai, Hai-En; Swanson, Kelly; Steinke, Sven; Nakamura, Kei; Geddes, Cameron; Benedetti, Carlo; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim
2017-10-01
The success of many laser plasma accelerator (LPA) based applications relies on the ability to produce electron beams with excellent 6D brightness, where brightness is defined as the ratio of charge to the product of the three normalized emittances. As such, parametric studies of the emittance of LPA generated electron beams are essential. Profiting from a stable and tunable LPA setup, combined with a carefully designed single-shot transverse emittance diagnostic, we present a direct comparison of charge dependent emittance measurements of electron beams generated by two different injection mechanisms: ionization injection and shock induced density down-ramp injection. Notably, the measurements reveal that ionization injection results in significantly higher emittance. With the down-ramp injection configuration, emittances less than 1 micron at spectral charge densities up to 2 pC/MeV were measured. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231, by the NSF under Grant No. PHY-1415596, by the U.S. DOE NNSA, DNN R&D (NA22), and by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation under Grant ID GBMF4898.
Hollow laser plasma self-confined microjet generation
Sizyuk, Valeryi; Hassanein, Ahmed; CenterMaterials under Extreme Environment Team
2017-10-01
Hollow laser beam produced plasma (LPP) devices are being used for the generation of the self-confined cumulative microjet. Most important place by this LPP device construction is achieving of an annular distribution of the laser beam intensity by spot. An integrated model is being developed to detailed simulation of the plasma generation and evolution inside the laser beam channel. The model describes in two temperature approximation hydrodynamic processes in plasma, laser absorption processes, heat conduction, and radiation energy transport. The total variation diminishing scheme in the Lax-Friedrich formulation for the description of plasma hydrodynamic is used. Laser absorption and radiation transport models on the base of Monte Carlo method are being developed. Heat conduction part on the implicit scheme with sparse matrixes using is realized. The developed models are being integrated into HEIGHTS-LPP computer simulation package. The integrated modeling of the hollow beam laser plasma generation showed the self-confinement and acceleration of the plasma microjet inside the laser channel. It was found dependence of the microjet parameters including radiation emission on the hole and beam radiuses ratio. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation, PIRE project.
Electron beam charge diagnostics for laser plasma accelerators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Nakamura
2011-06-01
Full Text Available A comprehensive study of charge diagnostics is conducted to verify their validity for measuring electron beams produced by laser plasma accelerators (LPAs. First, a scintillating screen (Lanex was extensively studied using subnanosecond electron beams from the Advanced Light Source booster synchrotron, at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Lanex was cross calibrated with an integrating current transformer (ICT for up to the electron energy of 1.5 GeV, and the linear response of the screen was confirmed for charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm^{2} and 0.4 pC/(ps mm^{2}, respectively. After the radio-frequency accelerator based cross calibration, a series of measurements was conducted using electron beams from an LPA. Cross calibrations were carried out using an activation-based measurement that is immune to electromagnetic pulse noise, ICT, and Lanex. The diagnostics agreed within ±8%, showing that they all can provide accurate charge measurements for LPAs.
Wave Driven Fluid-Sediment Interactions over Rippled Beds
Foster, Diane; Nichols, Claire
2008-11-01
Empirical investigations relating vortex shedding over rippled beds to oscillatory flows date back to Darwin in 1883. Observations of the shedding induced by oscillating forcing over fixed beds have shown vortical structures to reach maximum strength at 90 degrees when the horizontal velocity is largest. The objective of this effort is to examine the vortex generation and ejection over movable rippled beds in a full-scale, free surface wave environment. Observations of the two-dimensional time-varying velocity field over a movable sediment bed were obtained with a submersible Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system in two wave flumes. One wave flume was full scale and had a natural sand bed and the other flume had an artificial sediment bed with a specific gravity of 1.6. Full scale observations over an irregularly rippled bed show that the vortices generated during offshore directed flow over the steeper bed form slope were regularly ejected into the water column and were consistent with conceptual models of the oscillatory flow over a backward facing step. The results also show that vortices remain coherent during ejection when the background flow stalls (i.e. both the velocity and acceleration temporarily approach zero). These results offer new insight into fluid sediment interaction over rippled beds.
Interaction of random wave-current over uneven and porous bottoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suo Yaohong; Zhang Zhonghua; Zhang Jiafan; Suo Xiaohong
2009-01-01
Starting from linear wave theory and applying Green's second identity and considering wave-current interaction for porous bottoms and variable water depth, the comprehensive mild-slope equation model theory of wave-current interaction is developed, then paying attention to the effect of random waves, by use of Kubo et al.'s method, a model theory of the interaction between random waves and current over uneven and porous bottoms is established. Finally the characteristics of the random waves are discussed numerically from both the geometric-optics approximation and the target spectrum.
Quiescent plasma machine for beam-plasma interaction and wave studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, J.L.
1994-01-01
A quiescent double plasma machine for beam-plasma interaction wave studies is described. A detailed description of several plasma diagnostics used for plasma and wave excitation detection is given. A beam-plasma wave dispersion relation is used to compare theoretical values with the experimentally measured Langmuir wave frequencies and wavelengths. (author). 14 refs, 10 figs
Experimental signatures of localization in Langmuir wave turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rose, H.A.; DuBois, D.F.; Russell, D.; Bezzerides, B.
1988-01-01
Features in certain laser-plasma and ionospheric experiments are identified with the basic properties of Langmuir wave turbulence. Also, a model of caviton nucleation is presented which leads to certain novel scaling predictions. 12 refs., 19 figs.
Hossen, Md. Belal; Roshid, Harun-Or; Ali, M. Zulfikar
2018-05-01
Under inquisition in this paper is a (2 + 1)-dimensional Breaking Soliton equation, which can describe various nonlinear scenarios in fluid dynamics. Using the Bell polynomials, some proficient auxiliary functions are offered to apparently construct its bilinear form and corresponding soliton solutions which are different from the previous literatures. Moreover, a direct method is used to construct its rogue wave and solitary wave solutions using particular auxiliary function with the assist of bilinear formalism. Finally, the interactions between solitary waves and rogue waves are offered with a complete derivation. These results enhance the variety of the dynamics of higher dimensional nonlinear wave fields related to mathematical physics and engineering.
Interactions of disparate scales in drift-wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, John A.; Kim, Chang-Bae
2000-01-01
Renormalized statistical theory is used to calculate the interactions between short scales (wave vector k) and long scales (wave vector q parallel =0 fluctuations). The calculations include the zonal-flow growth rate as a special case, but also describe long-wavelength fluctuations with q oriented at an arbitrary angle to the background gradient. The results are fully renormalized. They are subtly different from those of previous authors, in both mathematical form and physical interpretation. A term arising in previous treatments that is related to the propagation of short-scale wave packets is shown to be a higher-order effect that must consistently be neglected to lowest order in a systematic expansion in q/k. Rigorous functional methods are used to show that the long-wavelength growth rate γ q is related to second-order functional variations of the short-wavelength energy and to derive a heuristic algorithm. The principal results are recovered from simple estimates involving the first-order wave-number distension rate tilde γ k (1) dot eqdot kdeltilde Omega k /k 2 , where tilde Ω k is a nonlinear random advection frequency. Fokker-Planck analysis involving tilde γ k (1) is used to heuristically recover the evolution equation for the small scales, and a random-walk flux argument that relates tilde γ k (1) to an effective autocorrelation time is used to give an independent calculation of γ q . Both the rigorous and heuristic derivations demonstrate that the results do not depend on, and cannot be derived from, properties of linear normal modes; they are intrinsically nonlinear. The importance of random-Galilean-invariant renormalization is stressed
Nonlinear interactions of electromagnetic waves with the auroral ionosphere
Wong, Alfred Y.
1999-09-01
The ionosphere provides us with an opportunity to perform plasma experiments in an environment with long confinement times, very large-scale lengths, and no confining walls. The auroral ionosphere with its nearly vertical magnetic field geometry is uniquely endowed with large amount of free energy from electron and ion precipitation along the magnetic field and mega-ampere current across the magnetic field. To take advantage of this giant outdoor laboratory, two facilities HAARP and HIPAS, with frequencies ranging from the radio to optical bands, are now available for active probing of and interaction with this interesting region. The ponderomotive pressures from the self-consistent wave fields have produced significant local perturbations of density and particle distributions at heights where the incident EM frequency matches a plasma resonance. This paper will review theory and experiments covering the nonlinear phenomena of parametric decay instability to wave collapse processes. At HF frequencies plasma lenses can be created by preconditioning pulses to focus what is a normally divergent beam into a high-intensity spot to further enhance nonlinear phenomena. At optical wavelengths a large rotating liquid metal mirror is used to focus laser pulses up to a given height. Such laser pulses are tuned to the same wavelengths of selected atomic and molecular resonances, with resulting large scattering cross sections. Ongoing experiments on dual-site experiments and excitation of ELF waves will be presented. The connection of such basic studies to environmental applications will be discussed. Such applications include the global communication using ELF waves, the ozone depletion and remediation and the control of atmospheric CO2 through the use of ion cyclotron resonant heating.
Simulations of Shock Wave Interaction with a Particle Cloud
Koneru, Rahul; Rollin, Bertrand; Ouellet, Frederick; Annamalai, Subramanian; Balachandar, S.'Bala'
2016-11-01
Simulations of a shock wave interacting with a cloud of particles are performed in an attempt to understand similar phenomena observed in dispersal of solid particles under such extreme environment as an explosion. We conduct numerical experiments in which a particle curtain fills only 87% of the shock tube from bottom to top. As such, the particle curtain upon interaction with the shock wave is expected to experience Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities. In this study, the initial volume fraction profile matches with that of Sandia Multiphase Shock Tube experiments, and the shock Mach number is limited to M =1.66. In these simulations we use a Eulerian-Lagrangian approach along with state-of-the-art point-particle force and heat transfer models. Measurements of particle dispersion are made at different initial volume fractions of the particle cloud. A detailed analysis of the evolution of the particle curtain with respect to the initial conditions is presented. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Advanced Simulation and Computing Program, as a Cooperative Agreement under the Predictive Science Academic Alliance Program, Contract No. DE-NA0002378.
Applications of nanosecond, kilojoule lasers to the basic physics of waves in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drake, R.P.
1992-01-01
Plasmas can sustain many normal modes of oscillation (waves), including both electromagnetic and electrostatic modes. These waves can interact by a wide variety of linear and nonlinear mechanisms, including mode coupling, mixing, and instabilities. Furthermore, such mechanisms compete, so that a given wave might be absorbed, might mode convert, or might decay by one of several instabilities, depending upon the specific circumstances in which it is produced. Moreover, such waves are important in many applications, including for example laser fusion, x-ray lasers, plasma accelerators, and ionospheric heating. Laser-produced plasmas can provide an effective medium for the studies of such waves and the related mechanisms. New opportunities will be made possible by the advent of comparatively inexpensive nanosecond, kilojoule lasers. One can now contemplate affordable experiments, not limited by programmatic constraints, that could study such the basic physics of the waves in such plasmas with unprecedented precision and in unprecedented detail
Conceptual design of a laser-plasma accelerator driven free-electron laser demonstration experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seggebrock, Thorben
2015-01-01
Up to now, short-wavelength free-electron lasers (FEL) have been systems on the scale of hundreds of meters up to multiple kilometers. Due to the advancements in laser-plasma acceleration in the recent years, these accelerators have become a promising candidate for driving a fifth-generation synchrotron light source - a lab-scale free-electron laser. So far, demonstration experiments have been hindered by the broad energy spread typical for this type of accelerator. This thesis addresses the most important challenges of the conceptual design for a first lab-scale FEL demonstration experiment using analytical considerations as well as simulations. The broad energy spread reduces the FEL performance directly by weakening the microbunching and indirectly via chromatic emittance growth, caused by the focusing system. Both issues can be mitigated by decompressing the electron bunch in a magnetic chicane, resulting in a sorting by energies. This reduces the local energy spread as well as the local chromatic emittance growth and also lowers performance degradations caused by the short bunch length. Moreover, the energy dependent focus position leads to a focus motion within the bunch, which can be synchronized with the radiation pulse, maximizing the current density in the interaction region. This concept is termed chromatic focus matching. A comparison shows the advantages of the longitudinal decompression concept compared to the alternative approach of transverse dispersion. When using typical laser-plasma based electron bunches, coherent synchrotron radiation and space-charge contribute in equal measure to the emittance growth during decompression. It is shown that a chicane for this purpose must not be as weak and long as affordable to reduce coherent synchrotron radiation, but that an intermediate length is required. Furthermore, the interplay of the individual concepts and components is assessed in a start-to-end simulation, confirming the feasibility of the
Conceptual design of a laser-plasma accelerator driven free-electron laser demonstration experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seggebrock, Thorben
2015-07-08
Up to now, short-wavelength free-electron lasers (FEL) have been systems on the scale of hundreds of meters up to multiple kilometers. Due to the advancements in laser-plasma acceleration in the recent years, these accelerators have become a promising candidate for driving a fifth-generation synchrotron light source - a lab-scale free-electron laser. So far, demonstration experiments have been hindered by the broad energy spread typical for this type of accelerator. This thesis addresses the most important challenges of the conceptual design for a first lab-scale FEL demonstration experiment using analytical considerations as well as simulations. The broad energy spread reduces the FEL performance directly by weakening the microbunching and indirectly via chromatic emittance growth, caused by the focusing system. Both issues can be mitigated by decompressing the electron bunch in a magnetic chicane, resulting in a sorting by energies. This reduces the local energy spread as well as the local chromatic emittance growth and also lowers performance degradations caused by the short bunch length. Moreover, the energy dependent focus position leads to a focus motion within the bunch, which can be synchronized with the radiation pulse, maximizing the current density in the interaction region. This concept is termed chromatic focus matching. A comparison shows the advantages of the longitudinal decompression concept compared to the alternative approach of transverse dispersion. When using typical laser-plasma based electron bunches, coherent synchrotron radiation and space-charge contribute in equal measure to the emittance growth during decompression. It is shown that a chicane for this purpose must not be as weak and long as affordable to reduce coherent synchrotron radiation, but that an intermediate length is required. Furthermore, the interplay of the individual concepts and components is assessed in a start-to-end simulation, confirming the feasibility of the
Modeling classical and quantum radiation from laser-plasma accelerators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Chen
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The development of models and the “Virtual Detector for Synchrotron Radiation” (vdsr code that accurately describe the production of synchrotron radiation are described. These models and code are valid in the classical and linear (single-scattering quantum regimes and are capable of describing radiation produced from laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs through a variety of mechanisms including betatron radiation, undulator radiation, and Thomson/Compton scattering. Previous models of classical synchrotron radiation, such as those typically used for undulator radiation, are inadequate in describing the radiation spectra from electrons undergoing small numbers of oscillations. This is due to an improper treatment of a mathematical evaluation at the end points of an integration that leads to an unphysical plateau in the radiation spectrum at high frequencies, the magnitude of which increases as the number of oscillation periods decreases. This is important for betatron radiation from LPAs, in which the betatron strength parameter is large but the number of betatron periods is small. The code vdsr allows the radiation to be calculated in this regime by full integration over each electron trajectory, including end-point effects, and this code is used to calculate betatron radiation for cases of experimental interest. Radiation from Thomson scattering and Compton scattering is also studied with vdsr. For Thomson scattering, radiation reaction is included by using the Sokolov method for the calculation of the electron dynamics. For Compton scattering, quantum recoil effects are considered in vdsr by using Monte Carlo methods. The quantum calculation has been benchmarked with the classical calculation in a classical regime.
Spin waves in terbium. II. Magnon-phonon interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jensen, J.; Houmann, J.G.
1975-01-01
The selection rules for the linear couplings between magnons and phonons propagating in the c direction of a simple basal-plane hcp ferromagnet are determined by general symmetry considerations. The acoustic-optical magnon-phonon interactions observed in the heavy-rare-earth metals have been explained by Liu as originating from the mixing of the spin states of the conduction electrons due to the spin-orbit coupling. We find that this coupling mechanism introduces interactions which violate the selection rules for a simple ferromagnet. The interactions between the magnons and phonons propagating in the c direction of Tb have been studied experimentally by means of inelastic neutron scatttering. The magnons are coupled to both the acoustic- and optical-transverse phonons. By studying the behavior of the acoustic-optical coupling, we conclude that it is a spin-mixed-induced coupling as proposed by Liu. The coupled magnon--transverse-phonon system for the c direction of Tb is analyzed in detail, and the strengths of the couplings are deduced as a function of wave vector by combining the experimental studies with the theory
Wave--particle interactions in the magnetosphere and ionosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thorne, R.M.
1975-01-01
Two distinct aspects of the interaction between waves and particles in the earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere were discussed at the Yosemite Conference on Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling; these will be briefly reviewed. Intense field-aligned currents flow between the ionosphere and magnetosphere at auroral latitudes. Under certain conditions these currents can become unstable, permitting potential drops to be established along the field lines. The present status of experimental evidence favoring such parallel electric fields is somewhat controversial. Theoretical models for their origin invoke regions of anomalous resistivity or electrostatic double layers. To date it is impossible to distinguish between these alternatives on the basis of experimental data. The nonadiabatic behavior of magnetospheric ring current particles during geomagnetic storms is largely controlled by wave-particle processes. During the storm main phase, intense fluctuating convection electric fields are responsible for injecting trapped particles into the outer radiation zone. The outer radiation zone also moves in closer to the earth following the storm time compression of the plasmapause. Simultaneous pitch angle scattering by higher-frequency plasma turbulence causes precipitation loss near the strong diffusion limit throughout the outer magnetosphere. During the storm recov []ry phase the plasmapause slowly moves out toward its prestorm location; energetic particle loss at such times appears to be dominated by cyclotron resonant scattering from electromagnetic turbulence. (auth)
Response of inorganic materials to laser - plasma EUV radiation focused with a lobster eye collector
Bartnik, Andrzej; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Jarocki, Roman; Kostecki, Jerzy; Szczurek, Miroslaw; Havlikova, Radka; Pína, Ladislav; Švéda, Libor; Inneman, Adolf
2007-05-01
A single photon of EUV radiation carries enough energy to break any chemical bond or excite electrons from inner atomic shells. It means that the radiation regardless of its intensity can modify chemical structure of molecules. It is the reason that the radiation even with low intensity can cause fragmentation of long chains of organic materials and desorption of small parts from their surface. In this work interaction of EUV radiation with inorganic materials was investigated. Different inorganic samples were irradiated with a 10 Hz laser - plasma EUV source based on a gas puff target. The radiation was focused on a sample surface using a lobster eye collector. Radiation fluence at the surface reached 30 mJ/cm2 within a wavelength range 7 - 20 nm. In most cases there was no surface damage even after several minutes of irradiation. In some cases there could be noticed discolouration of an irradiated surface or evidences of thermal effects. In most cases however luminescent and scattered radiation was observed. The luminescent radiation was emitted in different wavelength ranges. It was recorded in a visible range of radiation and also in a wide wavelength range including UV, VUV and EUV. The radiation was especially intense in a case of non-metallic chemical compounds.
Shen, Yujia; Wen, Zichao; Yan, Zhenya; Hang, Chao
2018-04-01
We study the three-wave interaction that couples an electromagnetic pump wave to two frequency down-converted daughter waves in a quadratic optical crystal and P T -symmetric potentials. P T symmetric potentials are shown to modulate stably nonlinear modes in two kinds of three-wave interaction models. The first one is a spatially extended three-wave interaction system with odd gain-and-loss distribution in the channel. Modulated by the P T -symmetric single-well or multi-well Scarf-II potentials, the system is numerically shown to possess stable soliton solutions. Via adiabatical change of system parameters, numerical simulations for the excitation and evolution of nonlinear modes are also performed. The second one is a combination of P T -symmetric models which are coupled via three-wave interactions. Families of nonlinear modes are found with some particular choices of parameters. Stable and unstable nonlinear modes are shown in distinct families by means of numerical simulations. These results will be useful to further investigate nonlinear modes in three-wave interaction models.
Waves in the core and mechanical core-mantle interactions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jault, D.; Finlay, Chris
2015-01-01
This Chapter focuses on time-dependent uid motions in the core interior, which can beconstrained by observations of the Earth's magnetic eld, on timescales which are shortcompared to the magnetic diusion time. This dynamics is strongly inuenced by the Earth's rapid rotation, which rigidies...... the motions in the direction parallel to the Earth'srotation axis. This property accounts for the signicance of the core-mantle topography.In addition, the stiening of the uid in the direction parallel to the rotation axis gives riseto a magnetic diusion layer attached to the core-mantle boundary, which would...... otherwisebe dispersed by Alfven waves. This Chapter complements the descriptions of large-scaleow in the core (8.04), of turbulence in the core (8.06) and of core-mantle interactions(8.12), which can all be found in this volume. We rely on basic magnetohydrodynamictheory, including the derivation...
Oblique interactions of detonation waves with explosive/metal interfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walsh, J.M.
1982-12-01
The interaction of a detonation wave with an explosive/metal interface is considered. Theoretical models are discussed, and calculated results are given for PBX 9501 onto uranium, tantalum, copper, 304 stainless steel, aluminum, and nickel. For PBX 9501 onto aluminum and copper, regular shock reflection (in the PBX 9501) at small angles changes to regular rarefaction reflection (Prandtl-Meyer flow) at large angles, and the curve of metal-shock pressure vs incidence angle is smooth. For the other metals, there is a discontinuity in shock pressure where low-angle, regular reflection transists to Mach reflection, and a smaller discontinuity where the Mach reflection changes back to high-angle regular reflection
Interactions between urban heat islands and heat waves
Zhao, Lei; Oppenheimer, Michael; Zhu, Qing; Baldwin, Jane W.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Guan, Kaiyu; Liu, Xu
2018-03-01
Heat waves (HWs) are among the most damaging climate extremes to human society. Climate models consistently project that HW frequency, severity, and duration will increase markedly over this century. For urban residents, the urban heat island (UHI) effect further exacerbates the heat stress resulting from HWs. Here we use a climate model to investigate the interactions between the UHI and HWs in 50 cities in the United States under current climate and future warming scenarios. We examine UHI2m (defined as urban-rural difference in 2m-height air temperature) and UHIs (defined as urban-rural difference in radiative surface temperature). Our results show significant sensitivity of the interaction between UHI and HWs to local background climate and warming scenarios. Sensitivity also differs between daytime and nighttime. During daytime, cities in the temperate climate region show significant synergistic effects between UHI and HWs in current climate, with an average of 0.4 K higher UHI2m or 2.8 K higher UHIs during HWs than during normal days. These synergistic effects, however, diminish in future warmer climates. In contrast, the daytime synergistic effects for cities in dry regions are insignificant in the current climate, but emerge in future climates. At night, the synergistic effects are similar across climate regions in the current climate, and are stronger in future climate scenarios. We use a biophysical factorization method to disentangle the mechanisms behind the interactions between UHI and HWs that explain the spatial-temporal patterns of the interactions. Results show that the difference in the increase of urban versus rural evaporation and enhanced anthropogenic heat emissions (air conditioning energy use) during HWs are key contributors to the synergistic effects during daytime. The contrast in water availability between urban and rural land plays an important role in determining the contribution of evaporation. At night, the enhanced release of stored
Experimental investigation of electron beam wave interactions utilising short pulses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiggins, Samuel Mark
2000-01-01
Experiments have investigated the production of ultra-short electromagnetic pulses and their interaction with electrons in various resonant structures. Diagnostic systems used in the measurements included large bandwidth detection systems for capturing the short pulses. Deconvolution techniques have been applied to account for bandwidth limitation of the detection systems and to extract the actual pulse amplitudes and durations from the data. A Martin-Puplett interferometer has been constructed for use as a Fourier transform spectrometer. The growth of superradiant electromagnetic spikes from short duration (0.5-1.0 ns), high current (0.6-2.0 kA) electron pulses has been investigated in a Ka-band Cherenkov maser and Ka- and W-band backward wave oscillators (BWO). In the Cherenkov maser, radiation spikes were produced with a peak power ≤ 3 MW, a duration ≥ 70 ps and a bandwidth ≤ 19 %. It is shown that coherent spontaneous emission from the leading edge of the electron pulse drives these interactions, giving rise to self-amplified coherent spontaneous emission (SACSE). BWO spikes were produced with a peak power ≤ 63 MW and a pulse duration ∼ 250 ps in the Ka-band and ≤ 12 MW and ∼ 170 ps in the W-band. Evidence of superradiant evolution has been observed in the measurements of scaling laws such as power scaling with the current squared and duration scaling inversely with the fourth root of the power. An X-band free-electron maser amplifier, in which a short (1.0ns) injected radiation pulse interacts with a long (∼ 140 ns) electron beam, has been investigated. The interaction is shown to evolve in the linear regime. The peak output power was 320 kW, which corresponded to a gain, approximately constant across the band, of 42 dB. Changes to the spectrum, that occur when the input radiation pulse is injected into electrons with an energy gradient, have been analysed. (author)
Low-order models of wave interactions in the transition to baroclinic chaos
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W.-G. Früh
1996-01-01
Full Text Available A hierarchy of low-order models, based on the quasi-geostrophic two-layer model, is used to investigate complex multi-mode flows. The different models were used to study distinct types of nonlinear interactions, namely wave- wave interactions through resonant triads, and zonal flow-wave interactions. The coupling strength of individual triads is estimated using a phase locking probability density function. The flow of primary interest is a strongly modulated amplitude vacillation, whose modulation is coupled to intermittent bursts of weaker wave modes. This flow was found to emerge in a discontinuous bifurcation directly from a steady wave solution. Two mechanism were found to result in this flow, one involving resonant triads, and the other involving zonal flow-wave interactions together with a strong β-effect. The results will be compared with recent laboratory experiments of multi-mode baroclinic waves in a rotating annulus of fluid subjected to a horizontal temperature gradient.
Holographic Imaging of Evolving Laser-Plasma Structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Downer, Michael [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Shvets, G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)
2014-07-31
In the 1870s, English photographer Eadweard Muybridge captured motion pictures within one cycle of a horse’s gallop, which settled a hotly debated question of his time by showing that the horse became temporarily airborne. In the 1940s, Manhattan project photographer Berlin Brixner captured a nuclear blast at a million frames per second, and resolved a dispute about the explosion’s shape and speed. In this project, we developed methods to capture detailed motion pictures of evolving, light-velocity objects created by a laser pulse propagating through matter. These objects include electron density waves used to accelerate charged particles, laser-induced refractive index changes used for micromachining, and ionization tracks used for atmospheric chemical analysis, guide star creation and ranging. Our “movies”, like Muybridge’s and Brixner’s, are obtained in one shot, since the laser-created objects of interest are insufficiently repeatable for accurate stroboscopic imaging. Our high-speed photographs have begun to resolve controversies about how laser-created objects form and evolve, questions that previously could be addressed only by intensive computer simulations based on estimated initial conditions. Resolving such questions helps develop better tabletop particle accelerators, atmospheric ranging devices and many other applications of laser-matter interactions. Our photographic methods all begin by splitting one or more “probe” pulses from the laser pulse that creates the light-speed object. A probe illuminates the object and obtains information about its structure without altering it. We developed three single-shot visualization methods that differ in how the probes interact with the object of interest or are recorded. (1) Frequency-Domain Holography (FDH). In FDH, there are 2 probes, like “object” and “reference” beams in conventional holography. Our “object” probe surrounds the light-speed object, like a fleas swarming around a
Interaction of the precessional wave with free-boundary Alfven surface waves in tandem mirrors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berk, H.L.; Kaiser, T.B.
1984-04-01
We consider a symmetric tandem mirror plugging a long central cell, with plugs stabilized by a hot component plasma. The system is taken to have a flat pressure profile with a steep edge gradient. We then consider the interaction of the precessional mode with Alfven waves generated in the central cell. This analysis is non-eikonal and is valid when mΔ/r < 1 (m is the azimuthal mode number. r the plasma radius and Δ the radial gradient scale length) for long-wavelength radial modes. We find that without FLR effects the precessional mode is always destabilized by the excitation of the Alfven waves for m greater than or equal to 2. For m=1, it is possible to achieve stabilization with conducting walls. A discussion is given of how FLR affects stabilization of the m greater than or equal to 2 long-wavelength modes and of finite-Larmor-radius stabilization of modes described in the eikonal approximation
Exact periodic waves and their interactions for the (2+1 ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The interaction properties of the periodic waves are in- vestigated numerically and found to be nonelastic. The long wave limit yields some new types of solitary wave solutions. Especially the dromion and the solitoff solutions obtained in this paper possess new types of solution structures which are quite different from the.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amein, W.H.; El-Siragy, N.M.; Nagy, O.Z.; Sayed, Y.A.
1981-01-01
Nonlinear interaction of S-Polarized surface waves at the boundary of a semibounded magnetized plasma is investigated. The expressions of the amplitudes of the generated waves are found. It is shown that, the generated waves with combined frequencies are equally radiated from the transient layer into plasma and vacuum
On the mechanisms of interaction of low-intensity millimeter waves with biological objects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Betskii, O.V.
1994-07-01
The interaction of low-intensity millimeter-band electromagnetic waves with biological objects is examined. These waves are widely used in medical practice as a means of physiotherapy for the treatment of various human disorders. Principal attention is given to the mechanisms through which millimeter waves act on the human organism.
Beach steepness effects on nonlinear infragravity-wave interactions : A numerical study
De Bakker, A. T M; Tissier, M.F.S.; Ruessink, B. G.
2016-01-01
The numerical model SWASH is used to investigate nonlinear energy transfers between waves for a diverse set of beach profiles and wave conditions, with a specific focus on infragravity waves. We use bispectral analysis to study the nonlinear triad interactions, and estimate energy transfers to
Beach steepness effects on nonlinear infragravity-wave interactions : A numerical study
de Bakker, A. T M; Tissier, M. F S; Ruessink, B. G.
2016-01-01
The numerical model SWASH is used to investigate nonlinear energy transfers between waves for a diverse set of beach profiles and wave conditions, with a specific focus on infragravity waves. We use bispectral analysis to study the nonlinear triad interactions, and estimate energy transfers to
High-order finite difference solution for 3D nonlinear wave-structure interaction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ducrozet, Guillaume; Bingham, Harry B.; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter
2010-01-01
This contribution presents our recent progress on developing an efficient fully-nonlinear potential flow model for simulating 3D wave-wave and wave-structure interaction over arbitrary depths (i.e. in coastal and offshore environment). The model is based on a high-order finite difference scheme O...
Dynamics of a multiple-pulse-driven x-ray laser plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wan, A.S.; Da Silva, L.B.; Moreno, J.C.; Cauble, R.; Celliers, P.; Dalhed, H.E. Jr.; Koch, J.A.; Nilsen, J.
1996-01-01
In this paper we describe experimental and computational studies of multiple-pulse-driven laser plasma, which is the gain medium for a neon-like yttrium x-ray laser. Near-field emission profiles have been measured both with and without reinjection of the x-ray laser photons to couple with the amplifying medium created by later pulses using an external multilayer mirror. From the temporal and spatial evolution of the near-field emission profiles we can examine the pulse-to-pulse variation of the x-ray laser plasma due to changes in the hydrodynamics, laser deposition, and the injecting of x-ray laser photons back into an amplifying x-ray laser plasma. Using a combination of radiation hydrodynamics, atomic kinetics, and ray propagation codes, reasonable agreement has been obtained between simulations and the experimental results. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Optical diagnostics of lead and PbGa2S4 layered crystal laser plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shuaibov, A.K.; Dashchenko, A.I.; Shevera, I.V.
2001-01-01
Paper presents the results of the optic diagnostics of plasma of laser flames formed from lead surface and PbGa 2 S 4 laminar crystal using a neodymium laser. It is shown that the most intensive lines in the lead laser plasma are as follows: 405.7, 368.3, 364.0 nm PbI and 220.4 nm PbII while for the laminar crystal base plasma - the combination of the most intensive lines of PbI and GaI emission. One determined the narrow point of recombination fluxes for the ion and the atomic components of laser plasma of lead and of PbGa 2 S 4 crystal. One conducted comparison study of emission dynamics of PbI and GaI lines in laser plasma of the respective metals and of PbGa 2 S 4 crystal [ru
Development of laser plasma x-ray microscope for living hydrated biological specimens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kado, Masataka; Daido, Hiroyuki
2005-01-01
Investigating the structure and the function of life object performing advanced life activity becomes important. In order to investigate the life object, it is necessary to observe living specimens with high spatial resolution and high temporal resolution. Since laser plasma x-ray source has high brightness and short pulse duration, x-ray microscope with the laser plasma x-ray source makes possible to observe living specimens. Such as chromosomes, macrophages, bacterium, and so on have been observed by contact x-ray microscopy. The x-ray images obtained by indirect measurements such as the contact x-ray microscopy have difficulty to avoid artificial effect such as irregular due to developing process. Development of an x-ray microscope with laser plasma x-ray source is necessary to avoid such defects. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, K.M. [Wuhan Univ. (China). School of Electronic Information; Chinese Academey of Sciences, Hefei (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment; Embry Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Daytona Beach, FL (United States). Dept. of Physical Science; Ministry of Education, Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment and Geodesy; State Observatory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing, Wuhan (China); Liu, A.Z.; Li, Z. [Embry Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Daytona Beach, FL (United States). Dept. of Physical Science; Zhang, S.D.; Yi, F. [Wuhan Univ. (China). School of Electronic Information; Ministry of Education, Wuhan (China). Key Lab. of Geospace Environment and Geodesy; State Observatory for Atmospheric Remote Sensing, Wuhan (China)
2012-07-01
Nonlinear interactions of gravity waves are studied with a two-dimensional, fully nonlinear model. The energy exchanges among resonant and near-resonant triads are examined in order to understand the spectral energy transfer through interactions. The results show that in both resonant and near-resonant interactions, the energy exchange between two high frequency waves is strong, but the energy transfer from large to small vertical scale waves is rather weak. This suggests that the energy cascade toward large vertical wavenumbers through nonlinear interaction is inefficient, which is different from the rapid turbulence cascade. Because of considerable energy exchange, nonlinear interactions can effectively spread high frequency spectrum, and play a significant role in limiting wave amplitude growth and transferring energy into higher altitudes. In resonant interaction, the interacting waves obey the resonant matching conditions, and resonant excitation is reversible, while near-resonant excitation is not so. Although near-resonant interaction shows the complexity of match relation, numerical experiments show an interesting result that when sum and difference near-resonant interactions occur between high and low frequency waves, the wave vectors tend to approximately match in horizontal direction, and the frequency of the excited waves is also close to the matching value. (orig.)
Stochastic three-wave interaction in flaring solar loops
Vlahos, L.; Sharma, R. R.; Papadopoulos, K.
1983-01-01
A model is proposed for the dynamic structure of high-frequency microwave bursts. The dynamic component is attributed to beams of precipitating electrons which generate electrostatic waves in the upper hybrid branch. Coherent upconversion of the electrostatic waves to electromagnetic waves produces an intrinsically stochastic emission component which is superposed on the gyrosynchrotron continuum generated by stably trapped electron fluxes. The role of the density and temperature of the ambient plasma in the wave growth and the transition of the three wave upconversion to stochastic, despite the stationarity of the energy source, are discussed in detail. The model appears to reproduce the observational features for reasonable parameters of the solar flare plasma.
Stochastic three-wave interaction in flaring solar loops
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vlahos, L.; Sharma, R.R.; Papadopoulos, K.
1983-01-01
We propose a model for the dynamic structure of high-frequency microwave bursts. The dynamic component is attributed to beams of precipitating electrons which generate electrostatic waves in the upper hybrid branch. Coherent upconversion of the electrostatic waves to electromagnetic waves produces an intrinsically stochastic emission component which is superposed on the gyrosynchrotron continuum generated by stably trapped electron fluxes. The role of the density and temperature of the ambient plasma in the wave growth and the transition of the three wave upconversion to stochastic, despite the stationarity of the energy source are discussed in detail. The model appears to reproduce the observational features for reasonable parameters of the solar flare plasma
Spin effect on parametric interactions of waves in magnetoplasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shahid, M.; Melrose, D. B.; Jamil, M.; Murtaza, G.
2012-01-01
The parametric decay instability of upper hybrid wave into low-frequency electromagnetic Shear Alfvén wave and Ordinary mode radiation (O-mode) has been investigated in an electron-ion plasma immersed in the uniform external magnetic field. Incorporating quantum effect due to electron spin, the fluid model has been used to investigate the linear and nonlinear response of the plasma species for three-wave coupling in a magnetoplasma. It is shown that the spin of electrons has considerable effect on the parametric decay of upper hybrid wave into Ordinary mode radiation (O-mode) and Shear Alfvén wave even in classical regime.
Observation of large-amplitude ion acoustic wave in microwave-plasma interaction experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yugami, Noboru; Nishida, Yasushi
1997-01-01
Large amplitude ion acoustic wave, which is not satisfied with a linear dispersion relationship of ion acoustic wave, is observed in microwave-plasma interaction experiments. This ion acoustic wave is excited around critical density layer and begins to propagate to underdense region with a phase velocity one order faster than sound velocity C s , which is predicted by the linear theory, the phase velocity and the wave length of the wave decreases as it propagates. Finally, it converges to C s and strongly dumps. Diagnostic by the Faraday cup indicates that this ion acoustic wave is accompanied with a hot ion beam. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheng Zhiyuan; Gao Hua; Fan Zhenjun; Xing Jie
2014-01-01
The angular distribution and pressure force of droplets ejected from liquid water and glycerol ablated by nanosecond laser pulses are investigated under different viscosities in laser plasma propulsion. It is shown that with increasing viscosity, the distribution angles present a decrease tendency for two liquids, and the angular distribution of glycerol is smaller than that of water. A smaller distribution leads to a higher pressure force generation. The results indicate that ablation can be controlled by varying the viscosity of liquid propellant in laser plasma propulsion
Huang, K.-N.
1977-01-01
A computational procedure for calculating correlated wave functions is proposed for three-particle systems interacting through Coulomb forces. Calculations are carried out for the muonic helium atom. Variational wave functions which explicitly contain interparticle coordinates are presented for the ground and excited states. General Hylleraas-type trial functions are used as the basis for the correlated wave functions. Excited-state energies of the muonic helium atom computed from 1- and 35-term wave functions are listed for four states.
Three-wave interaction in two-component quadratic nonlinear lattices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Konotop, V. V.; Cunha, M. D.; Christiansen, Peter Leth
1999-01-01
We investigate a two-component lattice with a quadratic nonlinearity and find with the multiple scale technique that integrable three-wave interaction takes place between plane wave solutions when these fulfill resonance conditions. We demonstrate that. energy conversion and pulse propagation known...... from three-wave interaction is reproduced in the lattice and that exact phase matching of parametric processes can be obtained in non-phase-matched lattices by tilting the interacting plane waves with respect to each other. [S1063-651X(99)15110-9]....
Robust Numerical Methods for Nonlinear Wave-Structure Interaction in a Moving Frame of Reference
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kontos, Stavros; Lindberg, Ole
This project is focused on improving the state of the art for predicting the interaction between nonlinear ocean waves and marine structures. To achieve this goal, a flexible order finite difference potential flow solver has been extended to calculate for fully nonlinear wave-structure interaction...
Plasma heating by non-linear wave-Plasma interaction | Echi ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We simulate the non-linear interaction of waves with magnetized tritium plasma with the aim of determining the parameter values that characterize the response of the plasma. The wave-plasma interaction has a non-conservative Hamiltonian description. The resulting system of Hamilton's equations is integrated numerically ...
Fast Particle Interaction With Waves In Fusion Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Breizman, Boris
2006-01-01
There are two well-known motivations for theoretical studies of fast particle interaction with waves in magnetic confinement devices. One is the challenge of avoiding strong collective losses of alpha particles and beam ions in future burning plasma experiments. The other one is the compelling need to quantitatively interpret the large amount of experimental data from JET, TFTR, JT-60U, DIII-D, and other machines. Such interpretation involves unique diagnostic opportunities offered by MHD spectroscopy. This report discusses how the present theory responds to the stated challenges and what theoretical and computational advances are required to address the outstanding problems. More specifically, this paper deals with the following topics: predictive capabilities of linear theory and simulations; theory of Alfven cascades; diagnostic opportunities based on linear and nonlinear properties of unstable modes; interplay of kinetic and fluid nonlinearities; fast chirping phenomena for non-perturbative modes; and global transport of fast particles. Recent results are presented on some of the listed topics, although the main goal is to identify critical issues for future work
Liu, Huiqing; Xie, Lian
2009-06-01
The effects of wave-current interactions on ocean surface waves induced by Hurricane Hugo in and around the Charleston Harbor and its adjacent coastal waters are examined by using a three-dimensional (3D) wave-current coupled modeling system. The 3D storm surge modeling component of the coupled system is based on the Princeton Ocean Model (POM), the wave modeling component is based on the third generation wave model, Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN), and the inundation model is adopted from [Xie, L., Pietrafesa, L. J., Peng, M., 2004. Incorporation of a mass-conserving inundation scheme into a three-dimensional storm surge model. J. Coastal Res., 20, 1209-1223]. The results indicate that the change of water level associated with the storm surge is the primary cause for wave height changes due to wave-surge interaction. Meanwhile, waves propagating on top of surge cause a feedback effect on the surge height by modulating the surface wind stress and bottom stress. This effect is significant in shallow coastal waters, but relatively small in offshore deep waters. The influence of wave-current interaction on wave propagation is relatively insignificant, since waves generally propagate in the direction of the surface currents driven by winds. Wave-current interactions also affect the surface waves as a result of inundation and drying induced by the storm. Waves break as waters retreat in regions of drying, whereas waves are generated in flooded regions where no waves would have occurred without the flood water.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Lei; Zhu Yujie; Wang Ziqi; Xu Tao; Qi Fenghua; Xue Yushan
2016-01-01
We study the nonlinear localized waves on constant backgrounds of the Hirota–Maxwell–Bloch (HMB) system arising from the erbium doped fibers. We derive the asymmetric breather, rogue wave (RW) and semirational solutions of the HMB system. We show that the breather and RW solutions can be converted into various soliton solutions. Under different conditions of parameters, we calculate the locus of the eigenvalues on the complex plane which converts the breathers or RWs into solitons. Based on the second-order solutions, we investigate the interactions among different types of nonlinear waves including the breathers, RWs and solitons. (author)
Wang, Lei; Zhu, Yu-Jie; Wang, Zi-Qi; Xu, Tao; Qi, Feng-Hua; Xue, Yu-Shan
2016-02-01
We study the nonlinear localized waves on constant backgrounds of the Hirota-Maxwell-Bloch (HMB) system arising from the erbium doped fibers. We derive the asymmetric breather, rogue wave (RW) and semirational solutions of the HMB system. We show that the breather and RW solutions can be converted into various soliton solutions. Under different conditions of parameters, we calculate the locus of the eigenvalues on the complex plane which converts the breathers or RWs into solitons. Based on the second-order solutions, we investigate the interactions among different types of nonlinear waves including the breathers, RWs and solitons.
Interaction of gravitational waves with magnetic and electric fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrabes, C.; Hogan, P. A.
2010-01-01
The existence of large-scale magnetic fields in the universe has led to the observation that if gravitational waves propagating in a cosmological environment encounter even a small magnetic field then electromagnetic radiation is produced. To study this phenomenon in more detail we take it out of the cosmological context and at the same time simplify the gravitational radiation to impulsive waves. Specifically, to illustrate our findings, we describe the following three physical situations: (1) a cylindrical impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with a magnetic field, (2) an axially symmetric impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with an electric field and (3) a 'spherical' impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with a small magnetic field. In cases (1) and (3) electromagnetic radiation is produced behind the gravitational wave. In case (2) no electromagnetic radiation appears after the wave unless a current is established behind the wave breaking the Maxwell vacuum. In all three cases the presence of the magnetic or electric fields results in a modification of the amplitude of the incoming gravitational wave which is explicitly calculated using the Einstein-Maxwell vacuum field equations.
Slow Wave Propagation and Sheath Interaction for ICRF Waves in the Tokamak SOL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.
2009-01-01
In previous work we studied the propagation of slow-wave resonance cones launched parasitically by a fast-wave antenna into a tenuous magnetized plasma. Here we extend the previous calculation to ''dense'' scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasmas where the usual slow wave is evanescent. Using the sheath boundary condition, it is shown that for sufficiently close limiters, the slow wave couples to a sheath plasma wave and is no longer evanescent, but radially propagating. A self-consistent calculation of the rf-sheath width yields the resulting sheath voltage in terms of the amplitude of the launched SW, plasma parameters and connection length.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jong-In Lee
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study presents wave height distribution in terms of stem wave evolution phenomena on partially perforated wall structures through three-dimensional laboratory experiments. The plain and partially perforated walls were tested to understand their effects on the stem wave evolution under the monochromatic and random wave cases with the various wave conditions, incident angle (from 10 to 40 degrees, and configurations of front and side walls. The partially perforated wall reduced the relative wave heights more effectively compared to the plain wall structure. Partially perforated walls with side walls showed a better performance in terms of wave height reduction compared to the structure without the side wall. Moreover, the relative wave heights along the wall were relatively small when the relative chamber width is large, within the range of the chamber width in this study. The wave spectra showed a frequency dependency of the wave energy dissipation. In most cases, the existence of side wall is a more important factor than the porosity of the front wall in terms of the wave height reduction even if the partially perforated wall was still effective compared to the plain wall.
Nonlinear internal gravity waves and their interaction with the mean wind
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grimshaw, R.
1975-01-01
The interaction of a wave packet of internal gravity waves with the mean wind is investigated, for the case when there is a region of wind shear and hence a critical level. The principal equations are the Doppler-shifted dispersion relation, the equation for conservation of wave action and the mean momentum equation, in which the mean wind is accelerated by a 'radiation stress' tensor, due to the waves. These equations are integrated numerically to study the behaviour of a wave packet approaching a critical level, where the horizontal phase speed matches the mean wind. The results demonstrate the exchange of energy from the waves to the mean wind in the vicinity of the critical level. The interaction between the waves and the mean wind is also studied in the absence of any initial wind shear. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaozhong Ren
2015-01-01
Full Text Available A three-dimensional numerical flume is developed to study cnoidal wave interaction with multiple arranged perforated quasi-ellipse caissons. The continuity equation and the Navier-Stokes equations are used as the governing equation, and the VOF method is adopted to capture the free surface elevation. The equations are discretized on staggered cells and then solved using a finite difference method. The generation and propagation of cnoidal waves in the numerical flume are tested first. And the ability of the present model to simulate interactions between waves and structures is verified by known experimental results. Then cnoidal waves with varying incident wave height and period are generated and interact with multiple quasi-ellipse caissons with and without perforation. It is found that the perforation plays an effective role in reducing wave runup/rundown and wave forces on the caissons. The wave forces on caissons reduce with the decreasing incident wave period. The influence of the transverse distance of multiple caissons on wave forces is also investigated. A closer transverse distance between caissons can produce larger wave forces. But when relative adjacent distance L/D (L is the transverse distance and D is the width of the quasi-ellipse caisson is larger than 3, the effect of adjacent distance is limited.
Electron and VLF travel time differences for wave-particle interactions at L=4: Pt. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rash, J.P.S.; Scourfield, M.W.J.; Dougherty, M.K.
1984-01-01
The cyclotron resonance or gyroresonance interaction has been widely invoked as a generation mechanism for discrete VLF emissions and plasmaspheric hiss. This interaction involves electrons and VLF waves travelling in opposite directions along a geomagnetic field line. We examine, for an interaction region in the equatorial plane at L=4, the energy of the resonant electrons as a function of VLF wave frequency and ambient equatorial electron density. Then for two different spatial configurations of the interaction and two standard plasma distribution models we examine the difference in travel times to a ground-based observer in the Southern hemisphere for the electrons and waves taking part in the interaction. This difference in travel times is shown as a function of VLF wave frequency and equatorial electron density. The results, and their significance for observations of auroral electrons and VLF at Sanae, Antarctica, are discussed and compared with similar results for the Cerenkov interaction discussed in an earlier paper
Particle range in a laser-plasma generated soft X-ray chamber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bollanti, S.; Letardi, T.
1999-01-01
Some analytical forms are deduced for calculating the flight range of a spherical particle ejected from the laser plasma target and retarded by gas resistance. it is shown that the gas pressure influence on viscosity can not be neglected when are estimated the expansion ranges fro debris of various sizes in a helium gas-buffered, laser produced plasma chamber [it
A review of low density porous materials used in laser plasma experiments
Nagai, Keiji; Musgrave, Christopher S. A.; Nazarov, Wigen
2018-03-01
This review describes and categorizes the synthesis and properties of low density porous materials, which are commonly referred to as foams and are utilized for laser plasma experiments. By focusing a high-power laser on a small target composed of these materials, high energy and density states can be produced. In the past decade or so, various new target fabrication techniques have been developed by many laboratories that use high energy lasers and consequently, many publications and reviews followed these developments. However, the emphasis so far has been on targets that did not utilize low density porous materials. This review therefore, attempts to redress this balance and endeavors to review low density materials used in laser plasma experiments in recent years. The emphasis of this review will be on aspects of low density materials that are of relevance to high energy laser plasma experiments. Aspects of low density materials such as densities, elemental compositions, macroscopic structures, nanostructures, and characterization of these materials will be covered. Also, there will be a brief mention of how these aspects affect the results in laser plasma experiments and the constrictions that these requirements put on the fabrication of low density materials relevant to this field. This review is written from the chemists' point of view to aid physicists and the new comers to this field.
Millimeterwave spectroscopy of active laser plasmas; the excited vibrational states of HCN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Lucia, F.C.; Helminger, P.A.
1977-01-01
Millimeter and submillimeter microwave techniques have been used for the spectroscopic study of an HCN laser plasma. Forty-seven rotational transitions in 12 excited vibrational states have been observed. Numerous rotational, vibrational, and perturbation parameters have been calculated from these data. A discussion of experimental techniques is included
Velocity width of the resonant domain in wave-particle interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Firpo, Marie-Christine; Doveil, Fabrice
2002-01-01
Wave-particle interaction is a ubiquitous physical mechanism exhibiting locality in velocity space. A single-wave Hamiltonian provides a rich model by which to study the self-consistent interaction between one electrostatic wave and N quasiresonant particles. For the simplest nonintegrable Hamiltonian coupling two particles to one wave, we analytically derive the particle velocity borders separating quasi-integrable motions from chaotic ones. These estimates are fully retrieved through computation of the largest Lyapunov exponent. For the large-N particle self-consistent case, we numerically investigate the localization of stochasticity in velocity space and test a qualitative estimate of the borders of chaos
Transonic Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interactions on an Oscillating Airfoil
Davis, Sanford S.; Malcolm, Gerald N.
1980-01-01
Unsteady aerodynamic loads were measured on an oscillating NACA 64A010 airfoil In the NASA Ames 11 by 11 ft Transonic Wind Tunnel. Data are presented to show the effect of the unsteady shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction on the fundamental frequency lift, moment, and pressure distributions. The data show that weak shock waves induce an unsteady pressure distribution that can be predicted quite well, while stronger shock waves cause complex frequency-dependent distributions due to flow separation. An experimental test of the principles of linearity and superposition showed that they hold for weak shock waves while flows with stronger shock waves cannot be superimposed.
Interactions between finite amplitude small and medium-scale waves in the MLT region.
Heale, C. J.; Snively, J. B.
2016-12-01
Small-scale gravity waves can propagate high into the thermosphere and deposit significant momentum and energy into the background flow [e.g., Yamada et al., 2001, Fritts et al., 2014]. However, their propagation, dissipation, and spectral evolution can be significantly altered by other waves and dynamics and the nature of these complex interactions are not yet well understood. While many ray-tracing and time-dependent modeling studies have been performed to investigate interactions between waves of varying scales [e.g., Eckermann and Marks .1996, Sartelet. 2003, Liu et al. 2008, Vanderhoff et al., 2008, Senf and Achatz., 2011, Heale et al., 2015], the majority of these have considered waves of larger (tidal) scales, or have simplified one of the waves to be an imposed "background" and discount (or limit) the nonlinear feedback mechanisms between the two waves. In reality, both waves will influence each other, especially at finite amplitudes when nonlinear effects become important or dominant. We present a study of fully nonlinear interactions between small-scale 10s km, 10 min period) and medium-scale wave packets at finite amplitudes, which include feedback between the two waves and the ambient atmosphere. Time-dependence of the larger-scale wave has been identified as an important factor in reducing reflection [Heale et al., 2015] and critical level effects [Sartelet, 2003, Senf and Achatz, 2011], we choose medium-scale waves of different periods, and thus vertical scales, to investigate how this influences the propagation, filtering, and momentum and energy deposition of the small-scale waves, and in turn how these impacts affect the medium-scale waves. We also consider the observable features of these interactions in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere.
Wave-particle interaction phenomena observed by antarctic rockets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kimura, I.; Hirasawa, T.
1979-01-01
Rocket measurements of wave and particles activities made at Syowa Station in Antarctica during IMS period are reviewed. Nine rockets were used for such observations, out of which 6 rockets were launched in the auroral sky. In the VLF frequency range, 0 - 10 KHz, wideband spectra of wave electric and magnetic fields, Poynting flux and the direction of propagation vector were measured for chorus, ELF and VLF hiss, and for electrostatic noises. In the MF and HF range, the dynamic frequency spectra of 0.1 - 10 MHz were measured. The relationship of these wave phenomena with energetic particle activities measured by the same rockets are discussed. (author)
Electron Climbing a 'Devil's Staircase' in Wave-Particle Interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Macor, Alessandro; Doveil, Fabrice; Elskens, Yves
2005-01-01
Numerous nonlinear driven systems display spectacular responses to forcing, including chaos and complex phase-locking plateaus characterized by 'devil's staircase', Arnold tongues, and Farey trees. In the universality class of Hamiltonian systems, a paradigm is the motion of a charged particle in two waves, which inspired a renormalization group method for its description. Here we report the observation of the underlying 'devil's staircase' by recording the beam velocity distribution function at the outlet of a traveling wave tube versus the amplitude of two externally induced waves
Observation of Hamiltonian chaos and its control in wave-particle interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doveil, F; Macor, A; Aissi, A
2007-01-01
Wave-particle interactions are central in plasma physics. They can be studied in a traveling wave tube (TWT) to avoid intrinsic plasma noise. This led to detailed experimental analysis of the self-consistent interaction between unstable waves and an either cold or warm beam. More recently a test cold electron beam has been used to observe its non-self-consistent interaction with externally excited wave(s). The velocity distribution function of the electron beam is recorded with a trochoidal energy analyzer at the output of the TWT. An arbitrary waveform generator is used to launch a prescribed spectrum of waves along the slow wave structure (a 4 m long helix) of the TWT. The nonlinear synchronization of particles by a single wave responsible for Landau damping is observed. The resonant velocity domain associated with a single wave is also observed, as well as the transition to large scale chaos when the resonant domains of two waves and their secondary resonances overlap. This transition exhibits a 'devil's staircase' behavior when increasing the excitation amplitude in agreement with numerical simulation. A new strategy for control of chaos by building barriers of transport which prevent electrons from escaping from a given velocity region as well as its robustness are successfully tested. The underlying concepts extend far beyond the field of electron devices and plasma physics
Wave-Structure Interactions on Point Absorbers - an experimental study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, Morten Møller
used in the case studies is a pitching point absorber (Wavestar). The central part of the thesis deals with the challenges, choices, and experi- ences gained during the Ph.D. The more in-depth technical details and results are presented in peer-reviewed publications and technical reports. The chal...... that combines waves and current in a meaningful way. The method needs to be inexpensive, easy to implement and reduce the turbulence without distorting the incident waves in a detrimental way....
An Arctic Ice/Ocean Coupled Model with Wave Interactions
2015-09-30
discussed by DRI participants may aid our understanding as well, e.g. those conducted in the Hamburg Ship Model Basin. Our theoretical advances benefit...the project are – continued modifications to the Arctic wide WIM code in association with advances relating to a new ice/ocean model known as... Auckland , December 2014. Montiel, F. Transmission of ocean waves through a row of randomly perturbed circular ice floes. Minisymposium on Wave Motions of
Induction of subterahertz surface waves on a metal wire by intense laser interaction with a foil
Teramoto, Kensuke; Inoue, Shunsuke; Tokita, Shigeki; Yasuhara, Ryo; Nakamiya, Yoshihide; Nagashima, Takeshi; Mori, Kazuaki; Hashida, Masaki; Sakabe, Shuji
2018-02-01
We have demonstrated that a pulsed electromagnetic wave (Sommerfeld wave) of subterahertz frequency and 11-MV/m field strength can be induced on a metal wire by the interaction of an intense femtosecond laser pule with an adjacent metal foil at a laser intensity of 8.5 × 1018W /c m2 . The polarity of the electric field of this surface wave is opposite to that obtained by the direct interaction of the laser with the wire. Numerical simulations suggest that an electromagnetic wave associated with electron emission from the foil induces the surface wave. A tungsten wire is placed normal to an aluminum foil with a gap so that the wire is not irradiated and damaged by the laser pulse, thus making it possible to generate surface waves on the wire repeatedly.
Wave-induced current considering wave-tide interaction in Haeundae
Lim, Hak Soo
2017-04-01
The Haeundae, located at the south eastern end of the Korean Peninsula, is a famous beach, which has an approximately 1.6 km long and 70 m wide coastline. The beach has been repeatedly eroded by the swell waves caused by typhoons in summer and high waves originating in the East Sea in winter. The Korean government conducted beach restoration projects including beach nourishment (620,000 m3) and construction of two submerged breakwaters near both ends of the beach. To prevent the beach erosion and to support the beach restoration project, the Korean government initiated a R&D project, the development of coastal erosion control technology since 2013. As a part of the project, we have been measuring waves and currents at a water depth of 22 m, 1.8 km away from the beach using an acoustic wave and current meter (AWAC) continuously for more than three years; we have also measured waves and currents intensively near the surf-zone in summer and winter. In this study, a numerical simulation using a wave and current coupled model (ROMS-SWAN) was conducted for determining the wave-induced current considering seasonal swell waves (Hs : 2.5 m, Tp: 12 s) and for better understanding of the coastal process near the surf-zone in Haeundae. By comparing the measured and simulated results, we found that cross-shore current during summer is mainly caused by the eddy produced by the wave-induced current near the beach, which in turn, is generated by the strong waves coming from the SSW and S directions. During other seasons, longshore wave-induced current is produced by the swell waves coming from the E and ESE directions. The longshore current heading west toward Dong-Back Island, west end of the beach, during all the seasons and eddy current toward Mipo-Port, east end of the beach, in summer which is well matched with the observed residual current. The wave-induced current with long-term measurement data is incorporated in simulation of sediment transport modeling for developing
On the solution of the equations for nonlinear interaction of three damped waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1976-01-01
Three-wave interactions are analyzed in a coherent wave description assuming different linear damping (or growth) of the individual waves. It is demonstrated that when two of the coefficients of dissipation are equal, the set of equations can be reduced to a single equivalent equation, which in the nonlinearly unstable case, where one wave is undamped, asymptotically takes the form of an equation defining the third Painleve transcendent. It is then possible to find an asymptotic expansion near the time of explosion. This solution is of principal interest since it indicates that the solution of the general three-wave system, where the waves undergo different individual dissipations, belongs to a higher class of functions, which reduces to Jacobian elliptic functions only in the case where all waves suffer the same damping [fr
Advanced Accelerators: Particle, Photon and Plasma Wave Interactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Williams, Ronald L. [Florida A & M University, Tallahassee, FL (United States)
2017-06-29
The overall objective of this project was to study the acceleration of electrons to very high energies over very short distances based on trapping slowly moving electrons in the fast moving potential wells of large amplitude plasma waves, which have relativistic phase velocities. These relativistic plasma waves, or wakefields, are the basis of table-top accelerators that have been shown to accelerate electrons to the same high energies as kilometer-length linear particle colliders operating using traditional decades-old acceleration techniques. The accelerating electrostatic fields of the relativistic plasma wave accelerators can be as large as GigaVolts/meter, and our goal was to study techniques for remotely measuring these large fields by injecting low energy probe electron beams across the plasma wave and measuring the beam’s deflection. Our method of study was via computer simulations, and these results suggested that the deflection of the probe electron beam was directly proportional to the amplitude of the plasma wave. This is the basis of a proposed diagnostic technique, and numerous studies were performed to determine the effects of changing the electron beam, plasma wave and laser beam parameters. Further simulation studies included copropagating laser beams with the relativistic plasma waves. New interesting results came out of these studies including the prediction that very small scale electron beam bunching occurs, and an anomalous line focusing of the electron beam occurs under certain conditions. These studies were summarized in the dissertation of a graduate student who obtained the Ph.D. in physics. This past research program has motivated ideas for further research to corroborate these results using particle-in-cell simulation tools which will help design a test-of-concept experiment in our laboratory and a scaled up version for testing at a major wakefield accelerator facility.
Hamiltonian aspects of three-wave resonant interactions in gas dynamics
Webb, G. M.; Zakharian, A.; Brio, M.; Zank, G. P.
1997-06-01
Equations describing three-wave resonant interactions in adiabatic gas dynamics in one Cartesian space dimension derived by Majda and Rosales are expressed in terms of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian variational principles. The equations consist of two coupled integro-differential Burgers equations for the backward and forward sound waves that are coupled by integral terms that describe the resonant reflection of a sound wave off an entropy wave disturbance to produce a reverse sound wave. Similarity solutions and conservation laws for the equations are derived using symmetry group methods for the special case where the entropy disturbance consists of a periodic saw-tooth profile. The solutions are used to illustrate the interplay between the nonlinearity represented by the Burgers self-wave interaction terms and wave dispersion represented by the three-wave resonant interaction terms. Hamiltonian equations in Fourier (p,t) space are also obtained where p is the Fourier space variable corresponding to the fast phase variable 0305-4470/30/12/013/img6 of the waves. The latter equations are transformed to normal form in order to isolate the normal modes of the system.
Ab initio calculation atomics ground state wave function for interactions Ion- Atom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shojaee, F.; Bolori zadeh, M. A.
2007-01-01
Ab initio calculation atomics ground state wave function for interactions Ion- Atom Atomic wave function expressed in a Slater - type basis obtained within Roothaan- Hartree - Fock for the ground state of the atoms He through B. The total energy is given for each atom.
Transonic shock wave. Turbulent boundary layer interaction on a curved surface
Nebbeling, C.; Koren, B.
1988-01-01
This paper describes an experimental investigation of a transonic shock wave - turbulent boundary layer interaction in a curved test section, in which the flow has been computed by a 2-D Euler flow method. The test section has been designed such that the flow near the shock wave on the convex curved
Mathematical modelling of sand wave migration and the interaction with pipelines
Morelissen, Robin; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Knaapen, Michiel; Nemeth, Attila; Bijker, Romke
2003-01-01
A new method is presented for identifying potential pipeline problems, such as hazardous exposures. This method comprises a newly developed sand wave amplitude and migration model, and an existing pipeline–seabed interaction model. The sand wave migration model is based on physical principles and
Signatures of Air-Wave Interactions Over a Large Lake
Li, Qi; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Vercauteren, Nikki; Parlange, Marc
2018-06-01
The air-water exchange of momentum and scalars (temperature and water vapour) is investigated using the Lake-Atmosphere Turbulent EXchange (LATEX) dataset. The wind waves and swell are found to affect the coupling between the water surface and the air differently. The surface-stress vector aligns with the wind velocity in the presence of wind waves, but a wide range of stress-wind misalignment angles is observed during swell. The momentum transport efficiency decreases when significant stress-wind misalignment is present, suggesting a strong influence of surface wave properties on surface drag. Based on this improved understanding of the role of wave-wind misalignment, a new relative wind speed for surface-layer similarity formulations is proposed and tested using the data. The new expression yields a value of the von Kármán constant (κ ) of 0.38, compared to 0.36 when using the absolute wind speed, as well as reduced data fitting errors. Finally, the ratios of aerodynamic to scalar roughness lengths are computed and various existing models in the literature are tested using least-square fitting to the observed ratios. The tests are able to discriminate between the performance of various models; however, they also indicate that more investigations are required to understand the physics of scalar exchanges over waves.
Signatures of Air-Wave Interactions Over a Large Lake
Li, Qi; Bou-Zeid, Elie; Vercauteren, Nikki; Parlange, Marc
2018-01-01
The air-water exchange of momentum and scalars (temperature and water vapour) is investigated using the Lake-Atmosphere Turbulent EXchange (LATEX) dataset. The wind waves and swell are found to affect the coupling between the water surface and the air differently. The surface-stress vector aligns with the wind velocity in the presence of wind waves, but a wide range of stress-wind misalignment angles is observed during swell. The momentum transport efficiency decreases when significant stress-wind misalignment is present, suggesting a strong influence of surface wave properties on surface drag. Based on this improved understanding of the role of wave-wind misalignment, a new relative wind speed for surface-layer similarity formulations is proposed and tested using the data. The new expression yields a value of the von Kármán constant (κ ) of 0.38, compared to 0.36 when using the absolute wind speed, as well as reduced data fitting errors. Finally, the ratios of aerodynamic to scalar roughness lengths are computed and various existing models in the literature are tested using least-square fitting to the observed ratios. The tests are able to discriminate between the performance of various models; however, they also indicate that more investigations are required to understand the physics of scalar exchanges over waves.
Shock wave interaction with pulsed glow discharge and afterglow plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Podder, N.K.; LoCascio, A.C.
2009-01-01
Acoustic shock waves are launched by the spark-discharge of a high voltage capacitor in pulsed glow discharge and afterglow plasmas. The glow discharge section of the shock tube is switched on for a period of less than one second at a time, during which a shock wave is launched starting with a large delay between the plasma switch-on and the shock-launch. In the subsequent runs this delay is decremented in equal time intervals up to the plasma switch-on time. A photo acoustic deflection method sensitive to the density gradient of the shock wave is used to study the propagating shock structure and velocity in the igniting plasma. A similar set of measurements are also performed at the plasma switch-off, in which the delay time is incremented in equal time intervals from the plasma switch-off time until the afterglow plasma fully neutralizes itself into the room-temperature gas. Thus, complete time histories of the shock wave propagation in the igniting plasma, as well as in the afterglow plasma, are produced. In the igniting plasma, the changes in the shock-front velocity and dispersion are found to be a strong non-linear function of delay until a saturation point is reached. On the other hand, in the afterglow plasma the trend has been opposite and reversing towards the room temperature values. The observed shock wave properties in both igniting and afterglow plasmas correlate well with the inferred temperature changes in the two plasmas
Hsieh, Yi-Kai; Omura, Yoshiharu
2017-10-01
We investigate the properties of whistler mode wave-particle interactions at oblique wave normal angles to the background magnetic field. We find that electromagnetic energy of waves at frequencies below half the electron cyclotron frequency can flow nearly parallel to the ambient magnetic field. We thereby confirm that the gyroaveraging method, which averages the cyclotron motion to the gyrocenter and reduces the simulation from two-dimensional to one-dimensional, is valid for oblique wave-particle interaction. Multiple resonances appear for oblique propagation but not for parallel propagation. We calculate the possible range of resonances with the first-order resonance condition as a function of electron kinetic energy and equatorial pitch angle. To reveal the physical process and the efficiency of electron acceleration by multiple resonances, we assume a simple uniform wave model with constant amplitude and frequency in space and time. We perform test particle simulations with electrons starting at specific equatorial pitch angles and kinetic energies. The simulation results show that multiple resonances contribute to acceleration and pitch angle scattering of energetic electrons. Especially, we find that electrons with energies of a few hundred keV can be accelerated efficiently to a few MeV through the n = 0 Landau resonance.
Sakkaravarthi, K; Kanna, T; Vijayajayanthi, M; Lakshmanan, M
2014-11-01
We consider a general multicomponent (2+1)-dimensional long-wave-short-wave resonance interaction (LSRI) system with arbitrary nonlinearity coefficients, which describes the nonlinear resonance interaction of multiple short waves with a long wave in two spatial dimensions. The general multicomponent LSRI system is shown to be integrable by performing the Painlevé analysis. Then we construct the exact bright multisoliton solutions by applying the Hirota's bilinearization method and study the propagation and collision dynamics of bright solitons in detail. Particularly, we investigate the head-on and overtaking collisions of bright solitons and explore two types of energy-sharing collisions as well as standard elastic collision. We have also corroborated the obtained analytical one-soliton solution by direct numerical simulation. Also, we discuss the formation and dynamics of resonant solitons. Interestingly, we demonstrate the formation of resonant solitons admitting breather-like (localized periodic pulse train) structure and also large amplitude localized structures akin to rogue waves coexisting with solitons. For completeness, we have also obtained dark one- and two-soliton solutions and studied their dynamics briefly.
Resonant interactions between cometary ions and low frequency electromagnetic waves
Thorne, Richard M.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.
1987-01-01
The conditions for resonant wave amplification in a plasma with a ring-beam distribution which is intended to model pick-up ions in a cometary environment are investigated. The inclination between the interplanetary field and the solar wind is found to play a crucial role in governing both the resonant frequency and the growth rate of any unstable mode. It is suggested that the low-frequency MHD mode should experience the most rapid amplification for intermediate inclination. In the frame of the solar wind, such waves should propagate along the field in the direction upstream toward the sun with a phase speed lower than the beaming velocity of the pick-up ions. This mechanism may account for the presence of the interior MHD waves noted by satellites over a region surrounding comets Giacobini-Zinner and Halley.
Nonlinear Interaction of Waves in Rotating Spherical Layers
Zhilenko, D.; Krivonosova, O.; Gritsevich, M.
2018-01-01
Flows of a viscous incompressible fluid in a spherical layer that are due to rotational oscillations of its inner boundary at two frequencies with respect to the state of rest are numerically studied. It is found that an increase in the amplitude of oscillations of the boundary at the higher frequency can result in a significant enhancement of the low-frequency mode in a flow near the outer boundary. The direction of propagation of the low-frequency wave changes from radial to meridional, whereas the high-frequency wave propagates in the radial direction in a limited inner region of the spherical layer. The role of the meridional circulation in the energy exchange between spaced waves is demonstrated.
Interaction of Acoustic Waves with a Cryogenic Nitrogen Jet at Sub- and Supercritical Pressures
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Chehroudi, B
2001-01-01
To better understand the nature of the interaction between acoustic waves and liquid fuel jets in rocket engines, cryogenic liquid nitrogen is injected into a room temperature high-pressure chamber...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lundh, O.; Rechatin, C.; Faure, J.; Ben-Ismaïl, A.; Lim, J.; De Wagter, C.; De Neve, W.; Malka, V.
2012-01-01
Purpose: To evaluate the dose distribution of a 120-MeV laser-plasma accelerated electron beam which may be of potential interest for high-energy electron radiation therapy. Methods: In the interaction between an intense laser pulse and a helium gas jet, a well collimated electron beam with very high energy is produced. A secondary laser beam is used to optically control and to tune the electron beam energy and charge. The potential use of this beam for radiation treatment is evaluated experimentally by measurements of dose deposition in a polystyrene phantom. The results are compared to Monte Carlo simulations using the geant4 code. Results: It has been shown that the laser-plasma accelerated electron beam can deliver a peak dose of more than 1 Gy at the entrance of the phantom in a single laser shot by direct irradiation, without the use of intermediate magnetic transport or focusing. The dose distribution is peaked on axis, with narrow lateral penumbra. Monte Carlo simulations of electron beam propagation and dose deposition indicate that the propagation of the intense electron beam (with large self-fields) can be described by standard models that exclude collective effects in the response of the material. Conclusions: The measurements show that the high-energy electron beams produced by an optically injected laser-plasma accelerator can deliver high enough dose at penetration depths of interest for electron beam radiotherapy of deep-seated tumors. Many engineering issues must be resolved before laser-accelerated electrons can be used for cancer therapy, but they also represent exciting challenges for future research.
Lundh, O; Rechatin, C; Faure, J; Ben-Ismaïl, A; Lim, J; De Wagter, C; De Neve, W; Malka, V
2012-06-01
To evaluate the dose distribution of a 120-MeV laser-plasma accelerated electron beam which may be of potential interest for high-energy electron radiation therapy. In the interaction between an intense laser pulse and a helium gas jet, a well collimated electron beam with very high energy is produced. A secondary laser beam is used to optically control and to tune the electron beam energy and charge. The potential use of this beam for radiation treatment is evaluated experimentally by measurements of dose deposition in a polystyrene phantom. The results are compared to Monte Carlo simulations using the geant4 code. It has been shown that the laser-plasma accelerated electron beam can deliver a peak dose of more than 1 Gy at the entrance of the phantom in a single laser shot by direct irradiation, without the use of intermediate magnetic transport or focusing. The dose distribution is peaked on axis, with narrow lateral penumbra. Monte Carlo simulations of electron beam propagation and dose deposition indicate that the propagation of the intense electron beam (with large self-fields) can be described by standard models that exclude collective effects in the response of the material. The measurements show that the high-energy electron beams produced by an optically injected laser-plasma accelerator can deliver high enough dose at penetration depths of interest for electron beam radiotherapy of deep-seated tumors. Many engineering issues must be resolved before laser-accelerated electrons can be used for cancer therapy, but they also represent exciting challenges for future research. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.
Effect of dynamical phase on the resonant interaction among tsunami edge wave modes
Geist, Eric L.
2018-01-01
Different modes of tsunami edge waves can interact through nonlinear resonance. During this process, edge waves that have very small initial amplitude can grow to be as large or larger than the initially dominant edge wave modes. In this study, the effects of dynamical phase are established for a single triad of edge waves that participate in resonant interactions. In previous studies, Jacobi elliptic functions were used to describe the slow variation in amplitude associated with the interaction. This analytical approach assumes that one of the edge waves in the triad has zero initial amplitude and that the combined phase of the three waves φ = θ1 + θ2 − θ3 is constant at the value for maximum energy exchange (φ = 0). To obtain a more general solution, dynamical phase effects and non-zero initial amplitudes for all three waves are incorporated using numerical methods for the governing differential equations. Results were obtained using initial conditions calculated from a subduction zone, inter-plate thrust fault geometry and a stochastic earthquake slip model. The effect of dynamical phase is most apparent when the initial amplitudes and frequencies of the three waves are within an order of magnitude. In this case, non-zero initial phase results in a marked decrease in energy exchange and a slight decrease in the period of the interaction. When there are large differences in frequency and/or initial amplitude, dynamical phase has less of an effect and typically one wave of the triad has very little energy exchange with the other two waves. Results from this study help elucidate under what conditions edge waves might be implicated in late, large-amplitude arrivals.
Effect of Dynamical Phase on the Resonant Interaction Among Tsunami Edge Wave Modes
Geist, Eric L.
2018-04-01
Different modes of tsunami edge waves can interact through nonlinear resonance. During this process, edge waves that have very small initial amplitude can grow to be as large or larger than the initially dominant edge wave modes. In this study, the effects of dynamical phase are established for a single triad of edge waves that participate in resonant interactions. In previous studies, Jacobi elliptic functions were used to describe the slow variation in amplitude associated with the interaction. This analytical approach assumes that one of the edge waves in the triad has zero initial amplitude and that the combined phase of the three waves φ = θ 1 + θ 2 - θ 3 is constant at the value for maximum energy exchange ( φ = 0). To obtain a more general solution, dynamical phase effects and non-zero initial amplitudes for all three waves are incorporated using numerical methods for the governing differential equations. Results were obtained using initial conditions calculated from a subduction zone, inter-plate thrust fault geometry and a stochastic earthquake slip model. The effect of dynamical phase is most apparent when the initial amplitudes and frequencies of the three waves are within an order of magnitude. In this case, non-zero initial phase results in a marked decrease in energy exchange and a slight decrease in the period of the interaction. When there are large differences in frequency and/or initial amplitude, dynamical phase has less of an effect and typically one wave of the triad has very little energy exchange with the other two waves. Results from this study help elucidate under what conditions edge waves might be implicated in late, large-amplitude arrivals.
Effect of Dynamical Phase on the Resonant Interaction Among Tsunami Edge Wave Modes
Geist, Eric L.
2018-02-01
Different modes of tsunami edge waves can interact through nonlinear resonance. During this process, edge waves that have very small initial amplitude can grow to be as large or larger than the initially dominant edge wave modes. In this study, the effects of dynamical phase are established for a single triad of edge waves that participate in resonant interactions. In previous studies, Jacobi elliptic functions were used to describe the slow variation in amplitude associated with the interaction. This analytical approach assumes that one of the edge waves in the triad has zero initial amplitude and that the combined phase of the three waves φ = θ 1 + θ 2 - θ 3 is constant at the value for maximum energy exchange (φ = 0). To obtain a more general solution, dynamical phase effects and non-zero initial amplitudes for all three waves are incorporated using numerical methods for the governing differential equations. Results were obtained using initial conditions calculated from a subduction zone, inter-plate thrust fault geometry and a stochastic earthquake slip model. The effect of dynamical phase is most apparent when the initial amplitudes and frequencies of the three waves are within an order of magnitude. In this case, non-zero initial phase results in a marked decrease in energy exchange and a slight decrease in the period of the interaction. When there are large differences in frequency and/or initial amplitude, dynamical phase has less of an effect and typically one wave of the triad has very little energy exchange with the other two waves. Results from this study help elucidate under what conditions edge waves might be implicated in late, large-amplitude arrivals.
Observation and Control of Hamiltonian Chaos in Wave-particle Interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doveil, F.; Ruzzon, A.; Elskens, Y.
2010-01-01
Wave-particle interactions are central in plasma physics. The paradigm beam-plasma system can be advantageously replaced by a traveling wave tube (TWT) to allow their study in a much less noisy environment. This led to detailed analysis of the self-consistent interaction between unstable waves and an either cold or warm electron beam. More recently a test cold beam has been used to observe its interaction with externally excited wave(s). This allowed observing the main features of Hamiltonian chaos and testing a new method to efficiently channel chaotic transport in phase space. To simulate accurately and efficiently the particle dynamics in the TWT and other 1D particle-wave systems, a new symplectic, symmetric, second order numerical algorithm is developed, using particle position as the independent variable, with a fixed spatial step.This contribution reviews: presentation of the TWT and its connection to plasma physics, resonant interaction of a charged particle in electrostatic waves, observation of particle trapping and transition to chaos, test of control of chaos, and description of the simulation algorithm.The velocity distribution function of the electron beam is recorded with a trochoidal energy analyzer at the output of the TWT. An arbitrary waveform generator is used to launch a prescribed spectrum of waves along the 4m long helix of the TWT. The nonlinear synchronization of particles by a single wave, responsible for Landau damping, is observed. We explore the resonant velocity domain associated with a single wave as well as the transition to large scale chaos when the resonant domains of two waves and their secondary resonances overlap. This transition exhibits a devil's staircase behavior when increasing the excitation level in agreement with numerical simulation.A new strategy for control of chaos by building barriers of transport in phase space as well as its robustness is successfully tested. The underlying concepts extend far beyond the field of
Wave particle interactions in the high-altitude polar cusp: a Cluster case study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Grison
2005-12-01
Full Text Available On 23 March 2002, the four Cluster spacecraft crossed in close configuration (~100 km separation the high-altitude (10 R_{E} cusp region. During a large part of the crossing, the STAFF and EFW instruments have detected strong electromagnetic wave activity at low frequencies, especially when intense field-aligned proton fluxes were detected by the CIS/HIA instrument. In all likelihood, such fluxes correspond to newly-reconnected field lines. A focus on one of these ion injection periods highlights the interaction between waves and protons. The wave activity has been investigated using the k-filtering technique. Experimental dispersion relations have been built in the plasma frame for the two most energetic wave modes. Results show that kinetic Alfvén waves dominate the electromagnetic wave spectrum up to 1 Hz (in the spacecraft frame. Above 0.8 Hz, intense Bernstein waves are also observed. The close simultaneity observed between the wave and particle events is discussed as an evidence for local wave generation. A mechanism based on current instabilities is consistent with the observations of the kinetic Alfvén waves. A weak ion heating along the recently-opened field lines is also suggested from the examination of the ion distribution functions. During an injection event, a large plasma convection motion, indicative of a reconnection site location, is shown to be consistent with the velocity perturbation induced by the large-scale Alfvén wave simultaneously detected.
Wave particle interactions in the high-altitude polar cusp: a Cluster case study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Grison
2005-12-01
Full Text Available On 23 March 2002, the four Cluster spacecraft crossed in close configuration (~100 km separation the high-altitude (10 RE cusp region. During a large part of the crossing, the STAFF and EFW instruments have detected strong electromagnetic wave activity at low frequencies, especially when intense field-aligned proton fluxes were detected by the CIS/HIA instrument. In all likelihood, such fluxes correspond to newly-reconnected field lines. A focus on one of these ion injection periods highlights the interaction between waves and protons. The wave activity has been investigated using the k-filtering technique. Experimental dispersion relations have been built in the plasma frame for the two most energetic wave modes. Results show that kinetic Alfvén waves dominate the electromagnetic wave spectrum up to 1 Hz (in the spacecraft frame. Above 0.8 Hz, intense Bernstein waves are also observed. The close simultaneity observed between the wave and particle events is discussed as an evidence for local wave generation. A mechanism based on current instabilities is consistent with the observations of the kinetic Alfvén waves. A weak ion heating along the recently-opened field lines is also suggested from the examination of the ion distribution functions. During an injection event, a large plasma convection motion, indicative of a reconnection site location, is shown to be consistent with the velocity perturbation induced by the large-scale Alfvén wave simultaneously detected.
On the interaction of deep water waves and exponential shear currents
Cheng, Jun; Cang, Jie; Liao, Shi-Jun
2009-05-01
A train of periodic deep-water waves propagating on a steady shear current with a vertical distribution of vorticity is investigated by an analytic method, namely the homotopy analysis method (HAM). The magnitude of the vorticity varies exponentially with the magnitude of the stream function, while remaining constant on a particular streamline. The so-called Dubreil-Jacotin transformation is used to transfer the original exponentially nonlinear boundary-value problem in an unknown domain into an algebraically nonlinear boundary-value problem in a known domain. Convergent series solutions are obtained not only for small amplitude water waves on a weak current but also for large amplitude waves on a strong current. The nonlinear wave-current interaction is studied in detail. It is found that an aiding shear current tends to enlarge the wave phase speed, sharpen the wave crest, but shorten the maximum wave height, while an opposing shear current has the opposite effect. Besides, the amplitude of waves and fluid velocity decay over the depth more quickly on an aiding shear current but more slowly on an opposing shear current than that of waves on still water. Furthermore, it is found that Stokes criteria of wave breaking is still valid for waves on a shear current: a train of propagating waves on a shear current breaks as the fiuid velocity at crest equals the wave phase speed. Especially, it is found that the highest waves on an opposing shear current are even higher and steeper than that of waves on still water. Mathematically, this analytic method is rather general in principle and can be employed to solve many types of nonlinear partial differential equations with variable coefficients in science, finance and engineering.
Current generation by alpha particles interacting with lower hybrid waves in TOKAMAKS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belikov, V.S.; Kolesnichenko, Ya.I.; Lisak, M.; Anderson, D.
1990-01-01
The problem of the influence of fusion generated alpha particles on lower-hybrid-wave current drive is examined. Analysis is based on a new equation for the LH-wave-fast ion interaction which is derived by taking into consideration the non-zero value of the longitudinal wave number. The steady-state velocity distribution function for high energy alpha particles is found. The alpha current driven by LH-waves as well as the RF-power absorbed by alpha particle are calculated. (authors)
An Arctic Ice/Ocean Coupled Model with Wave Interactions
2014-09-30
for reducing this burden, to Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite...an AI on the current project, with remuneration that takes his salary to 1 FTE. SWARP will develop downstream services for sea ice and waves
The environmental interactions of tidal and wave energy generation devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frid, Chris; Andonegi, Eider; Depestele, Jochen; Judd, Adrian; Rihan, Dominic; Rogers, Stuart I.; Kenchington, Ellen
2012-01-01
Global energy demand continues to grow and tidal and wave energy generation devices can provide a significant source of renewable energy. Technological developments in offshore engineering and the rising cost of traditional energy means that offshore energy resources will be economic in the next few years. While there is now a growing body of data on the ecological impacts of offshore wind farms, the scientific basis on which to make informed decisions about the environmental effects of other offshore energy developments is lacking. Tidal barrages have the potential to cause significant ecological impacts particularly on bird feeding areas when they are constructed at coastal estuaries or bays. Offshore tidal stream energy and wave energy collectors offer the scope for developments at varying scales. They also have the potential to alter habitats. A diversity of designs exist, including floating, mid-water column and seabed mounted devices, with a variety of moving-part configurations resulting in a unique complex of potential environmental effects for each device type, which are discussed to the extent possible. - Highlights: ► We review the environmental impacts of tidal barrages and fences, tidal stream farms and wave energy capture devices. ► Impacts on habitats, species and the water column, and effects of noise and electromagnetic fields are considered. ► Tidal barrages can cause significant impacts on bird feeding areas when constructed at coastal estuaries or bays. ► Wave energy collectors can alter water column and sea bed habitats locally and over large distances.
Self-interaction of gravitational waves and their observability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qadir, Asghar
2012-01-01
Energy is not a well-defined concept in General Relativity (GR). There have been various approaches adopted, including simply discarding the concept. However, with mass-energy equivalence and the importance of mass in GR, many have thought it worth preserving. Of the various suggestions for defining energy, there is a proposal that the energy content in a time varying spacetime can be obtained by considering its second approximate Lie symmetries. Unlike others, this proposal allows one to calculate the energy in gravitational waves. When applied to cylindrical gravitational waves, it gives a self-damping of the waves. Though other waves may be expected to have different mathematical behaviour, the physics of self-damping should remain the same and one would expect a qualitatively similar result, even if it is quantitatively different in some details. If this proposal is valid, the estimates for the required sensitivity of the detectors for the various sources will have to be revised upwards. This revision is worked out here. In view of the fact that after two years of being online no signal has been seen by the detectors, it is argued that this proposal should be taken as a serious contender for a valid definition of energy in GR.
Interaction between ionization and gravity waves in the upper atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balcioglu, O.
1982-10-01
It is known that travelling ionospheric disturbances are produced by gravity waves. During their movement from the F region downwards to the E region, gravity waves can produce thin layers called transients on ionograms and, if the wave motion persists, 'h-type Esub(S) can be produced. To investigate the problem, the continuity equations for both the E and F regions are solved for a perturbation, the motion of which is taken to be a gravity wave. Hitherto, N'/N 0 , the ratio of the disturbed to the undisturbed electron density, has been calculated by using only the Hall conductivity and ignoring the diffusion term for the F region. In the present calculations we have used Pedersan and Hall conductivities and calculated the N'/N 0 ratio for both the E and F regions. Using CIRA standard atmosphere data we find for the F region that N' can exceed N 0 by up to 4 percent, depending on the horizontal wind velocity. In the E region, N' reaches much higher values than in the F region. Thus at 120 km if we take a typical horizontal wind velocity of 80 m/sec (wavelength 150 km), N' is about twice as large as N 0 . From these results we see that the diffusion term is important for the E region. (author)
Zacharegkas, Georgios; Isliker, Heinz; Vlahos, Loukas
2016-11-01
The limitation of the Quasilinear Theory (QLT) to describe the diffusion of electrons and ions in velocity space when interacting with a spectrum of large amplitude electrostatic Langmuir, Upper and Lower hybrid waves, is analyzed. We analytically and numerically estimate the threshold for the amplitude of the waves above which the QLT breaks down, using a test particle code. The evolution of the velocity distribution, the velocity-space diffusion coefficients, the driven current, and the heating of the particles are investigated, for the interaction with small and large amplitude electrostatic waves, that is, in both regimes, where QLT is valid and where it clearly breaks down.
Direct observation of a 'devil's staircase' in wave-particle interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doveil, Fabrice; Macor, Alessandro; Elskens, Yves
2006-01-01
We report the experimental observation of a 'devil's staircase' in a time-dependent system considered as a paradigm for the transition to large-scale chaos in the universality class of Hamiltonian systems. A test electron beam is used to observe its non-self-consistent interaction with externally excited wave(s) in a traveling wave tube (TWT). A trochoidal energy analyzer records the beam energy distribution at the output of the interaction line. An arbitrary waveform generator is used to launch a prescribed spectrum of waves along the slow wave structure (a 4 m long helix) of the TWT. The resonant velocity domain associated to a single wave is observed, as well as the transition to large-scale chaos when the resonant domains of two waves and their secondary resonances overlap. This transition exhibits a 'devil's staircase' behavior for increasing excitation amplitude, due to the nonlinear forcing by the second wave on the pendulum-like motion of a charged particle in one electrostatic wave
Free-electron laser driven by the LBNL laser-plasma accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroeder, C.B.; Fawley, W.M.; Gruner, F.; Bakeman, M.; Nakamura, K.; Robinson, K.E.; Toth, Cs.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.
2008-01-01
A design of a compact free-electron laser (FEL), generating ultra-fast, high-peak flux, XUV pulses is presented. The FEL is driven by ahigh-current, 0.5 GeV electron beam from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) laser-plasma accelerator, whose active acceleration length is only a few centimeters. The proposed ultra-fast source (∼10 fs) would be intrinsically temporally synchronized to the drive laser pulse, enabling pump-probe studies in ultra-fast science. Owing to the high current (>10 kA) of the laser-plasma-accelerated electron beams, saturated output fluxes are potentially greater than 10 13 photons/pulse. Devices based both on self-amplified spontaneous emission and high-harmonic generated input seeds, to reduce undulator length and fluctuations, are considered.
Design of a free-electron laser driven by the LBNL laser-plasma-accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schroeder, C.B.; Fawley, W.M.; Montgomery, A.L.; Robinson, K.E.; Gruner, F.; Bakeman, M.; Leemans, W.P.
2007-01-01
We discuss the design and current status of a compact free-electron laser (FEL), generating ultra-fast, high-peak flux, VUV pulses driven by a high-current, GeV electron beam from the existing Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) laser-plasma accelerator, whose active acceleration length is only a few cm. The proposed ultra-fast source would be intrinsically temporally synchronized to the drive laser pulse, enabling pump-probe studies in ultra-fast science with pulse lengths of tens of fs. Owing to the high current ( and 10 kA) of the laser-plasma-accelerated electron beams, saturated output fluxes are potentially greater than 1013 photons/pulse. Devices based both on SASE and high-harmonic generated input seeds, to reduce undulator length and fluctuations, are considered
Ion response to relativistic electron bunches in the blowout regime of laser-plasma accelerators.
Popov, K I; Rozmus, W; Bychenkov, V Yu; Naseri, N; Capjack, C E; Brantov, A V
2010-11-05
The ion response to relativistic electron bunches in the so called bubble or blowout regime of a laser-plasma accelerator is discussed. In response to the strong fields of the accelerated electrons the ions form a central filament along the laser axis that can be compressed to densities 2 orders of magnitude higher than the initial particle density. A theory of the filament formation and a model of ion self-compression are proposed. It is also shown that in the case of a sharp rear plasma-vacuum interface the ions can be accelerated by a combination of three basic mechanisms. The long time ion evolution that results from the strong electrostatic fields of an electron bunch provides a unique diagnostic of laser-plasma accelerators.
Novel features of non-linear Raman instability in a laser plasma
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Mašek, Martin; Rohlena, Karel
2010-01-01
Roč. 56, č. 1 (2010), s. 79-90 ISSN 1434-6060 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08099; GA MŠk(CZ) LC528; GA ČR GA202/05/2475 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laser plasma * non-linear Raman instability Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.513, year: 2010
The choice of optimal Discrete Interaction Approximation to the kinetic integral for ocean waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. G. Polnikov
2003-01-01
Full Text Available A lot of discrete configurations for the four-wave nonlinear interaction processes have been calculated and tested by the method proposed earlier in the frame of the concept of Fast Discrete Interaction Approximation to the Hasselmann's kinetic integral (Polnikov and Farina, 2002. It was found that there are several simple configurations, which are more efficient than the one proposed originally in Hasselmann et al. (1985. Finally, the optimal multiple Discrete Interaction Approximation (DIA to the kinetic integral for deep-water waves was found. Wave spectrum features have been intercompared for a number of different configurations of DIA, applied to a long-time solution of kinetic equation. On the basis of this intercomparison the better efficiency of the configurations proposed was confirmed. Certain recommendations were given for implementation of new approximations to the wave forecast practice.
Interaction of the electromagnetic waves and non-magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Aiping; Qiu Xiaoming; Dong Yuying; Li Liqiong
2002-01-01
The propagation of electromagnetic waves with 0.5 - 10 GHz in a non-magnetized collisional plasma slab is studied numerically. The change in the absorbed power, reflected power and transmitted power of the electromagnetic wave with collisional frequency of electrons and neutral atoms in plasma from 0.1 - 10 GHz, is calculated, in the condition of the uniform plasma with density of 10 10 or 10 11 cm -3 and depth of 10 cm, and the non-uniform plasma with density distribution of n = n 0 exp[2(z/d-1)] and depth of 10 cm, respectively. The results show that the absorbed power in either uniform or non-uniform plasma is large when the plasma density is large and collision frequency is high, and the peak value is 90%
The environmental interactions of tidal and wave energy generation devices
Frid, C.; Andonegi, E.; Depestele, J.; Judd, A.; Rihan, D.; Rogers, S.I.; Kenchington, E.
2012-01-01
Global energy demand continues to grow and tidal and wave energy generation devices can provide a significant source of renewable energy. Technological developments in offshore engineering and the rising cost of traditional energy means that offshore energy resources will be economic in the next few years. While there is now a growing body of data on the ecological impacts of offshore wind farms, the scientific basis on which to make informed decisions about the environmental effects of other...
The environmental interactions of tidal and wave energy generation devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frid, Chris, E-mail: c.l.j.frid@liv.ac.uk [School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, Crown Street, Liverpool, L69 7ZB (United Kingdom); Andonegi, Eider, E-mail: eandonegi@azti.es [AZTI-Tecnalia, Txatxarramendi ugartea, z/g E-48395 Sukarrieta (Bizkaia) (Spain); Depestele, Jochen, E-mail: jochen.depestele@ilvo.vlaanderen.be [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research, Ankerstraat 1, B-8400 Oostende (Belgium); Judd, Adrian, E-mail: Adrian.Judd@cefas.co.uk [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science , Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft NR33 0HT United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Rihan, Dominic, E-mail: Dominic.RIHAN@ec.europa.eu [Irish Sea Fisheries Board, P.O. Box 12 Dun Laoghaire, Co. Dublin (Ireland); Rogers, Stuart I., E-mail: stuart.rogers@cefas.co.uk [Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science , Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft NR33 0HT United Kingdom (United Kingdom); Kenchington, Ellen, E-mail: Ellen.Kenchington@dfo-mpo.gc.ca [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Bedford Institute of Oceanography, P.O. Box 1006, Dartmouth Canada, NS B2Y 4A2 (Canada)
2012-01-15
Global energy demand continues to grow and tidal and wave energy generation devices can provide a significant source of renewable energy. Technological developments in offshore engineering and the rising cost of traditional energy means that offshore energy resources will be economic in the next few years. While there is now a growing body of data on the ecological impacts of offshore wind farms, the scientific basis on which to make informed decisions about the environmental effects of other offshore energy developments is lacking. Tidal barrages have the potential to cause significant ecological impacts particularly on bird feeding areas when they are constructed at coastal estuaries or bays. Offshore tidal stream energy and wave energy collectors offer the scope for developments at varying scales. They also have the potential to alter habitats. A diversity of designs exist, including floating, mid-water column and seabed mounted devices, with a variety of moving-part configurations resulting in a unique complex of potential environmental effects for each device type, which are discussed to the extent possible. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We review the environmental impacts of tidal barrages and fences, tidal stream farms and wave energy capture devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Impacts on habitats, species and the water column, and effects of noise and electromagnetic fields are considered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tidal barrages can cause significant impacts on bird feeding areas when constructed at coastal estuaries or bays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wave energy collectors can alter water column and sea bed habitats locally and over large distances.
Effect of nonlinear wave-particle interaction on electron-cyclotron absorption
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsironis, C; Vlahos, L [Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)
2006-09-15
We perform a self-consistent analysis of the nonlinear interaction of magnetized plasmas with electron-cyclotron (EC) waves. A closed set of equations is derived, which consists of the relativistic equations of motion under the wave field and the wave equation for the vector potential. The plasma is described in terms of ensembles of electrons which collectively determine the evolution of the wave amplitude and frequency through the current response. This description allows for effects of the electron motions on the efficiency of the wave absorption, for example, the asynchrony between the wave phase and the gyroperiod. As an application, we study the absorption of an EC wave beam in a simplified tokamak geometry, for plasma parameters relevant to current and future fusion experiments. We conclude that, within the limits of our model, there are cases where the linear theory for the absorption of EC waves, used widely in the current literature, may overestimate the energy deposition. In such cases, nonlinear effects are essential for the accurate estimation of the plasma-wave coupling and their inclusion should be considered, especially when the wave power is dramatically increased as in the case of ITER.
Effect of nonlinear wave-particle interaction on electron-cyclotron absorption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsironis, C; Vlahos, L
2006-01-01
We perform a self-consistent analysis of the nonlinear interaction of magnetized plasmas with electron-cyclotron (EC) waves. A closed set of equations is derived, which consists of the relativistic equations of motion under the wave field and the wave equation for the vector potential. The plasma is described in terms of ensembles of electrons which collectively determine the evolution of the wave amplitude and frequency through the current response. This description allows for effects of the electron motions on the efficiency of the wave absorption, for example, the asynchrony between the wave phase and the gyroperiod. As an application, we study the absorption of an EC wave beam in a simplified tokamak geometry, for plasma parameters relevant to current and future fusion experiments. We conclude that, within the limits of our model, there are cases where the linear theory for the absorption of EC waves, used widely in the current literature, may overestimate the energy deposition. In such cases, nonlinear effects are essential for the accurate estimation of the plasma-wave coupling and their inclusion should be considered, especially when the wave power is dramatically increased as in the case of ITER
Interaction between counter-streaming ion-acoustic solitons and the Langmuir waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basovich, A.Ya.; Gromov, E.M.; Talanov, V.I.
1984-01-01
The interaction between strong counter-streaming ion-acoustic solitons and the Langmuir waves is considered. At first the Langmuir waves spectrum transformation by counter-streaming ion-acoustic solutions of a preset amplitude e has been found. An increase in the frequency and number of the Langmuir waves due to the Doppler effect in the course of multiple reflection from the f front soliton slope has been determined and the wave number range in which the confinement of the Langmuir waves by counter-streaning solitons is possible has s been found. It is shown that the time of the Langmuir wave transformation into the short-wave region under the effect of the counter-streaming soliton may y be short as compared with the time of the Langmuir wave diffusion into the Landau damping region under the effect of random fields of ion-acoustic waves. In the adiabatic fpproximation changes in the counter-streaming ion acoustic parameters of solitons owing to the Langmuir waves have been
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vladimirov, S.V.; Nambu, Mitsuhiro
1995-01-01
From investigations of resonant interactions of particles and waves in turbulent plasmas it is well known that not only resonant particles contribute to expressions for the wave energy and momentum providing conservation of these quantities for closed systems. In particular, it was demonstrated that contribution of the nonresonant particles is very important for the energy conservation in the quasilinear theory: although the nonresonant terms do not appear in the diffusion equation, they contribute to the wave energy (and, in general, wave momentum) ensuring the conservation of total energy (and momentum) in the system. We note that the real part of the dielectric permittivity ε ωk as well as the wave frequency ω k of the resonant waves do not depend on time in the quasilinear approximation since only nonresonant particles (which distribution is constant) contribute to them. The resonant wave amplitude, however, is the function on time, and changing of the wave energy is completely balanced by the corresponding change of the resonant particle energy. If in the system there are only nonresonant waves, and it is closed (i.e., there is no energy exchange with some external sources or sinks), the system is stationary and the nonresonant wave as well as particle energy are not changing
Micro- and Nanoprocessing of Polymers Using a Laser Plasma Extreme Ultraviolet Source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Rakowski, R.; Szczurek, A.; Szczurek, M.
2010-01-01
Laser plasma with temperature of the order of tens eV can be an efficient source of extreme ultraviolet (EUV). The radiation can be focused using different kind of optics, giving sufficient fluence for some applications. In this work we present results of investigations concerning applications of a laser plasma EUV source based on a double stream gas puff target. The source was equipped with two different grazing incidence collectors. One of them was a multifoil collector, the second one was an axisymmetrical ellipsoidal collector. The multifoil mirror was used mainly in experiments concerning micromachining of organic polymers by direct photo-etching. The experiments were performed for different polymers that were irradiated through a fine metal grid as a contact mask. The smallest element of a pattern structure obtained in this way was 5 μm, while the structure height was 50 μm giving an aspect ratio about 10. The laser-plasma EUV source equipped with the axisymmetrical ellipsoidal collector was used for surface modification of organic polymers and inorganic solids. The surface morphology after irradiation was investigated. Different forms of micro- and nanostructures were obtained depending on material and irradiation conditions. (author)
[Experimental investigation of laser plasma soft X-ray source with gas target].
Ni, Qi-liang; Gong, Yan; Lin, Jing-quan; Chen, Bo; Cao, Jian-lin
2003-02-01
This paper describes a debris-free laser plasma soft X-ray source with a gas target, which has high operating frequency and can produce strong soft X-ray radiation. The valve of this light source is drived by a piezoelectrical ceramic whose operating frequency is up to 400 Hz. In comparison with laser plasma soft X-ray sources using metal target, the light source is debris-free. And it has higher operating frequency than gas target soft X-ray sources whose nozzle is controlled by a solenoid valve. A channel electron multiplier (CEM) operating in analog mode is used to detect the soft X-ray generated by the laser plasma source, and the CEM's output is fed to to a charge-sensitive preamplifier for further amplification purpose. Output charges from the CEM are proportional to the amplitude of the preamplifier's output voltage. Spectra of CO2, Xe and Kr at 8-14 nm wavelength which can be used for soft X-ray projection lithography are measured. The spectrum for CO2 consists of separate spectral lines originate mainly from the transitions in Li-like and Be-like ions. The Xe spectrum originating mainly from 4d-5f, 4d-4f, 4d-6p and 4d-5p transitions in multiply charged xenon ions. The spectrum for Kr consists of separate spectral lines and continuous broad spectra originating mainly from the transitions in Cu-, Ni-, Co- and Fe-like ions.
Laser plasma acceleration of electrons with multi-PW laser beams in the frame of CILEX
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cros, B., E-mail: brigitte.cros@u-psud.fr [LPGP, CNRS and Université Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Paradkar, B.S. [LPGP, CNRS and Université Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Davoine, X. [CEA DAM DIF, Arpajon F-91297 (France); Chancé, A. [CEA IRFU-SACM, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Desforges, F.G. [LPGP, CNRS and Université Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Dobosz-Dufrénoy, S. [CEA DSM-IRAMIS-SPAM, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Delerue, N. [LAL, CNRS and Universit Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Ju, J.; Audet, T.L.; Maynard, G. [LPGP, CNRS and Université Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Lobet, M.; Gremillet, L. [CEA DAM DIF, Arpajon F-91297 (France); Mora, P. [CPhT, CNRS and Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Schwindling, J.; Delferrière, O. [CEA IRFU-SACM, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Bruni, C.; Rimbault, C.; Vinatier, T. [LAL, CNRS and Universit Paris Sud, Orsay (France); Di Piazza, A. [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Grech, M. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, Palaiseau (France); and others
2014-03-11
Laser plasma acceleration of electrons has progressed along with advances in laser technology. It is thus expected that the development in the near-future of multi-PW-class laser and facilities will enable a vast range of scientific opportunities for laser plasma acceleration research. On one hand, high peak powers can be used to explore the extremely high intensity regime of laser wakefield acceleration, producing for example large amounts of electrons in the GeV range or generating high energy photons. On the other hand, the available laser energy can be used in the quasi-linear regime to create accelerating fields in large volumes of plasma and study controlled acceleration in a plasma stage of externally injected relativistic particles, either electrons or positrons. In the frame of the Centre Interdisciplinaire de la Lumière EXtrême (CILEX), the Apollon-10P laser will deliver two beams at the 1 PW and 10 PW levels, in ultra-short (>15fs) pulses, to a target area dedicated to electron acceleration studies, such as the exploration of the non-linear regimes predicted theoretically, or multi-stage laser plasma acceleration.
Large-solid-angle illuminators for extreme ultraviolet lithography with laser plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubiak, G.D.; Tichenor, D.A.; Sweatt, W.C.; Chow, W.W.
1995-06-01
Laser Plasma Sources (LPSS) of extreme ultraviolet radiation are an attractive alternative to synchrotron radiation sources for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) due to their modularity, brightness, and modest size and cost. To fully exploit the extreme ultraviolet power emitted by such sources, it is necessary to capture the largest possible fraction of the source emission half-sphere while simultaneously optimizing the illumination stationarity and uniformity on the object mask. In this LDRD project, laser plasma source illumination systems for EUVL have been designed and then theoretically and experimentally characterized. Ellipsoidal condensers have been found to be simple yet extremely efficient condensers for small-field EUVL imaging systems. The effects of aberrations in such condensers on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging have been studied with physical optics modeling. Lastly, the design of an efficient large-solid-angle condenser has been completed. It collects 50% of the available laser plasma source power at 14 nm and delivers it properly to the object mask in a wide-arc-field camera
kHz femtosecond laser-plasma hard X-ray and fast ion source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thoss, A.; Korn, G.; Stiel, H.; Voigt, U.; Elsaesser, T.; Richardson, M.C.; Siders, C.W.; Faubel, M.
2002-01-01
We describe the first demonstration of a new stable, kHz femtosecond laser-plasma source of hard x-ray continuum and K α emission using a thin liquid metallic jet target. kHz femtosecond x-ray sources will find many applications in time-resolved x-ray diffraction and microscopy studies. As high intensity lasers become more compact and operate at increasingly high repetition-rates, they require a target configuration that is both repeatable from shot-to-shot and is debris-free. We have solved this requirement with the use of a fine (10-30 μm diameter) liquid metal jet target that provides a pristine, unperturbed filament surface at rates >100 kHz. A number of liquid metal targets are considered. We will show hard x-ray spectra recorded from liquid Ga targets that show the generation of the 9.3 keV and 10.3 keV, K α and K β lines superimposed on a multi-keV Bremsstrahlung continuum. This source was generated by a 50fs duration, 1 kHz, 2W, high intensity Ti:Sapphire laser. We will discuss the extension of this source to higher powers and higher repetition rates, providing harder x-ray emission, with the incorporation of pulse-shaping and other techniques to enhance the x-ray conversion efficiency. Using the same liquid target technology, we have also demonstrated the generation of forward-going sub-MeV protons from a 10 μm liquid water target at 1 kHz repetition rates. kHz sources of high energy ions will find many applications in time-resolved particle interaction studies, as well as lead to the efficient generation of short-lived isotopes for use in nuclear medicine and other applications. The protons were detected with CR-39 track detectors both in the forward and backward directions up to energies of ∼500 keV. As the intensity of compact high repetition-rate lasers sources increase, we can expect improvements in the energy, conversion efficiency and directionality to occur. The impact of these developments on a number of fields will be discussed. As compact
Principles and applications of compact laser-plasma accelerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malka, V; Faure, J; Gauduel, Y A; Rousse, A; Faure, J [Ecole Polytech, CNRS, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees, Lab Optique Appliquee, UMR 7639, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Lefebvre, E [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dept. de Physique Theorique et Appliquee, 91 (France)
2008-06-15
Rapid progress in the development of high-intensity laser systems has extended our ability to study light-matter interactions far into the relativistic domain, in which electrons are driven to velocities close to the speed of light. As well as being of fundamental interest in their own right, these interactions enable the generation of high-energy particle beams that are short, bright and have good spatial quality. Along with steady improvements in the size, cost and repetition rate of high-intensity lasers, the unique characteristics of laser-driven particle beams are expected to be useful for a wide range of contexts, including proton therapy for the treatment of cancers, materials characterization, radiation-driven chemistry, border security through the detection of explosives, narcotics and other dangerous substances, and of course high-energy particle physics. Here, we review progress that has been made towards realizing such possibilities and the principles that underlie them. (authors)
Principles and applications of compact laser-plasma accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malka, V.; Faure, J.; Gauduel, Y.A.; Rousse, A.; Faure, J.; Lefebvre, E.
2008-01-01
Rapid progress in the development of high-intensity laser systems has extended our ability to study light-matter interactions far into the relativistic domain, in which electrons are driven to velocities close to the speed of light. As well as being of fundamental interest in their own right, these interactions enable the generation of high-energy particle beams that are short, bright and have good spatial quality. Along with steady improvements in the size, cost and repetition rate of high-intensity lasers, the unique characteristics of laser-driven particle beams are expected to be useful for a wide range of contexts, including proton therapy for the treatment of cancers, materials characterization, radiation-driven chemistry, border security through the detection of explosives, narcotics and other dangerous substances, and of course high-energy particle physics. Here, we review progress that has been made towards realizing such possibilities and the principles that underlie them. (authors)
Consequences of repeated discovery and benign neglect of non-interaction of waves (NIW)
Roychoudhuri, ChandraSekhar
2017-08-01
This paper presents the historical background behind the repeated discovery and repeated ignoring of the generic important property of all propagating waves, the Non-Interaction of Waves (NIW). The focus will be on the implications of NIW in most of the major optical phenomena with brief hints of importance. We argue that the prevailing postulate of wave-particle duality becomes unnecessary, once we accept NIW. Semi-classical model of treating light-matter interactions should be the preferred approach since the quantumness actually arises from within the structure of the energy levels (bands) in materials. Waves, and wave equations, do not support bullet-like propagation. We follow the historical trend starting from the tenth century physicist Alhazen, to the seventeenth century Newton and Huygens, then to the nineteenth century Young and Fresnel. Then we jump to twentieth century physicists Planck, Einstein, Bose, Dirac and Feynman. Had we recognized and appreciated NIW property of waves from the time of Alhazen, the evolutionary history of physics would have been dramatically different from what we have today. The prevailing dominance of the postulate of wave-particle duality is keeping us confused from seeking out actual reality; and hence, we should abandon this concept and search out better models. The paper demonstrates that NIW provides us with a platform for deeper understanding of the nature of EM waves that we have missed; it is not just semantics.
Interaction between shock wave and single inertial bubbles near an elastic boundary.
Sankin, G N; Zhong, P
2006-10-01
The interaction of laser-generated single inertial bubbles (collapse time = 121 mus) near a silicon rubber membrane with a shock wave (55 MPa in peak pressure and 1.7 mus in compressive pulse duration) is investigated. The interaction leads to directional, forced asymmetric collapse of the bubble with microjet formation toward the surface. Maximum jet penetration into the membrane is produced during the bubble collapse phase with optimal shock wave arrival time and stand-off distance. Such interaction may provide a unique acoustic means for in vivo microinjection, applicable to targeted delivery of macromolecules and gene vectors to biological tissues.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aushev, A A; Barinov, S P; Vasin, M G; Drozdov, Yu M; Ignat' ev, Yu V; Izgorodin, V M; Kovshov, D K; Lakhtikov, A E; Lukovkina, D D; Markelov, V V; Morovov, A P; Shishlov, V V [Russian Federal Nuclear Center ' All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics' , Sarov, Nizhnii Novgorod region (Russian Federation)
2015-06-30
We present the results of employing the alpha-spectrometry method to determine the characteristics of porous materials used in targets for laser plasma experiments. It is shown that the energy spectrum of alpha-particles, after their passage through porous samples, allows one to determine the distribution of their path length in the foam skeleton. We describe the procedure of deriving such a distribution, excluding both the distribution broadening due to statistical nature of the alpha-particle interaction with an atomic structure (straggling) and hardware effects. The fractal analysis of micro-images is applied to the same porous surface samples that have been studied by alpha-spectrometry. The fractal dimension and size distribution of the number of the foam skeleton grains are obtained. Using the data obtained, a distribution of the total foam skeleton thickness along a chosen direction is constructed. It roughly coincides with the path length distribution of alpha-particles within a range of larger path lengths. It is concluded that the combined use of the alpha-spectrometry method and fractal analysis of images will make it possible to determine the size distribution of foam skeleton grains (or pores). The results can be used as initial data in theoretical studies on propagation of the laser and X-ray radiation in specific porous samples. (laser plasma)
Computation of wave fields and soil structure interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lysmer, J.W.
1982-01-01
The basic message of the lecture is that the determination of the temporal and spatial variation of the free-field motions is the most important part of any soil-structure interaction analysis. Any interaction motions may be considered as small aberrations superimposed on the free-field motions. The current definition of the soil-structure interaction problem implies that superposition must be used, directly or indirectly, in any rational method of analysis of this problem. This implies that the use of nonlinear procedures in any part of a soil-structure interaction analysis must be questioned. Currently the most important part of the soil-structure interaction analysis, the free-field problem, cannot be solved by nonlinear methods. Hence, it does not seem reasonable to spend a large effort on trying to obtain nonlinear solutions for the interaction part of the problem. Even if such solutions are obtained they cannot legally be superimposed on the free-field motions to obtain the total motions of the structure. This of course does not preclude the possibility that such an illegal procedure may lead to solutions which are close enough for engineering purposes. However, further research is required to make a decision on this issue
Assessment of seismic wave effects on soil-structure interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernreuter, D.L.
1977-03-01
It is normally assumed in the seismic analysis of structures that the free-field motion which is used as input is the same for all points on a given level beneath the foundation mat. This represents a simplification, as not all particles of soil describe the same motion simultaneously. As the foundation mat of the structure is rigid in the horizontal direction, it will tend to average the ground motion. Abandoning the assumption of the uniformity of the input motion may lead to a reduction of the translational motion which a foundation mat will experience, as the displacement components will cancel each other to a certain extent. This is of considerable interest for the design of nuclear power plants which are very stiff, large structures. To investigate these effects, the extremely complex phenomenon of the passage of a seismic wave has to be simplified considerably. It is the purpose of this paper to determine if wave passage effects can be determined from the simplified analyses currently used
Investigation of laser plasma instabilities using picosecond laser pulses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kline, J L; Montgomery, D S; Yin, L; Flippo, K A; Shimada, T; Johnson, R P; Rose, H A; Albright, B J; Hardin, R A
2008-01-01
A new short-pulse version of the single-hot-spot configuration has been implemented to enhance the performance of experiments to understand Stimulated Raman Scattering. The laser pulse length was reduced from ∼200 to ∼3 ps. The reduced pulse length improves the experiment by minimizing effects such as plasma hydrodynamic evolution and ponderomotive filamentation of the interaction beam. In addition, the shortened laser pulses allow full length 2D particle-in-cell simulations of the experiments. Using the improved single-hot-spot configuration, a series of experiments to investigate kλ D scaling of SRS has been performed. Details of the experimental setup and initial results will be presented
Giant amplification in degenerate band edge slow-wave structures interacting with an electron beam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Othman, Mohamed A. K.; Veysi, Mehdi; Capolino, Filippo [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Figotin, Alexander [Department of Mathematics, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)
2016-03-15
We propose a new amplification regime based on a synchronous operation of four degenerate electromagnetic (EM) modes in a slow-wave structure and the electron beam, referred to as super synchronization. These four EM modes arise in a Fabry-Pérot cavity when degenerate band edge (DBE) condition is satisfied. The modes interact constructively with the electron beam resulting in superior amplification. In particular, much larger gains are achieved for smaller beam currents compared to conventional structures based on synchronization with only a single EM mode. We demonstrate giant gain scaling with respect to the length of the slow-wave structure compared to conventional Pierce type single mode traveling wave tube amplifiers. We construct a coupled transmission line model for a loaded waveguide slow-wave structure exhibiting a DBE, and investigate the phenomenon of giant gain via super synchronization using the Pierce model generalized to multimode interaction.
Reversible electron heating vs. wave-particle interactions in quasi-perpendicular shocks
Veltri, P.; Mangeney, A.; Scudder, J. D.
1992-01-01
The energy necessary to explain the electron heating in quasi-perpendicular collisionless shocks can be derived either from the electron acceleration in the d.c. cross shock electric potential, or by the interactions between the electrons and the waves existing in the shock. A Monte Carlo simulation has been performed to study the electron distribution function evolution through the shock structure, with and without particle diffusion on waves. This simulation has allowed us to clarify the relative importance of the two possible energy sources; in particular it has been shown that the electron parallel temperature is determined by the d.c. electromagnetic field and not by any wave-particle-induced heating. Wave particle interactions are effective in smoothing out the large gradients in phase space produced by the 'reversible' motion of the electrons, thus producing a 'cooling' of the electrons.
Nonlinear interaction of an intense radio wave with ionospheric D/E layer plasma
Sodha, Mahendra Singh; Agarwal, Sujeet Kumar
2018-05-01
This paper considers the nonlinear interaction of an intense electromagnetic wave with the D/E layer plasma in the ionosphere. A simultaneous solution of the electromagnetic wave equation and the equations describing the kinetics of D/E layer plasma is obtained; the phenomenon of ohmic heating of electrons by the electric field of the wave causes enhanced collision frequency and ionization of neutral species. Electron temperature dependent recombination of electrons with ions, electron attachment to O 2 molecules, and detachment of electrons from O2 - ions has also been taken into account. The dependence of the plasma parameters on the square of the electric vector of the wave E0 2 has been evaluated for three ionospheric heights (viz., 90, 100, and 110 km) corresponding to the mid-latitude mid-day ionosphere and discussed; these results are used to investigate the horizontal propagation of an intense radio wave at these heights.
Stability analysis of a Vlasov-Wave system describing particles interacting with their environment
De Bièvre, Stephan; Goudon, Thierry; Vavasseur, Arthur
2018-06-01
We study a kinetic equation of the Vlasov-Wave type, which arises in the description of the behavior of a large number of particles interacting weakly with an environment, composed of an infinite collection of local vibrational degrees of freedom, modeled by wave equations. We use variational techniques to establish the existence of large families of stationary states for this system, and analyze their stability.
Three-wave interaction during electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Jacobsen, Asger Schou; Hansen, Søren Kjer
2016-01-01
Non-linear wave-wave interactions in fusion plasmas, such as the parametric decay instability (PDI) of gyrotron radiation, can potentially hamper the use of microwave diagnostics. Here we report on anomalous scattering in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak during electron cyclotron resonance heating...... experiments. The observations can be linked to parametric decay of the gyrotron radiation at the second harmonic upper hybrid resonance layer....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Hashemiyan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Properties of soft biological tissues are increasingly used in medical diagnosis to detect various abnormalities, for example, in liver fibrosis or breast tumors. It is well known that mechanical stiffness of human organs can be obtained from organ responses to shear stress waves through Magnetic Resonance Elastography. The Local Interaction Simulation Approach is proposed for effective modelling of shear wave propagation in soft tissues. The results are validated using experimental data from Magnetic Resonance Elastography. These results show the potential of the method for shear wave propagation modelling in soft tissues. The major advantage of the proposed approach is a significant reduction of computational effort.
px+ipy Superfluid from s-Wave Interactions of Fermionic Cold Atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Chuanwei; Tewari, Sumanta; Lutchyn, Roman M.; Das Sarma, S.
2008-01-01
Two-dimensional (p x +ip y ) superfluids or superconductors offer a playground for studying intriguing physics such as quantum teleportation, non-Abelian statistics, and topological quantum computation. Creating such a superfluid in cold fermionic atom optical traps using p-wave Feshbach resonance is turning out to be challenging. Here we propose a method to create a p x +ip y superfluid directly from an s-wave interaction making use of a topological Berry phase, which can be artificially generated. We discuss ways to detect the spontaneous Hall mass current, which acts as a diagnostic for the chiral p-wave superfluid
Packo, P.; Staszewski, W. J.; Uhl, T.
2016-01-01
Properties of soft biological tissues are increasingly used in medical diagnosis to detect various abnormalities, for example, in liver fibrosis or breast tumors. It is well known that mechanical stiffness of human organs can be obtained from organ responses to shear stress waves through Magnetic Resonance Elastography. The Local Interaction Simulation Approach is proposed for effective modelling of shear wave propagation in soft tissues. The results are validated using experimental data from Magnetic Resonance Elastography. These results show the potential of the method for shear wave propagation modelling in soft tissues. The major advantage of the proposed approach is a significant reduction of computational effort. PMID:26884808
Pathak, Ashish; Raessi, Mehdi
2016-11-01
Using an in-house computational framework, we have studied the interaction of water waves with pitching flap-type ocean wave energy converters (WECs). The computational framework solves the full 3D Navier-Stokes equations and captures important effects, including the fluid-solid interaction, the nonlinear and viscous effects. The results of the computational tool, is first compared against the experimental data on the response of a flap-type WEC in a wave tank, and excellent agreement is demonstrated. Further simulations at the model and prototype scales are presented to assess the validity of the Froude scaling. The simulations are used to address some important questions, such as the validity range of common WEC modeling approaches that rely heavily on the Froude scaling and the inviscid potential flow theory. Additionally, the simulations examine the role of the Keulegan-Carpenter (KC) number, which is often used as a measure of relative importance of viscous drag on bodies exposed to oscillating flows. The performance of the flap-type WECs is investigated at various KC numbers to establish the relationship between the viscous drag and KC number for such geometry. That is of significant importance because such relationship only exists for simple geometries, e.g., a cylinder. Support from the National Science Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.
Pseudo-shock waves and their interactions in high-speed intakes
Gnani, F.; Zare-Behtash, H.; Kontis, K.
2016-04-01
In an air-breathing engine the flow deceleration from supersonic to subsonic conditions takes places inside the isolator through a gradual compression consisting of a series of shock waves. The wave system, referred to as a pseudo-shock wave or shock train, establishes the combustion chamber entrance conditions, and therefore influences the performance of the entire propulsion system. The characteristics of the pseudo-shock depend on a number of variables which make this flow phenomenon particularly challenging to be analysed. Difficulties in experimentally obtaining accurate flow quantities at high speeds and discrepancies of numerical approaches with measured data have been readily reported. Understanding the flow physics in the presence of the interaction of numerous shock waves with the boundary layer in internal flows is essential to developing methods and control strategies. To counteract the negative effects of shock wave/boundary layer interactions, which are responsible for the engine unstart process, multiple flow control methodologies have been proposed. Improved analytical models, advanced experimental methodologies and numerical simulations have allowed a more in-depth analysis of the flow physics. The present paper aims to bring together the main results, on the shock train structure and its associated phenomena inside isolators, studied using the aforementioned tools. Several promising flow control techniques that have more recently been applied to manipulate the shock wave/boundary layer interaction are also examined in this review.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moll, J; Schulte, R T; Fritzen, C-P; Rezk-Salama, C; Klinkert, T; Kolb, A
2011-01-01
Structural health monitoring systems allow a continuous surveillance of the structural integrity of operational systems. As a result, it is possible to reduce time and costs for maintenance without decreasing the level of safety. In this paper, an integrated simulation and visualization environment is presented that enables a detailed study of Lamb wave propagation in isotropic and anisotropic materials. Thus, valuable information about the nature of Lamb wave propagation and its interaction with structural defects become available. The well-known spectral finite element method is implemented to enable a time-efficient calculation of the wave propagation problem. The results are displayed in an interactive visualization framework accounting for the human perception that is much more sensitive to motion than to changes in color. In addition, measurements have been conducted experimentally to record the full out-of-plane wave-field using a Laser-Doppler vibrometry setup. An aluminum structure with two synthetic cuts has been investigated, where the elongated defects have a different orientation with respect to the piezoelectric actuator. The resulting wave-field is also displayed interactively showing that the scattered wave-field at the defect is highly directional.
Exchange interactions, spin waves, and transition temperatures in itinerant magnets
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Turek, Ilja; Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav; Bruno, P.
2003-01-01
Roč. 1, č. 59 (2003), s. 112-147 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/02/0943; GA AV ČR IAA1010203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : exchange interactions * itinerant magnetism Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism http://psi-k.dl.ac.uk/psi-k/newsletters.html
Energy cascading in the beat-wave accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKinstrie, C.J.; Batha, S.H.
1987-01-01
A review is given of energy cascading in the beat-wave accelerator. The properties of the electromagnetic cascade and the corresponding plasma-wave evolution are well understood within the framework of an approximate analytic model. Based on this model, idealized laser-plasma coupling efficiencies of the order of 10% do not seem unreasonable. 28 refs
Gravitational wave generation by interaction of high power lasers with matter using shock waves
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kadlecová, Hedvika; Klimo, Ondřej; Weber, Stefan A.; Korn, Georg
2017-01-01
Roč. 71, č. 4 (2017), 1-10, č. článku 89. ISSN 1434-6060 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA MŠk LQ1606 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : plasma physics * gravitational wave generation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 1.288, year: 2016
Observation of Atom Wave Phase Shifts Induced by Van Der Waals Atom-Surface Interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perreault, John D.; Cronin, Alexander D.
2005-01-01
The development of nanotechnology and atom optics relies on understanding how atoms behave and interact with their environment. Isolated atoms can exhibit wavelike (coherent) behavior with a corresponding de Broglie wavelength and phase which can be affected by nearby surfaces. Here an atom interferometer is used to measure the phase shift of Na atom waves induced by the walls of a 50 nm wide cavity. To our knowledge this is the first direct measurement of the de Broglie wave phase shift caused by atom-surface interactions. The magnitude of the phase shift is in agreement with that predicted by Lifshitz theory for a nonretarded van der Waals interaction. This experiment also demonstrates that atom waves can retain their coherence even when atom-surface distances are as small as 10 nm
Theory of modulational interaction of trapped ion convective cells and drift wave turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shapiro, V.D.; Diamond, P.H.; Lebedev, V.; Soloviev, G.; Shevchenko, V.
1993-01-01
Theoretical and computational studies of the modulational interaction between trapped ion convective cells and short wavelength drift wave turbulence are discussed. These studies are motivated by the fact that cells and drift waves are expected to coexist in tokamaks so that: (a) cells strain and modulate drift waves, and (b) drift waves open-quote ride on close-quote a background of cells. The results of the authors' investigation indicate that: (1) (nonlinear) parametric growth rates of trapped ion convective cells can exceed linear predictions (for drift wave levels at the mixing length limit); (2) a set of coupled envelope equations, akin to the Zakharov equations from Langmuir turbulence, can be derived and used to predict the formation of a dipole pair of convective cells trapped by the drift wave envelope. This dipole pair is strongly anisotropic, due to the structure of the drift wave Reynolds stress which drives the cell flow. Numerical solutions of the envelope equations are in good agreement with theoretical predictions, and indicate the persistence of the structure in time; (3) strong modulation and trapping of drift waves with k perpendicular ρ > 1 occurs. Extensions to magnetically sheared systems and the broader implications of this work as a paradigm for the dynamics of persistent structures in shearing flows are discussed
Interaction of suprathermal solar wind electron fluxes with sheared whistler waves: fan instability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Krafft
Full Text Available Several in situ measurements performed in the solar wind evidenced that solar type III radio bursts were some-times associated with locally excited Langmuir waves, high-energy electron fluxes and low-frequency electrostatic and electromagnetic waves; moreover, in some cases, the simultaneous identification of energetic electron fluxes, Langmuir and whistler waves was performed. This paper shows how whistlers can be excited in the disturbed solar wind through the so-called "fan instability" by interacting with energetic electrons at the anomalous Doppler resonance. This instability process, which is driven by the anisotropy in the energetic electron velocity distribution along the ambient magnetic field, does not require any positive slope in the suprathermal electron tail and thus can account for physical situations where plateaued reduced electron velocity distributions were observed in solar wind plasmas in association with Langmuir and whistler waves. Owing to linear calculations of growth rates, we show that for disturbed solar wind conditions (that is, when suprathermal particle fluxes propagate along the ambient magnetic field, the fan instability can excite VLF waves (whistlers and lower hybrid waves with characteristics close to those observed in space experiments.
Key words. Space plasma physics (waves and instabilities – Radio Science (waves in plasma – Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (radio emissions
Interaction of suprathermal solar wind electron fluxes with sheared whistler waves: fan instability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Krafft
2003-07-01
Full Text Available Several in situ measurements performed in the solar wind evidenced that solar type III radio bursts were some-times associated with locally excited Langmuir waves, high-energy electron fluxes and low-frequency electrostatic and electromagnetic waves; moreover, in some cases, the simultaneous identification of energetic electron fluxes, Langmuir and whistler waves was performed. This paper shows how whistlers can be excited in the disturbed solar wind through the so-called "fan instability" by interacting with energetic electrons at the anomalous Doppler resonance. This instability process, which is driven by the anisotropy in the energetic electron velocity distribution along the ambient magnetic field, does not require any positive slope in the suprathermal electron tail and thus can account for physical situations where plateaued reduced electron velocity distributions were observed in solar wind plasmas in association with Langmuir and whistler waves. Owing to linear calculations of growth rates, we show that for disturbed solar wind conditions (that is, when suprathermal particle fluxes propagate along the ambient magnetic field, the fan instability can excite VLF waves (whistlers and lower hybrid waves with characteristics close to those observed in space experiments.Key words. Space plasma physics (waves and instabilities – Radio Science (waves in plasma – Solar physics, astrophysics and astronomy (radio emissions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruinsma, J.; Wageningen, R. van
1977-01-01
Nucleon-deuteron breakup calculations at a nucleon bombarding energy of 22.7 MeV have been performed with separable interactions including a tensor force and P-wave interactions. Differential cross sections and a selection of polarization quantities have been computed for special regions of the phase space. The influence of a tensor force and P-wave interactions on the differential cross section is of the order of 20%. Large discrepancies between theory and experiment occur for the vector analyzing powers, both for the kinematically complete and for the incomplete situation. The calculations show that there are kinematical situations in which the differential cross sections and the tensor analyzing powers are sufficiently large to make measurements feasible. (Auth.)
Wang, X. L.; Xu, Z. Y.; Luo, W.; Lu, H. Y.; Zhu, Z. C.; Yan, X. Q.
2017-09-01
Photo-transmutation of long-lived nuclear waste induced by a high-charge relativistic electron beam (e-beam) from a laser plasma accelerator is demonstrated. A collimated relativistic e-beam with a high charge of approximately 100 nC is produced from high-intensity laser interaction with near-critical-density (NCD) plasma. Such e-beam impinges on a high-Z convertor and then radiates energetic bremsstrahlung photons with flux approaching 1011 per laser shot. Taking a long-lived radionuclide 126Sn as an example, the resulting transmutation reaction yield is the order of 109 per laser shot, which is two orders of magnitude higher than obtained from previous studies. It is found that at lower densities, a tightly focused laser irradiating relatively longer NCD plasmas can effectively enhance the transmutation efficiency. Furthermore, the photo-transmutation is generalized by considering mixed-nuclide waste samples, which suggests that the laser-accelerated high-charge e-beam could be an efficient tool to transmute long-lived nuclear waste.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gasilov, S. V.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T. A.; Villoresi, P.; Poletto, L.; Stagira, S.; Calegari, F.; Vozzi, C.; Nisoli, M.
2007-01-01
Nowadays charged-coupled device (CCD) detectors are widely used for the registration of multicharged ions x-ray spectra. These spectra are generated in a plasma during interaction of ultrashort, ultraintense laser pulses with solid targets. Strong parasitic radiation from the plasma affects CCD detectors and contaminates resulting spectra, so that spectral features can be completely covered by noise even during measurements with a very short accumulation time. In this work we propose a ''mean to median'' (M2M) algorithm for noise suppression in femtosecond laser plasma x-ray spectra. Series of spectra is necessary for the identification of corrupted data points by the developed method. The algorithm was tested with model spectra which reflect main features of experimental data. In practice we used it for extracting information about spectral lines of Ne-like Fe ions and He-like Al ions which allowed us to calculate plasma parameters. It is demonstrated that M2M method is able to clean spectra with more than 10% of corrupted pixels. Fluctuations in intensity of spectral lines induced by laser instability do not affect validity of the proposed method
Interaction of weak shock waves with rectangular meshes in plate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O.A. Mikulich
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In mechanical engineering, building and other industries a significant part of the process includes the presence of various dynamic loads due to technological and mechanical impacts. Consideration of such load effects allows more accurate assessment of the structural elements strength or machine parts. Aim: The aim is to develop an algorithm for calculating of dynamic stress state of plates with meshes for pulse loading in the form of a weak shock wave. Materials and Methods: An integral and discrete Fourier transform were used to solve the problem. An application of Fourier transform by time allowed reducing the dynamic problem of flat deformation to the solution of a finite number of problems for the established oscillations at fixed cyclic frequency values. In the area of Fourier-images the method of boundary integral equations and the apparatus of a complex variable function theory are used to study the dynamic stress concentration. Results: Based on the developed methodology the distribution change of the dynamic circle stress over time on the edge of a rectangular hole is studied. The time sections of stress distribution fields under the influence of pulse dynamic load is constructed.
Interaction of electromagnetic and acoustic waves in a stochastic atmosphere
Bhatnagar, N.; Peterson, A. M.
1979-01-01
In the Stanford radio acoustic sounding system (RASS) an electromagnetic signal is made to scatter from a moving acoustic pulse train. Under a Bragg-scatter condition maximum electromagnetic scattering occurs. The scattered radio signal contains temperature and wind information as a function of the acoustic-pulse position. In this investigation RASS performance is assessed in an atmosphere characterized by the presence of turbulence and mean atmospheric parameters. The only assumption made is that the electromagnetic wave is not affected by stochastic perturbations in the atmosphere. It is concluded that the received radio signal depends strongly on the intensity of turbulence for altitudes of the acoustic pulse greater than the coherence length of propagation. The effect of mean vertical wind and mean temperature on the strength of the received signal is also demonstrated to be insignificant. Mean horizontal winds, however, shift the focus of the reflected electromagnetic energy from its origin, resulting in a decrease in received signal level when a monostatic radio-frequency (RF) system is used. For a bistatic radar configuration with space diversified receiving antennas, the shifting of the acoustic pulse makes possible the remote measurement of the horizontal wind component.
Seryi, Andrei; Lesz, Zsolt; Andreev, Alexander; Konoplev, Ivan
2017-03-01
A novel method for generating GigaGauss solenoidal fields in a laser-plasma bubble, using screw-shaped laser pulses, has been recently presented. Such magnetic fields enable fast synchrotron radiation cooling of the beam emittance of laser-plasma accelerated leptons. This recent finding opens a novel approach for design of laser-plasma FELs or colliders, where the acceleration stages are interleaved with laser-plasma emittance cooling stages. In this concept paper, we present an outline of what a staged plasma-acceleration FEL could look like, and discuss further studies needed to investigate the feasibility of the concept in detail.
Data processing in Software-type Wave-Particle Interaction Analyzer onboard the Arase satellite
Hikishima, Mitsuru; Kojima, Hirotsugu; Katoh, Yuto; Kasahara, Yoshiya; Kasahara, Satoshi; Mitani, Takefumi; Higashio, Nana; Matsuoka, Ayako; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Asamura, Kazushi; Takashima, Takeshi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Kitahara, Masahiro; Matsuda, Shoya
2018-05-01
The software-type wave-particle interaction analyzer (S-WPIA) is an instrument package onboard the Arase satellite, which studies the magnetosphere. The S-WPIA represents a new method for directly observing wave-particle interactions onboard a spacecraft in a space plasma environment. The main objective of the S-WPIA is to quantitatively detect wave-particle interactions associated with whistler-mode chorus emissions and electrons over a wide energy range (from several keV to several MeV). The quantity of energy exchanges between waves and particles can be represented as the inner product of the wave electric-field vector and the particle velocity vector. The S-WPIA requires accurate measurement of the phase difference between wave and particle gyration. The leading edge of the S-WPIA system allows us to collect comprehensive information, including the detection time, energy, and incoming direction of individual particles and instantaneous-wave electric and magnetic fields, at a high sampling rate. All the collected particle and waveform data are stored in the onboard large-volume data storage. The S-WPIA executes calculations asynchronously using the collected electric and magnetic wave data, data acquired from multiple particle instruments, and ambient magnetic-field data. The S-WPIA has the role of handling large amounts of raw data that are dedicated to calculations of the S-WPIA. Then, the results are transferred to the ground station. This paper describes the design of the S-WPIA and its calculations in detail, as implemented onboard Arase.[Figure not available: see fulltext.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. E. Woodfield
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Jupiter has the most intense radiation belts of all the outer planets. It is not yet known how electrons can be accelerated to energies of 10 MeV or more. It has been suggested that cyclotron-resonant wave-particle interactions by chorus waves could accelerate electrons to a few MeV near the orbit of Io. Here we use the chorus wave intensities observed by the Galileo spacecraft to calculate the changes in electron flux as a result of pitch angle and energy diffusion. We show that, when the bandwidth of the waves and its variation with L are taken into account, pitch angle and energy diffusion due to chorus waves is a factor of 8 larger at L-shells greater than 10 than previously shown. We have used the latitudinal wave intensity profile from Galileo data to model the time evolution of the electron flux using the British Antarctic Survey Radiation Belt (BAS model. This profile confines intense chorus waves near the magnetic equator with a peak intensity at ∼5° latitude. Electron fluxes in the BAS model increase by an order of magnitude for energies around 3 MeV. Extending our results to L = 14 shows that cyclotron-resonant interactions with chorus waves are equally important for electron acceleration beyond L = 10. These results suggest that there is significant electron acceleration by cyclotron-resonant interactions at Jupiter contributing to the creation of Jupiter's radiation belts and also increasing the range of L-shells over which this mechanism should be considered.
Interaction of electromagnetic waves with plasma in the radiation-dominated regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bulanov, S.V.; Esirkepov, T.Zh.; Koga, J.; Tajima, T.
2004-01-01
A study is made of the main regimes of interaction of relativistically strong electromagnetic waves with plasma under conditions in which the radiation from particles plays a dominant role. The discussion is focused on such issues as the generation of short electromagnetic pulses in the interaction of laser light with clusters and highly efficient ion acceleration in a thin plasma slab under the action of the ponderomotive pressure of the wave. An approach is developed for generating superintense electromagnetic pulses by means of up-to-date laser devices
Theory of nonlinear interaction of particles and waves in an inverse plasma maser. Part 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krivitsky, V.S.; Vladimirov, S.V.
1991-01-01
An expression is obtained for the collision integral describing the simultaneous interaction of plasma particles with resonant and non-resonant waves. It is shown that this collision integral is determined by two processes: a 'direct' nonlinear interaction of particles and waves, and the influence of the non-stationary of the system. The expression for the nonlinear collision integral is found to be quite different from the expression for a quasi-linear collision integral; in particular, the nonlinear integral contains higher-order derivatives of the distribution function with respect to momentum than the quasi-linear one. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shukla, Nitin; Shukla, P.K.
2011-01-01
The dispersion relation for the dust acoustic wave (DAW) in an unmagnetized dusty plasma cylindrical waveguide is derived, accounting for strong electrostatic interactions between charged dust grains. It is found that the boundary effect limits the radial extent of the DAW. The present result should be helpful for understanding the frequency spectrum of the DAW in a dusty plasma waveguide with strongly coupled charged dust grains. - Highlights: → We study the dust acoustic wave (DAW) in a bounded plasma. → We account for interactions between dust grains. → The boundary effect limits the radial extent of the DAW.
Blackwell, William C., Jr.
2004-01-01
In this paper space is modeled as a lattice of Compton wave oscillators (CWOs) of near- Planck size. It is shown that gravitation and special relativity emerge from the interaction between particles Compton waves. To develop this CWO model an algorithmic approach was taken, incorporating simple rules of interaction at the Planck-scale developed using well known physical laws. This technique naturally leads to Newton s law of gravitation and a new form of doubly special relativity. The model is in apparent agreement with the holographic principle, and it predicts a cutoff energy for ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays that is consistent with observational data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaehle, Stephan
2009-04-23
This thesis deals with the production and application of ultrashort X-ray pulses. In the beginning different possibilities for the production of X-ray pulses with pulse durations of below one picosecond are presented, whereby the main topic lies on the so called laser-plasma X-ray sources with high repetition rate. In this case ultrashort laser pulses are focused on a metal, so that in the focus intensities of above 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2} dominate. In the ideal case in such way ultrafast electrons are produced, which are responsible for line radiation. In these experiments titanium K{sub {alpha}} radiation is produced, thes photons possess an energy of 4.51 keV. For the efficient production of line radiation here the Ti:Sa laser is optimized in view of the laser energy and the pulse shape and the influence of the different parameters on the K{sub {alpha}} production systematically studied. The influences of laser intensity, system-conditioned pre-pulses and of phase modulation are checked. It turns out that beside the increasement of the K{sub {alpha}} radiation by a suited laser intensity a reduction of the X-ray background radiation is of deciding importance for the obtaining of clear diffraction images. This background radiation is mainly composed of bremsstrahlung. It can be suppressed by the avoidance of intrinsic pre-pulses and by means of 2nd-order phase modulation. By means of optical excitation and X-ray exploration experiments the production of acoustic waves after ultrashort optical excitation in a 150 nm thick Ge(111) film on Si(111) is studied. These acoustic waves are driven by thermal (in this time scale time-independent) and electronic (time dependent) pressure amounts. As essential results it turns out that the relative amount of the electronic pressure increases with decreasing excitation density. [German] Diese Arbeit befasst sich mit der Erzeugung und Anwendung ultrakurzer Roentgenimpulse. Zu Beginn werden verschiedene Moeglichkeiten zur
Effects on Ion Cyclotron Emission of the Orbit Topology Changes from the Wave-Particle Interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hellsten, T.; Holmstroem, K.; Johnson, T.; Bergkvist, T.; Laxaback, M.
2006-01-01
It is known that non-relaxed distribution functions can give rise to excitation of magnetosonic waves by ion cyclotron interactions when the distribution function increases with respect to the perpendicular velocity. We have found that in a toroidal plasma also collisional relaxed distribution functions of central peaked high-energy ions can destabilise magnetosonic eigenmodes by ion cyclotron interactions, due to the change in localisation of the orbits establishing inverted distribution functions with respect to energy along the characteristics describing the cyclotron interactions. This can take place by interactions with barely co-passing and marginally trapped high-energy ions at the plasma boundary. The interactions are enhanced by tangential interactions, which can also prevent the interactions to reach the stable part of the characteristics where they interact with more deeply trapped orbits. (author)
Interaction of a weak shock wave with a discontinuous heavy-gas cylinder
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Xiansheng; Yang, Dangguo; Wu, Junqiang [High Speed Aerodynamics Institute, China Aerodynamics Research and Development Center, Mianyang 621000 (China); Luo, Xisheng, E-mail: xluo@ustc.edu.cn [Advanced Propulsion Laboratory, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)
2015-06-15
The interaction between a cylindrical inhomogeneity and a weak planar shock wave is investigated experimentally and numerically, and special attention is given to the wave patterns and vortex dynamics in this scenario. A soap-film technique is realized to generate a well-controlled discontinuous cylinder (SF{sub 6} surrounded by air) with no supports or wires in the shock-tube experiment. The symmetric evolving interfaces and few disturbance waves are observed in a high-speed schlieren photography. Numerical simulations are also carried out for a detailed analysis. The refracted shock wave inside the cylinder is perturbed by the diffracted shock waves and divided into three branches. When these shock branches collide, the shock focusing occurs. A nonlinear model is then proposed to elucidate effects of the wave patterns on the evolution of the cylinder. A distinct vortex pair is gradually developing during the shock-cylinder interaction. The numerical results show that a low pressure region appears at the vortex core. Subsequently, the ambient fluid is entrained into the vortices which are expanding at the same time. Based on the relation between the vortex motion and the circulation, several theoretical models of circulation in the literature are then checked by the experimental and numerical results. Most of these theoretical circulation models provide a reasonably good prediction of the vortex motion in the present configuration.
Zhiltsov, Konstantin; Kostyushin, Kirill; Kagenov, Anuar; Tyryshkin, Ilya
2017-11-01
This paper presents a mathematical investigation of the interaction of a long tsunami-type wave with a submerge dike. The calculations were performed by using the freeware package OpenFOAM. Unsteady two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations were used for mathematical modeling of incompressible two-phase medium. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method is used to capture the free surface of a liquid. The effects caused by long wave of defined amplitude motion through a submerged dike of varying thickness were discussed in detail. Numerical results show that after wave passing through the barrier, multiple vortex structures were formed behind. Intensity of vortex depended on the size of the barrier. The effectiveness of the submerge barrier was estimated by evaluating the wave reflection and transmission coefficients using the energy integral method. Then, the curves of the dependences of the reflection and transmission coefficients were obtained for the interaction of waves with the dike. Finally, it was confirmed that the energy of the wave could be reduced by more than 50% when it passed through the barrier.
Self-consistent one-dimensional modelling of x-ray laser plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wan, A.S.; Walling, R.S.; Scott, H.A.; Mayle, R.W.; Osterheld, A.L.
1992-01-01
This paper presents the simulation of a planar, one-dimensional expanding Ge x-ray laser plasma using a new code which combines hydrodynamics, laser absorption, and detailed level population calculations within the same simulation. Previously, these simulations were performed in separate steps. We will present the effect of line transfer on gains and excited level populations and compare the line transfer result with simulations using escape probabilities. We will also discuss the impact of different atomic models on the accuracy of our simulation
Zheng, Z. Y.; Zhang, S. Q.; Gao, L.; Gao, H.
2015-05-01
A "comb" structure of beam intensity distribution is designed and achieved to measure a target displacement of micrometer level in laser plasma propulsion. Base on the "comb" structure, the target displacement generated by nanosecond laser ablation solid target is measured and discussed. It is found that the "comb" structure is more suitable for a thin film target with a velocity lower than tens of millimeters per second. Combing with a light-electric monitor, the `comb' structure can be used to measure a large range velocity.
Computer assisted treatments for image pattern data of laser plasma experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yaoita, Akira; Matsushima, Isao
1987-01-01
An image data processing system for laser-plasma experiments has been constructed. These image data are two dimensional images taken by X-ray, UV, infrared and visible light television cameras and also taken by streak cameras. They are digitized by frame memories. The digitized image data are stored in disk memories with the aid of a microcomputer. The data are processed by a host computer and stored in the files of the host computer and on magnetic tapes. In this paper, the over view of the image data processing system and some software for data handling in the host computer are reported. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma, Guangjin; Dallari, William; Borot, Antonin; Tsakiris, George D.; Veisz, Laszlo; Krausz, Ferenc; Yu, Wei
2015-01-01
We have performed a systematic study through particle-in-cell simulations to investigate the generation of attosecond pulse from relativistic laser plasmas when laser pulse duration approaches the few-cycle regime. A significant enhancement of attosecond pulse energy has been found to depend on laser pulse duration, carrier envelope phase, and plasma scale length. Based on the results obtained in this work, the potential of attaining isolated attosecond pulses with ∼100 μJ energy for photons >16 eV using state-of-the-art laser technology appears to be within reach
Laser-plasma accelerator-based single-cycle attosecond undulator source
Tibai, Z.; Tóth, Gy.; Nagyváradi, A.; Sharma, A.; Mechler, M. I.; Fülöp, J. A.; Almási, G.; Hebling, J.
2018-06-01
Laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs), producing high-quality electron beams, provide an opportunity to reduce the size of free-electron lasers (FELs) to only a few meters. A complete system is proposed here, which is based on FEL technology and consists of an LPA, two undulators, and other magnetic devices. The system is capable to generate carrier-envelope phase stable attosecond pulses with engineered waveform. Pulses with up to 60 nJ energy and 90-400 attosecond duration in the 30-120 nm wavelength range are predicted by numerical simulation. These pulses can be used to investigate ultrafast field-driven electron dynamics in matter.
Particle range in a laser-plasma generated soft X-ray chamber
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bollanti, S.; Letardi, T. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; Zheng, C. [EL.EN, Calenzano, Florence (Italy)
1999-07-01
Some analytical forms are deduced for calculating the flight range of a spherical particle ejected from the laser plasma target and retarded by gas resistance. it is shown that the gas pressure influence on viscosity can not be neglected when are estimated the expansion ranges fro debris of various sizes in a helium gas-buffered, laser produced plasma chamber. [Italian] Vengono ricavate alcune formule analitiche per il calcolo del range di frammenti sferici espulsi con velocita' iniziale dati e frenati dalla resistenza di un fondo gassoso. Si mostra che nei gas considerati non si puo' ignorare influenza della pressione nella viscosita' del gas.
Yu, Xiaolong; Pan, Weiran; Zheng, Xiangjing; Zhou, Shenjie; Tao, Xiaoqin
2017-08-01
The effects of wave-current interaction on storm surge are investigated by a two-dimensional wave-current coupling model through simulations of Typhoon Morakot in the Taiwan Strait. The results show that wind wave and slope of sea floor govern wave setup modulations within the nearshore surf zone. Wave setup during Morakot can contribute up to 24% of the total storm surge with a maximum value of 0.28 m. The large wave setup commonly coincides with enhanced radiation stress gradient, which is itself associated with transfer of wave momentum flux. Water levels are to leading order in modulating significant wave height inside the estuary. High water levels due to tidal change and storm surge stabilize the wind wave and decay wave breaking. Outside of the estuary, waves are mainly affected by the current-induced modification of wind energy input to the wave generation. By comparing the observed significant wave height and water level with the results from uncoupled and coupled simulations, the latter shows a better agreement with the observations. It suggests that wave-current interaction plays an important role in determining the extreme storm surge and wave height in the study area and should not be neglected in a typhoon forecast.
Li, W.
2017-12-01
In the collisionless heliospheric plasmas, wave-particle interaction is a fundamental physical process in transferring energy and momentum between particles with different species and energies. This presentation focuses on one of the important wave-particle interaction processes: interaction between whistler-mode waves and electrons. Whistler-mode waves have frequencies between proton and electron cyclotron frequency and are ubiquitously present in the heliospheric plasmas including solar wind and planetary magnetospheres. I use Earth's Van Allen radiation belt as "local space laboratory" to discuss the role of whistler-mode waves in energetic electron dynamics using multi-satellite observations, theory and modeling. I further discuss solar wind drivers leading to energetic electron dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts, which is critical in predicting space weather that has broad impacts on our technological systems and society. At last, I discuss the unprecedented future opportunities of exploring space science using multi-satellite observations and state-of-the-art theory and modeling.
Evidence for four- and three-wave interactions in solar type III radio emissions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Thejappa
2013-08-01
Full Text Available The high time resolution observations obtained by the STEREO/WAVES experiment show that in the source regions of solar type III radio bursts, Langmuir waves often occur as intense localized wave packets with short durations of only few ms. One of these wave packets shows that it is a three-dimensional field structure with WLneTe ~ 10−3, where WL is the peak energy density, and ne and Te are the electron density and temperature, respectively. For this wave packet, the conditions of the oscillating two-stream instability (OTSI and supersonic collapse are satisfied within the error range of determination of main parameters. The density cavity, observed during this wave packet indicates that its depth, width and temporal coincidence are consistent with those of a caviton, generated by the ponderomotive force of the collapsing wave packet. The spectrum of each of the parallel and perpendicular components of the wave packet contains a primary peak at fpe, two secondary peaks at fpe ± fS and a low-frequency enhancement below fS, which, as indicated by the frequency and wave number resonance conditions, and the fast Fourier transform (FFT-based tricoherence spectral peak at (fpe, fpe, fpe + fS, fpe − fS, are coupled to each other by the OTSI type of four-wave interaction (fpe is the local electron plasma frequency and fS is the frequency of ion sound waves. In addition to the primary peak at fpe, each of these spectra also contains a peak at 2fpe, which as indicated by the frequency and wave number resonance conditions, and the wavelet-based bicoherence spectral peak at (fpe, fpe, appears to correspond to the second harmonic electromagnetic waves generated as a result of coalescence of oppositely propagating sidebands excited by the OTSI. Thus, these observations for the first time provide combined evidence that (1 the OTSI and related strong turbulence processes play a significant role in the stabilization of the electron beam, (2 the coalescence
Electromagnetic aquametry electromagnetic wave interaction with water and moist substances
Kupfer, Klaus
2006-01-01
This book covers all aspects of Electromagnetic Aquametry. It summarizes the wide area of metrology and its applications in electromagnetic sensing of moist materials. The physical properties of water in various degrees of binding interacting with electromagnetic fields is presented by model systems. The book describes measurement methods and sensors in the frequency domain, TDR-techniques for environmental problems, methods and sensors for quality assessment of biological substances, and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Environmental sciences, as well as civil and geoengineering, fossil fuels, food and pharmaceutical science are the main fields of application. A very wide frequency sprectrum is used for dielectric measurement methods, but the microwave range is clearly dominant. Multiparameter methods as well as methods of principal components and artificial neural networks for density independent measurements are described.
Three-dimensional numerical simulation of wave interaction with perforated quasi-ellipse caisson
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yong-xue Wang
2011-03-01
Full Text Available The finite difference method and the volume of fluid (VOF method were used to develop a three-dimensional numerical model to study wave interaction with a perforated caisson. The partial cell method was adopted to solve this type of problem for the first time. The validity of the present model, with and without the presence of caisson structures, was examined by comparing the model results with experimental data. Then, the numerical model was used to investigate the effects of various wave and structure parameters on the wave force and wave runup of the perforated quasi-ellipse caisson. Compared with the solid quasi-ellipse caisson, the wave force on the perforated quasi-ellipse caisson is significantly reduced with increasing porosity of the perforated quasi-ellipse caisson. Furthermore, the perforated quasi-ellipse caisson can also reduce the wave runup, and it tends to decrease with the increase of the porosity of the perforated quasi-ellipse caisson and the relative wave height.
The interaction of intense subpicosecond laser pulses with underdense plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coverdale, Christine Ann [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
1995-05-11
Laser-plasma interactions have been of interest for many years not only from a basic physics standpoint, but also for their relevance to numerous applications. Advances in laser technology in recent years have resulted in compact laser systems capable of generating (psec), 10^{16} W/cm^{2} laser pulses. These lasers have provided a new regime in which to study laser-plasma interactions, a regime characterized by L_{plasma} ≥ 2L_{Rayleigh} > cτ. The goal of this dissertation is to experimentally characterize the interaction of a short pulse, high intensity laser with an underdense plasma (n_{o} ≤ 0.05n_{cr}). Specifically, the parametric instability known as stimulated Raman scatter (SRS) is investigated to determine its behavior when driven by a short, intense laser pulse. Both the forward Raman scatter instability and backscattered Raman instability are studied. The coupled partial differential equations which describe the growth of SRS are reviewed and solved for typical experimental laser and plasma parameters. This solution shows the growth of the waves (electron plasma and scattered light) generated via stimulated Raman scatter. The dispersion relation is also derived and solved for experimentally accessible parameters. The solution of the dispersion relation is used to predict where (in k-space) and at what frequency (in ω-space) the instability will grow. Both the nonrelativistic and relativistic regimes of the instability are considered.
Transition, coexistence, and interaction of vector localized waves arising from higher-order effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Chong; Yang, Zhan-Ying; Zhao, Li-Chen; Yang, Wen-Li
2015-01-01
We study vector localized waves on continuous wave background with higher-order effects in a two-mode optical fiber. The striking properties of transition, coexistence, and interaction of these localized waves arising from higher-order effects are revealed in combination with corresponding modulation instability (MI) characteristics. It shows that these vector localized wave properties have no analogues in the case without higher-order effects. Specifically, compared to the scalar case, an intriguing transition between bright–dark rogue waves and w-shaped–anti-w-shaped solitons, which occurs as a result of the attenuation of MI growth rate to vanishing in the zero-frequency perturbation region, is exhibited with the relative background frequency. In particular, our results show that the w-shaped–anti-w-shaped solitons can coexist with breathers, coinciding with the MI analysis where the coexistence condition is a mixture of a modulation stability and MI region. It is interesting that their interaction is inelastic and describes a fusion process. In addition, we demonstrate an annihilation phenomenon for the interaction of two w-shaped solitons which is identified essentially as an inelastic collision in this system. -- Highlights: •Vector rogue wave properties induced by higher-order effects are studied. •A transition between vector rogue waves and solitons is obtained. •The link between the transition and modulation instability (MI) is demonstrated. •The coexistence of vector solitons and breathers coincides with the MI features. •An annihilation phenomenon for the vector two w-shaped solitons is presented.
Transition, coexistence, and interaction of vector localized waves arising from higher-order effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Chong [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Yang, Zhan-Ying, E-mail: zyyang@nwu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Zhao, Li-Chen, E-mail: zhaolichen3@163.com [School of Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China); Yang, Wen-Li [Institute of Modern Physics, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069 (China)
2015-11-15
We study vector localized waves on continuous wave background with higher-order effects in a two-mode optical fiber. The striking properties of transition, coexistence, and interaction of these localized waves arising from higher-order effects are revealed in combination with corresponding modulation instability (MI) characteristics. It shows that these vector localized wave properties have no analogues in the case without higher-order effects. Specifically, compared to the scalar case, an intriguing transition between bright–dark rogue waves and w-shaped–anti-w-shaped solitons, which occurs as a result of the attenuation of MI growth rate to vanishing in the zero-frequency perturbation region, is exhibited with the relative background frequency. In particular, our results show that the w-shaped–anti-w-shaped solitons can coexist with breathers, coinciding with the MI analysis where the coexistence condition is a mixture of a modulation stability and MI region. It is interesting that their interaction is inelastic and describes a fusion process. In addition, we demonstrate an annihilation phenomenon for the interaction of two w-shaped solitons which is identified essentially as an inelastic collision in this system. -- Highlights: •Vector rogue wave properties induced by higher-order effects are studied. •A transition between vector rogue waves and solitons is obtained. •The link between the transition and modulation instability (MI) is demonstrated. •The coexistence of vector solitons and breathers coincides with the MI features. •An annihilation phenomenon for the vector two w-shaped solitons is presented.
NONLINEAR WAVE INTERACTIONS AS EMISSION PROCESS OF TYPE II RADIO BURSTS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ganse, Urs; Kilian, Patrick; Spanier, Felix [Lehrstuhl fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Vainio, Rami, E-mail: uganse@astro.uni-wuerzburg.de [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland)
2012-06-01
The emission of fundamental and harmonic frequency radio waves of type II radio bursts are assumed to be products of three-wave interaction processes of beam-excited Langmuir waves. Using a particle-in-cell code, we have performed simulations of the assumed emission region, a coronal mass ejection foreshock with two counterstreaming electron beams. Analysis of wavemodes within the simulation shows self-consistent excitation of beam-driven modes, which yield interaction products at both fundamental and harmonic emission frequencies. Through variation of the beam strength, we have investigated the dependence of energy transfer into electrostatic and electromagnetic modes, confirming the quadratic dependence of electromagnetic emission on electron beam strength.
NONLINEAR WAVE INTERACTIONS AS EMISSION PROCESS OF TYPE II RADIO BURSTS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganse, Urs; Kilian, Patrick; Spanier, Felix; Vainio, Rami
2012-01-01
The emission of fundamental and harmonic frequency radio waves of type II radio bursts are assumed to be products of three-wave interaction processes of beam-excited Langmuir waves. Using a particle-in-cell code, we have performed simulations of the assumed emission region, a coronal mass ejection foreshock with two counterstreaming electron beams. Analysis of wavemodes within the simulation shows self-consistent excitation of beam-driven modes, which yield interaction products at both fundamental and harmonic emission frequencies. Through variation of the beam strength, we have investigated the dependence of energy transfer into electrostatic and electromagnetic modes, confirming the quadratic dependence of electromagnetic emission on electron beam strength.
Study on Reflected Shock Wave/Boundary Layer Interaction in a Shock Tube
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Tae Ho; Kim, Heuy Dong [Andong Nat’l Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)
2017-07-15
The interaction between a shock wave and a boundary layer causes boundary layer separation, shock train, and in some cases, strong unsteadiness in the flow field. Such a situation is also observed in a shock tube, where the reflected shock wave interacts with the unsteady boundary layer. However, only a few studies have been conducted to investigate the shock train phenomenon in a shock tube. In the present study, numerical studies were conducted using the two-dimensional axisymmetric domain of a shock tube, and compressible Navier-Stokes equations were solved to clarify the flow characteristics of shock train phenomenon inside a shock tube. A detailed wave diagram was developed based on the present computational results, which were validated with existing experimental data.
Slow-wave propagation and sheath interaction in the ion-cyclotron frequency range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myra, J R; D'Ippolito, D A
2010-01-01
In previous work (Myra J R and D'Ippolito D A 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 195004) we studied the propagation of slow-wave (SW) resonance cones launched parasitically by a fast-wave antenna into a tenuous magnetized plasma. Here we extend the treatment of SW propagation and sheath interaction to 'dense' scrape-off-layer plasmas where the usual cold-plasma SW is evanescent. Using the sheath boundary condition, it is shown that for sufficiently close limiters, the SW couples to a sheath-plasma wave and is no longer evanescent, but radially propagating. A self-consistent calculation of the rf-sheath width yields the resulting sheath voltage in terms of the amplitude of the launched SW, plasma parameters and connection length. The conditions for avoiding potentially deleterious rf-wall interactions in tokamak rf heating experiments are summarized.
The MHD intermediate shock interaction with an intermediate wave: Are intermediate shocks physical?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, C.C.
1988-01-01
Contrary to the usual belief that MHD intermediate shocks are extraneous, the authors have recently shown by numerical solutions of dissipative MHD equations that intermediate shocks are admissible and can be formed through nonlinear steepening from a continuous wave. In this paper, he clarifies the differences between the conventional view and the results by studying the interaction of an MHD intermediate shock with an intermediate wave. The study reaffirms his results. In addition, the study shows that there exists a larger class of shocklike solutions in the time-dependent dissiaptive MHD equations than are given by the MHD Rankine-Hugoniot relations. it also suggests a mechanism for forming rotational discontinuities through the interaction of an intermediate shock with an intermediate wave. The results are of importance not only to the MHD shock theory but also to studies such as magnetic field reconnection models
CFD Validation Experiment of a Mach 2.5 Axisymmetric Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interaction
Davis, David Owen
2015-01-01
Preliminary results of an experimental investigation of a Mach 2.5 two-dimensional axisymmetric shock-wave/ boundary-layer interaction (SWBLI) are presented. The purpose of the investigation is to create a SWBLI dataset specifically for CFD validation purposes. Presented herein are the details of the facility and preliminary measurements characterizing the facility and interaction region. These results will serve to define the region of interest where more detailed mean and turbulence measurements will be made.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
-focusing in a plasma ... Center for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India; Tata Consultancy Services, Gurgaon, India; Ideal Institute of Technology, Ghaziabad, India; Center for Research in Cognitive, ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Shenwei; Qiu, Chunyin; Wang, Mudi; Ke, Manzhu; Liu, Zhengyou
2016-01-01
In this work, we study the acoustically mediated interaction forces among multiple well-separated spherical particles trapped in the same node or antinode plane of a standing wave. An analytical expression of the acoustic interaction force is derived, which is accurate even for the particles beyond the Rayleigh limit. Interestingly, the multi-particle system can be decomposed into a series of independent two-particle systems described by pairwise interactions. Each pairwise interaction is a long-range interaction, as characterized by a soft oscillatory attenuation (at the power exponent of n = −1 or −2). The vector additivity of the acoustic interaction force, which is not well expected considering the nonlinear nature of the acoustic radiation force, is greatly useful for exploring a system consisting of a large number of particles. The capability of self-organizing a big particle cluster can be anticipated through such acoustically controllable long-range interaction. (paper)
Flow features that arise due to the interaction of a plane shock wave with concave profiles
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
MacLucas, David A
2012-10-01
Full Text Available The focus of the author's thesis was the aerodynamic flow field that develops as a result of the interaction of a moving plane shock wave with concave profiles. In this presentation, he discusses some of the interesting flow phenomena that arise...
The effect of instanton-induced interaction on P-wave meson spectra ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
possible to reproduce the observed spectra as the tensor and spin-orbit terms of. OGEP are attractive, and hence naturally triplet states masses will be lower than the corresponding singlet states. Hence, to reproduce the full P-wave spectra it is essential to include the hyperfine interaction term of III to have a consistent. 76.