Whitecapping and wave field evolution in a coastal bay
Mulligan, R.P.; Bowen, A.J.; Hay, A.E.; Van der Westhuysen, A.J.; Battjes, J.A.
2008-01-01
Evolution of the wave field in a coastal bay is investigated, by comparison between field observations and numerical simulations using a spectral wave model (Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN)). The simulations were conducted for the passage of an extratropical storm, during which surface elevation
Evolution of wave patterns and temperature field in shock-tube flow
Kiverin, A. D.; Yakovenko, I. S.
2018-05-01
The paper is devoted to the numerical analysis of wave patterns behind a shock wave propagating in a tube filled with a gaseous mixture. It is shown that the flow inside the boundary layer behind the shock wave is unstable, and the way the instability develops fully corresponds to the solution obtained for the boundary layer over a flat plate. Vortical perturbations inside the boundary layer determine the nonuniformity of the temperature field. In turn, exactly these nonuniformities define the way the ignition kernels arise in the combustible mixture after the reflected shock interaction with the boundary layer. In particular, the temperature nonuniformity determines the spatial limitations of probable ignition kernel position relative to the end wall and side walls of the tube. In the case of low-intensity incident shocks the ignition could start not farther than the point of first interaction between the reflected shock wave and roller vortices formed in the process of boundary layer development. Proposed physical mechanisms are formulated in general terms and can be used for interpretation of the experimental data in any systems with a delayed exothermal reaction start. It is also shown that contact surface thickening occurs due to its interaction with Tollmien-Schlichting waves. This conclusion is of importance for understanding the features of ignition in shock tubes operating in the over-tailored regime.
Ribal, A.; Stiassnie, M.; Babanin, A.; Young, I.
2012-04-01
The instability of two-dimensional wave-fields and its subsequent evolution in time are studied by means of the Alber equation for narrow-banded random surface-waves in deep water subject to inhomogeneous disturbances. A linear partial differential equation (PDE) is obtained after applying an inhomogeneous disturbance to the Alber's equation and based on the solution of this PDE, the instability of the ocean wave surface is studied for a JONSWAP spectrum, which is a realistic ocean spectrum with variable directional spreading and steepness. The steepness of the JONSWAP spectrum depends on γ and α which are the peak-enhancement factor and energy scale of the spectrum respectively and it is found that instability depends on the directional spreading, α and γ. Specifically, if the instability stops due to the directional spreading, increase of the steepness by increasing α or γ can reactivate it. This result is in qualitative agreement with the recent large-scale experiment and new theoretical results. In the instability area of α-γ plane, a long-time evolution has been simulated by integrating Alber's equation numerically and recurrent evolution is obtained which is the stochastic counterpart of the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam recurrence obtained for the cubic Schrödinger equation.
Evolution of wave turbulence under "gusty" forcing.
Annenkov, S Y; Shrira, V I
2011-09-09
We consider nonlinear evolution of a random wave field under gusty forcing, fluctuating around a constant mean. Here the classical wave turbulence theory that assumes a proximity to stationarity is not applicable. We show by direct numerical simulation that the self-similarity of wave field evolution survives under fluctuating forcing. The wave field statistical characteristics averaged over fluctuations of forcing evolve as if there were a certain constant "effective wind." The results justify the use of the kinetic equations with forcing averaged over gusts as a good first approximation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ning, Ma; Mei-Shan, Wang; Chuan-Lu, Yang; Xiao-Guang, Ma; De-Hua, Wang
2010-01-01
Employing the two-state model and the time-dependent wave packet method, we have investigated the influences of the parameters of the intense femtosecond laser field on the evolution of the wave packet, as well as the population of ground and double-minimum electronic states of the NaRb molecule. For the different laser wavelengths, the evolution of the wave packet of 6 1 σ + state with time and internuclear distance is different, and the different laser intensity brings different influences on the population of the electronic states of the NaRb molecule. One can control the evolutions of wave packet and the population in each state by varying the laser parameters appropriately, which will be a benefit for the light manipulation of atomic and molecular processes. (atomic and molecular physics)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brito, P E de; Nazareno, H N
2007-01-01
In the present work we treat the problem of a particle in a uniform magnetic field along the symmetric gauge, so chosen since the wavefunctions present the required cylindrical symmetry. It is our understanding that by means of this work we can make a contribution to the teaching of the present subject, as well as encourage students to use computer algebra systems in solving problems of quantum mechanics. We obtained the degeneracy of the spectrum of eigenvalues in a very clear way. Through the use of a computer algebra system we show graphs of the probability density associated with different eigenvalues as well as compare such functions for some degenerate states, which helps us to visualize the physics of the problem. We also present a semiclassical model which gives a physical insight regarding the paradoxical fact that eigenfunctions associated with opposite angular momenta and different energy eigenvalues have the same probability density. Finally, by solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation we obtain the time evolution of a wave packet that at time zero was considered to be localized in a definite region of the lattice. The centroid of such a packet performs an orbit similar to that obtained in the classical treatment of a particle in a magnetic field
Electromagnetic fields and waves
Iskander, Magdy F
2013-01-01
The latest edition of Electromagnetic Fields and Waves retains an authoritative, balanced approach, in-depth coverage, extensive analysis, and use of computational techniques to provide a complete understanding of electromagnetic—important to all electrical engineering students. An essential feature of this innovative text is the early introduction of Maxwell's equations, together with the quantifying experimental observations made by the pioneers who discovered electromagnetics. This approach directly links the mathematical relations in Maxwell's equations to real experiments and facilitates a fundamental understanding of wave propagation and use in modern practical applications, especially in today's wireless world. New and expanded topics include the conceptual relationship between Coulomb's law and Gauss's law for calculating electric fields, the relationship between Biot-Savart's and Ampere's laws and their use in calculating magnetic fields from current sources, the development of Faraday's law from e...
Nonlinear Evolution of Alfvenic Wave Packets
Buti, B.; Jayanti, V.; Vinas, A. F.; Ghosh, S.; Goldstein, M. L.; Roberts, D. A.; Lakhina, G. S.; Tsurutani, B. T.
1998-01-01
Alfven waves are a ubiquitous feature of the solar wind. One approach to studying the evolution of such waves has been to study exact solutions to approximate evolution equations. Here we compare soliton solutions of the Derivative Nonlinear Schrodinger evolution equation (DNLS) to solutions of the compressible MHD equations.
Evolution of supernova remnants. III. Thermal waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chevalier, R.A.
1975-01-01
The effect of heat conduction on the evolution of supernova remnants is investigated. A thermal wave, or electron conduction front, can travel more rapidly than a shock wave during the first thousand years of the remnant's evolution. A self-similar solution describing this phase has been found by Barenblatt. Numerical computations verify the solution and give the evolution past the thermal wave phase. While shell formation is not impeded, the interior density and temperature profiles are smoothed by the action of conduction
Nonlinear evolution of astrophysical Alfven waves
Spangler, S. R.
1984-01-01
Nonlinear Alfven waves were studied using the derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equation as a model. The evolution of initial conditions, such as envelope solitons, amplitude-modulated waves, and band-limited noise was investigated. The last two furnish models for naturally occurring Alfven waves in an astrophysical plasma. A collapse instability in which a wave packet becomes more intense and of smaller spatial extent was analyzed. It is argued that this instability leads to enhanced plasma heating. In studies in which the waves are amplified by an electron beam, the instability tends to modestly inhibit wave growth.
Evolution Of Nonlinear Waves in Compressing Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmit, P.F.; Dodin, I.Y.; Fisch, N.J.
2011-01-01
Through particle-in-cell simulations, the evolution of nonlinear plasma waves is examined in one-dimensional collisionless plasma undergoing mechanical compression. Unlike linear waves, whose wavelength decreases proportionally to the system length L(t), nonlinear waves, such as solitary electron holes, conserve their characteristic size Δ during slow compression. This leads to a substantially stronger adiabatic amplification as well as rapid collisionless damping when L approaches Δ. On the other hand, cessation of compression halts the wave evolution, yielding a stable mode.
Evolution Of Nonlinear Waves in Compressing Plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
P.F. Schmit, I.Y. Dodin, and N.J. Fisch
2011-05-27
Through particle-in-cell simulations, the evolution of nonlinear plasma waves is examined in one-dimensional collisionless plasma undergoing mechanical compression. Unlike linear waves, whose wavelength decreases proportionally to the system length L(t), nonlinear waves, such as solitary electron holes, conserve their characteristic size {Delta} during slow compression. This leads to a substantially stronger adiabatic amplification as well as rapid collisionless damping when L approaches {Delta}. On the other hand, cessation of compression halts the wave evolution, yielding a stable mode.
Spatial evolution equation of wind wave growth
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG; Wei; (王; 伟); SUN; Fu; (孙; 孚); DAI; Dejun; (戴德君)
2003-01-01
Based on the dynamic essence of air-sea interactions, a feedback type of spatial evolution equation is suggested to match reasonably the growing process of wind waves. This simple equation involving the dominant factors of wind wave growth is able to explain the transfer of energy from high to low frequencies without introducing the concept of nonlinear wave-wave interactions, and the results agree well with observations. The rate of wave height growth derived in this dissertation is applicable to both laboratory and open sea, which solidifies the physical basis of using laboratory experiments to investigate the generation of wind waves. Thus the proposed spatial evolution equation provides a new approach for the research on dynamic mechanism of air-sea interactions and wind wave prediction.
Nonlinear evolution equations for waves in random media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pelinovsky, E.; Talipova, T.
1994-01-01
The scope of this paper is to highlight the main ideas of asymptotical methods applying in modern approaches of description of nonlinear wave propagation in random media. We start with the discussion of the classical conception of ''mean field''. Then an exactly solvable model describing nonlinear wave propagation in the medium with fluctuating parameters is considered in order to demonstrate that the ''mean field'' method is not correct. We develop new asymptotic procedures of obtaining the nonlinear evolution equations for the wave fields in random media. (author). 16 refs
Evolution of rogue waves in dusty plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tolba, R. E., E-mail: tolba-math@yahoo.com; El-Bedwehy, N. A., E-mail: nab-elbedwehy@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta 34517 (Egypt); Moslem, W. M., E-mail: wmmoslem@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said 42521 (Egypt); Centre for Theoretical Physics, The British University in Egypt (BUE), El-Shorouk City, Cairo (Egypt); El-Labany, S. K., E-mail: skellabany@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Damietta University, New Damietta 34517 (Egypt)
2015-04-15
The evolution of rogue waves associated with the dynamics of positively charged dust grains that interact with streaming electrons and ions is investigated. Using a perturbation method, the basic set of fluid equations is reduced to a nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). The rational solution of the NLSE is presented, which proposed as an effective tool for studying the rogue waves in Jupiter. It is found that the existence region of rogue waves depends on the dust-acoustic speed and the streaming densities of the ions and electrons. Furthermore, the supersonic rogue waves are much taller than the subsonic rogue waves by ∼25 times.
de Brito, P. E.; Nazareno, H. N.
2007-01-01
In the present work we treat the problem of a particle in a uniform magnetic field along the symmetric gauge, so chosen since the wavefunctions present the required cylindrical symmetry. It is our understanding that by means of this work we can make a contribution to the teaching of the present subject, as well as encourage students to use…
Time evolution of wave packets on nanostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prunele, E de
2005-01-01
Time evolution of wave packets on nanostructures is studied on the basis of a three-dimensional solvable model with singular interactions (de Prunele 1997 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 30 7831). In particular, methods and tools are provided to determine time independent upper bounds for the overlap of the normalized time-dependent wave packet with the time independent normalized wave packet concentrated at an arbitrarily chosen vertex of the nanosystem. The set of upper bounds referring to all initial positions of the wave packet and all overlaps are summarized in a matrix. The analytical formulation allows a detailed study for arbitrary geometrical configurations. Time evolution on truncated quasicrystalline systems has been found to be site selective, depending on the position of the initial wave packet
Modelling offshore sand wave evolution
Nemeth, Attila; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; van Damme, Rudolf M.J.
2007-01-01
We present a two-dimensional vertical (2DV) flow and morphological numerical model describing the behaviour of offshore sand waves. The model contains the 2DV shallow water equations, with a free water surface and a general bed load formula. The water movement is coupled to the sediment transport
Statistical properties of nonlinear one-dimensional wave fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Chalikov
2005-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical model for long-term simulation of gravity surface waves is described. The model is designed as a component of a coupled Wave Boundary Layer/Sea Waves model, for investigation of small-scale dynamic and thermodynamic interactions between the ocean and atmosphere. Statistical properties of nonlinear wave fields are investigated on a basis of direct hydrodynamical modeling of 1-D potential periodic surface waves. The method is based on a nonstationary conformal surface-following coordinate transformation; this approach reduces the principal equations of potential waves to two simple evolutionary equations for the elevation and the velocity potential on the surface. The numerical scheme is based on a Fourier transform method. High accuracy was confirmed by validation of the nonstationary model against known solutions, and by comparison between the results obtained with different resolutions in the horizontal. The scheme allows reproduction of the propagation of steep Stokes waves for thousands of periods with very high accuracy. The method here developed is applied to simulation of the evolution of wave fields with large number of modes for many periods of dominant waves. The statistical characteristics of nonlinear wave fields for waves of different steepness were investigated: spectra, curtosis and skewness, dispersion relation, life time. The prime result is that wave field may be presented as a superposition of linear waves is valid only for small amplitudes. It is shown as well, that nonlinear wave fields are rather a superposition of Stokes waves not linear waves. Potential flow, free surface, conformal mapping, numerical modeling of waves, gravity waves, Stokes waves, breaking waves, freak waves, wind-wave interaction.
Statistical properties of nonlinear one-dimensional wave fields
Chalikov, D.
2005-06-01
A numerical model for long-term simulation of gravity surface waves is described. The model is designed as a component of a coupled Wave Boundary Layer/Sea Waves model, for investigation of small-scale dynamic and thermodynamic interactions between the ocean and atmosphere. Statistical properties of nonlinear wave fields are investigated on a basis of direct hydrodynamical modeling of 1-D potential periodic surface waves. The method is based on a nonstationary conformal surface-following coordinate transformation; this approach reduces the principal equations of potential waves to two simple evolutionary equations for the elevation and the velocity potential on the surface. The numerical scheme is based on a Fourier transform method. High accuracy was confirmed by validation of the nonstationary model against known solutions, and by comparison between the results obtained with different resolutions in the horizontal. The scheme allows reproduction of the propagation of steep Stokes waves for thousands of periods with very high accuracy. The method here developed is applied to simulation of the evolution of wave fields with large number of modes for many periods of dominant waves. The statistical characteristics of nonlinear wave fields for waves of different steepness were investigated: spectra, curtosis and skewness, dispersion relation, life time. The prime result is that wave field may be presented as a superposition of linear waves is valid only for small amplitudes. It is shown as well, that nonlinear wave fields are rather a superposition of Stokes waves not linear waves. Potential flow, free surface, conformal mapping, numerical modeling of waves, gravity waves, Stokes waves, breaking waves, freak waves, wind-wave interaction.
Evolution of envelope solitons of ionization waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohe, K.; Hashimoto, M.
1985-01-01
The time evolution of a particle-like envelope soliton of ionization waves in plasma was investigated theoretically. The hydrodynamic equations of one spatial dimension were solved and the nonlinear dispersion relation was derived. For the amplitude of the wave the nonlinear Schroedinger equation was derived. Its soliton solution was interpreted as the envelope soliton which was experimentally found. The damping rate of the envelope soliton was estimated. (D.Gy.)
Evolution equations for Killing fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coll, B.
1977-01-01
The problem of finding necessary and sufficient conditions on the Cauchy data for Einstein equations which insure the existence of Killing fields in a neighborhood of an initial hypersurface has been considered recently by Berezdivin, Coll, and Moncrief. Nevertheless, it can be shown that the evolution equations obtained in all these cases are of nonstrictly hyperbolic type, and, thus, the Cauchy data must belong to a special class of functions. We prove here that, for the vacuum and Einstein--Maxwell space--times and in a coordinate independent way, one can always choose, as evolution equations for the Killing fields, a strictly hyperbolic system: The above theorems can be thus extended to all Cauchy data for which the Einstein evolution problem has been proved to be well set
Neutron stars, magnetic fields, and gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lamb, F.K.
2001-01-01
The r-modes of rapidly spinning young neutron stars have recently attracted attention as a promising source of detectable gravitational radiation. These neutron stars are expected to have magnetic fields ∼ 10 12 G. The r-mode velocity perturbation causes differential motion of the fluid in the star; this is a kinematic effect. In addition, the radiation-reaction associated with emission of gravitational radiation by r-waves drives additional differential fluid motions; this is a dynamic effect. These differential fluid motions distort the magnetic fields of neutron stars and may therefore play an important role in determining the structure of neutron star magnetic fields. If the stellar field is ∼ 10 16 (Ω/Ω B ) G or stronger, the usual r-modes are no longer normal modes of the star; here Ω and Ω B are the angular velocities of the star and at which mass shedding occurs. Much weaker magnetic fields can prevent gravitational radiation from amplifying the r-modes or damp existing r-mode oscillations on a relatively short timescale by extracting energy from the modes faster than gravitational wave emission can pump energy into them. The onset of proton superconductivity in the cores of newly formed magnetic neutron stars typically increases the effect on the r-modes of the magnetic field in the core by many orders of magnitude. Once the core has become superconducting, magnetic fields of the order of 10 12 G or greater are usually sufficient to damp r-modes that have been excited by emission of gravitational radiation and to suppress any further emission. A rapid drop in the strength of r-mode gravitational radiation from young neutron stars may therefore signal the onset of superconductivity in the core and provide a lower bound on the strength of the magnetic field there. Hence, measurements of r-mode gravitational waves from newly formed neutron stars may provide valuable diagnostic information about magnetic field strengths, cooling processes, and the
EVOLUTION of the Pressure Wave Supercharger Concept
Costiuc, Iuliana; Chiru, Anghel
2017-10-01
Born more than a century ago, the concept of exploiting the pressure wave phenomenon has evolved with rather small steps, experiencing an accelerated progress over the past decades. This paper aims an overview on the researchers’ results over time regarding the pressure wave technology and its applications, pointing out on the internal combustion engine’s supercharging application. This review complements the past reports on the subject, presenting the evolution of the concept and technology, as well as the researcher’s efforts on solving the specific shortcomings of this pressure wave technology. Undoubtedly, the pressure wave rotors have been a research goal over the years. At first, most of the researches were experimental and the theoretical calculations required to improve the technology were too arduous. Recently, new computer software dedicated to accurate simulation of the processes governing the wave rotor operation, altogether with modern experimental measurement instruments and well-developed diagnostic techniques have opened wide possibilities to innovate the pressure wave supercharging technology. This paper also highlights the challenges that specialists still have to overcome and aspects to become future preoccupations and research directions.
Strongly nonlinear evolution of low-frequency wave packets in a dispersive plasma
Vasquez, Bernard J.
1993-01-01
The evolution of strongly nonlinear, strongly modulated wave packets is investigated in a dispersive plasma using a hybrid numerical code. These wave packets have amplitudes exceeding the strength of the external magnetic field, along which they propagate. Alfven (left helicity) wave packets show strong steepening for p Schrodinger (DNLS) equation.
Observations of linear and nonlinear processes in the foreshock wave evolution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Narita
2007-07-01
Full Text Available Waves in the foreshock region are studied on the basis of a hypothesis that the linear process first excites the waves and further wave-wave nonlinearities distribute scatter the energy of the primary waves into a number of daughter waves. To examine this wave evolution scenario, the dispersion relations, the wave number spectra of the magnetic field energy, and the dimensionless cross helicity are determined from the observations made by the four Cluster spacecraft. The results confirm that the linear process is the ion/ion right-hand resonant instability, but the wave-wave interactions are not clearly identified. We discuss various reasons why the test for the wave-wave nonlinearities fails, and conclude that the higher order statistics would provide a direct evidence for the wave coupling phenomena.
On the evolution of normal ionizing shock waves in helium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Synakh, V.S.; Zakajdakov, V.V.
1982-01-01
The generation, structure and propagation of one-dimensional ionizing MHD shock waves in helium under a pressure of 100 mTorr are investigated with the help of numerical simulation. The normal magnetic field varies within 3 to 10 kG and the longitudinal magnetic field varies up to 2.5 kG. The model includes the kinetics of ionization and photo-processes. If a solid conducting piston is a source of perturbation, it may give rise to generation and further development of an MHD switch-on wave. Its evolution at an advanced stage depends weakly on the source. The curves for the dependence of the shock speed on time and the driving magnetic field as well as the profiles for the main quantities are presented. A possibility of comparison with real experiments is discussed. Algorithms based on Godunov's sliding meshes and the imbedding methods are used for numerical simulation. (author)
On the asymptotic evolution of finite energy Airy wave functions.
Chamorro-Posada, P; Sánchez-Curto, J; Aceves, A B; McDonald, G S
2015-06-15
In general, there is an inverse relation between the degree of localization of a wave function of a certain class and its transform representation dictated by the scaling property of the Fourier transform. We report that in the case of finite energy Airy wave packets a simultaneous increase in their localization in the direct and transform domains can be obtained as the apodization parameter is varied. One consequence of this is that the far-field diffraction rate of a finite energy Airy beam decreases as the beam localization at the launch plane increases. We analyze the asymptotic properties of finite energy Airy wave functions using the stationary phase method. We obtain one dominant contribution to the long-term evolution that admits a Gaussian-like approximation, which displays the expected reduction of its broadening rate as the input localization is increased.
Waves in Strong Centrifugal Field
Bogovalov, S. V.; Kislov, V. A.; Tronin, I. V.
Dynamics of waves generated by scopes in gas centrifuges (GC) for isotope separation is considered. The centrifugal acceleration in the GC reaches values of the order of 106g. The centrifugal and Coriolis forces modify essentially the conventional sound waves. Three families of the waves with different polarization and dispersion exist in these conditions. Dynamics of the flow in the model GC Iguasu is investigated numerically. Comparison of the results of the numerical modeling of the wave dynamics with the analytical predictions is performed. New phenomena of the resonances in the GC is found. The resonances occur for the waves polarized along the rotational axis having the smallest dumping due to the viscosity.
Resonant Alfven waves on auroral field lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiu, Y.T.
1987-01-01
It is shown that resonant Alfven waves on dipole magnetic field geometry and plasma distributions suitable for auroral field lines can be conveniently treated in the theory of Mathieu functions. Resurgent interest in invoking large-scale Alfven waves to structure some elements of auroral electrodynamics calls for interpretation of measured perpendicular electric and magnetic disturbance fields in terms of Alfven waves. The ability to express the resonant eigenmodes in closed form in terms of Mathieu functions allows for convenient tests of the Alfven wave structuring hypothesis. Implications for current vector electric and magnetic disturbance measurements are discussed
Stable Alfven wave dynamo action in the reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Werley, K.A.
1984-01-01
Recent advances in linear resistive MHD stability analysis are used to calculate the quasi-linear dynamo mean electromotive force of Alfven waves. This emf is incorporated into a one-dimensional transport and mean-field evolution code. The changing equilibrium is then fed back to the stability code to complete a computational framework that self-consistently evaluates a dynamic plasma dynamo. Static quasi-linear Alfven wave calculations have shown that dynamo emfs on the order of eta vector J are possible. This suggested a possible explanation of RFP behavior and a new (externally driven) mechanism for extending operation and controlling field profiles (possibly reducing plasma transport). This thesis demonstrates that the dynamo emf can quickly induce plasma currents whose emf cancels the dynamo effect. This thesis also contains extensive studies of resistive Alfven wave properties. This includes behavior versus spectral location, magnetic Reynolds number and wave number
Synthesizing Waves from Animated Height Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Michael Bang; Söderström, Andreas; Bridson, Robert
2013-01-01
Computer animated ocean waves for feature films are typically carefully choreographed to match the vision of the director and to support the telling of the story. The rough shape of these waves is established in the previsualization (previs) stage, where artists use a variety of modeling tools wi...... of deep water waves), and compute a physically reasonable velocity field of the water analytically. These properties are demonstrated with several examples, including a previs scene from a visual effects production environment....
Ocean Wave Simulation Based on Wind Field.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhongyi Li
Full Text Available Ocean wave simulation has a wide range of applications in movies, video games and training systems. Wind force is the main energy resource for generating ocean waves, which are the result of the interaction between wind and the ocean surface. While numerous methods to handle simulating oceans and other fluid phenomena have undergone rapid development during the past years in the field of computer graphic, few of them consider to construct ocean surface height field from the perspective of wind force driving ocean waves. We introduce wind force to the construction of the ocean surface height field through applying wind field data and wind-driven wave particles. Continual and realistic ocean waves result from the overlap of wind-driven wave particles, and a strategy was proposed to control these discrete wave particles and simulate an endless ocean surface. The results showed that the new method is capable of obtaining a realistic ocean scene under the influence of wind fields at real time rates.
Scalar fields nonminimally coupled to pp waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayon-Beato, Eloy; Hassaiene, Mokhtar
2005-01-01
Here, we report pp waves configurations of three-dimensional gravity for which a scalar field nonminimally coupled to them acts as a source. In absence of self-interaction the solutions are gravitational plane waves with a profile fixed in terms of the scalar wave. In the self-interacting case, only power-law potentials parameterized by the nonminimal coupling constant are allowed by the field equations. In contrast with the free case the self-interacting scalar field does not behave like a wave since it depends only on the wave-front coordinate. We address the same problem when gravitation is governed by topologically massive gravity and the source is a free scalar field. From the pp waves derived in this case, we obtain at the zero topological mass limit, new pp waves solutions of conformal gravity for any arbitrary value of the nonminimal coupling parameter. Finally, we extend these solutions to the self-interacting case of conformal gravity
Mapping the evolution of scientific fields.
Herrera, Mark; Roberts, David C; Gulbahce, Natali
2010-05-04
Despite the apparent cross-disciplinary interactions among scientific fields, a formal description of their evolution is lacking. Here we describe a novel approach to study the dynamics and evolution of scientific fields using a network-based analysis. We build an idea network consisting of American Physical Society Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme (PACS) numbers as nodes representing scientific concepts. Two PACS numbers are linked if there exist publications that reference them simultaneously. We locate scientific fields using a community finding algorithm, and describe the time evolution of these fields over the course of 1985-2006. The communities we identify map to known scientific fields, and their age depends on their size and activity. We expect our approach to quantifying the evolution of ideas to be relevant for making predictions about the future of science and thus help to guide its development.
Modeling Wind Wave Evolution from Deep to Shallow Water
2014-09-30
W.H. Hui, 1979; Nonlinear energy transfer in narrow gravity wave spectrum. Proc. Roy. Soc. London A368, 239–265. Gagnaire-Renou, E., M. Benoit , and P...at the 2013 WISE meeting, Camp Springs, MA , USA. Smit P. B. and T. T. Janssen, 2013; The evolution of inhomogeneous wave statistics through a
Large amplitude waves and fields in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angelis, U. de; Naples Univ.
1990-02-01
In this review, based mostly on the results of the recent workshop on ''Large Amplitude Waves and Fields in Plasmas'' held at ICTP (Trieste, Italy) in May 1989 during the Spring College on Plasma Physics, I will mostly concentrate on underdense, cold, homogeneous plasmas, discussing some of the alternative (to fusion) uses of laser-plasma interaction. In Part I an outline of some basic non-linear processes is given, together with some recent experimental results. The processes are chosen because of their relevance to the applications or because new interesting developments have been reported at the ICTP workshop (or both). In Part II the excitation mechanisms and uses of large amplitude plasma waves are presented: these include phase-conjugation in plasmas, plasma based accelerators (beat-wave, plasma wake-field and laser wake-field), plasma lenses and plasma wigglers for Free Electron Lasers. (author)
Gravitational waves from scalar field accretion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nunez, Dario; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Moreno, Claudia
2011-01-01
Our aim in this work is to outline some physical consequences of the interaction between black holes and scalar field halos in terms of gravitational waves. In doing so, the black hole is taken as a static and spherically symmetric gravitational source, i.e. the Schwarzschild black hole, and we work within the test field approximation, considering that the scalar field lives in the curved space-time outside the black hole. We focused on the emission of gravitational waves when the black hole is perturbed by the surrounding scalar field matter. The symmetries of the space-time and the simplicity of the matter source allow, by means of a spherical harmonic decomposition, to study the problem by means of a one-dimensional description. Some properties of such gravitational waves are discussed as a function of the parameters of the infalling scalar field, and allow us to make the conjecture that the gravitational waves carry information on the type of matter that generated them.
Megaquakes, prograde surface waves and urban evolution
Lomnitz, C.; Castaños, H.
2013-05-01
Cities grow according to evolutionary principles. They move away from soft-ground conditions and avoid vulnerable types of structures. A megaquake generates prograde surface waves that produce unexpected damage in modern buildings. The examples (Figs. 1 and 2) were taken from the 1985 Mexico City and the 2010 Concepción, Chile megaquakes. About 400 structures built under supervision according to modern building codes were destroyed in the Mexican earthquake. All were sited on soft ground. A Rayleigh wave will cause surface particles to move as ellipses in a vertical plane. Building codes assume that this motion will be retrograde as on a homogeneous elastic halfspace, but soft soils are intermediate materials between a solid and a liquid. When Poisson's ratio tends to ν→0.5 the particle motion turns prograde as it would on a homogeneous fluid halfspace. Building codes assume that the tilt of the ground is not in phase with the acceleration but we show that structures on soft ground tilt into the direction of the horizontal ground acceleration. The combined effect of gravity and acceleration may destabilize a structure when it is in resonance with its eigenfrequency. Castaños, H. and C. Lomnitz, 2013. Charles Darwin and the 1835 Chile earthquake. Seismol. Res. Lett., 84, 19-23. Lomnitz, C., 1990. Mexico 1985: the case for gravity waves. Geophys. J. Int., 102, 569-572. Malischewsky, P.G. et al., 2008. The domain of existence of prograde Rayleigh-wave particle motion. Wave Motion 45, 556-564.; Figure 1 1985 Mexico megaquake--overturned 15-story apartment building in Mexico City ; Figure 2 2010 Chile megaquake Overturned 15-story R-C apartment building in Concepción
MAGNETAR FIELD EVOLUTION AND CRUSTAL PLASTICITY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lander, S. K.
2016-01-01
The activity of magnetars is believed to be powered by colossal magnetic energy reservoirs. We sketch an evolutionary picture in which internal field evolution in magnetars generates a twisted corona, from which energy may be released suddenly in a single giant flare, or more gradually through smaller outbursts and persistent emission. Given the ages of magnetars and the energy of their giant flares, we suggest that their evolution is driven by a novel mechanism: magnetic flux transport/decay due to persistent plastic flow in the crust, which would invalidate the common assumption that the crustal lattice is static and evolves only under Hall drift and Ohmic decay. We estimate the field strength required to induce plastic flow as a function of crustal depth, and the viscosity of the plastic phase. The star’s superconducting core may also play a role in magnetar field evolution, depending on the star’s spindown history and how rotational vortices and magnetic fluxtubes interact.
THOR Fields and Wave Processor - FWP
Soucek, Jan; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Ahlen, Lennart; Balikhin, Michael; Carr, Christopher; Dekkali, Moustapha; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Lan, Radek; Magnes, Werner; Morawski, Marek; Nakamura, Rumi; Uhlir, Ludek; Yearby, Keith; Winkler, Marek; Zaslavsky, Arnaud
2017-04-01
If selected, Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) will become the first spacecraft mission dedicated to the study of plasma turbulence. The Fields and Waves Processor (FWP) is an integrated electronics unit for all electromagnetic field measurements performed by THOR. FWP will interface with all THOR fields sensors: electric field antennas of the EFI instrument, the MAG fluxgate magnetometer, and search-coil magnetometer (SCM), and perform signal digitization and on-board data processing. FWP box will house multiple data acquisition sub-units and signal analyzers all sharing a common power supply and data processing unit and thus a single data and power interface to the spacecraft. Integrating all the electromagnetic field measurements in a single unit will improve the consistency of field measurement and accuracy of time synchronization. The scientific value of highly sensitive electric and magnetic field measurements in space has been demonstrated by Cluster (among other spacecraft) and THOR instrumentation will further improve on this heritage. Large dynamic range of the instruments will be complemented by a thorough electromagnetic cleanliness program, which will prevent perturbation of field measurements by interference from payload and platform subsystems. Taking advantage of the capabilities of modern electronics and the large telemetry bandwidth of THOR, FWP will provide multi-component electromagnetic field waveforms and spectral data products at a high time resolution. Fully synchronized sampling of many signals will allow to resolve wave phase information and estimate wavelength via interferometric correlations between EFI probes. FWP will also implement a plasma resonance sounder and a digital plasma quasi-thermal noise analyzer designed to provide high cadence measurements of plasma density and temperature complementary to data from particle instruments. FWP will rapidly transmit information about magnetic field vector and spacecraft potential to the
Traveling wave solution of the Reggeon field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peschanski, Robi
2009-01-01
We identify the nonlinear evolution equation in impact-parameter space for the 'Supercritical Pomeron' in Reggeon field theory as a two-dimensional stochastic Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovski-Piscounov equation. It exactly preserves unitarity and leads in its radial form to a high-energy traveling wave solution corresponding to a 'universal' behavior of the impact-parameter front profile of the elastic amplitude; its rapidity dependence and form depend only on one parameter, the noise strength, independently of the initial conditions and of the nonlinear terms restoring unitarity. Theoretical predictions are presented for the three typical distinct regimes corresponding to zero, weak, and strong noise.
Modeling aeolian dune and dune field evolution
Diniega, Serina
Aeolian sand dune morphologies and sizes are strongly connected to the environmental context and physical processes active since dune formation. As such, the patterns and measurable features found within dunes and dune fields can be interpreted as records of environmental conditions. Using mathematical models of dune and dune field evolution, it should be possible to quantitatively predict dune field dynamics from current conditions or to determine past field conditions based on present-day observations. In this dissertation, we focus on the construction and quantitative analysis of a continuum dune evolution model. We then apply this model towards interpretation of the formative history of terrestrial and martian dunes and dune fields. Our first aim is to identify the controls for the characteristic lengthscales seen in patterned dune fields. Variations in sand flux, binary dune interactions, and topography are evaluated with respect to evolution of individual dunes. Through the use of both quantitative and qualitative multiscale models, these results are then extended to determine the role such processes may play in (de)stabilization of the dune field. We find that sand flux variations and topography generally destabilize dune fields, while dune collisions can yield more similarly-sized dunes. We construct and apply a phenomenological macroscale dune evolution model to then quantitatively demonstrate how dune collisions cause a dune field to evolve into a set of uniformly-sized dunes. Our second goal is to investigate the influence of reversing winds and polar processes in relation to dune slope and morphology. Using numerical experiments, we investigate possible causes of distinctive morphologies seen in Antarctic and martian polar dunes. Finally, we discuss possible model extensions and needed observations that will enable the inclusion of more realistic physical environments in the dune and dune field evolution models. By elucidating the qualitative and
Evolution kernel for the Dirac field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baaquie, B.E.
1982-06-01
The evolution kernel for the free Dirac field is calculated using the Wilson lattice fermions. We discuss the difficulties due to which this calculation has not been previously performed in the continuum theory. The continuum limit is taken, and the complete energy eigenfunctions as well as the propagator are then evaluated in a new manner using the kernel. (author)
New travelling wave solutions for nonlinear stochastic evolution
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The nonlinear stochastic evolution equations have a wide range of applications in physics, chemistry, biology, economics and finance from various points of view. In this paper, the (′/)-expansion method is implemented for obtaining new travelling wave solutions of the nonlinear (2 + 1)-dimensional stochastic ...
The Evolution of the International Business Field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liesch, Peter W.; Håkanson, Lars; McGaughey, Sara L.
2011-01-01
Macro-environmental trends such as technological changes, declining trade and investment barriers, and globalizing forces impacting both markets and production worldwide point to the heightened importance of international business (IB) and the relevance of IB research today. Despite this, a leading...... scholar has expressed concerns that the IB research agenda could be ‘running out of steam’ (Buckley, Journal of International Business Studies 33(2):365–373, 2002), prompting on-going introspection within the IB field. We contribute to this debate by investigating the evolution of the IB field through...... a scientometric examination of articles published in its premier journal, the Journal of International Business Studies (JIBS) from 1970 until 2008. We introduce a new analytical tool, Leximancer, to the fields of international business and scientometry. We show an evolution from an initial and extended emphasis...
Field trials results of guided wave tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volker, Arno; Zon, Tim van; Leden, Edwin van der
2015-01-01
Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Guided wave travel time tomography is a method capable of providing an absolute wall thickness map. This method is currently making the transition from the laboratory to the field. For this purpose a dedicated data acquisition system and special purpose EMAT sensor rings have been developed. The system can be deployed for permanent monitoring and inspections. Field trials have been conducted on various pipes with different diameters, containing either liquid or gas. The main focus has been on pipe supports. The results demonstrate the successful operation of the technology in the field. Expected corrosion damage was clearly visible on the produced results enabling asset owner to make calculated decisions on the pipelines safety, maintenance and operations
Field trials results of guided wave tomography
Volker, Arno; van Zon, Tim; van der Leden, Edwin
2015-03-01
Corrosion is one of the industries major issues regarding the integrity of assets. Guided wave travel time tomography is a method capable of providing an absolute wall thickness map. This method is currently making the transition from the laboratory to the field. For this purpose a dedicated data acquisition system and special purpose EMAT sensor rings have been developed. The system can be deployed for permanent monitoring and inspections. Field trials have been conducted on various pipes with different diameters, containing either liquid or gas. The main focus has been on pipe supports. The results demonstrate the successful operation of the technology in the field. Expected corrosion damage was clearly visible on the produced results enabling asset owner to make calculated decisions on the pipelines safety, maintenance and operations.
Exploring stellar evolution with gravitational-wave observations
Dvorkin, Irina; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Vangioni, Elisabeth; Silk, Joseph
2018-05-01
Recent detections of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes opened new possibilities to study the evolution of massive stars and black hole formation. In particular, stellar evolution models may be constrained on the basis of the differences in the predicted distribution of black hole masses and redshifts. In this work we propose a framework that combines galaxy and stellar evolution models and use it to predict the detection rates of merging binary black holes for various stellar evolution models. We discuss the prospects of constraining the shape of the time delay distribution of merging binaries using just the observed distribution of chirp masses. Finally, we consider a generic model of primordial black hole formation and discuss the possibility of distinguishing it from stellar-origin black holes.
Superconformal partial waves in Grassmannian field theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doobary, Reza; Heslop, Paul [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE United Kingdom (United Kingdom)
2015-12-23
We derive superconformal partial waves for all scalar four-point functions on a super Grassmannian space Gr(m|n,2m|2n) for all m,n. This family of four-point functions includes those of all (arbitrary weight) half BPS operators in both N=4 SYM (m=n=2) and in N=2 superconformal field theories in four dimensions (m=2,n=1) on analytic superspace. It also includes four-point functions of all (arbitrary dimension) scalar fields in non-supersymmetric conformal field theories (m=2,n=0) on Minkowski space, as well as those of a certain class of representations of the compact SU(2n) coset spaces. As an application we then specialise to N=4 SYM and use these results to perform a detailed superconformal partial wave analysis of the four-point functions of arbitrary weight half BPS operators. We discuss the non-trivial separation of protected and unprotected sectors for the 〈2222〉, 〈2233〉 and 〈3333〉 cases in an SU(N) gauge theory at finite N. The 〈2233〉 correlator predicts a non-trivial protected twist four sector for 〈3333〉 which we can completely determine using the knowledge that there is precisely one such protected twist four operator for each spin.
The evolution of magnetic fields in clusters of galaxies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoeckl, J.
2011-01-01
Although the observational knowledge base about the properties of magnetic fields in clusters of galaxies has significantly improved in recent years, our understanding of the evolution and influence of the magnetic fields is still limited. We present results from our study on the influence of cluster scale magnetic fields on the structure formation of clusters of galaxies and the evolution of the intra-cluster medium (ICM). The high-resolution simulations employ a self-consistent numerical setup, which includes gravity, cosmology, magnetohydrodynamics and radiative cooling. We find that during structure formation cosmological magnetic seed fields of the order of 10 -1 1 to 10 -9 G are amplified by up to six orders of magnitude, which is in good agreement with observations. Furthermore we find that merger shocks during the cluster formation can have a dispersive effect on the magnetic field in the cluster center, and the outgoing shock waves can lead to magnetic fields of the order of [mu]G even at distances of more than 1 Mpc from the center. We highlight this as a possible explanation for the faint or undetectable radio halos that can be observed together with strong radio relics. (author) [de
Oil field management, evolution and perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castro, Guilherme T.; Palagi, Cesar L.; Morooka, Celso K.
2000-01-01
After a commercial discovery of a petroleum field, the exploitation activities should be conducted in an way that maximize the objectives expected to this new field. This exploitation process have been experiencing a great evolution in almost all of the petroleum companies, where the organizational structure changed from a pure functional model with emphasis just in reservoir engineering, to a model based in assets and multidisciplinary teams.Many authors in the literature had already defined Reservoir Management, but this paper is giving an additional contribution defining as Asset Management this new model, that have been consolidated and implemented in the majority of the oil companies since late 80s. Based in a large bibliography study, this paper analyzes the technical evolution, the experience obtained through the best cases and mistakes, and concludes suggesting a new model based on the best success examples listed in the literature. (author)
Novel Aspects of Evolution of the Stokes Parameters for an Electromagnetic Wave in Anisotropic Media
Botet, R.; Kuratsuji, H.; Seto, R.
2006-08-01
Polarization of a plane electromagnetic wave travelling through a medium is studied in the slowly-varying field envelope approximation. It is shown that the problem is identical to the 4-momentum evolution of a negatively-charged massless relativistic particle in an electromagnetic field. The approach is exemplified by the resonant oscillations of circular polarization in a medium embedded in a static magnetic field and a modulated electric field. The effect of dissipation in the medium is discussed. It is shown that the Rabi oscillations are stable below a threshold depending on the absorption coefficient. Above it, oscillations disappear.
Spatio-temporal evolution of magnetosonic wave in the laser plasma interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, R. P.; Singh, Ram Kishor; Sharma, Swati; Tiwary, Prem Pyari; Modi, K. V.; Satsangi, V. R.
2015-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical model for the transient response of nonlinear coupling between magnetosonic wave and ion acoustic wave in the overdense plasma. Filamentation of magnetosonic wave has been considered to be responsible for magnetic turbulence during the laser plasma interaction. The ion acoustic wave gets excited due to the ponderomotive force exerted by magnetosonic wave and this ion acoustic wave in turn generates perturbation in the background density in the form of spatial density harmonics. Numerical simulation has been carried out for dimensionless coupled equations of magnetosonic wave and ion acoustic wave; and the results show quite complex localized structures that grow with time. The power spectrum has also been studied which shows that the spectral index follows an approximate scaling of the order of ∼k −2.4 at smaller scales. The data obtained from numerical simulation are used in semi analytical model to better understand the mechanism of nonlinear evolution of magnetosonic wave. The results indicate considerable randomness in the spatial structure of the magnetic field profile which gives sufficient indication of turbulence
Spatio-temporal evolution of magnetosonic wave in the laser plasma interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharma, R. P., E-mail: rpsharma@ces.iitd.ac.in; Singh, Ram Kishor, E-mail: ram007kishor@gmail.com; Sharma, Swati, E-mail: swati.sharma704@gmail.com [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Delhi 110016 (India); Tiwary, Prem Pyari, E-mail: prempyari@gmail.com [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Delhi 110016 (India); Department of Physics and Computer Science, Dayal Bagh Educational Institute(Deemed University), DayalBagh, Agra 282005 (India); Modi, K. V., E-mail: kvmodi.iitd@gmail.com [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Delhi 110016 (India); Mechanical Engineering Department, Government Engineering College Valsad, Gujarat 396001 (India); Satsangi, V. R. [Department of Physics and Computer Science, Dayal Bagh Educational Institute(Deemed University), DayalBagh, Agra 282005 (India)
2015-05-15
This paper presents a theoretical model for the transient response of nonlinear coupling between magnetosonic wave and ion acoustic wave in the overdense plasma. Filamentation of magnetosonic wave has been considered to be responsible for magnetic turbulence during the laser plasma interaction. The ion acoustic wave gets excited due to the ponderomotive force exerted by magnetosonic wave and this ion acoustic wave in turn generates perturbation in the background density in the form of spatial density harmonics. Numerical simulation has been carried out for dimensionless coupled equations of magnetosonic wave and ion acoustic wave; and the results show quite complex localized structures that grow with time. The power spectrum has also been studied which shows that the spectral index follows an approximate scaling of the order of ∼k{sup −2.4} at smaller scales. The data obtained from numerical simulation are used in semi analytical model to better understand the mechanism of nonlinear evolution of magnetosonic wave. The results indicate considerable randomness in the spatial structure of the magnetic field profile which gives sufficient indication of turbulence.
Geomagnetic field evolution during the Laschamp excursion
Leonhardt, Roman; Fabian, Karl; Winklhofer, Michael; Ferk, Annika; Laj, Carlo; Kissel, Catherine
2009-02-01
Since the last geomagnetic reversal, 780,000 years ago, the Earth's magnetic field repeatedly dropped dramatically in intensity. This has often been associated with large variations in local field direction, but without a persistent global polarity flip. The structure and dynamics of geomagnetic excursions, and especially the difference between excursions and polarity reversals, have remained elusive so far. For the best documented excursion, the Laschamp event at 41,000 years BP, we have reconstructed the evolution of the global field morphology by using a Bayesian inversion of several high-resolution palaeomagnetic records. We have obtained an excursion scenario in which inverse magnetic flux patches at the core-mantle boundary emerge near the equator and then move poleward. Contrary to the situation during the last reversal (Leonhardt, R., Fabian, K., 2007. Paleomagnetic reconstruction of the global geomagnetic field evolution during the Matuyama/Brunhes transition: Iterative Bayesian inversion and independent verification. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 253, 172-195), these flux patches do not cross the hydrodynamic boundary of the inner-core tangent cylinder. While the last geomagnetic reversal began with a substantial increase in the strength of the non-dipolar field components, prior to the Laschamp excursion, both dipolar and non-dipolar field decay at the same rate. This result suggests that the nature of an upcoming geomagnetic field instability can be predicted several hundred years in advance. Even though during the Laschamp excursion the dipolar field at the Earth's surface was dominant, the reconstructed dynamic non-dipolar components lead to considerable deviations among predicted records at different locations. The inverse model also explains why at some locations no directional change during the Laschamp excursion is observed.
Testing numerical evolution with the shifted gauge wave
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Babiuc, Maria C [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Szilagyi, Bela [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, 14476 Golm (Germany); Winicour, Jeffrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)
2006-08-21
Computational methods are essential to provide waveforms from coalescing black holes, which are expected to produce strong signals for the gravitational wave observatories being developed. Although partial simulations of the coalescence have been reported, scientifically useful waveforms have so far not been delivered. The goal of the AppleswithApples (AwA) Alliance is to design, coordinate and document standardized code tests for comparing numerical relativity codes. The first round of AwA tests has now been completed and the results are being analysed. These initial tests are based upon the periodic boundary conditions designed to isolate performance of the main evolution code. Here we describe and carry out an additional test with periodic boundary conditions which deals with an essential feature of the black hole excision problem, namely a non-vanishing shift. The test is a shifted version of the existing AwA gauge wave test. We show how a shift introduces an exponentially growing instability which violates the constraints of a standard harmonic formulation of Einstein's equations. We analyse the Cauchy problem in a harmonic gauge and discuss particular options for suppressing instabilities in the gauge wave tests. We implement these techniques in a finite difference evolution algorithm and present test results. Although our application here is limited to a model problem, the techniques should benefit the simulation of black holes using harmonic evolution codes.
Ionization waves caused by the effects of a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miura, Kosuke; Imazu, Shingo
1980-01-01
The self-excited ionization waves was observed in the Ne positive column. The experiments were made for Ne gas from 0.07 to 1.0 Torr, with the magnetic field from 0 to 3.33 kG. The discharge current were 10 to 300 mA. The longitudinal magnetic field was made by an air-core solenoid coil. The axial electric field was measured by two wall probes. The frequency, wave length and amplitude of waves were measured with a photo multiplier. It was found that the longitudinal magnetic field caused new self-excited ionization waves. The frequency of these waves decreased monotonously with increasing field. The behaviors of the wave length and amplitude were complicate, and the cause of these phenomena is related to the ionization waves due to the spatial resonance of electron gas, namely s-waves, p-waves and fluid γ-waves. The threshold of the magnetic field to cause the ionization waves increased with increasing gas pressure, and with decreasing discharge current in the range 0.07 to 0.44 Torr. The frequency of the self-excited ionization waves occurred at zero field was almost constant in the field-frequency relation. A simple dispersion equation was derived, and the Novak constant can be introduced. (J.P.N.)
Waves in strong centrifugal fields: dissipationless gas
Bogovalov, S. V.; Kislov, V. A.; Tronin, I. V.
2015-04-01
Linear waves are investigated in a rotating gas under the condition of strong centrifugal acceleration of the order 106 g realized in gas centrifuges for separation of uranium isotopes. Sound waves split into three families of the waves under these conditions. Dispersion equations are obtained. The characteristics of the waves strongly differ from the conventional sound waves on polarization, velocity of propagation and distribution of energy of the waves in space for two families having frequencies above and below the frequency of the conventional sound waves. The energy of these waves is localized in rarefied region of the gas. The waves of the third family were not specified before. They propagate exactly along the rotational axis with the conventional sound velocity. These waves are polarized only along the rotational axis. Radial and azimuthal motions are not excited. Energy of the waves is concentrated near the wall of the rotor where the density of the gas is largest.
Experimental Measurement of Wave Field Variations around Wave Energy Converter Arrays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Louise O’Boyle
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Wave energy converters (WECs inherently extract energy from incident waves. For wave energy to become a significant power provider in the future, large farms of WECs will be required. This scale of energy extraction will increase the potential for changes in the local wave field and coastal environment. Assessment of these effects is necessary to inform decisions on the layout of wave farms for optimum power output and minimum environmental impact, as well as on potential site selection. An experimental campaign to map, at high resolution, the wave field variation around arrays of 5 oscillating water column WECs and a methodology for extracting scattered and radiated waves is presented. The results highlight the importance of accounting for the full extent of the WEC behavior when assessing impacts on the wave field. The effect of radiated waves on the wave field is not immediately apparent when considering changes to the entire wave spectrum, nor when observing changes in wave climate due to scattered and radiated waves superimposed together. The results show that radiated waves may account for up to 50% of the effects on wave climate in the near field in particular operating conditions.
Dynamical evolution of short-wave instability in LHD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miura, H.; Nakajima, N.
2009-01-01
Full text: Dynamical growth of ballooning modes with high poloidal(m) /toroidal(n) Fourier coefficients (higher m/n modes) in the Large Helical Device (LHD) is studied by means of full 3D nonlinear simulations. Influences of higher modes on low modes are studied numerically. In the LHD experiments, some MHD activities are observed but the activities do not bring about serious deteriorations of plasma profiles and high beta-values have been achieved. For the sake of understanding the mild saturation of the instability, some numerical simulations have been carried out. However, the earlier works focus on low modes and dynamical behaviors of high modes are not understood well. In order to understand the dynamical evolution of the pressure-driven high-modes and clarify their influences on growth of low-modes, full-3D simulations of high Reynolds number LHD plasma are carried out for the magnetic field with the vacuum magnetic axis position 3.6m, the peak beta value 3.7%, and the reference Reynolds number Re=10 6 . In the simulations, the growth of ballooning modes up to n=15 toroidal wave-number is identified. The simultaneous growth of multiple ballooning modes brings about total modification of the pressure profile, showing that the pressure-flattening mechanism can not suppress the growth of the modes. On the other hand, a mild saturation of the unstable mode is obtained in another simulation with the relatively large parallel heat conduction, suggesting that the mild saturations might be rather contributed by the dissipative effects (typically by the parallel heat conduction) than the nonlinear mechanism such as the modifications of the pressure profiles. We also find that the wave-length of the n=15 ballooning mode is comparable to the ion skin-depth, suggesting the necessity of studying the high modes in the framework of the Hall-MHD dynamics. Studying the dynamics of the LHD plasmas by the use of the Hall-MHD or some sort of the two-fluid system is considered
Superresolution Near-field Imaging with Surface Waves
Fu, Lei; Liu, Zhaolun; Schuster, Gerard T.
2017-01-01
We present the theory for near-field superresolution imaging with surface waves and time reverse mirrors (TRMs). Theoretical formulas and numerical results show that applying the TRM operation to surface waves in an elastic half-space can achieve
Shock waves in collective field theories for many particle systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oki, F; Saito, T [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan); Shigemoto, K
1980-10-01
We find shock wave solutions to collective field equations for quantum mechanical many particle system. Importance of the existence of a ''tension'' working on the surface of the shock-wave front is pointed out.
At the heart of the waves - Electromagnetic fields in question
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ndagijimana, Fabien; Gaudaire, Francois
2013-01-01
This document briefly presents a book in which the author describes what an electromagnetic wave is, the use of electromagnetic waves, how an information is transmitted by means of an electromagnetic wave, what wave modulation is, what multiplexing is, what the characteristics of an antenna are, how waves propagate, how electromagnetic shielding works, what the CEM (electromagnetic compatibility) is, and how a cellular phone network works, in the framework of electromagnetic fields risk assessment
Evolution of Shock Waves in Silicon Carbide Rods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balagansky, I. A.; Balagansky, A. I.; Razorenov, S. V.; Utkin, A. V.
2006-01-01
Evolution of shock waves in self-bonded silicon carbide bars in the shape of 20 mm x 20 mm square prisms of varying lengths (20 mm, 40 mm, and 77.5 mm) is investigated. The density and porosity of the test specimens were 3.08 g/cm3 and 2%, respectively. Shock waves were generated by detonating a cylindrical shaped (d=40 mm and 1=40 mm) stabilized RDX high explosive charge of density 1.60 g/cm3. Embedded manganin gauges at various distances from the impact face were used to monitor the amplitude of shock pressure profiles. Propagation velocity of the stress pulse was observed to be equal to the elastic bar wave velocity of 11 km/s and was independent of the amplitude of the impact pulse. Strong fuzziness of the stress wave front is observed. This observation conforms to the theory on the instability of the shock formation in a finite size elastic body. This phenomenon of wave front fuzziness may be useful for desensitization of heterogeneous high explosives
Helicons in uniform fields. I. Wave diagnostics with hodograms
Urrutia, J. M.; Stenzel, R. L.
2018-03-01
The wave equation for whistler waves is well known and has been solved in Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates, yielding plane waves and cylindrical waves. In space plasmas, waves are usually assumed to be plane waves; in small laboratory plasmas, they are often assumed to be cylindrical "helicon" eigenmodes. Experimental observations fall in between both models. Real waves are usually bounded and may rotate like helicons. Such helicons are studied experimentally in a large laboratory plasma which is essentially a uniform, unbounded plasma. The waves are excited by loop antennas whose properties determine the field rotation and transverse dimensions. Both m = 0 and m = 1 helicon modes are produced and analyzed by measuring the wave magnetic field in three dimensional space and time. From Ampère's law and Ohm's law, the current density and electric field vectors are obtained. Hodograms for these vectors are produced. The sign ambiguity of the hodogram normal with respect to the direction of wave propagation is demonstrated. In general, electric and magnetic hodograms differ but both together yield the wave vector direction unambiguously. Vector fields of the hodogram normal yield the phase flow including phase rotation for helicons. Some helicons can have locally a linear polarization which is identified by the hodogram ellipticity. Alternatively the amplitude oscillation in time yields a measure for the wave polarization. It is shown that wave interference produces linear polarization. These observations emphasize that single point hodogram measurements are inadequate to determine the wave topology unless assuming plane waves. Observations of linear polarization indicate wave packets but not plane waves. A simple qualitative diagnostics for the wave polarization is the measurement of the magnetic field magnitude in time. Circular polarization has a constant amplitude; linear polarization results in amplitude modulations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Verbrugghe, Tim; Troch, Peter; Kortenhaus, Andreas
2016-01-01
Wave energy converters (WECs) need to be deployed in large numbers in an array layout in order to have a significant power production. Each WEC has an impact on the incoming wave field, diffracting, reflecting and radiating waves. Simulating the wave transformations within and around a WEC farm...... of a wave-structure interaction solver and a wave propagation model, both based on the potential flow theory. This paper discusses the coupling method and illustrates the functionality with a proof-of-concept. Additionally, a projection of the evolution of the numerical tool is given. It can be concluded...... is complex; it is difficult to simulate both near field and far field effects with a single numerical model, with relatively fast computing times. Within this research a numerical tool is developed to model near-field and far-field wave transformations caused by WECs. The tool is based on the coupling...
Stochastic Field evolution of disoriented chiral condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bettencourt, Luis M.A.
2003-01-01
I present a summary of recent work [1] where we describe the time-evolution of a region of disoriented chiral condensate via Langevin field equations for the linear σ model. We analyze the model in equilibrium, paying attention to subtracting ultraviolet divergent classical terms and replacing them by their finite quantum counter-parts. We use results from lattice gauge theory and chiral perturbation theory to fix nonuniversal constants. The result is a ultraviolet cutoff independent theory that reproduces quantitatively the expected equilibrium behavior of pion and σ quantum fields. We also estimate the viscosity η(T), which controls the dynamical timescale in the Langevin equation, so that the near equilibrium dynamical response agrees with theoretical expectations
Massive scalar field evolution in de Sitter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Markkanen, Tommi [Department of Physics, King’s College London,Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Rajantie, Arttu [Department of Physics, Imperial College London,London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)
2017-01-30
The behaviour of a massive, non-interacting and non-minimally coupled quantised scalar field in an expanding de Sitter background is investigated by solving the field evolution for an arbitrary initial state. In this approach there is no need to choose a vacuum in order to provide a definition for particle states, nor to introduce an explicit ultraviolet regularization. We conclude that the expanding de Sitter space is a stable equilibrium configuration under small perturbations of the initial conditions. Depending on the initial state, the energy density can approach its asymptotic value from above or below, the latter of which implies a violation of the weak energy condition. The backreaction of the quantum corrections can therefore lead to a phase of super-acceleration also in the non-interacting massive case.
Pulse energy evolution for high-resolution Lamb wave inspection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hua, Jiadong; Zeng, Liang; Gao, Fei; Lin, Jing
2015-01-01
Generally, tone burst excitation methods are used to reduce the effect of dispersion in Lamb wave inspection. In addition, algorithms for dispersion compensation are required to simplify responses, especially in long-range inspection. However, the resolution is always limited by the time duration of tone burst excitation. A pulse energy evolution method is established to overcome this limitation. In this method, a broadband signal with a long time (e.g. a chirp, white noise signal, or a pseudo-random sequence) is used as excitation to actuate Lamb waves. First of all, pulse compression is employed to estimate system impulse response with a high signal-to-noise ratio. Then, dispersion compensation is applied repeatedly with systemically varied compensation distances, obtaining a series of compensated signals. In these signals, amplitude (or energy) evolution associated with the change of compensation distance is utilized to estimate the actual propagation distance of the interested wave packet. Finally, the defect position is detected by an imaging algorithm. Several experiments are given to validate the proposed method. (paper)
Experimental Measurement of Wave Field Variations around Wave Energy Converter Arrays
O'Boyle, Louise; Elsäßer, Björn; Whittaker, Trevor
2017-01-01
Wave energy converters (WECs) inherently extract energy from incident waves. For wave energy to become a significant power provider in the future, large farms of WECs will be required. This scale of energy extraction will increase the potential for changes in the local wave field and coastal environment. Assessment of these effects is necessary to inform decisions on the layout of wave farms for optimum power output and minimum environmental impact, as well as on potential site selection. An ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cros, Brigitte
1989-01-01
This research thesis reports the study of the non linear evolution of plasma waves excited by mode conversion in a non homogeneous, non collisional, and free-of-external-magnetic-field plasma. Experiments performed in the microwave domain in a plasma created by means of a multi-polar device show that the evolution of plasma waves displays a transition between a non linear quasi-steady regime and a stochastic regime when the power of incident electromagnetic waves or plasma gradient length is increased. These regimes are characterized through a numerical resolution of Zakharov equations which describe the coupled evolution of plasma wave envelope and low frequency density perturbations [fr
PROTOPLANETARY DISK HEATING AND EVOLUTION DRIVEN BY SPIRAL DENSITY WAVES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rafikov, Roman R., E-mail: rrr@ias.edu [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)
2016-11-10
Scattered light imaging of protoplanetary disks often reveals prominent spiral arms, likely excited by massive planets or stellar companions. Assuming that these arms are density waves, evolving into spiral shocks, we assess their effect on the thermodynamics, accretion, and global evolution of the disk. We derive analytical expressions for the direct (irreversible) heating, angular momentum transport, and mass accretion rate induced by disk shocks of arbitrary amplitude. These processes are very sensitive to the shock strength. We show that waves of moderate strength (density jump at the shock ΔΣ/Σ ∼ 1) result in negligible disk heating (contributing at the ∼1% level to the energy budget) in passive, irradiated protoplanetary disks on ∼100 au scales, but become important within several au. However, shock heating is a significant (or even dominant) energy source in disks of cataclysmic variables, stellar X-ray binaries, and supermassive black hole binaries, heated mainly by viscous dissipation. Mass accretion induced by the spiral shocks is comparable to (or exceeds) the mass inflow due to viscous stresses. Protoplanetary disks featuring prominent global spirals must be evolving rapidly, in ≲0.5 Myr at ∼100 au. A direct upper limit on the evolution timescale can be established by measuring the gravitational torque due to the spiral arms from the imaging data. We find that, regardless of their origin, global spiral waves must be important agents of the protoplanetary disk evolution. They may serve as an effective mechanism of disk dispersal and could be related to the phenomenon of transitional disks.
PROTOPLANETARY DISK HEATING AND EVOLUTION DRIVEN BY SPIRAL DENSITY WAVES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rafikov, Roman R.
2016-01-01
Scattered light imaging of protoplanetary disks often reveals prominent spiral arms, likely excited by massive planets or stellar companions. Assuming that these arms are density waves, evolving into spiral shocks, we assess their effect on the thermodynamics, accretion, and global evolution of the disk. We derive analytical expressions for the direct (irreversible) heating, angular momentum transport, and mass accretion rate induced by disk shocks of arbitrary amplitude. These processes are very sensitive to the shock strength. We show that waves of moderate strength (density jump at the shock ΔΣ/Σ ∼ 1) result in negligible disk heating (contributing at the ∼1% level to the energy budget) in passive, irradiated protoplanetary disks on ∼100 au scales, but become important within several au. However, shock heating is a significant (or even dominant) energy source in disks of cataclysmic variables, stellar X-ray binaries, and supermassive black hole binaries, heated mainly by viscous dissipation. Mass accretion induced by the spiral shocks is comparable to (or exceeds) the mass inflow due to viscous stresses. Protoplanetary disks featuring prominent global spirals must be evolving rapidly, in ≲0.5 Myr at ∼100 au. A direct upper limit on the evolution timescale can be established by measuring the gravitational torque due to the spiral arms from the imaging data. We find that, regardless of their origin, global spiral waves must be important agents of the protoplanetary disk evolution. They may serve as an effective mechanism of disk dispersal and could be related to the phenomenon of transitional disks.
Electron wind in strong wave guide fields
Krienen, F.
1985-03-01
The X-ray activity observed near highly powered waveguide structures is usually caused by local electric discharges originating from discontinuities such as couplers, tuners or bends. In traveling waves electrons move in the direction of the power flow. Seed electrons can multipactor in a traveling wave, the moving charge pattern is different from the multipactor in a resonant structure and is self-extinguishing. The charge density in the wave guide will modify impedance and propagation constant of the wave guide. The radiation level inside the output wave guide of the SLAC, 50 MW, S-band, klystron is estimated. Possible contributions of radiation to window failure are discussed.
Gravitational waves from Abelian gauge fields and cosmic strings at preheating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dufaux, Jean-Francois; Figueroa, Daniel G.; Garcia-Bellido, Juan
2010-01-01
Primordial gravitational waves provide a very important stochastic background that could be detected soon with interferometric gravitational wave antennas or indirectly via the induced patterns in the polarization anisotropies of the cosmic microwave background. The detection of these waves will open a new window into the early Universe, and therefore it is important to characterize in detail all possible sources of primordial gravitational waves. In this paper we develop theoretical and numerical methods to study the production of gravitational waves from out-of-equilibrium gauge fields at preheating. We then consider models of preheating after hybrid inflation, where the symmetry breaking field is charged under a local U(1) symmetry. We analyze in detail the dynamics of the system in both momentum and configuration space. We show that gauge fields leave specific imprints in the resulting gravitational wave spectra, mainly through the appearance of new peaks at characteristic frequencies that are related to the mass scales in the problem. We also show how these new features in the spectra correlate with stringlike spatial configurations in both the Higgs and gauge fields that arise due to the appearance of topological winding numbers of the Higgs around Nielsen-Olesen strings. We study in detail the time evolution of the spectrum of gauge fields and gravitational waves as these strings evolve and decay before entering a turbulent regime where the gravitational wave energy density saturates.
Time evolution of the wave equation using rapid expansion method
Pestana, Reynam C.; Stoffa, Paul L.
2010-01-01
Forward modeling of seismic data and reverse time migration are based on the time evolution of wavefields. For the case of spatially varying velocity, we have worked on two approaches to evaluate the time evolution of seismic wavefields. An exact solution for the constant-velocity acoustic wave equation can be used to simulate the pressure response at any time. For a spatially varying velocity, a one-step method can be developed where no intermediate time responses are required. Using this approach, we have solved for the pressure response at intermediate times and have developed a recursive solution. The solution has a very high degree of accuracy and can be reduced to various finite-difference time-derivative methods, depending on the approximations used. Although the two approaches are closely related, each has advantages, depending on the problem being solved. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Time evolution of the wave equation using rapid expansion method
Pestana, Reynam C.
2010-07-01
Forward modeling of seismic data and reverse time migration are based on the time evolution of wavefields. For the case of spatially varying velocity, we have worked on two approaches to evaluate the time evolution of seismic wavefields. An exact solution for the constant-velocity acoustic wave equation can be used to simulate the pressure response at any time. For a spatially varying velocity, a one-step method can be developed where no intermediate time responses are required. Using this approach, we have solved for the pressure response at intermediate times and have developed a recursive solution. The solution has a very high degree of accuracy and can be reduced to various finite-difference time-derivative methods, depending on the approximations used. Although the two approaches are closely related, each has advantages, depending on the problem being solved. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Gravitational waves in bouncing cosmologies from gauge field production
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ben-Dayan, Ido, E-mail: ido.bendayan@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Be' er-Sheva 8410500 (Israel)
2016-09-01
We calculate the gravitational waves (GW) spectrum produced in various Early Universe scenarios from gauge field sources, thus generalizing earlier inflationary calculations to bouncing cosmologies. We consider generic couplings between the gauge fields and the scalar field dominating the energy density of the Universe. We analyze the requirements needed to avoid a backreaction that will spoil the background evolution. When the scalar is coupled only to F F-tilde term, the sourced GW spectrum is exponentially enhanced and parametrically the square of the vacuum fluctuations spectrum, P {sup s} {sub T} ∼ (P {sup v} {sub T} ){sup 2}, giving an even bluer spectrum than the standard vacuum one. When the scalar field is also coupled to F {sup 2} term, the amplitude is still exponentially enhanced, but the spectrum can be arbitrarily close to scale invariant (still slightly blue), n {sub T} ∼> 0, that is distinguishable form the slightly red inflationary one. Hence, we have a proof of concept of observable GW on CMB scales in a bouncing cosmology.
Destruction of Spiral Wave Using External Electric Field Modulated by Logistic Map
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ma Jun; Chen Yong; Jin Wuyin
2007-01-01
Evolution of spiral wave generated from the excitable media within the Barkley model is investigated. The external gradient electric field modulated by the logistic map is imposed on the media (along x- and y-axis). Drift and break up of spiral wave are observed when the amplitude of the electric field is modulated by the chaotic signal from the logistic map, and the whole system could become homogeneous finally and the relevant results are compared when the gradient electric field is modulated by the Lorenz or Roessler chaotic signal.
Soliton emission stimulated by sound wave or external field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malomed, B.A.
1987-01-01
Langmuir soliton interaction with ion-acoustic wave results in soliton radiative decay at the expence of emission by the soliton of linear langmuir waves. Intensity of this radiation in the ''subsonic'' regime as well as the rate of energy transfer from acoustic waves to langmuir ones and soliton decay rate are calculated. Three cases are considered: monochromatic acoustic wave, nonmonochromatic wave packet with a wide spectrum, random acoustic field, for which results appear to be qualitatively different. A related problem, concerning the radiation generation by soliton under external electromagnetic wave effect is also considered. Dissipation effect on radiation is investigated
Shear waves in inhomogeneous, compressible fluids in a gravity field.
Godin, Oleg A
2014-03-01
While elastic solids support compressional and shear waves, waves in ideal compressible fluids are usually thought of as compressional waves. Here, a class of acoustic-gravity waves is studied in which the dilatation is identically zero, and the pressure and density remain constant in each fluid particle. These shear waves are described by an exact analytic solution of linearized hydrodynamics equations in inhomogeneous, quiescent, inviscid, compressible fluids with piecewise continuous parameters in a uniform gravity field. It is demonstrated that the shear acoustic-gravity waves also can be supported by moving fluids as well as quiescent, viscous fluids with and without thermal conductivity. Excitation of a shear-wave normal mode by a point source and the normal mode distortion in realistic environmental models are considered. The shear acoustic-gravity waves are likely to play a significant role in coupling wave processes in the ocean and atmosphere.
TIME EVOLUTION OF WOUTHUYSEN-FIELD COUPLING
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roy, Ishani; Shu Chiwang; Xu Wen; Fang Lizhi; Qiu Jingmei
2009-01-01
We study the Wouthuysen-Field (W-F) coupling at early universe with numerical solutions of the integrodifferential equation describing the kinetics of photons undergoing resonant scattering. The numerical solver is developed based on the weighted essentially nonoscillatory (WENO) scheme for the Boltzmann-like integrodifferential equation. This method has perfectly passed the tests of the analytic solution and conservation property of the resonant scattering equation. We focus on the time evolution of the Wouthuysen-Field (W-F) coupling in relation to the 21 cm emission and absorption at the epoch of reionization. We especially pay attention to the formation of the local Boltzmann distribution, e -(ν-ν 0 )/kT , of photon frequency spectrum around resonant frequency ν 0 within width ν l , i.e., |ν - ν 0 | ≤ ν l . We show that a local Boltzmann distribution will be formed if photons with frequency ∼ν 0 have undergone a 10,000 or more times of scattering, which corresponds to the order of 10 3 yr for neutral hydrogen density of the concordance ΛCDM model. The time evolution of the shape and width of the local Boltzmann distribution actually do not depend on the details of atomic recoil, photon sources, or initial conditions very much. However, the intensity of photon flux at the local Boltzmann distribution is substantially time dependent. The timescale of approaching the saturated intensity can be as long as 10 5 -10 6 yr for typical parameters of the ΛCDM model. The intensity of the local Boltzmann distribution at time less than 10 5 yr is significantly lower than that of the saturation state. Therefore, it may not be always reasonable to assume that the deviation of the spin temperature of 21 cm energy states from cosmic background temperature is mainly due to the W-F coupling if first stars or their emission/absorption regions evolved with a timescale equal to or less than Myr.
Interaction of gravitational waves with magnetic and electric fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrabes, C.; Hogan, P. A.
2010-01-01
The existence of large-scale magnetic fields in the universe has led to the observation that if gravitational waves propagating in a cosmological environment encounter even a small magnetic field then electromagnetic radiation is produced. To study this phenomenon in more detail we take it out of the cosmological context and at the same time simplify the gravitational radiation to impulsive waves. Specifically, to illustrate our findings, we describe the following three physical situations: (1) a cylindrical impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with a magnetic field, (2) an axially symmetric impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with an electric field and (3) a 'spherical' impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with a small magnetic field. In cases (1) and (3) electromagnetic radiation is produced behind the gravitational wave. In case (2) no electromagnetic radiation appears after the wave unless a current is established behind the wave breaking the Maxwell vacuum. In all three cases the presence of the magnetic or electric fields results in a modification of the amplitude of the incoming gravitational wave which is explicitly calculated using the Einstein-Maxwell vacuum field equations.
The 5D Standing Wave Braneworld with Real Scalar Field
Merab Gogberashvili; Pavle Midodashvili
2013-01-01
We introduce the new 5D braneworld with the real scalar field in the bulk. The model represents the brane which bounds collective oscillations of gravitational and scalar field standing waves. These waves are out of phase; that is, the energy of oscillations passes back and forth between the scalar and gravitational waves. When the amplitude of the standing waves is small, the brane width and the size of the horizon in extra space are of a same order of magnitude, and matter fields are locali...
Acceleration of particles by electron plasma waves in a moderate magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, D.F.
1976-01-01
A general scheme is established to examine any magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) configuration for its acceleration potential including the effects of various types of plasma waves. The analysis is restricted to plasma waves in a magnetic field with electron cyclotron frequency less than, but comparable to, the electron plasma frequency (moderate field). The general role of electron plasma waves is examined in this paper independent of a specific MHD configuration or generating mechanism in the weak turbulence limit. The evolution of arbitrary wave spectra in a non-relativistic plasma is examined, and it is shown that the nonlinear process of induced scattering on the polarization clouds of ions leads to the collapse of the waves to an almost one-dimensional spectrum directed along the magnetic field. The subsequent acceleration of non-relativistic and relativistic particles is considered. It is shown for non-relativistic particles that when the wave distribution has a negative slope the acceleration is retarded for lower velocities and enhanced for higher velocities compared to acceleration by an isotropic distribution of electron plasma waves in a magnetic field. This change in behaviour is expected to affect the development of wave spectra and the subsequent acceleration spectrum. (Auth.)
Dynamo generation of a magnetic field by decaying Lehnert waves in a highly conducting plasma
Mizerski, Krzysztof A.; Moffatt, H. K.
2018-03-01
Random waves in a uniformly rotating plasma in the presence of a locally uniform seed magnetic field and subject to weak kinematic viscosity ? and resistivity ? are considered. These "Lehnert" waves may have either positive or negative helicity, and it is supposed that waves of a single sign of helicity are preferentially excited by a symmetry-breaking mechanism. A mean electromotive force proportional to ? is derived, demonstrating the conflicting effects of the two diffusive processes. Attention is then focussed on the situation ?, relevant to conditions in the universe before and during galaxy formation. An ?-effect, axisymmetric about the rotation vector, is derived, decaying on a time-scale proportional to ?; this amplifies a large-scale seed magnetic field to a level independent of ?, this field being subsequently steady and having the character of a "fossil field". Subsequent evolution of this fossil field is briefly discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyer, R.-L.
1975-01-01
The evolution of the scattering cross section maximas of an electromagnetic wave by a magnetoplasma, the angle between the wave vector and the confining magnetic field approaching π/2 were computed. It is shown that the maximas are shifted toward the roots of the electrostatic dispersion relation in perpendicular propagation. These roots are not exactly the electron cyclotron harmonics [fr
CLOSED-FIELD CORONAL HEATING DRIVEN BY WAVE TURBULENCE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Downs, Cooper; Lionello, Roberto; Mikić, Zoran; Linker, Jon A [Predictive Science Incorporated, 9990 Mesa Rim Rd. Suite 170, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Velli, Marco, E-mail: cdowns@predsci.com [EPSS, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)
2016-12-01
To simulate the energy balance of coronal plasmas on macroscopic scales, we often require the specification of the coronal heating mechanism in some functional form. To go beyond empirical formulations and to build a more physically motivated heating function, we investigate the wave-turbulence-driven (WTD) phenomenology for the heating of closed coronal loops. Our implementation is designed to capture the large-scale propagation, reflection, and dissipation of wave turbulence along a loop. The parameter space of this model is explored by solving the coupled WTD and hydrodynamic evolution in 1D for an idealized loop. The relevance to a range of solar conditions is also established by computing solutions for over one hundred loops extracted from a realistic 3D coronal field. Due to the implicit dependence of the WTD heating model on loop geometry and plasma properties along the loop and at the footpoints, we find that this model can significantly reduce the number of free parameters when compared to traditional empirical heating models, and still robustly describe a broad range of quiet-Sun and active region conditions. The importance of the self-reflection term in producing relatively short heating scale heights and thermal nonequilibrium cycles is also discussed.
Analysis of wave equation in electromagnetic field by Proca equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pamungkas, Oky Rio; Soeparmi; Cari
2017-01-01
This research is aimed to analyze wave equation for the electric and magnetic field, vector and scalar potential, and continuity equation using Proca equation. Then, also analyze comparison of the solution on Maxwell and Proca equation for scalar potential and electric field, both as a function of distance and constant wave number. (paper)
Spherical-wave expansions of piston-radiator fields.
Wittmann, R C; Yaghjian, A D
1991-09-01
Simple spherical-wave expansions of the continuous-wave fields of a circular piston radiator in a rigid baffle are derived. These expansions are valid throughout the illuminated half-space and are useful for efficient numerical computation in the near-field region. Multipole coefficients are given by closed-form expressions which can be evaluated recursively.
Springing Response Due to Directional Wave Field Excitation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
2004-01-01
This paper analyses the wave-induced high-frequency bending moment response of ships, denoted springing. The aim is to predict measured severe springing responses in a large bulk carrier. It is shown that the most important springing contribution is due to the resultant second order excitation...... in multidirectional sea. The incident pressure field from the second order bidirectional wave field is derived, including the non-linear cross-coupling terms between the two wave systems (e.g. wind driven waves and swell). The resulting effect of the super-harmonic cross-coupling interaction terms on the springing...... response is discussed. An example with opposing waves is given, representing probably the 'worst' case for energy exchange between the wave systems. Theoretical predictions of standard deviation of wave- and springing-induced stress amidships are compared with full-scale measurements for a bulk carrier....
Application of a Magnetostrictive Guided wave Technique to Monitor the Evolution of Defect Signals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheong, Yong-Moo; Oh, Se-Beom; Lee, Duck-Hyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
An advantage of a magnetostrictive strip transducer for a long-range guided wave inspection is that wave patterns are clear and simple when compared to a conventional piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer. Therefore, if we can characterize the evolution of defect signals, it could be a promising tool for a structural health monitoring of pipes for a long period of time as well as an identification of flaw. Of course, when evaluating a signal during a realistic field examination, it should be careful because of some spurious signals or false indications, such as signals due to a directionality, multiple reflections, mode conversion, geometrical reflections etc. Therefore, the different frequency components of the guided waves will travel at different speeds and the shape of the received signal will changed as it propagates along the pipe. Once the magnetostrictive sensors are attached in the pipe permanently and the signal shape and phase can be compared to the signals before and after, we can monitor the evolution of the flow for the given period. We developed a program to subtract the guided wave signal. The program has a capability of adjusting the time scale and can minimize the noise level after subtraction. By applying the newly developed program, a notch with 2% of CSA can be detected with increased accuracy with noise reduction.
The theory of ionizing shock waves in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liberman, M.A.; Velikovich, A.L.
1981-01-01
The general theory of ionizing shock waves in a magnetic field is constructed. The theory takes into account precursor ionization of a neutral gas ahead of the shock wave front, caused by photo-ionization, as well as by the impact ionization with electrons accelerated by a transverse electric field induced by the shock front in the incident flow of a neutral gas. The concept of shock wave ionization stability, being basic in the theory of ionizing shock waves in a magnetic field, is introduced. The ionizing shock wave structures are shown to transform from the GD regime at a low shock velocity to the MHD regime at an enhanced intensity of the shock wave. The abruptness of such a transition is determined by precursor photo-ionization. (author)
Wave packet revivals in a graphene quantum dot in a perpendicular magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torres, J. J.; Romera, E.
2010-01-01
We study the time evolution of localized wave packets in graphene quantum dots in a perpendicular magnetic field, focusing on the quasiclassical and revival periodicities, for different values of the magnetic field intensities in a theoretical framework. We have considered contributions of the two inequivalent points in the Brillouin zone. The revival time has been found as an observable that shows the break valley degeneracy.
Scalar field vacuum expectation value induced by gravitational wave background
Jones, Preston; McDougall, Patrick; Ragsdale, Michael; Singleton, Douglas
2018-06-01
We show that a massless scalar field in a gravitational wave background can develop a non-zero vacuum expectation value. We draw comparisons to the generation of a non-zero vacuum expectation value for a scalar field in the Higgs mechanism and with the dynamical Casimir vacuum. We propose that this vacuum expectation value, generated by a gravitational wave, can be connected with particle production from gravitational waves and may have consequences for the early Universe where scalar fields are thought to play an important role.
Globally linked vortex clusters in trapped wave fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crasovan, Lucian-Cornel; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel; Torres, Juan P.; Torner, Lluis; Perez-Garcia, Victor M.; Mihalache, Dumitru
2002-01-01
We put forward the existence of a rich variety of fully stationary vortex structures, termed H clusters, made of an increasing number of vortices nested in paraxial wave fields confined by trapping potentials. However, we show that the constituent vortices are globally linked, rather than products of independent vortices. Also, they always feature a monopolar global wave front and exist in nonlinear systems, such as the Bose-Einstein condensates. Clusters with multipolar global wave fronts are nonstationary or, at best, flipping
Radiation of Electron in the Field of Plane Light Wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zelinsky, A.; Drebot, I.V.; Grigorev, Yu.N.; Zvonareva, O.D.; Tatchyn, R.
2006-01-01
Results of integration of a Lorentz equation for a relativistic electron moving in the field of running, plane, linear polarized electromagnetic wave are presented in the paper. It is shown that electron velocities in the field of the wave are almost periodic functions of time. For calculations of angular spectrum of electron radiation intensity expansion of the electromagnetic field in a wave zone into generalized Fourier series was used. Expressions for the radiation intensity spectrum are presented in the paper. Derived results are illustrated for electron and laser beam parameters of NSC KIPT X-ray generator NESTOR. It is shown that for low intensity of the interacting electromagnetic wave the results of energy and angular spectrum calculations in the frame of classical electrodynamics completely coincide with calculation results produced using quantum electrodynamics. Simultaneously, derived expressions give possibilities to investigate dependence of energy and angular Compton radiation spectrum on phase of interaction and the interacting wave intensity
Standing Wave Field Distribution in Graded-Index Antireflection Coatings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongxiang Deng
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Standing wave field distributions in three classic types of graded-index antireflection coatings are studied. These graded-index antireflection coatings are designed at wavelengths from 200 nm to 1200 nm, which is the working wavelength range of high energy laser system for inertial-fusion research. The standing wave field distributions in these coatings are obtained by the numerical calculation of electromagnetic wave equation. We find that standing wave field distributions in these three graded-index anti-reflection coatings are quite different. For the coating with linear index distribution, intensity of standing wave field decreases periodically from surface to substrate with narrow oscillation range and the period is proportional to the incident wavelength. For the coating with exponential index distribution, intensity of standing wave field decreases periodically from surface to substrate with large oscillation range and the period is also proportional to the incident wavelength. Finally, for the coating with polynomial index, intensity of standing wave field is quickly falling down from surface to substrate without an obvious oscillation. We find that the intensity of standing wave field in the interface between coating and substrate for linear index, exponential index and polynomial index are about 0.7, 0.9 and 0.7, respectively. Our results indicate that the distributions of standing wave field in linear index coating and polynomial index coating are better than that in exponential index coating for the application in high energy laser system. Moreover, we find that the transmittance of linear index coating and polynomial index coating are also better than exponential index coating at the designed wavelength range. Present simulation results are useful for the design and application of graded-index antireflection coating in high energy laser system.
Electron-Bernstein Waves in Inhomogeneous Magnetic Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Armstrong, R. J.; Frederiksen, Å.; Pécseli, Hans
1984-01-01
The propagation of small amplitude electron-Bernstein waves in different inhomogeneous magnetic field geometries is investigated experimentally. Wave propagation towards both cut-offs and resonances are considered. The experimental results are supported by a numerical ray-tracing analysis. Spatia...
Benchmark Modeling of the Near-Field and Far-Field Wave Effects of Wave Energy Arrays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rhinefrank, Kenneth E; Haller, Merrick C; Ozkan-Haller, H Tuba
2013-01-26
This project is an industry-led partnership between Columbia Power Technologies and Oregon State University that will perform benchmark laboratory experiments and numerical modeling of the near-field and far-field impacts of wave scattering from an array of wave energy devices. These benchmark experimental observations will help to fill a gaping hole in our present knowledge of the near-field effects of multiple, floating wave energy converters and are a critical requirement for estimating the potential far-field environmental effects of wave energy arrays. The experiments will be performed at the Hinsdale Wave Research Laboratory (Oregon State University) and will utilize an array of newly developed Buoys' that are realistic, lab-scale floating power converters. The array of Buoys will be subjected to realistic, directional wave forcing (1:33 scale) that will approximate the expected conditions (waves and water depths) to be found off the Central Oregon Coast. Experimental observations will include comprehensive in-situ wave and current measurements as well as a suite of novel optical measurements. These new optical capabilities will include imaging of the 3D wave scattering using a binocular stereo camera system, as well as 3D device motion tracking using a newly acquired LED system. These observing systems will capture the 3D motion history of individual Buoys as well as resolve the 3D scattered wave field; thus resolving the constructive and destructive wave interference patterns produced by the array at high resolution. These data combined with the device motion tracking will provide necessary information for array design in order to balance array performance with the mitigation of far-field impacts. As a benchmark data set, these data will be an important resource for testing of models for wave/buoy interactions, buoy performance, and far-field effects on wave and current patterns due to the presence of arrays. Under the proposed project we will initiate
High energy QCD at NLO: from light-cone wave function to JIMWLK evolution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lublinsky, Michael [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev,Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Physics Department, University of Connecticut,2152 Hillside Road, Storrs, CT 06269-3046 (United States); Mulian, Yair [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev,Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)
2017-05-17
Soft components of the light cone wave-function of a fast moving projectile hadron is computed in perturbation theory to the third order in QCD coupling constant. At this order, the Fock space of the soft modes consists of one-gluon, two-gluon, and a quark-antiquark states. The hard component of the wave-function acts as a non-Abelian background field for the soft modes and is represented by a valence charge distribution that accounts for non-linear density effects in the projectile. When scattered off a dense target, the diagonal element of the S-matrix reveals the Hamiltonian of high energy evolution, the JIMWLK Hamiltonian. This way we provide a new direct derivation of the JIMWLK Hamiltonian at the Next-to-Leading Order.
Detection of sinkholes or anomalies using full seismic wave fields.
2013-04-01
This research presents an application of two-dimensional (2-D) time-domain waveform tomography for detection of embedded sinkholes and anomalies. The measured seismic surface wave fields were inverted using a full waveform inversion (FWI) technique, ...
Carcione, José M
2014-01-01
Authored by the internationally renowned José M. Carcione, Wave Fields in Real Media: Wave Propagation in Anisotropic, Anelastic, Porous and Electromagnetic Media examines the differences between an ideal and a real description of wave propagation, starting with the introduction of relevant stress-strain relations. The combination of this relation and the equations of momentum conservation lead to the equation of motion. The differential formulation is written in terms of memory variables, and Biot's theory is used to describe wave propagation in porous media. For each rheology, a plane-wave analysis is performed in order to understand the physics of wave propagation. This book contains a review of the main direct numerical methods for solving the equation of motion in the time and space domains. The emphasis is on geophysical applications for seismic exploration, but researchers in the fields of earthquake seismology, rock acoustics, and material science - including many branches of acoustics of fluids and ...
Ionizing gas breakdown waves in strong electric fields.
Klingbeil, R.; Tidman, D. A.; Fernsler, R. F.
1972-01-01
A previous analysis by Albright and Tidman (1972) of the structure of an ionizing potential wave driven through a dense gas by a strong electric field is extended to include atomic structure details of the background atoms and radiative effects, especially, photoionization. It is found that photoionization plays an important role in avalanche propagation. Velocities, electron densities, and temperatures are presented as a function of electric field for both negative and positive breakdown waves in nitrogen.
Attosecond Electron Wave Packet Dynamics in Strong Laser Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnsson, P.; Remetter, T.; Varju, K.; L'Huillier, A.; Lopez-Martens, R.; Valentin, C.; Balcou, Ph.; Kazamias, S.; Mauritsson, J.; Gaarde, M. B.; Schafer, K. J.; Mairesse, Y.; Wabnitz, H.; Salieres, P.
2005-01-01
We use a train of sub-200 attosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses with energies just above the ionization threshold in argon to create a train of temporally localized electron wave packets. We study the energy transfer from a strong infrared (IR) laser field to the ionized electrons as a function of the delay between the XUV and IR fields. When the wave packets are born at the zero crossings of the IR field, a significant amount of energy (∼20 eV) is transferred from the field to the electrons. This results in dramatically enhanced above-threshold ionization in conditions where the IR field alone does not induce any significant ionization. Because both the energy and duration of the wave packets can be varied independently of the IR laser, they are valuable tools for studying and controlling strong-field processes
Geometric models of nested field wave forms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winters, D.
1984-01-01
The authors start with two dimensions. ''Maybe there's this thing we ought to call a 'compressible medium' that seems to be around here''. Maybe it's air or ether. There seems to be this compressible medium which has this quality which is that it conveys inertia momentum. And it is compressible. So, given that, and given not much else, they ought to be able to build things like atomic tables and fundamental concepts of physics. The idea is that the principles of creation are principles of superposition of wave shapes. The suggestion is that wave shape archetypally, naturally builds geometry, and that is the clue to the information structure of atoms and molecules and people
Electric field vector measurements in a surface ionization wave discharge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldberg, Benjamin M; Adamovich, Igor V; Lempert, Walter R; Böhm, Patrick S; Czarnetzki, Uwe
2015-01-01
This work presents the results of time-resolved electric field vector measurements in a short pulse duration (60 ns full width at half maximum), surface ionization wave discharge in hydrogen using a picosecond four-wave mixing technique. Electric field vector components are measured separately, using pump and Stokes beams linearly polarized in the horizontal and vertical planes, and a polarizer placed in front of the infrared detector. The time-resolved electric field vector is measured at three different locations across the discharge gap, and for three different heights above the alumina ceramic dielectric surface, ∼100, 600, and 1100 μm (total of nine different locations). The results show that after breakdown, the discharge develops as an ionization wave propagating along the dielectric surface at an average speed of 1 mm ns −1 . The surface ionization wave forms near the high voltage electrode, close to the dielectric surface (∼100 μm). The wave front is characterized by significant overshoot of both vertical and horizontal electric field vector components. Behind the wave front, the vertical field component is rapidly reduced. As the wave propagates along the dielectric surface, it also extends further away from the dielectric surface, up to ∼1 mm near the grounded electrode. The horizontal field component behind the wave front remains quite significant, to sustain the electron current toward the high voltage electrode. After the wave reaches the grounded electrode, the horizontal field component experiences a secondary rise in the quasi-dc discharge, where it sustains the current along the near-surface plasma sheet. The measurement results indicate presence of a cathode layer formed near the grounded electrode with significant cathode voltage fall, ≈3 kV, due to high current density in the discharge. The peak reduced electric field in the surface ionization wave is 85–95 Td, consistent with dc breakdown field estimated from the Paschen
Subwavelength position measurements with running-wave driving fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Evers, Joerg [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Qamar, Sajid [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Centre for Quantum Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan)
2011-08-15
Subwavelength position measurement of quantum particles is discussed. Our setup is based on a closed-loop driving-field configuration, which enforces a sensitivity of the particle dynamics to the phases of the applied fields. Thus, running wave fields are sufficient, avoiding limitations associated with standing-wave-based localization schemes. Reversing the directions of the driving laser fields switches between different magnification levels for the position determination. This allows us to optimize the localization, and at the same time eliminates the need for additional classical measurements common to all previous localization schemes based on spatial periodicity.
Wave functions, evolution equations and evolution kernels form light-ray operators of QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, D.; Robaschik, D.; Geyer, B.; Dittes, F.M.; Horejsi, J.
1994-01-01
The widely used nonperturbative wave functions and distribution functions of QCD are determined as matrix elements of light-ray operators. These operators appear as large momentum limit of non-local hardron operators or as summed up local operators in light-cone expansions. Nonforward one-particle matrix elements of such operators lead to new distribution amplitudes describing both hadrons simultaneously. These distribution functions depend besides other variables on two scaling variables. They are applied for the description of exclusive virtual Compton scattering in the Bjorken region near forward direction and the two meson production process. The evolution equations for these distribution amplitudes are derived on the basis of the renormalization group equation of the considered operators. This includes that also the evolution kernels follow from the anomalous dimensions of these operators. Relations between different evolution kernels (especially the Altarelli-Parisi and the Brodsky-Lepage kernels) are derived and explicitly checked for the existing two-loop calculations of QCD. Technical basis of these resluts are support and analytically properties of the anomalous dimensions of light-ray operators obtained with the help of the α-representation of Green's functions. (orig.)
Magnetic field amplification in interstellar collisionless shock waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chevalier, R.A.
1977-01-01
It is stated that it is commonly assumed that a simple compression of the magnetic field occurs in interstellar shock waves. Recent space observations of the Earth's bow shock have shown that turbulent amplification of the magnetic field can occur in a collisionless shock. It is shown here that radio observations of Tycho's supernova remnant indicate the presence of a shock wave with such magnetic field amplification. There is at present no theory for the microinstabilities that give rise to turbulent amplification of the magnetic field. Despite the lack of theoretical understanding the possibility of field amplification in interstellar shock waves is here considered. In Tycho's supernova remnant there is evidence for the presence of a collisionless shock, and this is discussed. On the basis of observations of the Earth's bow shock, it is expected that turbulent magnetic field amplification occurs in the shock wave of this remnant, and this is supported by radio observations of the remnant. Consideration is given as to what extent the magnetic field is amplified in the shock wave on the basis of the non-thermal radio flux. (U.K.)
Droplets bouncing on a standing wave field
Pucci, Giuseppe; Tambasco, Lucas; Harris, Daniel; Bush, John
2017-11-01
A liquid bath subject to a vertical vibration becomes unstable to standing surface waves at a critical vibrational acceleration known as the Faraday threshold. We examine the behavior of a millimetric droplet bouncing on the surface of a quasi-one-dimensional fluid channel above the Faraday threshold. We identify a sequence of bifurcations that occurs as the vibrational acceleration is increased progressively, ultimately leading to the erratic, diffusive motion of the droplet along the length of the channel. A simple theoretical model is presented. This work was supported by the US National Science Foundation through Grants CMMI-1333242 and DMS-1614043.
Atomic Interference in Standing Wave Fields
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Berman, Paul
2001-01-01
... on (i) a conical lens that can he used to focus atoms to a single spot, (ii) a multi-color field geometry that can be used to produce high-harmonic, sinusoidal, spatial matter gratings in a single atomic-field interaction zone, (iii...
Gravitational waves from self-ordering scalar fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fenu, Elisa; Durrer, Ruth; Figueroa, Daniel G.; García-Bellido, Juan
2009-01-01
Gravitational waves were copiously produced in the early Universe whenever the processes taking place were sufficiently violent. The spectra of several of these gravitational wave backgrounds on subhorizon scales have been extensively studied in the literature. In this paper we analyze the shape and amplitude of the gravitational wave spectrum on scales which are superhorizon at the time of production. Such gravitational waves are expected from the self ordering of randomly oriented scalar fields which can be present during a thermal phase transition or during preheating after hybrid inflation. We find that, if the gravitational wave source acts only during a small fraction of the Hubble time, the gravitational wave spectrum at frequencies lower than the expansion rate at the time of production behaves as Ω GW (f) ∝ f 3 with an amplitude much too small to be observable by gravitational wave observatories like LIGO, LISA or BBO. On the other hand, if the source is active for a much longer time, until a given mode which is initially superhorizon (kη * 1, we find that the gravitational wave energy density is frequency independent, i.e. scale invariant. Moreover, its amplitude for a GUT scale scenario turns out to be within the range and sensitivity of BBO and marginally detectable by LIGO and LISA. This new gravitational wave background can compete with the one generated during inflation, and distinguishing both may require extra information
Charge symmetry of electron wave functions in a quantized electromagnetic wave field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fedorov, M V [AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.
1975-01-01
An attempt to clear up the reasons of the electron charge symmetry violation in the quantum wave field was made in this article. For this purpose the connection between the Dirac equation and the electron wave functions in the external field with the exact equation of quantum electrodynamics is established. Attention is paid to the fact that a number of equations for single-electron wave functions can be used in the framework of the same assumptions. It permits the construction of the charge-symmetric solutions in particular.
Near-field photon wave mechanics in the Lorenz gauge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keller, Ole
2007-01-01
Optical near-field interactions are studied theoretically in the perspective of photon wave mechanics paying particular attention to the dynamics in the wave-vector time domain. A unitary transformation is used to replace the scalar and longitudinal photon variables by so-called near-field and gauge photon variables. Dynamical equations are established for these types of photon variables, and it is shown that these equations are invariant against gauge transformations within the Lorenz gauge. The near-field photon is absent in the free-field limit, and the gauge photon can be eliminated by a suitable gauge transformation. Implicit solutions for the near-field, gauge, and transverse photon variables are obtained and discussed. The general theory is applied to an investigation of transverse photon propagation in a uniform solid-state plasma dominated by the diamagnetic field-matter interaction. It is found that the diamagnetic response can be incorporated in a quantum mechanical wave equation for a massive transverse photon. The Compton wave number of the massive photon equals the plasma wave number of the electron system. A dynamical equation describing the emission of a massive transverse photon from a mesoscopic source embedded in the plasma is finally established
The Evolution of the Earth's Magnetic Field.
Bloxham, Jeremy; Gubbins, David
1989-01-01
Describes the change of earth's magnetic field at the boundary between the outer core and the mantle. Measurement techniques used during the last 300 years are considered. Discusses the theories and research for explaining the field change. (YP)
Effects of Radial Electric Fields on ICRF Waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phillips, C.K.; Hosea, J.C.; Ono, M.; Wilson, J.R.
2001-01-01
Equilibrium considerations infer that large localized radial electric fields are associated with internal transport barrier structures in tokamaks and other toroidal magnetic confinement configurations. In this paper, the effects of an equilibrium electric field on fast magnetosonic wave propagation are considered in the context of a cold plasma model
Rarita-Schwinger field and multicomponent wave equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaloshin, A.E.; Lomov, V.P.
2011-01-01
We suggest a simple method to solve a wave equation for Rarita-Schwinger field without additional constraints. This method based on the use of off-shell projection operators allows one to diagonalize spin-1/2 sector of the field
Alfven-wave current drive and magnetic field stochasticity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Litwin, C.; Hegna, C.C.
1993-01-01
Propagating Alfven waves can generate parallel current through an alpha effect. In resistive MHD however, the dynamo field is proportional to resistivity and as such cannot drive significant currents for realistic parameters. In the search for an enhancement of this effect the authors investigate the role of magnetic field stochasticity. They show that the presence of a stochastic magnetic field, either spontaneously generated by instabilities or induced externally, can enhance the alpha effect of the wave. This enhancement is caused by an increased wave dissipation due to both current diffusion and filamentation. For the range of parameters of current drive experiments at Phaedrus-T tokamak, a moderate field stochasticity leads to significant modifications in the loop voltage
Evolution of coronal and interplanetary magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levine, R.H.
1980-01-01
Numerous studies have provided the detailed information necessary for a substantive synthesis of the empirical relation between the magnetic field of the sun and the structure of the interplanetary field. The author points out the latest techniques and studies of the global solar magnetic field and its relation to the interplanetary field. The potential to overcome most of the limitations of present methods of analysis exists in techniques of modelling the coronal magnetic field using observed solar data. Such empirical models are, in principle, capable of establishing the connection between a given heliospheric point and its magnetically-connected photospheric point, as well as the physical basis for the connection. (Auth.)
Historical Evolution of the Field View and Textbook Accounts.
Pocovi, M. Cecilia; Finley, Fred N.
2003-01-01
Analyzes how two electromagnetism textbooks approach the concept of electric field. Uses historical evolution of the field representation. Indicates that one textbook mixes up the historical and pedagogical reasons for the introduction of the concept of field while the other one presents a sketch that might lead students to understand the field…
The genesis and evolution of the African Field Epidemiology Network
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The genesis and evolution of the African Field Epidemiology Network. David Mukanga, Mufuta Tshimanga, Frederick Wurapa, David Serwada, George Pariyo, Fred Wabwire-Mangen, Sheba Gitta, Stella Chungong, Murray Trostle, Peter Nsubuga ...
Rogue waves and rational solutions of a (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhaqilao,
2013-01-01
A simple symbolic computation approach for finding the rogue waves and rational solutions to the nonlinear evolution equation is proposed. It turns out that many rational solutions with real and complex forms of a (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation are obtained. Some features of rogue waves and rational solutions are graphically discussed. -- Highlights: •A simple symbolic computation approach for finding the rational solutions to the NEE is proposed. •Some rogue waves and rational solutions with real and complex forms of a (3+1)-D NEE are obtained. •Some features of rogue waves are graphically discussed
Rogue waves and rational solutions of a (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhaqilao,, E-mail: zhaqilao@imnu.edu.cn
2013-12-06
A simple symbolic computation approach for finding the rogue waves and rational solutions to the nonlinear evolution equation is proposed. It turns out that many rational solutions with real and complex forms of a (3+1)-dimensional nonlinear evolution equation are obtained. Some features of rogue waves and rational solutions are graphically discussed. -- Highlights: •A simple symbolic computation approach for finding the rational solutions to the NEE is proposed. •Some rogue waves and rational solutions with real and complex forms of a (3+1)-D NEE are obtained. •Some features of rogue waves are graphically discussed.
On the pressure field of nonlinear standing water waves
Schwartz, L. W.
1980-01-01
The pressure field produced by two dimensional nonlinear time and space periodic standing waves was calculated as a series expansion in the wave height. The high order series was summed by the use of Pade approximants. Calculations included the pressure variation at great depth, which was considered to be a likely cause of microseismic activity, and the pressure distribution on a vertical barrier or breakwater.
The wave properties of matter and the zeropoint radiation field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pena, L. de la; Cetto, A.M.
1994-01-01
The origin of the wave properties of matter is discussed from the point of view of stochastic electrodynamics. A nonrelativistic model of a changed particle with an effective structure embedded in the random zeropoint radiation field reveals that the field induces a high-frequency vibration on the particle; internal consistency of the theory fixes the frequency of this jittering at mc 2 /h. The particle is therefore assumed to interact intensely with stationary zeropoint waves of this frequency as seen from its proper frame of reference; such waves, identified here as de Broglie's phase waves, give rise to a modulated wave in the laboratory frame, with de Broglie's wavelength and phase velocity equal to the particle velocity. The time-independent equation that describes this modulated wave is shown to be the stationary Schroedinger equation (or the Klein-Gordon equation in the relativistic version). In a heuristic analysis applied to simple periodic cases, the quantization rules are recovered from the assumption that for a particle in a stationary state there must correspond a stationary modulation. Along an independent and complementary line of reasoning, an equation for the probability amplitude in configuration space for a particle under a general potential V(x) is constructed, and it is shown that under conditions derived from stochastic electrodynamics it reduces to Schroedinger's equation. This equation reflects therefore the dual nature of the quantum particles, by describing simultaneously the corresponding modulated wave and the ensemble of particles
Electromagnetic waves in optical fibres in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorelik, V S; Burdanova, M G
2016-01-01
A new method is reported of recording the secondary radiation of luminescent substances based on the use of capillary fibres of great length. Theoretical analysis of the dispersion curves of electromagnetic radiation in capillary fibres doped with erbium ions Er 3+ has been established. The Lorentz model is used for describing the dispersion properties of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous medium doped with rare-earth ions. The dispersion dependencies of polariton and axion–polariton waves in erbium nitrate hydrate are determined on the basis of the model of the interaction between electromagnetic waves and the resonance electronic states of erbium ions in the absence and presence of a magnetic field. (paper)
Quantum field theory in a gravitational shock wave background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimcik, C.
1988-01-01
A scalar massless non-interacting quantum field theory on an arbitrary gravitational shock wave background is exactly solved. S-matrix and expectation values of the energy-momentum tensor are computed for an arbitrarily polarized sourceless gravitational shock wave and for a homogeneous infinite planar shell shock wave, all performed in any number of space-time dimensions. Expectation values of the energy density in scattering states exhibit a singularity which lies exactly at the location of the curvature singularity found in the infinite shell collision. (orig.)
New travelling wave solutions for nonlinear stochastic evolution ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
expansion method to look for travelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations. It is interesting to mention that, in this method the sign of the parameters can be used to judge the numbers and types of travelling wave solutions.
Wave and particle evolution downstream of quasi-perpendicular shocks
Mckean, M. E.; Omidi, N.; Krauss-Varban, D.; Karimabadi, H.
1995-01-01
Distributions of ions heated in quasi-perpendicular bow shocks have large perpendicular temperature anisotropies that provide free energy for the growth of Alfven ion cyclotron (AIC) and mirror waves. These modes are often obsreved in the Earth's magnetosheath. Using two-dimensional hybrid simulations, we show that these waves are produced near the shock front and convected downstream rather than being produced locally downstream. The wave activity reduces the proton anisotropy to magnetosheath levels within a few tens of gyroradii of the shock but takes significantly longer to reduce the anisotropy of He(++) ions. The waves are primarily driven by proton anisotropy and the dynamics of the helium ions is controlled by the proton waves. Downstream of high Mach number shocks, mirror waves compete effectively with AIC waves. Downstream of low Mach number shocks, AIC waves dominate.
Langmuir field structures favored in wave collapse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, P.A.; Wouters, M.J.; Broderick, N.G.
1996-01-01
Study of Langmuir collapse thresholds shows that they have little polarization dependence and that moving packets have the lowest thresholds in the undamped case. However, incorporation of damping into the density response inhibits collapse of packets moving at more than a small fraction of the sound speed. Investigation of energy transfer to packets localized in density wells emdash the nucleation process emdash shows that at most a few trapped states can exist and that energy transfer is most effective when there is a single barely-trapped state. Coupled with an argument that closely packed wave packets have lower collapse thresholds, this argument yields an estimate of the number density of localized nucleating states in a turbulent plasma. It also leads to a simple and direct semiquantitative estimate of the collapse threshold. All these results are in accord with previous numerical simulations incorporating ion-sound damping, which show a preponderance of slow-moving or stationary packets with little or no intrinsic polarization dependence of thresholds. Likewise, the number densities obtained are in good agreement with simulation values, and the simple estimate of the threshold is semiquantitatively correct. The extent of the agreement supports the nucleation scenario with close-packed nucleation sites in the turbulent state. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Evolution of a sediment wave in an experimental channel
Thomas E. Lisle; James E. Pizzuto; Hiroshi Ikeda; Fujiko Iseya; Yoshinori Kodama
1997-01-01
Abstract - The routing of bed material through channels is poorly understood. We approach the problem by observing and modeling the fate of a low-amplitude sediment wave of poorly sorted sand that we introduced into an experimental channel transporting sediment identical to that of the introduced wave. The wave essentially dispersed upstream and downstream without...
Stable Alfven-wave dynamo action in the reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Werley, K.A.
1984-01-01
Previous theoretical work has suggested that Alfven waves may be related to the anomalous toroidal magnetic flux generation and extended (over classical expectations) discharge times observed in the reversed-field pinch. This thesis examines the dynamo action of stable Alfven waves as a means of generating toroidal flux. Recent advances in linear resistive MHD stability analysis are used to calculate the quasi-linear dynamo mean electromotive force of Alfven waves. This emf is incorporated into a one-dimensional transport and mean-field evolution code. The changing equilibrium is then fed back to the stability code to complete a computational framework that self-consistently evaluates a dynamic plasma dynamo. This technique is readily extendable to other plasmas in which dynamic stable model action is of interest. Such plasmas include Alfven wave current-drive and plasma heating for fusion devices, as well as astrophysical and geophysical dynamo systems. This study also contains extensive studies of resistive Alfven wave properties. This includes behavior versus spectral location, magnetic Reynolds number and wave number
Pilot-wave approaches to quantum field theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Struyve, Ward, E-mail: Ward.Struyve@fys.kuleuven.be [Institute of Theoretical Physics, K.U.Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200D, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Institute of Philosophy, K.U.Leuven, Kardinaal Mercierplein 2, B-3000 Leuven (Belgium)
2011-07-08
The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of recent work on pilot-wave approaches to quantum field theory. In such approaches, systems are not only described by their wave function, as in standard quantum theory, but also by some additional variables. In the non-relativistic pilot-wave theory of deBroglie and Bohm those variables are particle positions. In the context of quantum field theory, there are two natural choices, namely particle positions and fields. The incorporation of those variables makes it possible to provide an objective description of nature in which rather ambiguous notions such as 'measurement' and 'observer' play no fundamental role. As such, the theory is free of the conceptual difficulties, such as the measurement problem, that plague standard quantum theory.
Wave field restoration using three-dimensional Fourier filtering method.
Kawasaki, T; Takai, Y; Ikuta, T; Shimizu, R
2001-11-01
A wave field restoration method in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was mathematically derived based on a three-dimensional (3D) image formation theory. Wave field restoration using this method together with spherical aberration correction was experimentally confirmed in through-focus images of amorphous tungsten thin film, and the resolution of the reconstructed phase image was successfully improved from the Scherzer resolution limit to the information limit. In an application of this method to a crystalline sample, the surface structure of Au(110) was observed in a profile-imaging mode. The processed phase image showed quantitatively the atomic relaxation of the topmost layer.
Identification of wind fields for wave modeling near Qatar
Nayak, Sashikant; Balan Sobhana, Sandeepan; Panchang, Vijay
2016-04-01
Due to the development of coastal and offshore infrastructure in and around the Arabian Gulf, a large semi-enclosed sea, knowledge of met-ocean factors like prevailing wind systems, wind generated waves, and currents etc. are of great importance. Primarily it is important to identify the wind fields that are used as forcing functions for wave and circulation models for hindcasting and forecasting purposes. The present study investigates the effects of using two sources of wind-fields on the modeling of wind-waves in the Arabian Gulf, in particular near the coastal regions of Qatar. Two wind sources are considered here, those obtained from ECMWF and those generated by us using the WRF model. The wave model SWAN was first forced with the 6 hourly ERA Interim daily winds (from ECMWF) having spatial resolution of 0.125°. For the second option, wind fields were generated by us using the mesoscale wind model (WRF) with a high spatial resolution (0.1°) at every 30 minute intervals. The simulations were carried out for a period of two months (7th October-7th December, 2015) during which measurements were available from two moored buoys (deployed and operated by the Qatar Meteorological Department), one in the north of Qatar ("Qatar North", in water depth of 58.7 m) and other in the south ("Shiraouh Island", in water depth of 16.64 m). This period included a high-sea event on 11-12th of October, recorded by the two buoys where the significant wave heights (Hs) reached as high as 2.9 m (i.e. max wave height H ~ 5.22 m) and 1.9 (max wave height H ~ 3.4 m) respectively. Model results were compared with the data for this period. The scatter index (SI) of the Hs simulated using the WRF wind fields and the observed Hs was found to be about 30% and 32% for the two buoys (total period). The observed Hs were generally reproduced but there was consistent underestimation. (Maximum 27% for the high-sea event). For the Hs obtained with ERA interim wind fields, the underestimation was
On field line resonances of hydromagnetic Alfven waves in dipole magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Liu; Cowley, S.C.
1989-07-01
Using the dipole magnetic field model, we have developed the theory of field line resonances of hydromagnetic Alfven waves in general magnetic field geometries. In this model, the Alfven speed thus varies both perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field. Specifically, it is found that field line resonances do persist in the dipole model. The corresponding singular solutions near the resonant field lines as well as the natural definition of standing shear Alfven eigenfunctions have also been systematically derived. 11 refs
Electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves in a nonuniform magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cartier, S.L.; D'Angelo, N.; Merlino, R.L.
1985-01-01
The properties of electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves excited in a single-ended cesium Q machine with a nonuniform magnetic field are described. The electrostatic ion-cyclotron waves are generated in the usual manner by drawing an electron current to a small exciter disk immersed in the plasma column. The parallel and perpendicular (to B) wavelengths and phase velocities are determined by mapping out two-dimensional wave phase contours. The wave frequency f depends on the location of the exciter disk in the nonuniform magnetic field, and propagating waves are only observed in the region where f> or approx. =f/sub c/i, where f/sub c/i is the local ion-cyclotron frequency. The parallel phase velocity is in the direction of the electron drift. From measurements of the plasma properties along the axis, it is inferred that the electron drift velocity is not uniform along the entire current channel. The evidence suggests that the waves begin being excited at that axial position where the critical drift velocity is first exceeded, consistent with a current-driven excitation mechanism
Gravitational waves from self-ordering scalar fields
Fenu, Elisa; Durrer, Ruth; Garcia-Bellido, Juan
2009-01-01
Gravitational waves were copiously produced in the early Universe whenever the processes taking place were sufficiently violent. The spectra of several of these gravitational wave backgrounds on subhorizon scales have been extensively studied in the literature. In this paper we analyze the shape and amplitude of the gravitational wave spectrum on scales which are superhorizon at the time of production. Such gravitational waves are expected from the self ordering of randomly oriented scalar fields which can be present during a thermal phase transition or during preheating after hybrid inflation. We find that, if the gravitational wave source acts only during a small fraction of the Hubble time, the gravitational wave spectrum at frequencies lower than the expansion rate at the time of production behaves as $\\Omega_{\\rm GW}(f) \\propto f^3$ with an amplitude much too small to be observable by gravitational wave observatories like LIGO, LISA or BBO. On the other hand, if the source is active for a much longer tim...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tao Fuzhen; He Zhiqiang
1983-01-01
If the effect of gravitational wave on electromagnetic fields is used, and the gravitational wave is detected through the changes in electromagnetic fields, one can expect that the difficulty about the weakness of the signal of mechanical receiver can be avoided. Because of the effect of gravitational wave, the electromagnetic field emits energy, therefore, the energy which is detected will be higher than that by the mechanical receiver. The authors consider the Maxwell equations on the curved spacetime. They give solutions when the detecting fields are a free electromagnetic wave, standing wave and a constant field. (Auth.)
The Evolution of the Design Management Field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Erichsen, Pia Geisby; Christensen, Poul Rind
2013-01-01
Based on a literature survey of the development of concepts supplemented by a selective literature review for the years 2000 to 2010, this article aims to trace the dynamic development of the field of design management – a cross-disciplinary research field seeking to establish itself in its own r...... right. The framework of this research is evolutionary theory, and our analysis are based on two prime design management journals followed by a comparative review two adjunct journals The Design Journal and Creativity and Innovation Management. The challenge is to avoid being overwhelmed...
Elastic-wave generation in the evolution of displacement peaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhukov, V.P.; Boldin, A.A.
1988-01-01
This paper investigated the character of elastic shock wave generation and damping in irradiated materials along with the possibility of their long-range influence on the structure of the irradiated materials. Dispersion at the elastoplastic stage of atomic displacement peak development was taken into account. The three-dimensional nonlinear wave was described by an equation in the approximation of weak nonlinearity and weak spatial dispersion. Numerical modeling of the propagation of a plane shock wave in a crystal lattice was conducted. The distribution of the density and mass velocity of the material at the instant of complete damping of the plastic shock-wave component was determined. The appearance of solitary waves (solitons) at large amplitudes, localized in space, which propagate without distortion to arbitrary distances and retain their amplitude and form in interacting with one another, was investigated. Some physical consequences of the influence of solitary waves on the irradiated materials were considered
The Evolution and Revival Structure of Localized Quantum Wave Packets
Bluhm, Robert; Kostelecky, Alan; Porter, James
1995-01-01
Localized quantum wave packets can be produced in a variety of physical systems and are the subject of much current research in atomic, molecular, chemical, and condensed-matter physics. They are particularly well suited for studying the classical limit of a quantum-mechanical system. The motion of a localized quantum wave packet initially follows the corresponding classical motion. However, in most cases the quantum wave packet spreads and undergoes a series of collapses and revivals. We pre...
Evolution of Neutron Star Magnetic Fields
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
in nuclei. The neutrons are expected to form a 3P superfluid and the protons a 1S ... crust are expected to form a lattice; the electrons are free and highly degenerate, .... the reduced magnetic fields in neutron stars processed in binaries,.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Intrator, T.; Meassick, S.; Browning, J.; Majeski, R.; Ferron, J.R.; Hershkowitz, N.
1989-01-01
It is shown that the predictions of a numerical code (ANTENA) and the data of wave field measurements in the Phaedrus-B tandem mirror are consistent (±25%) for right-handed (B-vector - ) wave fields and less so (±40%) for left-handed (B-vector + ) wave fields in the plasma core, and that they disagree for B-vector + fields near the column edge. Shorting out or reduction of the wave azimuthal electric fields by limiters is the probable cause of this discrepancy. The ICRF fluctuating wave B-vector fields are shown as |B-vector| contour maps in the r-z plane, where the B-vector + data peak at a smaller radius than predicted. The waves are characterized by different dominant axial wave numbers for the left- and right-handed circularly polarized fields. (author). 28 refs, 20 figs, 1 tab
Janssen, T.T.; Herbers, T.H.C.; Battjes, J.A.
2008-01-01
We present a stochastic model for the evolution of random ocean surface waves in coastal waters with complex seafloor topography. First, we derive a deterministic coupled-mode model based on a forward scattering approximation of the nonlinear mild slope equation; this model describes the evolution
Nonlinear wave chaos: statistics of second harmonic fields.
Zhou, Min; Ott, Edward; Antonsen, Thomas M; Anlage, Steven M
2017-10-01
Concepts from the field of wave chaos have been shown to successfully predict the statistical properties of linear electromagnetic fields in electrically large enclosures. The Random Coupling Model (RCM) describes these properties by incorporating both universal features described by Random Matrix Theory and the system-specific features of particular system realizations. In an effort to extend this approach to the nonlinear domain, we add an active nonlinear frequency-doubling circuit to an otherwise linear wave chaotic system, and we measure the statistical properties of the resulting second harmonic fields. We develop an RCM-based model of this system as two linear chaotic cavities coupled by means of a nonlinear transfer function. The harmonic field strengths are predicted to be the product of two statistical quantities and the nonlinearity characteristics. Statistical results from measurement-based calculation, RCM-based simulation, and direct experimental measurements are compared and show good agreement over many decades of power.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Ono, Kouichi
2003-01-01
The electromagnetic fields and plasma parameters have been studied in an azimuthally symmetric surface wave-excited plasma (SWP) source, by using a two-dimensional numerical analysis based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) approximation to Maxwell's equations self-consistently coupled with a fluid model for plasma evolution. The FDTD/fluid hybrid simulation was performed for different gas pressures in Ar and different microwave powers at 2.45 GHz, showing that the surface waves (SWs) occur along the plasma-dielectric interfaces to sustain overdense plasmas. The numerical results indicated that the electromagnetic SWs consist of two different waves, Wave-1 and Wave-2, having relatively shorter and longer wavelengths. The Wave-1 was seen to fade away with increasing pressure and increasing power, while the Wave-2 remained relatively unchanged over the range of pressure and power investigated. The numerical results revealed that the Wave-1 propagates as backward SWs whose phase velocity and group velocity point in the opposite directions. In contrast, the Wave-2 appeared to form standing waves, being ascribed to a superposition of forward SWs whose phase and group velocities point in the same direction. The fadeaway of the Wave-1 or backward SWs at increased pressures and increased powers was seen with the damping rate increasing in the axial direction, being related to the increased plasma electron densities. A comparison with the conventional FDTD simulation indicated that such fine structure of the electromagnetic fields of SWs is not observed in the FDTD simulation with spatially uniform and time-independent plasma distributions; thus, the FDTD/fluid hybrid model should be employed in simulating the electromagnetic fields and plasma parameters in SWPs with high accuracy
Radiation from channeled positrons in a hypersonic wave field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mkrtchyan, A.R.; Gasparyan, R.A.; Gabrielyan, R.G.
1987-01-01
The radiation emitted by channeled positrons in a longitudinal or transverse standing hypersonic wave field is considered. In the case of plane channeling the spectral distribution of the radiation intensity is shown to be of a resonance nature depending on the hypersound frequency
Induced photoassociation in the field of a strong electomagnetic wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zaretskij, D.F.; Lomonosov, V.V.; Lyul'ka, V.A.
1979-01-01
The quantum-mechanical problem of the stimulated transition of a system in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave from the continuous spectrum to a bound state possessing a finite lifetime is considered. The expressions obtained are employed to calculate stimulated production of mesic atoms and mesic molecules (ddμ). It is demonstrated that in an external electromagnetic field the probability for production of this type may considerably increase
Evolution of Modulated Dispersive Electron Waves in a Plasma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sugai, H.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Michelsen, Poul
1979-01-01
The linear propagation of amplitude-modulated electron waves was examined in a low-density Q-machine plasma. Three effects of the strong dispersion on the modulated wave have been demonstrated: (i) a wavepacket expands along its direction of propagation, followed by a shift of the frequency through...
Reheating signature in the gravitational wave spectrum from self-ordering scalar fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kuroyanagi, Sachiko [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang, Gyeongbuk, 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Hiramatsu, Takashi [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto, 606-8502 Japan (Japan); Yokoyama, Jun' ichi, E-mail: skuro@nagoya-u.jp, E-mail: hiramatz@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: yokoyama@resceu.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Research Center for the Early Universe (RESCEU), School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 Japan (Japan)
2016-02-01
We investigate the imprint of reheating on the gravitational wave spectrum produced by self-ordering of multi-component scalar fields after a global phase transition. The equation of state of the Universe during reheating, which usually has different behaviour from that of a radiation-dominated Universe, affects the evolution of gravitational waves through the Hubble expansion term in the equations of motion. This gives rise to a different power-law behavior of frequency in the gravitational wave spectrum. The reheating history is therefore imprinted in the shape of the spectrum. We perform 512{sup 3} lattice simulations to investigate how the ordering scalar field reacts to the change of the Hubble expansion and how the reheating effect arises in the spectrum. We also compare the result with inflation-produced gravitational waves, which has a similar spectral shape, and discuss whether it is possible to distinguish the origin between inflation and global phase transition by detecting the shape with future direct detection gravitational wave experiments such as DECIGO.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohsawa, Yukiharu.
1984-12-01
A 2-1/2 dimensional fully relativistic, fully electromagnetic particle code is used to study a time evolution of nonlinear magnetosonic pulse propagating in the direction perpendicular to a magnetic field. The pulse is excited by an instantaneous piston acceleration, and evolves totally self-consistently. Large amplitude pulse traps some ions and accelerates them parallel to the wave front. They are detrapped when their velocities become of the order of the sum of the ExB drift velocity and the wave phase velocity, where E is the electric field in the direction of wave propagation. The pulse develops into a quasi-shock wave in a collisionless plasma by a dissipation due to the resonant ion acceleration. Simple nonlinear wave theory for a cold plasma well describes the shock properties observed in the simulation except for the effects of resonant ions. In particular, magnitude of an electric potential across the shock region is derived analytically and is found to be in good agreement with our simulations. The potential jump is proportional to B 2 , and hence the ExB drift velocity of the trapped ions is proportional to B. (author)
Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Khokhlova, Vera A.; Cathignol, Dominique
2004-05-01
A classical effect of nonlinear acoustics is that a plane sinusoidal acoustic wave propagating in a nonlinear medium transforms to a sawtooth wave with one shock per cycle. However, the waveform evolution can be quite different in the near field of a plane source due to diffraction. Previous numerical simulations of nonlinear acoustic waves in the near field of a circular piston source predict the development of two shocks per wave cycle [Khokhlova et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 110, 95-108 (2001)]. Moreover, at some locations the peak pressure may be up to 4 times the source amplitude. The motivation of this work was to experimentally verify and further explain the phenomena of the nonlinear waveform distortion. Measurements were conducted in water with a 47-mm-diameter unfocused transducer, working at 1-MHz frequency. For pressure amplitudes higher than 0.5 MPa, two shocks per cycle were observed in the waveform beyond the last minimum of the fundamental harmonic amplitude. With the increase of the observation distance, these two shocks collided and formed one shock (per cycle), i.e., the waveform developed into the classical sawtooth wave. The experimental results were in a very good agreement with the modeling based on the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braginsky, V.B.; Kardashev, N.S.; Polnarev, A.G.; Novikov, I.D.
1989-12-01
Propagation of an electromagnetic wave in the field of gravitational waves is considered. Attention is given to the principal difference between the electromagnetic wave propagation in the field of random gravitational waves and the electromagnetic wave propagation in a medium with a randomly-inhomogeneous refraction index. It is shown that in the case of the gravitation wave field the phase shift of an electromagnetic wave does not increase with distance. The capability of space radio interferometry to detect relic gravitational waves as well as gravitational wave bursts of non cosmological origin are analyzed. (author). 64 refs, 2 figs
Carcione, José M
2007-01-01
This book examines the differences between an ideal and a real description of wave propagation, where ideal means an elastic (lossless), isotropic and single-phase medium, and real means an anelastic, anisotropic and multi-phase medium. The analysis starts by introducing the relevant stress-strain relation. This relation and the equations of momentum conservation are combined to give the equation of motion. The differential formulation is written in terms of memory variables, and Biot's theory is used to describe wave propagation in porous media. For each rheology, a plane-wave analysis is performed in order to understand the physics of wave propagation. The book contains a review of the main direct numerical methods for solving the equation of motion in the time and space domains. The emphasis is on geophysical applications for seismic exploration, but researchers in the fields of earthquake seismology, rock acoustics, and material science - including many branches of acoustics of fluids and solids - may als...
Evolution of a massive binary in a star field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baranov, A.S.
1984-01-01
The orbital evolution of a massive binary system interacting with a background field of single stars whose phase density is homogeneous in configuration space is considered. The velocity distribution is assumed isotropic up to some limiting value, and a typical field star is regarded as having a velocity much higher than the orbital speed of the pair components. An expression is derived for the transfer of energy from the binary to the field stars. The time evolution of the orbit parameters a, e is established, and the evolution rate is estimated for Kardashev's (1983) model galactic nucleus containing a central black-hole binary. On the above assumptions the components should become twice as close together within only a few tens of millennia, although the picture may change fundamentally if the nucleus is rotating. 13 references
Relativistic covariant wave equations and acausality in external fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pijlgroms, R.B.J.
1980-01-01
The author considers linear, finite dimensional, first order relativistic wave equations: (βsup(μ)ideltasub(μ)-β)PSI(x) = 0 with βsup(μ) and β constant matrices. Firstly , the question of the relativistic covariance conditions on these equations is considered. Then the theory of these equations with β non-singular is summarized. Theories with βsup(μ), β square matrices and β singular are also discussed. Non-square systems of covariant relativistic wave equations for arbitrary spin > 1 are then considered. Finally, the interaction with external fields and the acausality problem are discussed. (G.T.H.)
Path integral for Dirac particle in plane wave field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeggari, S.; Boudjedaa, T.; Chetouani, L.
2001-01-01
The problem of a relativistic spinning particle in interaction with an electromagnetic plane wave field is treated via path integrals. The dynamics of the spin of the particle is described using the supersymmetric action proposed by Fradkin and Gitman. The problem has been solved by using two identities, one bosonic and the other fermionic, which are related directly to the classical equations of motion. The exact expression of the relative Green's function is given and the result agrees with those of the literature. Further, the suitably normalized wave functions are also extracted. (orig.)
Path integral for Dirac particle in plane wave field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zeggari, S.; Boudjedaa, T.; Chetouani, L. [Mentouri Univ., Constantine (Algeria). Dept. of Physique
2001-10-01
The problem of a relativistic spinning particle in interaction with an electromagnetic plane wave field is treated via path integrals. The dynamics of the spin of the particle is described using the supersymmetric action proposed by Fradkin and Gitman. The problem has been solved by using two identities, one bosonic and the other fermionic, which are related directly to the classical equations of motion. The exact expression of the relative Green's function is given and the result agrees with those of the literature. Further, the suitably normalized wave functions are also extracted. (orig.)
Near-field millimeter - wave imaging of nonmetallic materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gopalsami, N.; Bakhtiari, S.; Raptis, A.C.
1996-01-01
A near-field millimeter-wave (mm-wave) imaging system has been designed and built in the 94-GHz range for on-line inspection of nonmetallic (dielectric) materials. The imaging system consists of a transceiver block coupled to an antenna that scans the material to be imaged; a reflector plate is placed behind the material. A quadrature IF mixer in the transceiver block enables measurement of in-phase and quadrature-phase components of reflected signals with respect to the transmitted signal. All transceiver components, with the exception of the Gunn-diode oscillator and antenna, were fabricated in uniform blocks and integrated and packaged into a compact unit (12.7 x 10.2 x 2.5 cm). The objective of this work is to test the applicability of a near-field compact mm-wave sensor for on-line inspection of sheetlike materials such as paper, fabrics, and plastics. This paper presents initial near-field mm-wave images of paper and fabric samples containing known artifacts
Deterministic and stochastic evolution equations for fully dispersive and weakly nonlinear waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eldeberky, Y.; Madsen, Per A.
1999-01-01
and stochastic formulations are solved numerically for the case of cross shore motion of unidirectional waves and the results are verified against laboratory data for wave propagation over submerged bars and over a plane slope. Outside the surf zone the two model predictions are generally in good agreement......This paper presents a new and more accurate set of deterministic evolution equations for the propagation of fully dispersive, weakly nonlinear, irregular, multidirectional waves. The equations are derived directly from the Laplace equation with leading order nonlinearity in the surface boundary...... is significantly underestimated for larger wave numbers. In the present work we correct this inconsistency. In addition to the improved deterministic formulation, we present improved stochastic evolution equations in terms of the energy spectrum and the bispectrum for multidirectional waves. The deterministic...
Chameleon fields, wave function collapse and quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zanzi, A
2015-01-01
Chameleon fields are quantum (usually scalar) fields, with a density-dependent mass. In a high-density environment, the mass of the chameleon is large. On the contrary, in a small-density environment (e.g. on cosmological distances), the chameleon is very light. A model where the collapse of the wave function is induced by chameleon fields is presented. During this analysis, a Chameleonic Equivalence Principle (CEP) will be formulated: in this model, quantum gravitation is equivalent to a conformal anomaly. Further research efforts are necessary to verify whether this proposal is compatible with phenomeno logical constraints. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2009-01-01
The investigating committee aimed at research on electromagnetic fields in functional devices and X-ray fibers for efficient coherent X-ray generation and their material science, high-precision manufacturing, X-ray microscope, application to medical and information communication technologies, such as interaction between material and nanometer electromagnetic waves of radiated light and X-ray, interaction between microwaves and particle beams, theory and design of high-frequency waveguides for resonator and accelerator, from January 2003 to December 2005. In this report, we describe our research results, in particular, on the topics of synchrotron radiation and Cherenkov radiation, Kyushu synchrotron light source and its technology, nanometer electromagnetic fields in optical region, process of interaction between evanescent waves and near-field light, orthogonal relation of electromagnetic fields including evanescent waves in dispersive dielectrics, optical amplification using electron beam, nanometer electromagnetic fields in focusing waveguide lens device with curved facets, electromagnetic fields in nanometer photonic crystal waveguide consisting of atoms, X-ray scattering and absorption I bio-material for image diagnosis. (author)
Empirical Mode Decomposition of the atmospheric wave field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. J. McDonald
2007-03-01
Full Text Available This study examines the utility of the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD time-series analysis technique to separate the horizontal wind field observed by the Scott Base MF radar (78° S, 167° E into its constituent parts made up of the mean wind, gravity waves, tides, planetary waves and instrumental noise. Analysis suggests that EMD effectively separates the wind field into a set of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs which can be related to atmospheric waves with different temporal scales. The Intrinsic Mode Functions resultant from application of the EMD technique to Monte-Carlo simulations of white- and red-noise processes are compared to those obtained from the measurements and are shown to be significantly different statistically. Thus, application of the EMD technique to the MF radar horizontal wind data can be used to prove that this data contains information on internal gravity waves, tides and planetary wave motions.
Examination also suggests that the EMD technique has the ability to highlight amplitude and frequency modulations in these signals. Closer examination of one of these regions of amplitude modulation associated with dominant periods close to 12 h is suggested to be related to a wave-wave interaction between the semi-diurnal tide and a planetary wave. Application of the Hilbert transform to the IMFs forms a Hilbert-Huang spectrum which provides a way of viewing the data in a similar manner to the analysis from a continuous wavelet transform. However, the fact that the basis function of EMD is data-driven and does not need to be selected a priori is a major advantage. In addition, the skeleton diagrams, produced from the results of the Hilbert-Huang spectrum, provide a method of presentation which allows quantitative information on the instantaneous period and amplitude squared to be displayed as a function of time. Thus, it provides a novel way to view frequency and amplitude-modulated wave phenomena and potentially non
Effective Orthorhombic Anisotropic Models for Wave field Extrapolation
Ibanez Jacome, Wilson
2013-05-01
Wavefield extrapolation in orthorhombic anisotropic media incorporates complicated but realistic models, to reproduce wave propagation phenomena in the Earth\\'s subsurface. Compared with the representations used for simpler symmetries, such as transversely isotropic or isotropic, orthorhombic models require an extended and more elaborated formulation that also involves more expensive computational processes. The acoustic assumption yields more efficient description of the orthorhombic wave equation that also provides a simplified representation for the orthorhombic dispersion relation. However, such representation is hampered by the sixth-order nature of the acoustic wave equation, as it also encompasses the contribution of shear waves. To reduce the computational cost of wavefield extrapolation in such media, I generate effective isotropic inhomogeneous models that are capable of reproducing the first-arrival kinematic aspects of the orthorhombic wavefield. First, in order to compute traveltimes in vertical orthorhombic media, I develop a stable, efficient and accurate algorithm based on the fast marching method. The derived orthorhombic acoustic dispersion relation, unlike the isotropic or transversely isotropic one, is represented by a sixth order polynomial equation that includes the fastest solution corresponding to outgoing P-waves in acoustic media. The effective velocity models are then computed by evaluating the traveltime gradients of the orthorhombic traveltime solution, which is done by explicitly solving the isotropic eikonal equation for the corresponding inhomogeneous isotropic velocity field. The inverted effective velocity fields are source dependent and produce equivalent first-arrival kinematic descriptions of wave propagation in orthorhombic media. I extrapolate wavefields in these isotropic effective velocity models using the more efficient isotropic operator, and the results compare well, especially kinematically, with those obtained from the
The origin, evolution and signatures of primordial magnetic fields.
Subramanian, Kandaswamy
2016-07-01
The universe is magnetized on all scales probed so far. On the largest scales, galaxies and galaxy clusters host magnetic fields at the micro Gauss level coherent on scales up to ten kpc. Recent observational evidence suggests that even the intergalactic medium in voids could host a weak ∼ 10(-16) Gauss magnetic field, coherent on Mpc scales. An intriguing possibility is that these observed magnetic fields are a relic from the early universe, albeit one which has been subsequently amplified and maintained by a dynamo in collapsed objects. We review here the origin, evolution and signatures of primordial magnetic fields. After a brief summary of magnetohydrodynamics in the expanding universe, we turn to magnetic field generation during inflation and phase transitions. We trace the linear and nonlinear evolution of the generated primordial fields through the radiation era, including viscous effects. Sensitive observational signatures of primordial magnetic fields on the cosmic microwave background, including current constraints from Planck, are discussed. After recombination, primordial magnetic fields could strongly influence structure formation, especially on dwarf galaxy scales. The resulting signatures on reionization, the redshifted 21 cm line, weak lensing and the Lyman-α forest are outlined. Constraints from radio and γ-ray astronomy are summarized. Astrophysical batteries and the role of dynamos in reshaping the primordial field are briefly considered. The review ends with some final thoughts on primordial magnetic fields.
Analysis of Wave Fields induced by Offshore Pile Driving
Ruhnau, M.; Heitmann, K.; Lippert, T.; Lippert, S.; von Estorff, O.
2015-12-01
Impact pile driving is the common technique to install foundations for offshore wind turbines. With each hammer strike the steel pile - often exceeding 6 m in diameter and 80 m in length - radiates energy into the surrounding water and soil, until reaching its targeted penetration depth. Several European authorities introduced limitations regarding hydroacoustic emissions during the construction process to protect marine wildlife. Satisfying these regulations made the development and application of sound mitigation systems (e.g. bubble curtains or insulation screens) inevitable, which are commonly installed within the water column surrounding the pile or even the complete construction site. Last years' advances have led to a point, where the seismic energy tunneling the sound mitigation systems through the soil and radiating back towards the water column gains importance, as it confines the maximum achievable sound mitigation. From an engineering point of view, the challenge of deciding on an effective noise mitigation layout arises, which especially requires a good understanding of the soil-dependent wave field. From a geophysical point of view, the pile acts like a very unique line source, generating a characteristic wave field dominated by inclined wave fronts, diving as well as head waves. Monitoring the seismic arrivals while the pile penetration steadily increases enables to perform quasi-vertical seismic profiling. This work is based on datasets that have been collected within the frame of three comprehensive offshore measurement campaigns during pile driving and demonstrates the potential of seismic arrivals induced by pile driving for further soil characterization.
Dispersive Evolution of Nonlinear Fast Magnetoacoustic Wave Trains
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pascoe, D. J.; Goddard, C. R.; Nakariakov, V. M., E-mail: D.J.Pascoe@warwick.ac.uk [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)
2017-10-01
Quasi-periodic rapidly propagating wave trains are frequently observed in extreme ultraviolet observations of the solar corona, or are inferred by the quasi-periodic modulation of radio emission. The dispersive nature of fast magnetohydrodynamic waves in coronal structures provides a robust mechanism to explain the detected quasi-periodic patterns. We perform 2D numerical simulations of impulsively generated wave trains in coronal plasma slabs and investigate how the behavior of the trapped and leaky components depend on the properties of the initial perturbation. For large amplitude compressive perturbations, the geometrical dispersion associated with the waveguide suppresses the nonlinear steepening for the trapped wave train. The wave train formed by the leaky components does not experience dispersion once it leaves the waveguide and so can steepen and form shocks. The mechanism we consider can lead to the formation of multiple shock fronts by a single, large amplitude, impulsive event and so can account for quasi-periodic features observed in radio spectra.
Artemyev, Anton V.; Neishtadt, Anatoly I.; Vasiliev, Alexei A.
2018-04-01
Accurately modelling and forecasting of the dynamics of the Earth's radiation belts with the available computer resources represents an important challenge that still requires significant advances in the theoretical plasma physics field of wave-particle resonant interaction. Energetic electron acceleration or scattering into the Earth's atmosphere are essentially controlled by their resonances with electromagnetic whistler mode waves. The quasi-linear diffusion equation describes well this resonant interaction for low intensity waves. During the last decade, however, spacecraft observations in the radiation belts have revealed a large number of whistler mode waves with sufficiently high intensity to interact with electrons in the nonlinear regime. A kinetic equation including such nonlinear wave-particle interactions and describing the long-term evolution of the electron distribution is the focus of the present paper. Using the Hamiltonian theory of resonant phenomena, we describe individual electron resonance with an intense coherent whistler mode wave. The derived characteristics of such a resonance are incorporated into a generalized kinetic equation which includes non-local transport in energy space. This transport is produced by resonant electron trapping and nonlinear acceleration. We describe the methods allowing the construction of nonlinear resonant terms in the kinetic equation and discuss possible applications of this equation.
The Evolution of Vector Magnetic Field Associated with Major Flares ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
great enhancement in the non-potential field several hours before an .... conclusion is similar with that from daily evolution view – no sudden change happened. ... Jain, R., Hanaoka, Y., Sakurai, T. et al., Solar flares with remote brightening as ...
Evolution of wave function in a dissipative system
Yu, Li-Hua; Sun, Chang-Pu
1994-01-01
For a dissipative system with Ohmic friction, we obtain a simple and exact solution for the wave function of the system plus the bath. It is described by the direct product in two independent Hilbert space. One of them is described by an effective Hamiltonian, the other represents the effect of the bath, i.e., the Brownian motion, thus clarifying the structure of the wave function of the system whose energy is dissipated by its interaction with the bath. No path integral technology is needed in this treatment. The derivation of the Weisskopf-Wigner line width theory follows easily.
Evolution of offshore wind waves tracked by surface drifters with a point-positioning GPS sensor
Komatsu, K.
2009-12-01
Wind-generated waves have been recognized as one of the most important factors of the sea surface roughness which plays crucial roles in various air-sea interactions such as energy, momentum, heat and gas exchanges. At the same time, wind waves with extreme wave heights representatively called as freak or rogue waves have been a matter of great concern for many people involved in shipping, fishing, constracting, surfing and other marine activities, because such extreme waves frequently affect on the marine activities and sometimes cause serious disasters. Nevertheless, investigations of actual conditions for the evolution of wind waves in the offshore region are less and sparse in contrast to dense monitoring networks in the coastal regions because of difficulty of offshore observation with high accuracy. Recently accurate in situ observation of offshore wind waves is getting possible at low cost owing to a wave height and direction sensor developed by Harigae et al. (2004) by installing a point-positioning GPS receiver on a surface drifting buoy. The point-positioning GPS sensor can extract three dimensional movements of the buoy excited by ocean waves with minimizing effects of GPS point-positioning errors through the use of a high-pass filter. Two drifting buoys equipped with the GPS-based wave sensor charged by solar cells were drifted in the western North Pacific and one of them continued to observe wind waves during 16 months from Sep. 2007. The RMSE of the GPS-based wave sensor was less than 10cm in significant wave height and about 1s in significant wave period in comparison with other sensors, i.e. accelerometers installed on drifting buoys of Japan Meteorological Agency, ultrasonic sensors placed at the Hiratsuka observation station of the University of Tokyo and altimeter of the JASON-1. The GPS-based wave buoys enabled us to detect freak waves defined as waves whose height is more than twice the significant wave height. The observation conducted by the
Wide Band Low Noise Love Wave Magnetic Field Sensor System.
Kittmann, Anne; Durdaut, Phillip; Zabel, Sebastian; Reermann, Jens; Schmalz, Julius; Spetzler, Benjamin; Meyners, Dirk; Sun, Nian X; McCord, Jeffrey; Gerken, Martina; Schmidt, Gerhard; Höft, Michael; Knöchel, Reinhard; Faupel, Franz; Quandt, Eckhard
2018-01-10
We present a comprehensive study of a magnetic sensor system that benefits from a new technique to substantially increase the magnetoelastic coupling of surface acoustic waves (SAW). The device uses shear horizontal acoustic surface waves that are guided by a fused silica layer with an amorphous magnetostrictive FeCoSiB thin film on top. The velocity of these so-called Love waves follows the magnetoelastically-induced changes of the shear modulus according to the magnetic field present. The SAW sensor is operated in a delay line configuration at approximately 150 MHz and translates the magnetic field to a time delay and a related phase shift. The fundamentals of this sensor concept are motivated by magnetic and mechanical simulations. They are experimentally verified using customized low-noise readout electronics. With an extremely low magnetic noise level of ≈100 pT/[Formula: see text], a bandwidth of 50 kHz and a dynamic range of 120 dB, this magnetic field sensor system shows outstanding characteristics. A range of additional measures to further increase the sensitivity are investigated with simulations.
Spectrum of classes of point emitters of electromagnetic wave fields.
Castañeda, Román
2016-09-01
The spectrum of classes of point emitters has been introduced as a numerical tool suitable for the design, analysis, and synthesis of non-paraxial optical fields in arbitrary states of spatial coherence. In this paper, the polarization state of planar electromagnetic wave fields is included in the spectrum of classes, thus increasing its modeling capabilities. In this context, optical processing is realized as a filtering on the spectrum of classes of point emitters, performed by the complex degree of spatial coherence and the two-point correlation of polarization, which could be implemented dynamically by using programmable optical devices.
Degenerate four-wave mixing with the phase diffusion field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, M.H.; Chen, CE.; Elliott, D.S.; Cooper, J.; Smith, S.J.
1993-01-01
We report measurements of the effect of laser fluctuations on a strong-field degenerate four-wave mixing interaction, carried out in a nearly Doppler-free, two-level system using a single laser with statistically well-defined phase fluctuations. The counterpropagating pump beams and the probe beam, each split from this phase-noise-modulated source, were fully correlated. The nonlinear medium was an optically-pumped diffuse beam of atomic sodium. By time-delaying the probe with respect to the pump beams, the composite field becomes non-Markovian. Four-wave mixing results in the generation of a phase-conjugate beam anti-parallel to the probe beam. With the laser field spectrum nearly Lorentzian in shape, and with a field linewidth greater (and, for comparison, much narrower) than the natural linewidth of the sodium, we measured the intensity of the phase-conjugate beam as the pump and probe beams were tuned through the D2 resonance, as a function of intensity of die pump beam (up to intensities several times the saturation intensity), and for varying delay between the pump and probe fields. This experiment provides a cleaner measurement of this interaction than any previously available
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Segre, S. E.
2001-01-01
The known analytic expressions for the evolution of the polarization of electromagnetic waves propagating in a plasma with uniformly sheared magnetic field are extended to the case where the shear is not constant. Exact analytic expressions are found for the case when the space variations of the medium are such that the magnetic field components and the plasma density satisfy a particular condition (eq. 13), possibly in a convenient reference frame of polarization space [it
Magnetic field of Mercury and models of thermal evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharpe, H.N.; Strangway, D.W.
1976-01-01
Recent planetary probes have performed in situ measurements of the magnetic fields of all the terrestrial planets. Consideration is given to the origin of these fields, with attention to the equilibrium-- condensation hypothesis for the formation of the solar system. In particular, it is shown that Mercury's present day magnetic field could have been acquired during or shortly after a cold accretion or that it could be due to a presently operating dynamo, resulting from a 'hot evolution'. Two parameters which would help to distinguish between these possibilities are the present-day surface heat flow and the moment of inertia
Superresolution Near-field Imaging with Surface Waves
Fu, Lei
2017-10-21
We present the theory for near-field superresolution imaging with surface waves and time reverse mirrors (TRMs). Theoretical formulas and numerical results show that applying the TRM operation to surface waves in an elastic half-space can achieve superresolution imaging of subwavelength scatterers if they are located less than about 1/2 of the shear wavelength from the source line. We also show that the TRM operation for a single frequency is equivalent to natural migration, which uses the recorded data to approximate the Green’s functions for migration, and only costs O(N4) algebraic operations for poststack migration compared to O(N6) operations for natural prestack migration. Here, we assume the sources and receivers are on an N × N grid and there are N2 trial image points on the free surface. Our theoretical predictions of superresolution are validated with tests on synthetic data. The field-data tests suggest that hidden faults at the near surface can be detected with subwavelength imaging of surface waves by using the TRM operation if they are no deeper than about 1/2 the dominant shear wavelength.
Fast wave power flow along SOL field lines in NSTX
Perkins, R. J.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Hosea, J. C.; Jaworski, M. A.; Leblanc, B. P.; Kramer, G. J.; Phillips, C. K.; Roquemore, L.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R.; Ahn, J.-W.; Gray, T. K.; Green, D. L.; McLean, A.; Maingi, R.; Ryan, P. M.; Jaeger, E. F.; Sabbagh, S.
2012-10-01
On NSTX, a major loss of high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) power can occur along open field lines passing in front of the antenna over the width of the scrape-off layer (SOL). Up to 60% of the RF power can be lost and at least partially deposited in bright spirals on the divertor floor and ceiling [1,2]. The flow of HHFW power from the antenna region to the divertor is mostly aligned along the SOL magnetic field [3], which explains the pattern of heat deposition as measured with infrared (IR) cameras. By tracing field lines from the divertor back to the midplane, the IR data can be used to estimate the profile of HHFW power coupled to SOL field lines. We hypothesize that surface waves are being excited in the SOL, and these results should benchmark advanced simulations of the RF power deposition in the SOL (e.g., [4]). Minimizing this loss is critical optimal high-power long-pulse ICRF heating on ITER while guarding against excessive divertor erosion.[4pt] [1] J.C. Hosea et al., AIP Conf Proceedings 1187 (2009) 105. [0pt] [2] G. Taylor et al., Phys. Plasmas 17 (2010) 056114. [0pt] [3] R.J. Perkins et al., to appear in Phys. Rev. Lett. [0pt] [4] D.L. Green et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 (2011) 145001.
Self-organising of wave and beach relief in storm: field experiments
Kuznetsova, Olga; Saprykina, Yana; Kuznetsov, Sergey; Stremel, Margarita; Korsinin, Dmitry; Trifonova, Ekaterina; Andreeva, Natalia
2017-04-01
This paper presents results of waves and morfodynamics observation carried out in frame of complex field experiments "Shkorpilowtsy-2016" and "Shkorpilowtsy-2007", which were made in order to understand how bottom deformations depend on wave parameters and how wave-bottom self-organisation process runs during storm events. Sediment transport and profile deformations were analysed taking into account the presence of underwater bar (data 2007) and without it (data 2016). Experiments were made on field base of Institute of Oceanology "Fridtjof Nansen" (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences) in Shkorpilowtsy settlement, that is locates on Black Sea coast, 40 km from Varna. The base is equipped with 253 m research pier that provide measuring until 5 m depth on distance 200 m from shore. During filed works synchronous observations on wave parameters and bottom changes were made on average three times a day for one month: 18.09-08.10.2007 and 07.10-02.11.2016. Morphological observations involved cross-shore beach profile deformations measuring along the scientific pier from shore to sea through each 2 m using metal pole in 2007 and metal or rope lot in 2016. Wave measurements included visual observations of breaking and surf zones location, wave type (wind or swell wave) and direction as well as free surface deviation (wave chronogram) registrations using high-frequency capacitive or resistance sensors mounted along the pier. In 2007 registration of free surface elevation was carried out with 7 capacitance and 8 resistant wire gauges, in 2016 - with 18 capacitance wire gauges. Sampling frequency was 5 Hz in 2007 and 20 Hz in 2016, duration of the records varied from 20 min up to one hour in 2007 and between 10 min and one hour in 2016. Wave spectra computed from chronogram allowed to estimate wave spectral (significant wave height, spectral peak and mean periods and complex) and integral parameters (Irribaren and Ursell numbers) to analyse dependence bottom deformations on it
Evolution of Decision Support Systems Research Field in Numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana-Maria SUDUC
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The scientific production in a certain field shows, in great extent, the research interests in that field. Decision Support Systems are a particular class of information systems which are gaining more popularity in various domains. In order to identify the evolution in time of the publications number, authors, subjects, publications in the Decision Support Systems (DSS field, and therefore the scientific world interest for this field, in November 2010 there have been organized a series of queries on three major international scientific databases: ScienceDirect, IEEE Xplore Digital Library and ACM Digital Library. The results presented in this paper shows that, even the decision support systems research field started in 1960s, the interests for this type of systems grew exponentially with each year in the last decades.
Fernández, Leandro; Monbaliu, Jaak; Onorato, Miguel; Toffoli, Alessandro
2014-05-01
This research is focused on the study of nonlinear evolution of irregular wave fields in water of arbitrary depth by comparing field measurements and numerical simulations.It is now well accepted that modulational instability, known as one of the main mechanisms for the formation of rogue waves, induces strong departures from Gaussian statistics. However, whereas non-Gaussian properties are remarkable when wave fields follow one direction of propagation over an infinite water depth, wave statistics only weakly deviate from Gaussianity when waves spread over a range of different directions. Over finite water depth, furthermore, wave instability attenuates overall and eventually vanishes for relative water depths as low as kh=1.36 (where k is the wavenumber of the dominant waves and h the water depth). Recent experimental results, nonetheless, seem to indicate that oblique perturbations are capable of triggering and sustaining modulational instability even if khthe aim of this research is to understand whether the combined effect of directionality and finite water depth has a significant effect on wave statistics and particularly on the occurrence of extremes. For this purpose, numerical experiments have been performed solving the Euler equation of motion with the Higher Order Spectral Method (HOSM) and compared with data of short crested wave fields for different sea states observed at the Lake George (Australia). A comparative analysis of the statistical properties (i.e. density function of the surface elevation and its statistical moments skewness and kurtosis) between simulations and in-situ data provides a confrontation between the numerical developments and real observations in field conditions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell, T.F.; Ngo, H.D.
1990-01-01
Recent satellite observations demonstrate that high amplitude, short wavelength (5 m ≤ λ ≤ 100 m) electrostatic waves are commonly excited by electromagnetic whistler mode waves propagating in regions of the magnetosphere and topside ionosphere where small-scale magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities are thought to exist. A new theoretical model of this phenomenon is presented, based upon passive linear scattering in a cold magnetoplasma. In this model the electrostatic waves are excited by linear mode coupling as the incident electromagnetic whistler mode waves scatter from the magnetic-field-aligned plasma density irregularities. The excited short wavelength waves are quasi-electrostatic whistler mode waves, a type of lower hybrid wave, whose wave normal lies near the whistler mode resonance cone where the wave refractive index becomes very large. The amplitude of the excited electrostatic lower hybrid waves is calculated for a wide range of values of input electromagnetic wave frequency, wave normal direction, electron plasma frequency, gyrofrequency, ion composition, and irregularity scale and density enhancement. Results indicate that high amplitude lower hybrid waves can be excited over a wide range of parameters for irregularity density enhancements as low as 5% whenever the scale of the irregularity is of the same order as the lower hybrid wavelength
Evolution of a wave packet scattered by a one-dimensional potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khachatrian, A Zh; Alexanyan, Al G; Khoetsyan, V A; Alexanyan, N A
2013-06-30
We consider the evolution of a wave packet that is made up of a group of the wave functions describing the stationary scattering process and tunnels through a one-dimensional potential of arbitrary form. As the main characteristics of the time difference of the tunnelling process, use is made of the propagation speed of the wave-packet maximum. We show that the known Hartman formula for the tunnelling time corresponds to the wave packet with a wavenumber-uniform spectral composition in the case, when the phase and transmission coefficient modulus dispersions are taken into account only in the linear approximation. The amplitude of the main peak of the transmitted wave intensity is proven to be independent of the tunnelling time and is determined by the transmission coefficient of the spectral component at the carrier frequency and the spectral width of the wave packet. In the limit of an infinitely wide potential barrier the amplitude of the wave-packet maximum is shown to tend to zero slower than the tunnelling time tends to its asymptotic value, i.e., indeed we deal with the paradox of an infinitely large propagation speed of a wave disturbance through the barrier. (propagation of wave fronts)
Evolution of a wave packet scattered by a one-dimensional potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khachatrian, A Zh; Alexanyan, Al G; Khoetsyan, V A; Alexanyan, N A
2013-01-01
We consider the evolution of a wave packet that is made up of a group of the wave functions describing the stationary scattering process and tunnels through a one-dimensional potential of arbitrary form. As the main characteristics of the time difference of the tunnelling process, use is made of the propagation speed of the wave-packet maximum. We show that the known Hartman formula for the tunnelling time corresponds to the wave packet with a wavenumber-uniform spectral composition in the case, when the phase and transmission coefficient modulus dispersions are taken into account only in the linear approximation. The amplitude of the main peak of the transmitted wave intensity is proven to be independent of the tunnelling time and is determined by the transmission coefficient of the spectral component at the carrier frequency and the spectral width of the wave packet. In the limit of an infinitely wide potential barrier the amplitude of the wave-packet maximum is shown to tend to zero slower than the tunnelling time tends to its asymptotic value, i.e., indeed we deal with the paradox of an infinitely large propagation speed of a wave disturbance through the barrier. (propagation of wave fronts)
Space-time evolution of whistler mode wave growth in the magnetosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlson, C.R.; Helliwell, R.A.; Inan, U.S.
1990-01-01
A new model is developed to simulate the space-time evolution of a propagating coherent whistler mode wave pulse in the magnetosphere. The model is applied to the case of single frequency (2-6 kHz) wave pulses injected into the magnetosphere near L ≅ 4, using the VLF transmitting facility at Siple Station, Antarctica. The mechanism for growth is cyclotron resonance between the circularly polarized waves and the gyrating energetic electrons of the radiation belts. Application of this model reproduces observed exponential wave growth up to a saturated level. Additionally, the model predicts the observed initial linear increase in the output frequency versus time. This is the first time these features have been reproduced using applied wave intensities small enough to be consistent with satellite measurements. The center velocities of the electrons entering the wave pulse are selected in a way which maximizes the growth rate. The results show the importance of the transient aspects in the wave growth process. The growth established as the wave propagates toward the geomagnetic equator results in a spatially advancing wave phase structure due mainly to the geomagnetic inhomogeneity. Through the feedback of this radiation upon other electrons, conditions are established which result in a linearly increasing output frequency with time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khalil, Sh.M.; El-Sherif, N.; El-Siragy, N.M.; Tanta Univ.; El-Naggar, I.A.; Alexandria Univ.
1985-01-01
Investigation is made for nonlinear interaction between incident radiation and a surface wave in a magnetized plasma layer. Both interacting waves are of P polarization. The generated currents and fields at combination frequencies are obtained analytically. Unlike the S-polarized interacting waves, the magnetic field affects the fundamental waves and leads to an amplification of generated waves when their frequencies approach the cyclotron frequency. (author)
Evolution of magnetic field inclination in a forming penumbra
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jurčák, Jan; Bello González, N.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Rezaei, R.
2014-01-01
Roč. 66, SP1 (2014), S3/1-S3/8 ISSN 0004-6264 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0287; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04338S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * evolution * magnetic fields Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.066, year: 2014
Mesoscopic states in graphene in magnetic field: collapse and revival of wave packets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demikhovskij, V.Ya.; Telezhnikov, A.V.; Frolova, E.V.; Kravets, N.A.
2013-01-01
The effects of wave packet collapse and revival in monolayer and bilayer graphene at an external perpendicular magnetic field are described. The evolution of electron wave packets, which are a superposition of the states with quantum numbers n around that of some Landau level n 0 was studied. The probability densities as well as average velocities of the packet center were calculated analytically and then visualized. The initial wave packet consisting only of positive energy decomposed into several subpackets at the moments t = (m/n)T R , where T R is the revival time and m, n are the mutually prime integers. Besides, it is shown that the behavior of a wave packet containing the states of both energy bands (with E n > 0 and E n < 0) is more complicated. Such packet splits into two parts, which rotate with a cyclotron frequency in the opposite directions, and then experience collapse and revival. The structure of multipole electromagnetic radiation of these packets is analyzed.
Numerical study of the time evolution of a wave packet in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Segura, J.; Fernandez de Cordoba, P.
1993-01-01
We solve the Schrodinger equation in order to study the time evolution of a wave packet in different situations of physical interest. This work illustrates, with pedagogical aim, some quantum phenomena which shock our classical conception of the universe: propagation in classically forbidden regions, energy quantization. (Author)
Nonlinear wave evolution in VLASOV plasma: a lie-transform analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cary, J.R.
1979-08-01
Nonlinear wave evolution in Vlasov plasma is analyzed using the Lie transform, a powerful mathematical tool which is applicable to Hamiltonian systems. The first part of this thesis is an exposition of the Lie transform. Dewar's general Lie transform theory is explained and is used to construct Deprit's Lie transform perturbation technique. The basic theory is illustrated by simple examples
Core surface magnetic field evolution 2000–2010
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Finlay, Chris; Jackson, A.; Gillet, N.
2012-01-01
harmonics up to degree and order 24 and a temporal parametrization of sixth‐order B‐splines with 0.25 yr knot spacing is employed. Models were constructed by minimizing an absolute deviation measure of misfit along with measures of spatial and temporal complexity at the core surface. We investigate...... is weaker. Rapid field evolution is observed under the eastern Indian Ocean associated with the growth and drift of an intense low latitude flux patch. We also find that the present axial dipole decay arises from a combination of subtle changes in the southern hemisphere field morphology....
Reduced field TE01 X-Band traveling wave window
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fowkes, W.R.; Callin, R.S.; Tantawi, S.G.; Wright, E.L.
1995-01-01
The RF electric field is reduced by more than a factor of two using a pair of symmetrically located irises in a new type of klystron window operating in the TE 01 mode at X-Band. The advantages of this window over the usual TE 01 half-wave resonant window are discussed as well as theory and operating results. Ultra high purity alumina formed by the HIP process is used. This window has been successfully tested at 100 MW with a 1.5 microsecond RF pulse width and is being used on the XL series klystrons
Structure and evolution of magnetic fields associated with solar eruptions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Haimin; Liu Chang
2015-01-01
This paper reviews the studies of solar photospheric magnetic field evolution in active regions and its relationship to solar flares. It is divided into two topics, the magnetic structure and evolution leading to solar eruptions and rapid changes in the photospheric magnetic field associated with eruptions. For the first topic, we describe the magnetic complexity, new flux emergence, flux cancelation, shear motions, sunspot rotation and magnetic helicity injection, which may all contribute to the storage and buildup of energy that trigger solar eruptions. For the second topic, we concentrate on the observations of rapid and irreversible changes of the photospheric magnetic field associated with flares, and the implication on the restructuring of the three-dimensional magnetic field. In particular, we emphasize the recent advances in observations of the photospheric magnetic field, as state-of-the-art observing facilities (such as Hinode and Solar Dynamics Observatory) have become available. The linkages between observations, theories and future prospectives in this research area are also discussed. (invited reviews)
Radio frequency wave experiments on the MST reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forest, C.B.; Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Nornberg, M.D.; Prager, S.C.; Thomas, M.A.; Harvey, R.W.; Ram, A.K.
1999-04-01
Experiments, simulations, and theory all indicate that the magnetic fluctuations responsible for the poor confinement in the reversed field pinch (RFP) can be controlled by altering the radial profile of the current density. The magnetic fluctuations in the RFP are due to resistive MHD instabilities caused by current profile peaking; thus confinement in the RFP is ultimately the result of a misalignment between inductively driven current profiles and the stable current profiles characteristic of the Taylor state. If a technique such as rf current drive can be developed to non-inductively sustain a Taylor state (a current profile linearly stable to all tearing modes), the confinement of the RFP and its potential as a reactor concept are likely to increase. Whether there is a self-consistent path from poor confinement to greatly improved confinement through current profile modification is an issue for future experiments to address if and only if near term experiments can demonstrate: (1) coupling to and the propagation of rf waves in RFP plasmas, (2) efficient current drive, and (3) control of the power deposition which will make it possible to control the current profile. In this paper, modeling results and experimental plans are presented for two rf experiments which have the potential of satisfying these three goals: high-n parallel lower hybrid (LH) waves and electron Bernstein waves (EBWs)
What is the difference in the p-wave and s-wave photodetachment in an electric field?
Du, M. L.
2009-01-01
By applying closed-orbit theory to an existing model, a simple formula is derived for the modulation function of s-wave photo-detachment in the presence of a static electric field. We then compare the s-wave modulation function with the p-wave modulation function. We show the maximums (minimums) in the s-wave modulation function correspond to the minimums (maximums) in the p-wave modulation function because of a phase difference of $\\pi$ in their oscillations. The oscillation amplitude in the...
The electric field standing wave effect in infrared transflection spectroscopy
Mayerhöfer, Thomas G.; Popp, Jürgen
2018-02-01
We show that an electric field standing wave effect is responsible for the oscillations and the non-linear dependence of the absorbance on the layer thickness in thin layers on a reflective surface. This effect is connected to the occurrence of interference inside these layers. Consequently, the absorptance undergoes a maximum electric field intensity enhancement at spectral positions close to those where corresponding non-absorbing layers on a metal show minima in the reflectance. The effect leads to changes of peak maxima ratios with layer thickness and shows the same periodicity as oscillations in the peak positions. These peculiarities are fully based on and described by Maxwell's equations but cannot be understood and described if the strongly simplifying model centered on reflectance absorbance is employed.
Wind fields of storms from surface isobars for wave hindcasting
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Varkey, M.J.; Vaithiyanathan, R.; Santanam, K.
Marine operations of various types are critically linked to mean and extreme wave statistics. In the Indian seas extreme wave conditions are caused by cyclones and steady strong monsoon winds. Wave data from cyclone areas are not directly available...
Modeling stretched solitary waves along magnetic field lines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Muschietti
2002-01-01
Full Text Available A model is presented for a new type of fast solitary waves which is observed in downward current regions of the auroral zone. The three-dimensional, coherent structures are electrostatic, have a positive potential, and move along the magnetic field lines with speeds on the order of the electron drift. Their parallel potential profile is flattened and cannot fit to the Gaussian shape used in previous work. We develop a detailed BGK model which includes a flattened potential and an assumed cylindrical symmetry around a centric magnetic field line. The model envisions concentric shells of trapped electrons slowly drifting azimuthally while bouncing back and forth in the parallel direction. The electron dynamics is analysed in terms of three basic motions that occur on different time scales characterized by the cyclotron frequency We , the bounce frequency wb , and the azimuthal drift frequency wg. The ordering We >> wb >> wg is required. Self-consistent distribution functions are calculated in terms of approximate constants of motion. Constraints on the parameters characterizing the amplitude and shape of the stretched solitary wave are discussed.
Simulations of nonlinear continuous wave pressure fields in FOCUS
Zhao, Xiaofeng; Hamilton, Mark F.; McGough, Robert J.
2017-03-01
The Khokhlov - Zabolotskaya - Kuznetsov (KZK) equation is a parabolic approximation to the Westervelt equation that models the effects of diffraction, attenuation, and nonlinearity. Although the KZK equation is only valid in the far field of the paraxial region for mildly focused or unfocused transducers, the KZK equation is widely applied in medical ultrasound simulations. For a continuous wave input, the KZK equation is effectively modeled by the Bergen Code [J. Berntsen, Numerical Calculations of Finite Amplitude Sound Beams, in M. F. Hamilton and D. T. Blackstock, editors, Frontiers of Nonlinear Acoustics: Proceedings of 12th ISNA, Elsevier, 1990], which is a finite difference model that utilizes operator splitting. Similar C++ routines have been developed for FOCUS, the `Fast Object-Oriented C++ Ultrasound Simulator' (http://www.egr.msu.edu/˜fultras-web) to calculate nonlinear pressure fields generated by axisymmetric flat circular and spherically focused ultrasound transducers. This new routine complements an existing FOCUS program that models nonlinear ultrasound propagation with the angular spectrum approach [P. T. Christopher and K. J. Parker, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 488-499 (1991)]. Results obtained from these two nonlinear ultrasound simulation approaches are evaluated and compared for continuous wave linear simulations. The simulation results match closely in the farfield of the paraxial region, but the results differ in the nearfield. The nonlinear pressure field generated by a spherically focused transducer with a peak surface pressure of 0.2MPa radiating in a lossy medium with β = 3.5 is simulated, and the computation times are also evaluated. The nonlinear simulation results demonstrate acceptable agreement in the focal zone. These two related nonlinear simulation approaches are now included with FOCUS to enable convenient simulations of nonlinear pressure fields on desktop and laptop computers.
Gauthier, Philippe-Aubert; Berry, Alain; Woszczyk, Wieslaw
2005-09-01
Sound field reproduction finds applications in listening to prerecorded music or in synthesizing virtual acoustics. The objective is to recreate a sound field in a listening environment. Wave field synthesis (WFS) is a known open-loop technology which assumes that the reproduction environment is anechoic. Classical WFS, therefore, does not perform well in a real reproduction space such as room. Previous work has suggested that it is physically possible to reproduce a progressive wave field in-room situation using active control approaches. In this paper, a formulation of adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS) introduces practical possibilities for an adaptive sound field reproduction combining WFS and active control (with WFS departure penalization) with a limited number of error sensors. AWFS includes WFS and closed-loop ``Ambisonics'' as limiting cases. This leads to the modification of the multichannel filtered-reference least-mean-square (FXLMS) and the filtered-error LMS (FELMS) adaptive algorithms for AWFS. Decentralization of AWFS for sound field reproduction is introduced on the basis of sources' and sensors' radiation modes. Such decoupling may lead to decentralized control of source strength distributions and may reduce computational burden of the FXLMS and the FELMS algorithms used for AWFS. [Work funded by NSERC, NATEQ, Université de Sherbrooke and VRQ.] Ultrasound/Bioresponse to
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assis, A.S. de; Silva, C.E. da; Dias Tavares, A. Jr.; Leubner, C.; Kuhn, S.
2001-07-01
We have studied the formation of auroral electron fluxes induced by a field aligned dc electric field in the presence of plasma wave turbulence. The effect of the wave spectral shape on the production rate has been considered. This acceleration scheme was modelled by the weak turbulence approach. The electron fluxes for narrow and broad band spectra, in the case of low and high phase velocities, are calculated, and it is found as a general feature, for all modes, that their enhancement is larger the weaker the background electric field, while for its absolute enhancement it is just the opposite. The electron fluxes are enhanced by many orders of magnitude over that without turbulence. It is also shown that the modes enhance the runaway production rate via their Cherenkov dissipation, and that a synergetic effect occurs in the enhancement when more than one mode turbulent is present in the acceleration region. (author)
Evolution of the magnetic field structure of the Crab pulsar.
Lyne, Andrew; Graham-Smith, Francis; Weltevrede, Patrick; Jordan, Christine; Stappers, Ben; Bassa, Cees; Kramer, Michael
2013-11-01
Pulsars are highly magnetized rotating neutron stars and are well known for the stability of their signature pulse shapes, allowing high-precision studies of their rotation. However, during the past 22 years, the radio pulse profile of the Crab pulsar has shown a steady increase in the separation of the main pulse and interpulse components at 0.62° ± 0.03° per century. There are also secular changes in the relative strengths of several components of the profile. The changing component separation indicates that the axis of the dipolar magnetic field, embedded in the neutron star, is moving toward the stellar equator. This evolution of the magnetic field could explain why the pulsar does not spin down as expected from simple braking by a rotating dipolar magnetic field.
Anisotropies in magnetic field evolution and local Lyapunov exponents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, X.Z.; Boozer, A.H.
2000-01-01
The natural occurrence of small scale structures and the extreme anisotropy in the evolution of a magnetic field embedded in a conducting flow is interpreted in terms of the properties of the local Lyapunov exponents along the various local characteristic (un)stable directions for the Lagrangian flow trajectories. The local Lyapunov exponents and the characteristic directions are functions of Lagrangian coordinates and time, which are completely determined once the flow field is specified. The characteristic directions that are associated with the spatial anisotropy of the problem, are prescribed in both Lagrangian and Eulerian frames. Coordinate transformation techniques are employed to relate the spatial distributions of the magnetic field, the induced current density, and the Lorentz force, which are usually followed in Eulerian frame, to those of the local Lyapunov exponents, which are naturally defined in Lagrangian coordinates
The Liouville equation for flavour evolution of neutrinos and neutrino wave packets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hansen, Rasmus Sloth Lundkvist; Smirnov, Alexei Yu., E-mail: rasmus@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: smirnov@mpi-hd.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany)
2016-12-01
We consider several aspects related to the form, derivation and applications of the Liouville equation (LE) for flavour evolution of neutrinos. To take into account the quantum nature of neutrinos we derive the evolution equation for the matrix of densities using wave packets instead of Wigner functions. The obtained equation differs from the standard LE by an additional term which is proportional to the difference of group velocities. We show that this term describes loss of the propagation coherence in the system. In absence of momentum changing collisions, the LE can be reduced to a single derivative equation over a trajectory coordinate. Additional time and spatial dependence may stem from initial (production) conditions. The transition from single neutrino evolution to the evolution of a neutrino gas is considered.
Electromagnetic waves destabilized by runaway electrons in near-critical electric fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Komar, A.; Pokol, G. I. [Department of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Association EURATOM, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Fueloep, T. [Department of Applied Physics, Nuclear Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology and Euratom-VR Association, Goeteborg (Sweden)
2013-01-15
Runaway electron distributions are strongly anisotropic in velocity space. This anisotropy is a source of free energy that may destabilize electromagnetic waves through a resonant interaction between the waves and the energetic electrons. In this work, we investigate the high-frequency electromagnetic waves that are destabilized by runaway electron beams when the electric field is close to the critical field for runaway acceleration. Using a runaway electron distribution appropriate for the near-critical case, we calculate the linear instability growth rate of these waves and conclude that the obliquely propagating whistler waves are most unstable. We show that the frequencies, wave numbers, and propagation angles of the most unstable waves depend strongly on the magnetic field. Taking into account collisional and convective damping of the waves, we determine the number density of runaways that is required to destabilize the waves and show its parametric dependences.
Scenarios for the nonlinear evolution of alpha particle induced Alfven wave instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.; Ye, Huanchun.
1992-03-01
Various nonlinear scenarios are given for the evolution of energetic particles that are slowing down in a background plasma and simultaneously causing instability of the background plasma waves. If the background damping is sufficiently weak, a steady-state wave is established as described by Berk and Breizman. For larger background damping rate pulsations develop. Saturation occurs when the wave amplitude rises to where the wave trapping frequency equals the growth rate. The wave then damps due to the small background dissipation present and a relatively long quiet interval exists between bursts while the free energy of the distribution is refilled by classical transport. In this scenario the anomalous energy loss of energetic particles due to diffusion is small compared to the classical collisional energy exchange with the background plasma. However, if at the trapping frequency, the wave amplitude is large enough to cause orbit stochasticity, a phase space ''explosion'' occurs where the wave amplitudes rise to higher levels which leads to rapid loss of energetic particles
Multiple travelling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations using a unified algebraic method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fan Engui
2002-01-01
A new direct and unified algebraic method for constructing multiple travelling wave solutions of general nonlinear evolution equations is presented and implemented in a computer algebraic system. Compared with most of the existing tanh methods, the Jacobi elliptic function method or other sophisticated methods, the proposed method not only gives new and more general solutions, but also provides a guideline to classify the various types of the travelling wave solutions according to the values of some parameters. The solutions obtained in this paper include (a) kink-shaped and bell-shaped soliton solutions, (b) rational solutions, (c) triangular periodic solutions and (d) Jacobi and Weierstrass doubly periodic wave solutions. Among them, the Jacobi elliptic periodic wave solutions exactly degenerate to the soliton solutions at a certain limit condition. The efficiency of the method can be demonstrated on a large variety of nonlinear evolution equations such as those considered in this paper, KdV-MKdV, Ito's fifth MKdV, Hirota, Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov, Broer-Kaup, generalized coupled Hirota-Satsuma, coupled Schroedinger-KdV, (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave, (2+1)-dimensional Davey-Stewartson equations. In addition, as an illustrative sample, the properties of the soliton solutions and Jacobi doubly periodic solutions for the Hirota equation are shown by some figures. The links among our proposed method, the tanh method, extended tanh method and the Jacobi elliptic function method are clarified generally. (author)
ICRF wave propagation and absorption in tokamak and mirror magnetic fields: a full-wave calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaeger, E.F.; Batchelor, D.B.; Weitzner, H.; Whealton, J.H.
1985-01-01
Global solutions for the ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) wave fields in a straight tokamak with rotational transform and a poloidally symmetric mirror are calculated in the cold plasma limit. The component of the wave electric field parallel to vector Bis assumed zero. Symmetry in each problem allows Fourier decomposition in one ignorable coordinate, and the remaining set of two coupled, two-dimensional partial differential equations is solved by finite differencing. Energy absorption and antenna impedance are calculated using a simple collisional absorption model. When large gradients in vertical barBvertical bar along vectorB are present in either geometry, ICRF heating at the fundamental ion cyclotron resonance is observed. For the mirror, such gradients are always present. But for the tokamak, the rotational transform must be large enough that vectorB . delB greater than or equal to 0(1). For smaller transforms more typical of real tokamaks, only heating at the two-ion hybird resonance is observed. This suggests that direct resonant absorption at the fundamental ion cyclotron resonance may be possible in stellarators where vectorB . delB approx. 0(1) + 11
ICRF wave propagation and absorption in tokamak and mirror magnetic fields: a full-wave calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaeger, E.F.; Batchelor, D.B.; Weitzner, H.; Whealton, J.H.
1986-01-01
Global solutions for the ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) wave fields in a straight tokamak with rotational transform and in a poloidally symmetric mirror are calculated in the cold plasma limit. The component of the wave electric field parallel to B vector is assumed zero. Symmetry in each problem allows Fourier decomposition in one ignorable coordinate, and the remaining set of two coupled, two-dimensional partial differential equations is solved by finite differencing. Energy absorption and antenna impedance are calculated using a simple collisional absorption model. When large gradients in absolute value B along B vector are present in either geometry, ICRF heating at the fundamental ion cyclotron resonance is observed. For the mirror, such gradients are always present. But for the tokamak, the rotational transform must be large enough that B vector . delB greater than or equal to 0(1). For smaller transforms more typical of real tokamaks, only heating at the two-ion hybrid resonance is observed. This suggests that direct resonant absorption at the fundamental ion cyclotron resonance may be possible in stellarators where B vector . delB approx. 0(1) naturally. 13 refs., 23 figs
Modelling of the nonlinear evolution of 2D waves and vortices in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taranov, V.B.
1998-01-01
In this report an antisymmetric lattice formed by standing waves of vorticity is considered. For small but finite amplitudes multiple-time-scale analysis is performed, higher harmonics generation and frequency shifts are evaluated analytically and critical amplitude for perturbation theory is determined. For amplitudes bigger than critical numerical simulations are carried out taking into account vortex nonlinearity, drift and dispersion effects. Numerical code is developed which allows to study long-term evolution of two-dimensional spatially periodic waves and vortex structures
Stochastic Loewner evolution as an approach to conformal field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller-Lohmann, Annekathrin
2008-01-01
The main focus on this work lies on the relationship between two-dimensional boundary Conformal Field Theories (BCFTs) and SCHRAMM-LOEWNER Evolutions (SLEs) as motivated by their connection to the scaling limit of Statistical Physics models at criticality. The BCFT approach used for the past 25 years is based on the algebraic formulation of local objects such as fields and their correlations in these models. Introduced in 1999, SLE describes the physical properties from a probabilistic point of view, studying measures on growing curves, i.e. global objects such as cluster interfaces. After a short motivation of the topic, followed by a more detailed introduction to two-dimensional boundary Conformal Field Theory and SCHRAMM-LOEWNER Evolution, we present the results of our original work. We extend the method of obtaining SLE variants for a change of measure of the single SLE to derive the most general BCFT model that can be related to SLE. Moreover, we interpret the change of the measure in the context of physics and Probability Theory. In addition, we discuss the meaning of bulk fields in BCFT as bulk force-points for the SLE variant SLE (κ, vector ρ). Furthermore, we investigate the short-distance expansion of the boundary condition changing fields, creating cluster interfaces that can be described by SLE, with other boundary or bulk fields. Thereby we derive new SLE martingales related to the existence of boundary fields with vanishing descendant on level three. We motivate that the short-distance scaling law of these martingales as adjustment of the measure can be interpreted as the SLE probability of curves coming close to the location of the second field. Finally, we extend the algebraic κ-relation for the allowed variances in multiple SLE, arising due to the commutation requirement of the infinitesimal growth operators, to the joint growth of two SLE traces. The analysis straightforwardly suggests the form of the infinitesimal LOEWNER mapping of joint
Wave propagation downstream of a high power helicon in a dipolelike magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prager, James; Winglee, Robert; Roberson, B. Race; Ziemba, Timothy
2010-01-01
The wave propagating downstream of a high power helicon source in a diverging magnetic field was investigated experimentally. The magnetic field of the wave has been measured both axially and radially. The three-dimensional structure of the propagating wave is observed and its wavelength and phase velocity are determined. The measurements are compared to predictions from helicon theory and that of a freely propagating whistler wave. The implications of this work on the helicon as a thruster are also discussed.
Evolution of Attitudes in the Field of Human Research Ethics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hugo Escobar-Melo
2008-05-01
Full Text Available The state of evolution of attitudes in a sample of 142 Medical Students at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana in Bogota (at the beginning, middle and ending of their studies in the field of Human Research Ethics (HRE is analytically described. A complex scale of attitudes was used, with three components: affective, beliefs-related and behavioral, further divided into three theoretical categories taken from Bioethics: Subject-End/means- Dignity, Benefit and Justice. The relationship between the current medical education process and the attitudes regarding HRE in the sample are analyzed.A small trend towards progress in all categories and in all components of attitudes throughout medical education is described; neither the Benefit nor the Subject-End/means/Dignity categories evolve in a significant way; some significant differences were observed in the Justice category (beliefs and behavioral and in the Subject-End/means-Dignity category (beliefs component. The results allow for asking about the role of formation and evolution of those attitudes throughout the academic process. In conclusion, attitudes seem to be progressing relatively, without a decisive evolution.
Sound absorption in a field of a strong electromagnetic wave in a quantizied magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chajkovskij, I.A.
1974-01-01
A coefficient of sound absorption GAMMA in a semiconductor and semi-metal in the quantized magnetic field is calculated for a system exposed to a field of strong electromagnetic radiation. The cases E parallel H and E orthogonal H are considered. Along with the already known strong oscillations of sound absorption in magnetic fields, the absorption spectrum GAMMAsub(par) and GAMMAsub(orth) shows new oscillations representing a manifestation of the quasi-energetic electron spectrum in the field of a strong electromagnetic wave. The oscillation height at E parallel H is modulated by the electromagnetic field. It is shown that the ratio GAMMAsub(par)/GAMMAsub(orth) allows the determination of the effective mass of the carriers
Ambipolarons: Solitary wave solutions for the radial electric field in a plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hastings, D.E.; Hazeltine, R.D.; Morrison, P.J.
1986-01-01
The ambipolar radial electric field in a nonaxisymmetric plasma can be described by a nonlinear diffusion equation. This equation is shown to possess solitary wave solutions. A model nonlinear diffusion equation with a cubic nonlinearity is studied. An explicit analytic step-like form for the solitary wave is found. It is shown that the solitary wave solutions are linearly stable against all but translational perturbations. Collisions of these solitary waves are studied and three possible final states are found: two diverging solitary waves, two stationary solitary waves, or two converging solitary waves leading to annihilation
Study of the cosmological evolution of the magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubois, Yohan
2008-01-01
In numerical models within the standard hierarchical structure formation, galaxies contain too much stars in comparison with observations. That is called the over-cooling dilemma. I have studied the galactic wind formation produced by the supernovae explosions using the numerical code RAMSES and a bunch of analytical tools. I have underlined the central role of the infalling gas accreting on galactic disks, and I have determined the conditions under which this accretion can prevent any gas ejection on large scales. It appears that winds are unable to elucidate the over-cooling problem in quiescent star forming galaxies. On the other hand, dwarf galaxies, capable to form such super-winds, are responsible for the metallic and magnetic enrichment of the extra-galactic medium. Using the same numerical tool, I performed the first simulation of the formation of a galactic win with magnetic fields. Numerical simulations of galactic wind formation with magnetic fields show the necessity of some amplification process occurring in galaxies: associated to a strong stellar dynamo, supernovae explosions can originate the residual magnetic field of the Universe. The magnetic field present on large scales is therefore amplified when the hot gas of the galaxy cluster collapses. By achieving the first magnetic cosmological simulation of the formation of a cluster and its galaxies, I was able to point out the necessity of accounting for the cooling processes to properly describe the magnetic field evolution inside the cluster core and to reconcile simulations with observational values. (author) [fr
Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Shota; Kameda, Masaharu
2014-11-01
We investigate the spatiotemporal evolution of a laser-induced shock wave in a liquid filled thin tube. In order to measure pressure distribution at shock front, we adopt the background-oriented schlieren (BOS) technique. This technique provides two- or three-dimensional pressure field in a small region with a simple setup. With an ultra high-speed video camera and a laser stroboscope, we successfully capture the spatial evolution of the shock every 0.2 μs. We find an angular variation of the pressure at the shock front. The maximum pressure is in the direction of the laser shot while the minimum value is in the perpendicular direction. We compare the temporal evolution of the pressure measured by BOS technique with those obtained by another method, i.e. pressure estimation from the shock front position. Overall trend from both methods show a good agreement. The pressure from the shock front position exists between the maximum and minimum values from BOS technique. It indicates that our quantification method can measure more detailed pressure field in two- or three-dimensions. Our results might be used for the efficient generation systems for the microjet, which can be applicable for needle free injection devices.
Effects of a longitudinal magnetic field on current pulses and fast ionization-wave structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Asinovskii, E.I.; Lagar'kov, A.N.; Markovets, V.V.; Rutkevich, I.M.; Ul'yanov, A.M.; Filyugin, I.V.
1988-01-01
A longitudinal magnetic field affects the fast ionization-wave structure in a discharge tube surrounded by a metal screen. The field does not alter the wave speed, but the current amplitude is increased. This is explained from a theory for fast-wave propagation in a cylindrical guide containing an axial field. Numerical solutions have been obtained for the stationary nonlinear waves, which are compared with measurements. A theoretical study has been made on the ionization-wave features for large values of the Hall parameter
Zhu, Hong-Ming; Chen, Jin-Wang; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Sahni, Viraht
2014-01-14
We derive via the interaction "representation" the many-body wave function for harmonically confined electrons in the presence of a magnetostatic field and perturbed by a spatially homogeneous time-dependent electric field-the Generalized Kohn Theorem (GKT) wave function. In the absence of the harmonic confinement - the uniform electron gas - the GKT wave function reduces to the Kohn Theorem wave function. Without the magnetostatic field, the GKT wave function is the Harmonic Potential Theorem wave function. We further prove the validity of the connection between the GKT wave function derived and the system in an accelerated frame of reference. Finally, we provide examples of the application of the GKT wave function.
Magnetic Spin Waves in CsNiF3 with an Applied Field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steiner, M.; Kjems, Jørgen
1977-01-01
The spin wave dispersion in the planar 1D ferromagnet CsNiF3 has been measured by inelastic neutron scattering in an external field. The spin wave linewidths are found to decrease with increasing field and become resolution-limited for H>10 kG at 4.2K. At high fields, H>10 kG, both energies...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roberts, Jesse D.; Grace Chang; Jason Magalen; Craig Jones
2014-08-01
A n indust ry standard wave modeling tool was utilized to investigate model sensitivity to input parameters and wave energy converter ( WEC ) array deploym ent scenarios. Wave propagation was investigated d ownstream of the WECs to evaluate overall near - and far - field effects of WEC arrays. The sensitivity study illustrate d that b oth wave height and near - bottom orbital velocity we re subject to the largest pote ntial variations, each decreas ed in sensitivity as transmission coefficient increase d , as number and spacing of WEC devices decrease d , and as the deployment location move d offshore. Wave direction wa s affected consistently for all parameters and wave perio d was not affected (or negligibly affected) by varying model parameters or WEC configuration .
Field of infrasound wave on the earth from blast wave, produced by supersonic flight of a rocket
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drobzheva, Ya.V.; Krasnov, V.M.
2006-01-01
It was developed a physical model, which allowed calculating a field of infrasound wave on the earth from blast wave, produced by supersonic flight of a rocket. For space launching site Baikonur it is shown that the nearest horizontal distance from launching site of rocket up to which arrive infrasound waves, produced by supersonic flight of a rocket, is 56 km. Amplitude of acoustic impulse decreases in 5 times on distance of 600 km. Duration of acoustic impulse increases from 1.5 to 3 s on the same distance. Values of acoustic field parameters on the earth surface, practically, do not depend from season of launching of rocket. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gutierrez Tapia, C.
1990-01-01
It is shown in a one-dimensional model that when a current in a plasma sheath is present, the excitation of surface waves and electrostatic fields by a RF wave is possible in the sheath. This phenomena depends strongly on the joint action of Miller's and driven forces. It is also shown that the action of these forces are carried out at different characteristic times when the wave front travels through the plasma sheath. The influence of the current, in the steady limit, is taken into account by a small functional variation of the density perturbations and generated electrostatic field. (Author)
Long-term evolution of sand waves in the Marsdiep inlet. II: Relation to hydrodynamics
Buijsman, Maarten C.; Ridderinkhof, Herman
2008-05-01
A discussion is presented about the mechanisms that govern the spatial and seasonal variability in sand-wave height and migration speed in the 4 km wide Marsdiep tidal inlet, the Netherlands. Since 1998, current velocities and water depths have been recorded with an ADCP that is mounted under the ferry 'Schulpengat'. In this paper, the current measurements were used to explain the sand-wave observations presented in Buijsman and Ridderinkhof [this issue. Long-term evolution of sand waves in the Marsdiep inlet. I: high-resolution observations. Continental Shelf Research, doi: 10.1016/j.csr.2007.10.011]. Across nearly the entire inlet, the sand waves migrate in the flood direction. In the flood-dominated southern part of the inlet, the 'measured' (i.e. based on sand-wave shape and migration speed) and predicted bedload transport agree in direction, magnitude, and trends, whereas in the ebb-dominated northern part the predicted bedload and suspended load transport is opposite to the sand-wave migration. In the southern part, 55% of the bedload transport is due to tidal asymmetries and 45% due to residual currents. In addition to the well-known tidal asymmetries, asymmetries that arise from the interaction of M2 and its overtides with S2 and its compound tides are also important. It is hypothesised that in the northern part of the inlet the advection of suspended sand and lag effects govern the sand-wave migration. The relative importance of suspended load transport also explains why the sand waves have smaller lee-slope angles, are smaller, more rounded, and more three-dimensional in the northern half of the inlet. The sand waves in this part of the inlet feature the largest seasonal variability in height and migration speed. This seasonal variability may be attributed to the tides or a seasonal fluctuation in fall velocity. In both cases sediment transport is enhanced in winter, increasing sand-wave migration and decreasing sand-wave height. The influence of storms
Luminosity profiles and the evolution of shock waves in general relativistic radiating spheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrera, L.; Nunez, L.A.
1989-10-01
A method recently proposed by the authors to study the evolution of discontinuities in radiating spherically symmetric distributions of matter is systematically applied to model the evolution of a composite radiant sphere. The matter configuration, free of singularities, is divided in two regions by a shock wave front, and at each side of this interface a different equation of state is considered. Solutions are matched across the shock via the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions while the outer region metric joins the Vaidya solution at the boundary surface. The influence on the evolution of these composite spheres of different shapes of neutrino outburst profiles, and particular neutrino-transfer processes from the inner core to the outer mantel is explored. Prospective applications to supernova scenarios are discussed. (author). 18 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab
Numerical study of primordial magnetic field amplification by inflation-produced gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Naoshi
2010-01-01
We numerically study the interaction of inflation-produced magnetic fields with gravitational waves, both of which originate from quantum fluctuations during inflation. The resonance between the magnetic field perturbations and the gravitational waves has been suggested as a possible mechanism for magnetic field amplification. However, some analytical studies suggest that the effect of the inflationary gravitational waves is too small to provide significant amplification. Our numerical study shows more clearly how the interaction affects the magnetic fields and confirms the weakness of the influence of the gravitational waves. We present an investigation based on the magnetohydrodynamic approximation and take into account the differences of the Alfven speed.
Phase-field modelling of microstructural evolution and properties
Zhu, Jingzhi
As one of the most powerful techniques in computational materials science, the diffuse-interface phase-field model has been widely employed for simulating various meso-scale microstructural evolution processes. The main purpose of this thesis is to develop a quantitative phase-field model for predicting microstructures and properties in real alloy systems which can be linked to existing thermodynamic/kinetic databases and parameters obtained from experimental measurements or first-principle calculations. To achieve this goal; many factors involved in complicated real systems are investigated, many of which are often simplified or ignored in existing models, e.g. the dependence of diffusional atomic mobility and elastic constants on composition. Efficient numerical techniques must be developed to solve those partial differential equations that are involved in modelling microstructural evolutions and properties. In this thesis, different spectral methods were proposed for the time-dependent phase-field kinetic equations and diffusion equations. For solving the elastic equilibrium equation with the consideration of elastic inhomogeneity, a conjugate gradient method was utilized. The numerical approaches developed were generally found to be more accurate and efficient than conventional approach such as finite difference method. A composition-dependent Cahn-Hilliard equation was solved by using a semi-implicit Fourier-spectral method. It was shown that the morphological evolutions in bulk-diffusion-controlled coarsening and interface-diffusion-controlled developed similar patterns and scaling behaviors. For bulk-diffusion-controlled coarsening, a cubic growth law was obeyed in the scaling regime, whereas a fourth power growth law was observed for interface-diffusion-controlled coarsening. The characteristics of a microstructure under the influence of elastic energy depend on elastic properties such as elastic anisotropy, lattice mismatch, elastic inhomogeneity and
Near-Field Ground Motion Modal versus Wave Propagation Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Artur Cichowicz
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The response spectrum generally provides a good estimate of the global displacement and acceleration demand of far-field ground motion on a structure. However, it does not provide accurate information on the local shape or internal deformation of the response of the structure. Near-field pulse-like ground motion will propagate through the structure as waves, causing large, localized deformation. Therefore, the response spectrum alone is not a sufficient representation of near-field ground motion features. Results show that the drift-response technique based on a continuous shear-beam model has to be employed here to estimate structure-demand parameters when structure is exposed to the pulse like ground motion. Conduced modeling shows limited applicability of the drift spectrum based on the SDOF approximation. The SDOF drift spectrum approximation can only be applied to structures with smaller natural periods than the dominant period of the ground motion. For periods larger than the dominant period of ground motion the SDOF drift spectra model significantly underestimates maximum deformation. Strong pulse-type motions are observed in the near-source region of large earthquakes; however, there is a lack of waveforms collected from small earthquakes at very close distances that were recorded underground in mines. The results presented in this paper are relevant for structures with a height of a few meters, placed in an underground excavation. The strong ground motion sensors recorded mine-induced earthquakes in a deep gold mine, South Africa. The strongest monitored horizontal ground motion was caused by an event of magnitude 2 at a distance of 90 m with PGA 123 m/s2, causing drifts of 0.25%–0.35%. The weak underground motion has spectral characteristics similar to the strong ground motion observed on the earth's surface; the drift spectrum has a maximum value less than 0.02%.
Pelinovsky, Efim; Chaikovskaia, Natalya; Rodin, Artem
2015-04-01
The paper presents the analysis of the formation and evolution of shock wave in shallow water with no restrictions on its amplitude in the framework of the nonlinear shallow water equations. It is shown that in the case of large-amplitude waves appears a new nonlinear effect of reflection from the shock front of incident wave. These results are important for the assessment of coastal flooding by tsunami waves and storm surges. Very often the largest number of victims was observed on the coastline where the wave moved breaking. Many people, instead of running away, were just looking at the movement of the "raging wall" and lost time. This fact highlights the importance of researching the problem of security and optimal behavior of people in situations with increased risk. Usually there is uncertainty about the exact time, when rogue waves will impact. This fact limits the ability of people to adjust their behavior psychologically to the stressful situations. It concerns specialists, who are busy both in the field of flying activity and marine service as well as adults, young people and children, who live on the coastal zone. The rogue wave research is very important and it demands cooperation of different scientists - mathematicians and physicists, as well as sociologists and psychologists, because the final goal of efforts of all scientists is minimization of the harm, brought by rogue waves to humanity.
Baroclinic wave configurations evolution at European scale in the period 1948-2013
Carbunaru, Daniel; Burcea, Sorin; Carbunaru, Felicia
2016-04-01
The main aim of the study was to investigate the dynamic characteristics of synoptic configurations at European scale and especially in south-eastern part of Europe for the period 1948-2013. Using the empirical orthogonal functions analysis, simultaneously applied to daily average geopotential field at different pressure levels (200 hPa, 300 hPa, 500 hPa and 850 hPa) during warm (April-September) and cold (October-March) seasons, on a synoptic spatial domain centered on Europe (-27.5o lon V to 45o lon E and 32.5o lat N to 72.5o lat N), the main mode of oscillation characteristic to vertical shift of mean baroclinic waves was obtained. The analysis independently applied on 66 years showed that the first eigenvectors in warms periods describe about 60% of the data and in cold season 40% of the data for each year. In comparison secondary eigenvectors describe up to 20% and 10% of the data. Thus, the analysis was focused on the complex evolution of the first eigenvector in 66 years, during the summer period. On average, this eigenvector describes a small vertical phase shift in the west part of the domain and a large one in the eastern part. Because the spatial extent of the considered synoptic domain incorporates in the west part AMO (Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation) and NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) oscillations, and in the north part being sensitive to AO (Arctic Oscillation) oscillation, these three oscillations were considered as modulating dynamic factors at hemispherical scale. The preliminary results show that in the summer seasons AMO and NAO oscillations modulated vertical phase shift of baroclinic wave in the west of the area (Northwestern Europe), and the relationship between AO and NAO oscillations modulated vertical phase shift in the southeast area (Southeast Europe). Second, it was shown the way in which this vertical phase shift modulates the overall behavior of cyclonic activity, particularly in Southeastern Europe. This work has been developed
Diffraction of ultracold fermions by quantized light fields: Standing versus traveling waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meiser, D.; Search, C.P.; Meystre, P.
2005-01-01
We study the diffraction of quantum-degenerate fermionic atoms off of quantized light fields in an optical cavity. We compare the case of a linear cavity with standing-wave modes to that of a ring cavity with two counterpropagating traveling wave modes. It is found that the dynamics of the atoms strongly depends on the quantization procedure for the cavity field. For standing waves, no correlations develop between the cavity field and the atoms. Consequently, standing-wave Fock states yield the same results as a classical standing wave field while coherent states give rise to a collapse and revivals in the scattering of the atoms. In contrast, for traveling waves the scattering results in quantum entanglement of the radiation field and the atoms. This leads to a collapse and revival of the scattering probability even for Fock states. The Pauli exclusion principle manifests itself as an additional dephasing of the scattering probability
Exact Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation for gravitational waves and magnetic field background
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goncalves, Bruno; Obukhov, Yuri N.; Shapiro, Ilya L.
2007-01-01
We consider an exact Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation for the Dirac spinor field on the combined background of a gravitational wave and constant uniform magnetic field. By taking the classical limit of the spinor field Hamiltonian, we arrive at the equations of motion for the nonrelativistic spinning particle. Two different kinds of gravitational fields are considered and in both cases the effect of the gravitational wave on the spinor field and on the corresponding spinning particle may be enforced by a sufficiently strong magnetic field. This result can be relevant for astrophysical applications and, in principle, useful for creating the gravitational wave detectors based on atomic physics and precise interferometry
Irregular wave functions of a hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field
Wintgen, D.; Hoenig, A.
1989-01-01
The highly excited irregular wave functions of a hydrogen atom in a uniform magnetic field are investigated analytically, with wave function scarring by periodic orbits considered quantitatively. The results obtained confirm that the contributions of closed classical orbits to the spatial wave functions vanish in the semiclassical limit. Their disappearance, however, is slow. This discussion is illustrated by numerical examples.
Induced Electromagnetic Field by Seismic Waves in Stratified Media in Earth's Magnetic Field
Yamazaki, K.
2017-12-01
Seismic waves accompany electromagnetic (EM) variations because Earth's crust involves a variety of EM properties such as finite electrical conductivity and ion contents. If we can catch the EM variations just after the earthquake rupture, we will know the occurrence of earthquake before the arrival of seismic waves at observation point. However, quantitative aspects of EM variations arising from seismic waves have not sufficiently understood. Together with observational works, theoretical works have been made to simulate EM variations arising from seismic waves. The generation mechanisms of EM variations include electrokinetic effect (Pride, 1994), motional induction (Gao et al., 2014), piezo-electric effect (Ogawa and Utada, 2000), piezo-magnetic effect (Yamazaki, 2016), etc. It is widely accepted that the electrokinetic effect is the dominant mechanism. Theoretical calculation of EM variations assuming the electrokinetic effect roughly explains the observed EM variations accompanying with earthquake ground motions (e.g. Gao et al. 2016). However, there are a significant disagreement between observed and predicted EM variations. In the present study, I focus on the motional induction mechanism that possibly explain some parts of EM variations accompanying with seismic waves. A theoretical work on EM variations arising from the motional induction has been presented by Gao et al. (2014), but their work assumed uniform full-space medium. In contrast, the present work assumes stratified media which correctly incorporate the effect of the ground surface. I apply a calculating method developed in seismology (e.g. Kennett, 2013) and in EM studies (Haartsen and Pride, 1997), and derive a set of expressions describing the spatial-temporal variations of the EM field after the onset of rupture. The derived formula is used to calculate EM variations for actual earthquakes to compare the theoretical prediction to observed EM variations.
Hao, Y.; Zong, Q.; Zhou, X.; Rankin, R.; Chen, X.; Liu, Y.; Fu, S.; Spence, H. E.; Blake, J. B.; Reeves, G. D.
2017-12-01
We present an analysis of "boomerang-shaped" pitch angle evolutions of outer radiation belt relativistic electrons observed by the Van Allen Probes after the passage of an interplanetary shock on June 7th, 2014. The flux at different pitch angles is modulated by Pc5 waves, with equatorially mirroring electrons reaching the satellite first. For 90º pitch angle electrons, the phase change of the flux modulations across energy exceeds 180º, and increasingly tilts with time. Using estimates of the arrival time of particles of different pitch angles at the spacecraft location, a scenario is investigated in which shock-induced ULF waves interact with electrons through the drift resonance mechanism in a localized region westward of the spacecraft. Numerical calculations on particle energy gain with the modified ULF wave field reproduce the observed boomerang stripes and modulations in the electron energy spectrogram. The study of boomerang stripes and their relationship to drift-resonance taking place at a location different from the observation point adds new understanding of the processes controlling the dynamics of the outer radiation belt.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Dörnbrack
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The relatively warm 2009–2010 Arctic winter was an exceptional one as the North Atlantic Oscillation index attained persistent extreme negative values. Here, selected aspects of the Arctic stratosphere during this winter inspired by the analysis of the international field experiment RECONCILE are presented. First of all, and as a kind of reference, the evolution of the polar vortex in its different phases is documented. Special emphasis is put on explaining the formation of the exceptionally cold vortex in mid winter after a sequence of stratospheric disturbances which were caused by upward propagating planetary waves. A major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW occurring near the end of January 2010 concluded the anomalous cold vortex period. Wave ice polar stratospheric clouds were frequently observed by spaceborne remote-sensing instruments over the Arctic during the cold period in January 2010. Here, one such case observed over Greenland is analysed in more detail and an attempt is made to correlate flow information of an operational numerical weather prediction model to the magnitude of the mountain-wave induced temperature fluctuations. Finally, it is shown that the forecasts of the ECMWF ensemble prediction system for the onset of the major SSW were very skilful and the ensemble spread was very small. However, the ensemble spread increased dramatically after the major SSW, displaying the strong non-linearity and internal variability involved in the SSW event.
Reservoir computer predictions for the Three Meter magnetic field time evolution
Perevalov, A.; Rojas, R.; Lathrop, D. P.; Shani, I.; Hunt, B. R.
2017-12-01
The source of the Earth's magnetic field is the turbulent flow of liquid metal in the outer core. Our experiment's goal is to create Earth-like dynamo, to explore the mechanisms and to understand the dynamics of the magnetic and velocity fields. Since it is a complicated system, predictions of the magnetic field is a challenging problem. We present results of mimicking the three Meter experiment by a reservoir computer deep learning algorithm. The experiment is a three-meter diameter outer sphere and a one-meter diameter inner sphere with the gap filled with liquid sodium. The spheres can rotate up to 4 and 14 Hz respectively, giving a Reynolds number near to 108. Two external electromagnets apply magnetic fields, while an array of 31 external and 2 internal Hall sensors measure the resulting induced fields. We use this magnetic probe data to train a reservoir computer to predict the 3M time evolution and mimic waves in the experiment. Surprisingly accurate predictions can be made for several magnetic dipole time scales. This shows that such a complicated MHD system's behavior can be predicted. We gratefully acknowledge support from NSF EAR-1417148.
Agapitov, O. V.; Mourenas, D.; Artemyev, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.
2014-12-01
The evolution of fluxes of energetic trapped electrons as a function of geomagnetic activity is investigated using brand new statistical models of chorus waves derived from Cluster observations in the radiation belts. The new wave models provide the distributions of wave power and wave-normal angle with latitude as a function of either Dst or Kp indices. Lifetimes and energization of energetic electrons are examined, as well as the relevant uncertainties related to some of the wave models implicit assumptions.From the presented results, different implications concerning the characterization of relativistic flux enhancements and losses are provided.
Propagation-invariant waves in acoustic, optical, and radio-wave fields
Salo, Janne
2003-01-01
The physical phenomena considered in this thesis are associated with electromagnetic and acoustic waves that propagate in free space or in homogeneous media without diffraction. The concept of rotationally periodic wave propagation is introduced in the first journal article included in the thesis and it is subsequently used to analyse waves that avoid diffractive deterioration by repeatedly returning to their initial shape, possibly rotated around the optical axis. Such waves constitute an es...
Multidimensional Wave Field Signal Theory: Transfer Function Relationships
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natalie Baddour
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The transmission of information by propagating or diffusive waves is common to many fields of engineering and physics. Such physical phenomena are governed by a Helmholtz (real wavenumber or pseudo-Helmholtz (complex wavenumber equation. Since these equations are linear, it would be useful to be able to use tools from signal theory in solving related problems. The aim of this paper is to derive multidimensional input/output transfer function relationships in the spatial domain for these equations in order to permit such a signal theoretic approach to problem solving. This paper presents such transfer function relationships for the spatial (not Fourier domain within appropriate coordinate systems. It is shown that the relationships assume particularly simple and computationally useful forms once the appropriate curvilinear version of a multidimensional spatial Fourier transform is used. These results are shown for both real and complex wavenumbers. Fourier inversion of these formulas would have applications for tomographic problems in various modalities. In the case of real wavenumbers, these inversion formulas are presented in closed form, whereby an input can be calculated from a given or measured wavefield.
Coherent drift wave structures in sheared magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morrison, P.J.; Horton, W.
1993-01-01
For the problem of calculating the coherent drift wave structures in sheared magnetic fields, the authors have found it useful to derive the governing nonlinear pde from a variational principle. The variational principle is based on the free energy functional F[var-phi] = ∫ V F(var-phi, ∇ var-phi, x)dx dy. The method is applied to the vortex with speed u derived in Su et al., given by ∇ 2 var-phi = (1 - v d /u) var-phi - S m 2 /u 2 (x - var-phi/u) (x - var-phi/2u) var-phi where space is measured in units of ρ s , var-phi = (eΦ/T e )(L n /ρ s ) and the magnetic shear parameter is S m . While the linearized problem (var-phi much-lt ux) describes the usual shear induced damping, nonlinear solutions with trapped flow (var-phi > ur 0 ) form nonlinear self-bound states, which are maxima of the free energy F. The authors discuss the analytic properties and the numerical procedures for solving these types of nonlinear pde's
Conformal coupling of gravitational wave field to curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grishchuk, L.P.; Yudin, V.
1980-01-01
Conformal properties of the equations for weak gravitational waves in a curved space--time are investigated. The basic equations are derived in the linear approximation from Einstein's equations. They represent, in fact, the equations for the second-rank tensor field h/sub alphabeta/, restricted by the auxiliary conditions h/sub α//sup β//sub ;/α =0, hequivalentγ/sub alphabeta/h/sup alphabeta/=0, and embedded into the background space--time with the metric tensor γ/sub alphabeta/. It is shown that the equations for h/sub alphabeta/ are not conformally invariant under the transformations gamma-circumflex/sub alphabeta/ =e/sup 2sigma/γ/sub alphabeta/ and h/sub alphabeta/ =e/sup sigma/h/sub alphabeta/, except for those metric rescalings which transform the Ricci scalar R of the original background space--time into e/sup -2sigma/R, where R is the Ricci scalar of the conformally related background space--time. The general form of the equations for h/sub alphabeta/ which are conformally invariant have been deduced. It is shown that these equations cannot be derived in the linear approximation from any tensor equations which generalize the Einstein equations
Ishihara, Kunihiko; Ohashi, Keishi; Ikari, Tomofumi; Minamide, Hiroaki; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Shikata, Jun-ichi; Ito, Hiromasa
2006-11-01
We demonstrate the terahertz-wave near-field imaging with subwavelength resolution using a bow-tie shaped aperture surrounded by concentric periodic structures in a metal film. A subwavelength aperture with concentric periodic grooves, which are known as a bull's eye structure, shows extremely large enhanced transmission beyond the diffraction limit caused by the resonant excitation of surface waves. Additionally, a bow-tie aperture exhibits extraordinary field enhancement at the sharp tips of the metal, which enhances the transmission and the subwavelength spatial resolution. We introduced a bow-tie aperture to the bull's eye structure and achieved high spatial resolution (˜λ/17) in the near-field region. The terahertz-wave near-field image of the subwavelength metal pattern (pattern width=20μm) was obtained for the wavelength of 207μm.
Magnetic field evolution in dwarf and Magellanic-type galaxies
Siejkowski, H.; Soida, M.; Chyży, K. T.
2018-03-01
Aims: Low-mass galaxies radio observations show in many cases surprisingly high levels of magnetic field. The mass and kinematics of such objects do not favour the development of effective large-scale dynamo action. We attempted to check if the cosmic-ray-driven dynamo can be responsible for measured magnetization in this class of poorly investigated objects. We investigated how starburst events on the whole, as well as when part of the galactic disk, influence the magnetic field evolution. Methods: We created a model of a dwarf/Magellanic-type galaxy described by gravitational potential constituted from two components: the stars and the dark-matter halo. The model is evolved by solving a three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic equation with an additional cosmic-ray component, which is approximated as a fluid. The turbulence is generated in the system via supernova explosions manifested by the injection of cosmic-rays. Results: The cosmic-ray-driven dynamo works efficiently enough to amplify the magnetic field even in low-mass dwarf/Magellanic-type galaxies. The e-folding times of magnetic energy growth are 0.50 and 0.25 Gyr for the slow (50 km s-1) and fast (100 km s-1) rotators, respectively. The amplification is being suppressed as the system reaches the equipartition level between kinetic, magnetic, and cosmic-ray energies. An episode of star formation burst amplifies the magnetic field but only for a short time while increased star formation activity holds. We find that a substantial amount of gas is expelled from the galactic disk, and that the starburst events increase the efficiency of this process.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. N. Romanova
1998-01-01
Full Text Available The dynamics of weakly nonlinear wave trains in unstable media is studied. This dynamics is investigated in the framework of a broad class of dynamical systems having a Hamiltonian structure. Two different types of instability are considered. The first one is the instability in a weakly supercritical media. The simplest example of instability of this type is the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The second one is the instability due to a weak linear coupling of modes of different nature. The simplest example of a geophysical system where the instability of this and only of this type takes place is the three-layer model of a stratified shear flow with a continuous velocity profile. For both types of instability we obtain nonlinear evolution equations describing the dynamics of wave trains having an unstable spectral interval of wavenumbers. The transformation to appropriate canonical variables turns out to be different for each case, and equations we obtained are different for the two types of instability we considered. Also obtained are evolution equations governing the dynamics of wave trains in weakly subcritical media and in media where modes are coupled in a stable way. Presented results do not depend on a specific physical nature of a medium and refer to a broad class of dynamical systems having the Hamiltonian structure of a special form.
Solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the field of a plane electromagnetic wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Starostin, V.S.
1988-01-01
A solution is obtained of the Bethe--Salpeter equation for positronium in the field of linearly and circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves at frequencies much higher than atomic. It is not assumed that the field is weak
Internal Gravity Waves in the Magnetized Solar Atmosphere. I. Magnetic Field Effects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vigeesh, G.; Steiner, O. [Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, Schöneckstrasse 6, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Jackiewicz, J., E-mail: vigeesh@leibniz-kis.de [New Mexico State University, Department of Astronomy, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)
2017-02-01
Observations of the solar atmosphere show that internal gravity waves are generated by overshooting convection, but are suppressed at locations of magnetic flux, which is thought to be the result of mode conversion into magnetoacoustic waves. Here, we present a study of the acoustic-gravity wave spectrum emerging from a realistic, self-consistent simulation of solar (magneto)convection. A magnetic field free, hydrodynamic simulation and a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation with an initial, vertical, homogeneous field of 50 G flux density were carried out and compared with each other to highlight the effect of magnetic fields on the internal gravity wave propagation in the Sun’s atmosphere. We find that the internal gravity waves are absent or partially reflected back into the lower layers in the presence of magnetic fields and argue that the suppression is due to the coupling of internal gravity waves to slow magnetoacoustic waves still within the high- β region of the upper photosphere. The conversion to Alfvén waves is highly unlikely in our model because there is no strongly inclined magnetic field present. We argue that the suppression of internal waves observed within magnetic flux concentrations may also be due to nonlinear breaking of internal waves due to vortex flows that are ubiquitously present in the upper photosphere and the chromosphere.
Accuracy of inference on the physics of binary evolution from gravitational-wave observations
Barrett, Jim W.; Gaebel, Sebastian M.; Neijssel, Coenraad J.; Vigna-Gómez, Alejandro; Stevenson, Simon; Berry, Christopher P. L.; Farr, Will M.; Mandel, Ilya
2018-04-01
The properties of the population of merging binary black holes encode some of the uncertain physics underlying the evolution of massive stars in binaries. The binary black hole merger rate and chirp-mass distribution are being measured by ground-based gravitational-wave detectors. We consider isolated binary evolution, and explore how accurately the physical model can be constrained with such observations by applying the Fisher information matrix to the merging black hole population simulated with the rapid binary-population synthesis code COMPAS. We investigate variations in four COMPAS parameters: common-envelope efficiency, kick-velocity dispersion, and mass-loss rates during the luminous blue variable and Wolf-Rayet stellar-evolutionary phases. We find that ˜1000 observations would constrain these model parameters to a fractional accuracy of a few per cent. Given the empirically determined binary black hole merger rate, we can expect gravitational-wave observations alone to place strong constraints on the physics of stellar and binary evolution within a few years. Our approach can be extended to use other observational data sets; combining observations at different evolutionary stages will lead to a better understanding of stellar and binary physics.
Curvature collineations for the field of gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, K.P.; Singh, Gulab
1981-01-01
It has been shown that the space-times formed from a plane-fronted gravity wave and from a plane sandwich wave with constant polarisation admit proper curvature collineation in general. The curvature collineation vectors have been determined explicitly. (author)
Gravitational waves from non-Abelian gauge fields at a tachyonic transition
Tranberg, Anders; Tähtinen, Sara; Weir, David J.
2018-04-01
We compute the gravitational wave spectrum from a tachyonic preheating transition of a Standard Model-like SU(2)-Higgs system. Tachyonic preheating involves exponentially growing IR modes, at scales as large as the horizon. Such a transition at the electroweak scale could be detectable by LISA, if these non-perturbatively large modes translate into non-linear dynamics sourcing gravitational waves. Through large-scale numerical simulations, we find that the spectrum of gravitational waves does not exhibit such IR features. Instead, we find two peaks corresponding to the Higgs and gauge field mass, respectively. We find that the gravitational wave production is reduced when adding non-Abelian gauge fields to a scalar-only theory, but increases when adding Abelian gauge fields. In particular, gauge fields suppress the gravitational wave spectrum in the IR. A tachyonic transition in the early Universe will therefore not be detectable by LISA, even if it involves non-Abelian gauge fields.
Sirmas, N; Radulescu, M I
2015-02-01
Previous experiments have revealed that shock waves driven through dissipative gases may become unstable, for example, in granular gases and in molecular gases undergoing strong relaxation effects. The mechanisms controlling these instabilities are not well understood. We successfully isolated and investigated this instability in the canonical problem of piston-driven shock waves propagating into a medium characterized by inelastic collision processes. We treat the standard model of granular gases, where particle collisions are taken as inelastic, with a constant coefficient of restitution. The inelasticity is activated for sufficiently strong collisions. Molecular dynamic simulations were performed for 30,000 particles. We find that all shock waves investigated become unstable, with density nonuniformities forming in the relaxation region. The wavelength of these fingers is found to be comparable to the characteristic relaxation thickness. Shock Hugoniot curves for both elastic and inelastic collisions were obtained analytically and numerically. Analysis of these curves indicates that the instability is not of the Bethe-Zeldovich-Thompson or D'yakov-Kontorovich type. Analysis of the shock relaxation rates and rates for clustering in a convected fluid element with the same thermodynamic history ruled out the clustering instability of a homogeneous granular gas. Instead, wave reconstruction of the early transient evolution indicates that the onset of instability occurs during repressurization of the gas following the initial relaxation of the medium behind the lead shock. This repressurization gives rise to internal pressure waves in the presence of strong density gradients. This indicates that the mechanism of instability is more likely of the vorticity-generating Richtmyer-Meshkov type, relying on the action of the inner pressure wave development during the transient relaxation.
Geochemical evolution of the L/ILW near-field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kosakowski, G.; Berner, U.; Wieland, E.; Glaus, M.; Degueldre, C.
2014-10-01
The deep geological repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (L/ILW) contains large amounts of cement based materials used for waste conditioning, tunnel support and the backfill of cavities. The waste inventory is composed of a wide range of organic and inorganic materials. This study describes the spatial and temporal geochemical evolution of the cementitious near-field, and the interactions with the technical barriers and the surrounding host rock. This evolution is governed by several coupled processes, an important one being the development of saturation by groundwater ingress from the host rock. Saturation of the near-field is controlled by the inflow of water from the host rock, by the transport of dissolved gases from the near-field into the host rock and in the engineered gas transport system, and by the transport of humidity in the gas phase. The production of gas by anoxic corrosion of metals and by microbial degradation of organic wastes consumes water. The mineral reactions which give rise to concrete degradation, such as carbonation or alkali-silica-aggregate reactions may also consume or produce water. The first phase of cementitious near-field degradation, which persists only for a short period of time, is related to the hydration of cement minerals. The pore water has a pH of 13 or even higher because of the high content of dissolved alkali hydroxides. A constant pH of 12.5 determines the second phase of the cement degradation. The alkali concentration is reduced by mineral reactions and/or solute transport. This phase persists for a long time. In the third phase the portlandite is completely dissolved due to the reaction with silicates/aluminates present in the near-field and carbonate in the groundwater of the host rock or associated with reactive waste materials. The pore water is in equilibrium with calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H) which gives rise to a pH value near 11 or lower. The Ca/Si ratio of C-S-H changes towards
Geochemical evolution of the L/ILW near-field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kosakowski, G.; Berner, U.; Wieland, E.; Glaus, M.; Degueldre, C.
2014-10-15
The deep geological repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (L/ILW) contains large amounts of cement based materials used for waste conditioning, tunnel support and the backfill of cavities. The waste inventory is composed of a wide range of organic and inorganic materials. This study describes the spatial and temporal geochemical evolution of the cementitious near-field, and the interactions with the technical barriers and the surrounding host rock. This evolution is governed by several coupled processes, an important one being the development of saturation by groundwater ingress from the host rock. Saturation of the near-field is controlled by the inflow of water from the host rock, by the transport of dissolved gases from the near-field into the host rock and in the engineered gas transport system, and by the transport of humidity in the gas phase. The production of gas by anoxic corrosion of metals and by microbial degradation of organic wastes consumes water. The mineral reactions which give rise to concrete degradation, such as carbonation or alkali-silica-aggregate reactions may also consume or produce water. The first phase of cementitious near-field degradation, which persists only for a short period of time, is related to the hydration of cement minerals. The pore water has a pH of 13 or even higher because of the high content of dissolved alkali hydroxides. A constant pH of 12.5 determines the second phase of the cement degradation. The alkali concentration is reduced by mineral reactions and/or solute transport. This phase persists for a long time. In the third phase the portlandite is completely dissolved due to the reaction with silicates/aluminates present in the near-field and carbonate in the groundwater of the host rock or associated with reactive waste materials. The pore water is in equilibrium with calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H) which gives rise to a pH value near 11 or lower. The Ca/Si ratio of C-S-H changes towards
Space-time evolution of Gaussian wave packets through superlattices containing left-handed layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pereyra, P; Romero-Serrano, M [Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Mexico DF (Mexico); Robledo-Martinez, A, E-mail: ppereyra@correo.azc.uam.m, E-mail: a.robledo@mailaps.or [Departamento de EnergIa, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, Mexico DF (Mexico)
2009-05-01
We study the space-time evolution of Gaussian electromagnetic wave packets moving through (L/R){sup n} superlattices, containing alternating layers of left and right-handed materials. We show that the time spent by the wave packet moving through arbitrary (L/R){sup n} superlattices are well described by the phase time. We show that in the particular case where the thicknesses d{sub L,R} and indices n{sub l,r} of the layers satisfy the condition d{sub L}|n{sub L}| = d{sub R}n{sub R}, the usual band structure becomes a sequence of isolated and equidistant peaks with negative phase times.
Influence of magnetic field configuration on magnetohydrodynamic waves in Earth's core
Knezek, Nicholas; Buffett, Bruce
2018-04-01
We develop a numerical model to study magnetohydrodynamic waves in a thin layer of stratified fluid near the surface of Earth's core. Past studies have been limited to using simple background magnetic field configurations. However, the choice of field distribution can dramatically affect the structure and frequency of the waves. To permit a more general treatment of background magnetic field and layer stratification, we combine finite volume and Fourier methods to describe the wave motions. We validate our model by comparisons to previous studies and examine the influence of background magnetic field configuration on two types of magnetohydrodynamic waves. We show that the structure of zonal Magnetic-Archimedes-Coriolis (MAC) waves for a dipole background field is unstable to small perturbations of the field strength in the equatorial region. Modifications to the wave structures are computed for a range of field configurations. In addition, we show that non-zonal MAC waves are trapped near the equator for realistic magnetic field distributions, and that their latitudinal extent depends upon the distribution of magnetic field strength at the CMB.
Kremer, Kyle; Breivik, Katelyn; Larson, Shane L.; Kalogera, Vassiliki
2017-01-01
For close double white dwarf binaries, the mass-transfer phenomenon known as direct-impact accretion (when the mass transfer stream impacts the accretor directly rather than forming a disc) may play a pivotal role in the long-term evolution of the systems. In this analysis, we explore the long-term evolution of white dwarf binaries accreting through direct-impact and explore implications of such systems to gravitational wave astronomy. We cover a broad range of parameter space which includes initial component masses and the strength of tidal coupling, and show that these systems, which lie firmly within the LISA frequency range, show strong negative chirps which can last as long as several million years. Detections of double white dwarf systems in the direct-impact phase by detectors such as LISA would provide astronomers with unique ways of probing the physics governing close compact object binaries.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pierantozzi, T.; Vazquez, L.
2005-01-01
Through fractional calculus and following the method used by Dirac to obtain his well-known equation from the Klein-Gordon equation, we analyze a possible interpolation between the Dirac and the diffusion equations in one space dimension. We study the transition between the hyperbolic and parabolic behaviors by means of the generalization of the D'Alembert formula for the classical wave equation and the invariance under space and time inversions of the interpolating fractional evolution equations Dirac like. Such invariance depends on the values of the fractional index and is related to the nonlocal property of the time fractional differential operator. For this system of fractional evolution equations, we also find an associated conserved quantity analogous to the Hamiltonian for the classical Dirac case
A class of periodic solutions of nonlinear wave and evolution equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kashcheev, V.N.
1987-01-01
For the case of 1+1 dimensions a new heuristic method is proposed for deriving dels-similar solutions to nonlinear autonomous differential equations. If the differential function f is a polynomial, then: (i) in the case of even derivatives in f the solution is the ratio of two polynomials from the Weierstrass elliptic functions; (ii) in the case of any order derivatives in f the solution is the ratio of two polynomials from simple exponents. Numerous examples are given constructing such periodic solutions to the wave and evolution equations
To the theory of quantum processes in the field of an intense electromagnetic wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bajer, V.N.; Katkov, V.M.; Mil'shtejn, A.I.; Strakhovenko, V.M.
1975-01-01
The operator diagram technique, developed earlier for considering phenomena in a homogeneous external field, is applied to processes occurring in a plane electromagnetic wave field. Calculations are carried out on the basis of a specific technique of ''entangling'' of operator expressions. The mass operator of scalar and spinor particles determined by a double integral is found in the field of an elliptically polarized wave of a general type. Imaginary part of the operator presents a new concept of the full probability of a particle emission in a wave field. Polarization effects are analyzed for spinor particles
Alfven-wave particle interaction in finite-dimensional self-consistent field model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padhye, N.; Horton, W.
1998-01-01
A low-dimensional Hamiltonian model is derived for the acceleration of ions in finite amplitude Alfven waves in a finite pressure plasma sheet. The reduced low-dimensional wave-particle Hamiltonian is useful for describing the reaction of the accelerated ions on the wave amplitudes and phases through the self-consistent fields within the envelope approximation. As an example, the authors show for a single Alfven wave in the central plasma sheet of the Earth's geotail, modeled by the linear pinch geometry called the Harris sheet, the time variation of the wave amplitude during the acceleration of fast protons
Addendum to foundations of multidimensional wave field signal theory: Gaussian source function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natalie Baddour
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Many important physical phenomena are described by wave or diffusion-wave type equations. Recent work has shown that a transform domain signal description from linear system theory can give meaningful insight to multi-dimensional wave fields. In N. Baddour [AIP Adv. 1, 022120 (2011], certain results were derived that are mathematically useful for the inversion of multi-dimensional Fourier transforms, but more importantly provide useful insight into how source functions are related to the resulting wave field. In this short addendum to that work, it is shown that these results can be applied with a Gaussian source function, which is often useful for modelling various physical phenomena.
Addendum to foundations of multidimensional wave field signal theory: Gaussian source function
Baddour, Natalie
2018-02-01
Many important physical phenomena are described by wave or diffusion-wave type equations. Recent work has shown that a transform domain signal description from linear system theory can give meaningful insight to multi-dimensional wave fields. In N. Baddour [AIP Adv. 1, 022120 (2011)], certain results were derived that are mathematically useful for the inversion of multi-dimensional Fourier transforms, but more importantly provide useful insight into how source functions are related to the resulting wave field. In this short addendum to that work, it is shown that these results can be applied with a Gaussian source function, which is often useful for modelling various physical phenomena.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maraghechi, B.; Willett, J.e.
1979-01-01
The stimulated Raman backscattering of an intense electromagnetic wave propagating in the extraordinary mode along a uniform, static magnetic field is considered. The dispersion relation for a homogeneous magnetized plasma in the presence of the circularly polarized pump waves is developed in the cold-plasma approximation with the pump frequency above the plasma frequency. Formulas are derived for the threshold νsub(OT) of the parametric instability and for the growth rate γ of the backscattered extraordinary wave and Langmuir wave. The effects of the magnetic field parallel to the direction of propagation on νsub(0T) and γ are studied numerically. (author)
Effect of parallel electric fields on the whistler mode wave propagation in the magnetosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gupta, G.P.; Singh, R.N.
1975-01-01
The effect of parallel electric fields on whistler mode wave propagation has been studied. To account for the parallel electric fields, the dispersion equation has been analyzed, and refractive index surfaces for magnetospheric plasma have been constructed. The presence of parallel electric fields deforms the refractive index surfaces which diffuse the energy flow and produce defocusing of the whistler mode waves. The parallel electric field induces an instability in the whistler mode waves propagating through the magnetosphere. The growth or decay of whistler mode instability depends on the direction of parallel electric fields. It is concluded that the analyses of whistler wave records received on the ground should account for the role of parallel electric fields
On the generation and evolution of internal solitary waves in the southern Red Sea
Guo, Daquan
2015-04-01
Satellite observations recently revealed the existence of trains of internal solitary waves in the southern Red Sea between 16.0°N and 16.5°N, propagating from the centre of the domain toward the continental shelf [Da silva et al., 2012]. Given the relatively weak tidal velocity in this area and their generation in the central of the domain, Da Silva suggested three possible mechanisms behind the generation of the waves, namely Resonance and disintegration of interfacial tides, Generation of interfacial tides by impinging, remotely generated internal tidal beams and for geometrically focused and amplified internal tidal beams. Tide analysis based on tide stations data and barotropic tide model in the Red Sea shows that tide is indeed very weak in the centre part of the Red Sea, but it is relatively strong in the northern and southern parts (reaching up to 66 cm/s). Together with extreme steep slopes along the deep trench, it provides favourable conditions for the generation of internal solitary in the southern Red Sea. To investigate the generation mechanisms and study the evolution of the internal waves in the off-shelf region of the southern Red Sea we have implemented a 2-D, high-resolution and non-hydrostatic configuration of the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm). Our simulations reproduce well that the generation process of the internal solitary waves. Analysis of the model\\'s output suggests that the interaction between the topography and tidal flow with the nonlinear effect is the main mechanism behind the generation of the internal solitary waves. Sensitivity experiments suggest that neither tidal beam nor the resonance effect of the topography is important factor in this process.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, J.Y.; Chan, V.S.; Harvey, R.W.; Prater, R.; Wong, S.K.
1984-01-01
The perpendicular heating in cyclotron waves tends to pile up the resonant particles toward the low magnetic field side with their banana tips localized to the resonant surface. A poloidal electric field with an E x B drift comparable to the ion vertical drift in a toroidal magnetic field may result. With the assumption of anomalous electron and neoclassical ion transport, density variations due to wave heating are discussed
Stable solitary waves in super dense plasmas at external magnetic fields
Ghaani, Azam; Javidan, Kurosh; Sarbishaei, Mohsen
2015-07-01
Propagation of localized waves in a Fermi-Dirac distributed super dense matter at the presence of strong external magnetic fields is studied using the reductive perturbation method. We have shown that stable solitons can be created in such non-relativistic fluids in the presence of an external magnetic field. Such solitary waves are governed by the Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation. Properties of solitonic solutions are studied in media with different values of background mass density and strength of magnetic field.
Acoustic pressure waves induced in human heads by RF pulses from high-field MRI scanners.
Lin, James C; Wang, Zhangwei
2010-04-01
The current evolution toward greater image resolution from magnetic resonance image (MRI) scanners has prompted the exploration of higher strength magnetic fields and use of higher levels of radio frequencies (RFs). Auditory perception of RF pulses by humans has been reported during MRI with head coils. It has shown that the mechanism of interaction for the auditory effect is caused by an RF pulse-induced thermoelastic pressure wave inside the head. We report a computational study of the intensity and frequency of thermoelastic pressure waves generated by RF pulses in the human head inside high-field MRI and clinical scanners. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) guides limit the local specific absorption rate (SAR) in the body-including the head-to 8 W kg(-1). We present results as functions of SAR and show that for a given SAR the peak acoustic pressures generated in the anatomic head model were essentially the same at 64, 300, and 400 MHz (1.5, 7.0, and 9.4 T). Pressures generated in the anatomic head are comparable to the threshold pressure of 20 mPa for sound perception by humans at the cochlea for 4 W kg(-1). Moreover, results indicate that the peak acoustic pressure in the brain is only 2 to 3 times the auditory threshold at the U.S. FDA guideline of 8 W kg(-1). Even at a high SAR of 20 W kg(-1), where the acoustic pressure in the brain could be more than 7 times the auditory threshold, the sound pressure levels would not be more than 17 db above threshold of perception at the cochlea.
A vector field method on the distorted Fourier side and decay for wave equations with potentials
Donninger, Roland
2016-01-01
The authors study the Cauchy problem for the one-dimensional wave equation \\partial_t^2 u(t,x)-\\partial_x^2 u(t,x)+V(x)u(t,x)=0. The potential V is assumed to be smooth with asymptotic behavior V(x)\\sim -\\tfrac14 |x|^{-2}\\mbox{ as } |x|\\to \\infty. They derive dispersive estimates, energy estimates, and estimates involving the scaling vector field t\\partial_t+x\\partial_x, where the latter are obtained by employing a vector field method on the âeoedistortedâe Fourier side. In addition, they prove local energy decay estimates. Their results have immediate applications in the context of geometric evolution problems. The theory developed in this paper is fundamental for the proof of the co-dimension 1 stability of the catenoid under the vanishing mean curvature flow in Minkowski space; see Donninger, Krieger, Szeftel, and Wong, âeoeCodimension one stability of the catenoid under the vanishing mean curvature flow in Minkowski spaceâe, preprint arXiv:1310.5606 (2013).
Atomic motion in a high-intensity standing wave laser field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saez Ramdohr, L.F.
1987-01-01
This work discusses the effect of a high-intensity standing wave laser field on the motion of neutral atoms moving with a relatively high velocity. The analysis involves a detailed calculation of the force acting on the atoms and the calculation of the diffusion tensor associated with the fluctuations of the quantum force operator. The high-intensity laser field limit corresponds to a Rabi frequency much greater than the natural rate of the atom. The general results are valid for any atomic velocity. Results are then specialized to the case of slow and fast atoms where the Doppler shift of the laser frequency due to the atomic motion is either smaller or larger than the natural decay rate of the atom. The results obtained for the force and diffusion tensor are applied to a particular ideal experiment that studies the evolution of a fast atomic beam crossing a high-intensity laser beam. The theories developed previously, for a similar laser configuration, discuss only the low atomic velocities case and not the more realistic case of fast atoms. Here, an approximate solution of the equation for the distribution is obtained. Starting from the approximate distribution function, the deflection angle and dispersion angle for the atomic beam with respect to the free motion are calculated
Dynamic evolution of double Λ five-level atom interacting with one-mode electromagnetic cavity field
Abdel-Wahab, N. H.; Salah, Ahmed
2017-12-01
In this paper, the model describing a double Λ five-level atom interacting with a single mode electromagnetic cavity field in the (off) non-resonate case is studied. We obtained the constants of motion for the considered model. Also, the state vector of the wave function is given by using the Schrödinger equation when the atom is initially prepared in its excited state. The dynamical evolutions for the collapse revivals, the antibunching of photons and the field squeezing phenomena are investigated when the field is considered in a coherent state. The influence of detuning parameters on these phenomena is investigated. We noticed that the atom-field properties are influenced by changing the detuning parameters. The investigation of these aspects by numerical simulations is carried out using the Quantum Toolbox in Python (QuTip).
The two-wave X-ray field calculated by means of integral-equation methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bremer, J.
1984-01-01
The problem of calculating the two-wave X-ray field on the basis of the Takagi-Taupin equations is discussed for the general case of curved lattice planes. A two-dimensional integral equation which incorporates the nature of the incoming radiation, the form of the crystal/vacuum boundary, and the curvature of the structure, is deduced. Analytical solutions for the symmetrical Laue case with incoming plane waves are obtained directly for perfect crystals by means of iteration. The same method permits a simple derivation of the narrow-wave Laue and Bragg cases. Modulated wave fronts are discussed, and it is shown that a cut-off in the width of an incoming plane wave leads to lateral oscillations which are superimposed on the Pendelloesung fringes. Bragg and Laue shadow fields are obtained. The influence of a non-zero kernel is discussed and a numerical procedure for calculating wave amplitudes in curved crystals is presented. (Auth.)
Franz, Guilherme; Delpey, Matthias T.; Brito, David; Pinto, Lígia; Leitão, Paulo; Neves, Ramiro
2017-09-01
Coastal defence structures are often constructed to prevent beach erosion. However, poorly designed structures may cause serious erosion problems in the downdrift direction. Morphological models are useful tools to predict such impacts and assess the efficiency of defence structures for different scenarios. Nevertheless, morphological modelling is still a topic under intense research effort. The processes simulated by a morphological model depend on model complexity. For instance, undertow currents are neglected in coastal area models (2DH), which is a limitation for simulating the evolution of beach profiles for long periods. Model limitations are generally overcome by predefining invariant equilibrium profiles that are allowed to shift offshore or onshore. A more flexible approach is described in this paper, which can be generalised to 3-D models. The present work is based on the coupling of the MOHID modelling system and the SWAN wave model. The impacts of different designs of detached breakwaters and groynes were simulated in a schematic beach configuration following a 2DH approach. The results of bathymetry evolution are in agreement with the patterns found in the literature for several existing structures. The model was also tested in a 3-D test case to simulate the formation of sandbars by undertow currents. The findings of this work confirmed the applicability of the MOHID modelling system to study sediment transport and morphological changes in coastal zones under the combined action of waves and currents. The same modelling methodology was applied to a coastal zone (Costa da Caparica) located at the mouth of a mesotidal estuary (Tagus Estuary, Portugal) to evaluate the hydrodynamics and sediment transport both in calm water conditions and during events of highly energetic waves. The MOHID code is available in the GitHub repository.
Dirac particle in a plane wave field and the semi-classical approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bourouaine, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Mentouri University, Constantine (Algeria)
2005-04-01
In this paper we investigate the influence of photon represented by plane wave field on Dirac particle in the context of path integral approach given by Fradkin and Gitman formalism. In our case, although the action relative to Dirac particle in plane wave field seems to be non quadratic, the result obtained by semi-classical approach is the same as that found by an exact calculation. Hence; when we add the plane wave field to any quadratic actions related to Fradkin and Gitman approach, the total action behaves like quadratic. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Similon, Philippe L.; Sudan, R. N.
1989-01-01
The importance of field line geometry for shear Alfven wave dissipation in coronal arches is demonstrated. An eikonal formulation makes it possible to account for the complicated magnetic geometry typical in coronal loops. An interpretation of Alfven wave resonance is given in terms of gradient steepening, and dissipation efficiencies are studied for two configurations: the well-known slab model with a straight magnetic field, and a new model with stochastic field lines. It is shown that a large fraction of the Alfven wave energy flux can be effectively dissipated in the corona.
Dirac particle in a plane wave field and the semi-classical approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bourouaine, S.
2005-01-01
In this paper we investigate the influence of photon represented by plane wave field on Dirac particle in the context of path integral approach given by Fradkin and Gitman formalism. In our case, although the action relative to Dirac particle in plane wave field seems to be non quadratic, the result obtained by semi-classical approach is the same as that found by an exact calculation. Hence; when we add the plane wave field to any quadratic actions related to Fradkin and Gitman approach, the total action behaves like quadratic. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Storlazzi, C. D.; Griffioen, D.; Cheriton, O. M.
2016-12-01
Coral reefs have been shown to significantly attenuate incident wave energy and thus provide protection for 100s of millions of people globally. To better constrain wave dynamics and wave-driven water levels over fringing coral reefs, a 4-month deployment of wave and tide gauges was conducted across two shore-normal transects on Roi-Namur Island and two transects on Kwajalein Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. At all locations, although incident wave (periods 250 s) heights on the outer reef flat just inshore of the zone of wave breaking, the infragravity wave heights generally equaled the incident wave heights by the middle of the reef flat and exceeded the incident wave heights on the inner reef flat by the shoreline. The infragravity waves generally were asymmetric, positively skewed, bore-like forms with incident-band waves riding the infragravity wave crest at the head of the bore; these wave packets have similar structure to high-frequency internal waves on an internal wave bore. Bore height was shown to scale with water depth, offshore wave height, and offshore wave period. For a given tidal elevation, with increasing offshore wave heights, such bores occurred more frequently on the middle reef flat, whereas they occurred less frequently on the inner reef flat. Skewed, asymmetric waves are known to drive large gradients in velocity and shear stress that can transport material onshore. Thus, a better understanding of these low-frequency, energetic bores on reef flats is critical to forecasting how coral reef-lined coasts may respond to sea-level rise and climate change.
Multiphoton processes in the field of two-frequency circularly polarized plane electromagnetic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, An
1997-01-01
The authors solve Dirac's equation for an electron in the field of a two-frequency plane electromagnetic wave, deriving general formulae for the probabilities of radiation of a photon by the electron, and for the probabilities for pair production by a photon when the two-frequency wave is circularly polarized. In contrast to the case of a monochromatic-plane electromagnetic wave, when an electron is in the field of a two-frequency circularly polarized wave, besides the absorption of multiphotons and emission of simple harmonics of the individual waves, stimulated multiphoton emission processes and various composite harmonic-photon emission processes are occurred: when a high-energy photon is in a such a field, multiphoton processes also follow the pair production processes
Ion sense of polarization of the electromagnetic wave field in the electron whistler frequency band
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Lundin
Full Text Available It is shown that the left-hand (or ion-type sense of polarization can appear in the field interference pattern of two plane electron whistler waves. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the ion-type polarized wave electric fields can be accompanied by the presence at the same observation point of electron-type polarized wave magnetic fields. The registration of ion-type polarized fields with frequencies between the highest ion gyrofrequency and the electron gyrofrequency in a cold, overdense plasma is a sufficient indication for the existence of an interference wave pattern, which can typically occur near artificial or natural reflecting magnetospheric plasma regions, inside waveguides (as in helicon discharges, for example, in fields resonantly emitted by beams of charged particles or, in principle, in some self-sustained, nonlinear wave field structures. A comparison with the conventional spectral matrix data processing approach is also presented in order to facilitate the calculations of the analyzed polarization parameters.
Key words. Ionosphere (wave propagation Radio science (waves in plasma Space plasma physics (general or miscellaneous
Ion sense of polarization of the electromagnetic wave field in the electron whistler frequency band
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Lundin
2002-08-01
Full Text Available It is shown that the left-hand (or ion-type sense of polarization can appear in the field interference pattern of two plane electron whistler waves. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the ion-type polarized wave electric fields can be accompanied by the presence at the same observation point of electron-type polarized wave magnetic fields. The registration of ion-type polarized fields with frequencies between the highest ion gyrofrequency and the electron gyrofrequency in a cold, overdense plasma is a sufficient indication for the existence of an interference wave pattern, which can typically occur near artificial or natural reflecting magnetospheric plasma regions, inside waveguides (as in helicon discharges, for example, in fields resonantly emitted by beams of charged particles or, in principle, in some self-sustained, nonlinear wave field structures. A comparison with the conventional spectral matrix data processing approach is also presented in order to facilitate the calculations of the analyzed polarization parameters.Key words. Ionosphere (wave propagation Radio science (waves in plasma Space plasma physics (general or miscellaneous
The effect of actuator bending on Lamb wave displacement fields generated by a piezoelectric patch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, H; Pamphile, T; Derriso, M
2008-01-01
A Lamb wave is a special type of elastic wave that is widely employed in structural health monitoring systems for damage detection. Recently, piezoelectric (piezo) patches have become popular for Lamb wave excitation and sensing because one piezo patch can serve as both the actuator and the sensor. All published work has assumed that the Lamb wave displacement field generated by a piezo patch actuator is axi-symmetric. However, we observed that piezo sensors placed at equal distances from the piezo patch actuator displayed different responses. In order to understand this phenomenon, we used a laser vibrometer to measure the full-field displacements around a circular piezo actuator noncontactly. The displacement fields excited by the piezo patch actuator are found to be directional, and this directionality is also frequency dependent, indicating that the out-of-plane bending dynamics of the piezo actuator may play an important role in the Lamb wave displacement fields. A simulation model that incorporates the bending deformation of the piezo patch into the calculations of the Lamb wave generation is then developed. The agreement between the simulated and measured displacement fields confirmed that the directionality of the Lamb wave displacement fields is governed by the bending deformation of the piezo patch actuator
Evolution of optical vortex distributions in stochastic vortex fields
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Roux, FS
2011-01-01
Full Text Available simple decay process to restore equilibrium. More complicated dynamics are involved, which requires deeper investigations. REFERENCES [1] Nye, J. F. and Berry, M. V., ?Dislocations in wave trains,? Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 336, 165?190 (1974). [2] Dennis..., J., Zambrini, R., Dennis, M., and Vasnetsov, M., ?Angular momentum of optical vortex arrays,? Opt. Express 14, 938?949 (2006). [27] Berry, M. V., ?Disruption of wavefronts: statistics of dislocations in incoherent gaussian random waves,? J. Phys...
Effect of the Earth's gravitational field on the detection of gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, V.I.; Eliseev, V.A.
1988-01-01
We consider the laboratory detection of high-frequency gravitational waves in theories of gravitation based on a pseudo-Euclidean space-time. We analyze the effects due to the Earth's gravitational field on the propagation velocities of gravitational and electromagnetic waves in these theories. Experiments to test the predictions of this class of theories are discussed
Prediction of the Low Frequency Wave Field on Open Coastal Beaches
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Ozkan-Haller, H. T
2005-01-01
... (both abrupt and gradual) affect the resulting low frequency wave climate. 3. The assessment of the importance of interactions between different modes of time-varying motions in the nearshore region, as well as interactions between these modes and the incident wave field. 4. To arrive at a predictive understanding of low frequency motions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niu, Keishiro; Shimojo, Takashi.
1978-02-01
Increase in kinetic energy of a charged particle, affected by an electrostatic wave propagating perpendicularly to a uniform magnetic field, is obtained for both the initial and later stages. Detrapping time of the particle from the potential dent of the electrostatic wave and energy increase during trapping of the particle is analytically derived. Numerical simulations are carried out to support theoretical results. (auth.)
Field verification of ADCP surface gravity wave elevation spectra
Hoitink, A.J.F.; Peters, H.C.; Schroevers, M.
2007-01-01
Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) can measure orbital velocities induced by surface gravity waves, yet the ADCP estimates of these velocities are subject to a relatively high noise level. The present paper introduces a linear filtration technique to significantly reduce the influence of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parchevsky, K. V.; Kosovichev, A. G.
2009-01-01
Investigation of propagation, conversion, and scattering of MHD waves in the Sun is very important for understanding the mechanisms of observed oscillations and waves in sunspots and active regions. We have developed a three-dimensional linear MHD numerical model to investigate the influence of the magnetic field on excitation and properties of the MHD waves. The results show that surface gravity waves (f-modes) are affected by the background magnetic field more than acoustic-type waves (p-modes). Comparison of our simulations with the time-distance helioseismology results from Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/MDI shows that the amplitude of travel time variations with azimuth around sunspots caused by the inclined magnetic field does not exceed 25% of the observed amplitude even for strong fields of 1400-1900 G. This can be an indication that other effects (e.g., background flows and nonuniform distribution of the magnetic field) can contribute to the observed azimuthal travel time variations. The azimuthal travel time variations caused by the wave interaction with the magnetic field are similar for simulated and observed travel times for strong fields of 1400-1900 G if Doppler velocities are taken at the height of 300 km above the photosphere where the plasma parameter β << 1. For the photospheric level the travel times are systematically smaller by approximately 0.12 minutes than for the height of 300 km above the photosphere for all studied ranges of the magnetic field strength and inclination angles. Numerical MHD wave modeling and new data from the HMI instrument of the Solar Dynamics Observatory will substantially advance our knowledge of the wave interaction with strong magnetic fields on the Sun and improve the local helioseismology diagnostics.
Mean field effects for counterpropagating traveling wave solutions of reaction-diffusion systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernoff, A.J.; Kuske, R.; Matkowsky, B.J.; Volpert, V.
1995-01-01
In many problems, one observes traveling waves that propagate with constant velocity and shape in the χ direction, say, are independent of y, and z and describe transitions between two equilibrium states. As parameters of the system are varied, these traveling waves can become unstable and give rise to waves having additional structure, such as traveling waves in the y and z directions, which can themselves be subject to instabilities as parameters are further varied. To investigate this scenario the authors consider a system of reaction-diffusion equations with a traveling wave solution as a basic state. They determine solutions bifurcating from the basic state that describe counterpropagating traveling wave in directions orthogonal to the direction of propagation of the basic state and determine their stability. Specifically, they derive long wave modulation equations for the amplitudes of the counterpropagating traveling waves that are coupled to an equation for a mean field, generated by the translation of the basic state in the direction of its propagation. The modulation equations are then employed to determine stability boundaries to long wave perturbations for both unidirectional and counterpropagating traveling waves. The stability analysis is delicate because the results depend on the order in which transverse and longitudinal perturbation wavenumbers are taken to zero. For the unidirectional wave they demonstrate that it is sufficient to consider the cases of (1) purely transverse perturbations, (2) purely longitudinal perturbations, and (3) longitudinal perturbations with a small transverse component. These yield Eckhaus type, zigzag type, and skew type instabilities, respectively
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aivazyan, Yu M; Mergelyan, O S; Poulatov, M P
1974-01-01
Aproblem for the diffraction of a plane electromagnetic wave on a dielectric plate between two other dielectrics is solved. The dielectric constant of the plate depends periodically on three coordinates. From this solution it is possible to obtain the equations for fields and the angular distribution of diffracted waves for the particular cases of a crystal plate and a dielectric surface fluted in all directions. If the expansion is made in the variable of the electron density in crystals, the results will correspond to the problem for the X-ray diffraction on a crystal lattice, the values of the coefficient ..cap alpha -->..sub(tau) being determined by the lattice parameters.
APPARENT CROSS-FIELD SUPERSLOW PROPAGATION OF MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WAVES IN SOLAR PLASMAS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaneko, T.; Yokoyama, T. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Goossens, M.; Doorsselaere, T. Van [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, Bus 2400, B-3001 Herverlee (Belgium); Soler, R.; Terradas, J. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Wright, A. N., E-mail: kaneko@eps.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)
2015-10-20
In this paper we show that the phase-mixing of continuum Alfvén waves and/or continuum slow waves in the magnetic structures of the solar atmosphere as, e.g., coronal arcades, can create the illusion of wave propagation across the magnetic field. This phenomenon could be erroneously interpreted as fast magnetosonic waves. The cross-field propagation due to the phase-mixing of continuum waves is apparent because there is no real propagation of energy across the magnetic surfaces. We investigate the continuous Alfvén and slow spectra in two-dimensional (2D) Cartesian equilibrium models with a purely poloidal magnetic field. We show that apparent superslow propagation across the magnetic surfaces in solar coronal structures is a consequence of the existence of continuum Alfvén waves and continuum slow waves that naturally live on those structures and phase-mix as time evolves. The apparent cross-field phase velocity is related to the spatial variation of the local Alfvén/slow frequency across the magnetic surfaces and is slower than the Alfvén/sound velocities for typical coronal conditions. Understanding the nature of the apparent cross-field propagation is important for the correct analysis of numerical simulations and the correct interpretation of observations.
Longitudinal wave function control in single quantum dots with an applied magnetic field
Cao, Shuo; Tang, Jing; Gao, Yunan; Sun, Yue; Qiu, Kangsheng; Zhao, Yanhui; He, Min; Shi, Jin-An; Gu, Lin; Williams, David A.; Sheng, Weidong; Jin, Kuijuan; Xu, Xiulai
2015-01-01
Controlling single-particle wave functions in single semiconductor quantum dots is in demand to implement solid-state quantum information processing and spintronics. Normally, particle wave functions can be tuned transversely by an perpendicular magnetic field. We report a longitudinal wave function control in single quantum dots with a magnetic field. For a pure InAs quantum dot with a shape of pyramid or truncated pyramid, the hole wave function always occupies the base because of the less confinement at base, which induces a permanent dipole oriented from base to apex. With applying magnetic field along the base-apex direction, the hole wave function shrinks in the base plane. Because of the linear changing of the confinement for hole wave function from base to apex, the center of effective mass moves up during shrinking process. Due to the uniform confine potential for electrons, the center of effective mass of electrons does not move much, which results in a permanent dipole moment change and an inverted electron-hole alignment along the magnetic field direction. Manipulating the wave function longitudinally not only provides an alternative way to control the charge distribution with magnetic field but also a new method to tune electron-hole interaction in single quantum dots. PMID:25624018
Longitudinal wave function control in single quantum dots with an applied magnetic field.
Cao, Shuo; Tang, Jing; Gao, Yunan; Sun, Yue; Qiu, Kangsheng; Zhao, Yanhui; He, Min; Shi, Jin-An; Gu, Lin; Williams, David A; Sheng, Weidong; Jin, Kuijuan; Xu, Xiulai
2015-01-27
Controlling single-particle wave functions in single semiconductor quantum dots is in demand to implement solid-state quantum information processing and spintronics. Normally, particle wave functions can be tuned transversely by an perpendicular magnetic field. We report a longitudinal wave function control in single quantum dots with a magnetic field. For a pure InAs quantum dot with a shape of pyramid or truncated pyramid, the hole wave function always occupies the base because of the less confinement at base, which induces a permanent dipole oriented from base to apex. With applying magnetic field along the base-apex direction, the hole wave function shrinks in the base plane. Because of the linear changing of the confinement for hole wave function from base to apex, the center of effective mass moves up during shrinking process. Due to the uniform confine potential for electrons, the center of effective mass of electrons does not move much, which results in a permanent dipole moment change and an inverted electron-hole alignment along the magnetic field direction. Manipulating the wave function longitudinally not only provides an alternative way to control the charge distribution with magnetic field but also a new method to tune electron-hole interaction in single quantum dots.
Nonlinear inertial Alfven waves in plasmas with sheared magnetic field and flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Yinhua; Wang Ge; Tan Liwei
2004-01-01
Nonlinear equations describing inertial Alfven waves in plasmas with sheared magnetic field and flow are derived. For some specific parameters chosen, authors have found a new type of electromagnetic coherent structures in the tripolar vortex-like form
Huba, J. D.; Rowland, H. L.
1993-01-01
The propagation of electromagnetic waves parallel to the magnetic field in the nightside Venus ionosphere is presented in a theoretical and numerical analysis. The model assumes a source of electromagnetic radiation in the Venus atmosphere, such as that produced by lightning. Specifically addressed is wave propagation in the altitude range z = 130-160 km at the four frequencies detectable by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter Electric Field Detector: 100 Hz, 730 Hz, 5.4 kHz, and 30 kHz. Parameterizations of the wave intensities, peak electron density, and Poynting flux as a function of magnetic field are presented. The waves are found to propagate most easily in conditions of low electron density and high magnetic field. The results of the model are consistent with observational data.
Anisotropic effects of background fields on Born-Infeld electromagnetic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aiello, Matias; Bengochea, Gabriel R.; Ferraro, Rafael
2007-01-01
We show exact solutions of the Born-Infeld theory for electromagnetic plane waves propagating in the presence of static background fields. The non-linear character of the Born-Infeld equations generates an interaction between the background and the wave that changes the speed of propagation and adds a longitudinal component to the wave. As a consequence, in a magnetic background the ray direction differs from the propagation direction-a behavior resembling the one of a wave in an anisotropic medium. This feature could open up a way to experimental tests of the Born-Infeld theory
Anisotropic effects of background fields on Born-Infeld electromagnetic waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aiello, Matias [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: aiello@iafe.uba.ar; Bengochea, Gabriel R. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: gabriel@iafe.uba.ar; Ferraro, Rafael [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: ferraro@iafe.uba.ar
2007-01-22
We show exact solutions of the Born-Infeld theory for electromagnetic plane waves propagating in the presence of static background fields. The non-linear character of the Born-Infeld equations generates an interaction between the background and the wave that changes the speed of propagation and adds a longitudinal component to the wave. As a consequence, in a magnetic background the ray direction differs from the propagation direction-a behavior resembling the one of a wave in an anisotropic medium. This feature could open up a way to experimental tests of the Born-Infeld theory.
Quadrupole mass detector in the field of weak plane gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borisova, L.B.
1978-01-01
Studied is the behaviour of the system which consists of two test particles connected by a string (quadrupole mass detector) and placed in the field of weak plane monochromatic gravitational waves. It is shown that at cross orientation of the detector the gravitational wave effecting such a system excites oscillations in it with the frequency equal to that of the gravitational wave source. The role of the driving force is played by the periodical change with the time of the equilibrium position. The gravitational wave does not influence the detector at its longitudinal orientation
Wave function for time-dependent harmonically confined electrons in a time-dependent electric field.
Li, Yu-Qi; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Sahni, Viraht
2013-09-21
The many-body wave function of a system of interacting particles confined by a time-dependent harmonic potential and perturbed by a time-dependent spatially homogeneous electric field is derived via the Feynman path-integral method. The wave function is comprised of a phase factor times the solution to the unperturbed time-dependent Schrödinger equation with the latter being translated by a time-dependent value that satisfies the classical driven equation of motion. The wave function reduces to that of the Harmonic Potential Theorem wave function for the case of the time-independent harmonic confining potential.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brito, P.E. de; Nazareno, H.N.
2012-01-01
The object of the present work is to analyze the effect of nonlinearity on wave packet propagation in a square lattice subject to a magnetic and an electric field in the Hall configuration, by using the Discrete Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation (DNLSE). In previous works we have shown that without the nonlinear term, the presence of the magnetic field induces the formation of vortices that remain stationary, while a wave packet is introduced in the system. As for the effect of an applied electric field, it was shown that the vortices propagate in a direction perpendicular to the electric field, similar behavior as presented in the classical treatment, we provide a quantum mechanics explanation for that. We have performed the calculations considering first the action of the magnetic field as well as the nonlinearity. The results indicate that for low values of the nonlinear parameter U the vortices remain stationary while preserving the form. For greater values of the parameter the picture gets distorted, the more so, the greater the nonlinearity. As for the inclusion of the electric field, we note that for small U, the wave packet propagates perpendicular to the applied field, until for greater values of U the wave gets partially localized in a definite region of the lattice. That is, for strong nonlinearity the wave packet gets partially trapped, while the tail of it can propagate through the lattice. Note that this tail propagation is responsible for the over-diffusion for long times of the wave packet under the action of an electric field. We have produced short films that show clearly the time evolution of the wave packet, which can add to the understanding of the dynamics.
Wake-Field Wave Resonant Excitation in Magnetized Plasmas by Electromagnetic Pulse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milant'ev, V.P.; Turikov, V.A.
2006-01-01
In this paper the space charge wave excitation process at electromagnetic pulse propagation along external magnetic field in vicinity of electron cyclotron resonance. In hydrodynamic approach it is obtained an equation for plasma density under ponderomotive force action. With help of this equation we investigated a wake-field wave amplitude dependence from resonance detuning. The numerical simulation using a PIC method electromagnetic pulse propagation process in the resonant conditions was done
Geometrical optics in the near field: local plane-interface approach with evanescent waves.
Bose, Gaurav; Hyvärinen, Heikki J; Tervo, Jani; Turunen, Jari
2015-01-12
We show that geometrical models may provide useful information on light propagation in wavelength-scale structures even if evanescent fields are present. We apply a so-called local plane-wave and local plane-interface methods to study a geometry that resembles a scanning near-field microscope. We show that fair agreement between the geometrical approach and rigorous electromagnetic theory can be achieved in the case where evanescent waves are required to predict any transmission through the structure.
Sub-half-wavelength atom localization via two standing-wave fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jin Luling; Sun Hui; Niu Yueping; Gong Shangqing
2008-01-01
We propose a scheme for sub-half-wavelength atom localization in a four-level ladder-type atomic system, which is coupled by two classical standing-wave fields. We find that one of the standing-wave fields can help in enhancing the localization precision, and the other is of crucial importance in increasing the detecting probability and leading sub-half-wavelength localization
Propagation of ULF waves through the ionosphere: Inductive effect for oblique magnetic fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. D. Sciffer
2004-04-01
Full Text Available Solutions for ultra-low frequency (ULF wave fields in the frequency range 1–100mHz that interact with the Earth's ionosphere in the presence of oblique background magnetic fields are described. Analytic expressions for the electric and magnetic wave fields in the magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere are derived within the context of an inductive ionosphere. The inductive shielding effect (ISE arises from the generation of an "inductive" rotational current by the induced part of the divergent electric field in the ionosphere which reduces the wave amplitude detected on the ground. The inductive response of the ionosphere is described by Faraday's law and the ISE depends on the horizontal scale size of the ULF disturbance, its frequency and the ionosphere conductivities. The ISE for ULF waves in a vertical background magnetic field is limited in application to high latitudes. In this paper we examine the ISE within the context of oblique background magnetic fields, extending studies of an inductive ionosphere and the associated shielding of ULF waves to lower latitudes. It is found that the dip angle of the background magnetic field has a significant effect on signals detected at the ground. For incident shear Alfvén mode waves and oblique background magnetic fields, the horizontal component of the field-aligned current contributes to the signal detected at the ground. At low latitudes, the ISE is larger at smaller conductivity values compared with high latitudes.
Key words. Ionosphere (ionosphere-magnetosphere interactions; electric fields and currents; wave propagation
Solitary wave evolution in a magnetized inhomogeneous plasma under the effect of ionization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jyoti; Malik, Hitendra K.
2011-01-01
A modified form of Korteweg-deVries (KdV) equation appropriate to nonlinear ion acoustic solitary waves in an inhomogeneous plasma is derived in the presence of an external magnetic field and constant ionization in the plasma. This equation differs from usual version of the KdV equation because of the inclusion of two terms arising due to ionization and density gradient present in the plasma. In this plasma, only the compressive solitary waves are found to propagate corresponding to the fast and slow modes. The amplitude of the solitary wave increases with an enhancement in the ionization for the fast mode as well as for the slow mode. The effect of magnetic field is to enhance the width of the solitary structure. The amplitude is found to increase (decrease) with an enhancement in charge number of the ions for the fast (slow) mode. The tailing structure becomes more (less) prominent with the rise in ion drift velocity for the case of fast (slow) mode.
Transfer function and near-field detection of evanescent waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Radko, Ylia P.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Gregersen, Niels
2006-01-01
of collection and illumination modes. Making use of a collection near-field microscope with a similar fiber tip illuminated by an evanescent field, we measure the collected power as a function of the field spatial frequency in different polarization configurations. Considering a two-dimensional probe...... for the transfer function, which is derived by introducing an effective pointof (dipolelike) detection inside the probe tip. It is found to be possible to fit reasonably well both the experimental and the simulation data for evanescent field components, implying that the developed approximation of the near......-field transfer function can serve as a simple, rational, and sufficiently reliable means of fiber probe characterization....
Coherent scattering of three-level atoms in the field of a bichromatic standing light wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pazgalev, A.S.; Rozhdestvenskii, Yu.V.
1996-01-01
We discuss the coherent scattering of three-level atoms in the field of two standing light waves for two values of the spatial shift. In the case of a zero spatial shift and equal frequency detunings of the standing waves, the problem of scattering of a three-level atoms is reduced to scattering of an effectively two-level atom. For the case of an exact resonance between the waves and transitions we give expressions for the population probability of the states of the three-level atom obtained in the short-interaction-time approximation. Depending on the initial population distribution over the states, different scattering modes are realized. In particular, we show that there can be initial conditions for which the three-level system does not interact with the field of the standing waves, with the result that there is no coherent scattering of atoms. In the case of standing waves shifted by π/2, there are two types of solution, depending on the values of the frequency detuning. For instance, when the light waves are detuned equally we give the exact solution for arbitrary relationships between the detuning and the standing wave intensities valid for any atom-field interaction times. The case of 'mirror' detunings and shifted standing waves is studied only numerically
Current profile evolution during fast wave current drive on the DIII-D tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petty, C.C.; Forest, C.B.; Baity, F.W.
1995-06-01
The effect of co and counter fast wave current drive (FWCD) on the plasma current profile has been measured for neutral beam heated plasmas with reversed magnetic shear on the DIII-D tokamak. Although the response of the loop voltage profile was consistent with the application of co and counter FWCD, little difference was observed between the current profiles for the opposite directions of FWCD. The evolution of the current profile was successfully modeled using the ONETWO transport code. The simulation showed that the small difference between the current profiles for co and counter FWCD was mainly due to an offsetting change in the o at sign c current proffie. In addition, the time scale for the loop voltage to reach equilibrium (i.e., flatten) was found to be much longer than the FWCD pulse, which limited the ability of the current profile to fully respond to co or counter FWCD
Free versus constrained evolution of the 2+1 equivariant wave map
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peter, Ralf; Frauendiener, Jörg
2012-01-01
We compare the numerical solutions of the 2+1 equivariant wave map problem computed with the symplectic, constraint respecting Rattle algorithm and the well known fourth order Runge–Kutta method. We show the advantages of the Rattle algorithm for the constrained system compared to the free evolution with the Runge–Kutta method. We also present an expression, which represents the energy loss due to constraint violation. Taking this expression into account we can achieve energy conservation for the Runge–Kutta scheme, which is better than with the Rattle method. Using the symplectic scheme with constraint enforcement, we can reproduce previous calculations of the equivariant case without imposing the symmetry explicitly, thereby confirming that the critical behaviour is stable. (paper)
Matsushima, Kyoji
2008-07-01
Rotational transformation based on coordinate rotation in Fourier space is a useful technique for simulating wave field propagation between nonparallel planes. This technique is characterized by fast computation because the transformation only requires executing a fast Fourier transform twice and a single interpolation. It is proved that the formula of the rotational transformation mathematically satisfies the Helmholtz equation. Moreover, to verify the formulation and its usefulness in wave optics, it is also demonstrated that the transformation makes it possible to reconstruct an image on arbitrarily tilted planes from a wave field captured experimentally by using digital holography.
Primordial gravitational waves induced by magnetic fields in an ekpyrotic scenario
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Asuka Ito
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Both inflationary and ekpyrotic scenarios can account for the origin of the large scale structure of the universe. It is often said that detecting primordial gravitational waves is the key to distinguish both scenarios. We show that this is not true if the gauge kinetic function is present in the ekpyrotic scenario. In fact, primordial gravitational waves sourced by the gauge field can be produced in an ekpyrotic universe. We also study scalar fluctuations sourced by the gauge field and show that it is negligible compared to primordial gravitational waves. This comes from the fact that the fast roll condition holds in ekpyrotic models.
MESSENGER Magnetic Field Observations of Upstream Ultra-Low Frequency Waves at Mercury
Le, G.; Chi, P. J.; Boardsen, S.; Blanco-Cano, X.; Anderosn, B. J.; Korth, H.
2012-01-01
The region upstream from a planetary bow shock is a natural plasma laboratory containing a variety of wave particle phenomena. The study of foreshocks other than the Earth's is important for extending our understanding of collisionless shocks and foreshock physics since the bow shock strength varies with heliocentric distance from the Sun, and the sizes of the bow shocks are different at different planets. The Mercury's bow shock is unique in our solar system as it is produced by low Mach number solar wind blowing over a small magnetized body with a predominately radial interplanetary magnetic field. Previous observations of Mercury upstream ultra-low frequency (ULF) waves came exclusively from two Mercury flybys of Mariner 10. The MESSENGER orbiter data enable us to study of upstream waves in the Mercury's foreshock in depth. This paper reports an overview of upstream ULF waves in the Mercury's foreshock using high-time resolution magnetic field data, 20 samples per second, from the MESSENGER spacecraft. The most common foreshock waves have frequencies near 2 Hz, with properties similar to the I-Hz waves in the Earth's foreshock. They are present in both the flyby data and in every orbit of the orbital data we have surveyed. The most common wave phenomenon in the Earth's foreshock is the large-amplitude 30-s waves, but similar waves at Mercury have frequencies at near 0.1 Hz and occur only sporadically with short durations (a few wave cycles). Superposed on the "30-s" waves, there are spectral peaks at near 0.6 Hz, not reported previously in Mariner 10 data. We will discuss wave properties and their occurrence characteristics in this paper.
Radiation, waves, fields. Causes and effects on environment and health
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leitgeb, N.
1990-01-01
The book discusses static electricity, alternating electric fields, magnetostatic fields, alternating magnetic fields, electromagnetic radiation, optical and ionizing radiation and their hazards and health effects. Each chapter presents basic physical and biological concepts and describes the common radiation sources and their biological effects. Each chapter also contains hints for everyday behaviour as well as in-depth information an specific scientific approaches for assessing biological effects; the latter are addressed to all expert readers working in these fields. There is a special chapter on the problem of so-called 'terrestrial radiation'. (orig.) With 88 figs., 31 tabs [de
Holocene evolution of a wave-dominated fan-delta: Godavari delta, India
Saito, Y.; Nageswara Rao, K.; Nagakumar, K.; Demudu, G.; Rajawat, A.; Kubo, S.; Li, Z.
2013-12-01
The Godavari delta is one of the world's largest wave-dominated deltas. The Godavari River arises in the Western Ghats near the west coast of India and drains an area of about 3.1x10^5 km^2, flowing about 1465 km southeast across the Indian peninsula to the Bay of Bengal. The Godavari delta consists of a gentle seaward slope from its apex (12 m elevation) at Rajahmundry and a coastal beach-ridge plain over a distance of about 75 km and covers ~5200 km^2 as a delta plain. The river splits into two major distributary channels, the Gautami and the Vasishta, at a barrage constructed in the mid-1800s. The coastal environment of the deltaic coast is microtidal (~1 m mean tidal range) and wave-dominated (~1.5 m mean wave height in the June-September SW monsoon season, ~0.8 m in the NE monsoon season). Models of the Holocene evolution of the Godavari delta have changed from a zonal progradation model (e.g. Nageswara Rao & Sadakata, 1993) to a truncated cuspate delta model (Nageswara Rao et al., 2005, 2012). Twelve borehole cores (340 m total length), taken in the coastal delta plain during 2010-2013, yielded more than 100 C-14 dates. Sediment facies and C-14 dates from these and previous cores and remote-sensing data support a new delta evolution model. The Holocene coastal delta plain is divided into two parts by a set of linear beach ridges 12-14 km landward from the present shoreline in the central part of the delta. The location of the main depocenter (lobe) has shifted during the Holocene from 1) the center to 2) the west, 3) east, 4) center, 5) west, and 6) east. The linear beach ridges separate the first three from the last three stages. These lobe shifts are controlled by river channel shifts near the apex. Just as the current linear shoreline of the central part of the delta and the concave-up nearshore topography are the result of coastal erosion of a cuspate delta, the linear beach ridges indicate a former eroded shoreline. An unconformity within the deltaic
Juretzek, Carina; Hadziioannou, Céline
2014-05-01
Our knowledge about common and different origins of Love and Rayleigh waves observed in the microseism band of the ambient seismic noise field is still limited, including the understanding of source locations and source mechanisms. Multi-component array methods are suitable to address this issue. In this work we use a 3-component beamforming algorithm to obtain source directions and polarization states of the ambient seismic noise field within the primary and secondary microseism bands recorded at the Gräfenberg array in southern Germany. The method allows to distinguish between different polarized waves present in the seismic noise field and estimates Love and Rayleigh wave source directions and their seasonal variations using one year of array data. We find mainly coinciding directions for the strongest acting sources of both wave types at the primary microseism and different source directions at the secondary microseism.
Borcherdt, Roger D.; Wennerberg, Leif
1985-01-01
The physical characteristics for general plane-wave radiation fields in an arbitrary linear viscoelastic solid are derived. Expressions for the characteristics of inhomogeneous wave fields, derived in terms of those for homogeneous fields, are utilized to specify the characteristics and a set of reference curves for general P and S wave fields in arbitrary viscoelastic solids as a function of wave inhomogeneity and intrinsic material absorption. The expressions show that an increase in inhomogeneity of the wave fields cause the velocity to decrease, the fractional-energy loss (Q** minus **1) to increase, the deviation of maximum energy flow with respect to phase propagation to increase, and the elliptical particle motions for P and type-I S waves to approach circularity. Q** minus **1 for inhomogeneous type-I S waves is shown to be greater than that for type-II S waves, with the deviation first increasing then decreasing with inhomogeneity. The mean energy densities (kinetic, potential, and total), the mean rate of energy dissipation, the mean energy flux, and Q** minus **1 for inhomogeneous waves are shown to be greater than corresponding characteristics for homogeneous waves, with the deviations increasing as the inhomogeneity is increased for waves of fixed maximum displacement amplitude.
On the generation and evolution of internal solitary waves in the southern Red Sea
Guo, Daquan
2016-11-28
Satellite observations recently revealed trains of internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the off-shelf region between 16.0 degrees N and 16.5 degrees N in the southern Red Sea. The generation mechanism of these waves is not entirely clear, though, as the observed generation sites are far away (50 km) from the shelf break and tidal currents are considered relatively weak in the Red Sea. Upon closer examination of the tide properties in the Red Sea and the unique geometry of the basin, it is argued that the steep bathymetry and a relatively strong tidal current in the southern Red Sea provide favorable conditions for the generation of ISWs. To test this hypothesis and further explore the evolution of ISWs in the basin, 2-D numerical simulations with the nonhydrostatic MIT general circulation model (MITgcm) were conducted. The results are consistent with the satellite observations in regard to the generation sites, peak amplitudes and the speeds of first-mode ISWs. Moreover, our simulations suggest that the generation process of ISWs in the southern Red Sea is similar to the tide-topography interaction mechanism seen in the South China Sea. Specifically, instead of ISWs arising in the immediate vicinity of the shelf break via a hydraulic lee wave mechanism, a broad, energetic internal tide is first generated, which subsequently travels away from the shelf break and eventually breaks down into ISWs. Sensitivity runs suggest that ISW generation may also be possible under summer stratification conditions, characterized by an intermediate water intrusion from the strait of Bab el Mandeb.
Langfellner, Jan; Birch, Aaron; Gizon, Laurent
2017-08-01
Solar supergranules remain a mysterious phenomenon, half a century after their discovery. One particularly interesting aspect of supergranulation is its wave-like nature detected in Fourier space. Using SDO/HMI local helioseismology and granulation tracking, we provide new evidence for supergranular waves. We also discuss their influence on the evolution of the network magnetic field using cork simulations.
Electron cyclotron waves in the presence of parallel electric fields in the Earth's auroral plasma
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S. Kumar
1997-01-01
Full Text Available The electron cyclotron waves that originate at low altitudes (<0.5 RE and observed by ground facilities have been studied in the presence of a weak parallel electric field in auroral magnetoplasma consisting of trapped energetic auroral electrons and cold background electrons of ionospheric origin. The model distribution for auroral trapped electrons is taken as Maxwellian ring distribution. An expression for the growth rate has been obtained in the presence of parallel electric field assuming that the real frequency in the whistler mode is not affected by the presence of the electric field. The results show that waves grow (or damp in amplitude for a parallel (or antiparallel electric field. The influence of the electric field is more pronounced at a shorter wavelength spectrum. An increase in population of energetic electrons increases the growth rate and thus, plays a significant role in the wave excitation process in the auroral regions.
Prediction of Near-Field Wave Attenuation Due to a Spherical Blast Source
Ahn, Jae-Kwang; Park, Duhee
2017-11-01
Empirical and theoretical far-field attenuation relationships, which do not capture the near-field response, are most often used to predict the peak amplitude of blast wave. Jiang et al. (Vibration due to a buried explosive source. PhD Thesis, Curtin University, Western Australian School of Mines, 1993) present rigorous wave equations that simulates the near-field attenuation to a spherical blast source in damped and undamped media. However, the effect of loading frequency and velocity of the media have not yet been investigated. We perform a suite of axisymmetric, dynamic finite difference analyses to simulate the propagation of stress waves induced by spherical blast source and to quantify the near-field attenuation. A broad range of loading frequencies, wave velocities, and damping ratios are used in the simulations. The near-field effect is revealed to be proportional to the rise time of the impulse load and wave velocity. We propose an empirical additive function to the theoretical far-field attenuation curve to predict the near-field range and attenuation. The proposed curve is validated against measurements recorded in a test blast.
Radio wave propagation in the inhomogeneous magnetic field of the solar corona
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zheleznyakov, V.V.; Zlotnik, E.Ya.
1977-01-01
Various types of linear coupling between ordinary and extra-ordinary waves in the coronal plasma with the inhomogeneous magnetic field and the effect of this phenomenon upon the polarization characteristics of solar radio emission are considered. A qualitative analysis of the wave equation indicates that in a rarefied plasma the coupling effects can be displayed in a sufficiently weak magnetic field or at the angles between the magnetic field and the direction of wave propagation close enough to zero or π/2. The wave coupling parameter are found for these three cases. The radio wave propagation through the region with a quasi-transverse magnetic field and through the neutral current sheet is discussed more in detail. A qualitative picture of coupling in such a layer is supported by a numerical solution of the ''quasi-isotropic approximation'' equations. The role of the coupling effects in formation of polarization characteristics of different components of solar radio emission has been investigated. For cm wave range, the polarization is essentially dependent on the conditions in the region of the transverse magnetic field
Effect of magnetic field on the wave dispersion relation in three-dimensional dusty plasma crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Xuefeng; Wang Zhengxiong
2012-01-01
Three-dimensional plasma crystals under microgravity condition are investigated by taking into account an external magnetic field. The wave dispersion relations of dust lattice modes in the body centered cubic (bcc) and the face centered cubic (fcc) plasma crystals are obtained explicitly when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the wave motion. The wave dispersion relations of dust lattice modes in the bcc and fcc plasma crystals are calculated numerically when the magnetic field is in an arbitrary direction. The numerical results show that one longitudinal mode and two transverse modes are coupled due to the Lorentz force in the magnetic field. Moreover, three wave modes, i.e., the high frequency phonon mode, the low frequency phonon mode, and the optical mode, are obtained. The optical mode and at least one phonon mode are hybrid modes. When the magnetic field is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the primitive wave motion, all the three wave modes are hybrid modes and do not have any intersection points. It is also found that with increasing the magnetic field strength, the frequency of the optical mode increases and has a cutoff at the cyclotron frequency of the dust particles in the limit of long wavelength, and the mode mixings for both the optical mode and the high frequency phonon mode increase. The acoustic velocity of the low frequency phonon mode is zero. In addition, the acoustic velocity of the high frequency phonon mode depends on the angle of the magnetic field and the wave motion but does not depend on the magnetic field strength.
Effect of high magnetic fields on the charge density wave properties of KMo 6O 17
Rötger, A.; Dumas, J.; Marcus, J.; Schlenker, C.; Ulmet, J. P.; Audouard, A.; Askenazy, S.
1992-03-01
The electrical resistivity of the purple bronze KMo 6O 17 has been studied between 2 and 88 K with pulsed magnetic fields up to 35 T. Several anomalies are found on the curves Δρ/ρ(B) at different temperatures. The low field results are compared with previous measurements of susceptibility and magnetization. A phase diagram which may show a field displaced charge density wave instability and field induced transitions is proposed.
Controlled-source seismic interferometry with one way wave fields
van der Neut, J.; Wapenaar, K.; Thorbecke, J. W.
2008-12-01
In Seismic Interferometry we generally cross-correlate registrations at two receiver locations and sum over an array of sources to retrieve a Green's function as if one of the receiver locations hosts a (virtual) source and the other receiver location hosts an actual receiver. One application of this concept is to redatum an area of surface sources to a downhole receiver location, without requiring information about the medium between the sources and receivers, thus providing an effective tool for imaging below complex overburden, which is also known as the Virtual Source method. We demonstrate how elastic wavefield decomposition can be effectively combined with controlled-source Seismic Interferometry to generate virtual sources in a downhole receiver array that radiate only down- or upgoing P- or S-waves with receivers sensing only down- or upgoing P- or S- waves. For this purpose we derive exact Green's matrix representations from a reciprocity theorem for decomposed wavefields. Required is the deployment of multi-component sources at the surface and multi- component receivers in a horizontal borehole. The theory is supported with a synthetic elastic model, where redatumed traces are compared with those of a directly modeled reflection response, generated by placing active sources at the virtual source locations and applying elastic wavefield decomposition on both source and receiver side.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsiklauri, D.
2014-01-01
Previous studies (e.g., Malara et al., Astrophys. J. 533, 523 (2000)) considered small-amplitude Alfven wave (AW) packets in Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) magnetic field using WKB approximation. They draw a distinction between 2D AW dissipation via phase mixing and 3D AW dissipation via exponentially divergent magnetic field lines. In the former case, AW dissipation time scales as S 1∕3 and in the latter as log(S), where S is the Lundquist number. In this work, linearly polarised Alfven wave dynamics in ABC magnetic field via direct 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulation is studied for the first time. A Gaussian AW pulse with length-scale much shorter than ABC domain length and a harmonic AW with wavelength equal to ABC domain length are studied for four different resistivities. While it is found that AWs dissipate quickly in the ABC field, contrary to an expectation, it is found the AW perturbation energy increases in time. In the case of the harmonic AW, the perturbation energy growth is transient in time, attaining peaks in both velocity and magnetic perturbation energies within timescales much smaller than the resistive time. In the case of the Gaussian AW pulse, the velocity perturbation energy growth is still transient in time, attaining a peak within few resistive times, while magnetic perturbation energy continues to grow. It is also shown that the total magnetic energy decreases in time and this is governed by the resistive evolution of the background ABC magnetic field rather than AW damping. On contrary, when the background magnetic field is uniform, the total magnetic energy decrease is prescribed by AW damping, because there is no resistive evolution of the background. By considering runs with different amplitudes and by analysing the perturbation spectra, possible dynamo action by AW perturbation-induced peristaltic flow and inverse cascade of magnetic energy have been excluded. Therefore, the perturbation energy growth is attributed to
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsiklauri, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)
2014-05-15
Previous studies (e.g., Malara et al., Astrophys. J. 533, 523 (2000)) considered small-amplitude Alfven wave (AW) packets in Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) magnetic field using WKB approximation. They draw a distinction between 2D AW dissipation via phase mixing and 3D AW dissipation via exponentially divergent magnetic field lines. In the former case, AW dissipation time scales as S{sup 1∕3} and in the latter as log(S), where S is the Lundquist number. In this work, linearly polarised Alfven wave dynamics in ABC magnetic field via direct 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulation is studied for the first time. A Gaussian AW pulse with length-scale much shorter than ABC domain length and a harmonic AW with wavelength equal to ABC domain length are studied for four different resistivities. While it is found that AWs dissipate quickly in the ABC field, contrary to an expectation, it is found the AW perturbation energy increases in time. In the case of the harmonic AW, the perturbation energy growth is transient in time, attaining peaks in both velocity and magnetic perturbation energies within timescales much smaller than the resistive time. In the case of the Gaussian AW pulse, the velocity perturbation energy growth is still transient in time, attaining a peak within few resistive times, while magnetic perturbation energy continues to grow. It is also shown that the total magnetic energy decreases in time and this is governed by the resistive evolution of the background ABC magnetic field rather than AW damping. On contrary, when the background magnetic field is uniform, the total magnetic energy decrease is prescribed by AW damping, because there is no resistive evolution of the background. By considering runs with different amplitudes and by analysing the perturbation spectra, possible dynamo action by AW perturbation-induced peristaltic flow and inverse cascade of magnetic energy have been excluded. Therefore, the perturbation energy growth is
Nonstationary random acoustic and electromagnetic fields as wave diffusion processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnaut, L R
2007-01-01
We investigate the effects of relatively rapid variations of the boundaries of an overmoded cavity on the stochastic properties of its interior acoustic or electromagnetic field. For quasi-static variations, this field can be represented as an ideal incoherent and statistically homogeneous isotropic random scalar or vector field, respectively. A physical model is constructed showing that the field dynamics can be characterized as a generalized diffusion process. The Langevin-It o-hat and Fokker-Planck equations are derived and their associated statistics and distributions for the complex analytic field, its magnitude and energy density are computed. The energy diffusion parameter is found to be proportional to the square of the ratio of the standard deviation of the source field to the characteristic time constant of the dynamic process, but is independent of the initial energy density, to first order. The energy drift vanishes in the asymptotic limit. The time-energy probability distribution is in general not separable, as a result of nonstationarity. A general solution of the Fokker-Planck equation is obtained in integral form, together with explicit closed-form solutions for several asymptotic cases. The findings extend known results on statistics and distributions of quasi-stationary ideal random fields (pure diffusions), which are retrieved as special cases
Wang, Zhenqing; Tang, Xiaojun; Lv, Hongqing; Shi, Jianqiang
2014-01-01
By using a high-order accurate finite difference scheme, direct numerical simulation of hypersonic flow over an 8° half-wedge-angle blunt wedge under freestream single-frequency entropy disturbance is conducted; the generation and the temporal and spatial nonlinear evolution of boundary layer disturbance waves are investigated. Results show that, under the freestream single-frequency entropy disturbance, the entropy state of boundary layer is changed sharply and the disturbance waves within a certain frequency range are induced in the boundary layer. Furthermore, the amplitudes of disturbance waves in the period phase are larger than that in the response phase and ablation phase and the frequency range in the boundary layer in the period phase is narrower than that in these two phases. In addition, the mode competition, dominant mode transformation, and disturbance energy transfer exist among different modes both in temporal and in spatial evolution. The mode competition changes the characteristics of nonlinear evolution of the unstable waves in the boundary layer. The development of the most unstable mode along streamwise relies more on the motivation of disturbance waves in the upstream than that of other modes on this motivation.
Wave functions for a relativistic electron in superstrong magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dumitrescu, Gh.
2003-01-01
In the past decade few authors attempted to search interesting features of the radiation of a specific neutron star, the magnetar. In this paper we investigate some features of the motion of an electron in a strong magnetic field as it occurs in a magnetar atmosphere. We have applied the conditions of the super relativistic electrons in super-strong magnetic fields proposed by Gonthier et al. to express two specific spin operators and their eigenfunctions. We have done this in order to investigate into a further paper an estimation of the cross section in Compton process in strong and superstrong magnetic fields in relativistic regime. (author)
Investigating Alfvénic wave propagation in coronal open-field regions
Morton, R. J.; Tomczyk, S.; Pinto, R.
2015-01-01
The physical mechanisms behind accelerating solar and stellar winds are a long-standing astrophysical mystery, although recent breakthroughs have come from models invoking the turbulent dissipation of Alfvén waves. The existence of Alfvén waves far from the Sun has been known since the 1970s, and recently the presence of ubiquitous Alfvénic waves throughout the solar atmosphere has been confirmed. However, the presence of atmospheric Alfvénic waves does not, alone, provide sufficient support for wave-based models; the existence of counter-propagating Alfvénic waves is crucial for the development of turbulence. Here, we demonstrate that counter-propagating Alfvénic waves exist in open coronal magnetic fields and reveal key observational insights into the details of their generation, reflection in the upper atmosphere and outward propagation into the solar wind. The results enhance our knowledge of Alfvénic wave propagation in the solar atmosphere, providing support and constraints for some of the recent Alfvén wave turbulence models. PMID:26213234
Relativistic wave equations for particles in electromagnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Good, R.H. Jr.
1989-01-01
A new type of generalization of the Dirac equation of higher spin particles and antiparticles is given, in case only the terms proportional to the external fields need to be retained. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muller, J.; Parent, G.; Fumeron, S.; Jeandel, G.; Lacroix, D.
2011-01-01
The detection of surface waves through scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) is a promising technique for thermal measurements at very small scales. Recent studies have shown that electromagnetic waves, in the vicinity of a scattering structure such as an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip, can be scattered from near to far-field and thus detected. In the present work, a model based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method and the near-field to far-field (NFTFF) transformation for electromagnetic waves propagation is presented. This model has been validated by studying the electromagnetic field of a dipole in vacuum and close to a dielectric substrate. Then simulations for a tetrahedral tip close to an interface are presented and discussed.
Excitation of electrostatic wave instability by dc electric field in earth's magnetoplasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mishra, S.P.; Misra, K.D.; Pandey, R.P.; Singh, K.M.
1992-01-01
The dispersion relation for electrostatic wave propagation in an anisotropic warm collisionless magnetoplasma, in the presence of weak parallel (d c) electric field, has been derived analytically. An expression for the growth rate of the electrostatic wave and the marginal stability condition are also derived. The modifications introduced in the growth rate by the electric field and the temperature anisotropy are discussed using plasma parameters observed in the magnetospheric region (4 < L < 10). The effect of the electric field is to increase the growth rate of electrostatic waves at different electron cyclotron harmonics, whereas the effect of the temperature anisotropy is to decrease the growth rate. The presence of parallel electric field may excite the electrostatic emissions at different electron cyclotron harmonics. The most unstable band of wave frequencies obtained with the aid of computations lies between 5 kHz and 10 kHz. These wave frequencies are well within the experimentally observed frequencies of electrostatic emissions. Therefore such a study would not only explain the observed satellite features of the electrostatic wave emissions but would also account for the diagnostics of the magnetospheric plasma parameters
Alfven Wave Reflection Model of Field-Aligned Currents at Mercury
Lyatsky, Wladislaw; Khazanov, George V.; Slavin, James
2010-01-01
An Alfven Wave Reflection (AWR) model is proposed that provides closure for strong field-aligned currents (FACs) driven by the magnetopause reconnection in the magnetospheres of planets having no significant ionospheric and surface electrical conductance. The model is based on properties of the Alfven waves, generated at high altitudes and reflected from the low-conductivity surface of the planet. When magnetospheric convection is very slow, the incident and reflected Alfven waves propagate along approximately the same path. In this case, the net field-aligned currents will be small. However, as the convection speed increases. the reflected wave is displaced relatively to the incident wave so that the incident and reflected waves no longer compensate each other. In this case, the net field-aligned current may be large despite the lack of significant ionospheric and surface conductivity. Our estimate shows that for typical solar wind conditions at Mercury, the magnitude of Region 1-type FACs in Mercury's magnetosphere may reach hundreds of kilo-Amperes. This AWR model of field-aligned currents may provide a solution to the long-standing problem of the closure of FACs in the Mercury's magnetosphere. c2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Xu, Jiexin; Chen, Zhiwu; Xie, Jieshuo; Cai, Shuqun
2016-03-01
In this paper, the generation and evolution of seaward propagating internal solitary waves (ISWs) detected by satellite image in the northwestern South China Sea (SCS) are investigated by a fully nonlinear, non-hydrostatic, three-dimensional Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm). The three-dimensional (3D) modeled ISWs agree favorably with those by satellite image, indicating that the observed seaward propagating ISWs may be generated by the interaction of barotropic tidal flow with the arc-like continental slope south of Hainan Island. Though the tidal current is basically in east-west direction, different types of internal waves are generated by tidal currents flowing over the slopes with different shaped shorelines. Over the slope where the shoreline is straight, only weak internal tides are generated; over the slope where the shoreline is seaward concave, large-amplitude internal bores are generated, and since the concave isobaths of the arc-like continental slope tend to focus the baroclinic tidal energy which is conveyed to the internal bores, the internal bores can efficiently disintegrate into a train of rank-ordered ISWs during their propagation away from the slope; while over the slope where the shoreline is seaward convex, no distinct internal tides are generated. It is also implied that the internal waves over the slope are generated due to mixed lee wave mechanism. Furthermore, the effects of 3D model, continental slope curvature, stratification, rotation and tidal forcing on the generation of ISWs are discussed, respectively. It is shown that, the amplitude and phase speed of ISWs derived from a two-dimensional (2D) model are smaller than those from the 3D one, and the 3D model has an advantage over 2D one in simulating the ISWs generated by the interaction between tidal currents and 3D curved continental slope; the reduced continental slope curvature hinders the extension of ISW crestline; both weaker stratification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Narottam Maity
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Reflection of longitudinal displacement waves in a generalized thermoelastic half space under the action of uniform magnetic field has been investigated. The magnetic field is applied in such a direction that the problem can be considered as a two-dimensional one. The discussion is based on the three theories of generalized thermoelasticity: Lord-Shulman (L-S, Green-Lindsay (G-L, and Green-Naghdi (G-N with energy dissipation. We compute the possible wave velocities for different models. Amplitude ratios have been presented. The effects of magnetic field on various subjects of interest are discussed and shown graphically.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shapiro, B.Y.
1992-01-01
The behavior of a superconductor in time-independent electric field perpendicular to the surface and in the external electromagnetic wave is theoretically investigated. A new type of the resonance interaction between superconducting domains localized along the magnetic field (if the superconducting phase transition takes place in the external magnetic field perpendicular to the surface) and electromagnetic waves is predicted. The surface impedance of the superconductor with domains is calculated. It is shown that the real part of the impedance has a saturation if the skin length equals the domain size. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Yoshida, Shin
2010-01-01
In addition to producing loud gravitational waves, the dynamics of a binary black hole system could induce emission of electromagnetic radiation by affecting the behavior of plasmas and electromagnetic fields in their vicinity. We study how the electromagnetic fields are affected by a pair of orbiting black holes through the merger. In particular, we show how the binary's dynamics induce a variability in possible electromagnetically induced emissions as well as an enhancement of electromagnetic fields during the late-merge and merger epochs. These time dependent features will likely leave their imprint in processes generating detectable emissions and can be exploited in the detection of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves.
On propagation of sound waves in Q2D conductors in a quantizing magnetic field
Kirichenko, O V; Galbova, O; Ivanovski, G; Krstovska, D
2003-01-01
The attenuation of sound waves propagating normally to the layers of a Q2D conductor is analysed at low enough temperatures when quantization of the energy of conduction electrons results in an oscillatory dependence of the sound attenuation rate on the inverse magnetic field. The sound wave decrement is found for different orientations of the magnetic field with respect to the layers. A layered conductor is shown to be most transparent in the case when the magnetic field is orthogonal to the layers.
On propagation of sound waves in Q2D conductors in a quantizing magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirichenko, O.V.; Peschansky, V.G.; Galbova, O.; Ivanovski, G.; Krstovska, D.
2003-01-01
The attenuation of sound waves propagating normally to the layers of a Q2D conductor is analysed at low enough temperatures when quantization of the energy of conduction electrons results in an oscillatory dependence of the sound attenuation rate on the inverse magnetic field. The sound wave decrement is found for different orientations of the magnetic field with respect to the layers. A layered conductor is shown to be most transparent in the case when the magnetic field is orthogonal to the layers
Diffusion and drift regimes of plasma ionization wave propagation in a microwave field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khodataev, K.V.; Gorelik, B.R.
1997-01-01
Investigation into diffusion and drift modes of a plasma ionization wave propagation in the microwave field are conducted within the framework of a one-dimensional model with regard to gas ionization by electron shock in an electrical field, adhesion, mobility and diffusion of electrons
Waves on the surface of a magnetic fluid layer in a traveling magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zimmermann, K.; Zeidis, I.; Naletova, V.A.; Turkov, V.A.
2004-01-01
The plane flow of a layer of incompressible viscous magnetic fluid with constant magnetic permeability under the action of a traveling magnetic field is analyzed. The strength of the magnetic field producing a sinusoidal traveling small-amplitude wave on the surface of a magnetic fluid is found. This flow can be used in designing mobile robots
Electric field measurements on plasma bullets in N2 using four-wave mixing
van der Schans, M.; Böhm, P.; Nijdam, S.; IJzerman, W.L.; Czarnetzki, U.
2015-01-01
Atmospheric pressure plasma jets driven by pulsed DC or kHz AC voltages typically consist of discrete guided ionisation waves called plasma bullets. In this work, the electric field of plasma bullets generated in a pulsed DC jet with N2 as feed gas is investigated. Electric field measurements in N2
Calculation of the radiation force on a cylinder in a standing wave acoustic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haydock, David [Unilever R and D Colworth, Sharnbrook, Bedford MK44 1LQ (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)
2005-04-15
We present a new calculation of the radiation force on a cylinder in a standing wave acoustic field. We use the formula to calculate the force on a cylinder which is free to move in the field and one which is fixed in space.
Calculation of the radiation force on a cylinder in a standing wave acoustic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haydock, David
2005-01-01
We present a new calculation of the radiation force on a cylinder in a standing wave acoustic field. We use the formula to calculate the force on a cylinder which is free to move in the field and one which is fixed in space
Montiel, F.; Squire, V. A.
2013-12-01
A new ocean wave/sea-ice interaction model is proposed that simulates how a directional wave spectrum evolves as it travels through a realistic marginal ice zone (MIZ), where wave/ice dynamics are entirely governed by coherent conservative wave scattering effects. Field experiments conducted by Wadhams et al. (1986) in the Greenland Sea generated important data on wave attenuation in the MIZ and, particularly, on whether the wave spectrum spreads directionally or collimates with distance from the ice edge. The data suggest that angular isotropy, arising from multiple scattering by ice floes, occurs close to the edge and thenceforth dominates wave propagation throughout the MIZ. Although several attempts have been made to replicate this finding theoretically, including by the use of numerical models, none have confronted this problem in a 3D MIZ with fully randomised floe distribution properties. We construct such a model by subdividing the discontinuous ice cover into adjacent infinite slabs of finite width parallel to the ice edge. Each slab contains an arbitrary (but finite) number of circular ice floes with randomly distributed properties. Ice floes are modeled as thin elastic plates with uniform thickness and finite draught. We consider a directional wave spectrum with harmonic time dependence incident on the MIZ from the open ocean, defined as a continuous superposition of plane waves traveling at different angles. The scattering problem within each slab is then solved using Graf's interaction theory for an arbitrary incident directional plane wave spectrum. Using an appropriate integral representation of the Hankel function of the first kind (see Cincotti et al., 1993), we map the outgoing circular wave field from each floe on the slab boundaries into a directional spectrum of plane waves, which characterizes the slab reflected and transmitted fields. Discretizing the angular spectrum, we can obtain a scattering matrix for each slab. Standard recursive
Measurements of Electric Field in a Nanosecond Pulse Discharge by 4-WAVE Mixing
Baratte, Edmond; Adamovich, Igor V.; Simeni Simeni, Marien; Frederickson, Kraig
2017-06-01
Picosecond four-wave mixing is used to measure temporally and Picosecond four-wave mixing is used to measure temporally and spatially resolved electric field in a nanosecond pulse dielectric discharge sustained in room air and in an atmospheric pressure hydrogen diffusion flame. Measurements of the electric field, and more precisely the reduced electric field (E/N) in the plasma is critical for determination rate coefficients of electron impact processes in the plasma, as well as for quantifying energy partition in the electric discharge among different molecular energy modes. The four-wave mixing measurements are performed using a collinear phase matching geometry, with nitrogen used as the probe species, at temporal resolution of about 2 ns . Absolute calibration is performed by measurement of a known electrostatic electric field. In the present experiments, the discharge is sustained between two stainless steel plate electrodes, each placed in a quartz sleeve, which greatly improves plasma uniformity. Our previous measurements of electric field in a nanosecond pulse dielectric barrier discharge by picosecond 4-wave mixing have been done in air at room temperature, in a discharge sustained between a razor edge high-voltage electrode and a plane grounded electrode (a quartz plate or a layer of distilled water). Electric field measurements in a flame, which is a high-temperature environment, are more challenging because the four-wave mixing signal is proportional to the to square root of the difference betwen the populations of N2 ground vibrational level (v=0) and first excited vibrational level (v=1). At high temperatures, the total number density is reduced, thus reducing absolute vibrational level populations of N2. Also, the signal is reduced further due to a wider distribution of N2 molecules over multiple rotational levels at higher temperatures, while the present four-wave mixing diagnostics is using spectrally narrow output of a ps laser and a high
Manipulating Traveling Brain Waves with Electric Fields: From Theory to Experiment.
Gluckman, Bruce J.
2004-03-01
Activity waves in disinhibited neocortical slices have been used as a biological model for epileptic seizure propagation [1]. Such waves have been mathematically modeled with integro-differential equations [2] representing non-local reaction diffusion dynamics of an excitable medium with an excitability threshold. Stability and propagation speed of traveling pulse solutions depend strongly on the threshold in the following manner: propagation speed should decrease with increased threshold over a finite range, beyond which the waves become unstable. Because populations of neurons can be polarized with an applied electric field that effectively shifts their threshold for action potential initiation [3], we predicted, and have experimentally verified, that electric fields could be used globally or locally to speed up, slow down and even block wave propagation. [1] Telfeian and Conners, Epilepsia, 40, 1499-1506, 1999. [2] Pinto and Ermentrout, SIAM J. App. Math, 62, 206-225, 2001. [3] Gluckman, et. al. J Neurophysiol. 76, 4202-5, 1996.
Modeling of prominence threads in magnetic fields: Levitation by incompressible MHD waves
Pécseli, Hans; Engvold, OddbjØrn
2000-05-01
The nature of thin, highly inclined threads observed in quiescent prominences has puzzled solar physicists for a long time. When assuming that the threads represent truly inclined magnetic fields, the supporting mechanism of prominence plasma against gravity has remained an open issue. This paper examines the levitation of prominence plasma exerted by weakly damped MHD waves in nearly vertical magnetic flux tubes. It is shown that the wave damping, and resulting `radiation pressure', caused predominantly by ion-neutral collisions in the `cold' prominence plasma, may balance the acceleration of gravity provided the oscillation frequency is ω~ 2 rad s^-1 (f~0.5 Hz). Such short wave periods may be the result of small-scale magnetic reconnections in the highly fragmentary magnetic field of quiescent prominences. In the proposed model, the wave induced levitation acts predominantly on plasma - neutral gas mixtures.
Anomalous resistivity and the evolution of magnetic field topology
Parker, E. N.
1993-01-01
This paper explores the topological restructuring of a force-free magnetic field caused by the hypothetical sudden onset of a localized region of strong anomalous resistivity. It is shown that the topological complexity increases, with the primitive planar force-free field with straight field lines developing field lines that wrap half a turn around each other, evidently providing a surface of tangential discontinuity in the wraparound region. It is suggested that the topological restructuring contributes to the complexity of the geomagnetic substorm, the aurora, and perhaps some of the flare activity on the sun, or other star, and the Galactic halo.
Effect of the chameleon scalar field on brane cosmological evolution
Bisabr, Y.; Ahmadi, F.
2017-11-01
We have investigated a brane world model in which the gravitational field in the bulk is described both by a metric tensor and a minimally coupled scalar field. This scalar field is taken to be a chameleon with an appropriate potential function. The scalar field interacts with matter and there is an energy transfer between the two components. We find a late-time asymptotic solution which exhibits late-time accelerating expansion. We also show that the Universe recently crosses the phantom barrier without recourse to any exotic matter. We provide some thermodynamic arguments which constrain both the direction of energy transfer and dynamics of the extra dimension.
Effect of the chameleon scalar field on brane cosmological evolution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Bisabr
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We have investigated a brane world model in which the gravitational field in the bulk is described both by a metric tensor and a minimally coupled scalar field. This scalar field is taken to be a chameleon with an appropriate potential function. The scalar field interacts with matter and there is an energy transfer between the two components. We find a late-time asymptotic solution which exhibits late-time accelerating expansion. We also show that the Universe recently crosses the phantom barrier without recourse to any exotic matter. We provide some thermodynamic arguments which constrain both the direction of energy transfer and dynamics of the extra dimension.
Michael, L.; Nikiforakis, N.
2018-02-01
This work is concerned with the effect of cavity collapse in non-ideal explosives as a means of controlling their sensitivity. The main objective is to understand the origin of localised temperature peaks (hot spots) which play a leading order role at the early stages of ignition. To this end, we perform two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations of shock-induced single gas-cavity collapse in liquid nitromethane. Ignition is the result of a complex interplay between fluid dynamics and exothermic chemical reaction. In order to understand the relative contribution between these two processes, we consider in this first part of the work the evolution of the physical system in the absence of chemical reactions. We employ a multi-phase mathematical formulation which can account for the large density difference across the gas-liquid material interface without generating spurious temperature peaks. The mathematical and physical models are validated against experimental, analytic, and numerical data. Previous inert studies have identified the impact of the upwind (relative to the direction of the incident shock wave) side of the cavity wall to the downwind one as the main reason for the generation of a hot spot outside of the cavity, something which is also observed in this work. However, it is also apparent that the topology of the temperature field is more complex than previously thought and additional hot spot locations exist, which arise from the generation of Mach stems rather than jet impact. To explain the generation mechanisms and topology of the hot spots, we carefully follow the complex wave patterns generated in the collapse process and identify specifically the temperature elevation or reduction generated by each wave. This enables tracking each hot spot back to its origins. It is shown that the highest hot spot temperatures can be more than twice the post-incident shock temperature of the neat material and can thus lead to ignition. By comparing two
Computation of wave fields and soil structure interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lysmer, J.W.
1982-01-01
The basic message of the lecture is that the determination of the temporal and spatial variation of the free-field motions is the most important part of any soil-structure interaction analysis. Any interaction motions may be considered as small aberrations superimposed on the free-field motions. The current definition of the soil-structure interaction problem implies that superposition must be used, directly or indirectly, in any rational method of analysis of this problem. This implies that the use of nonlinear procedures in any part of a soil-structure interaction analysis must be questioned. Currently the most important part of the soil-structure interaction analysis, the free-field problem, cannot be solved by nonlinear methods. Hence, it does not seem reasonable to spend a large effort on trying to obtain nonlinear solutions for the interaction part of the problem. Even if such solutions are obtained they cannot legally be superimposed on the free-field motions to obtain the total motions of the structure. This of course does not preclude the possibility that such an illegal procedure may lead to solutions which are close enough for engineering purposes. However, further research is required to make a decision on this issue
Submillimetre wave spectroscopy of semiconductors in high magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maan, J.C.
1979-01-01
Two types of cyclotron resonance studies with far infrared radiation and at high magnetic fields in semiconductors are discussed. Firstly, the phenomenon of the change in the static conductivity at cyclotron resonance conditions in pure semiconductors, in this case n-GaAs, is investigated. Secondly, the results of cyclotron resonance experiments in an n-InAs-GaSb superlattice are discussed. (Auth.)
Experimental determination of radiated internal wave power without pressure field data
Lee, Frank M.; Paoletti, M. S.; Swinney, Harry L.; Morrison, P. J.
2014-01-01
We present a method to determine, using only velocity field data, the time-averaged energy flux $\\left$ and total radiated power $P$ for two-dimensional internal gravity waves. Both $\\left$ and $P$ are determined from expressions involving only a scalar function, the stream function $\\psi$. We test the method using data from a direct numerical simulation for tidal flow of a stratified fluid past a knife edge. The results for the radiated internal wave power given by the stream function method...
Concentration field in traveling-wave and stationary convection in fluid mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eaton, K.D.; Ohlsen, D.R.; Yamamoto, S.Y.; Surko, C.M.; Barten, W.; Luecke, M.; Kamps, M.; Kolodner, P.
1991-01-01
By comparison of measurements of shadowgraph images of convection in ethanol-water mixtures with the results of recent numerical calculations, we study the role of the concentration field in traveling-wave and stationary convection. The results confirm the existence of a large concentration contrast between adjacent traveling-wave convection rolls. This concentration modulation, which decreases as the Rayleigh number is increased and the transition to stationary convection is approached, is fundamental to the translation of the pattern
Effect of Earth gravitational field on the detection of gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, V.I.; Eliseev, V.A.
1987-01-01
Results of laboratory detection of high-frequency gravitational waves from the view point of gravitation theories formulated on the basis of pseudoeuclidean space-time are calculated. Peculiarities due to different effects of the Earth gravitational field on the rates of gravitational and electromagnetic wave propagation in these theories are analysed. Experiments on check of predictions of the given class of theories are suggested
Bulakhov, M. G.; Buyanov, Yu. I.; Yakubov, V. P.
1996-10-01
It has been shown that a full vector measurement of the total field allows one to uniquely distinguish the incident and reflected waves at each observation point without the use of a spatial difference based on an analysis of the polarization structure of the interference pattern which arises during reflection of electromagnetic waves from an intermedia boundary. We have investigated the stability of these procedures with respect to measurement noise by means of numerical modeling.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, K; Kaneko, T; Hatakeyama, R; Fukuyama, A
2009-01-01
Characteristics of electromagnetic waves of azimuthal mode number m = ±1 are investigated experimentally, analytically and numerically when the waves triggering the field-aligned and transverse plasma-potential structure modification near an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) point are injected into an inhomogeneously magnetized plasma with high-speed ion flow. The waves of m = +1 and -1 modes generate an electric double layer near the ECR point at the radially central and peripheral areas of the plasma column, respectively, and the transverse electric fields are consequently formed. At these areas the waves have a right-handed polarization and are absorbed through the ECR mechanism, where the experimental and analytical results do show the polarization reversal along the radial axis. The numerical results by plasma analysis by finite element method (FEM)/wave analysis by FEM (PAF/WF) code show that the wave-absorption area is localized at the radially central and peripheral areas for m = +1 and -1 mode waves, respectively, being consistent with the experimental and analytical ones.
Manipulation of quantum evolution
Cabera, David Jose Fernandez; Mielnik, Bogdan
1994-01-01
The free evolution of a non-relativistic charged particle is manipulated using time-dependent magnetic fields. It is shown that the application of a programmed sequence of magnetic pulses can invert the free evolution process, forcing an arbitrary wave packet to 'go back in time' to recover its past shape. The possibility of more general operations upon the Schrodinger wave packet is discussed.
Wave dispersion relation of two-dimensional plasma crystals in a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uchida, G.; Konopka, U.; Morfill, G.
2004-01-01
The wave dispersion relation in a two-dimensional strongly coupled plasma crystal is studied by theoretical analysis and molecular dynamics simulation taking into account a constant magnetic field parallel to the crystal normal. The expression for the wave dispersion relation clearly shows that high-frequency and low-frequency branches exist as a result of the coupling of longitudinal and transverse modes due to the Lorenz force acting on the dust particles. The high-frequency and the low-frequency branches are found to belong to right-hand and left-hand polarized waves, respectively
Helicon wave field measurements in Proto-MPEX
Caneses, Juan Francisco; Piotrowicz, Pawel; Goulding, Richard; Caughman, John; Showers, Missy; Kafle, Nischal; Rapp, Juergen; Campbell, Ian; Proto-MPEX Team
2016-10-01
A high density Deuterium discharge (ne 5e19 m-3, Te 4 eV) has been recently observed in ProtoMPEX (Prototype Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment). The discharge (100 kW, 13.56 MHz, D2, 700 G at the source, 1e4 G at the Target) begins with a low density plasma with hollow Te profile and transitions in about 100 ms to a high density mode with flat Te profile. It is believed that the transition to the high density mode is produced by a ``helicon resonance'' as evidenced by the centrally-peaked power deposition profile observed with IR imaging on a 2 mm thick metallic target plate. In this work, we present b-dot probe measurements of the radial helicon wavefields 30 cm downstream of the antenna during both the low and high density modes. In addition, we compare the experimental results with full wave simulations. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy.
Magnetic Field Effects and Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Highly Collisional Plasmas.
Bozeman, Steven Paul
The homogeneity and size of radio frequency (RF) and microwave driven plasmas are often limited by insufficient penetration of the electromagnetic radiation. To investigate increasing the skin depth of the radiation, we consider the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a weakly ionized plasma immersed in a steady magnetic field where the dominant collision processes are electron-neutral and ion-neutral collisions. Retaining both the electron and ion dynamics, we have adapted the theory for cold collisionless plasmas to include the effects of these collisions and obtained the dispersion relation at arbitrary frequency omega for plane waves propagating at arbitrary angles with respect to the magnetic field. We discuss in particular the cases of magnetic field enhanced wave penetration for parallel and perpendicular propagation, examining the experimental parameters which lead to electromagnetic wave propagation beyond the collisional skin depth. Our theory predicts that the most favorable scaling of skin depth with magnetic field occurs for waves propagating nearly parallel to B and for omega << Omega_{rm e} where Omega_{rm e} is the electron cyclotron frequency. The scaling is less favorable for propagation perpendicular to B, but the skin depth does increase for this case as well. Still, to achieve optimal wave penetration, we find that one must design the plasma configuration and antenna geometry so that one generates primarily the appropriate angles of propagation. We have measured plasma wave amplitudes and phases using an RF magnetic probe and densities using Stark line broadening. These measurements were performed in inductively coupled plasmas (ICP's) driven with a standard helical coil, a reverse turn (Stix) coil, and a flat spiral coil. Density measurements were also made in a microwave generated plasma. The RF magnetic probe measurements of wave propagation in a conventional ICP with wave propagation approximately perpendicular to B show an increase in
The effects of noise on binocular rivalry waves: a stochastic neural field model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Webber, Matthew A; Bressloff, Paul C
2013-01-01
We analyze the effects of extrinsic noise on traveling waves of visual perception in a competitive neural field model of binocular rivalry. The model consists of two one-dimensional excitatory neural fields, whose activity variables represent the responses to left-eye and right-eye stimuli, respectively. The two networks mutually inhibit each other, and slow adaptation is incorporated into the model by taking the network connections to exhibit synaptic depression. We first show how, in the absence of any noise, the system supports a propagating composite wave consisting of an invading activity front in one network co-moving with a retreating front in the other network. Using a separation of time scales and perturbation methods previously developed for stochastic reaction–diffusion equations, we then show how extrinsic noise in the activity variables leads to a diffusive-like displacement (wandering) of the composite wave from its uniformly translating position at long time scales, and fluctuations in the wave profile around its instantaneous position at short time scales. We use our analysis to calculate the first-passage-time distribution for a stochastic rivalry wave to travel a fixed distance, which we find to be given by an inverse Gaussian. Finally, we investigate the effects of noise in the depression variables, which under an adiabatic approximation lead to quenched disorder in the neural fields during propagation of a wave. (paper)
The effects of noise on binocular rivalry waves: a stochastic neural field model
Webber, Matthew A
2013-03-12
We analyze the effects of extrinsic noise on traveling waves of visual perception in a competitive neural field model of binocular rivalry. The model consists of two one-dimensional excitatory neural fields, whose activity variables represent the responses to left-eye and right-eye stimuli, respectively. The two networks mutually inhibit each other, and slow adaptation is incorporated into the model by taking the network connections to exhibit synaptic depression. We first show how, in the absence of any noise, the system supports a propagating composite wave consisting of an invading activity front in one network co-moving with a retreating front in the other network. Using a separation of time scales and perturbation methods previously developed for stochastic reaction-diffusion equations, we then show how extrinsic noise in the activity variables leads to a diffusive-like displacement (wandering) of the composite wave from its uniformly translating position at long time scales, and fluctuations in the wave profile around its instantaneous position at short time scales. We use our analysis to calculate the first-passage-time distribution for a stochastic rivalry wave to travel a fixed distance, which we find to be given by an inverse Gaussian. Finally, we investigate the effects of noise in the depression variables, which under an adiabatic approximation lead to quenched disorder in the neural fields during propagation of a wave. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd and SISSA Medialab srl.
The evolution of an unsteady translating nonlinear rossby-wave critical layer
Haynes, Peter H.; Cowley, Stephen J.
When a monochromatic Rossby wave is forced on a flow which is slowly varying in time, the location of the critical line, where the phase speed of the wave is equal to that of the flow, also slowly changes. It is shown that this translation can play an important role in the vorticity balance near the critical line. The behavior of the translating critical layer is analyzed for various values of y, a parameter which measures the relative importance of nonlinear advection and translation. First, the vorticity equation in the critical layer is solved numerically in an important special case, where the velocity field in the critical layer is independent of the vorticity distribution and constant in time. The solutions reveal a number of new aspects of the behavior which are introduced by the translation, including the formation of a wake behind the critical layer, and the possibility of "trapping" of fluid particles in the critical layer if y exceeds a threshold value. Viewed in a frame of reference moving with the critical line the vorticity distribution may tend to a steady state, except in a "vorticity front" far downstream in the wake. If streamlines in the critical layer are open this steady state may be a predominantly inviscid one; if they are closed a steady state is possible only with non-zero dissipation. For both the unsteady and steady flows the translation allows the "logarithmic phase jump" across the critical layer, 4, to be non-zero and negative. Hence, even when the viscosity is vanishingly small, the critical layer can act as a strong "absorber" of Eliassen-Palm wave activity. Second, steady-state solutions are obtained numerically for a case when the velocity field in the critical layer is not independent of the vorticity distribution there. The interaction restricts the formation of closed streamlines, and an asymptotic open-streamline solution for large y can be found. The critical layer again acts an absorber of wave activity, but with decreasing e
Matter waves from localized sources in homogeneous force fields
Kramer, Tobias
2010-01-01
We derive a scattering theory in constant potentials based on the energy-dependent Green function. This approach enables us to formulate modern experiments in terms of Green function. One application discussed is the photodetachment of electrons in external electromagnetic fields. In this case an intricate currentdensity distributions exists, that can be explained in terms of interfering classical trajectories. We also derive analytically the two-dimensional Green function in perpendicular el...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antonini, Fabio; Perets, Hagai B.
2012-01-01
The environment near supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic nuclei contains a large number of stars and compact objects. A fraction of these are likely to be members of binaries. Here we discuss the binary population of stellar black holes and neutron stars near SMBHs and focus on the secular evolution of such binaries, due to the perturbation by the SMBH. Binaries with highly inclined orbits with respect to their orbit around the SMBH are strongly affected by secular Kozai processes, which periodically change their eccentricities and inclinations (Kozai cycles). During periapsis approach, at the highest eccentricities during the Kozai cycles, gravitational wave (GW) emission becomes highly efficient. Some binaries in this environment can inspiral and coalesce at timescales much shorter than a Hubble time and much shorter than similar binaries that do not reside near an SMBH. The close environment of SMBHs could therefore serve as a catalyst for the inspiral and coalescence of binaries and strongly affect their orbital properties. Such compact binaries would be detectable as GW sources by the next generation of GW detectors (e.g., advanced-LIGO). Our analysis shows that ∼0.5% of such nuclear merging binaries will enter the LIGO observational window while on orbits that are still very eccentric (e ∼> 0.5). The efficient GW analysis for such systems would therefore require the use of eccentric templates. We also find that binaries very close to the SMBH could evolve through a complex dynamical (non-secular) evolution, leading to emission of several GW pulses during only a few years (though these are likely to be rare). Finally, we note that the formation of close stellar binaries, X-ray binaries, and their merger products could be induced by similar secular processes, combined with tidal friction rather than GW emission as in the case of compact object binaries.
On synthetic gravitational waves from multi-field inflation
Ozsoy, Ogan
2018-04-01
We revisit the possibility of producing observable tensor modes through a continuous particle production process during inflation. Particularly, we focus on the multi-field realization of inflation where a spectator pseudoscalar σ induces a significant amplification of the U(1) gauge fields through the coupling propto σFμνtilde Fμν. In this model, both the scalar σ and the Abelian gauge fields are gravitationally coupled to the inflaton sector, therefore they can only affect the primordial scalar and tensor fluctuations through their mixing with gravitational fluctuations. Recent studies on this scenario show that the sourced contributions to the scalar correlators can be dangerously large to invalidate a large tensor power spectrum through the particle production mechanism. In this paper, we re-examine these recent claims by explicitly calculating the dominant contribution to the scalar power and bispectrum. Particularly, we show that once the current limits from CMB data are taken into account, it is still possible to generate a signal as large as r ≈ 10‑3 and the limitations on the model building are more relaxed than what was considered before.
Variations mechanism in entropy of wave height field and its relation with thermodynamic entropy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
This paper gives a brief description of annual period and seasonal variation in the wave height field entropy in the northeastern Pacific. A calculation of the quantity of the, received by lithosphere systems in the northern hemisphere is introduced. The wave heat field entropy is compared with the difference in the quantity of the sun's radiation heat. Analysis on the transfer method, period and lag of this seasonal variation led to the conclusion that the annual period and seasonal variation in the entropy of the wave height field in the Northwestern Pacific is due to the seasonal variation of the sun's radiation heat. Furthermore, the inconsistency between thermodynamic entropy and information entropy was studied.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Koichi Narahara
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlinear transmission lines, which define transmission lines periodically loaded with nonlinear devices such as varactors, diodes, and transistors, are modeled in the framework of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method. Originally, some root-finding routine is needed to evaluate the contributions of nonlinear device currents appropriately to the temporally advanced electrical fields. Arbitrary nonlinear transmission lines contain large amount of nonlinear devices; therefore, it costs too much time to complete calculations. To reduce the calculation time, we recently developed a simple model of diodes to eliminate root-finding routines in an FDTD solver. Approximating the diode current-voltage relation by a piecewise-linear function, an extended Ampere's law is solved in a closed form for the time-advanced electrical fields. In this paper, we newly develop an FDTD model of field-effect transistors (FETs, together with several numerical examples that demonstrate pulse-shortening phenomena in a traveling-wave FET.
Evolution of the soil cover of soccer fields
Belobrov, V. P.; Zamotaev, I. V.
2014-04-01
A soccer field can be considered a soil-like technogenic formation (STF). According to the theory of soil cover patterns, the artificially constructed (anthropogenic) soil cover of a soccer field is an analogue of a relatively homogeneous elementary soil area. However, the spatial homogeneity of the upper part (50-80 cm) of the STF of soccer fields is unstable and is subjected to gradual transformation under the impact of pedogenetic processes, agrotechnical loads, and mechanical loads during the games. This transformation is favored by the initial heterogeneity of the deep (buried) parts of the STF profile. The technogenic factors and elementary pedogenetic processes specify the dynamic functioning regime of the STF. In 50-75 years, the upper part of the STF is transformed into soil-like bodies with properties close to those in zonal soils. Certain micro- and nanopatterns of the soil cover are developed within the field creating its spatial heterogeneity.
The Evolution of the Design Management Field: A Journal Perspective
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Erichsen, Pia Geisby; Christensen, Poul Rind
2011-01-01
The aim of this contribution is to trace the dynamic development of the field of design management based on a litterature survey of conceptual developments in key journals of design management in the years 2000 to 2011.......The aim of this contribution is to trace the dynamic development of the field of design management based on a litterature survey of conceptual developments in key journals of design management in the years 2000 to 2011....
Corona magnetic field over sunspots estimated by m-wave observation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurihara, Masahiro
1974-01-01
The shape of the magnetic field in corona was estimated from the observation of the type I storm occurred in the last decade of August, 1971. It was found from the observation with a 160 MHz interferometer at Mt. Nobeyama that at most three storm sources, which are called radio wave source, were produced. The radio wave sources were fixed above sunspots. The height of the radio wave sources was estimated to be 0.45 R from the photosphere. The sunspots under the radio wave sources can be classified to four sub-groups. Weakening of the magnetic field on the photosphere was found from the reduction of the area of some sub-group. The relation between the activity of type I storm and the intensity of the magnetic field of sunspots is qualitatively suggested. It is considered that the radio wave sources and the sunspots were connected by common magnetic force lines. The probable magnetic field in corona was presumed and is shown in a figure. An interesting point is that the direction of magnetic force lines inclined by about 30 0 outward to the vertical line to the photosphere surface. (Kato, T.)
Phase Structure of Strong-Field Tunneling Wave Packets from Molecules.
Liu, Ming-Ming; Li, Min; Wu, Chengyin; Gong, Qihuang; Staudte, André; Liu, Yunquan
2016-04-22
We study the phase structure of the tunneling wave packets from strong-field ionization of molecules and present a molecular quantum-trajectory Monte Carlo model to describe the laser-driven dynamics of photoelectron momentum distributions of molecules. Using our model, we reproduce and explain the alignment-dependent molecular frame photoelectron spectra of strong-field tunneling ionization of N_{2} reported by M. Meckel et al. [Nat. Phys. 10, 594 (2014)]. In addition to modeling the low-energy photoelectron angular distributions quantitatively, we extract the phase structure of strong-field molecular tunneling wave packets, shedding light on its physical origin. The initial phase of the tunneling wave packets at the tunnel exit depends on both the initial transverse momentum distribution and the molecular internuclear distance. We further show that the ionizing molecular orbital has a critical effect on the initial phase of the tunneling wave packets. The phase structure of the photoelectron wave packet is a key ingredient for modeling strong-field molecular photoelectron holography, high-harmonic generation, and molecular orbital imaging.
Torsional Alfvén Waves in a Dipolar Magnetic Field
Nataf, H. C.; Tigrine, Z.; Cardin, P.; Schaeffer, N.
2017-12-01
The discovery of torsional Alfvén waves in the Earth's core (Gillet et al, 2010) is a strong motivation for investigating the properties of these waves. Here, we report on the first experimental study of such waves. Alfvén waves are difficult to excite and observe in liquid metals because of their high magnetic diffusivity. Nevertheless, we obtained clear signatures of such diffusive waves in our DTS experiment. In this setup, some 40 liters of liquid sodium are contained between a ro = 210 mm-radius stainless steel outer shell, and a ri = 74 mm-radius copper inner sphere. Both spherical boundaries can rotate independently around a common vertical axis. The inner sphere shells a strong permanent magnet, which produces a nearly dipolar magnetic field whose intensity falls from 175 mT at ri to 8 mT at ro in the equatorial plane. We excite Alfvén waves in the liquid sodium by applying a sudden jerk of the inner sphere. To study the effect of global rotation, which leads to the formation of geostrophic torsional Alfvén waves, we spin the experiment at rotation rates fo = fi up to 15 Hz. The Alfvén wave produces a clear azimuthal magnetic signal on magnetometers installed in a sleeve inside the fluid. We also probe the associated azimuthal velocity field using ultrasound Doppler velocimetry. Electric potentials at the surface of the outer sphere turn out to be very revealing as well. In parallel, we use the XSHELLS magnetohydrodynamics spherical code to model torsional Alfvén waves in the experimental conditions, and beyond. We explore both linear and non-linear regimes. We observe a strong excitation of inertial waves in the equatorial plane, where the wave transits from a region of strong magnetic field to a region dominated by rotation (see figure of meridian map of azimuthal velocity). These novel observations should help deciphering the dynamics of Alfvén waves in planetary cores.
Geologic evolution of the Lost City Hydrothermal Field
Denny, Alden R.; Kelley, Deborah S.; Früh-Green, Gretchen L.
2016-02-01
The Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF) is a novel serpentinite-hosted vent field located on the Atlantis Massif southern wall. Results of 2 m resolution bathymetry, side scan, and video and still imagery, integrated with direct submersible observations provide the first high-resolution geologic map of the LCHF. These data form the foundation for an evolutionary model for the vent system over the past >120,000 years. The field is located on a down-dropped bench 70 m below the summit of the massif. The bench is capped by breccia and pelagic carbonate deposits underlain by variably deformed and altered serpentinite and gabbroic rocks. Hydrothermal activity is focused at the 60 m tall, 100 m across, massive carbonate edifice "Poseidon," which is venting 91°C fluid. Hydrothermal activity declines south and west of the Poseidon complex and dies off completely at distances greater than 200 m. East of Poseidon, the most recent stage of hydrothermal flow is characterized by egress of diffuse fluids from narrow fissures within a low-angle, anastomosing mylonite zone. South of the area of current hydrothermal activity, there is evidence of two discrete previously unrecognized relict fields. Active venting sites defined by carbonate-filled fissures that cut the carbonate cap rock at the summit of the massif mark the present-day northernmost extent of venting. These spatial relationships reflect multiple stages of field development, the northward migration of venting over time, and the likely development of a nascent field at the massif summit.
The research of Digital Holographic Object Wave Field Reconstruction in Image and Object Space
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Jun-Chang; PENG Zu-Jie; FU Yun-Chang
2011-01-01
@@ For conveniently detecting objects of different sizes using digital holography, usual measurements employ the object wave transformed by an optical system with different magnifications to fit charge coupled devices (CCDs), then the object field reconstruction involves the diffraction calculation of the optic wave passing through the optical system.We propose two methods to reconstruct the object field.The one is that, when the object is imaging in an image space in which we reconstruct the image of the object field, the object field can be expressed according to the object-image relationship.The other is that, when the object field reaching CCD is imaged in an object space in which we reconstruct the object field, the optical system is described by introducing matrix optics in this paper.The reconstruction formulae which easily use classic diffraction integral are derived.Finally, experimental verifications are also accomplished.%For conveniently detecting objects of different sizes using digital holography, usual measurements employ the object wave transformed by an optical system with different magnifications to fit charge coupled devices (CCDs), then the object Reid reconstruction involves the diffraction calculation of the optic wave passing through the optical system. We propose two methods to reconstruct the object field. The one is that, when the object is imaging in an image space in which we reconstruct the image of the object field, the object field can be expressed according to the object-image relationship. The other is that, when the object field reaching CCD is imaged in an object space in which we reconstruct the object field, the optical system is described by introducing matrix optics in this paper. The reconstruction formulae which easily use classic diffraction integral are derived. Finally, experimental verifications are also accomplished.
Influence of hurricane wind field in the structure of directional wave spectra.
Esquivel-Trava, Bernardo; García-Nava, Hector; Osuna, Pedro; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.
2017-04-01
Three numerical experiments using the spectral wave prediction model SWAN were carried out to gain insight into the mechanism that controls the directional and frequency distributions of hurricane wave energy. One particular objective is to evaluate the effect of the translation speed of the hurricane and the presence of concentric eye walls, on both the wave growth process and the shape of the directional wave spectrum. The HRD wind field of Hurricane Dean on August 20 at 7:30 was propagated at two different velocities (5 and 10 m/s). An idealized concentric eye wall (a Gaussian function that evolve in time along a path in the form of an Archimedean spiral) was imposed to the wind field. The white-capping formulation of Westhuysen et al. (2007) was selected. The wave model represents fairly well the directionality of the energy and the shape of the directional spectra in the hurricane domain. The model results indicate that the forward movement of the storm influences the development of the waves, consistent with field observations. Additionally the same experiments were carried out using the Wave Watch III model with the source terms formulation proposed by Ardhuin et al., 2010, with the aim of making comparisons between the physical processes that represent each formulation, and the latest results will be addressed. References Ardhuin, F., Rogers, E., Babanin, A. V., Filipot, J.-F., Magne, R., Roland, A., van der Westhuysen, A., et al. (2010). Semiempirical Dissipation Source Functions for Ocean Waves. Part I: Definition, Calibration, and Validation. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 40(9), 1917-1941. doi:10.1175/2010JPO4324.1 Van der Westhuysen, A. J., Zijlema, M., & Battjes, J. A. (2007). Nonlinear saturation-based whitecapping dissipation in SWAN for deep and shallow water. Coast. Eng., 54(2), 151-170. doi:10.1016/j.coastaleng.2006.08.006
Source and path effects in the wave fields of tremor and explosions at Stromboli Volcano, Italy
Chouet, B.; Saccorotti, G.; Martini, M.; Dawson, P.; De Luca, G.; Milana, G.; Scarpa, R.
1997-01-01
The wave fields generated by Strombolian activity are investigated using data from small-aperture seismic arrays deployed on the north flank of Stromboli and data from seismic and pressure transducers set up near the summit crater. Measurements of slowness and azimuth as a function of time clearly indicate that the sources of tremor and explosions are located beneath the summit crater at depths shallower than 200 m with occasional bursts of energy originating from sources extending to a depth of 3 km. Slowness, azimuth, and particle motion measurements reveal a complex composition of body and surface waves associated with topography, structure, and source properties. Body waves originating at depths shallower than 200 m dominate the wave field at frequencies of 0.5-2.5 Hz, and surface waves generated by the surficial part of the source and by scattering sources distributed around the island dominate at frequencies above 2.5 Hz. The records of tremor and explosions are both dominated by SH motion. Far-field records from explosions start with radial motion, and near-field records from those events show dominantly horizontal motion and often start with a low-frequency (1-2 Hz) precursor characterized by elliptical particle motion, followed within a few seconds by a high-frequency radial phase (1-10 Hz) accompanying the eruption of pyroclastics. The dominant component of the near- and far-field particle motions from explosions, and the timing of air and body wave phases observed in the near field, are consistent with a gaspiston mechanism operating on a shallow (<200 m deep), vertical crack-like conduit. Models of a degassing fluid column suggest that noise emissions originating in the collective oscillations of bubbles ascending in the magma conduit may provide an adequate self-excitation mechanism for sustained tremor generation at Stromboli. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.
Evolution of magnetohydrodynamic waves in low layers of a coronal hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pucci, Francesco; Malara, Francesco; Onofri, Marco
2014-01-01
Although a coronal hole is permeated by a magnetic field with a dominant polarity, magnetograms reveal a more complex magnetic structure in the lowest layers, where several regions of opposite polarity of typical size of the order of 10 4 km are present. This can give rise to magnetic separatrices and neutral lines. MHD fluctuations generated at the base of the coronal hole by motions of the inner layer of the solar atmosphere may interact with such inhomogeneities, leading to the formation of small scales. This phenomenon is studied on a 2D model of a magnetic structure with an X-point, using 2D MHD numerical simulations. This model implements a method of characteristics for boundary conditions in the direction outer-pointing to Sun surface to simulate both wave injection and exit without reflection. Both Alfvénic and magnetosonic perturbations are considered, and they show very different phenomenology. In the former case, an anisotropic power-law spectrum forms with a dominance of perpendicular wavevectors at altitudes ∼10 4 km. Density fluctuations are generated near the X-point by Alfvén wave magnetic pressure and propagate along open fieldlines at a speed comparable to the local Alfvén velocity. An analysis of energy dissipation and heating caused by the formation of small scales for the Alfvénic case is presented. In the magnetosonic case, small scales form only around the X-point, where a phenomenon of oscillating magnetic reconnection is observed to be induced by the periodic deformation of the magnetic structure due to incoming waves.
On the stability of solitary waves for classical scalar fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blanchard, P.; Stubbe, J.; Vazquez, L.
1986-01-01
We study the stability for the bound states of lowest action of certain nonlinear Klein-Gordon and Schroedinger equations by applying the Shatah-Strauss formalism. We extend the range of application of this formalism by using a recent existence theorem for minimum action solutions to a large class of equations including logarithmic Klein-Gordon equation and logarithmic Schroedinger equation and scalar fields with fractional non-linearities. Furthermore we discuss the relation between different stability criteria considered in the literature. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masera, D; Bocca, P; Grazzini, A
2011-01-01
In this experimental program the main goal is to monitor the damage evolution in masonry and concrete structures by Acoustic Emission (AE) signal analysis applying a well-know seismic method. For this reason the concept of the coda wave interferometry is applied to AE signal recorded during the tests. Acoustic Emission (AE) are very effective non-destructive techniques applied to identify micro and macro-defects and their temporal evolution in several materials. This technique permits to estimate the velocity of ultrasound waves propagation and the amount of energy released during fracture propagation to obtain information on the criticality of the ongoing process. By means of AE monitoring, an experimental analysis on a set of reinforced masonry walls under variable amplitude loading and strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) beams under monotonic static load has been carried out. In the reinforced masonry wall, cyclic fatigue stress has been applied to accelerate the static creep and to forecast the corresponding creep behaviour of masonry under static long-time loading. During the tests, the evaluation of fracture growth is monitored by coda wave interferometry which represents a novel approach in structural monitoring based on AE relative change velocity of coda signal. In general, the sensitivity of coda waves has been used to estimate velocity changes in fault zones, in volcanoes, in a mining environment, and in ultrasound experiments. This method uses multiple scattered waves, which travelled through the material along numerous paths, to infer tiny temporal changes in the wave velocity. The applied method has the potential to be used as a 'damage-gauge' for monitoring velocity changes as a sign of damage evolution into masonry and concrete structures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Masera, D; Bocca, P; Grazzini, A, E-mail: davide.masera@polito.it [Department of Structural and Geotechnical Engineering - Politecnico di Torino, corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Turin (Italy)
2011-07-19
In this experimental program the main goal is to monitor the damage evolution in masonry and concrete structures by Acoustic Emission (AE) signal analysis applying a well-know seismic method. For this reason the concept of the coda wave interferometry is applied to AE signal recorded during the tests. Acoustic Emission (AE) are very effective non-destructive techniques applied to identify micro and macro-defects and their temporal evolution in several materials. This technique permits to estimate the velocity of ultrasound waves propagation and the amount of energy released during fracture propagation to obtain information on the criticality of the ongoing process. By means of AE monitoring, an experimental analysis on a set of reinforced masonry walls under variable amplitude loading and strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) beams under monotonic static load has been carried out. In the reinforced masonry wall, cyclic fatigue stress has been applied to accelerate the static creep and to forecast the corresponding creep behaviour of masonry under static long-time loading. During the tests, the evaluation of fracture growth is monitored by coda wave interferometry which represents a novel approach in structural monitoring based on AE relative change velocity of coda signal. In general, the sensitivity of coda waves has been used to estimate velocity changes in fault zones, in volcanoes, in a mining environment, and in ultrasound experiments. This method uses multiple scattered waves, which travelled through the material along numerous paths, to infer tiny temporal changes in the wave velocity. The applied method has the potential to be used as a 'damage-gauge' for monitoring velocity changes as a sign of damage evolution into masonry and concrete structures.
Some observations on stray magnetic fields and power outputs from short-wave diathermy equipment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lau, R.W.M.; Dunscombe, P.B.
1984-04-01
Recent years have seen increasing interest in the possible hazards arising from the use of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation. Relatively large and potentially hazardous fields are to be found in the vicinity of short-wave and microwave equipment used in physiotherapy departments to produce therapeutic temperature rises. This note reports the results of measurements of the stray magnetic field and power output of a conventional short-wave diathermy unit when applied to tissue-equivalent phantoms. The dependence of these quantities on the variables, i.e. power setting of the unit, capacitor plate size, phantom size and phantom-capacitor plate separation, are discussed.
Generation of zonal magnetic fields by drift waves in a current carrying nonuniform magnetoplasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shukla, Nitin; Shukla, P.K.
2010-01-01
It is shown that zonal magnetic fields (ZMFs) can be nonlinearly excited by incoherent drift waves (DWs) in a current carrying nonuniform magnetoplasma. The dynamics of incoherent DWs in the presence of ZMFs is governed by a wave-kinetic equation. The governing equation for ZMFs in the presence of nonlinear advection force of the DWs is obtained from the parallel component of the electron momentum equation and the Faraday law. Standard techniques are used to derive a nonlinear dispersion relation, which depicts instability via which ZMFs are excited in plasmas. ZMFs may inhibit the turbulent cross-field particle and energy transport in a nonuniform magnetoplasma.
On the creation of gravitational wave by photon in external electromagnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoang Ngoc Long; Le Khac Huong
1989-08-01
The creation of the gravitational wave by the photon in an electromagnetic field is considered. We show that when the momentum of the photon is perpendicular to the field, the probability of the gravitational wave creation is largest in the direction of the motion of the photon. A numerical evaluation shows that the probability of creation in the direction mentioned is much larger than that in the direction considered, namely in the direction perpendicular to the photon momentum and may have the observable value in the present technical conditions. (author). 10 refs
Electron Bernstein wave emission from an overdense reversed field pinch plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chattopadhyay, P.K.; Anderson, J.K.; Biewer, T.M.; Craig, D.; Forest, C.B.; Harvey, R.W.; Smirnov, A.P.
2002-01-01
Blackbody levels of emission in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies have been observed from an overdense (ω pe ∼3ω ce ) Madison Symmetric Torus [Dexter et al., Fusion Technol. 19, 131 (1991)] reversed field pinch plasma, a result of electrostatic electron Bernstein waves emitted from the core and mode converted into electromagnetic waves at the extreme plasma edge. Comparison of the measured radiation temperature with profiles measured by Thomson scattering indicates that the mode conversion efficiency can be as high as ∼75%. Emission is preferentially in the X-mode polarization, and is strongly dependent upon the density and magnetic field profiles at the mode conversion point
Relativistic n-body wave equations in scalar quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emami-Razavi, Mohsen
2006-01-01
The variational method in a reformulated Hamiltonian formalism of Quantum Field Theory (QFT) is used to derive relativistic n-body wave equations for scalar particles (bosons) interacting via a massive or massless mediating scalar field (the scalar Yukawa model). Simple Fock-space variational trial states are used to derive relativistic n-body wave equations. The equations are shown to have the Schroedinger non-relativistic limits, with Coulombic interparticle potentials in the case of a massless mediating field and Yukawa interparticle potentials in the case of a massive mediating field. Some examples of approximate ground state solutions of the n-body relativistic equations are obtained for various strengths of coupling, for both massive and massless mediating fields
Shirvani, H; Jafari, S
2018-03-01
The quantum regime of a plasma-whistler-wave-pumped free-electron laser (FEL) in the presence of an axial-guide magnetic field is presented. By quantizing both the plasma whistler field and axial magnetic field, an N-particle three-dimensional Hamiltonian of quantum-FEL (QFEL) has been derived. Employing Heisenberg evolution equations and introducing a new collective operator which controls the vertical motion of electrons, a quantum dispersion relation of the plasma whistler wiggler has been obtained analytically. Numerical results indicate that, by increasing the intrinsic quantum momentum spread and/or increasing the axial magnetic field strength, the bunching and the radiation fields grow exponentially. In addition, a spiking behavior of the spectrum was observed with increasing cyclotron frequency which provides an enormous improvement in the coherence of QFEL radiation even in a limit close-to-classical regime, where an overlapping of these spikes is observed. Also, an upper limit of the intrinsic quantum momentum spread which depends on the value of the cyclotron frequency was found.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skoblin, A.A.
1994-01-01
Free nonrelativistic electrons in both a static magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave are considered. A plane-polarized wave propagates along a magnetic field, its frequency is close to the electron rotation frequency in a magnetic field. Electron spin is taken into account. An electron quasi energy spectrum and steady states (quasi energy states) are constructed. 6 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trillo, C; Doval, A F; Deán-Ben, X L; López-Vázquez, J C; Fernández, J L; Hernández-Montes, S
2011-01-01
This paper describes a technique that numerically reconstructs the complex acoustic amplitude (i.e. the acoustic amplitude and phase) of a compression acoustic wave in the interior volume of a specimen from a set of full-field optical measurements of the instantaneous displacement of the surface. The volume of a thick specimen is probed in transmission mode by short bursts of narrowband compression acoustic waves generated at one of its faces. The temporal evolution of the displacement field induced by the bursts emerging at the opposite surface is measured by pulsed digital holographic interferometry (pulsed TV holography). A spatio-temporal 3D Fourier transform processing of the measured data yields the complex acoustic amplitude at the plane of the surface as a sequence of 2D complex-valued maps. Finally, a numerical implementation of the Rayleigh–Sommerfeld diffraction formula is employed to reconstruct the complex acoustic amplitude at other planes in the interior volume of the specimen. The whole procedure can be regarded as a combination of optical digital holography and acoustical holography methods. The technique was successfully tested on aluminium specimens with and without an internal artificial defect and sample results are presented. In particular, information about the shape and position of the defect was retrieved in the experiment performed on the flawed specimen, which indicates the potential applicability of the technique for the nondestructive testing of materials
Mapping the (R-)Evolution of Technological Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jurowetzki, Roman; Hain, Daniel S.
2014-01-01
The aim of this paper was to provide a framework and novel methodology geared towards mapping technological change in complex interdependent systems by using large amounts of unstructured data from various recent on- and offline sources. Combining techniques from the fields of natural language...... processing and network analysis, we are able to identify technological fields as overlapping communities of knowledge fragments. Over time persistence of these fragments allows to observe how these fields evolve into trajectories, which may change, split, merge and finally disappear. As empirical example we...... use the broad area of Technological Singularity, an umbrella term for different technologies ranging from neuroscience to machine learning and bioengineering, which are seen as main contributors to the development of artificial intelligence and human enhancement technologies. Using a socially enhanced...
Influence of standing-wave fields on the laser damage resistance of dielectric films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newnam, B.E.; Gill, D.H.; Faulkner, G.
1973-01-01
The influence of standing-wave electric fields on the damage resistance of dielectric thin films was evaluated for the case of 30-ps laser pulses at 1.06 μm. Single-layer films of TiO 2 , ZrO 2 , SiO 2 , and MgF 2 were deposited by state-of-the-art electron-gun evaporation on BK-7 glass substrates with uniform surface preparation. The film thicknesses ranged from one to five quarter-wave increments. The thresholds for TiO 2 films of odd quarter-wave thickness were greater than for even multiples which correlated well with the calculated internal maximum electric fields. Threshold variations for ZrO 2 films were apparent but not as distinctly periodic with film thickness. Negligible variations were obtained for SiO 2 films, again correlating with electric-field calculations. Results of additional tests allowed comparisons of thresholds for 1) back-and front-surface films for normal incidence; 2) S- and P-polarized radiation at an incidence angle of 60 0 ; and 3) circular and linear polarizations for normal incidence. The thresholds were compared with calculated standing-wave field patterns at various locations in the films. A correlation was generally found between the internal field maxima and the thresholds, but in a few coatings, defects apparently decreased or prevented any correlation. (auth)
The Indian Ocean Nodule Field: Petrotectonic evolution and ferromanganese deposits
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Mukhopadhyay, R.; Iyer, S.D.; Ghosh, A.K.
, symmetrical and of high amplitude. The timing and intensity of the collision of India with Eurasia is constrained by the variable intensity of these flexures, suggesting probably a ‘soft’ touch at f58 Ma and the hard collision at about 51 Ma.The nodule field...
Influence of hurricane wind field in the structure of directional wave spectra
Esquivel-Trava, Bernardo; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Osuna, Pedro
2015-04-01
Extensive field measurements of wind waves in deep waters in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea, have been analyzed to describe the spatial structure of directional wave spectra during hurricane conditions. Following Esquivel-Trava et al. (2015) this analysis was made for minor hurricanes (categories 1 and 2) and major hurricanes (categories 3, 4 and 5). In both cases the directionality of the energy wave spectrum is similar in all quadrants. Some differences are observed however, and they are associated with the presence and the shape of swell energy in each quadrant. Three numerical experiments using the spectral wave prediction model SWAN were carried out to gain insight into the mechanism that controls the directional and frequency distributions of hurricane wave energy. The aim of the experiments is to evaluate the effect of the translation speed of the hurricane and the presence of concentric eye walls, on both the wave growth process and the shape of the directional wave spectrum. The HRD wind field of Hurricane Dean on August 20 at 7:30 was propagated at two different velocities (5 and 10 m/s). An idealized concentric eye wall (a Gaussian function that evolve in time along a path in the form of an Archimedean spiral) was imposed to the wind field. The white-capping formulation of Westhuysen et al. (2007) was selected. The wave model represents fairly well the directionality of the energy and the shape of the directional spectra in the hurricane domain. The model results indicate that the forward movement of the storm influences the development of the waves, consistent with field observations. This work has been supported by CONACYT scholarship 164510 and projects RugDisMar (155793), CB-2011-01-168173 and the Department of Physical Oceanography of CICESE. References Esquivel-Trava, B., Ocampo-Torres, F. J., & Osuna, P. (2015). Spatial structure of directional wave spectra in hurricanes. Ocean Dynam., 65(1), 65-76. doi:10.1007/s10236-014-0791-9 Van der
Second-Order Perturbation Theory for Generalized Active Space Self-Consistent-Field Wave Functions.
Ma, Dongxia; Li Manni, Giovanni; Olsen, Jeppe; Gagliardi, Laura
2016-07-12
A multireference second-order perturbation theory approach based on the generalized active space self-consistent-field (GASSCF) wave function is presented. Compared with the complete active space (CAS) and restricted active space (RAS) wave functions, GAS wave functions are more flexible and can employ larger active spaces and/or different truncations of the configuration interaction expansion. With GASSCF, one can explore chemical systems that are not affordable with either CASSCF or RASSCF. Perturbation theory to second order on top of GAS wave functions (GASPT2) has been implemented to recover the remaining electron correlation. The method has been benchmarked by computing the chromium dimer ground-state potential energy curve. These calculations show that GASPT2 gives results similar to CASPT2 even with a configuration interaction expansion much smaller than the corresponding CAS expansion.
Ion acoustic solitary waves in a dusty plasma obliquely propagating to an external magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Cheong Rim; Ryu, Chang-Mo; Lee, Nam C.; Lee, D.-Y.
2005-01-01
The nonlinear ion acoustic solitary wave in a magnetized dusty plasma, obliquely propagating to the embedding external magnetic field, is revisited. It is found that when the charge density of dust particles is high, the Sagdeev potential needs to be expanded up to δn 4 near n=1. In this case, it is shown that there could exist rarefactive ion acoustic solitary waves as well as the kink-type double layer solutions, in addition to the conventional hump-type ones found in the δn 3 expansion. The amplitude variations of ion acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized dusty plasma are also examined with respect to the change of the dust charge density and the wave directional angle
Real-space quasilinear theory of drift waves in a sheared magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1977-02-01
A real-space quasilinear theory is developed for the collisional and the collisionless drift waves in a plasma with a sheared magnetic field of slab geometry. The equation obtained describes the interaction between many localized modes around different rational surfaces through the density modulation of the energy source region of each mode. The wave amplitudes approach to the stationary values through a relaxation oscillation process. When the width x sub(s) of the energy source region becomes comparable to the spacing Δx of the two adjacent rational surfaces, diffusion coefficient due to the wave is enhanced over the classical value, while the nonlocal heat transport due to the wave propagation is shown to be negligible compared to that associated with the diffusion process. (auth.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, Liu; He, X.T.; Chen, S.G.; Zhang, W.Y.; He, X.T.; Hong, Liu
2004-01-01
We propose a new particle acceleration mechanism. Electrons can be accelerated to relativistic energy within a few electromagnetic wave cycles through the mechanism which is named electromagnetic and magnetic field resonance acceleration (EMRA). We find that the electron acceleration depends not only on the electromagnetic wave intensity, but also on the ratio between electron Larmor frequency and electromagnetic wave frequency. As the ratio approaches to unity, a clear resonance peak is observed, corresponding to the EMRA. Near the resonance regime, the strong magnetic fields still affect the electron acceleration dramatically. We derive an approximate analytical solution of the relativistic electron energy in adiabatic limit, which provides a full understanding of this phenomenon. In typical parameters of pulsar magnetospheres, the mechanism allows particles to increase their energies through the resonance of high magnetic field and high frequency electromagnetic wave in each electromagnetic wave period. The energy spectra of the accelerated particles exhibit the synchrotron radiation behavior. These can help to understand the remaining emission of high energy electron from radio pulsar within supernova remnant. The other potential application of our theory in fast ignition scheme of inertial confinement fusion is also discussed. (authors)
Converging xenon shock waves driven by megagauss magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shearer, J.W.; Steinberg, D.J.
1986-07-01
We attempted to implode a conducting metal linear at high velocity, and our failure to do so led to switching, or rapidly transferring the field from pushing an aluminum conductor to snow-plowing a half-atmosphere of xenon gas. We successfully initiated convergent xenon gas shocks with the use of a magnetohydrodynamic switch and coaxial high-explosive, flux-compression generators. Principal diagnostics used to study the imploding xenon gas were 133 Xe radioactive tracers, continuous x-ray absorption, and neutron output. We compressed the xenon gas about five to sixfold at a velocity of 10 cm/μs at a radius of 4 cm. The snowplow efficiency was good; going from 13- to 4-cm radius, we lost only about 20% of the mass. The temperature of the imploded sheath was determined by mixing deuterium with the xenon and measuring the neutron output. Using reasonable assumptions about the amount, density, and uniformity of the compressed gas, we estimate that we reached temperatures as high as 155 eV. Energy-loss mechanisms that we encountered included wall ablation and Taylor instabilities of the back surface
[Crisis and evolution in the field of pharmacy?].
Mariani, L
1997-04-01
A series of events has, recently, attracted the interest of the scientific and the business community, as well as of the general public: 1. Some of the biggest pharmaceutical companies fused to form giant conglomerates with international basis; 2. Established drug production sites have been shut down in Italy without being replaced by new enterprises and 3. Applications to register new drugs in Italy have significantly decreased in favor of the European Patent Office in the UK. These events are considered by the authors as signs of an evolutive crisis of the pharmaceutical industry, where companies try to maximize their economical gains on a world basis. In this process Italy is becoming the target of a progressive extromission from the production phase, but especially from the research/development of new drugs. Changes in the regulations and in the "modus operandi" of our country are necessary and advocated to keep Italy among the leading industrial countries with an "allure" of profitability for international investors.
Field avian metapneumovirus evolution avoiding vaccine induced immunity.
Catelli, Elena; Lupini, Caterina; Cecchinato, Mattia; Ricchizzi, Enrico; Brown, Paul; Naylor, Clive J
2010-01-22
Live avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) vaccines have largely brought turkey rhinotracheitis (TRT) under control in Europe but unexplained outbreaks still occur. Italian AMPV longitudinal farm studies showed that subtype B AMPVs were frequently detected in turkeys some considerable period after subtype B vaccination. Sequencing showed these to be unrelated to the previously applied vaccine. Sequencing of the entire genome of a typical later isolate showed numerous SH and G protein gene differences when compared to both a 1987 Italian field isolate and the vaccine in common use. Experimental challenge of vaccinated birds with recent virus showed that protection was inferior to that seen after challenge with the earlier 1987 isolate. Field virus had changed in key antigenic regions allowing replication and leading to disease in well vaccinated birds.
ASPI experiment: measurements of fields and waves on board the INTERBALL-1 spacecraft
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Klimov
1997-05-01
Full Text Available The plasma-wave experiment ASPI (analysis of spectra of plasma waves and instabilities on board the INTERBALL spacecraft is a combined wave diagnostics experiment. It performs measurements of the DC and AC magnetic field vector by flux-gate and search-coil sensors, the DC and AC electric field vector by Langmuir double probes and the plasma current by Langmuir split probe. Preliminary data analysis shows the low noise levels of the sensors and the compatibility of new data with the results of previous missions. During several months of in-orbit operation a rich collection of data was acquired, examples of which at the magnetopause and plasma sheet are presented in second part of the paper.
Resonant Wave Energy Converters: Small-scale field experiments and first full-scale prototype
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arena, Felice; Fiamma, Vincenzo; Iannolo, Roberto; Laface, Valentina; Malara, Giovanni; Romolo, Alessandra; Strati Federica Maria
2015-01-01
The Resonant Wave Energy Converter 3 (REWEC3) is a device belonging to the family of Oscillating Water Columns (OWCs), that can convert the energy of incident waves into electrical energy via turbines. In contrast to classical OWCs, it incorporates a small vertical U-shaped duct to connect the water column to the open wave field. This article shows the results of a small-scale field experiment involving a REWEC3 designed for working with a 2 kW turbine. Then, the next experimental activity on a REWEC3 installed in the NOEL laboratory with the collaboration of ENEA, is presented. Finally, the first prototype of ReWEC3 under construction in Civitavecchia (Rome, Italy) is shown. The crucial features of the construction stage are discussed and some initial performances are provided. [it
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xie, Wenqiu; He, Fangming [Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Zicheng; Luo, Jirun; Zhao, Ding; Liu, Qinglun [Institute of Electronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2014-04-15
Based on a rectilinear sheet electron beam propagating through the tunnel of a staggered double-grating arrays waveguide (SDGAW) slow-wave structure (SWS), a three dimensional field theory for describing the modes and the beam-wave interaction is presented, in which the higher order terms inside the grooves are retained. The fields' distribution and the conductivity losses are also calculated utilizing the theoretical model. With the optimized parameters of the SWS and the electron beam, a 1 THz SDGAW Cerenkov traveling wave amplifier may obtain a moderate net gain (the peak gain is 12.7 dB/cm) and an ultra 3 dB wideband (0.19 THz) considering the serious Ohmic losses. The theoretical results have been compared with those calculated by 3D HFSS code and CST STUDIO particle-in-cell simulations.
Stem breakage of salt marsh vegetation under wave forcing: A field and model study
Vuik, Vincent; Suh Heo, Hannah Y.; Zhu, Zhenchang; Borsje, Bas W.; Jonkman, Sebastiaan N.
2018-01-01
One of the services provided by coastal ecosystems is wave attenuation by vegetation, and subsequent reduction of wave loads on flood defense structures. Therefore, stability of vegetation under wave forcing is an important factor to consider. This paper presents a model which determines the wave load that plant stems can withstand before they break or fold. This occurs when wave-induced bending stresses exceed the flexural strength of stems. Flexural strength was determined by means of three-point-bending tests, which were carried out for two common salt marsh species: Spartina anglica (common cord-grass) and Scirpus maritimus (sea club-rush), at different stages in the seasonal cycle. Plant stability is expressed in terms of a critical orbital velocity, which combines factors that contribute to stability: high flexural strength, large stem diameter, low vegetation height, high flexibility and a low drag coefficient. In order to include stem breakage in the computation of wave attenuation by vegetation, the stem breakage model was implemented in a wave energy balance. A model parameter was calibrated so that the predicted stem breakage corresponded with the wave-induced loss of biomass that occurred in the field. The stability of Spartina is significantly higher than that of Scirpus, because of its higher strength, shorter stems, and greater flexibility. The model is validated by applying wave flume tests of Elymus athericus (sea couch), which produced reasonable results with regards to the threshold of folding and overall stem breakage percentage, despite the high flexibility of this species. Application of the stem breakage model will lead to a more realistic assessment of the role of vegetation for coastal protection.
Jovian electron bursts: Correlation with the interplanetary field direction and hydromagnetic waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, E.J.; Tsurutani, B.T.; Chenette, D.L.; Conlon, T.F.; Simpson, J.A.
1976-01-01
The bursts of relativistic electrons detected on Pioneer 10 upstream from Jupiter and within 400r/subj/ of the planet have been found to be correlated with the interplanetary magnetic field. In the three examples upon which this study is based, during the month prior to the Pioneer 10 encounter, electrons with energies between 3 and 6 MeV escaping from Jupiter's magnetosphere were observed only when the interplanetary magnetic field was along the Jupiter-spacecraft line. In addition, large-amplitude interplanetary waves with characteristic periods of 10 min were observed and found to be well correlated with intervals during which the field was along the Jupiter-spacecraft line. Abrupt changes in the field away from the preferred direction caused equally abrupt terminations of the waves with an accompanying reduction in the electron flux. These results are consistent with propagation of the electrons from Jupiter to Pioneer along, rather than across, the magnetic field lines. The direction of the interplanetary magnetic field is apparently not affected by the electron bursts or by other particles from Jupiter. The average Parker spiral direction is clear with no enhancement in the Jupiter-spacecraft direction. Two alternative possibilities are considered for the origin of the waves. If they were generated near Jupiter, they would have to propagate to the spacecraft in the whistler mode. The expected attenuation of these waves over distances of several hundred r/subj/ an their long travel times make this explanation unattractive. Alternatively, hydromagnetic wave generation by Jovian charged particles, presumably the relativistic electrons themselves, as they travel upstream, appears to be an attractive explanation
Li, Xi-Zeng; Su, Bao-Xia
1996-01-01
It is found that the field of the combined mode of the probe wave and the phase-conjugate wave in the process of non-degenerate four-wave mixing exhibits higher-order squeezing to all even orders. And the generalized uncertainty relations in this process are also presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Xizeng; Shan Ying; Mandel, L.
1988-11-01
It is found that the field of the combined mode of the probe wave and the phase-conjugate wave in the process of degenerate four-wave mixing exhibits higher-order squeezing to all even order. The degree of squeezing increases with the order N, and the higher-order squeeze parameter q N may approach -1. (author). 3 refs, 2 figs
Beta Decay in the Field of an Electromagnetic Wave and Experiments on Measuring the Neutrino Mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorofeev, O.F.; Lobanov, A.E.
2005-01-01
Investigations of the effect of an electromagnetic wave field on the beta-decay process are used to analyze the tritium-decay experimental data on the neutrino mass. It is shown that the electromagnetic wave can distort the beta spectrum, shifting the end point to the higher energy region. This phenomenon is purely classical and it is associated with the electron acceleration in the radiation field. Since strong magnetic fields exist in setups for precise measurement of the neutrino mass, the indicated field can appear owing to the synchrotron radiation mechanism. The phenomenon under consideration can explain the experimentally observed anomalies in the spectrum of the decay electrons; in particular, the effect of the 'negative square of the neutrino mass'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyerhofer, D.D.; Perkins, F.W.
1984-04-01
The kinetic Alfven wave is studied in a cylindrical force-free plasma with self-consistent magnetic fields. This equilibrium represents a reversed field pinch or a spheromak. The stability of the wave is found to depend on the ratio of the electron drift velocity to the Alfven velocity. This ratio varies inversely with the square root of the plasma line density. The critical line density using the Spitzer-Harm electron distribution function is found for reversed field pinches with deuterium plasmas to be approximately 2 x 10 18 m -1 and is 5 x 10 17 m -1 in spheromaks with hydrogen plasmas. The critical line density is in reasonable agreement with experimental data for reversed field pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chough, Young-Tak; Nha, Hyunchul; Kim, Sang Wook; An, Kyungwon; Youn, Sun-Hyun
2002-01-01
We investigate the single-atom detection system using an optical standing-wave cavity, from the viewpoint of the quantized center-of-mass motion of the atomic wave packet. We show that since the atom-field coupling strength depends upon the overlap integral of the atomic wave packet and the field mode function, the effect of the wave-packet spreading via the momentum exchange process brings about a significant effect in the detection efficiency. We find that, as a result, the detection efficiency is not sensitive to the individual atomic trajectory for reasonably slow atoms. We also address an interesting phenomenon of the atomic wave-packet splitting occurring when an atom passes through a node of the cavity field
Latitudinal structure of Pc 5 waves in space: Magnetic and electric field observations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singer, H.J.; Kivelson, M.G.
1979-01-01
The occurrence frequency and spatial structure of Pc 5 magnetic pulsations in the dawnside of the plasma trough have been studied using data from the Ogo 5 satellite. The wave magnetic fields were obtained from the University of California, Los Angeles, flux-gate magnetometer measurements, and one component of the wave electric field was inferred from oscillations of the ion flux measured by the Lockheed light ion mass spectrometer. During portions of seven of the 19 passes comprising the survey, Pc 5 oscillations were observed in the ion flux but not in the magnetic field, and in each case the satellite was within 10 0 of the geomagnetic equator. Above 10 0 latitude, transverse magnetic and electric oscillations were both observed. The results are consistent with the model of a standing Alfven wave along a resonant field line with the geomagnetic equator as a node of the magnetic perturbation, that is, and odd mode. The wave periods are generally consistent with the fundamental resonant period. In this study, Pc 5 oscillations were identified 3 or 4 times more frequently (per orbit) than in previous spacecraft studies which relied only on magnetic data
Near-field imaging of interference pattern of counterpropagating evanescent waves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Bozhevolnaya, Elena A.
1999-01-01
It is generally accepted that measurement of of the contrast of the intensity interference pattern formed by two counterpropagating evanescent waves can be used to characterize the resolving power of a collection near-field microscope. We argue that, if the light collected by a fiber probe propag...... be equal to the contrast of the interference pattern....
Grobbe, N.
2016-01-01
In this thesis, I study coupled poroelastic waves and electromagnetic fields in layered media. The focus is two-fold:
1. Increase the theoretical and physical understanding of the seismo-electromagnetic phenomenon by analytically-based numerical modeling.
2. Investigate the potential of
On dynamics of resonant charged particles in cyclotron electromagnetic wave field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shyutte, N.M.; Izhovkina, N.I.
1989-01-01
The model of time and spatial separation of resonance and nonresonance particles with quasimonochromatic wave packets during their propagation in the magnetosphere is presented. In regions with elevated geomagnetic field gradients and.or in waveguide channels such separation can result in diffusion increase of resonance particles by the pitch angle and create ''little peaks'' in the distribution function tail
Use of energy analysis to evaluate the parameters of wave fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soldatov, V.N.; Sinitsyn, Ye.S.
1984-01-01
Algorithms are proposed and studied for energy analysis of the wave fields. A comparative evaluation is made of the resolution of the energy analysis methods. A method is examined for automated processing of the energograms allowing a search for an estimate of the parameters with significant acceleration of the computer calculations and saving of its working storage by designing multipurpose algorithms of data processing.
Sound Design in Virtual Reality Concert Experiences using a Wave Field Synthesis Approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lind, Rasmus Bloustrød; Milesen, Victor; Smed, Dina Madsen
2017-01-01
In this paper we propose an experiment that evaluates the influence of audience noise on the feeling of presence and the perceived quality in a virtual reality concert experience delivered using Wave Field Synthesis. A 360 degree video of a live rock concert from a local band was recorded. Single...
The optics of gyrotropic crystals in the field of two counter-propagating ultrasound waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gevorgyan, A H; Harutyunyan, E M; Hovhannisyan, M A; Matinyan, G K
2014-01-01
We consider oblique light propagation through a layer of a gyrotropic crystal in the field of two counter-propagating ultrasound waves. The problem is solved by Ambartsumyan's layer addition modified method. The results of the reflection spectra for different values of the problem parameters are presented. The possibilities of such system applications are discussed.
Effects of the magnetic field variation on the spin wave interference in a magnetic cross junction
Balynskiy, M.; Chiang, H.; Kozhevnikov, A.; Dudko, G.; Filimonov, Y.; Balandin, A. A.; Khitun, A.
2018-05-01
This article reports results of the investigation of the effect of the external magnetic field variation on the spin wave interference in a magnetic cross junction. The experiments were performed using a micrometer scale Y3Fe5O12 cross structure with a set of micro-antennas fabricated on the edges of the cross arms. Two of the antennas were used for the spin wave excitation while a third antenna was used for detecting the inductive voltage produced by the interfering spin waves. It was found that a small variation of the bias magnetic field may result in a significant change of the output inductive voltage. The effect is most prominent under the destructive interference condition. The maximum response exceeds 30 dB per 0.1 Oe at room temperature. It takes a relatively small bias magnetic field variation of about 1 Oe to drive the system from the destructive to the constructive interference conditions. The switching is accompanied by a significant, up to 50 dB, change in the output voltage. The obtained results demonstrate a feasibility of the efficient spin wave interference control by an external magnetic field, which may be utilized for engineering novel type of magnetometers and magnonic logic devices.
De Vries, D.; Hörchens, L.; Grond, P.
2007-01-01
The state of the art of wave field synthesis (WFS) systems is that they can reproduce sound sources and secondary (mirror image) sources with natural spaciousness in a horizontal plane, and thus perform satisfactory 2D auralization of an enclosed space, based on multitrace impulse response data
Perturbation theory for the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the field of a plane electromagnetic wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Starostin, V.S.; Litskevich, I.K.
1990-01-01
The completeness and orthogonality of the solutions of the Bethe-Salpeter equation is proven. A correct derivation of perturbation-theory equations is given. A generalization that includes the field of a plane electromagnetic wave is proposed. The rate of one-photon annihilation of positronium in this field is calculated. If the one-photon decay is allowed, the stationary states of the system are found (states of light-positronium)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ebrahimi, Zanyar; Karami, Kayoomars [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Pasdaran Street, P.O. Box 66177-15175, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soler, Roberto, E-mail: z.ebrahimi@uok.ac.ir [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)
2017-08-10
There is observational evidence for the existence of a twisted magnetic field in the solar corona. This inspires us to investigate the effect of a twisted magnetic field on the evolution of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves in coronal loops. With this aim, we solve the incompressible linearized MHD equations in a magnetically twisted nonuniform coronal flux tube in the limit of long wavelengths. Our results show that a twisted magnetic field can enhance or diminish the rate of phase mixing of the Alfvén continuum modes and the decay rate of the global kink oscillation depending on the twist model and the sign of the longitudinal ( k{sub z} ) and azimuthal ( m ) wavenumbers. Also, our results confirm that in the presence of a twisted magnetic field, when the sign of one of the two wavenumbers m and k {sub z} is changed, the symmetry with respect to the propagation direction is broken. Even a small amount of twist can have an important impact on the process of energy cascading to small scales.
Turchi, Patrice E. A.; Fattebert, Jean-Luc; Dorr, Milo R.; Wickett, Michael E.; Belak, James F.
2011-03-01
We describe an algorithm for the numerical solution of a phase-field model (PFM) of microstructure evolution in alloys using physical parameters from thermodynamic (CALPHAD) and kinetic databases. The coupled system of PFM equations includes a local order parameter, a quaternion representation of local crystal orientation and a species composition parameter. Time evolution of microstructures and alloy composition is obtained using an implicit time integration of the system. Physical parameters in databases can be obtained either through experiment or first-principles calculations. Application to coring studies and microstructure evolution of Au-Ni will be presented. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344
High field side launch of RF waves: A new approach to reactor actuators
Wallace, G. M.; Baek, S. G.; Bonoli, P. T.; Faust, I. C.; LaBombard, B. L.; Lin, Y.; Mumgaard, R. T.; Parker, R. R.; Shiraiwa, S.; Vieira, R.; Whyte, D. G.; Wukitch, S. J.
2015-12-01
Launching radio frequency (RF) waves from the high field side (HFS) of a tokamak offers significant advantages over low field side (LFS) launch with respect to both wave physics and plasma material interactions (PMI). For lower hybrid (LH) waves, the higher magnetic field opens the window between wave accessibility (n∥≡c k∥/ω >√{1 -ωpi 2/ω2+ωpe 2/ωce 2 }+ωp e/|ωc e| ) and the condition for strong electron Landau damping (n∥˜√{30 /Te } with Te in keV), allowing LH waves from the HFS to penetrate into the core of a burning plasma, while waves launched from the LFS are restricted to the periphery of the plasma. The lower n∥ of waves absorbed at higher Te yields a higher current drive efficiency as well. In the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF), HFS launch allows for direct access to the mode conversion layer where mode converted waves absorb strongly on thermal electrons and ions, thus avoiding the generation of energetic minority ion tails. The absence of turbulent heat and particle fluxes on the HFS, particularly in double null configuration, makes it the ideal location to minimize PMI damage to the antenna structure. The quiescent SOL also eliminates the need to couple LH waves across a long distance to the separatrix, as the antenna can be located close to plasma without risking damage to the structure. Improved impurity screening on the HFS will help eliminate the long-standing issues of high Z impurity accumulation with ICRF. Looking toward a fusion reactor, the HFS is the only possible location for a plasma-facing RF antenna that will survive long-term. By integrating the antenna into the blanket module it is possible to improve the tritium breeding ratio compared with an antenna occupying an equatorial port plug. Blanket modules will require remote handling of numerous cooling pipes and electrical connections, and the addition of transmission lines will not substantially increase the level of complexity. The obvious engineering
Rotational Evolution and Magnetic Field of AP Stars
Xiaojun, C.; Matsuura, O. T.
1990-11-01
RESUMO. Prop6e- se qLie 0 campo de estrelas Ap pode ser 9cr ado pelo mecanismo de na base clo envelope c 0 fl V C C t V 0, C t r a ri S p 0 r t a d C) p a r a a S LI p e r f C 1 e p e I a Instabllidade de boiament 0 na ase de Haya hi. Campos cibservados permit em est imar uma perda de momento durante a ase pr -Seque%nC:ia P r ri C: p a I a ci ni p a t V C I C: C) m a s C) b s e r V a nT C 5. E S t r C I a S A normals, que ro t a ao , ria0 most ram camp Os :os superficia; importantes e isto pode ac:oriteaer C LIma protoestrela evolue para Sequencia Principal em passar pela fase de Hayashi. ABSTRACT: It 5 proposed that the ma9netic field o Ap stars may be enerated by the dynamo at the base of the convective envelope, arid transported to the surface b y t h C i ri s t a b iii t y C) f b LI 0 y a n c y i n t h C H a y a s hi p h a s e. Observed surface ma9netic fields allow to estimate a 1055 of an9ular momentum during the pre-Main Sequence phase compatible with the observations. apidIy rotating normal A stars do not shciw important surface magnetic fields and this may occur if a protostar evcilves to Main Sequence skipping the Hayashi phase. Key words: HYDROMAGNETICS - STARS-PECULIAR A
Quasi-static electric fields, turbulence and VLF waves in the ionosphere and magnetosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Temerin, M.A.
1978-01-01
Two rocket payloads launched from Greenland in December 1974 and January 1975 into the dayside auroral oval measured large scale electric fields. Sunward convection in regions of polar cusp type particle precipitation argues for the existence of a turbulent entry region at the magnetopause. Smaller scale changes in the electric field and energetic electron precipitation require field-aligned currents predominately at the boundaries of auroral arcs. Measurements of electric fields parallel to the magnetic field place upper limits to the parallel electric field. An analysis of the effect of zero-frequency electric field turbulence on the output of an electric field double probe detector is applied to data from two satellites, OVI-17 and S3-3. It is found that the electric field of high latitude low frequency turbulence is polarized perpendicular to the magnetic field and that the frequency is measured by the satellites is due to the Doppler shift of near zero frequency turbulence both in the ionosphere and magnetosphere. In addition, rocket measurements of low frequency turbulence in the dayside auroral oval reveal characteristics similar to those of the large electric field regions recently seen on S3-3 indicating that the turbulence from those regions extends into the ionosphere. VLF waves were also observed during the two rocket flights into the dayside auroral oval. The correlation of the VLF hiss intensity with the fluxes of precipitating electrons above 500 eV on a short spatial and time scale is often poor, even when a positive slope exists in the electron phase space density. The frequency of the lower hybrid waves were used to measure the ratio of NO + and O 2 + to O + . Electrostatic waves were observed during a barium release
Dispersion equations for field-aligned cyclotron waves in axisymmetric magnetospheric plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. I. Grishanov
2006-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we derive the dispersion equations for field-aligned cyclotron waves in two-dimensional (2-D magnetospheric plasmas with anisotropic temperature. Two magnetic field configurations are considered with dipole and circular magnetic field lines. The main contribution of the trapped particles to the transverse dielectric permittivity is estimated by solving the linearized Vlasov equation for their perturbed distribution functions, accounting for the cyclotron and bounce resonances, neglecting the drift effects, and assuming the weak connection of the left-hand and right-hand polarized waves. Both the bi-Maxwellian and bi-Lorentzian distribution functions are considered to model the ring current ions and electrons in the dipole magnetosphere. A numerical code has been developed to analyze the dispersion characteristics of electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves in an electron-proton magnetospheric plasma with circular magnetic field lines, assuming that the steady-state distribution function of the energetic protons is bi-Maxwellian. As in the uniform magnetic field case, the growth rate of the proton-cyclotron instability (PCI in the 2-D magnetospheric plasmas is defined by the contribution of the energetic ions/protons to the imaginary part of the transverse permittivity elements. We demonstrate that the PCI growth rate in the 2-D axisymmetric plasmasphere can be significantly smaller than that for the straight magnetic field case with the same macroscopic bulk parameters.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Myoung-Jae [Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, MC 0407, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0407 (United States)
2016-12-01
Highlights: • The mode conversion characteristics of hybrid surface waves are investigated in a magneto dusty plasma slab. • Upper- and lower-hybrid waves are found for the symmetric mode when the magnetic field is parallel to the slab surfaces. • The hybrid property of the surface waves disappears for the anti-symmetric mode. • The variations of the surface hybrid waves with the change of field and geometric configurations are also discussed. - Abstract: We explore the mode conversion characteristics of electrostatic hybrid surface waves due to the magnetic field orientation in a magnetoplasma slab. We obtain the dispersion relations for the symmetric and anti-symmetric modes of hybrid surface waves for two different magnetic field configurations: parallel and perpendicular. For the parallel magnetic field configuration, we have found that the symmetric mode propagates as upper- and lower-hybrid waves. However, the hybrid characteristics disappear and two non-hybrid waves are produced for the anti-symmetric mode. For the perpendicular magnetic field configuration, however, the anti-symmetric mode propagates as the upper- and lower-hybrid waves and the symmetric mode produces two non-hybrid branches of waves.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The mode conversion characteristics of hybrid surface waves are investigated in a magneto dusty plasma slab. • Upper- and lower-hybrid waves are found for the symmetric mode when the magnetic field is parallel to the slab surfaces. • The hybrid property of the surface waves disappears for the anti-symmetric mode. • The variations of the surface hybrid waves with the change of field and geometric configurations are also discussed. - Abstract: We explore the mode conversion characteristics of electrostatic hybrid surface waves due to the magnetic field orientation in a magnetoplasma slab. We obtain the dispersion relations for the symmetric and anti-symmetric modes of hybrid surface waves for two different magnetic field configurations: parallel and perpendicular. For the parallel magnetic field configuration, we have found that the symmetric mode propagates as upper- and lower-hybrid waves. However, the hybrid characteristics disappear and two non-hybrid waves are produced for the anti-symmetric mode. For the perpendicular magnetic field configuration, however, the anti-symmetric mode propagates as the upper- and lower-hybrid waves and the symmetric mode produces two non-hybrid branches of waves.
Simulations of Wind Field Effect on Two-Stream Waves in the Equatorial Electrojet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chi-Lon Fern
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The wind field effect on the phase veloc i ties of 3- to 10-me ter Farley-Buneman two-stream waves in the equato rial E region ion o sphere at al titudes in the range of 95 - 110 km is stud ied by nu mer i cal simu la tion. The behav ior of this two-stream wave in the uni form wind field Un in a plane per pen dic u lar to the Earth’s mag netic field is simu lated with a two-di men sional two-fluid code in which elec tron in er tia is ne glected while ion in er tia is re tained. It is con firmed that, the thresh old con di tion for the ap pear ance of two-stream waves is VD C U th » + s + n (1 / cos Y0 q ; and the phase ve loc ity of the two-stream wave at the thresh old con di tion is Vp » Cs + Un cos q, where q is the ele va tion an gle of the wave prop a ga tion in a limited range and Y0 = ninnen / WiWe. The first formula in di cates that the wind field paral lel (anti-par al lel to the elec tron drift ve loc ity will raise (lower the thresh old drift ve loc ity by the amount of the wind speed. This means that par al lel wind is a sta ble fac tor, while anti-paral lel wind is an un sta ble fac tor of two-stream waves. This may ex plain why high speed (larger than acous tic speed two-stream waves were rarely ob served, since larger thresh old drift veloc ity de mands larger po larization elec tric field. The result of the simu la tions at the sat u ra tion stage show that when VD was only slightly larger than VD th , the hor i zon tal phase ve loc ity of the two-stream wave would grad u ally down-shift to the thresh old phase ve loc ity Cs + Un. The physical implications of which are discussed
Quantum fields interacting with colliding plane waves: the stress-energy tensor and backreaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorca, M.; Verdaguer, E.
1997-01-01
Following a previous work on the quantization of a massless scalar field in a space-time representing the head on collision of two plane waves which focus into a Killing-Cauchy horizon, we compute the renormalized expectation value of the stress-energy tensor of the quantum field near that horizon in the physical state which corresponds to the Minkowski vacuum before the collision of the waves. It is found that for minimally coupled and conformally coupled scalar fields the respective stress-energy tensors are unbounded in the horizon. The specific form of the divergences suggests that when the semiclassical Einstein equations describing the backreaction of the quantum fields on the space-time geometry are taken into account, the horizon will acquire a curvature singularity. Thus the Killing-Cauchy horizon which is known to be unstable under ''generic'' classical perturbations is also unstable by vacuum polarization. The calculation is done following the point-splitting regularization technique. The dynamical colliding wave space-time has four quite distinct space-time regions, namely, one flat region, two single plane wave regions, and one interaction region. Exact mode solutions of the quantum field equation cannot be found exactly, but the blueshift suffered by the initial modes in the plane wave and interaction regions makes the use of the WKB expansion a suitable method of solution. To ensure the correct regularization of the stress-energy tensor, the initial flat modes propagated into the interaction region must be given to a rather high adiabatic order of approximation. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Shuangnan; Xie Yi
2012-01-01
We test models for the evolution of neutron star (NS) magnetic fields (B). Our model for the evolution of the NS spin is taken from an analysis of pulsar timing noise presented by Hobbs et al.. We first test the standard model of a pulsar's magnetosphere in which B does not change with time and magnetic dipole radiation is assumed to dominate the pulsar's spin-down. We find that this model fails to predict both the magnitudes and signs of the second derivatives of the spin frequencies (ν-double dot). We then construct a phenomenological model of the evolution of B, which contains a long-term decay (LTD) modulated by short-term oscillations; a pulsar's spin is thus modified by its B-evolution. We find that an exponential LTD is not favored by the observed statistical properties of ν-double dot for young pulsars and fails to explain the fact that ν-double dot is negative for roughly half of the old pulsars. A simple power-law LTD can explain all the observed statistical properties of ν-double dot. Finally, we discuss some physical implications of our results to models of the B-decay of NSs and suggest reliable determination of the true ages of many young NSs is needed, in order to constrain further the physical mechanisms of their B-decay. Our model can be further tested with the measured evolutions of ν-dot and ν-double dot for an individual pulsar; the decay index, oscillation amplitude, and period can also be determined this way for the pulsar.
Geochemical evolution of the near field of a KBS-3 repository
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arcos, David; Grandia, Fidel; Domenech, Cristina
2006-09-01
The Swedish concept developed by SKB for deep radioactive waste disposal, envisages an engineered multi-barrier system surrounding the nuclear waste (near field). In the present study we developed a numerical model to assess the geochemical evolution of the near field in the frame of the SKB's safety assessment SR-Can. These numerical models allow us to predict the long-term geochemical evolution of the near field system by means of reactive-transport codes and the information gathered in underground laboratory experiments and natural analogues. Two different scenarios have been defined to model this near field evolution, according to the pathway used by groundwater to contact the near field: a) through a fracture in the host rock intersecting the deposition hole; and b) through the material used to backfill the deposition tunnel. Moreover, we also modelled the effect of different groundwater compositions reaching the near field, as the up-rise of deep-seated brines and the intrusion of ice-melting derived groundwater. We also modelled the effect of the thermal stage due to the heat generated by spent fuel on the geochemical evolution of the bentonite barrier
Geochemical evolution of the near field of a KBS-3 repository
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arcos, David; Grandia, Fidel; Domenech, Cristina [Enviros Spain S.L., Barcelona (Spain)
2006-09-15
The Swedish concept developed by SKB for deep radioactive waste disposal, envisages an engineered multi-barrier system surrounding the nuclear waste (near field). In the present study we developed a numerical model to assess the geochemical evolution of the near field in the frame of the SKB's safety assessment SR-Can. These numerical models allow us to predict the long-term geochemical evolution of the near field system by means of reactive-transport codes and the information gathered in underground laboratory experiments and natural analogues. Two different scenarios have been defined to model this near field evolution, according to the pathway used by groundwater to contact the near field: a) through a fracture in the host rock intersecting the deposition hole; and b) through the material used to backfill the deposition tunnel. Moreover, we also modelled the effect of different groundwater compositions reaching the near field, as the up-rise of deep-seated brines and the intrusion of ice-melting derived groundwater. We also modelled the effect of the thermal stage due to the heat generated by spent fuel on the geochemical evolution of the bentonite barrier.
In-situ measurements of wave electric fields in the equatorial electrojet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfaff, R.F.; Kelley, M.C.; Fejer, B.G.; Maynard, N.C.; Baker, K.D.
1982-01-01
Electric field wave measurements have been performed on two sounding rockets in the equatorial ionosphere. During a daytime flight from Chilca, Peru, intense electrostatic waves were detected on the upward directed electron density gradient. During a nighttime flight from Kwajalein Atoll, similar waves were detected on a downward directed gradient. These results are in agreement with a gradient drift instability explanation of the generation of the waves. The wave amplitudes were as high as 5 mV/m implying perturbation drifts comparable to the driving drift velocities. Power spectra from the turbulent region show a peak at long wavelengths, followed by a nearly flat spectral region before breaking into a power law form with negative index of 3.6--3.7 for lambda< or =30 m. Similarities between the spectra of the two flights suggest that the fundamental processes of the instabilities are the same in the day and nighttime conditions. The rocket data are consistent with radar results presented in a companion paper which show coherent, kilometer scale waves present in the electrojet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryutova, M.
1990-08-01
Effects of strong and random inhomogeneities of the magnetic fields, plasma density, and temperature in the solar atmosphere on the properties of magnetoacoustic waves of arbitrary amplitudes are studied. The procedure which allows one to obtain the averaged equation containing the nonlinearity of a wave, dispersion properties of a system, and dissipative effects is described. It is shown that depending on the statistical properties of the medium, different scenarios of wave propagation arise: in the predominance of dissipative effects the primary wave is damped away in the linear stage and the efficiency of heating due to inhomogeneities is much greater than that in homogeneous medium. Depending on the interplay of nonlinear and dispersion effects, the process of heating can be afforded through the formation of shocks or through the storing of energy in a system of solitons which are later damped away. Our computer simulation supports and extends the above theoretical investigations. In particular the enhanced dissipation of waves due to the strong and random inhomogeneities is observed and this is more pronounced for shorter waves
CHEMODYNAMIC EVOLUTION OF DWARF GALAXIES IN TIDAL FIELDS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Williamson, David; Martel, Hugo [Département de physique, de génie physique et d’optique, Université Laval, Québec, QC, G1V 0A6 (Canada); Romeo, Alessandro B., E-mail: david-john.williamson.1@ulaval.ca [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)
2016-11-01
The mass–metallicity relation shows that the galaxies with the lowest mass have the lowest metallicities. As most dwarf galaxies are in group environments, interaction effects such as tides could contribute to this trend. We perform a series of smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of dwarf galaxies in external tidal fields to examine the effects of tides on their metallicities and metallicity gradients. In our simulated galaxies, gravitational instabilities drive gas inwards and produce centralized star formation and a significant metallicity gradient. Strong tides can contribute to these instabilities, but their primary effect is to strip the outer low-metallicity gas, producing a truncated gas disk with a large metallicity. This suggests that the effect of tides on the mass–metallicity relation is to move dwarf galaxies to higher metallicities.
Three dimensional particle simulation of drift wave fluctuations in a sheared magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sydora, R.D.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Thayer, D.R.; Diamond, P.H.; Tajima, T.
1985-08-01
Three dimensional particle simulations of collisionless drift waves in sheared magnetic fields were performed in order to determine the nonlinear behavior of inverse electron resonance dynamics in the presence of thermal fluctuations. It is found that stochastic electron diffusion in the electron resonance overlap region can destabilize the drift wave eigenmodes. Numerical evaluations based on a nonlinear electron resonance broadening theory give predictions in accord with the frequency and growth rates found in the simulation of short wavelength modes (k/sub y/rho/sub s/ greater than or equal to1)
The phase accumulation and antenna near field of microscopic propagating spin wave devices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, Crosby S.; Kostylev, Mikhail, E-mail: mikhail.kostylev@uwa.edu.au; Ivanov, Eugene [School of Physics M013, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Ding, Junjia; Adeyeye, Adekunle O. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117576 Singapore (Singapore)
2014-01-20
We studied phase accumulation by the highly non-reciprocal magnetostatic surface spin waves in thin Permalloy microstripes excited and received by microscopic coplanar antennae. We find that the experimentally measured characteristic length of the near field of the antenna is smaller than the total width of the coplanar. This is confirmed by our numerical simulations. Consequently, the distance over which the spin wave accumulates its phase while travelling between the input and output antennae coincides with the distance between the antennae symmetry axes with good accuracy.
The phase accumulation and antenna near field of microscopic propagating spin wave devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Crosby S.; Kostylev, Mikhail; Ivanov, Eugene; Ding, Junjia; Adeyeye, Adekunle O.
2014-01-01
We studied phase accumulation by the highly non-reciprocal magnetostatic surface spin waves in thin Permalloy microstripes excited and received by microscopic coplanar antennae. We find that the experimentally measured characteristic length of the near field of the antenna is smaller than the total width of the coplanar. This is confirmed by our numerical simulations. Consequently, the distance over which the spin wave accumulates its phase while travelling between the input and output antennae coincides with the distance between the antennae symmetry axes with good accuracy
Prediction and near-field observation of skull-guided acoustic waves.
Estrada, Héctor; Rebling, Johannes; Razansky, Daniel
2017-06-21
Ultrasound waves propagating in water or soft biological tissue are strongly reflected when encountering the skull, which limits the use of ultrasound-based techniques in transcranial imaging and therapeutic applications. Current knowledge on the acoustic properties of the cranial bone is restricted to far-field observations, leaving its near-field unexplored. We report on the existence of skull-guided acoustic waves, which was herein confirmed by near-field measurements of optoacoustically-induced responses in ex-vivo murine skulls immersed in water. Dispersion of the guided waves was found to reasonably agree with the prediction of a multilayered flat plate model. We observed a skull-guided wave propagation over a lateral distance of at least 3 mm, with a half-decay length in the direction perpendicular to the skull ranging from 35 to 300 μm at 6 and 0.5 MHz, respectively. Propagation losses are mostly attributed to the heterogenous acoustic properties of the skull. It is generally anticipated that our findings may facilitate and broaden the application of ultrasound-mediated techniques in brain diagnostics and therapy.
Liu, Hu; Liu, Hua; Yang, Jialing
2017-09-01
In the present paper, the coupling effect of transverse magnetic field and elastic medium on the longitudinal wave propagation along a carbon nanotube (CNT) is studied. Based on the nonlocal elasticity theory and Hamilton's principle, a unified nonlocal rod theory which takes into account the effects of small size scale, lateral inertia and radial deformation is proposed. The existing rod theories including the classic rod theory, the Rayleigh-Love theory and Rayleigh-Bishop theory for macro solids can be treated as the special cases of the present model. A two-parameter foundation model (Pasternak-type model) is used to represent the elastic medium. The influence of transverse magnetic field, Pasternak-type elastic medium and small size scale on the longitudinal wave propagation behavior of the CNT is investigated in detail. It is shown that the influences of lateral inertia and radial deformation cannot be neglected in analyzing the longitudinal wave propagation characteristics of the CNT. The results also show that the elastic medium and the transverse magnetic field will also affect the longitudinal wave dispersion behavior of the CNT significantly. The results obtained in this paper are helpful for understanding the mechanical behaviors of nanostructures embedded in an elastic medium.
Prediction and near-field observation of skull-guided acoustic waves
Estrada, Héctor; Rebling, Johannes; Razansky, Daniel
2017-06-01
Ultrasound waves propagating in water or soft biological tissue are strongly reflected when encountering the skull, which limits the use of ultrasound-based techniques in transcranial imaging and therapeutic applications. Current knowledge on the acoustic properties of the cranial bone is restricted to far-field observations, leaving its near-field unexplored. We report on the existence of skull-guided acoustic waves, which was herein confirmed by near-field measurements of optoacoustically-induced responses in ex-vivo murine skulls immersed in water. Dispersion of the guided waves was found to reasonably agree with the prediction of a multilayered flat plate model. We observed a skull-guided wave propagation over a lateral distance of at least 3 mm, with a half-decay length in the direction perpendicular to the skull ranging from 35 to 300 μm at 6 and 0.5 MHz, respectively. Propagation losses are mostly attributed to the heterogenous acoustic properties of the skull. It is generally anticipated that our findings may facilitate and broaden the application of ultrasound-mediated techniques in brain diagnostics and therapy.
Vacuum source-field correlations and advanced waves in quantum optics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adam Stokes
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The solution to the wave equation as a Cauchy problem with prescribed fields at an initial time $t=0$ is purely retarded. Similarly, in the quantum theory of radiation the specification of Heisenberg picture photon annihilation and creation operators at time $t \\gt 0$ in terms of operators at $t=0$ automatically yields purely retarded source-fields. However, we show that two-time quantum correlations between the retarded source-fields of a stationary dipole and the quantum vacuum-field possess advanced wave-like contributions. Despite their advanced nature, these correlations are perfectly consistent with Einstein causality. It is shown that while they do not significantly contribute to photo-detection amplitudes in the vacuum state, they do effect the statistics of measurements involving the radiative force experienced by a point charge in the field of the dipole. Specifically, the dispersion in the charge's momentum is found to increase with time. This entails the possibility of obtaining direct experimental evidence for the existence of advanced waves in physical reality, and provides yet another signature of the quantum nature of the vacuum.
ERRATUM: Propagating Waves Transverse to the Magnetic Field in a Solar Prominence
Schmieder, B.; Kucera, T. A.; Knizhnik, K.; Luna, M.; Lopez-Ariste, A.; Toot, D.
2014-01-01
We report an unusual set of observations of waves in a large prominence pillar that consist of pulses propagating perpendicular to the prominence magnetic field. We observe a huge quiescent prominence with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in EUV on 2012 October 10 and only a part of it, the pillar, which is a foot or barb of the prominence, with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT; in Ca II and Halpha lines), Sac Peak (in Ha, Hß, and Na-D lines), and THEMIS ("Télescope Héliographique pour l' Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires") with the MTR (MulTi-Raies) spectropolarimeter (in He D3 line). The THEMIS/MTR data indicates that the magnetic field in the pillar is essentially horizontal and the observations in the optical domain show a large number of horizontally aligned features on a much smaller scale than the pillar as a whole. The data are consistent with a model of cool prominence plasma trapped in the dips of horizontal field lines. The SOT and Sac Peak data over the four hour observing period show vertical oscillations appearing as wave pulses. These pulses, which include a Doppler signature, move vertically, perpendicular to the field direction, along thin quasi-vertical columns in the much broader pillar. The pulses have a velocity of propagation of about 10 km/s, a period of about 300 s, and a wavelength around 2000 km. We interpret these waves in terms of fast magnetosonic waves and discuss possible wave drivers.
PROPAGATING WAVES TRANSVERSE TO THE MAGNETIC FIELD IN A SOLAR PROMINENCE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schmieder, B. [Observatoire de Paris, LESIA, UMR 8109 (CNRS), F-92195 Meudon (France); Kucera, T. A.; Knizhnik, K. [Code 671, NASA' s GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Luna, M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Lopez-Ariste, A. [THEMIS, CNRS-UPS853, E-38205 La Laguna (Spain); Toot, D. [Alfred University, Alfred, NY 14802 (United States)
2013-11-10
We report an unusual set of observations of waves in a large prominence pillar that consist of pulses propagating perpendicular to the prominence magnetic field. We observe a huge quiescent prominence with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in EUV on 2012 October 10 and only a part of it, the pillar, which is a foot or barb of the prominence, with the Hinode Solar Optical Telescope (SOT; in Ca II and Hα lines), Sac Peak (in Hα, Hβ, and Na-D lines), and THEMIS ({sup T}élescope Héliographique pour l' Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires{sup )} with the MTR (MulTi-Raies) spectropolarimeter (in He D{sub 3} line). The THEMIS/MTR data indicates that the magnetic field in the pillar is essentially horizontal and the observations in the optical domain show a large number of horizontally aligned features on a much smaller scale than the pillar as a whole. The data are consistent with a model of cool prominence plasma trapped in the dips of horizontal field lines. The SOT and Sac Peak data over the four hour observing period show vertical oscillations appearing as wave pulses. These pulses, which include a Doppler signature, move vertically, perpendicular to the field direction, along thin quasi-vertical columns in the much broader pillar. The pulses have a velocity of propagation of about 10 km s{sup –1}, a period of about 300 s, and a wavelength around 2000 km. We interpret these waves in terms of fast magnetosonic waves and discuss possible wave drivers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In solar wind, dissipation of slow-mode magnetosonic waves may play a significant role in heating the solar wind, and these modes contribute essentially to the solar wind compressible turbulence. Most previous identifications of slow waves utilized the characteristic negative correlation between δ|B| and δρ. However, that criterion does not well identify quasi-parallel slow waves, for which δ|B| is negligible compared to δρ. Here we present a new method of identification, which will be used in 3-D compressible simulation. It is based on two criteria: (1 that VpB0 (phase speed projected along B0 is around ± cs, and that (2 there exists a clear correlation of δv|| and δρ. Our research demonstrates that if vA > cs, slow waves possess correlation between δv|| and δρ, with δρ / δv|| ≈ ± ρ0 / cs. This method helps us to distinguish slow-mode waves from fast and Alfvén waves, both of which do not have this polarity relation. The criteria are insensitive to the propagation angle θk B, defined as the angle between wave vector k and B0; they can be applied with a wide range of β if only vA > cs. In our numerical simulation, we have identified four cases of slow wave trains with this method. The slow wave trains seem to deform, probably caused by interaction with other waves; as a result, fast or Alfvén waves may be produced during the interaction and seem to propagate bidirectionally away. Our identification and analysis of the wave trains provide useful methods for investigations of compressible turbulence in the solar wind or in similar environments, and will thus deepen understandings of slow waves in the turbulence.
Wigner functions for nonparaxial, arbitrarily polarized electromagnetic wave fields in free space.
Alonso, Miguel A
2004-11-01
New representations are defined for describing electromagnetic wave fields in free space exactly in terms of rays for any wavelength, level of coherence or polarization, and numerical aperture, as long as there are no evanescent components. These representations correspond to tensors assigned to each ray such that the electric and magnetic energy densities, the Poynting vector, and the polarization properties of the field correspond to simple integrals involving these tensors for the rays that go through the specified point. For partially coherent fields, the ray-based approach provided by the new representations can reduce dramatically the computation times for the physical properties mentioned earlier.
Temperature evolution in a magnetohydrodynamics simulation of a reversed-field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onofri, M.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.
2010-01-01
The temperature evolution in a magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation of a reversed-field pinch (RFP) is investigated including thermal conductivity. For numerical reasons, an isotropic thermal conductivity is used, even though in a RFP plasma the parallel conductivity is much larger than the perpendicular one so that magnetic field lines tend to become isothermal. The system shows alternating multiple helicity states and quasi-single helicity states. Single-helical-axis states are formed when the amplitude of the dominant mode is above a determined threshold, as observed in experiments. The relation between heat transport and magnetic field topology that is observed in RFP experiments cannot be found in the simulation, since thermal conductivity is independent of the magnetic field. This difficulty should be taken into account in the numerical investigation of the RFP dynamics. In this paper, the first description of the temperature evolution in a compressible MHD simulation of a RFP is given.
Particle scavenging in a cylindrical ultrasonic standing wave field using levitated drops
Merrell, Tyler; Saylor, J. R.
2015-11-01
A cylindrical ultrasonic standing wave field was generated in a tube containing a flow of particles and fog. Both the particles and fog drops were concentrated in the nodes of the standing wave field where they combined and then grew large enough to fall out of the system. In this way particles were scavenged from the system, cleaning the air. While this approach has been attempted using a standing wave field established between disc-shaped transducers, a cylindrical resonator has not been used for this purpose heretofore. The resonator was constructed by bolting three Langevin transducers to an aluminum tube. The benefit of the cylindrical geometry is that the acoustic energy is focused. Furthermore, the residence time of the particle in the field can be increased by increasing the length of the resonator. An additional benefit of this approach is that tubes located downstream of the resonator were acoustically excited, acting as passive resonators that enhanced the scavenging process. The performance of this system on scavenging particles is presented as a function of particle diameter and volumetric flow rate. It is noted that, when operated without particles, the setup can be used to remove drops and shows promise for liquid aerosol retention from systems where these losses can be financially disadvantageous and/or hazardous.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikolopoulos, L. A. A.; Kjeldsen, T. K.; Madsen, L. B.
2007-01-01
We present a method for spectral (bound and continuum) and partial-wave analysis of a three-dimensional time-dependent wave function, defined on a grid, without projecting onto the field-free eigenstates of the system. The method consists of propagating the time-dependent Schroedinger equation to obtain its autocorrelation function C(t)= after the end of the interaction, at time T, of the system with an external time-dependent field. The Fourier spectrum of this correlation function is directly related to the expansion coefficients of the wave function on the field-free bound and continuum energy eigenstates of the system. By expanding on a spherical harmonics basis we show how to calculate the contribution of the various partial waves to the total photoelectron energy spectrum
Marston, Philip L; Zhang, Likun
2017-05-01
When investigating the radiation forces on spheres in complicated wave-fields, the interpretation of analytical results can be simplified by retaining the s-function notation and associated phase shifts imported into acoustics from quantum scattering theory. For situations in which dissipation is negligible, as taken to be the case in the present investigation, there is an additional simplification in that partial-wave phase shifts become real numbers that vanish when the partial-wave index becomes large and when the wave-number-sphere-radius product vanishes. By restricting attention to monopole and dipole phase shifts, transitions in the axial radiation force for axisymmetric wave-fields are found to be related to wave-field parameters for traveling and standing Bessel wave-fields by considering the ratio of the phase shifts. For traveling waves, the special force conditions concern negative forces while for standing waves, the special force conditions concern vanishing radiation forces. An intermediate step involves considering the functional dependence on phase shifts. An appendix gives an approximation for zero-force plane standing wave conditions. Connections with early investigations of acoustic levitation are mentioned and some complications associated with viscosity are briefly noted.
Sheared electric field-induced suppression of edge turbulence using externally driven R.F. waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Craddock, G.G.; Diamond, P.H.
1991-01-01
Here the authors propose a novel method for active control and suppression of edge turbulence by sheared ExB flows driven by externally launched RF waves. The theory developed addresses the problem of open-quotes flow driveclose quotes, which is somewhat analogous to the problem of plasma current drive. As originally demonstrated for the case of spontaneously driven flows, a net difference in the gradient of the fluid and magnetic Reynolds' stresses produced by radially propagating waves can drive the plasma flow. For the prototypical case of the Alfven wave flow drive considered here, ρ 0 r v θ > - r B θ > is proportional to k perpendicular 2 ρ s 2 in the case of the kinetic Alfven wave, and [(ηk perpendicular 2 -vk perpendicular 2 )/ω] 2 in the case of resistive MHD. Both results reflect the dependence of flow drive on the net stress imbalance. The shear layer width is determined by the waves evanescence length (determined by dissipation) that sets the stress gradient scale length, while the direction of the flow is determined by the poloidal orientation of the launched waves. In particular, it should be noted that both positive and negative E r may be driven, so that enhanced confinement need not be accompanied by impurity accumulation, as commonly encountered in spontaneous H-modes. The efficiency is determined by the criterion that the radial electric field shear be large enough to suppress turbulence. For typical TEXT parameters, and unity efficiency, 300 kW of absorbed power is needed to suppress turbulence over 3 cm radially. For DIII-D, 300 kW over 4 cm is needed. Also, direct transport losses induced by RF have been shown to be small. Extensions of the theory to ICRF are underway and are discussed. They also discuss the analogous problem of current drive using kinetic Alfven waves. 2 refs
A Dirac sea pilot-wave model for quantum field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Colin, S; Struyve, W
2007-01-01
We present a pilot-wave model for quantum field theory in which the Dirac sea is taken seriously. The model ascribes particle trajectories to all the fermions, including the fermions filling the Dirac sea. The model is deterministic and applies to the regime in which fermion number is superselected. This work is a further elaboration of work by Colin, in which a Dirac sea pilot-wave model is presented for quantum electrodynamics. We extend his work to non-electromagnetic interactions, we discuss a cut-off regularization of the pilot-wave model and study how it reproduces the standard quantum predictions. The Dirac sea pilot-wave model can be seen as a possible continuum generalization of a lattice model by Bell. It can also be seen as a development and generalization of the ideas by Bohm, Hiley and Kaloyerou, who also suggested the use of the Dirac sea for the development of a pilot-wave model for quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vassout, P.; Franke, R.; Parmentier, G.; Evrard, G.; Dancer, A.
1987-01-01
A theoretical study on the propagation of a pressure wave in a diphasic medium, when compared to the onset mechanism of pulmonary lesions in subjects exposed to strong shock waves, shows an increase in the incident overpressure at the interface level. Using hydrophones, intracorporal pressure was measured in pigs. The authors recorded the costal wall acceleration on the side directly exposed to the shock wave and calculated the displacement of the costal wall after a shock wave passed by. These experiments were conducted for shock waves in a free field, at an overpressure peak level ranging from 26 kFPa to 380 kPa and for a first positive phase lasting 2 ms. Sensors placed in an intracorporal position detected no increase of the overpressure level for any value of the incident pressure. A comparison of the costal wall displacement, measured experimentally, relative to the theoretical displacement of the entire animal mass indicates that the largest relative displacement of the costal wall could be the origin of the pulmonary lesions found. 5 refs., 13 figs
Su, Shuo; Gu, Min; Liu, Di; Cui, Jie; Gao, George F; Zhou, Jiyong; Liu, Xiufan
2017-09-01
H7N9 influenza viruses were first isolated in 2013 and continue to cause human infections. H7N9 infections represent an ongoing public health threat that has resulted in 1344 cases with 511 deaths as of April 9, 2017. This highlights the continued threat posed by the current poultry trade and live poultry market system in China. Until now, there have been five H7N9 influenza epidemic waves in China; however, the steep increase in the number of humans infected with H7N9 viruses observed in the fifth wave, beginning in October 2016, the spread into western provinces, and the emergence of highly pathogenic (HP) H7N9 influenza outbreaks in chickens and infection in humans have caused domestic and international concern. In this review, we summarize and compare the different waves of H7N9 regarding their epidemiology, pathogenesis, evolution, and characteristic features, and speculate on factors behind the recent increase in the number of human cases and sudden outbreaks in chickens. The continuous evolution of the virus poses a long-term threat to public health and the poultry industry, and thus it is imperative to strengthen prevention and control strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Anatomy of the high-frequency ambient seismic wave field at the TCDP borehole
Hillers, G.; Campillo, M.; Lin, Y.-Y.; Ma, K.-F.; Roux, P.
2012-06-01
The Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) installed a vertical seismic array between 950 and 1270 m depth in an active thrust fault environment. In this paper we analyze continuous noise records of the TCDP array between 1 and 16 Hz. We apply multiple array processing and noise correlation techniques to study the noise source process, properties of the propagation medium, and the ambient seismic wave field. Diurnal amplitude and slowness patterns suggest that noise is generated by cultural activity. The vicinity of the recording site to the excitation region, indicated by a narrow azimuthal distribution of propagation directions, leads to a predominant ballistic propagation regime. This is evident from the compatibility of the data with an incident plane wave model, polarized direct arrivals of noise correlation functions, and the asymmetric arrival shape. Evidence for contributions from scattering comes from equilibrated earthquake coda energy ratios, the frequency dependent randomization of propagation directions, and the existence of correlation coda waves. We conclude that the ballistic and scattered propagation regime coexist, where the first regime dominates the records, but the second is weaker yet not negligible. Consequently, the wave field is not equipartitioned. Correlation signal-to-noise ratios indicate a frequency dependent noise intensity. Iterations of the correlation procedure enhance the signature of the scattered regime. Discrepancies between phase velocities estimated from correlation functions and in-situ measurements are associated with the array geometry and its relative orientation to the predominant energy flux. The stability of correlation functions suggests their applicability in future monitoring efforts.
Note on the evolution of the gravitational potential in Rastall scalar field theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabris, J.C.; Hamani Daouda, M.; Piattella, O.F.
2012-01-01
We investigate the evolution of the gravitational potential in Rastall scalar field theories. In a single component model a consistent perturbation theory, formulated in the Newtonian gauge, is possible only for γ=1, which is the General Relativity limit. On the other hand, the addition of another canonical fluid component allows to consider the case γ≠1.
Time evolution of negative binomial optical field in a diffusion channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Tang-Kun; Wu Pan-Pan; Shan Chuan-Jia; Liu Ji-Bing; Fan Hong-Yi
2015-01-01
We find the time evolution law of a negative binomial optical field in a diffusion channel. We reveal that by adjusting the diffusion parameter, the photon number can be controlled. Therefore, the diffusion process can be considered a quantum controlling scheme through photon addition. (paper)
Reflections on the Evolution of Higher Education as a Field of Study in Canada
Jones, Glen A.
2012-01-01
This paper provides a reflective analysis of the evolution of higher education as a field of scholarship in Canada. The first professors of higher education in Canada were appointed in the mid-1960s and, by the early-1970s, a small higher-education research community had emerged, with the creation of a national association and a scholarly journal.…
Van Gorp, Wouter; Schoorl, Jeroen M.; Temme, Arnaud J. A. M.; Reimann, Tony; Wijbrans, Jan R.; Maddy, Darrel; Demir, Tuncer; Veldkamp, Tom
2016-01-01
Combining field reconstruction and landscape evolution modelling can be useful to investigate the relative role of different drivers on catchment response. The Geren Catchment (~45 km2) in western Turkey is suitable for such a study, as it has been influenced by uplift, climate change and lava
Role of electric fields in the MHD evolution of the kink instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lapenta, Giovanni; Skender, Marina
2017-01-01
Here, the discovery of electrostatic fields playing a crucial role in establishing plasma motion in the flux conversion and dynamo processes in reversed field pinches is revisited. In order to further elucidate the role of the electrostatic fields, a flux rope configuration susceptible to the kink instability is numerically studied with anMHDcode. Simulated nonlinear evolution of the kink instability is found to confirm the crucial role of the electrostatic fields. Anew insight is gained on the special function of the electrostatic fields: they lead the plasma towards the reconnection site at the mode resonant surface. Without this step the plasma column could not relax to its nonlinear state, since no other agent is present to perform this role. While the inductive field generated directly by the kink instability is the dominant flow driver, the electrostatic field is found to allow the motion in the vicinity of the reconnection region.
Sturner, A. P.; Eriksson, S.; Newman, D. L.; Lapenta, G.; Gershman, D. J.; Plaschke, F.; Ergun, R.; Wilder, F. D.; Torbert, R. B.; Giles, B. L.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.; Burch, J. L.
2016-12-01
Kinetic simulations and observations of magnetic reconnection suggest the Hall term of Ohm's Law is necessary for understanding fast reconnection in the Earth's magnetosphere. During high (>1) guide field plasma conditions in the solar wind and in Earth's magnetopause, tripolar variations in the guide magnetic field are often observed during current sheet crossings, and have been linked to reconnection Hall magnetic fields. Two proposed mechanisms for these tripolar variations are the presence of multiple nearby X-lines and magnetic island coalescence. We present results of an investigation into the structure of the electron currents supporting tripolar guide magnetic field variations during Kelvin-Helmholtz wave current sheet crossings using the Magnetosphere Multiscale (MMS) Mission, and compare with bipolar magnetic field structures and with kinetic simulations to understand how these tripolar structures may be used as tracers for magnetic islands.
On the generation and evolution of internal solitary waves in the southern Red Sea
Guo, Daquan; Akylas, T. R.; Zhan, Peng; Kartadikaria, Aditya R.; Hoteit, Ibrahim
2016-01-01
Satellite observations recently revealed trains of internal solitary waves (ISWs) in the off-shelf region between 16.0 degrees N and 16.5 degrees N in the southern Red Sea. The generation mechanism of these waves is not entirely clear, though
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. N. Rosanov
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Problem statement ill-posedness in the paper by L.S. Konev et al. devoted to formation of backward wave at short laser pulse propagation in nonlinear media or fibers is specified. It is inconceivable in the correct problem statement to consider the radiation field at the medium entrance as a given function of time due to generation of backward wave in the medium, when the backward wave characteristics are target values. The proper evolution variable is time, and it is convenient to use the adopted finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method for backward wave calculation.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Nian-qing; TANG Yi-qun; TANG He-ping
2005-01-01
Tidal fluctuations of Hangzhou Bay produce progressive pressure waves in adjacent field fractured aquifers, as the pressure waves propagate, groundwater levels and hydraulic gradients continuously fluctuate. The effect of tidal fluctuations on groundwater flow can be determined using the mean hydraulic gradient that can be calculated by comparing mean ground and surface water elevations. Tidal fluctuation is shown to affect the piezometer readings taken in a nearshore fractured aquifer around the nuclear power engineering field. Continuous monitoring of a network of seven piezometers provided relations between the tidal cycle and the piezometer readings. The relations can be expressed in times of a time and amplitude scaling factor. The time lag and the tidal effi ciency factor and wavelength are calculated using these parameters. It provides significant scientific basis to prevent tide and groundwater for the nuclear power engineering construction and safety run of nuclear power station in the future.
Van Oyen, Tomas; Blondeaux, Paolo; Van den Eynde, Dries
2013-07-01
A site-by-site comparison between field observations and theoretical predictions of sediment sorting patterns along tidal sand waves is performed for ten locations in the North Sea. At each site, the observed grain size distribution along the bottom topography and the geometry of the bed forms is described in detail and the procedure used to obtain the model parameters is summarized. The model appears to accurately describe the wavelength of the observed sand waves for the majority of the locations; still providing a reliable estimate for the other sites. In addition, it is found that for seven out of the ten locations, the qualitative sorting process provided by the model agrees with the observed grain size distribution. A discussion of the site-by-site comparison is provided which, taking into account uncertainties in the field data, indicates that the model grasps the major part of the key processes controlling the phenomenon.
The evolution of a localized nonlinear wave of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability with gravity
Orazzo, Annagrazia; Hoepffner, Jérôme
2012-11-01
At the interface between two fluids of different density and in the presence of gravity, there are well known periodic surface waves which can propagate for long distances with little attenuation, as it is for instance the case at the surface of the sea. If wind is present, these waves progressively accumulate energy as they propagate and grow to large sizes—this is the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. On the other hand, we show in this paper that for a given wind strength, there is potential for the growth of a localized nonlinear wave. This wave can reach a size such that the hydrostatic pressure drop from top to bottom equals the stagnation pressure of the wind. This process for the disruption of the flat interface is localized and nonlinear. We study the properties of this wave using numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations.
Wave function of the Universe in the early stage of its evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maydanyuk, Sergei P.
2008-01-01
In quantum cosmological models, constructed in the framework of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metrics, a nucleation of the Universe with its further expansion is described as a tunneling transition through an effective barrier between regions with small and large values of the scale factor a at non-zero (or zero) energy. The approach for describing this tunneling consists of constructing a wave function satisfying an appropriate boundary condition. There are various ways for defining the boundary condition that lead to different estimates of the barrier penetrability and the tunneling time. In order to describe the escape from the tunneling region as accurately as possible and to construct the total wave function on the basis of its two partial solutions unambiguously, we use the tunneling boundary condition that the total wave function must represent only the outgoing wave at the point of escape from the barrier, where the following definition for the wave is introduced: the wave is represented by the wave function whose modulus changes minimally under a variation of the scale factor a. We construct a new method for a direct non-semiclassical calculation of the total stationary wave function of the Universe, analyze the behavior of this wave function in the tunneling region, near the escape point and in the asymptotic region, and estimate the barrier penetrability. We observe oscillations of the modulus of the wave function in the external region starting from the turning point which decrease with increasing of a and which are not shown in semiclassical calculations. The period of such an oscillation decreases uniformly with increasing a and can be used as a fully quantum dynamical characteristic of the expansion of the Universe. (orig.)
Time evolution of primordial magnetic fields and present day extragalactic magnetism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saveliev, Andrey
2014-05-01
The topic of the present thesis is the time evolution of Primordial Magnetic Fields which have been generated in the Early Universe. Assuming this so-called Cosmological Scenario of magnetogenesis to be true, it is shown in the following that this would account for the present day Extragalactic Magnetic Fields. This is particularly important in light of recent gamma ray observations which are used to derive a lower limit for the corresponding magnetic field strength, even though also an alternative approach, claiming instead that these observations are due to interactions with the Intergalactic Medium, is possible and will be tested here with Monte Carlo simulations. In order to describe the aforementioned evolution of Primordial Magnetic Fields, a set of general Master Equations for the spectral magnetic, kinetic and helical components of the system are derived and then solved numerically for the Early Universe. This semianalytical method allows it to perform a full quantitative study for the time development of the power spectra, in particular by fully taking into account the backreaction of the turbulent medium onto the magnetic fields. Applying the formalism to non-helical Primordial Magnetic Fields created on some characteristic length measure, it is shown that on large scales L their spectrum 5 builds up a slope which behaves as B∝L -(5)/(2) and governs the evolution of the coherence (or integral) scale. In addition, the claim of equipartition between the magnetic and the kinetic energy is found to be true. Extending the analysis to helical magnetic fields, it is observed that the time evolution changes dramatically, hence confirming quantitatively that an Inverse Cascade, i.e. an efficient transport of energy from small to large scales, as predicted in previous works, indeed does take place.
The supergravity fields for a D-brane with a travelling wave from string amplitudes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Black, William; Russo, Rodolfo; Turton, David
2010-01-01
We calculate the supergravity fields sourced by a D-brane with a null travelling wave from disk amplitudes in type IIB string theory compactified on T 4 xS 1 . The amplitudes reproduce all the non-trivial features of the previously known two-charge supergravity solutions in the D-brane/momentum duality frame, providing a direct link between the microscopic bound states and their macroscopic descriptions.
The internal wave field in Sau reservoir : Observation and modeling of a third vertical mode
Vidal Hurtado, Javier; Casamitjana, Xavier; Colomer, Jordi; Serra Putellas, Teresa
2005-01-01
Water withdrawal from Mediterranean reservoirs in summer is usually very high. Because of this, stratification is often continuous and far from the typical two-layered structure, favoring the excitation of higher vertical modes. The analysis of wind, temperature, and current data from Sau reservoir (Spain) shows that the third vertical mode of the internal seiche (baroclinic mode) dominated the internal wave field at the beginning of September 2003. We used a continuous stratification two-dim...
Dickinson, Nicholas; White, Nicholas Jeremiah; Caulfield, Colm-cille Patrick
2017-01-01
Bright reflections are observed within the upper 1000~m of the water column along a seismic reflection profile that traverses the northern margin of the Gulf of Mexico. Independent hydrographic calibration demonstrates that these reflections are primarily caused by temperature changes associated with different water masses that are entrained into the Gulf along the Loop Current. The internal wave field is analyzed by automatically tracking 1171 reflections, each of which is greater th...
Anatomy of the high-frequency ambient seismic wave field at the TCDP borehole.
Hillers , Gregor; Campillo , Michel; Lin , Y.-Y.; Ma , K.F.; Roux , Philippe
2012-01-01
International audience; The Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP) installed a vertical seismic array between 950 and 1270 m depth in an active thrust fault environment. In this paper we analyze continuous noise records of the TCDP array between 1 and 16 Hz. We apply multiple array processing and noise correlation techniques to study the noise source process, properties of the propagation medium, and the ambient seismic wave field. Diurnal amplitude and slowness patterns suggest that ...
Properties of partial-wave amplitudes in conformal invariant field theories
Ferrara, Sergio; Grillo, A F
1975-01-01
Analyticity properties of partial-wave amplitudes of the conformal group O/sub D,2/ (D not necessarily integer) in configuration space are investigated. The presence of Euclidean singularities in the Wilson expansion in conformal invariant field theories is discussed, especially in connection with the program of formulating dynamical bootstrap conditions coming from the requirement of causality. The exceptional case of D-2 is discussed in detail. (18 refs).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fang, F; Clayton, C E; Marsh, K A; Pak, A E; Ralph, J E; Joshi, C; Lopes, N C
2009-01-01
In a forced laser-wakefield accelerator experiment (Malka et al 2002 Science 298 1596) where the length of the pump laser pulse is a few plasma periods long, the leading edge of the laser pulse undergoes frequency downshifting and head erosion as the laser energy is transferred to the wake. Therefore, after some propagation distance, the group velocity of the leading edge of the pump pulse-and thus of the driven electron plasma wave-will slow down. This can have implications for the dephasing length of the accelerated electrons and therefore needs to be understood experimentally. We have carried out an experimental investigation where we have measured the velocity v f of the 'wave-front' of the plasma wave driven by a nominally 50 fs (full width half maximum), intense (a 0 ≅ 1), 0.815 μm laser pulse. To determine the speed of the wave front, time- and space-resolved refractometry, interferometry and Thomson scattering were used. Although a laser pulse propagating through a relatively low-density plasma (n e = 1.3 x 10 19 cm -3 ) showed no measurable changes in v f over 1.3 mm (and no accelerated electrons), a high-density plasma (n e = 5 x 10 19 cm -3 ) generated accelerated electrons and showed a continuous change in v f as the laser pulse propagated through the plasma. Possible causes and consequences of the observed v f evolution are discussed.
EVOLUTION OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD LINE DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT AND NON-GAUSSIAN STATISTICS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Snodin, A. P. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Applied Science, King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok 10800 (Thailand); Ruffolo, D. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Matthaeus, W. H. [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)
2016-08-20
The magnetic field line random walk (FLRW) plays an important role in the transport of energy and particles in turbulent plasmas. For magnetic fluctuations that are transverse or almost transverse to a large-scale mean magnetic field, theories describing the FLRW usually predict asymptotic diffusion of magnetic field lines perpendicular to the mean field. Such theories often depend on the assumption that one can relate the Lagrangian and Eulerian statistics of the magnetic field via Corrsin’s hypothesis, and additionally take the distribution of magnetic field line displacements to be Gaussian. Here we take an ordinary differential equation (ODE) model with these underlying assumptions and test how well it describes the evolution of the magnetic field line diffusion coefficient in 2D+slab magnetic turbulence, by comparisons to computer simulations that do not involve such assumptions. In addition, we directly test the accuracy of the Corrsin approximation to the Lagrangian correlation. Over much of the studied parameter space we find that the ODE model is in fairly good agreement with computer simulations, in terms of both the evolution and asymptotic values of the diffusion coefficient. When there is poor agreement, we show that this can be largely attributed to the failure of Corrsin’s hypothesis rather than the assumption of Gaussian statistics of field line displacements. The degree of non-Gaussianity, which we measure in terms of the kurtosis, appears to be an indicator of how well Corrsin’s approximation works.
Introducing time-dependent molecular fields: a new derivation of the wave equations
Baer, Michael
2018-02-01
This article is part of a series of articles trying to establish the concept molecular field. The theory that induced us to introduce this novel concept is based on the Born-Huang expansion as applied to the Schroedinger equation that describes the interaction of a molecular system with an external electric field. Assuming the molecular system is made up of two coupled adiabatic states the theory leads from a single spatial curl equation, two space-time curl equations and one single space-time divergent equation to a pair of decoupled wave equations usually encountered within the theory of fields. In the present study, just like in the previous study [see Baer et al., Mol. Phys. 114, 227 (2016)] the wave equations are derived for an electric field having two features: (a) its intensity is high enough; (b) its duration is short enough. Although not all the findings are new the derivation, in the present case, is new, straightforward, fluent and much friendlier as compared to the previous one and therefore should be presented again. For this situation the study reveals that the just described interaction creates two fields that coexist within a molecule: one is a novel vectorial field formed via the interaction of the electric field with the Born-Huang non-adiabatic coupling terms (NACTs) and the other is an ordinary, scalar, electric field essentially identical to the original electric field. Section 4 devoted to the visualization of the outcomes via two intersecting Jahn-Teller cones which contain NACTs that become singular at the intersection point of these cones. Finally, the fact that eventually we are facing a kind of a cosmic situation may bring us to speculate that singular NACTs are a result of cosmic phenomena. Thus, if indeed this singularity is somehow connected to reality then, like other singularities in physics, it is formed at (or immediately after) the Big Bang and consequently, guarantees the formation of molecules.
On the evolution of a two component, two temperature, fully ionised plasma in electromagnetic fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oeien, A H
1975-01-01
When inhomogenities and fields are not too strong, transients of distribution function, correlation functions and fields which may appear when the plasma evolves from an initial state out of equilibrium are derived, applying the multiple time scale method to the BBGKY and field equations. It is also shown that, at the end of an initial stage, kinetic equations and sets of approximate field equations will govern the evolution further on. In part II a study of the evolution further on is performed when conditions are such that distribution functions to lowest order may reach local Maxwellians with different temperatures for electrons and ions. Using the same method as above, the transient behaviour into a state where macroscopic and field equations take over the leadership in the evolution is derived, and the governing equations further on, together with correcting kinetic equations, are obtained up to an order of approximation higher than before. In part III a set of lower order and a set of higher order correcting kinetic equations from part II, which correspond partly to equations for the Chapman-Enskog and the Burnett levels of approximations, are solved qualitatively. New results for various transports of a two temperature plasma are obtained.
Electronic ground support equipment for the Cluster Electric Field and Wave Experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sten, T.A.
1992-10-01
In a collaboration between ESA and NASA, ionosphere plasma structures will be studied by four indentical space probes to be launched in 1995 from French Guiana. The Electric Field and Wave (EFW) experiment will be designed to measure electric field and density fluctations by means of four sensors, each deployed on a 50 meter wire boom. In order to perform comprehensive tests and calibrations of the EFW experiment, computer controlled electronic ground support equipment has been developed. This report describes the hardware of the equipment, produced and assembled at the University of Oslo. 15 figs
Field control in a standing wave structure at high average beam power
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKeown, J.; Fraser, J.S.; McMichael, G.E.
1976-01-01
A 100% duty factor electron beam has been accelerated through a graded-β side-coupled standing wave structure operating in π/2 mode. Three non-interacting control loops are necessary to provide the accelerating field amplitude and phase and to control structure resonance. The principal disturbances have been identified and measured over the beam current range of 0 to 20 mA. Design details are presented of control loops which regulate the accelerating field amplitude to +-0.3% and its phase to +-0.5 deg for 50% beam loading. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cappellin, Cecilia; Breinbjerg, Olav; Frandsen, Aksel
2008-01-01
An effective technique for extracting the singularity of plane wave spectra in the computation of antenna aperture fields is proposed. The singular spectrum is first factorized into a product of a finite function and a singular function. The finite function is inverse Fourier transformed...... numerically using the Inverse Fast Fourier Transform, while the singular function is inverse Fourier transformed analytically, using the Weyl-identity, and the two resulting spatial functions are then convolved to produce the antenna aperture field. This article formulates the theory of the singularity...
The behaviour of hydrogen-like atoms in an intense long-wave field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, A.M.
1979-01-01
The equations, which permit the calculation by means of regular operations of multiphoton photoionisation cross sections and the dynamic polarisabilities in an intense classical long-wave electromagnetic field, are considered for a hydrogen atom. The calculations have been performed for a circularly polarised field. A quantitative expression has been derived for the Lamb shift analogue, which can be verified experimentally. Within the framework of the problem the interaction at small distances is self-compensated and reduced to a constant potential. This conclusion is of general interest for the theory of strong interactions. (author)
Near-field characteristics of radiating-wave simulator antenna based on TEM horn
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tian Chunming; Ge Debiao
2004-01-01
This paper presents a novel antenna of NEMP (nuclear electromagnetic pulse) radiating-wave simulator, which is analyzed and optimized using the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method. The intense voltage pulse is fed as the source to this antenna by the coaxial line. The parallel plate transmission line and the size of the transverse electromagnetic horn are optimized. The near field of antenna is analyzed, and the effects of the size on the near field are also given. The antenna designed in this paper can well satisfy the requirement for studying the EMP effects
Alpha effect of Alfven waves and current drive in reversed field pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Litwin, C.; Prager, S.C.
1997-10-01
Circularly polarized Alfven waves give rise to an α-dynamo effect that can be exploited to drive parallel current. In a open-quotes laminarclose quotes magnetic the effect is weak and does not give rise to significant currents for realistic parameters (e.g., in tokamaks). However, in reversed field pinches (RFPs) in which magnetic field in the plasma core is stochastic, a significant enhancement of the α-effect occurs. Estimates of this effect show that it may be a realistic method of current generation in the present-day RFP experiments and possibly also in future RFP-based fusion reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jin, T.; Yang, R.; Wang, Y.; Feng, Y.; Tang, K.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Key issues for a highly efficient thermoacoustic conversion are analyzed. • A looped thermoacoustic refrigerator with one engine stage and one refrigerator stage is proposed. • Effective refrigeration powered by heat sources below 250 °C is demonstrated in the simulation. • Impact of cooling/heating temperatures on system performance is analyzed in view of acoustic field. - Abstract: This paper focuses on a looped travelling-wave thermoacoustic refrigerator powered by thermal energy. Based on a simplified model for the regenerator, key issues for a highly efficient thermoacoustic conversion, including both thermal-to-acoustic and heat-pumping processes, are summarized. A looped travelling-wave thermoacoustic refrigerator with one engine stage and one refrigerator stage is proposed, with emphasis on high normalized acoustic impedance, sufficient volumetric velocity and appropriate phase relation close to travelling wave in the regenerators of both engine and refrigerator. Simulation results indicate that for the ambient temperature of 30 °C, the looped travelling-wave thermoacoustic refrigerator can be powered by the heat at 210–250 °C to achieve the refrigeration at −3 °C with the overall coefficient of performance above 0.4 and the relative Carnot coefficient of performance over 13%. The characteristics of the acoustic field inside the loop configuration are analyzed in detail to reveal the operation mechanism of the looped travelling-wave thermoacoustic refrigerator. Additional analyses are conducted on the impact of the cooling and the heating temperatures, which are of great concern to the refrigeration applications and the utilization of low-grade thermal energy.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Poulsen, Stefan Othmar; Voorhees, P.W.; Lauridsen, Erik Mejdal
2012-01-01
A phase field model to study the microstructural evolution of a polycrystalline dual-phase material with conserved phase fraction has been implemented, and 2D simulations have been performed. For 2D simulations, the model predicts the cubic growth well-known for diffusion-controlled systems. Some...... interphase boundaries are found to show a persistent non-constant curvature, which seems to be a feature of multi-phase materials. Finally, it is briefly outlined how this model is to be applied to investigate microstructural evolution in duplex steel. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland....
Dynamical analysis of the magnetic field line evolution in tokamaks with ergodic limiters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ullmann, Kai; Caldas, Ibere L. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
1997-12-31
Full text. Magnetic ergodic limiters are commonly used to control chaos in the tokamak border and several models have been developed to study the influence of these limiters on the magnetic field line evolution in the tokamak vessel. In this work we derive a bidimensional symplectic mapping describing this evolution with toroidal corrections. Poincare plots presenting typical Hamiltonian behaviour, such as island chains and hetero clinic and homo clinic orbits are obtained. Then we perform the dynamical analysis of these Poincare plots using standard algorithms such as calculation of Lyapunov exponents, safety factors, FFT spectra and parameters space plots to perform the dynamical analysis. (author)
Irradiation-induced void evolution in iron: A phase-field approach with atomistic derived parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Yuan-Yuan; Ding Jian-Hua; Huang Shao-Song; Zhao Ji-Jun; Liu Wen-Bo; Ke Xiao-Qin; Wang Yun-Zhi; Zhang Chi
2017-01-01
A series of material parameters are derived from atomistic simulations and implemented into a phase field (PF) model to simulate void evolution in body-centered cubic (bcc) iron subjected to different irradiation doses at different temperatures. The simulation results show good agreement with experimental observations — the porosity as a function of temperature varies in a bell-shaped manner and the void density monotonically decreases with increasing temperatures; both porosity and void density increase with increasing irradiation dose at the same temperature. Analysis reveals that the evolution of void number and size is determined by the interplay among the production, diffusion and recombination of vacancy and interstitial. (paper)
Evolution Properties of Atomic Fidelity in the Combined Multi-Atom-Cavity Field System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Ju-Xia; Zhang Xiao-Juan; Zhang Xiu-Xing
2015-01-01
The atom fidelity is investigated in a system consisting of Mtwo-level atoms and M single-mode fields by use of complete quantum theory and numerical evaluation method. The influences of various system parameters on the evolution of atomic fidelity are studied. The results show that the atomic fidelity evolves in a Rabi oscillation manner. The oscillation frequency is mainly modulated by the coupling strength between atoms and light field, the atomic transition probabilities and the average photon numbers. Other factors hardly impact on the atomic fidelity. The present results may provide a useful approach to the maintenance of the atomic fidelity in the atom cavity field systems. (paper)
Model development to evaluate evolution of redox conditions in the near field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiba, Tamotsu; Miki, Takahito; Inagaki, Manabu; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikazu
1999-02-01
Deep underground is thought to be a potential place for high level radioactive waste repository. It is believed that the chemical condition of deep groundwater is generally anoxic and reducing. However, during construction and operation phase of repository, oxygen will diffuse some distance into the surrounding rock mass, and diffused oxygen may remain in the surrounding rock mass even after repository closure. In such a case, the transitional redox condition around the drift is not preferable in view point of safety assessment for HLW disposal. Hence, it is very important to evaluate evolution of redox conditions in the near field. This report describes the status of model development to evaluate evolution of redox conditions in the near field. We use the commercial solver to equate the mathematical equations which mean evolution of redox condition in the near field. The target area modeled in this report are near field rock mass and engineered barrier (buffer). In case of near field rock mass, we consider the following two geological media: (1) porous media for sedimentary rock, (2) fractured media for crystalline rock. In case of the engineered barrier, we regard the buffer as porous media. We simulate the behavior of dissolved oxygen and Fe 2+ in groundwater during evolution of redox condition in the near field rock mass and the buffer. In case of the porous media, we consider diffusion of chemical species as dominant transport mechanism. On the other hand, in case of the fractured media, we consider diffusion of chemical species in rock matrix and advection of that (only dissolved oxygen considered in this model) in fracture as transport mechanism. We also use the rate law of iron oxidation reaction and dissolution of Fe-bearing minerals in this model besides. (author)
Enhanced spin wave propagation in magnonic rings by bias field modulation
Venkat, G.; Venkateswarlu, D.; Joshi, R. S.; Franchin, M.; Fangohr, H.; Anil Kumar, P. S.; Prabhakar, A.
2018-05-01
We simulate the spin wave (SW) dynamics in ring structures and obtain the ω - k dispersion relations corresponding to the output waveguide. Different bias field configurations affect the transfer of SW power from one arm of the structure to the other arm. To this end, we show that circular or radial bias fields are more suitable for energy transfer across the ring than the conventional horizontal bias field Hx. The SW dispersion shows that modes excited, when the bias field is along the ring radius, are almost 10 dB higher in power when compared to the modal power in the case of Hx. This is also corroborated by the SW energy density in the receiving stub.
Electric field measurements in a nanosecond pulse discharge by picosecond CARS/4-wave mixing
Goldberg, Ben; Shkurenkov, Ivan; Adamovich, Igor; Lempert, Walter
2014-10-01
Time-resolved electric field measurements in hydrogen by picosecond CARS/4-wave mixing are presented. Measurements are carried out in a high voltage nanosecond pulse discharge in hydrogen in plane-to-plane geometry, at pressures of up to several hundred Torr, and with a time resolution of 0.2 ns. Absolute calibration of the diagnostics is done using a sub-breakdown high voltage pulse of 12 kV/cm. A diffuse discharge is obtained by applying a peak high voltage pulse of 40 kV/cm between the electrodes. It is found that breakdown occurs at a lower field, 15--20 kV/cm, after which the field in the plasma is reduced rapidly due to plasma self shielding The experimental results are compared with kinetic modeling calculations, showing good agreement between the measured and the predicted electric field.
Generalized laws of refraction that can lead to wave-optically forbidden light-ray fields.
Courtial, Johannes; Tyc, Tomáš
2012-07-01
The recent demonstration of a metamaterial phase hologram so thin that it can be classified as an interface in the effective-medium approximation [Science 334, 333 (2011)] has dramatically increased interest in generalized laws of refraction. Based on the fact that scalar wave optics allows only certain light-ray fields, we divide generalized laws of refraction into two categories. When applied to a planar cross section through any allowed light-ray field, the laws in the first category always result in a cross section through an allowed light-ray field again, whereas the laws in the second category can result in a cross section through a forbidden light-ray field.
Influence of large-scale zonal flows on the evolution of stellar and planetary magnetic fields
Petitdemange, Ludovic; Schrinner, Martin; Dormy, Emmanuel; ENS Collaboration
2011-10-01
Zonal flows and magnetic field are present in various objects as accretion discs, stars and planets. Observations show a huge variety of stellar and planetary magnetic fields. Of particular interest is the understanding of cyclic field variations, as known from the sun. They are often explained by an important Ω-effect, i.e., by the stretching of field lines because of strong differential rotation. We computed the dynamo coefficients for an oscillatory dynamo model with the help of the test-field method. We argue that this model is of α2 Ω -type and here the Ω-effect alone is not responsible for its cyclic time variation. More general conditions which lead to dynamo waves in global direct numerical simulations are presented. Zonal flows driven by convection in planetary interiors may lead to secondary instabilities. We showed that a simple, modified version of the MagnetoRotational Instability, i.e., the MS-MRI can develop in planteray interiors. The weak shear yields an instability by its constructive interaction with the much larger rotation rate of planets. We present results from 3D simulations and show that 3D MS-MRI modes can generate wave pattern at the surface of the spherical numerical domain. Zonal flows and magnetic field are present in various objects as accretion discs, stars and planets. Observations show a huge variety of stellar and planetary magnetic fields. Of particular interest is the understanding of cyclic field variations, as known from the sun. They are often explained by an important Ω-effect, i.e., by the stretching of field lines because of strong differential rotation. We computed the dynamo coefficients for an oscillatory dynamo model with the help of the test-field method. We argue that this model is of α2 Ω -type and here the Ω-effect alone is not responsible for its cyclic time variation. More general conditions which lead to dynamo waves in global direct numerical simulations are presented. Zonal flows driven by convection