WorldWideScience

Sample records for wave assimilation methods

  1. Covariance Function for Nearshore Wave Assimilation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-30

    which is applicable for any spectral wave model. The four dimensional variational (4DVar) assimilation methods are based on the mathematical ...covariance can be modeled by a parameterized Gaussian function, for nearshore wave assimilation applications , the covariance function depends primarily on...SPECTRAL ACTION DENSITY, RESPECTIVELY. ............................ 5 FIGURE 2. TOP ROW: STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE WAVE-FIELD PROPERTIES AT THE

  2. Assimilation of Wave Imaging Radar Observations for Real-Time Wave-by-Wave Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, M. C.; Simpson, A. J.; Walker, D. T.; Lynett, P. J.; Pittman, R.; Honegger, D.

    2016-02-01

    It has been shown in various studies that a controls system can dramatically improve Wave Energy Converter (WEC) power production by tuning the device's oscillations to the incoming wave field, as well as protect WEC devices by decoupling them in extreme wave conditions. A requirement of the most efficient controls systems is a phase-resolved, "deterministic" surface elevation profile, alerting the device to what it will experience in the near future. The current study aims to demonstrate a deterministic method of wave forecasting through the pairing of an X-Band marine radar with a predictive Mild Slope Equation (MSE) wave model. Using the radar as a remote sensing technique, the wave field up to 1-4 km surrounding a WEC device can be resolved. Individual waves within the radar scan are imaged through the contrast between high intensity wave faces and low intensity wave troughs. Using a recently developed method, radar images are inverted into the radial component of surface slope, shown in the figure provided using radar data from Newport, Oregon. Then, resolved radial slope images are assimilated into the MSE wave model. This leads to a best-fit model hindcast of the waves within the domain. The hindcast is utilized as an initial condition for wave-by-wave forecasting with a target forecast horizon of 3-5 minutes (tens of wave periods). The methodology is currently being tested with synthetic data and comparisons with field data are imminent.

  3. Computational methods for data evaluation and assimilation

    CERN Document Server

    Cacuci, Dan Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Data evaluation and data combination require the use of a wide range of probability theory concepts and tools, from deductive statistics mainly concerning frequencies and sample tallies to inductive inference for assimilating non-frequency data and a priori knowledge. Computational Methods for Data Evaluation and Assimilation presents interdisciplinary methods for integrating experimental and computational information. This self-contained book shows how the methods can be applied in many scientific and engineering areas. After presenting the fundamentals underlying the evaluation of experiment

  4. Model Uncertainty Quantification Methods In Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathiraja, S. D.; Marshall, L. A.; Sharma, A.; Moradkhani, H.

    2017-12-01

    Data Assimilation involves utilising observations to improve model predictions in a seamless and statistically optimal fashion. Its applications are wide-ranging; from improving weather forecasts to tracking targets such as in the Apollo 11 mission. The use of Data Assimilation methods in high dimensional complex geophysical systems is an active area of research, where there exists many opportunities to enhance existing methodologies. One of the central challenges is in model uncertainty quantification; the outcome of any Data Assimilation study is strongly dependent on the uncertainties assigned to both observations and models. I focus on developing improved model uncertainty quantification methods that are applicable to challenging real world scenarios. These include developing methods for cases where the system states are only partially observed, where there is little prior knowledge of the model errors, and where the model error statistics are likely to be highly non-Gaussian.

  5. Assimilation of satellite data to increase the reliability of the wave predictions in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Liliana; Raileanu, Alina

    2015-04-01

    In order to improve the wave predictions provided in the Black Sea by a wave modelling system based on the SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore) spectral model, a technique for assimilating the satellite data has been implemented and evaluated. For this purpose, an approach based on the Optimal Interpolation method has been considered and its results are discussed in the present work. As a first step, SWAN model simulations have been carried out for a 5-year interval (2004-2008). The assimilation is made in terms of the significant wave height (Hs) for each 24 hours considering data coming from 4 satellites (ERS-2, JASON-1, JASON-2, GEOSAT Follow-On). Subsequently, data provided by two other satellites (ENVISAT and TOPEX) are used for validations. To assess the improvement brought in the model predictions by the assimilation scheme, a comparison has been performed between the model results with and without assimilation. The statistical parameters evaluated are: bias, mean absolute error, RMS error, scatter index, correlation coefficient and symmetric slope. The results show that the data assimilation procedure induces a significant improvement of the statistical parameters (lower values for bias, errors and scatter index and values closer to the unity of the correlation coefficient and for the symmetric slope). It was found also that an important factor in improving the wave predictions is represented by the value of the correlation length accounted for the Hs prediction errors (Lmax). Previous studies indicate for this length a value around four degrees in the vicinity of 45 degrees latitude (which corresponds also to the basin of the Black Sea). This value was first considered in the assimilation technique. On the other hand, taking also into account the fact that in the Black Sea the wind-sea waves are dominant, lower values for the parameter Lmax were tested as well and it seems that the most appropriate value for this parameter is between three and four degrees

  6. The impact of atmospheric data assimilation on wave simulations in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Langodan, Sabique

    2016-03-11

    Although wind and wave modeling is rather successful in the open ocean, modeling enclosed seas, particularly seas with small basins and complex orography, presents challenges. Here, we use data assimilation to improve wind and wave simulations in the Red Sea. We generated two sets of wind fields using a nested, high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting model implemented with (VARFC) and without (CTL) assimilation of observations. Available conventional and satellite data were assimilated using the consecutive integration method with daily initializations over one year (2009). By evaluating the two wind products against in-situ data from synoptic stations, buoys, scatterometers, and altimeters, we found that seasonal patterns of wind and wave variability were well reproduced in both experiments. Statistical scores for simulated winds computed against QuikSCAT, buoy, and synoptic station observations suggest that data assimilation decreases the root-mean-square error to values between 1 and 2 m s-1 and reduces the scatter index by 30% compared to the CTL. Sensitivity clearly increased around mountain gaps, where the channeling effect is better described by VARFC winds. The impact of data assimilation is more pronounced in wave simulations, particularly during extreme winds and in the presence of mountain jets. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assimilation of Wave Imaging Radar Observations for Real-time Wave-by-Wave Forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Alexandra [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Haller, Merrick [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). School of Civil & Construction Engineering; Walker, David [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lynett, Pat [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-08-29

    This project addressed Topic 3: “Wave Measurement Instrumentation for Feed Forward Controls” under the FOA number DE-FOA-0000971. The overall goal of the program was to develop a phase-resolving wave forecasting technique for application to the active control of Wave Energy Conversion (WEC) devices. We have developed an approach that couples a wave imaging marine radar with a phase-resolving linear wave model for real-time wave field reconstruction and forward propagation of the wave field in space and time. The scope of the project was to develop and assess the performance of this novel forecasting system. Specific project goals were as follows: Develop and verify a fast, GPU-based (Graphical Processing Unit) wave propagation model suitable for phase-resolved computation of nearshore wave transformation over variable bathymetry; Compare the accuracy and speed of performance of the wave model against a deep water model in their ability to predict wave field transformation in the intermediate water depths (50 to 70 m) typical of planned WEC sites; Develop and implement a variational assimilation algorithm that can ingest wave imaging radar observations and estimate the time-varying wave conditions offshore of the domain of interest such that the observed wave field is best reconstructed throughout the domain and then use this to produce model forecasts for a given WEC location; Collect wave-resolving marine radar data, along with relevant in situ wave data, at a suitable wave energy test site, apply the algorithm to the field data, assess performance, and identify any necessary improvements; and Develop a production cost estimate that addresses the affordability of the wave forecasting technology and include in the Final Report. The developed forecasting algorithm (“Wavecast”) was evaluated for both speed and accuracy against a substantial synthetic dataset. Early in the project, performance tests definitively demonstrated that the system was capable of

  8. Data assimilation with an extended Kalman filter for impact-produced shock-wave dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, Jim; Flicker, Dawn; Henninger, Rudy; Frey, Sarah; Ghil, Michael; Ide, Kayo

    2004-01-01

    Model assimilation of data strives to determine optimally the state of an evolving physical system from a limited number of observations. The present study represents the first attempt of applying the extended Kalman filter (EKF) method of data assimilation to shock-wave dynamics induced by a high-speed impact. EKF solves the full nonlinear state evolution and estimates its associated error-covariance matrix in time. The state variables obtained by the blending of past model evolution with currently available data, along with their associated minimized errors (or uncertainties), are then used as initial conditions for further prediction until the next time at which data becomes available. In this study, a one-dimensional (1D) finite-difference code is used along with data measured from a 1D flyer plate experiment. An ensemble simulation suggests that the nonlinearity of the modeled system can be reasonably tracked by EKF. The results demonstrate that the EKF assimilation of a limited amount of pressure data, measured at the middle of the target plate alone, helps track the evolution of all the state variables. The fidelity of EKF is further investigated with numerically generated synthetic data from so-called 'identical-twin experiments', in which the true state is known and various measurement techniques and strategies can be made easily simulated. We find that the EKF method can effectively assimilate the density fields, which are distributed sparsely in time to mimic radiographic data, into the modeled system

  9. Assimilation of radar altimeter data in numerical wave models: an impact study in two different wave climate regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Emmanouil

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available An operational assimilation system incorporating significant wave height observations in high resolution numerical wave models is studied and evaluated. In particular, altimeter satellite data provided by the European Space Agency (ESA-ENVISAT are assimilated in the wave model WAM which operates in two different wave climate areas: the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean. The first is a wind-sea dominated area while in the second, swell is the principal part of the sea state, a fact that seriously affects the performance of the assimilation scheme. A detailed study of the different impact is presented and the resulting forecasts are evaluated against available buoy and satellite observations. The corresponding results show a considerable improvement in wave forecasting for the Indian Ocean while in the Mediterranean Sea the assimilation impact is restricted to isolated areas.

  10. A New Methodology for the Extension of the Impact of Data Assimilation on Ocean Wave Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Assimilation method The analysis fields used were corrected by an assimilation method developed at the Norwegian Meteorological Insti- tute ( Breivik and Reistad...523–535 525 becomes equal to the solution obtained by optimal interpolation (see Bratseth 1986 and Breivik and Reistad 1994). The iterations begin with...updated accordingly. A more detailed description of the assimilation method is given in Breivik and Reistad (1994). 2.3 Kolmogorov–Zurbenko filters

  11. Storm surge model based on variational data assimilation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-li Huang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available By combining computation and observation information, the variational data assimilation method has the ability to eliminate errors caused by the uncertainty of parameters in practical forecasting. It was applied to a storm surge model based on unstructured grids with high spatial resolution meant for improving the forecasting accuracy of the storm surge. By controlling the wind stress drag coefficient, the variation-based model was developed and validated through data assimilation tests in an actual storm surge induced by a typhoon. In the data assimilation tests, the model accurately identified the wind stress drag coefficient and obtained results close to the true state. Then, the actual storm surge induced by Typhoon 0515 was forecast by the developed model, and the results demonstrate its efficiency in practical application.

  12. Data assimilation method based on the constraints of confidence region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Li, Siming; Sheng, Yao; Wang, Luheng

    2018-03-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is a distinguished data assimilation method that is widely used and studied in various fields including methodology and oceanography. However, due to the limited sample size or imprecise dynamics model, it is usually easy for the forecast error variance to be underestimated, which further leads to the phenomenon of filter divergence. Additionally, the assimilation results of the initial stage are poor if the initial condition settings differ greatly from the true initial state. To address these problems, the variance inflation procedure is usually adopted. In this paper, we propose a new method based on the constraints of a confidence region constructed by the observations, called EnCR, to estimate the inflation parameter of the forecast error variance of the EnKF method. In the new method, the state estimate is more robust to both the inaccurate forecast models and initial condition settings. The new method is compared with other adaptive data assimilation methods in the Lorenz-63 and Lorenz-96 models under various model parameter settings. The simulation results show that the new method performs better than the competing methods.

  13. Methods of affecting nitrogen assimilation in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coruzzi, Gloria; Gutierrez, Rodrigo A.; Nero, Damion C.

    2016-10-11

    Provided herein are compositions and methods for producing transgenic plants. In specific embodiments, transgenic plants comprise a construct comprising a polynucleotide encoding CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1, operably linked to a plant-specific promote, wherein the CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1 is ectopically overexpressed in the transgenic plants, and wherein the promoter is optionally a constitutive or inducible promoter. In other embodiments, transgenic plants in which express a lower level of CCA1, GLK1 or bZIP1 are provided. Also provided herein are commercial products (e.g., pulp, paper, paper products, or lumber) derived from the transgenic plants (e.g., transgenic trees) produced using the methods provided herein.

  14. Four-Dimensional Data Assimilation Using the Adjoint Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jian-Wen

    The calculus of variations is used to confirm that variational four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA) using the adjoint method can be implemented when the numerical model equations have a finite number of first-order discontinuous points. These points represent the on/off switches associated with physical processes, for which the Jacobian matrix of the model equation does not exist. Numerical evidence suggests that, in some situations when the adjoint method is used for FDDA, the temperature field retrieved using horizontal wind data is numerically not unique. A physical interpretation of this type of non-uniqueness of the retrieval is proposed in terms of energetics. The adjoint equations of a numerical model can also be used for model-parameter estimation. A general computational procedure is developed to determine the size and distribution of any internal model parameter. The procedure is then applied to a one-dimensional shallow -fluid model in the context of analysis-nudging FDDA: the weighting coefficients used by the Newtonian nudging technique are determined. The sensitivity of these nudging coefficients to the optimal objectives and constraints is investigated. Experiments of FDDA using the adjoint method are conducted using the dry version of the hydrostatic Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model (MM4) and its adjoint. The minimization procedure converges and the initialization experiment is successful. Temperature-retrieval experiments involving an assimilation of the horizontal wind are also carried out using the adjoint of MM4.

  15. Nonlinear error dynamics for cycled data assimilation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moodey, Alexander J F; Lawless, Amos S; Potthast, Roland W E; Van Leeuwen, Peter Jan

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the error dynamics for cycled data assimilation systems, such that the inverse problem of state determination is solved at t k , k = 1, 2, 3, …, with a first guess given by the state propagated via a dynamical system model M k from time t k−1 to time t k . In particular, for nonlinear dynamical systems M k that are Lipschitz continuous with respect to their initial states, we provide deterministic estimates for the development of the error ‖e k ‖ ≔ ‖x (a) k − x (t) k ‖ between the estimated state x (a) and the true state x (t) over time. Clearly, observation error of size δ > 0 leads to an estimation error in every assimilation step. These errors can accumulate, if they are not (a) controlled in the reconstruction and (b) damped by the dynamical system M k under consideration. A data assimilation method is called stable, if the error in the estimate is bounded in time by some constant C. The key task of this work is to provide estimates for the error ‖e k ‖, depending on the size δ of the observation error, the reconstruction operator R α , the observation operator H and the Lipschitz constants K (1) and K (2) on the lower and higher modes of M k controlling the damping behaviour of the dynamics. We show that systems can be stabilized by choosing α sufficiently small, but the bound C will then depend on the data error δ in the form c‖R α ‖δ with some constant c. Since ‖R α ‖ → ∞ for α → 0, the constant might be large. Numerical examples for this behaviour in the nonlinear case are provided using a (low-dimensional) Lorenz ‘63 system. (paper)

  16. Synthesis, properties, and assimilation methods of aluminium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2013-01-01

    We have discovered a new source of aluminium hydride-conversion of tetrahydrofurane under influence of halogenous alkyls. We have proposed the chlorbenzene method of synthesis of AlH 3 , which excludes adhesion and ensure high quality of the product with respect to its purity, thermal stability, habits of crystals (round shape), and granulometric composition. We determined capability of benzyl chloride to fix AlH 4 -groups by the way of complexes formation. This allows increasing efficient concentration of AlH 3 solutions and their productivity. We have carried out 'direct' crystallization of aluminium hydride in one stage using interaction of binary metal hydride with aluminium chloride in the medium of ether-toluene at 60-100 d ig C a nd using solvent distillation. In the reaction of Li H with AlCl 3 , we achieved output of pure crystal AlH 3 of hexagonal modification, which was close to quantitative. We have discovered the assimilation methods of aluminium hydride in carrying out of solid-phase chemical reactions. (author)

  17. Assessment of the Wave Energy in the Black Sea Based on a 15-Year Hindcast with Data Assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Rusu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The principal target of the present work is to assess the wave energy potential in the Black Sea, identifying also some relevant energetic features and possible patterns. A wave prediction system based on the Simulating Waves Nearshore model (SWAN has been implemented and intensively tested in the entire sea basin. Moreover, considering an optimal interpolation technique, an assimilation scheme of the satellite data has been developed, leading to a visible improvement of the wave model predictions in terms of significant wave heights and, consequently, also in terms of wave power. Using this wave prediction system with data assimilation, simulations have been performed for a 15-year period (1999–2013. Considering the results of this 15-year wave hindcast, an analysis of the wave energy conditions in the basin of the Black Sea has been carried out. This provided a more comprehensive picture concerning the wave energy patterns in the coastal environment of the Black Sea focused on the average wave conditions that might be expected in this sea. Following the results presented, it can be concluded that the wave energy extraction in the Black Sea can become an issue of interest, especially from the perspective of the hybrid solutions.

  18. An adjoint sensitivity-based data assimilation method and its comparison with existing variational methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghan Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An adjoint sensitivity-based data assimilation (ASDA method is proposed and applied to a heavy rainfall case over the Korean Peninsula. The heavy rainfall case, which occurred on 26 July 2006, caused torrential rainfall over the central part of the Korean Peninsula. The mesoscale convective system (MCS related to the heavy rainfall was classified as training line/adjoining stratiform (TL/AS-type for the earlier period, and back building (BB-type for the later period. In the ASDA method, an adjoint model is run backwards with forecast-error gradient as input, and the adjoint sensitivity of the forecast error to the initial condition is scaled by an optimal scaling factor. The optimal scaling factor is determined by minimising the observational cost function of the four-dimensional variational (4D-Var method, and the scaled sensitivity is added to the original first guess. Finally, the observations at the analysis time are assimilated using a 3D-Var method with the improved first guess. The simulated rainfall distribution is shifted northeastward compared to the observations when no radar data are assimilated or when radar data are assimilated using the 3D-Var method. The rainfall forecasts are improved when radar data are assimilated using the 4D-Var or ASDA method. Simulated atmospheric fields such as horizontal winds, temperature, and water vapour mixing ratio are also improved via the 4D-Var or ASDA method. Due to the improvement in the analysis, subsequent forecasts appropriately simulate the observed features of the TL/AS- and BB-type MCSs and the corresponding heavy rainfall. The computational cost associated with the ASDA method is significantly lower than that of the 4D-Var method.

  19. A Unified Air-Sea Interface in Fully Coupled Atmosphere-Wave-Ocean Models for Data Assimilation and Ensemble Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuyi; Curcic, Milan; Donelan, Mark; Campbell, Tim; Smith, Travis; Chen, Sue; Allard, Rick; Michalakes, John

    2014-05-01

    The goals of this study are to 1) better understand the physical processes controlling air-sea interaction and their impact on coastal marine and storm predictions, 2) explore the use of coupled atmosphere-ocean observations in model verification and data assimilation, and 3) develop a physically based and computationally efficient coupling at the air-sea interface that is flexible for use in a multi-model system and portable for transition to the next generation research and operational coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean-land models. We have developed a unified air-sea interface module that couples multiple atmosphere, wave, and ocean models using the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF). This standardized coupling framework allows researchers to develop and test air-sea coupling parameterizations and coupled data assimilation, and to better facilitate research-to-operation activities. It also allows for future ensemble forecasts using coupled models that can be used for coupled data assimilation and assessment of uncertainties in coupled model predictions. The current component models include two atmospheric models (WRF and COAMPS), two ocean models (HYCOM and NCOM), and two wave models (UMWM and SWAN). The coupled modeling systems have been tested and evaluated using the coupled air-sea observations (e.g., GPS dropsondes and AXBTs, drifters and floats) collected in recent field campaigns in the Gulf of Mexico and tropical cyclones in the Atlantic and Pacific basins. This talk will provide an overview of the unified air-sea interface model and fully coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean model predictions over various coastal regions and tropical cyclones in the Pacific and Atlantic basins including an example from coupled ensemble prediction of Superstorm Sandy (2012).

  20. A Comparison of Methods for a Priori Bias Correction in Soil Moisture Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sujay V.; Reichle, Rolf H.; Harrison, Kenneth W.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Yatheendradas, Soni; Santanello, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    Data assimilation is being increasingly used to merge remotely sensed land surface variables such as soil moisture, snow and skin temperature with estimates from land models. Its success, however, depends on unbiased model predictions and unbiased observations. Here, a suite of continental-scale, synthetic soil moisture assimilation experiments is used to compare two approaches that address typical biases in soil moisture prior to data assimilation: (i) parameter estimation to calibrate the land model to the climatology of the soil moisture observations, and (ii) scaling of the observations to the model s soil moisture climatology. To enable this research, an optimization infrastructure was added to the NASA Land Information System (LIS) that includes gradient-based optimization methods and global, heuristic search algorithms. The land model calibration eliminates the bias but does not necessarily result in more realistic model parameters. Nevertheless, the experiments confirm that model calibration yields assimilation estimates of surface and root zone soil moisture that are as skillful as those obtained through scaling of the observations to the model s climatology. Analysis of innovation diagnostics underlines the importance of addressing bias in soil moisture assimilation and confirms that both approaches adequately address the issue.

  1. Rainfall assimilation in RAMS by means of the Kuo parameterisation inversion: method and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, A.; Ortolani, A.; Meneguzzo, F.; Levizzani, V.; Torricella, F.; Turk, F. J.

    2004-03-01

    In order to improve high-resolution forecasts, a specific method for assimilating rainfall rates into the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System model has been developed. It is based on the inversion of the Kuo convective parameterisation scheme. A nudging technique is applied to 'gently' increase with time the weight of the estimated precipitation in the assimilation process. A rough but manageable technique is explained to estimate the partition of convective precipitation from stratiform one, without requiring any ancillary measurement. The method is general purpose, but it is tuned for geostationary satellite rainfall estimation assimilation. Preliminary results are presented and discussed, both through totally simulated experiments and through experiments assimilating real satellite-based precipitation observations. For every case study, Rainfall data are computed with a rapid update satellite precipitation estimation algorithm based on IR and MW satellite observations. This research was carried out in the framework of the EURAINSAT project (an EC research project co-funded by the Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development Programme within the topic 'Development of generic Earth observation technologies', Contract number EVG1-2000-00030).

  2. Iterative ensemble variational methods for nonlinear data assimilation: Application to transport and atmospheric chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haussaire, Jean-Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    Data assimilation methods are constantly evolving to adapt to the various application domains. In atmospheric sciences, each new algorithm has first been implemented on numerical weather prediction models before being ported to atmospheric chemistry models. It has been the case for 4D variational methods and ensemble Kalman filters for instance. The new 4D ensemble variational methods (4D EnVar) are no exception. They were developed to take advantage of both variational and ensemble approaches and they are starting to be used in operational weather prediction centers, but have yet to be tested on operational atmospheric chemistry models. The validation of new data assimilation methods on these models is indeed difficult because of the complexity of such models. It is hence necessary to have at our disposal low-order models capable of synthetically reproducing key physical phenomena from operational models while limiting some of their hardships. Such a model, called L95-GRS, has therefore been developed. Il combines the simple meteorology from the Lorenz-95 model to a tropospheric ozone chemistry module with 7 chemical species. Even though it is of low dimension, it reproduces some of the physical and chemical phenomena observable in real situations. A data assimilation method, the iterative ensemble Kalman smoother (IEnKS), has been applied to this model. It is an iterative 4D EnVar method which solves the full non-linear variational problem. This application validates 4D EnVar methods in the context of non-linear atmospheric chemistry, but also raises the first limits of such methods, most noticeably when they are applied to weakly coupled stable models. After this experiment, results have been extended to a realistic atmospheric pollution prediction model. 4D EnVar methods, via the IEnKS, have once again shown their potential to take into account the non-linearity of the chemistry model in a controlled environment, with synthetic observations. However, the

  3. The use of satellite data assimilation methods in regional NWP for solar irradiance forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzrock, Frederik; Cros, Sylvain; Chane-Ming, Fabrice; Potthast, Roland; Linguet, Laurent; Sébastien, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    As an intermittent energy source, the injection of solar power into electricity grids requires irradiance forecasting in order to ensure grid stability. On time scales of more than six hours ahead, numerical weather prediction (NWP) is recognized as the most appropriate solution. However, the current representation of clouds in NWP models is not sufficiently precise for an accurate forecast of solar irradiance at ground level. Dynamical downscaling does not necessarily increase the quality of irradiance forecasts. Furthermore, incorrectly simulated cloud evolution is often the cause of inaccurate atmospheric analyses. In non-interconnected tropical areas, the large amplitudes of solar irradiance variability provide abundant solar yield but present significant problems for grid safety. Irradiance forecasting is particularly important for solar power stakeholders in these regions where PV electricity penetration is increasing. At the same time, NWP is markedly more challenging in tropic areas than in mid-latitudes due to the special characteristics of tropical homogeneous convective air masses. Numerous data assimilation methods and strategies have evolved and been applied to a large variety of global and regional NWP models in the recent decades. Assimilating data from geostationary meteorological satellites is an appropriate approach. Indeed, models converting radiances measured by satellites into cloud properties already exist. Moreover, data are available at high temporal frequencies, which enable a pertinent cloud cover evolution modelling for solar energy forecasts. In this work, we present a survey of different approaches which aim at improving cloud cover forecasts using the assimilation of geostationary meteorological satellite data into regional NWP models. Various approaches have been applied to a variety of models and satellites and in different regions of the world. Current methods focus on the assimilation of cloud-top information, derived from infrared

  4. Application of data assimilation methods for analysis and integration of observed and modeled Arctic Sea ice motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Walter Neil

    This thesis demonstrates the applicability of data assimilation methods to improve observed and modeled ice motion fields and to demonstrate the effects of assimilated motion on Arctic processes important to the global climate and of practical concern to human activities. Ice motions derived from 85 GHz and 37 GHz SSM/I imagery and estimated from two-dimensional dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice models are compared to buoy observations. Mean error, error standard deviation, and correlation with buoys are computed for the model domain. SSM/I motions generally have a lower bias, but higher error standard deviations and lower correlation with buoys than model motions. There are notable variations in the statistics depending on the region of the Arctic, season, and ice characteristics. Assimilation methods are investigated and blending and optimal interpolation strategies are implemented. Blending assimilation improves error statistics slightly, but the effect of the assimilation is reduced due to noise in the SSM/I motions and is thus not an effective method to improve ice motion estimates. However, optimal interpolation assimilation reduces motion errors by 25--30% over modeled motions and 40--45% over SSM/I motions. Optimal interpolation assimilation is beneficial in all regions, seasons and ice conditions, and is particularly effective in regimes where modeled and SSM/I errors are high. Assimilation alters annual average motion fields. Modeled ice products of ice thickness, ice divergence, Fram Strait ice volume export, transport across the Arctic and interannual basin averages are also influenced by assimilated motions. Assimilation improves estimates of pollutant transport and corrects synoptic-scale errors in the motion fields caused by incorrect forcings or errors in model physics. The portability of the optimal interpolation assimilation method is demonstrated by implementing the strategy in an ice thickness distribution (ITD) model. This research presents an

  5. Studying the properties of Variational Data Assimilation Methods by Applying a Set of Test-Examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Per Grove; Zlatev, Zahari

    2007-01-01

    and backward computations are carried out by using the model under consideration and its adjoint equations (both the model and its adjoint are defined by systems of differential equations). The major difficulty is caused by the huge increase of the computational load (normally by a factor more than 100...... assimilation method (numerical algorithms for solving differential equations, splitting procedures and optimization algorithms) have been studied by using these tests. The presentation will include results from testing carried out in the study.......he variational data assimilation methods can successfully be used in different fields of science and engineering. An attempt to utilize available sets of observations in the efforts to improve (i) the models used to study different phenomena (ii) the model results is systematically carried out when...

  6. Development and validation of a system of assimilation indices: A mixed method approach to understand change in psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, David D; Baptista, Telmo M; Dent-Brown, Kim

    2015-06-01

    Assimilation is an important process in understanding change in psychotherapy. Similar to other psychological processes, assimilation may be traceable in the speech of clients by attending to its signs or indices. In the present research, we aimed to build a system of indices of assimilation. This research follows a mixed method design. The indices were derived through qualitative analysis, using grounded theory. Subsequently, the indices were adjusted quantitatively and applied to 30 single psychotherapy sessions of adult clients with depression and 11 therapists. Forty-two indices were found and grouped into the following five process categories of assimilation: external distress, pain, noticing, decentring and action. The indices showed good inter-rater reliability and internal consistency. Except for noticing, all process categories correlated significantly with each other according to conceptual proximity. The system of indices also showed convergent validity with an existing coding system of assimilation for two process categories. The results suggest that the system of indices is a useful approach for understanding assimilation. The consideration of assimilation in a continuous fashion through sub-processes may help to extend our knowledge of this process and provide a tool for clinical practice. Assimilation is an important process in understanding change in psychotherapy in the sense that it takes into account insight and action-related processes. Clients convey in their speech signs or indices of the assimilation process which can be observed both in the style and content of their utterances. Using these indices, therapists can continuously assess assimilation and use this information in choosing interventions. Limitations: This study follows a cross-sectional design and does not allow consideration of the predictive value of the indices. The outcome of the therapy was not taken into account, which restricts validity considerations to the comparison with

  7. A composite state method for ensemble data assimilation with multiple limited-area models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Kretschmer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited-area models (LAMs allow high-resolution forecasts to be made for geographic regions of interest when resources are limited. Typically, boundary conditions for these models are provided through one-way boundary coupling from a coarser resolution global model. Here, data assimilation is considered in a situation in which a global model supplies boundary conditions to multiple LAMs. The data assimilation method presented combines information from all of the models to construct a single ‘composite state’, on which data assimilation is subsequently performed. The analysis composite state is then used to form the initial conditions of the global model and all of the LAMs for the next forecast cycle. The method is tested by using numerical experiments with simple, chaotic models. The results of the experiments show that there is a clear forecast benefit to allowing LAM states to influence one another during the analysis. In addition, adding LAM information at analysis time has a strong positive impact on global model forecast performance, even at points not covered by the LAMs.

  8. Gabor Wave Packet Method to Solve Plasma Wave Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletzer, A.; Phillips, C.K.; Smithe, D.N.

    2003-01-01

    A numerical method for solving plasma wave equations arising in the context of mode conversion between the fast magnetosonic and the slow (e.g ion Bernstein) wave is presented. The numerical algorithm relies on the expansion of the solution in Gaussian wave packets known as Gabor functions, which have good resolution properties in both real and Fourier space. The wave packets are ideally suited to capture both the large and small wavelength features that characterize mode conversion problems. The accuracy of the scheme is compared with a standard finite element approach

  9. Bayesian inference for data assimilation using Least-Squares Finite Element methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwight, Richard P

    2010-01-01

    It has recently been observed that Least-Squares Finite Element methods (LS-FEMs) can be used to assimilate experimental data into approximations of PDEs in a natural way, as shown by Heyes et al. in the case of incompressible Navier-Stokes flow. The approach was shown to be effective without regularization terms, and can handle substantial noise in the experimental data without filtering. Of great practical importance is that - unlike other data assimilation techniques - it is not significantly more expensive than a single physical simulation. However the method as presented so far in the literature is not set in the context of an inverse problem framework, so that for example the meaning of the final result is unclear. In this paper it is shown that the method can be interpreted as finding a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator in a Bayesian approach to data assimilation, with normally distributed observational noise, and a Bayesian prior based on an appropriate norm of the governing equations. In this setting the method may be seen to have several desirable properties: most importantly discretization and modelling error in the simulation code does not affect the solution in limit of complete experimental information, so these errors do not have to be modelled statistically. Also the Bayesian interpretation better justifies the choice of the method, and some useful generalizations become apparent. The technique is applied to incompressible Navier-Stokes flow in a pipe with added velocity data, where its effectiveness, robustness to noise, and application to inverse problems is demonstrated.

  10. Development of A Bayesian Geostatistical Data Assimilation Method and Application to the Hanford 300 Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Haruko

    Probabilistic risk assessment of groundwater contamination requires us to incorporate large and diverse datasets at the site into the stochastic modeling of flow and transport for prediction. In quantifying the uncertainty in our predictions, we must not only combine the best estimates of the parameters based on each dataset, but also integrate the uncertainty associated with each dataset caused by measurement errors and limited number of measurements. This dissertation presents a Bayesian geostatistical data assimilation method that integrates various types of field data for characterizing heterogeneous hydrological properties. It quantifies the parameter uncertainty as a posterior distribution conditioned on all the datasets, which can be directly used in stochastic simulations to compute possible outcomes of flow and transport processes. The goal of this framework is to remove the discontinuity between data analysis and prediction. Such a direct connection between data and prediction also makes it possible to evaluate the worth of each dataset or combined worth of multiple datasets. The synthetic studies described here confirm that the data assimilation method introduced in this dissertation successfully captures the true parameter values and predicted values within the posterior distribution. The shape of the inferred posterior distributions from the method indicates the importance of estimating the entire distribution in fully accounting for parameter uncertainty. The method is then applied to integrate multiple types of datasets at the Hanford 300 Area for characterizing a three-dimensional heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity field. Comparing the results based on the different numbers or combinations of datasets shows that increasing data do not always contribute in a straightforward way to improving the posterior distribution: increasing numbers of the same data type would not necessarily be beneficial above a certain number, and also the combined effect of

  11. Physics, Nonlinear Time Series Analysis, Data Assimilation and Hyperfast Modeling of Nonlinear Ocean Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    Hyperfast Modeling of Nonlinear Ocean Waves A. R. Osborne Dipartimento di Fisica Generale, Università di Torino Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Universit?i Torino,Dipartimento di Fisica Generale,Via Pietro Giuria 1,10125 Torino, Italy, 8. PERFORMING

  12. Physically consistent data assimilation method based on feedback control for patient-specific blood flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ii, Satoshi; Adib, Mohd Azrul Hisham Mohd; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Wada, Shigeo

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a novel data assimilation method for patient-specific blood flow analysis based on feedback control theory called the physically consistent feedback control-based data assimilation (PFC-DA) method. In the PFC-DA method, the signal, which is the residual error term of the velocity when comparing the numerical and reference measurement data, is cast as a source term in a Poisson equation for the scalar potential field that induces flow in a closed system. The pressure values at the inlet and outlet boundaries are recursively calculated by this scalar potential field. Hence, the flow field is physically consistent because it is driven by the calculated inlet and outlet pressures, without any artificial body forces. As compared with existing variational approaches, although this PFC-DA method does not guarantee the optimal solution, only one additional Poisson equation for the scalar potential field is required, providing a remarkable improvement for such a small additional computational cost at every iteration. Through numerical examples for 2D and 3D exact flow fields, with both noise-free and noisy reference data as well as a blood flow analysis on a cerebral aneurysm using actual patient data, the robustness and accuracy of this approach is shown. Moreover, the feasibility of a patient-specific practical blood flow analysis is demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Conservative numerical methods for solitary wave interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, A; Lopez-Marcos, M A [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Computacion, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)

    2003-07-18

    The purpose of this paper is to show the advantages that represent the use of numerical methods that preserve invariant quantities in the study of solitary wave interactions for the regularized long wave equation. It is shown that the so-called conservative methods are more appropriate to study the phenomenon and provide a dynamic point of view that allows us to estimate the changes in the parameters of the solitary waves after the collision.

  14. A Robust Non-Gaussian Data Assimilation Method for Highly Non-Linear Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias D. Nino-Ruiz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an efficient EnKF implementation for non-Gaussian data assimilation based on Gaussian Mixture Models and Markov-Chain-Monte-Carlo (MCMC methods. The proposed method works as follows: based on an ensemble of model realizations, prior errors are estimated via a Gaussian Mixture density whose parameters are approximated by means of an Expectation Maximization method. Then, by using an iterative method, observation operators are linearized about current solutions and posterior modes are estimated via a MCMC implementation. The acceptance/rejection criterion is similar to that of the Metropolis-Hastings rule. Experimental tests are performed on the Lorenz 96 model. The results show that the proposed method can decrease prior errors by several order of magnitudes in a root-mean-square-error sense for nearly sparse or dense observational networks.

  15. Adjoint-Free Variational Data Assimilation into a Regional Wave Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Wave Model 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER...developed by Oceanweather, Inc. using the methodology of Cardone et al. (1995, 1996). The winds were taken for the period 11–20 September 2011 and...International Arctic Research Center, NSF Grants 1107925 and 1203740. It was also supported by theOffice of Naval Research (Program Element 0602435N, pro

  16. Experimental methods of shock wave research

    CERN Document Server

    Seiler, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    This comprehensive and carefully edited volume presents a variety of experimental methods used in Shock Waves research. In 14 self contained chapters this 9th volume of the “Shock Wave Science and Technology Reference Library” presents the experimental methods used in Shock Tubes, Shock Tunnels and Expansion Tubes facilities. Also described is their set-up and operation. The uses of an arc heated wind tunnel and a gun tunnel are also contained in this volume. Whenever possible, in addition to the technical description some typical scientific results obtained using such facilities are described. Additionally, this authoritative book includes techniques for measuring physical properties of blast waves and laser generated shock waves. Information about active shock wave laboratories at different locations around the world that are not described in the chapters herein is given in the Appendix, making this book useful for every researcher involved in shock/blast wave phenomena.

  17. Development of a GSI-Based, 2D-VAR Data Assimilation System for Operational Wave Guidance at the National Weather Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flampouris, S.; Alves, H.; Pondeca, M.

    2016-02-01

    The US National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) provides wave guidance to the National Weather Service (NWS) via a suite of operational wave models, which include three global-scale systems. An approach is being developed to include data assimilation into the global wave models using a 2D version of NCEP's grid-point statistical interpolation (2D-GSI), as described in Derber & Rosatti (1989), and Pondeca et al (2011). As a first step to the global implementation of a wave DA system, a prototype is being developed that will consist of adding wave heights as an analysis variable to the operational Real-Time Mesoscale Analysis (RTMA), which provides hourly analyses of several near sea-surface meteorological parameters, and supports a variety of applications within the NWS. The core of the RTMA is a 2D version of the GSI, which is a variational data assimilation system, and the first guess for the wave-height analysis is provided by NCEP's global wave models. For the new application, the RTMA will be modified to reflect background error covariances consistent with wave-height fields for regional and nearshore applications. In addition, quality control modules for in situ and altimeter significant wave height have been developed and integrated into the system. The strengths and the performance of the 2D-GSI are illustrated with both in situ and satellite measurements of significant wave height in the NW Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico. The validation of follows the typical cross-validation procedure of RTMA products, based on 10% of the observations, for a period of 15 days. The error statistics (mean, root-mean-square) of the wave-height analysis shows significant improvement, relative to the first guess.

  18. High-frequency Rayleigh-wave method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xu, Y.; Luo, Y.; Chen, C.; Liu, J.; Ivanov, J.; Zeng, C.

    2009-01-01

    High-frequency (???2 Hz) Rayleigh-wave data acquired with a multichannel recording system have been utilized to determine shear (S)-wave velocities in near-surface geophysics since the early 1980s. This overview article discusses the main research results of high-frequency surface-wave techniques achieved by research groups at the Kansas Geological Survey and China University of Geosciences in the last 15 years. The multichannel analysis of surface wave (MASW) method is a non-invasive acoustic approach to estimate near-surface S-wave velocity. The differences between MASW results and direct borehole measurements are approximately 15% or less and random. Studies show that simultaneous inversion with higher modes and the fundamental mode can increase model resolution and an investigation depth. The other important seismic property, quality factor (Q), can also be estimated with the MASW method by inverting attenuation coefficients of Rayleigh waves. An inverted model (S-wave velocity or Q) obtained using a damped least-squares method can be assessed by an optimal damping vector in a vicinity of the inverted model determined by an objective function, which is the trace of a weighted sum of model-resolution and model-covariance matrices. Current developments include modeling high-frequency Rayleigh-waves in near-surface media, which builds a foundation for shallow seismic or Rayleigh-wave inversion in the time-offset domain; imaging dispersive energy with high resolution in the frequency-velocity domain and possibly with data in an arbitrary acquisition geometry, which opens a door for 3D surface-wave techniques; and successfully separating surface-wave modes, which provides a valuable tool to perform S-wave velocity profiling with high-horizontal resolution. ?? China University of Geosciences (Wuhan) and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009.

  19. Assessment of the radiological inventory of EDF's graphite waste through an assimilation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poncet, B.

    2014-01-01

    The definitive disposal of graphite from the decommissioned UNGG reactors (Chinon A3, Saint-Laurent A1, Saint-Laurent A2 and Bugey 1) has required a radiological inventory of the irradiated graphite. This study focuses on Cl 36 that is produced by neutron absorption on Cl 35 that was present initially in graphite as an impurity (about 80 mg/t of Cl initially in Bugey 1 graphite)). It appears that the changes of Cl 36 concentration along the height of a stack of graphite do neither fit the changes in the neutron flux nor the changes in the graphite temperature. This fact is explained by the high level of purity of the graphite and the nugget effect. Challenged by the absence of spatial correlation of the Cl 36 concentration, an EDF's team has developed an assimilation method based on comparisons between calculations and measurements in order to get a conservative inventory. (A.C.)

  20. Improvement of basal conditions knowledge in Antarctica using data assimilation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbeux, C.; Gillet-Chaulet, F.; Gagliardini, O.

    2017-12-01

    The current global warming seems to have direct consequences on ice-sheet mass loss. Unfortunately, as highlighted in the last IPCC report, current ice-sheets models face several difficulties in assessing the future evolution of the dynamics of ice sheets for the next century. Indeed, projections are still plagued with high uncertainties partially due to the poor representation of occurring physical processes, but also due to the poor initialisation of ice flow models. More specifically, simulations are very sensitive to initial parameters such as the basal friction between ice-sheet and bedrock and the bedrock topography which are still badly known because of a lack of direct observations or large uncertainty on measurements. Improving the knowledge of these two parameters in Greenland and Antarctica is therefore a prerequisite for making reliable projections. Data assimilation methods have been developed in order to overcome this problem such as the Bayesian approach of Pralong and Gudmundsson (2009) or the adjoint method tested by Goldberg and Heimbach (2013) and Perego et al. (2014). The present work is based on two different assimilation algorithms to better constrain both basal drag and bedrock elevation parameters. The first algorithm is entirely based on the adjoint method while the second one uses an iterative method coupling inversion of basal friction based on an adjoint method and through an inversion of bedrock topography using a nudging method. Both algorithms have been implemented in the finite element ice sheet and ice flow model Elmer/Ice and have been tested in a twin experiment showing a clear improvement of both parameters knowledge (Mosbeux et al., 2016). Here, the methods are applied to a real 3D case in East Antarctica and with an ensemble method approach. The application of both algorithms reduces the uncertainty on basal conditions, for instance by providing more details to the basal geometry when compared to usual DEM. Moreover, as in the

  1. General method for designing wave shape transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hua; Qu, Shaobo; Xu, Zhuo; Wang, Jiafu

    2008-12-22

    An effective method for designing wave shape transformers (WSTs) is investigated by adopting the coordinate transformation theory. Following this method, the devices employed to transform electromagnetic (EM) wave fronts from one style with arbitrary shape and size to another style, can be designed. To verify this method, three examples in 2D spaces are also presented. Compared with the methods proposed in other literatures, this method offers the general procedure in designing WSTs, and thus is of great importance for the potential and practical applications possessed by such kinds of devices.

  2. Surface wave velocity tracking by bisection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, T.

    2005-01-01

    Calculation of surface wave velocity is a classic problem dating back to the well-known Haskell's transfer matrix method, which contributes to solutions of elastic wave propagation, global subsurface structure evaluation by simulating observed earthquake group velocities, and on-site evaluation of subsurface structure by simulating phase velocity dispersion curves and/or H/V spectra obtained by micro-tremor observation. Recently inversion analysis on micro-tremor observation requires efficient method of generating many model candidates and also stable, accurate, and fast computation of dispersion curves and Raleigh wave trajectory. The original Haskell's transfer matrix method has been improved in terms of its divergence tendency mainly by the generalized transmission and reflection matrix method with formulation available for surface wave velocity; however, root finding algorithm has not been fully discussed except for the one by setting threshold to the absolute value of complex characteristic functions. Since surface wave number (reciprocal to the surface wave velocity multiplied by frequency) is a root of complex valued characteristic function, it is intractable to use general root finding algorithm. We will examine characteristic function in phase plane to construct two dimensional bisection algorithm with consideration on a layer to be evaluated and algorithm for tracking roots down along frequency axis. (author)

  3. A statistical data assimilation method for seasonal streamflow forecasting to optimize hydropower reservoir management in data-scarce regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, R.; Mai, J.; Latraverse, M.; Tolson, B.

    2017-12-01

    Probabilistic ensemble forecasts generated by the ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP) methodology are subject to biases due to errors in the hydrological model's initial states. In day-to-day operations, hydrologists must compensate for discrepancies between observed and simulated states such as streamflow. However, in data-scarce regions, little to no information is available to guide the streamflow assimilation process. The manual assimilation process can then lead to more uncertainty due to the numerous options available to the forecaster. Furthermore, the model's mass balance may be compromised and could affect future forecasts. In this study we propose a data-driven approach in which specific variables that may be adjusted during assimilation are defined. The underlying principle was to identify key variables that would be the most appropriate to modify during streamflow assimilation depending on the initial conditions such as the time period of the assimilation, the snow water equivalent of the snowpack and meteorological conditions. The variables to adjust were determined by performing an automatic variational data assimilation on individual (or combinations of) model state variables and meteorological forcing. The assimilation aimed to simultaneously optimize: (1) the error between the observed and simulated streamflow at the timepoint where the forecasts starts and (2) the bias between medium to long-term observed and simulated flows, which were simulated by running the model with the observed meteorological data on a hindcast period. The optimal variables were then classified according to the initial conditions at the time period where the forecast is initiated. The proposed method was evaluated by measuring the average electricity generation of a hydropower complex in Québec, Canada driven by this method. A test-bed which simulates the real-world assimilation, forecasting, water release optimization and decision-making of a hydropower cascade was

  4. Wave propagation retrieval method for chiral metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the wave propagation method for the retrieving of effective properties of media with circularly polarized eigenwaves, in particularly for chiral metamaterials. The method is applied for thick slabs and provides bulk effective parameters. Its strong sides are the absence...

  5. Assimilation of GMS-5 satellite winds using nudging method with MM5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shanhong; Wu, Zengmao; Yang, Bo

    2006-09-01

    With the aid of Meteorological Information Composite and Processing System (MICAPS), satellite wind vectors derived from the Geostationary Meteorological Statellite-5 (GMS-5) and retrieved by National Satellite Meteorology Center of China (NSMC) can be obtained. Based on the nudging method built in the fifth-generation Mesoscale Model (MM5) of Pennsylvania State University and National Center for Atmospheric Research, a data preprocessor is developed to convert these satellite wind vectors to those with specified format required in MM5. To examine the data preprocessor and evaluate the impact of satellite winds from GMS-5 on MM5 simulations, a series of numerical experimental forecasts consisting of four typhoon cases in 2002 are designed and implemented. The results show that the preprocessor can process satellite winds smoothly and MM5 model runs successfully with a little extra computational load during ingesting these winds, and that assimilation of satellite winds by MM5 nudging method can obviously improve typhoon track forecast but contributes a little to typhoon intensity forecast. The impact of the satellite winds depends heavily upon whether the typhoon bogussing scheme in MM5 was turned on or not. The data preprocessor developed in this paper not only can treat GMS-5 satellite winds but also has capability with little modification to process derived winds from other geostationary satellites.

  6. A data assimilation tool for the Pagasitikos Gulf ecosystem dynamics: Methods and benefits

    KAUST Repository

    Korres, Gerasimos

    2012-06-01

    Within the framework of the European INSEA project, an advanced assimilation system has been implemented for the Pagasitikos Gulf ecosystem. The system is based on a multivariate sequential data assimilation scheme that combines satellite ocean sea color (chlorophyll-a) data with the predictions of a three-dimensional coupled physical-biochemical model of the Pagasitikos Gulf ecosystem presented in a companion paper. The hydrodynamics are solved with a very high resolution (1/100°) implementation of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM). This model is nested within a coarser resolution model of the Aegean Sea which is part of the Greek POSEIDON forecasting system. The forecast of the Aegean Sea model, itself nested and initialized from a Mediterranean implementation of POM, is also used to periodically re-initalize the Pagatisikos hydrodynamics model using variational initialization techniques. The ecosystem dynamics of Pagasitikos are tackled with a stand-alone implementation of the European Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM). The assimilation scheme is based on the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter, in which the error statistics are parameterized by means of a suitable set of Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs).The assimilation experiments were performed for year 2003 and additionally for a 9-month period over 2006 during which the physical model was forced with the POSEIDON-ETA 6-hour atmospheric fields. The assimilation system is validated by assessing the relevance of the system in fitting the data, the impact of the assimilation on non-observed biochemical processes and the overall quality of the forecasts. Assimilation of either GlobColour in 2003 or SeaWiFS in 2006 chlorophyll-a data enhances the identification of the ecological state of the Pagasitikos Gulf. Results, however, suggest that subsurface ecological observations are needed to improve the controllability of the ecosystem in the deep layers. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Systems and methods for wave energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Daniel G.; Cantara, Justin; Nathan, Craig; Lopes, Amy M.; Green, Brandon E.

    2017-02-28

    Systems for wave energy conversion that have components that can survive the harsh marine environment and that can be attached to fixed structures, such as a pier, and having the ability to naturally adjust for tidal height and methods for their use are presented.

  8. Heuristic method for determining outgoing waves in many-body wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redish, E.F.; Tandy, P.C.; L'Huillier, M.

    1975-12-01

    A new and simple method is proposed for determining the kinds of outgoing waves present in a given many-body wave function. Whether any particular wave function contains ''hidden'' rearrangement components can be determined. 1 figure

  9. Comparative Study of Three Data Assimilation Methods for Ice Sheet Model Initialisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbeux, Cyrille; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Gagliardini, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    The current global warming has direct consequences on ice-sheet mass loss contributing to sea level rise. This loss is generally driven by an acceleration of some coastal outlet glaciers and reproducing these mechanisms is one of the major issues in ice-sheet and ice flow modelling. The construction of an initial state, as close as possible to current observations, is required as a prerequisite before producing any reliable projection of the evolution of ice-sheets. For this step, inverse methods are often used to infer badly known or unknown parameters. For instance, the adjoint inverse method has been implemented and applied with success by different authors in different ice flow models in order to infer the basal drag [ Schafer et al., 2012; Gillet-chauletet al., 2012; Morlighem et al., 2010]. Others data fields, such as ice surface and bedrock topography, are easily measurable with more or less uncertainty but only locally along tracks and interpolated on finer model grid. All these approximations lead to errors on the data elevation model and give rise to an ill-posed problem inducing non-physical anomalies in flux divergence [Seroussi et al, 2011]. A solution to dissipate these divergences of flux is to conduct a surface relaxation step at the expense of the accuracy of the modelled surface [Gillet-Chaulet et al., 2012]. Other solutions, based on the inversion of ice thickness and basal drag were proposed [Perego et al., 2014; Pralong & Gudmundsson, 2011]. In this study, we create a twin experiment to compare three different assimilation algorithms based on inverse methods and nudging to constrain the bedrock friction and the bedrock elevation: (i) cyclic inversion of friction parameter and bedrock topography using adjoint method, (ii) cycles coupling inversion of friction parameter using adjoint method and nudging of bedrock topography, (iii) one step inversion of both parameters with adjoint method. The three methods show a clear improvement in parameters

  10. A global carbon assimilation system based on a dual optimization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, H.; Li, Y.; Chen, J. M.; Wang, T.; Huang, Q.; Huang, W. X.; Wang, L. H.; Li, S. M.; Yuan, W. P.; Zheng, X.; Zhang, S. P.; Chen, Z. Q.; Jiang, F.

    2015-02-01

    Ecological models are effective tools for simulating the distribution of global carbon sources and sinks. However, these models often suffer from substantial biases due to inaccurate simulations of complex ecological processes. We introduce a set of scaling factors (parameters) to an ecological model on the basis of plant functional type (PFT) and latitudes. A global carbon assimilation system (GCAS-DOM) is developed by employing a dual optimization method (DOM) to invert the time-dependent ecological model parameter state and the net carbon flux state simultaneously. We use GCAS-DOM to estimate the global distribution of the CO2 flux on 1° × 1° grid cells for the period from 2001 to 2007. Results show that land and ocean absorb -3.63 ± 0.50 and -1.82 ± 0.16 Pg C yr-1, respectively. North America, Europe and China contribute -0.98 ± 0.15, -0.42 ± 0.08 and -0.20 ± 0.29 Pg C yr-1, respectively. The uncertainties in the flux after optimization by GCAS-DOM have been remarkably reduced by more than 60%. Through parameter optimization, GCAS-DOM can provide improved estimates of the carbon flux for each PFT. Coniferous forest (-0.97 ± 0.27 Pg C yr-1) is the largest contributor to the global carbon sink. Fluxes of once-dominant deciduous forest generated by the Boreal Ecosystems Productivity Simulator (BEPS) are reduced to -0.78 ± 0.23 Pg C yr-1, the third largest carbon sink.

  11. A new method for data assimilation: the back and forth nudging algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Auroux , Didier; Blum , Jacques; Nodet , Maëlle

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose an improvement to the Back and Forth Nudging algorithm for handling diffusion in the context of geophysical data assimilation. We detail the Diffusive Back and Forth Nudging algorithm, in which the sign of the diffusion term is changed in the backward integrations. We study the convergence of this algorithm, in particular for linear transport equations.

  12. [Simulation of water and carbon fluxes in harvard forest area based on data assimilation method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting-Long; Sun, Rui; Zhang, Rong-Hua; Zhang, Lei

    2013-10-01

    Model simulation and in situ observation are the two most important means in studying the water and carbon cycles of terrestrial ecosystems, but have their own advantages and shortcomings. To combine these two means would help to reflect the dynamic changes of ecosystem water and carbon fluxes more accurately. Data assimilation provides an effective way to integrate the model simulation and in situ observation. Based on the observation data from the Harvard Forest Environmental Monitoring Site (EMS), and by using ensemble Kalman Filter algorithm, this paper assimilated the field measured LAI and remote sensing LAI into the Biome-BGC model to simulate the water and carbon fluxes in Harvard forest area. As compared with the original model simulated without data assimilation, the improved Biome-BGC model with the assimilation of the field measured LAI in 1998, 1999, and 2006 increased the coefficient of determination R2 between model simulation and flux observation for the net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and evapotranspiration by 8.4% and 10.6%, decreased the sum of absolute error (SAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) of NEE by 17.7% and 21.2%, and decreased the SAE and RMSE of the evapotranspiration by 26. 8% and 28.3%, respectively. After assimilated the MODIS LAI products of 2000-2004 into the improved Biome-BGC model, the R2 between simulated and observed results of NEE and evapotranspiration was increased by 7.8% and 4.7%, the SAE and RMSE of NEE were decreased by 21.9% and 26.3%, and the SAE and RMSE of evapotranspiration were decreased by 24.5% and 25.5%, respectively. It was suggested that the simulation accuracy of ecosystem water and carbon fluxes could be effectively improved if the field measured LAI or remote sensing LAI was integrated into the model.

  13. Study on evaluation methods for Rayleigh wave dispersion characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, L.; Tao, X.; Kayen, R.; Shi, H.; Yan, S.

    2005-01-01

    The evaluation of Rayleigh wave dispersion characteristic is the key step for detecting S-wave velocity structure. By comparing the dispersion curves directly with the spectra analysis of surface waves (SASW) method, rather than comparing the S-wave velocity structure, the validity and precision of microtremor-array method (MAM) can be evaluated more objectively. The results from the China - US joint surface wave investigation in 26 sites in Tangshan, China, show that the MAM has the same precision with SASW method in 83% of the 26 sites. The MAM is valid for Rayleigh wave dispersion characteristic testing and has great application potentiality for site S-wave velocity structure detection.

  14. Four-dimensional variational data assimilation for inverse modelling of atmospheric methane emissions: method and comparison with synthesis inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Meirink

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A four-dimensional variational (4D-Var data assimilation system for inverse modelling of atmospheric methane emissions is presented. The system is based on the TM5 atmospheric transport model. It can be used for assimilating large volumes of measurements, in particular satellite observations and quasi-continuous in-situ observations, and at the same time it enables the optimization of a large number of model parameters, specifically grid-scale emission rates. Furthermore, the variational method allows to estimate uncertainties in posterior emissions. Here, the system is applied to optimize monthly methane emissions over a 1-year time window on the basis of surface observations from the NOAA-ESRL network. The results are rigorously compared with an analogous inversion by Bergamaschi et al. (2007, which was based on the traditional synthesis approach. The posterior emissions as well as their uncertainties obtained in both inversions show a high degree of consistency. At the same time we illustrate the advantage of 4D-Var in reducing aggregation errors by optimizing emissions at the grid scale of the transport model. The full potential of the assimilation system is exploited in Meirink et al. (2008, who use satellite observations of column-averaged methane mixing ratios to optimize emissions at high spatial resolution, taking advantage of the zooming capability of the TM5 model.

  15. Elastic wave scattering methods: assessments and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubernatis, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The author was asked by the meeting organizers to review and assess the developments over the past ten or so years in elastic wave scattering methods and to suggest areas of future research opportunities. He highlights the developments, focusing on what he feels were distinct steps forward in our theoretical understanding of how elastic waves interact with flaws. For references and illustrative figures, he decided to use as his principal source the proceedings of the various annual Reviews of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE). These meetings have been the main forum not only for presenting results of theoretical research but also for demonstrating the relevance of the theoretical research for the design and interpretation of experiment. In his opinion a quantitative NDE is possible only if this relevance exists, and his major objective is to discuss and illustrate the degree to which relevance has developed

  16. The essential theory of fast wave current drive with full wave method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yan; Gong Xueyu; Yang Lei; Yin Chenyan; Yin Lan

    2007-01-01

    The full wave numerical method is developed for analyzing fast wave current drive in the range of ion cyclotron waves in tokamak plasmas, taking into account finite larmor radius effects and parallel dispersion. the physical model, the dispersion relation on the assumption of Finite Larmor Radius (FLR) effects and the form of full wave be used for computer simulation are developed. All of the work will contribute to further study of fast wave current drive. (authors)

  17. A ''quadratized'' augmented plane wave method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smrcka, L.

    1982-02-01

    The exact radial solution inside the muffin-tin sphere is replaced by its Taylor expansion with respect to the energy, truncated after the quadratic term. Making use of it the energy independent augmented plane waves are formed which lead to the secular equations linear in energy. The method resembles the currently used linearized APW method but yields higher accuracy. The analysis of solution inside one muffin-tin sphere shows that the eigenvalue error is proportional to (E-E 0 ) 6 as compared with (E-E 0 ) 4 for LAPW. The error of eigenfunctions is (E-E 0 ) 3 ((E-E 0 ) 2 for LAPW). These conclusions are confirmed by direct numerical calculation of band structure of Cu and Al. (author)

  18. Projector augmented wave method: ab initio molecular dynamics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    kinetic energy is small and the wave function is smooth. However, the wave ... and various strategies have been developed. ... methods let us briefly review the history of augmented ..... alleviated by adding an intelligent zero: If an operator B.

  19. An Efficient Local Correlation Matrix Decomposition Approach for the Localization Implementation of Ensemble-Based Assimilation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongqin; Tian, Xiangjun

    2018-04-01

    Ensemble-based data assimilation methods often use the so-called localization scheme to improve the representation of the ensemble background error covariance (Be). Extensive research has been undertaken to reduce the computational cost of these methods by using the localized ensemble samples to localize Be by means of a direct decomposition of the local correlation matrix C. However, the computational costs of the direct decomposition of the local correlation matrix C are still extremely high due to its high dimension. In this paper, we propose an efficient local correlation matrix decomposition approach based on the concept of alternating directions. This approach is intended to avoid direct decomposition of the correlation matrix. Instead, we first decompose the correlation matrix into 1-D correlation matrices in the three coordinate directions, then construct their empirical orthogonal function decomposition at low resolution. This procedure is followed by the 1-D spline interpolation process to transform the above decompositions to the high-resolution grid. Finally, an efficient correlation matrix decomposition is achieved by computing the very similar Kronecker product. We conducted a series of comparison experiments to illustrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed local correlation matrix decomposition approach. The effectiveness of the proposed correlation matrix decomposition approach and its efficient localization implementation of the nonlinear least-squares four-dimensional variational assimilation are further demonstrated by several groups of numerical experiments based on the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting model.

  20. A study on reducing update frequency of the forecast samples in the ensemble-based 4DVar data assimilation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Aimei; Xu, Daosheng [Lanzhou Univ. (China). Key Lab. of Arid Climatic Changing and Reducing Disaster of Gansu Province; Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing (China). State Key Lab. of Severe Weather; Qiu, Xiaobin [Lanzhou Univ. (China). Key Lab. of Arid Climatic Changing and Reducing Disaster of Gansu Province; Tianjin Institute of Meteorological Science (China); Qiu, Chongjian [Lanzhou Univ. (China). Key Lab. of Arid Climatic Changing and Reducing Disaster of Gansu Province

    2013-02-15

    In the ensemble-based four dimensional variational assimilation method (SVD-En4DVar), a singular value decomposition (SVD) technique is used to select the leading eigenvectors and the analysis variables are expressed as the orthogonal bases expansion of the eigenvectors. The experiments with a two-dimensional shallow-water equation model and simulated observations show that the truncation error and rejection of observed signals due to the reduced-dimensional reconstruction of the analysis variable are the major factors that damage the analysis when the ensemble size is not large enough. However, a larger-sized ensemble is daunting computational burden. Experiments with a shallow-water equation model also show that the forecast error covariances remain relatively constant over time. For that reason, we propose an approach that increases the members of the forecast ensemble while reducing the update frequency of the forecast error covariance in order to increase analysis accuracy and to reduce the computational cost. A series of experiments were conducted with the shallow-water equation model to test the efficiency of this approach. The experimental results indicate that this approach is promising. Further experiments with the WRF model show that this approach is also suitable for the real atmospheric data assimilation problem, but the update frequency of the forecast error covariances should not be too low. (orig.)

  1. Traveling wave tube and method of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancil, Bernard K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A traveling wave tube includes a glass or other insulating envelope having a plurality of substantially parallel glass rods supported therewithin which in turn support an electron gun, a collector and an intermediate slow wave structure. The slow wave structure itself provides electrostatic focussing of a central electron beam thereby eliminating the need for focussing magnetics and materially decreasing the cost of construction as well as enabling miniaturization. The slow wave structure advantageously includes cavities along the electron beam through which the r.f. energy is propagated, or a double, interleaved ring loop structure supported by dielectric fins within a ground plane cylinder disposed coaxially within the glass envelope.

  2. Assimilation of total lightning data using the three-dimensional variational method at convection-allowing resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Yijun; Xu, Liangtao; Zheng, Dong; Yao, Wen

    2017-08-01

    A large number of observational analyses have shown that lightning data can be used to indicate areas of deep convection. It is important to assimilate observed lightning data into numerical models, so that more small-scale information can be incorporated to improve the quality of the initial condition and the subsequent forecasts. In this study, the empirical relationship between flash rate, water vapor mixing ratio, and graupel mixing ratio was used to adjust the model relative humidity, which was then assimilated by using the three-dimensional variational data assimilation system of the Weather Research and Forecasting model in cycling mode at 10-min intervals. To find the appropriate assimilation time-window length that yielded significant improvement in both the initial conditions and subsequent forecasts, four experiments with different assimilation time-window lengths were conducted for a squall line case that occurred on 10 July 2007 in North China. It was found that 60 min was the appropriate assimilation time-window length for this case, and longer assimilation window length was unnecessary since no further improvement was present. Forecasts of 1-h accumulated precipitation during the assimilation period and the subsequent 3-h accumulated precipitation were significantly improved compared with the control experiment without lightning data assimilation. The simulated reflectivity was optimal after 30 min of the forecast, it remained optimal during the following 42 min, and the positive effect from lightning data assimilation began to diminish after 72 min of the forecast. Overall, the improvement from lightning data assimilation can be maintained for about 3 h.

  3. Mountain Wave Analysis Using Fourier Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roadcap, John R

    2007-01-01

    ...) their requirements for only a coarse horizontal background state. Common traits of Fourier mountain wave models include use of the Boussinesq approximation and neglect of moisture and Coriolis terms...

  4. Taylor-series method for four-nucleon wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandulescu, A.; Tarnoveanu, I.; Rizea, M.

    1977-09-01

    Taylor-series method for transforming the infinite or finite well two-nucleon wave functions from individual coordinates to relative and c.m. coordinates, by expanding the single particle shell model wave functions around c.m. of the system, is generalized to four-nucleon wave functions. Also the connections with the Talmi-Moshinsky method for two and four harmonic oscillator wave functions are deduced. For both methods Fortran IV programs for the expansion coefficients have been written and the equivalence of corresponding expressions numerically proved. (author)

  5. A wave propagation matrix method in semiclassical theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Takigawa, N.

    1977-05-01

    A wave propagation matrix method is used to derive the semiclassical formulae of the multiturning point problem. A phase shift matrix and a barrier transformation matrix are introduced to describe the processes of a particle travelling through a potential well and crossing a potential barrier respectively. The wave propagation matrix is given by the products of phase shift matrices and barrier transformation matrices. The method to study scattering by surface transparent potentials and the Bloch wave in solids is then applied

  6. expansion method and travelling wave solutions for the perturbed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we construct the travelling wave solutions to the perturbed nonlinear. Schrödinger's equation (NLSE) with Kerr law non-linearity by the extended (G /G)-expansion method. Based on this method, we obtain abundant exact travelling wave solutions of NLSE with. Kerr law nonlinearity with arbitrary ...

  7. The extended (G/G)-expansion method and travelling wave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we construct the travelling wave solutions to the perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger's equation (NLSE) with Kerr law non-linearity by the extended (′/)-expansion method. Based on this method, we obtain abundant exact travelling wave solutions of NLSE with Kerr law nonlinearity with arbitrary parameters.

  8. Method and apparatus for generating acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, G.V.; Gopal, R.

    1982-01-01

    A portable source of acoustic waves comprises a sample of iron-nickel alloy including an austenite phase cooled to become martensite, and a wave guide to transmit the acoustic waves. The source is applied to the pressure boundary region of a pressurized water reactor to simulate an actual metal flaw and test the calibration of the monitoring and surveillance system. With at most 29.7% nickel in the sample, the source provides acoustic emission due to ductile deformation, and with at least 30% nickel the acoustic emission is characteristic of a brittle deformation. Thus, the monitoring and surveillance system can be tested in either or both situations. In the prior art, synthetic waveform signals were used for such calibration but found not suitable for on-line simulation of the surveillance system. This invention provides an improved system in that it generates true acoustic signals. (author)

  9. Parabolic approximation method for fast magnetosonic wave propagation in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.K.; Perkins, F.W.; Hwang, D.Q.

    1985-07-01

    Fast magnetosonic wave propagation in a cylindrical tokamak model is studied using a parabolic approximation method in which poloidal variations of the wave field are considered weak in comparison to the radial variations. Diffraction effects, which are ignored by ray tracing mthods, are included self-consistently using the parabolic method since continuous representations for the wave electromagnetic fields are computed directly. Numerical results are presented which illustrate the cylindrical convergence of the launched waves into a diffraction-limited focal spot on the cyclotron absorption layer near the magnetic axis for a wide range of plasma confinement parameters

  10. Problems of the orthogonalized plane wave method. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farberovich, O.V.; Kurganskii, S.I.; Domashevskaya, E.P.

    1979-01-01

    The main problems of the orthogonalized plane wave method are discussed including (a) consideration of core states; (b) effect of overlap of wave functions of external core states upon the band structure; (c) calculation of d-type states. The modified orthogonal plane wave method (MOPW method) of Deegan and Twose is applied in a general form to solve the problems of the usual OPW method. For the first time the influence on the spectrum of the main parameters of the MOPW method is studied systematically by calculating the electronic energy spectrum in the transition metals Nb and V. (author)

  11. Comparison between 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation methods for the simulation of a heavy rainfall case in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Vincenzo; Maiello, Ida; Capozzi, Vincenzo; Budillon, Giorgio; Ferretti, Rossella

    2017-08-01

    This work aims to provide a comparison between three dimensional and four dimensional variational data assimilation methods (3D-Var and 4D-Var) for a heavy rainfall case in central Italy. To evaluate the impact of the assimilation of reflectivity and radial velocity acquired from Monte Midia Doppler radar into the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model, the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) is used.The two methods are compared for a heavy rainfall event that occurred in central Italy on 14 September 2012 during the first Special Observation Period (SOP1) of the HyMeX (HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment) campaign. This event, characterized by a deep low pressure system over the Tyrrhenian Sea, produced flash floods over the Marche and Abruzzo regions, where rainfall maxima reached more than 150 mm 24 h-1.To identify the best QPF, nine experiments are performed using 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation techniques. All simulations are compared in terms of rainfall forecast and precipitation measured by the gauges through three statistical indicators: probability of detection (POD), critical success index (CSI) and false alarm ratio (FAR). The assimilation of conventional observations with 4D-Var method improves the QPF compared to 3D-Var. In addition, the use of radar measurements in 4D-Var simulations enhances the performances of statistical scores for higher rainfall thresholds.

  12. Forecasting ocean wave energy: A Comparison of the ECMWF wave model with time series methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reikard, Gordon; Pinson, Pierre; Bidlot, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the technology has been developed to make wave farms commercially viable. Since electricity is perishable, utilities will be interested in forecasting ocean wave energy. The horizons involved in short-term management of power grids range from as little as a few hours to as long as several...... days. In selecting a method, the forecaster has a choice between physics-based models and statistical techniques. A further idea is to combine both types of models. This paper analyzes the forecasting properties of a well-known physics-based model, the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts...... (ECMWF) Wave Model, and two statistical techniques, time-varying parameter regressions and neural networks. Thirteen data sets at locations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and the Gulf of Mexico are tested. The quantities to be predicted are the significant wave height, the wave period, and the wave...

  13. A fast method for linear waves based on geometrical optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a fast method for solving the one-dimensional wave equation based on geometrical optics. From geometrical optics (e.g., Fourier integral operator theory or WKB approximation) it is known that high-frequency waves split into forward and backward propagating parts, each propagating with the

  14. Tsunami Simulation Method Assimilating Ocean Bottom Pressure Data Near a Tsunami Source Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanioka, Yuichiro

    2018-02-01

    A new method was developed to reproduce the tsunami height distribution in and around the source area, at a certain time, from a large number of ocean bottom pressure sensors, without information on an earthquake source. A dense cabled observation network called S-NET, which consists of 150 ocean bottom pressure sensors, was installed recently along a wide portion of the seafloor off Kanto, Tohoku, and Hokkaido in Japan. However, in the source area, the ocean bottom pressure sensors cannot observe directly an initial ocean surface displacement. Therefore, we developed the new method. The method was tested and functioned well for a synthetic tsunami from a simple rectangular fault with an ocean bottom pressure sensor network using 10 arc-min, or 20 km, intervals. For a test case that is more realistic, ocean bottom pressure sensors with 15 arc-min intervals along the north-south direction and sensors with 30 arc-min intervals along the east-west direction were used. In the test case, the method also functioned well enough to reproduce the tsunami height field in general. These results indicated that the method could be used for tsunami early warning by estimating the tsunami height field just after a great earthquake without the need for earthquake source information.

  15. A calibration and data assimilation method using the Bayesian MARS emulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stripling, H.F.; McClarren, R.G.; Kuranz, C.C.; Grosskopf, M.J.; Rutter, E.; Torralva, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We outline a transparent, flexible method for the calibration of uncertain inputs to computer models. ► We account for model, data, emulator, and measurement uncertainties. ► The method produces improved predictive results, which are validated using leave one-out experiments. ► Our implementation leverages the Bayesian MARS emulator, but any emulator may be substituted. -- Abstract: We present a method for calibrating the uncertain inputs to a computer model using available experimental data. The goal of the procedure is to estimate the posterior distribution of the uncertain inputs such that when samples from the posterior are used as inputs to future model runs, the model is more likely to replicate (or predict) the experimental response. The calibration is performed by sampling the space of the uncertain inputs, using the computer model (or, more likely, an emulator for the computer model) to assign weights to the samples, and applying the weights to produce the posterior distributions and generate predictions of new experiments with confidence bounds. The method is similar to Metropolis–Hastings calibration methods with independently sampled updates, except that we generate samples beforehand and replace the candidate acceptance routine with a weighting scheme. We apply our method to the calibration of a Hyades 2D model of laser energy deposition in beryllium. We employ a Bayesian Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (BMARS) emulator as a surrogate for Hyades 2D. We treat a range of uncertainties in our application, including uncertainties in the experimental inputs, experimental measurement error, and systematic experimental timing errors. The resulting posterior distributions agree with our existing intuition, and we validate the results by performing a series of leave-one-out predictions. We find that the calibrated predictions are considerably more accurate and less uncertain than blind sampling of the forward model alone.

  16. Numerical method for wave forces acting on partially perforated caisson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Feng; Tang, Xiao-cheng; Jin, Zhao; Zhang, Li; Chen, Hong-zhou

    2015-04-01

    The perforated caisson is widely applied to practical engineering because of its great advantages in effectively wave energy consumption and cost reduction. The attentions of many scientists were paid to the fluid-structure interaction between wave and perforated caisson studies, but until now, most concerns have been put on theoretical analysis and experimental model set up. In this paper, interaction between the wave and the partial perforated caisson in a 2D numerical wave flume is investigated by means of the renewed SPH algorithm, and the mathematical equations are in the form of SPH numerical approximation based on Navier-Stokes equations. The validity of the SPH mathematical method is examined and the simulated results are compared with the results of theoretical models, meanwhile the complex hydrodynamic characteristics when the water particles flow in or out of a wave absorbing chamber are analyzed and the wave pressure distribution of the perforated caisson is also addressed here. The relationship between the ratio of total horizontal force acting on caisson under regular waves and its influence factors is examined. The data show that the numerical calculation of the ratio of total horizontal force meets the empirical regression equation very well. The simulations of SPH about the wave nonlinearity and breaking are briefly depicted in the paper, suggesting that the advantages and great potentiality of the SPH method is significant compared with traditional methods.

  17. Analysis shear wave velocity structure obtained from surface wave methods in Bornova, Izmir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamuk, Eren, E-mail: eren.pamuk@deu.edu.tr; Akgün, Mustafa, E-mail: mustafa.akgun@deu.edu.tr [Department of Geophysical Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey); Özdağ, Özkan Cevdet, E-mail: cevdet.ozdag@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University Rectorate, Izmir (Turkey)

    2016-04-18

    Properties of the soil from the bedrock is necessary to describe accurately and reliably for the reduction of earthquake damage. Because seismic waves change their amplitude and frequency content owing to acoustic impedance difference between soil and bedrock. Firstly, shear wave velocity and depth information of layers on bedrock is needed to detect this changing. Shear wave velocity can be obtained using inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods (MASW- the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves, ReMi-Refraction Microtremor, SPAC-Spatial Autocorrelation). While research depth is limeted in active source study, a passive source methods are utilized for deep depth which is not reached using active source methods. ReMi method is used to determine layer thickness and velocity up to 100 m using seismic refraction measurement systems.The research carried out up to desired depth depending on radius using SPAC which is utilized easily in conditions that district using of seismic studies in the city. Vs profiles which are required to calculate deformations in under static and dynamic loads can be obtained with high resolution using combining rayleigh wave dispersion curve obtained from active and passive source methods. In the this study, Surface waves data were collected using the measurements of MASW, ReMi and SPAC at the İzmir Bornova region. Dispersion curves obtained from surface wave methods were combined in wide frequency band and Vs-depth profiles were obtained using inversion. Reliability of the resulting soil profiles were provided by comparison with theoretical transfer function obtained from soil paremeters and observed soil transfer function from Nakamura technique and by examination of fitting between these functions. Vs values are changed between 200-830 m/s and engineering bedrock (Vs>760 m/s) depth is approximately 150 m.

  18. Mathematical Methods in Wave Propagation: Part 2--Non-Linear Wave Front Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Alan

    1971-01-01

    The paper presents applications and methods of analysis for non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations. The paper is concluded by an account of wave front analysis as applied to the piston problem of gas dynamics. (JG)

  19. Data assimilation method for fractured reservoirs using mimetic finite differences and ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Ping, Jing; Al-Hinai, Omar; Wheeler, Mary F.

    2017-01-01

    -Gaussian in this case, it is a challenge to estimate fracture distributions by conventional history matching approaches. In this work, a method that combines vector-based level-set parameterization technique and ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for estimating fracture

  20. An Aural Learning Project: Assimilating Jazz Education Methods for Traditional Applied Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamso, Nancy M.

    2011-01-01

    The Aural Learning Project (ALP) was developed to incorporate jazz method components into the author's classical practice and her applied woodwind lesson curriculum. The primary objective was to place a more focused pedagogical emphasis on listening and hearing than is traditionally used in the classical applied curriculum. The components of the…

  1. Data assimilation method for fractured reservoirs using mimetic finite differences and ensemble Kalman filter

    KAUST Repository

    Ping, Jing

    2017-05-19

    Optimal management of subsurface processes requires the characterization of the uncertainty in reservoir description and reservoir performance prediction. For fractured reservoirs, the location and orientation of fractures are crucial for predicting production characteristics. With the help of accurate and comprehensive knowledge of fracture distributions, early water/CO 2 breakthrough can be prevented and sweep efficiency can be improved. However, since the rock property fields are highly non-Gaussian in this case, it is a challenge to estimate fracture distributions by conventional history matching approaches. In this work, a method that combines vector-based level-set parameterization technique and ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for estimating fracture distributions is presented. Performing the necessary forward modeling is particularly challenging. In addition to the large number of forward models needed, each model is used for sampling of randomly located fractures. Conventional mesh generation for such systems would be time consuming if possible at all. For these reasons, we rely on a novel polyhedral mesh method using the mimetic finite difference (MFD) method. A discrete fracture model is adopted that maintains the full geometry of the fracture network. By using a cut-cell paradigm, a computational mesh for the matrix can be generated quickly and reliably. In this research, we apply this workflow on 2D two-phase fractured reservoirs. The combination of MFD approach, level-set parameterization, and EnKF provides an effective solution to address the challenges in the history matching problem of highly non-Gaussian fractured reservoirs.

  2. Estimation and calibration of observation impact signals using the Lanczos method in NOAA/NCEP data assimilation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the tremendous progress that has been made in data assimilation (DA methodology, observing systems that reduce observation errors, and model improvements that reduce background errors, the analyses produced by the best available DA systems are still different from the truth. Analysis error and error covariance are important since they describe the accuracy of the analyses, and are directly related to the future forecast errors, i.e., the forecast quality. In addition, analysis error covariance is critically important in building an efficient ensemble forecast system (EFS.

    Estimating analysis error covariance in an ensemble-based Kalman filter DA is straightforward, but it is challenging in variational DA systems, which have been in operation at most NWP (Numerical Weather Prediction centers. In this study, we use the Lanczos method in the NCEP (the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI DA system to look into other important aspects and properties of this method that were not exploited before. We apply this method to estimate the observation impact signals (OIS, which are directly related to the analysis error variances. It is found that the smallest eigenvalue of the transformed Hessian matrix converges to one as the number of minimization iterations increases. When more observations are assimilated, the convergence becomes slower and more eigenvectors are needed to retrieve the observation impacts. It is also found that the OIS over data-rich regions can be represented by the eigenvectors with dominant eigenvalues.

    Since only a limited number of eigenvectors can be computed due to computational expense, the OIS is severely underestimated, and the analysis error variance is consequently overestimated. It is found that the mean OIS values for temperature and wind components at typical model levels are increased by about 1.5 times when the number of eigenvectors is doubled

  3. Validation of Standing Wave Liner Impedance Measurement Method, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hersh Acoustical Engineering, Inc. proposes to establish the feasibility and practicality of using the Standing Wave Method (SWM) to measure the impedance of...

  4. An efficient method of exploring simulation models by assimilating literature and biological observational data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Takanori; Nagasaki, Masao; Yamaguchi, Rui; Imoto, Seiya; Miyano, Satoru

    2014-07-01

    Recently, several biological simulation models of, e.g., gene regulatory networks and metabolic pathways, have been constructed based on existing knowledge of biomolecular reactions, e.g., DNA-protein and protein-protein interactions. However, since these do not always contain all necessary molecules and reactions, their simulation results can be inconsistent with observational data. Therefore, improvements in such simulation models are urgently required. A previously reported method created multiple candidate simulation models by partially modifying existing models. However, this approach was computationally costly and could not handle a large number of candidates that are required to find models whose simulation results are highly consistent with the data. In order to overcome the problem, we focused on the fact that the qualitative dynamics of simulation models are highly similar if they share a certain amount of regulatory structures. This indicates that better fitting candidates tend to share the basic regulatory structure of the best fitting candidate, which can best predict the data among candidates. Thus, instead of evaluating all candidates, we propose an efficient explorative method that can selectively and sequentially evaluate candidates based on the similarity of their regulatory structures. Furthermore, in estimating the parameter values of a candidate, e.g., synthesis and degradation rates of mRNA, for the data, those of the previously evaluated candidates can be utilized. The method is applied here to the pharmacogenomic pathways for corticosteroids in rats, using time-series microarray expression data. In the performance test, we succeeded in obtaining more than 80% of consistent solutions within 15% of the computational time as compared to the comprehensive evaluation. Then, we applied this approach to 142 literature-recorded simulation models of corticosteroid-induced genes, and consequently selected 134 newly constructed better models. The

  5. Distorted wave method in reactions with composite particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenskaya, N.S.; Teplov, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    The work deals with the distorbed wave method with a finite radius of interaction (DWBAFR) as applied to quantitative analysis of direct nuclear reactions with composite particles (including heavy ions) considering the reaction mechanisms other than the cluster stripping mechanism, in particular the exchange processes. The accurate equations of the distorbed-wave method in the three-body problem and the general formula dor calculating differential cross-sections of arbitrary binary reactions by DWBAFR are presented. Accurate and approximate methods allowing for finite interaction radius are discussed. Two main versions of exact account of recoil effects: separation of variables in wave functions of relative motion of particles and in interaction potentials and separation of variables in distorted waves are analysed. Given is a characteristic of the known calculated programs approximately and exactly taking account of recoil effects for direct and exchange processes [ru

  6. Reflection and diffraction of atomic de Broglie waves by evanescent laser waves. Bare-state method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Xiaoping; Witte, N.S.; Hollenberg, C.L.; Opat, G.

    1994-01-01

    Two methods are presented for the investigation of the reflection and diffraction of atoms by gratings formed either by standing or travelling evanescent laser waves. Both methods use the bare-state rather than dressed-state picture. One method is based on the Born series, whereas the other is based on the Laplace transformation of the coupled differential equations. The two methods yield the same theoretical expressions for the reflected and diffracted atomic waves in the whole space including the interaction and the asymptotic regions. 1 ref., 1 fig

  7. Spectral analysis of surface waves method to assess shear wave velocity within centrifuge models

    OpenAIRE

    MURILLO, Carol Andrea; THOREL, Luc; CAICEDO, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    The method of the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) is tested out on reduced scale centrifuge models, with a specific device, called the mini Falling Weight, developed for this purpose. Tests are performed on layered materials made of a mixture of sand and clay. The shear wave velocity VS determined within the models using the SASW is compared with the laboratory measurements carried out using the bender element test. The results show that the SASW technique applied to centrifuge test...

  8. Galerkin finite element methods for wave problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    basis functions (called G1FEM here) and quadratic basis functions (called G2FEM) ... mulation of Brookes & Hughes (1982) that implicitly incorporates numerical ..... functions and (c) SUPG method in the (kh − ω t)-plane for explicit Euler.

  9. Bioluminescence-Based Method for Measuring Assimilable Organic Carbon in Pretreatment Water for Reverse Osmosis Membrane Desalination ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, Lauren A.; Schneider, Orren D.; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    A bioluminescence-based assimilable organic carbon (AOC) test was developed for determining the biological growth potential of seawater within the reverse osmosis desalination pretreatment process. The test uses Vibrio harveyi, a marine organism that exhibits constitutive luminescence and is nutritionally robust. AOC was measured in both a pilot plant and a full-scale desalination plant pretreatment. PMID:21148685

  10. Finite element and discontinuous Galerkin methods for transient wave equations

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Gary

    2017-01-01

    This monograph presents numerical methods for solving transient wave equations (i.e. in time domain). More precisely, it provides an overview of continuous and discontinuous finite element methods for these equations, including their implementation in physical models, an extensive description of 2D and 3D elements with different shapes, such as prisms or pyramids, an analysis of the accuracy of the methods and the study of the Maxwell’s system and the important problem of its spurious free approximations. After recalling the classical models, i.e. acoustics, linear elastodynamics and electromagnetism and their variational formulations, the authors present a wide variety of finite elements of different shapes useful for the numerical resolution of wave equations. Then, they focus on the construction of efficient continuous and discontinuous Galerkin methods and study their accuracy by plane wave techniques and a priori error estimates. A chapter is devoted to the Maxwell’s system and the important problem ...

  11. Comparison of matrix methods for elastic wave scattering problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsao, S.J.; Varadan, V.K.; Varadan, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    This article briefly describes the T-matrix method and the MOOT (method of optimal truncation) of elastic wave scattering as they apply to A-D, SH- wave problems as well as 3-D elastic wave problems. Two methods are compared for scattering by elliptical cylinders as well as oblate spheroids of various eccentricity as a function of frequency. Convergence, and symmetry of the scattering cross section are also compared for ellipses and spheroidal cavities of different aspect ratios. Both the T-matrix approach and the MOOT were programmed on an AMDHL 470 computer using double precision arithmetic. Although the T-matrix method and MOOT are not always in agreement, it is in no way implied that any of the published results using MOOT are in error

  12. Wave field restoration using three-dimensional Fourier filtering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, T; Takai, Y; Ikuta, T; Shimizu, R

    2001-11-01

    A wave field restoration method in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was mathematically derived based on a three-dimensional (3D) image formation theory. Wave field restoration using this method together with spherical aberration correction was experimentally confirmed in through-focus images of amorphous tungsten thin film, and the resolution of the reconstructed phase image was successfully improved from the Scherzer resolution limit to the information limit. In an application of this method to a crystalline sample, the surface structure of Au(110) was observed in a profile-imaging mode. The processed phase image showed quantitatively the atomic relaxation of the topmost layer.

  13. Chiral metamaterials characterisation using the wave propagation retrieval method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu

    2010-01-01

    In this presentation we extend the wave propagation method for the retrieval of the effective properties to the case of chiral metamaterials with circularly polarised eigenwaves. The method is unambiguous, simple and provides bulk effective parameters. Advantages and constraints are discussed...

  14. Spectral analysis of surface waves method to assess shear wave velocity within centrifuge models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Carol Andrea; Thorel, Luc; Caicedo, Bernardo

    2009-06-01

    The method of the spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) is tested out on reduced scale centrifuge models, with a specific device, called the mini Falling Weight, developed for this purpose. Tests are performed on layered materials made of a mixture of sand and clay. The shear wave velocity VS determined within the models using the SASW is compared with the laboratory measurements carried out using the bender element test. The results show that the SASW technique applied to centrifuge testing is a relevant method to characterize VS near the surface.

  15. An Unconditionally Stable Method for Solving the Acoustic Wave Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Kai Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An unconditionally stable method for solving the time-domain acoustic wave equation using Associated Hermit orthogonal functions is proposed. The second-order time derivatives in acoustic wave equation are expanded by these orthogonal basis functions. By applying Galerkin temporal testing procedure, the time variable can be eliminated from the calculations. The restriction of Courant-Friedrichs-Levy (CFL condition in selecting time step for analyzing thin layer can be avoided. Numerical results show the accuracy and the efficiency of the proposed method.

  16. Damage detection in composite materials using Lamb wave methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Seth S.; Spearing, S. Mark; Soutis, Constantinos

    2002-04-01

    Cost-effective and reliable damage detection is critical for the utilization of composite materials. This paper presents part of an experimental and analytical survey of candidate methods for in situ damage detection of composite materials. Experimental results are presented for the application of Lamb wave techniques to quasi-isotropic graphite/epoxy test specimens containing representative damage modes, including delamination, transverse ply cracks and through-holes. Linear wave scans were performed on narrow laminated specimens and sandwich beams with various cores by monitoring the transmitted waves with piezoceramic sensors. Optimal actuator and sensor configurations were devised through experimentation, and various types of driving signal were explored. These experiments provided a procedure capable of easily and accurately determining the time of flight of a Lamb wave pulse between an actuator and sensor. Lamb wave techniques provide more information about damage presence and severity than previously tested methods (frequency response techniques), and provide the possibility of determining damage location due to their local response nature. These methods may prove suitable for structural health monitoring applications since they travel long distances and can be applied with conformable piezoelectric actuators and sensors that require little power.

  17. A robust absorbing layer method for anisotropic seismic wave modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Métivier, L., E-mail: ludovic.metivier@ujf-grenoble.fr [LJK, CNRS, Université de Grenoble, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); ISTerre, Université de Grenoble I, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Brossier, R. [ISTerre, Université de Grenoble I, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Labbé, S. [LJK, CNRS, Université de Grenoble, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Operto, S. [Géoazur, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS, IRD, OCA, Villefranche-sur-Mer (France); Virieux, J. [ISTerre, Université de Grenoble I, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)

    2014-12-15

    When applied to wave propagation modeling in anisotropic media, Perfectly Matched Layers (PML) exhibit instabilities. Incoming waves are amplified instead of being absorbed. Overcoming this difficulty is crucial as in many seismic imaging applications, accounting accurately for the subsurface anisotropy is mandatory. In this study, we present the SMART layer method as an alternative to PML approach. This method is based on the decomposition of the wavefield into components propagating inward and outward the domain of interest. Only outgoing components are damped. We show that for elastic and acoustic wave propagation in Transverse Isotropic media, the SMART layer is unconditionally dissipative: no amplification of the wavefield is possible. The SMART layers are not perfectly matched, therefore less accurate than conventional PML. However, a reasonable increase of the layer size yields an accuracy similar to PML. Finally, we illustrate that the selective damping strategy on which is based the SMART method can prevent the generation of spurious S-waves by embedding the source in a small zone where only S-waves are damped.

  18. A robust absorbing layer method for anisotropic seismic wave modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Métivier, L.; Brossier, R.; Labbé, S.; Operto, S.; Virieux, J.

    2014-01-01

    When applied to wave propagation modeling in anisotropic media, Perfectly Matched Layers (PML) exhibit instabilities. Incoming waves are amplified instead of being absorbed. Overcoming this difficulty is crucial as in many seismic imaging applications, accounting accurately for the subsurface anisotropy is mandatory. In this study, we present the SMART layer method as an alternative to PML approach. This method is based on the decomposition of the wavefield into components propagating inward and outward the domain of interest. Only outgoing components are damped. We show that for elastic and acoustic wave propagation in Transverse Isotropic media, the SMART layer is unconditionally dissipative: no amplification of the wavefield is possible. The SMART layers are not perfectly matched, therefore less accurate than conventional PML. However, a reasonable increase of the layer size yields an accuracy similar to PML. Finally, we illustrate that the selective damping strategy on which is based the SMART method can prevent the generation of spurious S-waves by embedding the source in a small zone where only S-waves are damped

  19. Simulation of the acoustic wave propagation using a meshless method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajko J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents numerical simulations of the acoustic wave propagation phenomenon modelled via Linearized Euler equations. A meshless method based on collocation of the strong form of the equation system is adopted. Moreover, the Weighted least squares method is used for local approximation of derivatives as well as stabilization technique in a form of spatial ltering. The accuracy and robustness of the method is examined on several benchmark problems.

  20. Numerical simulation methods for wave propagation through optical waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A.

    1993-01-01

    The simulation of the field propagation through waveguides requires numerical solutions of the Helmholtz equation. For this purpose a method based on the principle of orthogonal collocation was recently developed. The method is also applicable to nonlinear pulse propagation through optical fibers. Some of the salient features of this method and its application to both linear and nonlinear wave propagation through optical waveguides are discussed in this report. 51 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  1. A case study of aerosol data assimilation with the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model over the contiguous United States using 3D-Var and optimal interpolation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Youhua; Pagowski, Mariusz; Chai, Tianfeng; Pan, Li; Lee, Pius; Baker, Barry; Kumar, Rajesh; Delle Monache, Luca; Tong, Daniel; Kim, Hyun-Cheol

    2017-12-01

    This study applies the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) 3D-Var assimilation tool originally developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), to improve surface PM2.5 predictions over the contiguous United States (CONUS) by assimilating aerosol optical depth (AOD) and surface PM2.5 in version 5.1 of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. An optimal interpolation (OI) method implemented earlier (Tang et al., 2015) for the CMAQ modeling system is also tested for the same period (July 2011) over the same CONUS. Both GSI and OI methods assimilate surface PM2.5 observations at 00:00, 06:00, 12:00 and 18:00 UTC, and MODIS AOD at 18:00 UTC. The assimilations of observations using both GSI and OI generally help reduce the prediction biases and improve correlation between model predictions and observations. In the GSI experiments, assimilation of surface PM2.5 (particle matter with diameter big differences besides the data assimilation schemes. For instance, the OI uses relatively big model uncertainties, which helps yield smaller mean biases, but sometimes causes the RMSE to increase. We also examine and discuss the sensitivity of the assimilation experiments' results to the AOD forward operators.

  2. The extended (G/G)-expansion method and travelling wave ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 82; Issue 6. The extended (′/)-expansion method and travelling wave solutions for the perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger's equation with Kerr law nonlinearity. Zaiyun Zhang Jianhua Huang Juan Zhong Sha-Sha Dou Jiao Liu Dan Peng Ting Gao. Research Articles ...

  3. Quadratic algebras in the noncommutative integration method of wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varaksin, O.L.

    1995-01-01

    The paper deals with the investigation of applications of the method of noncommutative integration of linear differential equations by partial derivatives. Nontrivial example was taken for integration of three-dimensions wave equation with the use of non-Abelian quadratic algebras

  4. Analysis of Different Methods for Wave Generation and Absorption in a CFD-Based Numerical Wave Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adria Moreno Miquel

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the performance of different wave generation and absorption methods in computational fluid dynamics (CFD-based numerical wave tanks (NWTs is analyzed. The open-source CFD code REEF3D is used, which solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS equations to simulate two-phase flow problems. The water surface is computed with the level set method (LSM, and turbulence is modeled with the k-ω model. The NWT includes different methods to generate and absorb waves: the relaxation method, the Dirichlet-type method and active wave absorption. A sensitivity analysis has been conducted in order to quantify and compare the differences in terms of absorption quality between these methods. A reflection analysis based on an arbitrary number of wave gauges has been adopted to conduct the study. Tests include reflection analysis of linear, second- and fifth-order Stokes waves, solitary waves, cnoidal waves and irregular waves generated in an NWT. Wave breaking over a sloping bed and wave forces on a vertical cylinder are calculated, and the influence of the reflections on the wave breaking location and the wave forces on the cylinder is investigated. In addition, a comparison with another open-source CFD code, OpenFOAM, has been carried out based on published results. Some differences in the calculated quantities depending on the wave generation and absorption method have been observed. The active wave absorption method is seen to be more efficient for long waves, whereas the relaxation method performs better for shorter waves. The relaxation method-based numerical beach generally results in lower reflected waves in the wave tank for most of the cases simulated in this study. The comparably better performance of the relaxation method comes at the cost of larger computational requirements due to the relaxation zones that have to be included in the domain. The reflections in the NWT in REEF3D are generally lower than the published results for

  5. Linear density response function in the projector augmented wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Jun; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2011-01-01

    We present an implementation of the linear density response function within the projector-augmented wave method with applications to the linear optical and dielectric properties of both solids, surfaces, and interfaces. The response function is represented in plane waves while the single...... functions of Si, C, SiC, AlP, and GaAs compare well with previous calculations. While optical properties of semiconductors, in particular excitonic effects, are generally not well described by ALDA, we obtain excellent agreement with experiments for the surface loss function of graphene and the Mg(0001...

  6. Comparison of Transmission Line Methods for Surface Acoustic Wave Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William; Atkinson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, extremely low power and can be used to develop passive wireless sensors. For these reasons, NASA is investigating the use of SAW technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace structures. To facilitate rapid prototyping of passive SAW sensors for aerospace applications, SAW models have been developed. This paper reports on the comparison of three methods of modeling SAWs. The three models are the Impulse Response Method (a first order model), and two second order matrix methods; the conventional matrix approach, and a modified matrix approach that is extended to include internal finger reflections. The second order models are based upon matrices that were originally developed for analyzing microwave circuits using transmission line theory. Results from the models are presented with measured data from devices. Keywords: Surface Acoustic Wave, SAW, transmission line models, Impulse Response Method.

  7. Spatial Dynamics Methods for Solitary Waves on a Ferrofluid Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, M. D.; Nilsson, D. V.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents existence theories for several families of axisymmetric solitary waves on the surface of an otherwise cylindrical ferrofluid jet surrounding a stationary metal rod. The ferrofluid, which is governed by a general (nonlinear) magnetisation law, is subject to an azimuthal magnetic field generated by an electric current flowing along the rod. The ferrohydrodynamic problem for axisymmetric travelling waves is formulated as an infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian system in which the axial direction is the time-like variable. A centre-manifold reduction technique is employed to reduce the system to a locally equivalent Hamiltonian system with a finite number of degrees of freedom, and homoclinic solutions to the reduced system, which correspond to solitary waves, are detected by dynamical-systems methods.

  8. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, Christopher A.

    2015-01-03

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the ocean is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the ocean state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional ocean systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.

  9. A case study of aerosol data assimilation with the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model over the contiguous United States using 3D-Var and optimal interpolation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study applies the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI 3D-Var assimilation tool originally developed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP, to improve surface PM2.5 predictions over the contiguous United States (CONUS by assimilating aerosol optical depth (AOD and surface PM2.5 in version 5.1 of the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ modeling system. An optimal interpolation (OI method implemented earlier (Tang et al., 2015 for the CMAQ modeling system is also tested for the same period (July 2011 over the same CONUS. Both GSI and OI methods assimilate surface PM2.5 observations at 00:00, 06:00, 12:00 and 18:00 UTC, and MODIS AOD at 18:00 UTC. The assimilations of observations using both GSI and OI generally help reduce the prediction biases and improve correlation between model predictions and observations. In the GSI experiments, assimilation of surface PM2.5 (particle matter with diameter < 2.5 µm leads to stronger increments in surface PM2.5 compared to its MODIS AOD assimilation at the 550 nm wavelength. In contrast, we find a stronger OI impact of the MODIS AOD on surface aerosols at 18:00 UTC compared to the surface PM2.5 OI method. GSI produces smoother result and yields overall better correlation coefficient and root mean squared error (RMSE. It should be noted that the 3D-Var and OI methods used here have several big differences besides the data assimilation schemes. For instance, the OI uses relatively big model uncertainties, which helps yield smaller mean biases, but sometimes causes the RMSE to increase. We also examine and discuss the sensitivity of the assimilation experiments' results to the AOD forward operators.

  10. A tuning method for nonuniform traveling-wave accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Cunkui; Zheng Shuxin; Shao Jiahang; Jia Xiaoyu; Chen Huaibi

    2013-01-01

    The tuning method of uniform traveling-wave structures based on non-resonant perturbation field distribution measurement has been widely used in tuning both constant-impedance and constant-gradient structures. In this paper, the method of tuning nonuniform structures is proposed on the basis of the above theory. The internal reflection coefficient of each cell is obtained from analyzing the normalized voltage distribution. A numerical simulation of tuning process according to the coupled cavity chain theory has been done and the result shows each cell is in right phase advance after tuning. The method will be used in the tuning of a disk-loaded traveling-wave structure being developed at the Accelerator Laboratory, Tsinghua University. (authors)

  11. Microstrip natural wave spectrum mathematical model using partial inversion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pogarsky, S.A.; Litvinenko, L.N.; Prosvirnin, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    It is generally agreed that both microstrip lines itself and different discontinuities based on microstrips are the most difficult problem for accurate electrodynamic analysis. Over the last years much has been published about principles and accurate (or full wave) methods of microstrip lines investigations. The growing interest for this problem may be explained by the microstrip application in the millimeter-wave range for purpose of realizing interconnects and a variety of passive components. At these higher operating rating frequencies accurate component modeling becomes more critical. A creation, examination and experimental verification of the accurate method for planar electrodynamical structures natural wave spectrum investigations are the objects of this manuscript. The moment method with partial inversion operator method using may be considered as a basical way for solving this problem. This method is outlook for accurate analysis of different planar discontinuities in microstrip: such as step discontinuities, microstrip turns, Y- and X-junctions and etc., substrate space steps dielectric constants and other anisotropy types

  12. S-wave velocity measurements along levees in New Orleans using passive surface wave methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, K.; Lorenzo, J. M.; Craig, M. S.; Gostic, A.

    2017-12-01

    In order to develop non-invasive methods for levee inspection, geophysical investigations were carried out at four sites along levees in the New Orleans area: 17th Street Canal, London Avenue Canal, Marrero Levee, and Industrial Canal. Three of the four sites sustained damage from Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and have since been rebuilt. The geophysical methods used include active and passive surface wave methods, and capacitively coupled resistivity. This paper summarizes the acquisition and analysis of the 1D and 2D passive surface wave data. Twelve wireless seismic data acquisition units with 2 Hz vertical component geophones were used to record data. Each unit includes a GPS receiver so that all units can be synchronized over any distance without cables. The 1D passive method used L shaped arrays of three different sizes with geophone spacing ranging from 5 to 340 m. Ten minutes to one hour of ambient noise was recorded with each array, and total data acquisition took approximately two hours at each site. The 2D method used a linear array with a geophone spacing of 5m. Four geophones were moved forward every 10 minutes along 400 1000 m length lines. Data acquisition took several hours for each line. Recorded ambient noise was processed using the spatial autocorrelation method and clear dispersion curves were obtained at all sites (Figure 1a). Minimum frequencies ranged from 0.4 to 0.7 Hz and maximum frequencies ranged from 10 to 30 Hz depending on the site. Non-linear inversion was performed and 1D and 2D S-wave velocity models were obtained. The 1D method penetrated to depths ranging from 200 to 500 m depending on the site (Figure 1b). The 2D method penetrated to a depth of 40 60 m and provided 400 1000 m cross sections along the levees (Figure 2). The interpretation focused on identifying zones beneath the levees or canal walls having low S-wave velocities corresponding to saturated, unconsolidated sands, or low-rigidity clays. Resultant S-wave velocity profiles

  13. Full wave simulation of waves in ECRIS plasmas based on the finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123, Catania, Italy and Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell' Energia Sostenibile (DIIES), Via Graziella, I (Italy); Mascali, D.; Neri, L.; Castro, G.; Patti, G.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123, Catania (Italy); Di Donato, L. [Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica ed Informatica (DIEEI), Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Sorbello, G. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123, Catania, Italy and Università degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica ed Informatica (DIEEI), Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Isernia, T. [Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, delle Infrastrutture e dell' Energia Sostenibile (DIIES), Via Graziella, I-89100 Reggio Calabria (Italy)

    2014-02-12

    This paper describes the modeling and the full wave numerical simulation of electromagnetic waves propagation and absorption in an anisotropic magnetized plasma filling the resonant cavity of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS). The model assumes inhomogeneous, dispersive and tensorial constitutive relations. Maxwell's equations are solved by the finite element method (FEM), using the COMSOL Multiphysics{sup ®} suite. All the relevant details have been considered in the model, including the non uniform external magnetostatic field used for plasma confinement, the local electron density profile resulting in the full-3D non uniform magnetized plasma complex dielectric tensor. The more accurate plasma simulations clearly show the importance of cavity effect on wave propagation and the effects of a resonant surface. These studies are the pillars for an improved ECRIS plasma modeling, that is mandatory to optimize the ion source output (beam intensity distribution and charge state, especially). Any new project concerning the advanced ECRIS design will take benefit by an adequate modeling of self-consistent wave absorption simulations.

  14. Integral Equation Methods for Electromagnetic and Elastic Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Chew, Weng; Hu, Bin

    2008-01-01

    Integral Equation Methods for Electromagnetic and Elastic Waves is an outgrowth of several years of work. There have been no recent books on integral equation methods. There are books written on integral equations, but either they have been around for a while, or they were written by mathematicians. Much of the knowledge in integral equation methods still resides in journal papers. With this book, important relevant knowledge for integral equations are consolidated in one place and researchers need only read the pertinent chapters in this book to gain important knowledge needed for integral eq

  15. Effective Assimilation of Global Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, G.; Kalnay, E.; Miyoshi, T.; Huffman, G. J.

    2012-12-01

    Assimilating precipitation observations by modifying the moisture and sometimes temperature profiles has been shown successful in forcing the model precipitation to be close to the observed precipitation, but only while the assimilation is taking place. After the forecast start, the model tends to "forget" the assimilation changes and lose their extra skill after few forecast hours. This suggests that this approach is not an efficient way to modify the potential vorticity field, since this is the variable that the model would remember. In this study, the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) method is used to effectively change the potential vorticity field by allowing ensemble members with better precipitation to receive higher weights. In addition to using an EnKF, two other changes in the precipitation assimilation process are proposed to solve the problems related to the highly non-Gaussian nature of the precipitation variable: a) transform precipitation into a Gaussian distribution based on its climatological distribution, and b) only assimilate precipitation at the location where some ensemble members have positive precipitation. The idea is first tested by the observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) using SPEEDY, a simplified but realistic general circulation model. When the global precipitation is assimilated in addition to conventional rawinsonde observations, both the analyses and the medium range forecasts are significantly improved as compared to only having rawinsonde observations. The improvement is much reduced when only modifying the moisture field with the same approach, which shows the importance of the error covariance between precipitation and all other model variables. The effect of precipitation assimilation is larger in the Southern Hemisphere than that in the Northern Hemisphere because the Northern Hemisphere analyses are already accurate as a result of denser rawinsonde stations. Assimilation of precipitation using a more comprehensive

  16. The extended hyperbolic function method and exact solutions of the long-short wave resonance equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Yadong

    2008-01-01

    The extended hyperbolic functions method for nonlinear wave equations is presented. Based on this method, we obtain a multiple exact explicit solutions for the nonlinear evolution equations which describe the resonance interaction between the long wave and the short wave. The solutions obtained in this paper include (a) the solitary wave solutions of bell-type for S and L, (b) the solitary wave solutions of kink-type for S and bell-type for L, (c) the solitary wave solutions of a compound of the bell-type and the kink-type for S and L, (d) the singular travelling wave solutions, (e) periodic travelling wave solutions of triangle function types, and solitary wave solutions of rational function types. The variety of structure to the exact solutions of the long-short wave equation is illustrated. The methods presented here can also be used to obtain exact solutions of nonlinear wave equations in n dimensions

  17. Efficient data assimilation algorithm for bathymetry application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanidehno, H.; Lee, J. H.; Farthing, M.; Hesser, T.; Kitanidis, P. K.; Darve, E. F.

    2017-12-01

    Information on the evolving state of the nearshore zone bathymetry is crucial to shoreline management, recreational safety, and naval operations. The high cost and complex logistics of using ship-based surveys for bathymetry estimation have encouraged the use of remote sensing techniques. Data assimilation methods combine the remote sensing data and nearshore hydrodynamic models to estimate the unknown bathymetry and the corresponding uncertainties. In particular, several recent efforts have combined Kalman Filter-based techniques such as ensembled-based Kalman filters with indirect video-based observations to address the bathymetry inversion problem. However, these methods often suffer from ensemble collapse and uncertainty underestimation. Here, the Compressed State Kalman Filter (CSKF) method is used to estimate the bathymetry based on observed wave celerity. In order to demonstrate the accuracy and robustness of the CSKF method, we consider twin tests with synthetic observations of wave celerity, while the bathymetry profiles are chosen based on surveys taken by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineer Field Research Facility (FRF) in Duck, NC. The first test case is a bathymetry estimation problem for a spatially smooth and temporally constant bathymetry profile. The second test case is a bathymetry estimation problem for a temporally evolving bathymetry from a smooth to a non-smooth profile. For both problems, we compare the results of CSKF with those obtained by the local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF), which is a popular ensemble-based Kalman filter method.

  18. Methods for use in detecting seismic waves in a borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B.; Fincke, James R.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-02-20

    The invention provides methods and apparatus for detecting seismic waves propagating through a subterranean formation surrounding a borehole. In a first embodiment, a sensor module uses the rotation of bogey wheels to extend and retract a sensor package for selective contact and magnetic coupling to casing lining the borehole. In a second embodiment, a sensor module is magnetically coupled to the casing wall during its travel and dragged therealong while maintaining contact therewith. In a third embodiment, a sensor module is interfaced with the borehole environment to detect seismic waves using coupling through liquid in the borehole. Two or more of the above embodiments may be combined within a single sensor array to provide a resulting seismic survey combining the optimum of the outputs of each embodiment into a single data set.

  19. Modelling viscoacoustic wave propagation with the lattice Boltzmann method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Muming; Wang, Shucheng; Zhou, Hui; Shan, Xiaowen; Chen, Hanming; Li, Qingqing; Zhang, Qingchen

    2017-08-31

    In this paper, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is employed to simulate wave propagation in viscous media. LBM is a kind of microscopic method for modelling waves through tracking the evolution states of a large number of discrete particles. By choosing different relaxation times in LBM experiments and using spectrum ratio method, we can reveal the relationship between the quality factor Q and the parameter τ in LBM. A two-dimensional (2D) homogeneous model and a two-layered model are tested in the numerical experiments, and the LBM results are compared against the reference solution of the viscoacoustic equations based on the Kelvin-Voigt model calculated by finite difference method (FDM). The wavefields and amplitude spectra obtained by LBM coincide with those by FDM, which demonstrates the capability of the LBM with one relaxation time. The new scheme is relatively simple and efficient to implement compared with the traditional lattice methods. In addition, through a mass of experiments, we find that the relaxation time of LBM has a quantitative relationship with Q. Such a novel scheme offers an alternative forward modelling kernel for seismic inversion and a new model to describe the underground media.

  20. Dispersive photonic crystals from the plane wave method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guevara-Cabrera, E.; Palomino-Ovando, M.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo. Post. 165, Puebla, Pue. 72000, México (Mexico); Flores-Desirena, B., E-mail: bflores@fcfm.buap.mx [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apdo. Post. 165, Puebla, Pue. 72000, México (Mexico); Gaspar-Armenta, J.A. [Departamento de Investigación en Física de la Universidad de Sonora Apdo, Post 5-088, Hermosillo Sonora 83190, México (Mexico)

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays photonic crystals are widely used in many different applications. One of the most used methods to compute their band structure is the plane wave method (PWM). However, it can only be applied directly to non-dispersive media and be extended to systems with a few model dielectric functions. We explore an extension of the PWM to photonic crystals containing dispersive materials, that solves an eigenvalue equation for the Bloch wave vectors. First we compare our calculation with analytical results for one dimensional photonic crystals containing Si using experimental values of its optical parameters, and obtainig very well agreement, even for the spectrum region with strong absorption. Then, using the same method, we computed the band structure for a two dimensional photonic crystal without absorption, formed by an square array of MgO cylinders in air. The optical parameters for MgO were modeled with the Lorentz dielectric function. Finally, we studied an array of MgO cylinders in a metal, using Drude model without absorption, for the metal dielectric function. For this last case, we study the gap–midgap ratio as a function of the filling fraction for both the square and triangular lattice. The gap–midgap ratio is larger for the triangular lattice, with a maximum value of 10% for a filling fraction of 0.6. Our results show that the method can be applied to dispersive materials, and then to a wide range of applications where photonic crystals can be used.

  1. An Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources Solution for Plane Wave Scattering by Impedance Cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Vesterdal; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2004-01-01

    Analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solutions for plane wave scattering by circular impedance cylinders are derived by transformation of the exact eigenfunction series solutions employing the Hankel function wave transformation. The analytical Method of Auxiliary Sources solution thus obtained...

  2. Linear augmented plane wave method for self-consistent calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, T.; Kuebler, J.

    1979-01-01

    O.K. Andersen has recently introduced a linear augmented plane wave method (LAPW) for the calculation of electronic structure that was shown to be computationally fast. A more general formulation of an LAPW method is presented here. It makes use of a freely disposable number of eigenfunctions of the radial Schroedinger equation. These eigenfunctions can be selected in a self-consistent way. The present formulation also results in a computationally fast method. It is shown that Andersen's LAPW is obtained in a special limit from the present formulation. Self-consistent test calculations for copper show the present method to be remarkably accurate. As an application, scalar-relativistic self-consistent calculations are presented for the band structure of FCC lanthanum. (author)

  3. On the use of liquid scintillation counting of 51Cr and 14C in the twin tracer method of measuring assimilation efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cammen, L.M.

    1977-01-01

    Calow and Fletcher (1972) calculated assimilation efficiency from the ratio of an assimilated radiotracer ( 14 C) to a non-assimilated tracer ( 51 Cr) in food and feces. Wightman (1975) improved the efficiency of their technique by using liquid scintillation to count both isotopes simultaneously, but stated incorrectly that it was not necessary to convert count per minute (CPM) to disintegration per minute (DPM). Unless the CPM data are corrected for quenching and converted to DPM prior to calculation of assimilation efficiency, a significant error may be introduced. (orig.) [de

  4. Method of synthesizing silica nanofibers using sound waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jaswinder K.; Datskos, Panos G.

    2015-09-15

    A method for synthesizing silica nanofibers using sound waves is provided. The method includes providing a solution of polyvinyl pyrrolidone, adding sodium citrate and ammonium hydroxide to form a first mixture, adding a silica-based compound to the solution to form a second mixture, and sonicating the second mixture to synthesize a plurality of silica nanofibers having an average cross-sectional diameter of less than 70 nm and having a length on the order of at least several hundred microns. The method can be performed without heating or electrospinning, and instead includes less energy intensive strategies that can be scaled up to an industrial scale. The resulting nanofibers can achieve a decreased mean diameter over conventional fibers. The decreased diameter generally increases the tensile strength of the silica nanofibers, as defects and contaminations decrease with the decreasing diameter.

  5. A Comparison of Surface Acoustic Wave Modeling Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, W. c.; Atkinson, G. M.

    2009-01-01

    Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) technology is low cost, rugged, lightweight, extremely low power and can be used to develop passive wireless sensors. For these reasons, NASA is investigating the use of SAW technology for Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) of aerospace structures. To facilitate rapid prototyping of passive SAW sensors for aerospace applications, SAW models have been developed. This paper reports on the comparison of three methods of modeling SAWs. The three models are the Impulse Response Method a first order model, and two second order matrix methods; the conventional matrix approach, and a modified matrix approach that is extended to include internal finger reflections. The second order models are based upon matrices that were originally developed for analyzing microwave circuits using transmission line theory. Results from the models are presented with measured data from devices.

  6. A Full-wave Model for Wave Propagation and Dissipation in the Inner Magnetosphere Using the Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeo, Ernest; Johnson, Jay R.; Kim, Eun-Hwa; Phillips, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of plasma waves play an important role in the energization and loss of particles in the inner magnetosphere. Our ability to understand and model wave-particle interactions in this region requires improved knowledge of the spatial distribution and properties of these waves as well as improved understanding of how the waves depend on changes in solar wind forcing and/or geomagnetic activity. To this end, we have developed a two-dimensional, finite element code that solves the full wave equations in global magnetospheric geometry. The code describes three-dimensional wave structure including mode conversion when ULF, EMIC, and whistler waves are launched in a two-dimensional axisymmetric background plasma with general magnetic field topology. We illustrate the capabilities of the code by examining the role of plasmaspheric plumes on magnetosonic wave propagation; mode conversion at the ion-ion and Alfven resonances resulting from external, solar wind compressions; and wave structure and mode conversion of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves launched in the equatorial magnetosphere, which propagate along the magnetic field lines toward the ionosphere. We also discuss advantages of the finite element method for resolving resonant structures, and how the model may be adapted to include nonlocal kinetic effects.

  7. The data assimilation method ''Latent Heat Nudging'' assessed with the Dynamic State Index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claussnitzer, Antje [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie; Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach (Germany); Schartner, Thomas; Nevir, Peter; Cubasch, Ulrich [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie; Stephan, Klaus [Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    In April 2007, the German Weather Service (DWD) added the non-hydrostatic limited area model COSMODE to its model chain. COSMO-DE covers mainly Germany and bordering countries and has a horizontal resolution of 2.8 km (0.025 ). An advantage of the COSMO-DE is that deep convection is expected to be resolved explicitly. In order to improve the initial state of COSMO-DE an assimilation of radar derived precipitation rates is applied by using ''Latent Heat Nudging'' (LHN). The aim of LHN is to adjust the model state so that the model will respond by producing a rain rate close to the observed value. In this study, the influence of LHN on diabatic processes is investigated by evaluation of the Dynamic State Index (DSI). The DSI is calculated on both isentropic (DSI{sub {theta}}) and model levels (DSI{sub {sigma}}). To analyse the influence of LHN, model analyses with and without LHN are examined for summer 2009 (June to August). The influence of LHN is also examined in more detail in a case study of a heavy rainfall event on July 18, 2009 where a strong rainfall area was developed on the front side of a trough. Results, based on a statistical investigation and the case study, show that the model with LHN can reproduce the observed rainfall better than the runs without LHN. This is also suggested by a higher correlation between DSI and observed precipitation. The release of latent heat enhances the diabatic processes associated with the formation of additional potential vorticity anomalies resulting in stronger DSI -signals. (orig.)

  8. A numerical method for determining the radial wave motion correction in plane wave couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Torras Rosell, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Microphones are used for realising the unit of sound pressure level, the pascal (Pa). Electro-acoustic reciprocity is the preferred method for the absolute determination of the sensitivity. This method can be applied in different sound fields: uniform pressure, free field or diffuse field. Pressure...... solution is an analytical expression that estimates the difference between the ideal plane wave sound field and a more complex lossless sound field created by a non-planar movement of the microphone’s membranes. Alternatively, a correction may be calculated numerically by introducing a full model...... of the microphone-coupler system in a Boundary Element formulation. In order to obtain a realistic representation of the sound field, viscous losses must be introduced in the model. This paper presents such a model, and the results of the simulations for different combinations of microphones and couplers...

  9. Data Assimilation for Applied Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Although atmospheric models provide a best estimate of the future state of the atmosphere, due to sensitivity to initial condition, it is difficult to predict the precise future state. For applied problems, however, users often depend on having accurate knowledge of that future state. To improve prediction of a particular realization of an evolving flow field requires knowledge of the current state of that field and assimilation of local observations into the model. This talk will consider how dynamic assimilation can help address the concerns of users of atmospheric forecasts. First, we will look at the value of assimilation for the renewable energy industry. If the industry decision makers can have confidence in the wind and solar power forecasts, they can build their power allocations around the expected renewable resource, saving money for the ratepayers as well as reducing carbon emissions. We will assess the value to that industry of assimilating local real-time observations into the model forecasts and the value that is provided. The value of the forecasts with assimilation is important on both short (several hour) to medium range (within two days). A second application will be atmospheric transport and dispersion problems. In particular, we will look at assimilation of concentration data into a prediction model. An interesting aspect of this problem is that the dynamics are a one-way coupled system, with the fluid dynamic equations affecting the concentration equation, but not vice versa. So when the observations are of the concentration, one must infer the fluid dynamics. This one-way coupled system presents a challenge: one must first infer the changes in the flow field from observations of the contaminant, then assimilate that to recover both the advecting flow and information on the subgrid processes that provide the mixing. To accomplish such assimilation requires a robust method to match the observed contaminant field to that modeled. One approach is

  10. Nonlinear problems in data-assimilation : Can synchronization help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribbia, J. J.; Duane, G. S.

    2009-12-01

    Over the past several years, operational weather centers have initiated ensemble prediction and assimilation techniques to estimate the error covariance of forecasts in the short and the medium range. The ensemble techniques used are based on linear methods. The theory This technique s been shown to be a useful indicator of skill in the linear range where forecast errors are small relative to climatological variance. While this advance has been impressive, there are still ad hoc aspects of its use in practice, like the need for covariance inflation which are troubling. Furthermore, to be of utility in the nonlinear range an ensemble assimilation and prediction method must be capable of giving probabilistic information for the situation where a probability density forecast becomes multi-modal. A prototypical, simplest example of such a situation is the planetary-wave regime transition where the pdf is bimodal. Our recent research show how the inconsistencies and extensions of linear methodology can be consistently treated using the paradigm of synchronization which views the problems of assimilation and forecasting as that of optimizing the forecast model state with respect to the future evolution of the atmosphere.

  11. Simulation of breaking waves using the high-order spectral method with laboratory experiments: Wave-breaking onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Betsy R.; Ducrozet, Guillaume; Bonnefoy, Félicien

    2017-11-01

    This study investigates a wave-breaking onset criteria to be implemented in the non-linear potential flow solver HOS-NWT. The model is a computationally efficient, open source code, which solves for the free surface in a numerical wave tank using the High-Order Spectral (HOS) method. The goal of this study is to determine the best method to identify the onset of random single and multiple breaking waves over a large domain at the exact time they occur. To identify breaking waves, a breaking onset criteria based on the ratio of local energy flux velocity to the local crest velocity, introduced by Barthelemy et al. (2017) is selected. The breaking parameter is uniquely applied in the numerical model in that calculations of the breaking onset criteria ratio are not made only at the location of the wave crest, but at every point in the domain and at every time step. This allows the model to calculate the onset of a breaking wave the moment it happens, and without knowing anything about the wave a priori. The application of the breaking criteria at every point in the domain and at every time step requires the phase velocity to be calculated instantaneously everywhere in the domain and at every time step. This is achieved by calculating the instantaneous phase velocity using the Hilbert transform and dispersion relation. A comparison between more traditional crest-tracking techniques shows the calculation of phase velocity using Hilbert transform at the location of the breaking wave crest provides a good approximation of crest velocity. The ability of the selected wave breaking criteria to predict single and multiple breaking events in two dimensions is validated by a series of large-scale experiments. Breaking waves are generated by energy focusing and modulational instability methods, with a wide range of primary frequencies. Steep irregular waves which lead to breaking waves, and irregular waves with an energy focusing wave superimposed are also generated. This set of

  12. Time evolution of the wave equation using rapid expansion method

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C.; Stoffa, Paul L.

    2010-01-01

    Forward modeling of seismic data and reverse time migration are based on the time evolution of wavefields. For the case of spatially varying velocity, we have worked on two approaches to evaluate the time evolution of seismic wavefields. An exact solution for the constant-velocity acoustic wave equation can be used to simulate the pressure response at any time. For a spatially varying velocity, a one-step method can be developed where no intermediate time responses are required. Using this approach, we have solved for the pressure response at intermediate times and have developed a recursive solution. The solution has a very high degree of accuracy and can be reduced to various finite-difference time-derivative methods, depending on the approximations used. Although the two approaches are closely related, each has advantages, depending on the problem being solved. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  13. Analytic moment method calculations of the drift wave spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, D.R.; Molvig, K.

    1985-11-01

    A derivation and approximate solution of renormalized mode coupling equations describing the turbulent drift wave spectrum is presented. Arguments are given which indicate that a weak turbulence formulation of the spectrum equations fails for a system with negative dissipation. The inadequacy of the weak turbulence theory is circumvented by utilizing a renormalized formation. An analytic moment method is developed to approximate the solution of the nonlinear spectrum integral equations. The solution method employs trial functions to reduce the integral equations to algebraic equations in basic parameters describing the spectrum. An approximate solution of the spectrum equations is first obtained for a mode dissipation with known solution, and second for an electron dissipation in the NSA

  14. Dominant partition method. [based on a wave function formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, R. M.; Redish, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    By use of the L'Huillier, Redish, and Tandy (LRT) wave function formalism, a partially connected method, the dominant partition method (DPM) is developed for obtaining few body reductions of the many body problem in the LRT and Bencze, Redish, and Sloan (BRS) formalisms. The DPM maps the many body problem to a fewer body one by using the criterion that the truncated formalism must be such that consistency with the full Schroedinger equation is preserved. The DPM is based on a class of new forms for the irreducible cluster potential, which is introduced in the LRT formalism. Connectivity is maintained with respect to all partitions containing a given partition, which is referred to as the dominant partition. Degrees of freedom corresponding to the breakup of one or more of the clusters of the dominant partition are treated in a disconnected manner. This approach for simplifying the complicated BRS equations is appropriate for physical problems where a few body reaction mechanism prevails.

  15. Time evolution of the wave equation using rapid expansion method

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Reynam C.

    2010-07-01

    Forward modeling of seismic data and reverse time migration are based on the time evolution of wavefields. For the case of spatially varying velocity, we have worked on two approaches to evaluate the time evolution of seismic wavefields. An exact solution for the constant-velocity acoustic wave equation can be used to simulate the pressure response at any time. For a spatially varying velocity, a one-step method can be developed where no intermediate time responses are required. Using this approach, we have solved for the pressure response at intermediate times and have developed a recursive solution. The solution has a very high degree of accuracy and can be reduced to various finite-difference time-derivative methods, depending on the approximations used. Although the two approaches are closely related, each has advantages, depending on the problem being solved. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  16. Effective assimilation of global precipitation: simulation experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Yuan Lien

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Past attempts to assimilate precipitation by nudging or variational methods have succeeded in forcing the model precipitation to be close to the observed values. However, the model forecasts tend to lose their additional skill after a few forecast hours. In this study, a local ensemble transform Kalman filter (LETKF is used to effectively assimilate precipitation by allowing ensemble members with better precipitation to receive higher weights in the analysis. In addition, two other changes in the precipitation assimilation process are found to alleviate the problems related to the non-Gaussianity of the precipitation variable: (a transform the precipitation variable into a Gaussian distribution based on its climatological distribution (an approach that could also be used in the assimilation of other non-Gaussian observations and (b only assimilate precipitation at the location where at least some ensemble members have precipitation. Unlike many current approaches, both positive and zero rain observations are assimilated effectively. Observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs are conducted using the Simplified Parametrisations, primitivE-Equation DYnamics (SPEEDY model, a simplified but realistic general circulation model. When uniformly and globally distributed observations of precipitation are assimilated in addition to rawinsonde observations, both the analyses and the medium-range forecasts of all model variables, including precipitation, are significantly improved as compared to only assimilating rawinsonde observations. The effect of precipitation assimilation on the analyses is retained on the medium-range forecasts and is larger in the Southern Hemisphere (SH than that in the Northern Hemisphere (NH because the NH analyses are already made more accurate by the denser rawinsonde stations. These improvements are much reduced when only the moisture field is modified by the precipitation observations. Both the Gaussian transformation and

  17. Error Covariance Estimation of Mesoscale Data Assimilation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xu, Qin

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this project is to explore and develop new methods of error covariance estimation that will provide necessary statistical descriptions of prediction and observation errors for mesoscale data assimilation...

  18. Determination of optimum "multi-channel surface wave method" field parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Multi-channel surface wave methods (especially the multi-channel analyses of surface wave method; MASW) are routinely used to : determine the shear-wave velocity of the subsurface to depths of 100 feet for site classification purposes. Users are awar...

  19. Simulation of breaking waves using the high-order spectral method with laboratory experiments: wave-breaking energy dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Betsy R.; Ducrozet, Guillaume

    2018-01-01

    We examine the implementation of a wave-breaking mechanism into a nonlinear potential flow solver. The success of the mechanism will be studied by implementing it into the numerical model HOS-NWT, which is a computationally efficient, open source code that solves for the free surface in a numerical wave tank using the high-order spectral (HOS) method. Once the breaking mechanism is validated, it can be implemented into other nonlinear potential flow models. To solve for wave-breaking, first a wave-breaking onset parameter is identified, and then a method for computing wave-breaking associated energy loss is determined. Wave-breaking onset is calculated using a breaking criteria introduced by Barthelemy et al. (J Fluid Mech https://arxiv.org/pdf/1508.06002.pdf, submitted) and validated with the experiments of Saket et al. (J Fluid Mech 811:642-658, 2017). Wave-breaking energy dissipation is calculated by adding a viscous diffusion term computed using an eddy viscosity parameter introduced by Tian et al. (Phys Fluids 20(6): 066,604, 2008, Phys Fluids 24(3), 2012), which is estimated based on the pre-breaking wave geometry. A set of two-dimensional experiments is conducted to validate the implemented wave breaking mechanism at a large scale. Breaking waves are generated by using traditional methods of evolution of focused waves and modulational instability, as well as irregular breaking waves with a range of primary frequencies, providing a wide range of breaking conditions to validate the solver. Furthermore, adjustments are made to the method of application and coefficient of the viscous diffusion term with negligible difference, supporting the robustness of the eddy viscosity parameter. The model is able to accurately predict surface elevation and corresponding frequency/amplitude spectrum, as well as energy dissipation when compared with the experimental measurements. This suggests the model is capable of calculating wave-breaking onset and energy dissipation

  20. Supersonic wave detection method and supersonic detection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Koichi; Seto, Takehiro; Ishizaki, Hideaki; Asano, Rin-ichi.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of and device for a detection suitable to a channel box which is used while covering a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor. Namely, a probe for transmitting/receiving supersonic waves scans on the surface of the channel box. A data processing device determines an index showing a selective orientation degree of crystal direction of the channel box based on the signals received by the probe. A judging device compares the determined index with a previously determined allowable range to judge whether the channel box is satisfactory or not based on the result of the comparison. The judgement are on the basis that (1) the bending of the channel box is caused by the difference of elongation of opposed surfaces, (2) the elongation due to irradiation is caused by the selective orientation of crystal direction, and (3) the bending of the channel box can be suppressed within a predetermined range by suppressing the index determined by the measurement of supersonic waves having a correlation with the selective orientation of the crystal direction. As a result, the performance of the channel box capable of enduring high burnup region can be confirmed in a nondestructive manner. (I.S.)

  1. A stochastic collocation method for the second order wave equation with a discontinuous random speed

    KAUST Repository

    Motamed, Mohammad; Nobile, Fabio; Tempone, Raul

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose and analyze a stochastic collocation method for solving the second order wave equation with a random wave speed and subjected to deterministic boundary and initial conditions. The speed is piecewise smooth in the physical

  2. The Ion Cyclotron, Lower Hybrid, and Alfven Wave Heating Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, R.

    2004-01-01

    This lecture covers the practical features and experimental results of the three heating methods. The emphasis is on ion cyclotron heating. First, we briefly come back to the main non-collisional heating mechanisms and to the particular features of the quasilinear coefficient in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF). The specific case of the ion-ion hybrid resonance is treated, as well as the polarisation issue and minority heating scheme. The various ICRF scenarios are reviewed. The experimental applications of ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) systems are outlined. Then, the lower hybrid and Alfven wave heating and current drive experimental results are covered more briefly. Where applicable, the prospects for ITER are commented

  3. Data Assimilation in Integrated and Distributed Hydrological Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Donghua

    processes and provide simulations in refined temporal and spatial resolutions. Recent developments in measurement and sensor technologies have significantly improved the coverage, quality, frequency and diversity of hydrological observations. Data assimilation provides a great potential in relation...... point of view, different assimilation methodologies and techniques have been developed or customized to better serve hydrological assimilation. From the application point of view, real data and real-world complex catchments are used with the focus of investigating the models’ improvements with data...... a variety of model uncertainty sources and scales. Next the groundwater head assimilation experiment was tested in a much more complex catchment with assimilation of biased real observations. In such cases, the bias-aware assimilation method significantly outperforms the standard assimilation method...

  4. A simplified method of evaluating the stress wave environment of internal equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, J. D.; Desmond, T. P.

    1979-01-01

    A simplified method called the transfer function technique (TFT) was devised for evaluating the stress wave environment in a structure containing internal equipment. The TFT consists of following the initial in-plane stress wave that propagates through a structure subjected to a dynamic load and characterizing how the wave is altered as it is transmitted through intersections of structural members. As a basis for evaluating the TFT, impact experiments and detailed stress wave analyses were performed for structures with two or three, or more members. Transfer functions that relate the wave transmitted through an intersection to the incident wave were deduced from the predicted wave response. By sequentially applying these transfer functions to a structure with several intersections, it was found that the environment produced by the initial stress wave propagating through the structure can be approximated well. The TFT can be used as a design tool or as an analytical tool to determine whether a more detailed wave analysis is warranted.

  5. Regional Ocean Data Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Edwards, Christopher A.; Moore, Andrew M.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Cornuelle, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal

  6. Character of GPR wave in air and processed method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jianping; Zhang Zhiyong; Deng Juzhi

    2009-01-01

    The wave reflected by objects in the air is unavoidable because electromagnetic wave of GPR was send to all directions. There are three air reflection types: directly arrived wave, system ring and reflection wave. The directly arrived waves don't disturb the recognition of the reflections from earth because they affect the first short time of GPR trace record. But system ring and reflection from air are the mainly part of disturbs. The time and distance curve of reflection from air can be classified into two types: hyperbola type and line type. The reflection from air and from earth can be recognized by calculating the velocity of electromagnetic wave. Line type reflection can be filtered by background remove and 2-D filter; by comparing the migrated profiles with velocity in air and ground, the interpretation will become more exact. (authors)

  7. Methods to filter out spurious disturbances in continuous-wave searches from gravitational-wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaci, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Semicoherent all-sky searches over year-long observation times for continuous gravitational wave signals produce various thousands of potential periodic source candidates. Efficient methods able to discard false candidate events are crucial in order to put all the efforts into a computationally intensive follow-up analysis for the remaining most promising candidates (Shaltev et al 2014 Phys. Rev. D 89 124030). In this paper we present a set of techniques able to fulfill such requirements, identifying and eliminating false candidate events, reducing thus the bulk of candidate sets that need to be further investigated. Some of these techniques were also used to streamline the candidate sets returned by the Einstein@Home hierarchical searches presented in (Aasi J et al (The LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration) 2013 Phys. Rev. D 87 042001). These powerful methods and the benefits originating from their application to both simulated and on detector data from the fifth LIGO science run are illustrated and discussed. (paper)

  8. Expansion and compression shock wave calculation in pipes with the C.V.M. numerical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, P.; Caumette, P.; Le Coq, G.; Libmann, M.

    1983-03-01

    The Control Variables Method for fluid transients computations has been used to compute expansion and compression shock waves propagations. In this paper, first analytical solutions for shock wave and rarefaction wave propagation are detailed. Then after a rapid description of the C.V.M. technique and its stability and monotonicity properties, we will present some results about standard shock tube problem, reflection of shock wave, finally a comparison between experimental results obtained on the ELF facility and calculations is given

  9. The (′/-Expansion Method for Abundant Traveling Wave Solutions of Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasibun Naher

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct the traveling wave solutions of the fifth-order Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon (CDG equation by the (/-expansion method. Abundant traveling wave solutions with arbitrary parameters are successfully obtained by this method and the wave solutions are expressed in terms of the hyperbolic, the trigonometric, and the rational functions. It is shown that the (/-expansion method is a powerful and concise mathematical tool for solving nonlinear partial differential equations.

  10. A novel method for predicting the power outputs of wave energy converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingguang

    2018-03-01

    This paper focuses on realistically predicting the power outputs of wave energy converters operating in shallow water nonlinear waves. A heaving two-body point absorber is utilized as a specific calculation example, and the generated power of the point absorber has been predicted by using a novel method (a nonlinear simulation method) that incorporates a second order random wave model into a nonlinear dynamic filter. It is demonstrated that the second order random wave model in this article can be utilized to generate irregular waves with realistic crest-trough asymmetries, and consequently, more accurate generated power can be predicted by subsequently solving the nonlinear dynamic filter equation with the nonlinearly simulated second order waves as inputs. The research findings demonstrate that the novel nonlinear simulation method in this article can be utilized as a robust tool for ocean engineers in their design, analysis and optimization of wave energy converters.

  11. Land Surface Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Information about land surface water, energy and carbon conditions is of critical importance to real-world applications such as agricultural production, water resource management, flood prediction, water supply, weather and climate forecasting, and environmental preservation. While ground-based observational networks are improving, the only practical way to observe these land surface states on continental to global scales is via satellites. Remote sensing can make spatially comprehensive measurements of various components of the terrestrial system, but it cannot provide information on the entire system (e.g. evaporation), and the observations represent only an instant in time. Land surface process models may be used to predict temporal and spatial terrestrial dynamics, but these predictions are often poor, due to model initialization, parameter and forcing, and physics errors. Therefore, an attractive prospect is to combine the strengths of land surface models and observations (and minimize the weaknesses) to provide a superior terrestrial state estimate. This is the goal of land surface data assimilation. Data Assimilation combines observations into a dynamical model, using the model's equations to provide time continuity and coupling between the estimated fields. Land surface data assimilation aims to utilize both our land surface process knowledge, as embodied in a land surface model, and information that can be gained from observations. Both model predictions and observations are imperfect and we wish to use both synergistically to obtain a more accurate result. Moreover, both contain different kinds of information, that when used together, provide an accuracy level that cannot be obtained individually. Model biases can be mitigated using a complementary calibration and parameterization process. Limited point measurements are often used to calibrate the model(s) and validate the assimilation results. This presentation will provide a brief background on land

  12. Refinements to the method of epicentral location based on surface waves from ambient seismic noise: introducing Love waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levshin, Anatoli L.; Barmin, Mikhail P.; Moschetti, Morgan P.; Mendoza, Carlos; Ritzwoller, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop and test a modification to a previous method of regional seismic event location based on Empirical Green’s Functions (EGFs) produced from ambient seismic noise. Elastic EGFs between pairs of seismic stations are determined by cross-correlating long ambient noise time-series recorded at the two stations. The EGFs principally contain Rayleigh- and Love-wave energy on the vertical and transverse components, respectively, and we utilize these signals between about 5 and 12 s period. The previous method, based exclusively on Rayleigh waves, may yield biased epicentral locations for certain event types with hypocentral depths between 2 and 5 km. Here we present theoretical arguments that show how Love waves can be introduced to reduce or potentially eliminate the bias. We also present applications of Rayleigh- and Love-wave EGFs to locate 10 reference events in the western United States. The separate Rayleigh and Love epicentral locations and the joint locations using a combination of the two waves agree to within 1 km distance, on average, but confidence ellipses are smallest when both types of waves are used.

  13. Reconstructing mantle heterogeneity with data assimilation based on the back-and-forth nudging method: Implications for mantle-dynamic fitting of past plate motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glišović, Petar; Forte, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The paleo-distribution of density variations throughout the mantle is unknown. To address this question, we reconstruct 3-D mantle structure over the Cenozoic era using a data assimilation method that implements a new back-and-forth nudging algorithm. For this purpose, we employ convection models for a compressible and self-gravitating mantle that employ 3-D mantle structure derived from joint seismic-geodynamic tomography as a starting condition. These convection models are then integrated backwards in time and are required to match geologic estimates of past plate motions derived from marine magnetic data. Our implementation of the nudging algorithm limits the difference between a reconstruction (backward-in-time solution) and a prediction (forward-in-time solution) on over a sequence of 5-million-year time windows that span the Cenozoic. We find that forward integration of reconstructed mantle heterogeneity that is constrained to match past plate motions delivers relatively poor fits to the seismic-tomographic inference of present-day mantle heterogeneity in the upper mantle. We suggest that uncertainties in the past plate motions, related for example to plate reorganization episodes, could partly contribute to the poor match between predicted and observed present-day heterogeneity. We propose that convection models that allow tectonic plates to evolve freely in accord with the buoyancy forces and rheological structure in the mantle could provide additional constraints on geologic estimates of paleo-configurations of the major tectonic plates.

  14. Runge-Kutta Integration of the Equal Width Wave Equation Using the Method of Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Banaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The equal width (EW equation governs nonlinear wave phenomena like waves in shallow water. Numerical solution of the (EW equation is obtained by using the method of lines (MOL based on Runge-Kutta integration. Using von Neumann stability analysis, the scheme is found to be unconditionally stable. Solitary wave motion and interaction of two solitary waves are studied using the proposed method. The three invariants of the motion are evaluated to determine the conservation properties of the generated scheme. Accuracy of the proposed method is discussed by computing the L2 and L∞ error norms. The results are found in good agreement with exact solution.

  15. Data assimilation the ensemble Kalman filter

    CERN Document Server

    Evensen, Geir

    2007-01-01

    Data Assimilation comprehensively covers data assimilation and inverse methods, including both traditional state estimation and parameter estimation. This text and reference focuses on various popular data assimilation methods, such as weak and strong constraint variational methods and ensemble filters and smoothers. It is demonstrated how the different methods can be derived from a common theoretical basis, as well as how they differ and/or are related to each other, and which properties characterize them, using several examples. Rather than emphasize a particular discipline such as oceanography or meteorology, it presents the mathematical framework and derivations in a way which is common for any discipline where dynamics is merged with measurements. The mathematics level is modest, although it requires knowledge of basic spatial statistics, Bayesian statistics, and calculus of variations. Readers will also appreciate the introduction to the mathematical methods used and detailed derivations, which should b...

  16. Experiments of Long-range Inspection Method in Straight Pipes using Ultrasonic Guided Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, H. S.; Lim, S. H.; Kim, J. H.; Joo, Y.S.

    2006-02-01

    This report describes experimental results of a long-range inspection method of pipes using ultrasonic guided waves. In chapter 2, theory of guided wave was reviewed. In chapter 3, equipment and procedures which were used in the experiments were described. Detailed specifications of the specimens described in chapter 4. In chapter 5, we analyzed characteristics of guided wave signals according to shapes and sizes of defects and presents results of various signal processing methods

  17. A simple lightning assimilation technique for improving ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convective rainfall is often a large source of error in retrospective modeling applications. In particular, positive rainfall biases commonly exist during summer months due to overactive convective parameterizations. In this study, lightning assimilation was applied in the Kain-Fritsch (KF) convective scheme to improve retrospective simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The assimilation method has a straightforward approach: force KF deep convection where lightning is observed and, optionally, suppress deep convection where lightning is absent. WRF simulations were made with and without lightning assimilation over the continental United States for July 2012, July 2013, and January 2013. The simulations were evaluated against NCEP stage-IV precipitation data and MADIS near-surface meteorological observations. In general, the use of lightning assimilation considerably improves the simulation of summertime rainfall. For example, the July 2012 monthly averaged bias of 6 h accumulated rainfall is reduced from 0.54 to 0.07 mm and the spatial correlation is increased from 0.21 to 0.43 when lightning assimilation is used. Statistical measures of near-surface meteorological variables also are improved. Consistent improvements also are seen for the July 2013 case. These results suggest that this lightning assimilation technique has the potential to substantially improve simulation of warm-season rainfall in retrospective WRF applications. The

  18. Efficient Data Assimilation Algorithms for Bathymetry Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbanidehno, H.; Kokkinaki, A.; Lee, J. H.; Farthing, M.; Hesser, T.; Kitanidis, P. K.; Darve, E. F.

    2016-12-01

    Information on the evolving state of the nearshore zone bathymetry is crucial to shoreline management, recreational safety, and naval operations. The high cost and complex logistics of using ship-based surveys for bathymetry estimation have encouraged the use of remote sensing monitoring. Data assimilation methods combine monitoring data and models of nearshore dynamics to estimate the unknown bathymetry and the corresponding uncertainties. Existing applications have been limited to the basic Kalman Filter (KF) and the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF). The former can only be applied to low-dimensional problems due to its computational cost; the latter often suffers from ensemble collapse and uncertainty underestimation. This work explores the use of different variants of the Kalman Filter for bathymetry applications. In particular, we compare the performance of the EnKF to the Unscented Kalman Filter and the Hierarchical Kalman Filter, both of which are KF variants for non-linear problems. The objective is to identify which method can better handle the nonlinearities of nearshore physics, while also having a reasonable computational cost. We present two applications; first, the bathymetry of a synthetic one-dimensional cross section normal to the shore is estimated from wave speed measurements. Second, real remote measurements with unknown error statistics are used and compared to in situ bathymetric survey data collected at the USACE Field Research Facility in Duck, NC. We evaluate the information content of different data sets and explore the impact of measurement error and nonlinearities.

  19. On the comparsion of the Spherical Wave Expansion-to-Plane Wave Expansion and the Sources Reconstruction Method for Antenna Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Yuri; Cappellin, Cecilia; Las-Heras, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    A comparison between two recently developed methods for antenna diagnostics is presented. On one hand, the Spherical Wave Expansion-to-Plane Wave Expansion (SWE-PWE), based on the relationship between spherical and planar wave modes. On the other hand, the Sources Reconstruction Method (SRM), based...

  20. Accelerating assimilation development for new observing systems using EFSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lien, Guo-Yuan; Hotta, Daisuke; Kalnay, Eugenia; Miyoshi, Takemasa; Chen, Tse-Chun

    2018-03-01

    To successfully assimilate data from a new observing system, it is necessary to develop appropriate data selection strategies, assimilating only the generally useful data. This development work is usually done by trial and error using observing system experiments (OSEs), which are very time and resource consuming. This study proposes a new, efficient methodology to accelerate the development using ensemble forecast sensitivity to observations (EFSO). First, non-cycled assimilation of the new observation data is conducted to compute EFSO diagnostics for each observation within a large sample. Second, the average EFSO conditionally sampled in terms of various factors is computed. Third, potential data selection criteria are designed based on the non-cycled EFSO statistics, and tested in cycled OSEs to verify the actual assimilation impact. The usefulness of this method is demonstrated with the assimilation of satellite precipitation data. It is shown that the EFSO-based method can efficiently suggest data selection criteria that significantly improve the assimilation results.

  1. The finite product method in the theory of linear wave propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey; Chapman, John

    2012-01-01

    of the method are presented for several non-trivial examples, that of symmetric/anti-symmetric elastic waves in a layer and in a thin plate. In each case, the method gives a sequence of polynomial approximations to the dispersion relation of remarkable accuracy over a broad range of frequencies and wave numbers...

  2. Producing accurate wave propagation time histories using the global matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenchain, Matthew B; Cesnik, Carlos E S

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a reliable method for producing accurate displacement time histories for wave propagation in laminated plates using the global matrix method. The existence of inward and outward propagating waves in the general solution is highlighted while examining the axisymmetric case of a circular actuator on an aluminum plate. Problems with previous attempts to isolate the outward wave for anisotropic laminates are shown. The updated method develops a correction signal that can be added to the original time history solution to cancel the inward wave and leave only the outward propagating wave. The paper demonstrates the effectiveness of the new method for circular and square actuators bonded to the surface of isotropic laminates, and these results are compared with exact solutions. Results for circular actuators on cross-ply laminates are also presented and compared with experimental results, showing the ability of the new method to successfully capture the displacement time histories for composite laminates. (paper)

  3. Capacitive acoustic wave detector and method of using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A capacitor having two substantially parallel conductive faces is acoustically coupled to a conductive sample end such that the sample face is one end of the capacitor. A non-contacting dielectric may serve as a spacer between the two conductive plates. The formed capacitor is connected to an LC oscillator circuit such as a Hartley oscillator circuit producing an output frequency which is a function of the capacitor spacing. This capacitance oscillates as the sample end coating is oscillated by an acoustic wave generated in the sample by a transmitting transducer. The electrical output can serve as an absolute indicator of acoustic wave displacement.

  4. Displacement data assimilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, W. Steven [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Venkataramani, Shankar [Department of Mathematics and Program in Applied Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mariano, Arthur J. [Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33149 (United States); Restrepo, Juan M., E-mail: restrepo@math.oregonstate.edu [Department of Mathematics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We show that modifying a Bayesian data assimilation scheme by incorporating kinematically-consistent displacement corrections produces a scheme that is demonstrably better at estimating partially observed state vectors in a setting where feature information is important. While the displacement transformation is generic, here we implement it within an ensemble Kalman Filter framework and demonstrate its effectiveness in tracking stochastically perturbed vortices.

  5. The Method of Lines Solution of the Regularized Long-Wave Equation Using Runge-Kutta Time Discretization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. O. Bakodah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of lines approach to the numerical solution of nonlinear wave equations typified by the regularized long wave (RLW is presented. The method developed uses a finite differences discretization to the space. Solution of the resulting system was obtained by applying fourth Runge-Kutta time discretization method. Using Von Neumann stability analysis, it is shown that the proposed method is marginally stable. To test the accuracy of the method some numerical experiments on test problems are presented. Test problems including solitary wave motion, two-solitary wave interaction, and the temporal evaluation of a Maxwellian initial pulse are studied. The accuracy of the present method is tested with and error norms and the conservation properties of mass, energy, and momentum under the RLW equation.

  6. Localized atomic basis set in the projector augmented wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ask Hjorth; Vanin, Marco; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    We present an implementation of localized atomic-orbital basis sets in the projector augmented wave (PAW) formalism within the density-functional theory. The implementation in the real-space GPAW code provides a complementary basis set to the accurate but computationally more demanding grid...

  7. Cell detachment method using shock wave induced cavitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, L.; Junge, L.; Ohl, C.D.; Wolfrum, B.; Arora, M.; Ikink, R.

    2003-01-01

    The detachment of adherent HeLa cells from a substrate after the interaction with a shock wave is analyzed. Cavitation bubbles are formed in the trailing, negative pressure cycle following the shock front. We find that the regions of cell detachment are strongly correlated with spatial presence of

  8. A Multi-Level Investigation into the Antecedents of Enterprise Architecture (EA) Assimilation in the U.S. Federal Government: A Longitudinal Mixed Methods Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makiya, George K.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation reports on a multi-dimensional longitudinal investigation of the factors that influence Enterprise Architecture (EA) diffusion and assimilation within the U.S. federal government. The study uses publicly available datasets of 123 U.S. federal departments and agencies, as well as interview data among CIOs and EA managers within…

  9. Site Classification using Multichannel Channel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) method on Soft and Hard Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, M. A. M.; Kumar, N. S.; Yusoh, R.; Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Aziman, M.

    2018-04-01

    Site classification utilizing average shear wave velocity (Vs(30) up to 30 meters depth is a typical parameter. Numerous geophysical methods have been proposed for estimation of shear wave velocity by utilizing assortment of testing configuration, processing method, and inversion algorithm. Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) method is been rehearsed by numerous specialist and professional to geotechnical engineering for local site characterization and classification. This study aims to determine the site classification on soft and hard ground using MASW method. The subsurface classification was made utilizing National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NERHP) and international Building Code (IBC) classification. Two sites are chosen to acquire the shear wave velocity which is in the state of Pulau Pinang for soft soil and Perlis for hard rock. Results recommend that MASW technique can be utilized to spatially calculate the distribution of shear wave velocity (Vs(30)) in soil and rock to characterize areas.

  10. Analysis of efficient preconditioned defect correction methods for nonlinear water waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2014-01-01

    Robust computational procedures for the solution of non-hydrostatic, free surface, irrotational and inviscid free-surface water waves in three space dimensions can be based on iterative preconditioned defect correction (PDC) methods. Such methods can be made efficient and scalable to enable...... prediction of free-surface wave transformation and accurate wave kinematics in both deep and shallow waters in large marine areas or for predicting the outcome of experiments in large numerical wave tanks. We revisit the classical governing equations are fully nonlinear and dispersive potential flow...... equations. We present new detailed fundamental analysis using finite-amplitude wave solutions for iterative solvers. We demonstrate that the PDC method in combination with a high-order discretization method enables efficient and scalable solution of the linear system of equations arising in potential flow...

  11. Study of Wave-Particle Interactions for Whistler Mode Waves at Oblique Angles by Utilizing the Gyroaveraging Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Kai; Omura, Yoshiharu

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the properties of whistler mode wave-particle interactions at oblique wave normal angles to the background magnetic field. We find that electromagnetic energy of waves at frequencies below half the electron cyclotron frequency can flow nearly parallel to the ambient magnetic field. We thereby confirm that the gyroaveraging method, which averages the cyclotron motion to the gyrocenter and reduces the simulation from two-dimensional to one-dimensional, is valid for oblique wave-particle interaction. Multiple resonances appear for oblique propagation but not for parallel propagation. We calculate the possible range of resonances with the first-order resonance condition as a function of electron kinetic energy and equatorial pitch angle. To reveal the physical process and the efficiency of electron acceleration by multiple resonances, we assume a simple uniform wave model with constant amplitude and frequency in space and time. We perform test particle simulations with electrons starting at specific equatorial pitch angles and kinetic energies. The simulation results show that multiple resonances contribute to acceleration and pitch angle scattering of energetic electrons. Especially, we find that electrons with energies of a few hundred keV can be accelerated efficiently to a few MeV through the n = 0 Landau resonance.

  12. Approximated calculation of the vacuum wave function and vacuum energy of the LGT with RPA method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui Ping

    2004-01-01

    The coupled cluster method is improved with the random phase approximation (RPA) to calculate vacuum wave function and vacuum energy of 2 + 1 - D SU(2) lattice gauge theory. In this calculating, the trial wave function composes of single-hollow graphs. The calculated results of vacuum wave functions show very good scaling behaviors at weak coupling region l/g 2 >1.2 from the third order to the sixth order, and the vacuum energy obtained with RPA method is lower than the vacuum energy obtained without RPA method, which means that this method is a more efficient one

  13. Analysis of a plane stress wave by the moving least squares method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Dornowski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A meshless method based on the moving least squares approximation is applied to stress wave propagation analysis. Two kinds of node meshes, the randomly generated mesh and the regular mesh are used. The nearest neighbours’ problem is developed from a triangulation that satisfies minimum edges length conditions. It is found that this method of neighbours’ choice significantly improves the solution accuracy. The reflection of stress waves from the free edge is modelled using fictitious nodes (outside the plate. The comparison with the finite difference results also demonstrated the accuracy of the proposed approach.[b]Keywords[/b]: civil engineering, meshless method, moving least squares method, elastic waves

  14. Traveling Wave Resonance and Simplified Analysis Method for Long-Span Symmetrical Cable-Stayed Bridges under Seismic Traveling Wave Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-ye Tian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The seismic responses of a long-span cable-stayed bridge under uniform excitation and traveling wave excitation in the longitudinal direction are, respectively, computed. The numerical results show that the bridge’s peak seismic responses vary significantly as the apparent wave velocity decreases. Therefore, the traveling wave effect must be considered in the seismic design of long-span bridges. The bridge’s peak seismic responses do not vary monotonously with the apparent wave velocity due to the traveling wave resonance. A new traveling wave excitation method that can simplify the multisupport excitation process into a two-support excitation process is developed.

  15. Conditions for successful data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morzfeld, M.; Chorin, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Many applications in science and engineering require that the predictions of uncertain models be updated by information from a stream of noisy data. The model and the data jointly define a conditional probability density function (pdf), which contains all the information one has about the process of interest and various numerical methods can be used to study and approximate this pdf, e.g. the Kalman filter, variational methods or particle filters. Given a model and data, each of these algorithms will produce a result. We are interested in the conditions under which this result is reasonable, i.e. consistent with the real-life situation one is modeling. In particular, we show, using idealized models, that numerical data assimilation is feasible in principle only if a suitably defined effective dimension of the problem is not excessive. This effective dimension depends on the noise in the model and the data, and in physically reasonable problems it can be moderate even when the number of variables is huge. In particular, we find that the effective dimension being moderate induces a balance condition between the noises in the model and the data; this balance condition is often satisfied in realistic applications or else the noise levels are excessive and drown the underlying signal. We also study the effects of the effective dimension on particle filters in two instances, one in which the importance function is based on the model alone, and one in which it is based on both the model and the data. We have three main conclusions: (1) the stability (i.e., non-collapse of weights) in particle filtering depends on the effective dimension of the problem. Particle filters can work well if the effective dimension is moderate even if the true dimension is large (which we expect to happen often in practice). (2) A suitable choice of importance function is essential, or else particle filtering fails even when data assimilation is feasible in principle with a sequential algorithm

  16. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....

  17. Failed fuel rod detection method by ultrasonic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamatsu, Masatoshi; Muraoka, Shoichi; Ono, Yukio; Yasojima, Yujiro.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic wave signals sent from an ultrasonic receiving element are supplied to an evaluation circuit by way of a gate. A table for gate opening and closing timings at the detecting position in each of the fuel rods in a fuel assembly is stored in a memory. A fuel rod is placed between an ultrasonic transmitting element and the receiving element to determine the positions of the transmitting element and the receiving element by positional sensors. The opening and closing timings at the positions corresponding to the result of the detection are read out from the table, and the gates are opened and closed by the timing. This can introduce the ultrasonic wave signals transmitted through a control rod always to the evaluation circuit passing through the gate. Accordingly, the state of failure of the fuel rod can be detected accurately. (I.N.)

  18. Singular value decomposition methods for wave propagation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Santolík, Ondřej; Parrot, M.; Lefeuvre, F.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2003), s. 10-1-10-13 ISSN 0048-6604 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/01/1064 Grant - others:Barrande(CZ) 98039/98055 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911; CEZ:MSM 113200004 Keywords : wave propagation * singular value decomposition Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 0.832, year: 2003

  19. Perfectly Matched Layer for the Wave Equation Finite Difference Time Domain Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Yutaka; Tsuchiya, Takao

    2012-07-01

    The perfectly matched layer (PML) is introduced into the wave equation finite difference time domain (WE-FDTD) method. The WE-FDTD method is a finite difference method in which the wave equation is directly discretized on the basis of the central differences. The required memory of the WE-FDTD method is less than that of the standard FDTD method because no particle velocity is stored in the memory. In this study, the WE-FDTD method is first combined with the standard FDTD method. Then, Berenger's PML is combined with the WE-FDTD method. Some numerical demonstrations are given for the two- and three-dimensional sound fields.

  20. Element-by-element parallel spectral-element methods for 3-D teleseismic wave modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Shaolin

    2017-09-28

    The development of an efficient algorithm for teleseismic wave field modeling is valuable for calculating the gradients of the misfit function (termed misfit gradients) or Fréchet derivatives when the teleseismic waveform is used for adjoint tomography. Here, we introduce an element-by-element parallel spectral-element method (EBE-SEM) for the efficient modeling of teleseismic wave field propagation in a reduced geology model. Under the plane-wave assumption, the frequency-wavenumber (FK) technique is implemented to compute the boundary wave field used to construct the boundary condition of the teleseismic wave incidence. To reduce the memory required for the storage of the boundary wave field for the incidence boundary condition, a strategy is introduced to efficiently store the boundary wave field on the model boundary. The perfectly matched layers absorbing boundary condition (PML ABC) is formulated using the EBE-SEM to absorb the scattered wave field from the model interior. The misfit gradient can easily be constructed in each time step during the calculation of the adjoint wave field. Three synthetic examples demonstrate the validity of the EBE-SEM for use in teleseismic wave field modeling and the misfit gradient calculation.

  1. Characterization of non-Q wave infarction by radioisotopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parodi, O.; Marzullo, P.; Marcassa, C.; Sambuceti, G.

    1986-01-01

    The syndrome of ''subendocardial infarction'' or ''non Q-wave infarction'', which has been defined only in terms of the presence of (ECG) electrocardiographic evidence of necrosis, has been shown to be poorly corelated with anatomical and pathomorphological findings. In a large number of patients who had been diagnosed as having this commonly described entity, the usefulness of a multiparametric approach was evaluated. The proper assessment of such patients may necessitate flow studies with T1-201, which is, however, a marker with known limitations: labelled microspheres; or Rb-82, a generator-produced positron emitter. Metabolic studies using fluoro-F-18-deoxyglucose or C-11 palmitate will defect impairment of fatty acid oxidation and residual glucose metabolism; wall motion studies will demonstrate impairment to a variable extent. The presence or absence of Q-waves does not distinguish between transmural and subendocardial infarction. The size and location of ST-T wave changes does not indicate the site of infarction. Patients with this syndrome exhibit a wide spectrum of wal motion abnormalities and usually have diffuse coronary lesions. Since conventional clinical investigations cannot be used to predict the presence and extent of necrosis, or its exact location, the studies performed should be directed toward the appropriate evaluation of perfusion and metabolic patterns. This emphasizes the important point that clinicians may investigate this syndrome by the use of the proper approach. (orig.)

  2. An efficient wave extrapolation method for anisotropic media with tilt

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2015-03-23

    Wavefield extrapolation operators for elliptically anisotropic media offer significant cost reduction compared with that for the transversely isotropic case, particularly when the axis of symmetry exhibits tilt (from the vertical). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for transversely isotropic media. Therefore, we propose effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behaviour of wavefields for transversely isotropic media. Specifically, we compute source-dependent effective velocities for the elliptic medium using kinematic high-frequency representation of the transversely isotropic wavefield. The effective model allows us to use cheaper elliptic wave extrapolation operators. Despite the fact that the effective models are obtained by matching kinematics using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy trade-off for wavefield computations in transversely isotropic media, particularly for media of low to moderate complexity. In addition, the wavefield solution is free from shear-wave artefacts as opposed to the conventional finite-difference-based transversely isotropic wave extrapolation scheme. We demonstrate these assertions through numerical tests on synthetic tilted transversely isotropic models.

  3. An efficient wave extrapolation method for anisotropic media with tilt

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-01-01

    Wavefield extrapolation operators for elliptically anisotropic media offer significant cost reduction compared with that for the transversely isotropic case, particularly when the axis of symmetry exhibits tilt (from the vertical). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for transversely isotropic media. Therefore, we propose effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behaviour of wavefields for transversely isotropic media. Specifically, we compute source-dependent effective velocities for the elliptic medium using kinematic high-frequency representation of the transversely isotropic wavefield. The effective model allows us to use cheaper elliptic wave extrapolation operators. Despite the fact that the effective models are obtained by matching kinematics using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy trade-off for wavefield computations in transversely isotropic media, particularly for media of low to moderate complexity. In addition, the wavefield solution is free from shear-wave artefacts as opposed to the conventional finite-difference-based transversely isotropic wave extrapolation scheme. We demonstrate these assertions through numerical tests on synthetic tilted transversely isotropic models.

  4. A Method and an Apparatus for Generating a Phase-Modulated Wave Front of Electromagnetic Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and a system for generating a phase-modulated wave front. According to the present invention, the spatial phase-modulation is not performed on the different parts of the wave front individually as in known POSLMs. Rather, the spatial phase-modulation of the...

  5. EXACT SOLITARY WAVE SOLUTIONS TO A CLASS OF NONLINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS USING DIRECT ALGEBRAIC METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using direct algebraic method,exact solitary wave solutions are performed for a class of third order nonlinear dispersive disipative partial differential equations. These solutions are obtained under certain conditions for the relationship between the coefficients of the equation. The exact solitary waves of this class are rational functions of real exponentials of kink-type solutions.

  6. The two-wave X-ray field calculated by means of integral-equation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremer, J.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of calculating the two-wave X-ray field on the basis of the Takagi-Taupin equations is discussed for the general case of curved lattice planes. A two-dimensional integral equation which incorporates the nature of the incoming radiation, the form of the crystal/vacuum boundary, and the curvature of the structure, is deduced. Analytical solutions for the symmetrical Laue case with incoming plane waves are obtained directly for perfect crystals by means of iteration. The same method permits a simple derivation of the narrow-wave Laue and Bragg cases. Modulated wave fronts are discussed, and it is shown that a cut-off in the width of an incoming plane wave leads to lateral oscillations which are superimposed on the Pendelloesung fringes. Bragg and Laue shadow fields are obtained. The influence of a non-zero kernel is discussed and a numerical procedure for calculating wave amplitudes in curved crystals is presented. (Auth.)

  7. A coupled DEM-CFD method for impulse wave modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tao; Utili, Stefano; Crosta, GiovanBattista

    2015-04-01

    Rockslides can be characterized by a rapid evolution, up to a possible transition into a rock avalanche, which can be associated with an almost instantaneous collapse and spreading. Different examples are available in the literature, but the Vajont rockslide is quite unique for its morphological and geological characteristics, as well as for the type of evolution and the availability of long term monitoring data. This study advocates the use of a DEM-CFD framework for the modelling of the generation of hydrodynamic waves due to the impact of a rapid moving rockslide or rock-debris avalanche. 3D DEM analyses in plane strain by a coupled DEM-CFD code were performed to simulate the rockslide from its onset to the impact with still water and the subsequent wave generation (Zhao et al., 2014). The physical response predicted is in broad agreement with the available observations. The numerical results are compared to those published in the literature and especially to Crosta et al. (2014). According to our results, the maximum computed run up amounts to ca. 120 m and 170 m for the eastern and western lobe cross sections, respectively. These values are reasonably similar to those recorded during the event (i.e. ca. 130 m and 190 m respectively). In these simulations, the slope mass is considered permeable, such that the toe region of the slope can move submerged in the reservoir and the impulse water wave can also flow back into the slope mass. However, the upscaling of the grains size in the DEM model leads to an unrealistically high hydraulic conductivity of the model, such that only a small amount of water is splashed onto the northern bank of the Vajont valley. The use of high fluid viscosity and coarse grain model has shown the possibility to model more realistically both the slope and wave motions. However, more detailed slope and fluid properties, and the need for computational efficiency should be considered in future research work. This aspect has also been

  8. A New Alternative in Urban Geophysics: Multi-Channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcep, F.

    2007-01-01

    Geophysical studies are increasingly being applied to geotechnical investigations as they can identify soil properties and soil boundaries. Other advantage is that many of these methods are non-invasive and environment friendly. Soil stiffness is one of the critical material parameters considered during an early stage of most foundation construction. It is related directly to the stability of structural load, especially as it relates to possible earthquake hazard. Soil lacking sufficient stiffness for a given load can experience a significant reduction in strength under earthquake shaking resulting in liquefaction, a condition responsible for tremendous amounts of damage from earthquakes around the world The multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) method originated from the traditional seismic exploration approach that employs multiple (twelve or more) receivers placed along a linear survey line. Main advantage is its capability of recognizing different types of seismic waves based on wave propagation characteristics such as velocity and attenuation. The MASW method utilizes this capability to discriminate the fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave against all other types of surface and body waves generated not only from the active seismic source but also from the ambient site conditions. Dispersive characteristics of seismic waves are imaged from an objective 2-D wave field transformation. The present paper indicates results from MASW survey at different urban site in Turkey. MASW techniques will prove to be important tools for obtaining shear wave velocity and evaluating liquefaction potential, soil bearing capacity and soil amplification, etc. for future geophysical and geotechnical engineering community

  9. An easy-to-implement and efficient data assimilation method for the identification of the initial condition: the Back and Forth Nudging (BFN) algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auroux, Didier; Bansart, Patrick; Blum, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with a new data assimilation algorithm called the Back and Forth Nudging. The standard nudging technique consists in adding to the model equations a relaxation term, which is supposed to force the model to the observations. The BFN algorithm consists of repeating forward and backward resolutions of the model with relaxation (or nudging) terms, that have opposite signs in the direct and inverse resolutions, so as to make the backward evolution numerically stable. We then applied the Back and Forth Nudging algorithm to a simple non-linear model: the ID viscous Burgers' equations. The tests were carried out through several cases relative to the precision and density of the observations. These simulations were then compared with both the variational assimilation (VAR) and quasi-inverse (QIL) algorithms. The comparisons deal with the programming, the convergence, and time computing for each of these three algorithms.

  10. An easy-to-implement and efficient data assimilation method for the identification of the initial condition: the Back and Forth Nudging (BFN) algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auroux, Didier [Institut de Mathematiques, Universite Paul Sabatier Toulouse 3, 31062 Toulouse cedex 9 (France); Bansart, Patrick; Blum, Jacques [Laboratoire J. A. Dieudonne, Universite de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Pare Valrose, 06108 Nice cedex 2 (France)], E-mail: didier.auroux@math.univ-toulouse.fr

    2008-11-01

    This paper deals with a new data assimilation algorithm called the Back and Forth Nudging. The standard nudging technique consists in adding to the model equations a relaxation term, which is supposed to force the model to the observations. The BFN algorithm consists of repeating forward and backward resolutions of the model with relaxation (or nudging) terms, that have opposite signs in the direct and inverse resolutions, so as to make the backward evolution numerically stable. We then applied the Back and Forth Nudging algorithm to a simple non-linear model: the ID viscous Burgers' equations. The tests were carried out through several cases relative to the precision and density of the observations. These simulations were then compared with both the variational assimilation (VAR) and quasi-inverse (QIL) algorithms. The comparisons deal with the programming, the convergence, and time computing for each of these three algorithms.

  11. Wave propagation numerical models in damage detection based on the time domain spectral element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostachowicz, W; Kudela, P

    2010-01-01

    A Spectral Element Method is used for wave propagation modelling. A 3D solid spectral element is derived with shape functions based on Lagrange interpolation and Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre points. This approach is applied for displacement approximation suited for fundamental modes of Lamb waves as well as potential distribution in piezoelectric transducers. The novelty is the model geometry extension from flat to curved elements for application in shell-like structures. Exemplary visualisations of waves excited by the piezoelectric transducers in curved shell structure made of aluminium alloy are presented. Simple signal analysis of wave interaction with crack is performed. The crack is modelled by separation of appropriate nodes between elements. An investigation of influence of the crack length on wave propagation signals is performed. Additionally, some aspects of the spectral element method implementation are discussed.

  12. Assessment of the microbial growth potential of slow sand filtrate with the biomass production potential test in comparison with the assimilable organic carbon method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooij, Dick; Veenendaal, Harm R; van der Mark, Ed J; Dignum, Marco

    2017-11-15

    Slow sand filtration is the final treatment step at four surface-water supplies in the Netherlands. The microbial growth potential (MGP) of the finished water was measured with the assimilable organic carbon (AOC) method using pure cultures and the biomass production potential (BPP) test. In the BPP test, water samples were incubated untreated at 25 °C and the active-biomass concentration was measured by adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) analysis. Addition of a river-water inoculum improved the test performance and characteristic growth and maintenance profiles of the water were obtained. The maximum ATP concentration attained within seven days and the cumulative biomass production after 14 days of incubation (BPC 14 , d ng ATP L -1 ) showed highly significant and strong linear relationships with the AOC in the slow sand filtrates. The lowest AOC and BPC 14 levels were observed in the supplies applying dune filtration without ozonation in post treatment, with AOC/TOC = 1.7 ± 0.3 μg acetate-C equivalents mg -1 C and BPC 14 /TOC = 16.3 ± 2.2 d ng ATP mg -1 C, corresponding with 1.2 ± 0.19 ng ATP mg -1 C. These characteristics may represent the lowest specific MGP of natural organic matter achievable by biofiltration at temperatures ≤20 °C. The AOC and BPC 14 concentrations in the slow sand filtrate of the supply treating lake water by ozonation with granular-activated-carbon filtration and slow sand filtration as post treatment increased with decreasing temperature. The BPP test revealed that this slow sand filtrate sampled at 2 °C contained growth-promoting compounds that were not detected with the AOC test. These observations demonstrate the utility of the BPP test for assessing the MGP of drinking water and show the performance limits of biofiltration for MGP reduction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of the uptake and assimilation of ammonium and nitrate in Indica and Japonica rice plants using the tracer 15N method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ta, T.C.; Ohira, Koji

    1982-01-01

    The uptake of 15 N-labeled ammonium and nitrate and their assimilation in 4-week-old Indica and Japonica rice plants were studied during 24 hr exposure to 2 mM solutions of ( 15 NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 and/or Na 15 NO 3 . Although there was no clear difference in the uptake and assimilation of 15 NH 4+ , significant differences in the uptake and assimilation of 15 NO 3- by both varieties were observed. When NH 4+ or NO 3- was supplied exclusively, the Indica rice plants absorbed the latter more effectively than the Japonica. In addition, despite a preference for uptake of NH 4+ rather than NO 3- as shown by both varieties when both forms were supplied together, the relative amounts of NO 3- uptake by the Indica were higher than those of Japonica. On the other hand, the Indica rice plants reduced the absorbed 15 NO 3- more rapidly than the Japonica. The incorporation 15 NO 3- into the ethanol insoluble nitrogen fraction of the Indica rice also exceeded that of the Japonica. These results suggest that the Indica has the ability to utilize NO 3- as a nitrogen source more effectively than the Japonica rice plants. (author)

  14. Scalable and balanced dynamic hybrid data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauranne, Tuomo; Amour, Idrissa; Gunia, Martin; Kallio, Kari; Lepistö, Ahti; Koponen, Sampsa

    2017-04-01

    Scalability of complex weather forecasting suites is dependent on the technical tools available for implementing highly parallel computational kernels, but to an equally large extent also on the dependence patterns between various components of the suite, such as observation processing, data assimilation and the forecast model. Scalability is a particular challenge for 4D variational assimilation methods that necessarily couple the forecast model into the assimilation process and subject this combination to an inherently serial quasi-Newton minimization process. Ensemble based assimilation methods are naturally more parallel, but large models force ensemble sizes to be small and that results in poor assimilation accuracy, somewhat akin to shooting with a shotgun in a million-dimensional space. The Variational Ensemble Kalman Filter (VEnKF) is an ensemble method that can attain the accuracy of 4D variational data assimilation with a small ensemble size. It achieves this by processing a Gaussian approximation of the current error covariance distribution, instead of a set of ensemble members, analogously to the Extended Kalman Filter EKF. Ensemble members are re-sampled every time a new set of observations is processed from a new approximation of that Gaussian distribution which makes VEnKF a dynamic assimilation method. After this a smoothing step is applied that turns VEnKF into a dynamic Variational Ensemble Kalman Smoother VEnKS. In this smoothing step, the same process is iterated with frequent re-sampling of the ensemble but now using past iterations as surrogate observations until the end result is a smooth and balanced model trajectory. In principle, VEnKF could suffer from similar scalability issues as 4D-Var. However, this can be avoided by isolating the forecast model completely from the minimization process by implementing the latter as a wrapper code whose only link to the model is calling for many parallel and totally independent model runs, all of them

  15. Numerical simulation of electromagnetic wave propagation using time domain meshless method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuno, Soichiro; Fujita, Yoshihisa; Itoh, Taku; Nakata, Susumu; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Kamitani, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    The electromagnetic wave propagation in various shaped wave guide is simulated by using meshless time domain method (MTDM). Generally, Finite Differential Time Domain (FDTD) method is applied for electromagnetic wave propagation simulation. However, the numerical domain should be divided into rectangle meshes if FDTD method is applied for the simulation. On the other hand, the node disposition of MTDM can easily describe the structure of arbitrary shaped wave guide. This is the large advantage of the meshless time domain method. The results of computations show that the damping rate is stably calculated in case with R < 0.03, where R denotes a support radius of the weight function for the shape function. And the results indicate that the support radius R of the weight functions should be selected small, and monomials must be used for calculating the shape functions. (author)

  16. Traveling Wave Solutions of ZK-BBM Equation Sine-Cosine Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf Bibi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Travelling wave solutions are obtained by using a relatively new technique which is called sine-cosine method for ZK-BBM equations. Solution procedure and obtained results re-confirm the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  17. Directional spectrum of ocean waves from array measurements using phase/time/path difference methods

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, A.A.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Menon, H.B.

    Wave direction has for the first time been consistently, accurately and unambiguously evaluated from array measurements using the phase/time/path difference (PTPD) methods of Esteva in case of polygonal arrays and Borgman in case of linear arrays...

  18. Wave resistance calculation method combining Green functions based on Rankine and Kelvin source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Jingyu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Ojectives] At present, the Boundary Element Method(BEM of wave-making resistance mostly uses a model in which the velocity distribution near the hull is solved first, and the pressure integral is then calculated using the Bernoulli equation. However,the process of this model of wave-making resistance is complex and has low accuracy.[Methods] To address this problem, the present paper deduces a compound method for the quick calculation of ship wave resistance using the Rankine source Green function to solve the hull surface's source density, and combining the Lagally theorem concerning source point force calculation based on the Kelvin source Green function so as to solve the wave resistance. A case for the Wigley model is given.[Results] The results show that in contrast to the thin ship method of the linear wave resistance theorem, this method has higher precision, and in contrast to the method which completely uses the Kelvin source Green function, this method has better computational efficiency.[Conclusions] In general, the algorithm in this paper provides a compromise between precision and efficiency in wave-making resistance calculation.

  19. Development of Extended Ray-tracing method including diffraction, polarization and wave decay effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Kota; Kubo, Shin; Dodin, Ilya; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Tsujimura, Toru

    2017-10-01

    Geometrical Optics Ray-tracing is a reasonable numerical analytic approach for describing the Electron Cyclotron resonance Wave (ECW) in slowly varying spatially inhomogeneous plasma. It is well known that the result with this conventional method is adequate in most cases. However, in the case of Helical fusion plasma which has complicated magnetic structure, strong magnetic shear with a large scale length of density can cause a mode coupling of waves outside the last closed flux surface, and complicated absorption structure requires a strong focused wave for ECH. Since conventional Ray Equations to describe ECW do not have any terms to describe the diffraction, polarization and wave decay effects, we can not describe accurately a mode coupling of waves, strong focus waves, behavior of waves in inhomogeneous absorption region and so on. For fundamental solution of these problems, we consider the extension of the Ray-tracing method. Specific process is planned as follows. First, calculate the reference ray by conventional method, and define the local ray-base coordinate system along the reference ray. Then, calculate the evolution of the distributions of amplitude and phase on ray-base coordinate step by step. The progress of our extended method will be presented.

  20. Topology optimization of bounded acoustic problems using the hybrid finite element-wave based method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goo, Seongyeol; Wang, Semyung; Kook, Junghwan

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative topology optimization method for bounded acoustic problems that uses the hybrid finite element-wave based method (FE-WBM). The conventional method for the topology optimization of bounded acoustic problems is based on the finite element method (FEM), which...

  1. A method of acoustic wave registration and determination their generation region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozin, I.D.; Marchenko, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    Here is presented a method of acoustic wave registration with using of a synchronous LF broadcasting system. This method of detection and determination of underground nuclear explosion location is based on a registration of ionospheric disturbances induced by acoustic waves at the region of LF sign al reflection. The measuring complex created in the institute of the Ionosphere /1/ allows to register amplitude-frequency characteristics of composite signal from synchronous broadcasting net

  2. Measuring longitudinal wave speed in solids: two methods and a half

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazio, C; Guastella, I; Sperandeo-Mineo, R M; Tarantino, G

    2006-01-01

    Three methods to analyse longitudinal wave propagation in metallic rods are discussed. Two of these methods also prove to be useful for measuring the sound propagation speed. The experimental results, as well as some interpretative models built in the context of a workshop on mechanical waves at the Graduate School for Pre-Service Physics Teacher Education, Palermo University, are described. Some considerations about observed modifications in trainee teachers' attitudes to utilizing physics experiments to build pedagogical activities are discussed

  3. Multiple travelling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations using a unified algebraic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Engui

    2002-01-01

    A new direct and unified algebraic method for constructing multiple travelling wave solutions of general nonlinear evolution equations is presented and implemented in a computer algebraic system. Compared with most of the existing tanh methods, the Jacobi elliptic function method or other sophisticated methods, the proposed method not only gives new and more general solutions, but also provides a guideline to classify the various types of the travelling wave solutions according to the values of some parameters. The solutions obtained in this paper include (a) kink-shaped and bell-shaped soliton solutions, (b) rational solutions, (c) triangular periodic solutions and (d) Jacobi and Weierstrass doubly periodic wave solutions. Among them, the Jacobi elliptic periodic wave solutions exactly degenerate to the soliton solutions at a certain limit condition. The efficiency of the method can be demonstrated on a large variety of nonlinear evolution equations such as those considered in this paper, KdV-MKdV, Ito's fifth MKdV, Hirota, Nizhnik-Novikov-Veselov, Broer-Kaup, generalized coupled Hirota-Satsuma, coupled Schroedinger-KdV, (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave, (2+1)-dimensional Davey-Stewartson equations. In addition, as an illustrative sample, the properties of the soliton solutions and Jacobi doubly periodic solutions for the Hirota equation are shown by some figures. The links among our proposed method, the tanh method, extended tanh method and the Jacobi elliptic function method are clarified generally. (author)

  4. An Optimal Control Method for Maximizing the Efficiency of Direct Drive Ocean Wave Energy Extraction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongxian; Yu, Haitao; Wen, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The goal of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system is to convert ocean wave energy into electricity. The problem explored in this paper is the design and optimal control for the direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system. An optimal control method based on internal model proportion integration differentiation (IM-PID) is proposed in this paper though most of ocean wave energy extraction systems are optimized by the structure, weight, and material. With this control method, the heavy speed of outer heavy buoy of the energy extraction system is in resonance with incident wave, and the system efficiency is largely improved. Validity of the proposed optimal control method is verified in both regular and irregular ocean waves, and it is shown that IM-PID control method is optimal in that it maximizes the energy conversion efficiency. In addition, the anti-interference ability of IM-PID control method has been assessed, and the results show that the IM-PID control method has good robustness, high precision, and strong anti-interference ability. PMID:25152913

  5. An optimal control method for maximizing the efficiency of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongxian; Yu, Haitao; Wen, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The goal of direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system is to convert ocean wave energy into electricity. The problem explored in this paper is the design and optimal control for the direct drive ocean wave energy extraction system. An optimal control method based on internal model proportion integration differentiation (IM-PID) is proposed in this paper though most of ocean wave energy extraction systems are optimized by the structure, weight, and material. With this control method, the heavy speed of outer heavy buoy of the energy extraction system is in resonance with incident wave, and the system efficiency is largely improved. Validity of the proposed optimal control method is verified in both regular and irregular ocean waves, and it is shown that IM-PID control method is optimal in that it maximizes the energy conversion efficiency. In addition, the anti-interference ability of IM-PID control method has been assessed, and the results show that the IM-PID control method has good robustness, high precision, and strong anti-interference ability.

  6. Synthesis of Numerical Methods for Modeling Wave Energy Converter-Point Absorbers: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.; Yu, Y. H.

    2012-05-01

    During the past few decades, wave energy has received significant attention among all ocean energy formats. Industry has proposed hundreds of prototypes such as an oscillating water column, a point absorber, an overtopping system, and a bottom-hinged system. In particular, many researchers have focused on modeling the floating-point absorber as the technology to extract wave energy. Several modeling methods have been used such as the analytical method, the boundary-integral equation method, the Navier-Stokes equations method, and the empirical method. However, no standardized method has been decided. To assist the development of wave energy conversion technologies, this report reviews the methods for modeling the floating-point absorber.

  7. Data Assimilation within the Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC) Modeling Framework for Hurricane Storm Surge Forecasting

    KAUST Repository

    Butler, T.; Altaf, Muhammad; Dawson, C.; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Luo, X.; Mayo, T.

    2012-01-01

    levels, and wave heights—during these extreme events. This type of data, if available in real time, could be used in a data assimilation framework to improve hurricane storm surge forecasts. In this paper a data assimilation methodology for storm surge

  8. Analysis of global multiscale finite element methods for wave equations with continuum spatial scales

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Lijian; Efendiev, Yalchin; Ginting, Victor

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a numerical multiscale approach for solving wave equations with heterogeneous coefficients. Our interest comes from geophysics applications and we assume that there is no scale separation with respect to spatial variables. To obtain the solution of these multiscale problems on a coarse grid, we compute global fields such that the solution smoothly depends on these fields. We present a Galerkin multiscale finite element method using the global information and provide a convergence analysis when applied to solve the wave equations. We investigate the relation between the smoothness of the global fields and convergence rates of the global Galerkin multiscale finite element method for the wave equations. Numerical examples demonstrate that the use of global information renders better accuracy for wave equations with heterogeneous coefficients than the local multiscale finite element method. © 2010 IMACS.

  9. Analysis of global multiscale finite element methods for wave equations with continuum spatial scales

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Lijian

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss a numerical multiscale approach for solving wave equations with heterogeneous coefficients. Our interest comes from geophysics applications and we assume that there is no scale separation with respect to spatial variables. To obtain the solution of these multiscale problems on a coarse grid, we compute global fields such that the solution smoothly depends on these fields. We present a Galerkin multiscale finite element method using the global information and provide a convergence analysis when applied to solve the wave equations. We investigate the relation between the smoothness of the global fields and convergence rates of the global Galerkin multiscale finite element method for the wave equations. Numerical examples demonstrate that the use of global information renders better accuracy for wave equations with heterogeneous coefficients than the local multiscale finite element method. © 2010 IMACS.

  10. Real-space grid implementation of the projector augmented wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens Jørgen; Hansen, Lars Bruno; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    2005-01-01

    A grid-based real-space implementation of the projector augmented wave sPAWd method of Blöchl fPhys. Rev. B 50, 17953 s1994dg for density functional theory sDFTd calculations is presented. The use of uniform three-dimensional s3Dd real-space grids for representing wave functions, densities...... valence wave functions that can be represented on relatively coarse grids. We demonstrate the accuracy of the method by calculating the atomization energies of 20 small molecules, and the bulk modulus and lattice constants of bulk aluminum. We show that the approach in terms of computational efficiency...... is comparable to standard plane-wave methods, but the memory requirements are higher....

  11. Spectral element method for wave propagation on irregular domains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yan Hui Geng

    2018-03-14

    Mar 14, 2018 ... Abstract. A spectral element approximation of acoustic propagation problems combined with a new mapping method on irregular domains is proposed. Following this method, the Gauss–Lobatto–Chebyshev nodes in the standard space are applied to the spectral element method (SEM). The nodes in the ...

  12. Spectral element method for wave propagation on irregular domains

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A spectral element approximation of acoustic propagation problems combined with a new mapping method on irregular domains is proposed. Following this method, the Gauss–Lobatto–Chebyshev nodes in the standard space are applied to the spectral element method (SEM). The nodes in the physical space are ...

  13. Application of the Most Likely Extreme Response Method for Wave Energy Converters: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quon, Eliot; Platt, Andrew; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Lawson, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Extreme loads are often a key cost driver for wave energy converters (WECs). As an alternative to exhaustive Monte Carlo or long-term simulations, the most likely extreme response (MLER) method allows mid- and high-fidelity simulations to be used more efficiently in evaluating WEC response to events at the edges of the design envelope, and is therefore applicable to system design analysis. The study discussed in this paper applies the MLER method to investigate the maximum heave, pitch, and surge force of a point absorber WEC. Most likely extreme waves were obtained from a set of wave statistics data based on spectral analysis and the response amplitude operators (RAOs) of the floating body; the RAOs were computed from a simple radiation-and-diffraction-theory-based numerical model. A weakly nonlinear numerical method and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method were then applied to compute the short-term response to the MLER wave. Effects of nonlinear wave and floating body interaction on the WEC under the anticipated 100-year waves were examined by comparing the results from the linearly superimposed RAOs, the weakly nonlinear model, and CFD simulations. Overall, the MLER method was successfully applied. In particular, when coupled to a high-fidelity CFD analysis, the nonlinear fluid dynamics can be readily captured.

  14. Spatial Assimilation in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2010-01-01

    market and discrimination, which limits the housing possibilities for ethnic minorities. Another explanation could be that immigrants for different reasons choose to settle in so-called ethnic enclaves where they can find an ethnic social network, which can support them in their new country....... In traditional research literature about immigration it has been shown that for many immigrants living in enclaves has been a temporary situation. The 'spatial assimilation theory' says that this situation ends when the family has become more integrated in the new society and then moves to other parts...

  15. A problem-solving environment for data assimilation in air quality modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velzen, N. van; Segers, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    A generic toolbox for data assimilation called COSTA (COmmon Set of Tools for the Assimilation of data) makes it possible to simplify the application of data assimilation to models and to try out various methods for a particular model. Concepts of object oriented programming are used to define

  16. Application of the Exp-function method to the equal-width wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biazar, J; Ayati, Z

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the Exp-function method is used to find an exact solution of the equal-width wave (EW) equation. The method is straightforward and concise, and its applications are promising. It is shown that the Exp-function method, with the help of symbolic computation, provides a very effective and powerful mathematical tool for solving the EW equation.

  17. Modal Ring Method for the Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Kenneth J.; Kreider, Kevin L.

    1993-01-01

    The modal ring method for electromagnetic scattering from perfectly electric conducting (PEC) symmetrical bodies is presented. The scattering body is represented by a line of finite elements (triangular) on its outer surface. The infinite computational region surrounding the body is represented analytically by an eigenfunction expansion. The modal ring method effectively reduces the two dimensional scattering problem to a one-dimensional problem similar to the method of moments. The modal element method is capable of handling very high frequency scattering because it has a highly banded solution matrix.

  18. Four-dimensional data assimilation as a method for coupling two meteorological model systems of different scales; Vierdimensionale Datenassimilation als Methode zur Kopplung zweier verschiedenskaliger meteorologischer Modellsysteme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilms-Grabe, W.

    2001-10-01

    A method of coupling two meteorological models of different scales must meet certain requirements: First, even a big difference in resolution between the two models must not produce disturbances in the smaller-scale model. This means that most nesting approaches are unfit for the purpose. The method presented here is not limited to meteorological models. It can be enhanced without much difficulty to dispersion models taking account of chemical atmospheric reactions, as e.g. in the CTM of the EURAD model or in DRAIS as an enhancement of the KAMM version. [German] Das Ziel dieser Arbeit bestand in der Entwicklung eines geeigneten Kopplungsverfahrens zweier verschiedenskaliger meteorologischer Modelle, das in einem Ein-Weg-Nesting dem kleinerskaligen Modell ermoeglicht, sowohl instationaere superskalige Verhaeltnisse als auch modellinterne kleinraeumige Prozesse miteinander zu verbinden. Im Rahmen des Projektes TFS mussten hierbei entscheidende Bedingungen an das Kopplungsverfahren gestellt werden. Allen voran darf vor allem ein auch grosser Unterschied in der Aufloesung der beiden verschiedenskaligen Modelle keine kuenstlichen Stoerungen im kleinerskaligen Modell produzieren. Somit scheiden die sonst ueblichen Nestingansaetze fuer diesen Fall aus. Das Verfahren ist derart konzipiert, dass es sich nicht auf rein meteorologische Modelle beschraenkt. Eine Ausweitung auf Ausbreitungsmodelle unter Beruecksichtigung chemischer Reaktionen in der Atmosphaere, wie sie etwa im CTM des EURAD-Modells oder im DRAIS als Erweiterung der KAMM-Version zur Verfuegung stehen, stellt keinen allzu grossen Schritt mehr dar. (orig.)

  19. Data assimilation techniques in modeling ocean processes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mahadevan, R.; Fernandes, A.A.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    are usually called data analysis or assimilation. These homogeneous fields are prerequisites for various practical applications and theoretical studies. The fields produced by an analysi the one hand, they must be close to the observations.... The practical usefulness of variational methods for meteorological problems are pointed out very early by Sasaki (1955, 1958), but in spite of that these methods have not been fully utilized. Probably, the complex mathematical technicality of these methods...

  20. Advances in surface wave methods: Cascaded MASW-SASW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhoff, R.S.; Brouwer, J.H.; Meekes, J.A.C.

    2005-01-01

    The application of the MASW method in areas that show strong lateral variations in subsurface properties is limited. Traditional SASW may yield a better lateral resolution but the dispersion curves (and thus the subsurface models) obtained with the method may be poor. The joint application of MASW

  1. A Novel Grey Wave Method for Predicting Total Chinese Trade Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedong Yin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The total trade volume of a country is an important way of appraising its international trade situation. A prediction based on trade volume will help enterprises arrange production efficiently and promote the sustainability of the international trade. Because the total Chinese trade volume fluctuates over time, this paper proposes a Grey wave forecasting model with a Hodrick–Prescott filter (HP filter to forecast it. This novel model first parses time series into long-term trend and short-term cycle. Second, the model uses a general GM (1,1 to predict the trend term and the Grey wave forecasting model to predict the cycle term. Empirical analysis shows that the improved Grey wave prediction method provides a much more accurate forecast than the basic Grey wave prediction method, achieving better prediction results than autoregressive moving average model (ARMA.

  2. Non-overlapped P- and S-wave Poynting vectors and its solution on Grid Method

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yong Ming; Liu, Qiancheng

    2017-01-01

    Poynting vector represents the local directional energy flux density of seismic waves in geophysics. It is widely used in elastic reverse time migration (RTM) to analyze source illumination, suppress low-wavenumber noise, correct for image polarity and extract angle-domain common imaging gather (ADCIG). However, the P and S waves are mixed together during wavefield propagation such that the P and S energy fluxes are not clean everywhere, especially at the overlapped points. In this paper, we use a modified elastic wave equation in which the P and S vector wavefields are naturally separated. Then, we develop an efficient method to evaluate the separable P and S poynting vectors, respectively, based on the view that the group velocity and phase velocity have the same direction in isotropic elastic media. We furthermore formulate our method using an unstructured mesh based modeling method named the grid method. Finally, we verify our method using two numerical examples.

  3. Non-overlapped P- and S-wave Poynting vectors and its solution on Grid Method

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Yong Ming

    2017-12-12

    Poynting vector represents the local directional energy flux density of seismic waves in geophysics. It is widely used in elastic reverse time migration (RTM) to analyze source illumination, suppress low-wavenumber noise, correct for image polarity and extract angle-domain common imaging gather (ADCIG). However, the P and S waves are mixed together during wavefield propagation such that the P and S energy fluxes are not clean everywhere, especially at the overlapped points. In this paper, we use a modified elastic wave equation in which the P and S vector wavefields are naturally separated. Then, we develop an efficient method to evaluate the separable P and S poynting vectors, respectively, based on the view that the group velocity and phase velocity have the same direction in isotropic elastic media. We furthermore formulate our method using an unstructured mesh based modeling method named the grid method. Finally, we verify our method using two numerical examples.

  4. Comparison of shear-wave velocity measurements by crosshole, downhole and seismic cone penetration test methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suthaker, N.; Tweedie, R. [Thurber Engineering Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Shear wave velocity measurements are an integral part of geotechnical studies for major structures and are an important tool in their design for site specific conditions such as site-specific earthquake response. This paper reported on a study in which shear wave velocities were measured at a proposed petrochemical plant site near Edmonton, Alberta. The proposed site is underlain by lacustrine clay, glacial till and upper Cretaceous clay shale and sandstone bedrock. The most commonly used methods for determining shear wave velocity include crosshole seismic tests, downhole seismic tests, and seismic cone penetration tests (SCPT). This paper presented the results of all 3 methods used in this study and provided a comparison of the various test methods and their limitations. The crosshole test results demonstrated a common trend of increasing shear wave velocity with depth to about 15 m, below which the velocities remained relatively constant. An anomaly was noted at one site, where the shear wave velocity was reduced at a zone corresponding to clay till containing stiff high plastic clay layers. The field study demonstrated that reasonable agreement in shear wave velocity measurements can be made using crosshole, downhole and seismic tests in the same soil conditions. The National Building Code states that the shear wave velocity is the fundamental method for determining site classification, thus emphasizing the importance of obtaining shear wave velocity measurements for site classification. It was concluded that an SCPT program can be incorporated into the field program without much increase in cost and can be supplemented by downhole or crosshole techniques. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  5. Multiquark masses and wave functions through modified Green's function Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerbikov, B.O.; Polikarpov, M.I.; Shevchenko, L.V.

    1987-01-01

    The Modified Green's function Monte Carlo method (MGFMC) is used to calculate the masses and ground-state wave functions of multiquark systems in the potential model. The previously developed MGFMC is generalized in order to treat systems containing quarks with inequal masses. The obtained results are presented with the Cornell potential for the masses and the wave functions of light and heavy flavoured baryons and multiquark states (N=6, 9, 12) made of light quarks

  6. A Numerical Method for Blast Shock Wave Analysis of Missile Launch from Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Heimbs

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient empirical approach was developed to accurately represent the blast shock wave loading resulting from the launch of a missile from a military aircraft to be used in numerical analyses. Based on experimental test series of missile launches in laboratory environment and from a helicopter, equations were derived to predict the time- and position-dependent overpressure. The method was finally applied and validated in a structural analysis of a helicopter tail boom under missile launch shock wave loading.

  7. Exact traveling wave solutions of the bbm and kdv equations using (G'/G)-expansion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddique, I.; Nazar, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we construct the traveling wave solutions involving parameters of the Benjamin Bona-Mahony (BBM) and KdV equations in terms of the hyperbolic, trigonometric and rational functions by using the (G'/G)-expansion method, where G = G(zeta) satisfies a second order linear ordinary differential equation. When the parameters are taken special values, the Solitary was are derived from the traveling waves. (author)

  8. A comparison of high-order polynomial and wave-based methods for Helmholtz problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieu, Alice; Gabard, Gwénaël; Bériot, Hadrien

    2016-09-01

    The application of computational modelling to wave propagation problems is hindered by the dispersion error introduced by the discretisation. Two common strategies to address this issue are to use high-order polynomial shape functions (e.g. hp-FEM), or to use physics-based, or Trefftz, methods where the shape functions are local solutions of the problem (typically plane waves). Both strategies have been actively developed over the past decades and both have demonstrated their benefits compared to conventional finite-element methods, but they have yet to be compared. In this paper a high-order polynomial method (p-FEM with Lobatto polynomials) and the wave-based discontinuous Galerkin method are compared for two-dimensional Helmholtz problems. A number of different benchmark problems are used to perform a detailed and systematic assessment of the relative merits of these two methods in terms of interpolation properties, performance and conditioning. It is generally assumed that a wave-based method naturally provides better accuracy compared to polynomial methods since the plane waves or Bessel functions used in these methods are exact solutions of the Helmholtz equation. Results indicate that this expectation does not necessarily translate into a clear benefit, and that the differences in performance, accuracy and conditioning are more nuanced than generally assumed. The high-order polynomial method can in fact deliver comparable, and in some cases superior, performance compared to the wave-based DGM. In addition to benchmarking the intrinsic computational performance of these methods, a number of practical issues associated with realistic applications are also discussed.

  9. Systems and Methods for Implementing Bulk Metallic Glass-Based Strain Wave Gears and Strain Wave Gear Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Wilcox, Brian (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Bulk metallic glass-based strain wave gears and strain wave gear components. In one embodiment, a strain wave gear includes: a wave generator; a flexspline that itself includes a first set of gear teeth; and a circular spline that itself includes a second set of gear teeth; where at least one of the wave generator, the flexspline, and the circular spline, includes a bulk metallic glass-based material.

  10. Damage evaluation by a guided wave-hidden Markov model based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Hanfei; Yuan, Shenfang; Qiu, Lei; Zhang, Jinjin

    2016-02-01

    Guided wave based structural health monitoring has shown great potential in aerospace applications. However, one of the key challenges of practical engineering applications is the accurate interpretation of the guided wave signals under time-varying environmental and operational conditions. This paper presents a guided wave-hidden Markov model based method to improve the damage evaluation reliability of real aircraft structures under time-varying conditions. In the proposed approach, an HMM based unweighted moving average trend estimation method, which can capture the trend of damage propagation from the posterior probability obtained by HMM modeling is used to achieve a probabilistic evaluation of the structural damage. To validate the developed method, experiments are performed on a hole-edge crack specimen under fatigue loading condition and a real aircraft wing spar under changing structural boundary conditions. Experimental results show the advantage of the proposed method.

  11. An Improved Split-Step Wavelet Transform Method for Anomalous Radio Wave Propagation Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Iqbal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous tropospheric propagation caused by ducting phenomenon is a major problem in wireless communication. Thus, it is important to study the behavior of radio wave propagation in tropospheric ducts. The Parabolic Wave Equation (PWE method is considered most reliable to model anomalous radio wave propagation. In this work, an improved Split Step Wavelet transform Method (SSWM is presented to solve PWE for the modeling of tropospheric propagation over finite and infinite conductive surfaces. A large number of numerical experiments are carried out to validate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Developed algorithm is compared with previously published techniques; Wavelet Galerkin Method (WGM and Split-Step Fourier transform Method (SSFM. A very good agreement is found between SSWM and published techniques. It is also observed that the proposed algorithm is about 18 times faster than WGM and provide more details of propagation effects as compared to SSFM.

  12. Parameters of Higuchi's method to characterize primary waves in some seismograms from the Mexican subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez-Coyt, Gonzalo; Muñoz-Diosdado, Alejandro; Peralta, José; Balderas-López, José; Angulo-Brown, Fernando

    2012-06-01

    Higuchi's method is a procedure that, if applied appropriately, can determine in a reliable way the fractal dimension D of time series; this fractal dimension permits to characterize the degree of correlation of the series. However, when analyzing some time series with Higuchi's method, there are oscillations at the right-hand side of the graph, which can cause a mistaken determination of the fractal dimension. In this work, an appropriate explanation is given to this type of behaviour. Using the seismogram as a time series and the properties of the P and S waves, it is possible to use the properties of Higuchi's method to previously detect the arrival of the earthquake shacking stage, some seconds in advance, approximately 30-35 s in the case of Mexico City. Thus, we propose the Higuchi's method to characterize and detect the P waves in order to estimate the strength of the forthcoming S waves.

  13. Study of the method to estimate the hydraulic characteristics in rock masses by using elastic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsu, Kenta; Ohnishi, Yuzo; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Yano, Takao; Ando, Kenichi; Yoshimura, Kimitaka

    2008-01-01

    In the area of radioactive waste repository, estimating radionuclide migration through the rock mass is an important factor for assessment of the repository. The purpose of this study is to develop a method to estimate hydraulic characteristics of rock masses by using elastic wave velocity dispersion. This method is based on dynamics poroelastic relations such as Biot and BISQ theories. These theories indicate relations between velocity dispersion and hydraulic characteristics. In order to verify the validity of these theories in crystalline rocks, we performed laboratory experiments. The results of experiments show the dependency of elastic wave velocity on its frequency. To test the applicability of this method to real rock masses, we performed in-situ experiment for tuff rock masses. The results of in-situ experiment show the possibility as a practical method to estimate the hydraulic characteristics by using elastic wave velocity dispersion. (author)

  14. Development of a data assimilation algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Per Grove; Zlatev, Zahari

    2008-01-01

    It is important to incorporate all available observations when large-scale mathematical models arising in different fields of science and engineering are used to study various physical and chemical processes. Variational data assimilation techniques can be used in the attempts to utilize efficien......It is important to incorporate all available observations when large-scale mathematical models arising in different fields of science and engineering are used to study various physical and chemical processes. Variational data assimilation techniques can be used in the attempts to utilize...... assimilation technique is applied. Therefore, it is important to study the interplay between the three components of the variational data assimilation techniques as well as to apply powerful parallel computers in the computations. Some results obtained in the search for a good combination of numerical methods...... computers, Mathematics and Computers in Simulation, 65 (2004) 557–577, Z. Zlatev, Computer Treatment of Large Air Pollution Models, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London, 1995]. The ideas are rather general and can easily be applied in connection with other mathematical models....

  15. Local Fractional Series Expansion Method for Solving Wave and Diffusion Equations on Cantor Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Min Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a local fractional series expansion method to solve the wave and diffusion equations on Cantor sets. Some examples are given to illustrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method to obtain analytical solutions to differential equations within the local fractional derivatives.

  16. Time-dependent density-functional theory in the projector augmented-wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Michael; Häkkinen, Hannu; Lehtovaara, Lauri

    2008-01-01

    We present the implementation of the time-dependent density-functional theory both in linear-response and in time-propagation formalisms using the projector augmented-wave method in real-space grids. The two technically very different methods are compared in the linear-response regime where we...

  17. A cross-correlation method to search for gravitational wave bursts with AURIGA and Virgo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bignotto, M.; Bonaldi, M.; Camarda, M.; Cerdonio, M.; Conti, L.; Drago, M.; Falferi, P.; Liguori, N.; Longo, S.; Mezzena, R.; Mion, A.; Ortolan, A.; Prodi, G. A.; Re, V.; Salemi, F.; Taffarello, L.; Vedovato, G.; Vinante, A.; Vitale, S.; Zendri, J. -P.; Acernese, F.; Alshourbagy, Mohamed; Amico, Paolo; Antonucci, Federica; Aoudia, S.; Astone, P.; Avino, Saverio; Baggio, L.; Ballardin, G.; Barone, F.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bigotta, Stefano; Birindelli, Simona; Boccara, Albert-Claude; Bondu, F.; Bosi, Leone; Braccini, Stefano; Bradaschia, C.; Brillet, A.; Brisson, V.; Buskulic, D.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Campagna, Enrico; Carbognani, F.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Clapson, A-C; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Corda, C.; Corsi, A.; Cottone, F.; Coulon, J. -P.; Cuoco, E.; D'Antonio, S.; Dari, A.; Dattilo, V.; Davier, M.; Rosa, R.; Del Prete, M.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Emilio, M. Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A.; Evans, M.; Fafone, V.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garufi, F.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Giazotto, A.; Giordano, L.; Granata, V.; Greverie, C.; Grosjean, D.; Guidi, G.; Hamdani, S.U.; Hebri, S.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Huet, D.; Kreckelbergh, S.; La Penna, P.; Laval, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Lopez, B.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Losurdo, G.; Mackowski, J. -M.; Majorana, E.; Man, C. N.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Masserot, A.; Menzinger, F.; Milano, L.; Minenkov, Y.; Moins, C.; Moreau, J.; Morgado, N.; Mosca, S.; Mours, B.; Neri, I.; Nocera, F.; Pagliaroli, G.; Palomba, C.; Paoletti, F.; Pardi, S.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pinard, L.; Poggiani, R.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Rapagnani, P.; Regimbau, T.; Remillieux, A.; Ricci, F.; Ricciardi, I.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Romano, R.; Ruggi, P.; Russo, G.; Solimeno, S.; Spallicci, A.; Swinkels, B. L.; Tarallo, M.; Terenzi, R.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Tournefier, E.; Travasso, F.; Vajente, G.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van der Putten, S.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vocca, H.; Yvert, M.

    2008-01-01

    We present a method to search for transient gravitational waves using a network of detectors with different spectral and directional sensitivities: the interferometer Virgo and the bar detector AURIGA. The data analysis method is based on the measurements of the correlated energy in the network by

  18. Ultrasonic wave propagation through aberrating layers: experimental verification of the conjugate gradient Rayleigh method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ledoux, L.A.F.; Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Thijssen, J.M.

    The Conjugate Gradient Rayleigh method for the calculation of acoustic reflection and transmission at a rough interface between two media was experimentally verified. The method is based on a continuous version of the conjugate gradient technique and plane-wave expansions. We measured the beam

  19. Wave propagation method as an accurate technique for effective refractive index retrieving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    An effective parameters retrieval method based on the wave propagation simulation is proposed and compared with the standard S-parameter procedure. The method is free from possible mistakes originated by the multiple branching of solutions in the S-parameter procedure and shows high accuracy. The...

  20. Nonlinear data assimilation

    CERN Document Server

    Van Leeuwen, Peter Jan; Reich, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This book contains two review articles on nonlinear data assimilation that deal with closely related topics but were written and can be read independently. Both contributions focus on so-called particle filters. The first contribution by Jan van Leeuwen focuses on the potential of proposal densities. It discusses the issues with present-day particle filters and explorers new ideas for proposal densities to solve them, converging to particle filters that work well in systems of any dimension, closing the contribution with a high-dimensional example. The second contribution by Cheng and Reich discusses a unified framework for ensemble-transform particle filters. This allows one to bridge successful ensemble Kalman filters with fully nonlinear particle filters, and allows a proper introduction of localization in particle filters, which has been lacking up to now.

  1. Rayleigh-wave scattering by shallow cracks using the indirect boundary element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ávila-Carrera, R; Rodríguez-Castellanos, A; Ortiz-Alemán, C; Sánchez-Sesma, F J

    2009-01-01

    The scattering and diffraction of Rayleigh waves by shallow cracks using the indirect boundary element method (IBEM) are investigated. The detection of cracks is of interest because their presence may compromise structural elements, put technological devices at risk or represent economical potential in reservoir engineering. Shallow cracks may give rise to scattered body and surface waves. These waves are sensitive to the crack's geometry, size and orientation. Under certain conditions, amplitude spectra clearly show conspicuous resonances that are associated with trapped waves. Several applications based on the scattering of surface waves (e.g. Rayleigh and Stoneley waves), such as non-destructive testing or oil well exploration, have shown that the scattered fields may provide useful information to detect cracks and other heterogeneities. The subject is not new and several analytical and numerical techniques have been applied for the last 50 years to understand the basis of multiple scattering phenomena. In this work, we use the IBEM to calculate the scattered fields produced by single or multiple cracks near a free surface. This method is based upon an integral representation of the scattered displacement fields, which is derived from Somigliana's identity. Results are given in both frequency and time domains. The analyses of the displacement field using synthetic seismograms and snapshots reveal some important effects from various configurations of cracks. The study of these simple cases may provide an archetype to geoscientists and engineers to understand the fundamental aspects of multiple scattering and diffraction by cracks

  2. Vibration isolation design for periodically stiffened shells by the wave finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jie; He, Xueqing; Zhang, Dayi; Zhang, Bing; Ma, Yanhong

    2018-04-01

    Periodically stiffened shell structures are widely used due to their excellent specific strength, in particular for aeronautical and astronautical components. This paper presents an improved Wave Finite Element Method (FEM) that can be employed to predict the band-gap characteristics of stiffened shell structures efficiently. An aero-engine casing, which is a typical periodically stiffened shell structure, was employed to verify the validation and efficiency of the Wave FEM. Good agreement has been found between the Wave FEM and the classical FEM for different boundary conditions. One effective wave selection method based on the Wave FEM has thus been put forward to filter the radial modes of a shell structure. Furthermore, an optimisation strategy by the combination of the Wave FEM and genetic algorithm was presented for periodically stiffened shell structures. The optimal out-of-plane band gap and the mass of the whole structure can be achieved by the optimisation strategy under an aerodynamic load. Results also indicate that geometric parameters of stiffeners can be properly selected that the out-of-plane vibration attenuates significantly in the frequency band of interest. This study can provide valuable references for designing the band gaps of vibration isolation.

  3. Chiral retrieval method based on right circularly polarized and left circularly polarized waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín, Ernesto; Muñoz, Juan; Margineda, José; Molina-Cuberos, Gregorio J; García-Collado, Ángel J

    2014-01-01

    The free-wave characterization of metamaterials is usually carried out by illuminating a sample with a linearly polarized plane electromagnetic wave. At points before and after the sample, sensors are introduced to measure the transverse components of the field, in order to compute the reflection and transmission coefficients related with the co- and cross-polar field components. Based on this information, retrieval algorithms allow parameters like rotation angle, effective chirality and refraction index to be calculated. Here we propose to use the transmission signals under illumination with plane circularly polarized waves, without sensing the reflection signal, to calculate the chirality parameter and the rotation angle due to the electromagnetic activity of the material. This new method, which allows a simpler characterization of a chiral slab, is applied to the study of metamaterials composed of both periodic and random distributions of metallic structures with chiral symmetry. The experimental results are contrasted with simulations and alternative measurements obtained using linearly polarized waves. (paper)

  4. Algebraic method for constructing singular steady solitary waves: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clamond, Didier; Dutykh, Denys; Galligo, André

    2016-07-01

    This article describes the use of algebraic methods in a phase plane analysis of ordinary differential equations. The method is illustrated by the study of capillary-gravity steady surface waves propagating in shallow water. We consider the (fully nonlinear, weakly dispersive) Serre-Green-Naghdi equation with surface tension, because it provides a tractable model that, at the same time, is not too simple, so interest in the method can be emphasized. In particular, we analyse a special class of solutions, the solitary waves, which play an important role in many fields of physics. In capillary-gravity regime, there are two kinds of localized infinitely smooth travelling wave solutions-solitary waves of elevation and of depression. However, if we allow the solitary waves to have an angular point, then the `zoology' of solutions becomes much richer, and the main goal of this study is to provide a complete classification of such singular localized solutions using the methods of the effective algebraic geometry.

  5. Overdetermined shooting methods for computing standing water waves with spectral accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkening, Jon; Yu Jia

    2012-01-01

    A high-performance shooting algorithm is developed to compute time-periodic solutions of the free-surface Euler equations with spectral accuracy in double and quadruple precision. The method is used to study resonance and its effect on standing water waves. We identify new nucleation mechanisms in which isolated large-amplitude solutions, and closed loops of such solutions, suddenly exist for depths below a critical threshold. We also study degenerate and secondary bifurcations related to Wilton's ripples in the traveling case, and explore the breakdown of self-similarity at the crests of extreme standing waves. In shallow water, we find that standing waves take the form of counter-propagating solitary waves that repeatedly collide quasi-elastically. In deep water with surface tension, we find that standing waves resemble counter-propagating depression waves. We also discuss the existence and non-uniqueness of solutions, and smooth versus erratic dependence of Fourier modes on wave amplitude and fluid depth. In the numerical method, robustness is achieved by posing the problem as an overdetermined nonlinear system and using either adjoint-based minimization techniques or a quadratically convergent trust-region method to minimize the objective function. Efficiency is achieved in the trust-region approach by parallelizing the Jacobian computation, so the setup cost of computing the Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator in the variational equation is not repeated for each column. Updates of the Jacobian are also delayed until the previous Jacobian ceases to be useful. Accuracy is maintained using spectral collocation with optional mesh refinement in space, a high-order Runge–Kutta or spectral deferred correction method in time and quadruple precision for improved navigation of delicate regions of parameter space as well as validation of double-precision results. Implementation issues for transferring much of the computation to a graphic processing units are briefly

  6. Application of numerical methods to the determination of molecular wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douady, Jerome

    1969-01-01

    A simplified SCF Method is developed. The wave function of molecular systems and spin densities in the case of free radicals are computed from geometrical data. This method, including at the beginning a delocalization of electrons over all the molecular system, two methods which clear out bonding and anti-bonding interactions have been studied and programmed: a) overlap population analysis, b) localisation of molecular orbitals. These methods have been carried out in the case of organic compounds and free radicals. (author) [fr

  7. Up-Wave and Autoregressive Methods for Short-Term Wave Forecasting for an Oscillating Water Column

    OpenAIRE

    Paparella, Francesco; Monk, Kieran; Winands, Victor; Lopes, M.F.P.; Conley, Daniel; Ringwood, John

    2015-01-01

    The real-time control of wave energy converters (WECs) requires the prediction of the wave elevation at the location of the device in order to maximize the power extracted from the waves. One possibility is to predict the future wave elevation by combining its past history with the spatial information coming from a sensor which measures the free surface elevation up-wave of the WEC. As an application example, this paper focuses on the prediction of the wave elevation inside the chamber of the...

  8. Sorting method to extend the dynamic range of the Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Junwon; Shack, Roland V.; Descour, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a simple and powerful algorithm to extend the dynamic range of a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor. In a conventional Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor the dynamic range is limited by the f-number of a lenslet, because the focal spot is required to remain in the area confined by the single lenslet. The sorting method proposed here eliminates such a limitation and extends the dynamic range by tagging each spot in a special sequence. Since the sorting method is a simple algorithm that does not change the measurement configuration, there is no requirement for extra hardware, multiple measurements, or complicated algorithms. We not only present the theory and a calculation example of the sorting method but also actually implement measurement of a highly aberrated wave front from nonrotational symmetric optics

  9. New method for rekindling the nonlinear solitary waves in Maxwellian complex space plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, G. C.; Sarma, Ridip

    2018-04-01

    Our interest is to study the nonlinear wave phenomena in complex plasma constituents with Maxwellian electrons and ions. The main reason for this consideration is to exhibit the effects of dust charge fluctuations on acoustic modes evaluated by the use of a new method. A special method (G'/G) has been developed to yield the coherent features of nonlinear waves augmented through the derivation of a Korteweg-de Vries equation and found successfully the different nature of solitons recognized in space plasmas. Evolutions have shown with the input of appropriate typical plasma parameters to support our theoretical observations in space plasmas. All conclusions are in good accordance with the actual occurrences and could be of interest to further the investigations in experiments and satellite observations in space. In this paper, we present not only the model that exhibited nonlinear solitary wave propagation but also a new mathematical method to the execution.

  10. Photonic band structures solved by a plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Yuan; Lin, Lan-Lan

    2003-04-01

    Transfer-matrix methods adopting a plane-wave basis have been routinely used to calculate the scattering of electromagnetic waves by general multilayer gratings and photonic crystal slabs. In this paper we show that this technique, when combined with Bloch's theorem, can be extended to solve the photonic band structure for 2D and 3D photonic crystal structures. Three different eigensolution schemes to solve the traditional band diagrams along high-symmetry lines in the first Brillouin zone of the crystal are discussed. Optimal rules for the Fourier expansion over the dielectric function and electromagnetic fields with discontinuities occurring at the boundary of different material domains have been employed to accelerate the convergence of numerical computation. Application of this method to an important class of 3D layer-by-layer photonic crystals reveals the superior convergency of this different approach over the conventional plane-wave expansion method.

  11. Photonic band structures solved by a plane-wave-based transfer-matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhiyuan; Lin Lanlan

    2003-01-01

    Transfer-matrix methods adopting a plane-wave basis have been routinely used to calculate the scattering of electromagnetic waves by general multilayer gratings and photonic crystal slabs. In this paper we show that this technique, when combined with Bloch's theorem, can be extended to solve the photonic band structure for 2D and 3D photonic crystal structures. Three different eigensolution schemes to solve the traditional band diagrams along high-symmetry lines in the first Brillouin zone of the crystal are discussed. Optimal rules for the Fourier expansion over the dielectric function and electromagnetic fields with discontinuities occurring at the boundary of different material domains have been employed to accelerate the convergence of numerical computation. Application of this method to an important class of 3D layer-by-layer photonic crystals reveals the superior convergency of this different approach over the conventional plane-wave expansion method

  12. Evaluating a Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter snow cover data assimilation method to estimate SWE within a high-resolution hydrologic modeling framework across Western US mountainous regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaida, C. M.; Andreadis, K.; Reager, J. T., II; Famiglietti, J. S.; Levoe, S.

    2017-12-01

    Accurately estimating how much snow water equivalent (SWE) is stored in mountainous regions characterized by complex terrain and snowmelt-driven hydrologic cycles is not only greatly desirable, but also a big challenge. Mountain snowpack exhibits high spatial variability across a broad range of spatial and temporal scales due to a multitude of physical and climatic factors, making it difficult to observe or estimate in its entirety. Combing remotely sensed data and high resolution hydrologic modeling through data assimilation (DA) has the potential to provide a spatially and temporally continuous SWE dataset at horizontal scales that capture sub-grid snow spatial variability and are also relevant to stakeholders such as water resource managers. Here, we present the evaluation of a new snow DA approach that uses a Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) in tandem with the Variable Infiltration Capacity macro-scale hydrologic model across the Western United States, at a daily temporal resolution, and a horizontal resolution of 1.75 km x 1.75 km. The LETKF is chosen for its relative simplicity, ease of implementation, and computational efficiency and scalability. The modeling/DA system assimilates daily MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain Size (MODSCAG) fractional snow cover over, and has been developed to efficiently calculate SWE estimates over extended periods of time and covering large regional-scale areas at relatively high spatial resolution, ultimately producing a snow reanalysis-type dataset. Here we focus on the assessment of SWE produced by the DA scheme over several basins in California's Sierra Nevada Mountain range where Airborne Snow Observatory data is available, during the last five water years (2013-2017), which include both one of the driest and one of the wettest years. Comparison against such a spatially distributed SWE observational product provides a greater understanding of the model's ability to estimate SWE and SWE spatial variability

  13. Modeling of microwave applicators with an excitation through the wave guide using TLM method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđelović Tijana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a real microwave applicator with a wave guide used to launch the energy from the source into the cavity is analyzed using 3D TLM method. In order to investigate the influence of the positions and number of feed wave guides to the number of the resonant modes inside the cavity, obtained results are compared with analytical results and results obtained by using TLM software with an impulse excitation as well. TLM method is applied to the both empty and loaded rectangular metallic cavity, and a very good agreement between simulated and experimental results is achieved.

  14. The Multi-Wave Method for Exact Solutions of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Pandir

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we use the multi-wave method to obtain new exact solutions for generalized forms of 5th order KdV equation and fth order KdV (fKdV equation with power law nonlinearity. Computations are performed with the help of the mathematics software Mathematica. Then, periodic wave solutions, bright soliton solutions and rational function solutions with free parameters are obtained by this approach. It is shown that this method is very useful and effective.

  15. NUMERICAL METHODS FOR SOLVING THE MULTI-TERM TIME-FRACTIONAL WAVE-DIFFUSION EQUATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Meerschaert, M M; McGough, R J; Zhuang, P; Liu, Q

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, the multi-term time-fractional wave-diffusion equations are considered. The multi-term time fractional derivatives are defined in the Caputo sense, whose orders belong to the intervals [0,1], [1,2), [0,2), [0,3), [2,3) and [2,4), respectively. Some computationally effective numerical methods are proposed for simulating the multi-term time-fractional wave-diffusion equations. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of theoretical analysis. These methods and techniques can also be extended to other kinds of the multi-term fractional time-space models with fractional Laplacian.

  16. NUMERICAL METHODS FOR SOLVING THE MULTI-TERM TIME-FRACTIONAL WAVE-DIFFUSION EQUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, F.; Meerschaert, M.M.; McGough, R.J.; Zhuang, P.; Liu, Q.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the multi-term time-fractional wave-diffusion equations are considered. The multi-term time fractional derivatives are defined in the Caputo sense, whose orders belong to the intervals [0,1], [1,2), [0,2), [0,3), [2,3) and [2,4), respectively. Some computationally effective numerical methods are proposed for simulating the multi-term time-fractional wave-diffusion equations. The numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of theoretical analysis. These methods and technique...

  17. Exact solitary wave solution for higher order nonlinear Schrodinger equation using He's variational iteration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Monika; Bhatti, Harbax S.; Singh, Vikramjeet

    2017-11-01

    In optical communication, the behavior of the ultrashort pulses of optical solitons can be described through nonlinear Schrodinger equation. This partial differential equation is widely used to contemplate a number of physically important phenomena, including optical shock waves, laser and plasma physics, quantum mechanics, elastic media, etc. The exact analytical solution of (1+n)-dimensional higher order nonlinear Schrodinger equation by He's variational iteration method has been presented. Our proposed solutions are very helpful in studying the solitary wave phenomena and ensure rapid convergent series and avoid round off errors. Different examples with graphical representations have been given to justify the capability of the method.

  18. Prediction of the shape of inline wave force and free surface elevation using First Order Reliability Method (FORM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghadirian, Amin; Bredmose, Henrik; Schløer, Signe

    2017-01-01

    theory, that is, the most likely time history of inline force around a force peak of given value. The results of FORM and NewForce are linearly identical and show only minor deviations at second order. The FORM results are then compared to wave averaged measurements of the same criteria for crest height......In design of substructures for offshore wind turbines, the extreme wave loads which are of interest in Ultimate Limit States are often estimated by choosing extreme events from linear random sea states and replacing them by either stream function wave theory or the NewWave theory of a certain...... design wave height. As these wave theories super from limitations such as symmetry around the crest, other methods to estimate the wave loads are needed. In the present paper, the First Order Reliability Method, FORM, is used systematically to estimate the most likely extreme wave shapes. Two parameters...

  19. Source signature estimation from multimode surface waves via mode-separated virtual real source method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lingli; Pan, Yudi

    2018-05-01

    The correct estimation of the seismic source signature is crucial to exploration geophysics. Based on seismic interferometry, the virtual real source (VRS) method provides a model-independent way for source signature estimation. However, when encountering multimode surface waves, which are commonly seen in the shallow seismic survey, strong spurious events appear in seismic interferometric results. These spurious events introduce errors in the virtual-source recordings and reduce the accuracy of the source signature estimated by the VRS method. In order to estimate a correct source signature from multimode surface waves, we propose a mode-separated VRS method. In this method, multimode surface waves are mode separated before seismic interferometry. Virtual-source recordings are then obtained by applying seismic interferometry to each mode individually. Therefore, artefacts caused by cross-mode correlation are excluded in the virtual-source recordings and the estimated source signatures. A synthetic example showed that a correct source signature can be estimated with the proposed method, while strong spurious oscillation occurs in the estimated source signature if we do not apply mode separation first. We also applied the proposed method to a field example, which verified its validity and effectiveness in estimating seismic source signature from shallow seismic shot gathers containing multimode surface waves.

  20. Investigation of dispersion-relation-preserving scheme and spectral analysis methods for acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanel, Florence O.; Baysal, Oktay

    1995-01-01

    Important characteristics of the aeroacoustic wave propagation are mostly encoded in their dispersion relations. Hence, a computational aeroacoustic (CAA) algorithm, which reasonably preserves these relations, was investigated. It was derived using an optimization procedure to ensure, that the numerical derivatives preserved the wave number and angular frequency of the differential terms in the linearized, 2-D Euler equations. Then, simulations were performed to validate the scheme and a compatible set of discretized boundary conditions. The computational results were found to agree favorably with the exact solutions. The boundary conditions were transparent to the outgoing waves, except when the disturbance source was close to a boundary. The time-domain data generated by such CAA solutions were often intractable until their spectra was analyzed. Therefore, the relative merits of three different methods were included in the study. For simple, periodic waves, the periodogram method produced better estimates of the steep-sloped spectra than the Blackman-Tukey method. Also, for this problem, the Hanning window was more effective when used with the weighted-overlapped-segment-averaging and Blackman-Tukey methods gave better results than the periodogram method. Finally, it was demonstrated that the representation of time domain-data was significantly dependent on the particular spectral analysis method employed.

  1. TSOS and TSOS-FK hybrid methods for modelling the propagation of seismic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Yang, Dinghui; Tong, Ping; Ma, Xiao

    2018-05-01

    We develop a new time-space optimized symplectic (TSOS) method for numerically solving elastic wave equations in heterogeneous isotropic media. We use the phase-preserving symplectic partitioned Runge-Kutta method to evaluate the time derivatives and optimized explicit finite-difference (FD) schemes to discretize the space derivatives. We introduce the averaged medium scheme into the TSOS method to further increase its capability of dealing with heterogeneous media and match the boundary-modified scheme for implementing free-surface boundary conditions and the auxiliary differential equation complex frequency-shifted perfectly matched layer (ADE CFS-PML) non-reflecting boundaries with the TSOS method. A comparison of the TSOS method with analytical solutions and standard FD schemes indicates that the waveform generated by the TSOS method is more similar to the analytic solution and has a smaller error than other FD methods, which illustrates the efficiency and accuracy of the TSOS method. Subsequently, we focus on the calculation of synthetic seismograms for teleseismic P- or S-waves entering and propagating in the local heterogeneous region of interest. To improve the computational efficiency, we successfully combine the TSOS method with the frequency-wavenumber (FK) method and apply the ADE CFS-PML to absorb the scattered waves caused by the regional heterogeneity. The TSOS-FK hybrid method is benchmarked against semi-analytical solutions provided by the FK method for a 1-D layered model. Several numerical experiments, including a vertical cross-section of the Chinese capital area crustal model, illustrate that the TSOS-FK hybrid method works well for modelling waves propagating in complex heterogeneous media and remains stable for long-time computation. These numerical examples also show that the TSOS-FK method can tackle the converted and scattered waves of the teleseismic plane waves caused by local heterogeneity. Thus, the TSOS and TSOS-FK methods proposed in

  2. The Detection of Vertical Cracks in Asphalt Using Seismic Surface Wave Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodice, M; Muggleton, J; Rustighi, E

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of the location and of the extension of cracking in road surfaces is important for determining the potential level of deterioration in the road overall and the infrastructure buried beneath it. Damage in a pavement structure is usually initiated in the tarmac layers, making the Rayleigh wave ideally suited for the detection of shallow surface defects. This paper presents an investigation of two surface wave methods to detect and locate top-down cracks in asphalt layers. The aim of the study is to compare the results from the well- established Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) and the more recent Multiple Impact of Surface Waves (MISW) in the presence of a discontinuity and to suggest the best surface wave technique for evaluating the presence and the extension of vertical cracks in roads. The study is conducted through numerical simulations alongside experimental investigations and it considers the cases for which the cracking is internal and external to the deployment of sensors. MISW is found to enhance the visibility of the reflected waves in the frequency wavenumber ( f-k ) spectrum, helping with the detection of the discontinuity. In some cases, by looking at the f-k spectrum obtained with MISW it is possible to extract information regarding the location and the depth of the cracking. (paper)

  3. A parallel orbital-updating based plane-wave basis method for electronic structure calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Yan; Dai, Xiaoying; Gironcoli, Stefano de; Gong, Xin-Gao; Rignanese, Gian-Marco; Zhou, Aihui

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Propose three parallel orbital-updating based plane-wave basis methods for electronic structure calculations. • These new methods can avoid the generating of large scale eigenvalue problems and then reduce the computational cost. • These new methods allow for two-level parallelization which is particularly interesting for large scale parallelization. • Numerical experiments show that these new methods are reliable and efficient for large scale calculations on modern supercomputers. - Abstract: Motivated by the recently proposed parallel orbital-updating approach in real space method , we propose a parallel orbital-updating based plane-wave basis method for electronic structure calculations, for solving the corresponding eigenvalue problems. In addition, we propose two new modified parallel orbital-updating methods. Compared to the traditional plane-wave methods, our methods allow for two-level parallelization, which is particularly interesting for large scale parallelization. Numerical experiments show that these new methods are more reliable and efficient for large scale calculations on modern supercomputers.

  4. A comparison of dynamical and statistical downscaling methods for regional wave climate projections along French coastlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugel, Amélie; Menendez, Melisa; Benoit, Michel; Mattarolo, Giovanni; Mendez, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    Wave climate forecasting is a major issue for numerous marine and coastal related activities, such as offshore industries, flooding risks assessment and wave energy resource evaluation, among others. Generally, there are two main ways to predict the impacts of the climate change on the wave climate at regional scale: the dynamical and the statistical downscaling of GCM (Global Climate Model). In this study, both methods have been applied on the French coast (Atlantic , English Channel and North Sea shoreline) under three climate change scenarios (A1B, A2, B1) simulated with the GCM ARPEGE-CLIMAT, from Météo-France (AR4, IPCC). The aim of the work is to characterise the wave climatology of the 21st century and compare the statistical and dynamical methods pointing out advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The statistical downscaling method proposed by the Environmental Hydraulics Institute of Cantabria (Spain) has been applied (Menendez et al., 2011). At a particular location, the sea-state climate (Predictand Y) is defined as a function, Y=f(X), of several atmospheric circulation patterns (Predictor X). Assuming these climate associations between predictor and predictand are stationary, the statistical approach has been used to project the future wave conditions with reference to the GCM. The statistical relations between predictor and predictand have been established over 31 years, from 1979 to 2009. The predictor is built as the 3-days-averaged squared sea level pressure gradient from the hourly CFSR database (Climate Forecast System Reanalysis, http://cfs.ncep.noaa.gov/cfsr/). The predictand has been extracted from the 31-years hindcast sea-state database ANEMOC-2 performed with the 3G spectral wave model TOMAWAC (Benoit et al., 1996), developed at EDF R&D LNHE and Saint-Venant Laboratory for Hydraulics and forced by the CFSR 10m wind field. Significant wave height, peak period and mean wave direction have been extracted with an hourly-resolution at

  5. An optimization method of relativistic backward wave oscillator using particle simulation and genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zaigao; Wang, Jianguo [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-12, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710024 (China); Wang, Yue; Qiao, Hailiang; Zhang, Dianhui [Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O. Box 69-12, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710024 (China); Guo, Weijie [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Optimal design method of high-power microwave source using particle simulation and parallel genetic algorithms is presented in this paper. The output power, simulated by the fully electromagnetic particle simulation code UNIPIC, of the high-power microwave device is given as the fitness function, and the float-encoding genetic algorithms are used to optimize the high-power microwave devices. Using this method, we encode the heights of non-uniform slow wave structure in the relativistic backward wave oscillators (RBWO), and optimize the parameters on massively parallel processors. Simulation results demonstrate that we can obtain the optimal parameters of non-uniform slow wave structure in the RBWO, and the output microwave power enhances 52.6% after the device is optimized.

  6. Nonlinear optimization method of ship floating condition calculation in wave based on vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Yu, Jian-xing

    2014-08-01

    Ship floating condition in regular waves is calculated. New equations controlling any ship's floating condition are proposed by use of the vector operation. This form is a nonlinear optimization problem which can be solved using the penalty function method with constant coefficients. And the solving process is accelerated by dichotomy. During the solving process, the ship's displacement and buoyant centre have been calculated by the integration of the ship surface according to the waterline. The ship surface is described using an accumulative chord length theory in order to determine the displacement, the buoyancy center and the waterline. The draught forming the waterline at each station can be found out by calculating the intersection of the ship surface and the wave surface. The results of an example indicate that this method is exact and efficient. It can calculate the ship floating condition in regular waves as well as simplify the calculation and improve the computational efficiency and the precision of results.

  7. A New Method for Constructing Travelling Wave Solutions to the modified Benjamin–Bona–Mahoney Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun-Mao, Wang; Miao, Zhang; Wen-Liang, Zhang; Rui, Zhang; Jia-Hua, Han

    2008-01-01

    We present a new method to find the exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations, with the aid of the symbolic computation. Based on this method, we successfully solve the modified Benjamin–Bona–Mahoney equation, and obtain some new solutions which can be expressed by trigonometric functions and hyperbolic functions. It is shown that the proposed method is direct, effective and can be used for many other nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics. (general)

  8. A method to measure the diffusion coefficient by neutron wave propagation for limited samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woznicka, U.

    1986-03-01

    A study has been made of the use of the neutron wave and pulse propagation method for measurement of thermal neutron diffusion parameters. Earlier works an homogenous and heterogeneous media are reviewed. A new method is sketched for the determination of the diffusion coefficient for samples of limited size. The principle is to place a relatively thin slab of the material between two blocks of a medium with known properties. The advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed. (author)

  9. Parallel iterative procedures for approximate solutions of wave propagation by finite element and finite difference methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Parallel iterative procedures based on domain decomposition techniques are defined and analyzed for the numerical solution of wave propagation by finite element and finite difference methods. For finite element methods, in a Lagrangian framework, an efficient way for choosing the algorithm parameter as well as the algorithm convergence are indicated. Some heuristic arguments for finding the algorithm parameter for finite difference schemes are addressed. Numerical results are presented to indicate the effectiveness of the methods.

  10. Two modified symplectic partitioned Runge-Kutta methods for solving the elastic wave equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bo; Tuo, Xianguo; Xu, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Based on a modified strategy, two modified symplectic partitioned Runge-Kutta (PRK) methods are proposed for the temporal discretization of the elastic wave equation. The two symplectic schemes are similar in form but are different in nature. After the spatial discretization of the elastic wave equation, the ordinary Hamiltonian formulation for the elastic wave equation is presented. The PRK scheme is then applied for time integration. An additional term associated with spatial discretization is inserted into the different stages of the PRK scheme. Theoretical analyses are conducted to evaluate the numerical dispersion and stability of the two novel PRK methods. A finite difference method is used to approximate the spatial derivatives since the two schemes are independent of the spatial discretization technique used. The numerical solutions computed by the two new schemes are compared with those computed by a conventional symplectic PRK. The numerical results, which verify the new method, are superior to those generated by traditional conventional methods in seismic wave modeling.

  11. Probabilistic forecasting and Bayesian data assimilation

    CERN Document Server

    Reich, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    In this book the authors describe the principles and methods behind probabilistic forecasting and Bayesian data assimilation. Instead of focusing on particular application areas, the authors adopt a general dynamical systems approach, with a profusion of low-dimensional, discrete-time numerical examples designed to build intuition about the subject. Part I explains the mathematical framework of ensemble-based probabilistic forecasting and uncertainty quantification. Part II is devoted to Bayesian filtering algorithms, from classical data assimilation algorithms such as the Kalman filter, variational techniques, and sequential Monte Carlo methods, through to more recent developments such as the ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble transform filters. The McKean approach to sequential filtering in combination with coupling of measures serves as a unifying mathematical framework throughout Part II. Assuming only some basic familiarity with probability, this book is an ideal introduction for graduate students in ap...

  12. A high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for wave propagation through coupled elastic-acoustic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, Lucas C.; Stadler, Georg; Burstedde, Carsten; Ghattas, Omar

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (dG) scheme for the numerical solution of three-dimensional (3D) wave propagation problems in coupled elastic-acoustic media. A velocity-strain formulation is used, which allows for the solution of the acoustic and elastic wave equations within the same unified framework. Careful attention is directed at the derivation of a numerical flux that preserves high-order accuracy in the presence of material discontinuities, including elastic-acoustic interfaces. Explicit expressions for the 3D upwind numerical flux, derived as an exact solution for the relevant Riemann problem, are provided. The method supports h-non-conforming meshes, which are particularly effective at allowing local adaptation of the mesh size to resolve strong contrasts in the local wavelength, as well as dynamic adaptivity to track solution features. The use of high-order elements controls numerical dispersion, enabling propagation over many wave periods. We prove consistency and stability of the proposed dG scheme. To study the numerical accuracy and convergence of the proposed method, we compare against analytical solutions for wave propagation problems with interfaces, including Rayleigh, Lamb, Scholte, and Stoneley waves as well as plane waves impinging on an elastic-acoustic interface. Spectral rates of convergence are demonstrated for these problems, which include a non-conforming mesh case. Finally, we present scalability results for a parallel implementation of the proposed high-order dG scheme for large-scale seismic wave propagation in a simplified earth model, demonstrating high parallel efficiency for strong scaling to the full size of the Jaguar Cray XT5 supercomputer.

  13. A new sub-equation method applied to obtain exact travelling wave solutions of some complex nonlinear equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huiqun

    2009-01-01

    By using a new coupled Riccati equations, a direct algebraic method, which was applied to obtain exact travelling wave solutions of some complex nonlinear equations, is improved. And the exact travelling wave solutions of the complex KdV equation, Boussinesq equation and Klein-Gordon equation are investigated using the improved method. The method presented in this paper can also be applied to construct exact travelling wave solutions for other nonlinear complex equations.

  14. Assimilation of stratospheric ozone in the chemical transport model STRATAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grassi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a sequential assimilation approach useful for assimilating tracer measurements into a three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM of the stratosphere. The numerical code, developed largely according to Kha00, uses parameterizations and simplifications allowing assimilation of sparse observations and the simultaneous evaluation of analysis errors, with reasonable computational requirements. Assimilation parameters are set by using χ2 and OmF (Observation minus Forecast statistics. The CTM used here is a high resolution three-dimensional model. It includes a detailed chemical package and is driven by UKMO (United Kingdom Meteorological Office analyses. We illustrate the method using assimilation of Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite/Microwave Limb Sounder (UARS/MLS ozone observations for three weeks during the 1996 antarctic spring. The comparison of results from the simulations with TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer measurements shows improved total ozone fields due to assimilation of MLS observations. Moreover, the assimilation gives indications on a possible model weakness in reproducing polar ozone values during springtime.

  15. Statistical techniques to extract information during SMAP soil moisture assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolassa, J.; Reichle, R. H.; Liu, Q.; Alemohammad, S. H.; Gentine, P.

    2017-12-01

    Statistical techniques permit the retrieval of soil moisture estimates in a model climatology while retaining the spatial and temporal signatures of the satellite observations. As a consequence, the need for bias correction prior to an assimilation of these estimates is reduced, which could result in a more effective use of the independent information provided by the satellite observations. In this study, a statistical neural network (NN) retrieval algorithm is calibrated using SMAP brightness temperature observations and modeled soil moisture estimates (similar to those used to calibrate the SMAP Level 4 DA system). Daily values of surface soil moisture are estimated using the NN and then assimilated into the NASA Catchment model. The skill of the assimilation estimates is assessed based on a comprehensive comparison to in situ measurements from the SMAP core and sparse network sites as well as the International Soil Moisture Network. The NN retrieval assimilation is found to significantly improve the model skill, particularly in areas where the model does not represent processes related to agricultural practices. Additionally, the NN method is compared to assimilation experiments using traditional bias correction techniques. The NN retrieval assimilation is found to more effectively use the independent information provided by SMAP resulting in larger model skill improvements than assimilation experiments using traditional bias correction techniques.

  16. Assimilation of stratospheric ozone in the chemical transport model STRATAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grassi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a sequential assimilation approach useful for assimilating tracer measurements into a three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM of the stratosphere. The numerical code, developed largely according to Kha00, uses parameterizations and simplifications allowing assimilation of sparse observations and the simultaneous evaluation of analysis errors, with reasonable computational requirements. Assimilation parameters are set by using χ2 and OmF (Observation minus Forecast statistics. The CTM used here is a high resolution three-dimensional model. It includes a detailed chemical package and is driven by UKMO (United Kingdom Meteorological Office analyses. We illustrate the method using assimilation of Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite/Microwave Limb Sounder (UARS/MLS ozone observations for three weeks during the 1996 antarctic spring. The comparison of results from the simulations with TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer measurements shows improved total ozone fields due to assimilation of MLS observations. Moreover, the assimilation gives indications on a possible model weakness in reproducing polar ozone values during springtime.

  17. The development of efficient numerical time-domain modeling methods for geophysical wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lieyuan

    This Ph.D. dissertation focuses on the numerical simulation of geophysical wave propagation in the time domain including elastic waves in solid media, the acoustic waves in fluid media, and the electromagnetic waves in dielectric media. This thesis shows that a linear system model can describe accurately the physical processes of those geophysical waves' propagation and can be used as a sound basis for modeling geophysical wave propagation phenomena. The generalized stability condition for numerical modeling of wave propagation is therefore discussed in the context of linear system theory. The efficiency of a series of different numerical algorithms in the time-domain for modeling geophysical wave propagation are discussed and compared. These algorithms include the finite-difference time-domain method, pseudospectral time domain method, alternating directional implicit (ADI) finite-difference time domain method. The advantages and disadvantages of these numerical methods are discussed and the specific stability condition for each modeling scheme is carefully derived in the context of the linear system theory. Based on the review and discussion of these existing approaches, the split step, ADI pseudospectral time domain (SS-ADI-PSTD) method is developed and tested for several cases. Moreover, the state-of-the-art stretched-coordinate perfect matched layer (SCPML) has also been implemented in SS-ADI-PSTD algorithm as the absorbing boundary condition for truncating the computational domain and absorbing the artificial reflection from the domain boundaries. After algorithmic development, a few case studies serve as the real-world examples to verify the capacities of the numerical algorithms and understand the capabilities and limitations of geophysical methods for detection of subsurface contamination. The first case is a study using ground penetrating radar (GPR) amplitude variation with offset (AVO) for subsurface non-aqueous-liquid (NAPL) contamination. The

  18. A time reversal damage imaging method for structure health monitoring using Lamb waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hai-Yan; Cao Ya-Ping; Sun Xiu-Li; Chen Xian-Hua; Yu Jian-Bo

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the Lamb wave imaging method combining time reversal for health monitoring of a metallic plate structure. The temporal focusing effect of the time reversal Lamb waves is investigated theoretically. It demonstrates that the focusing effect is related to the frequency dependency of the time reversal operation. Numerical simulations are conducted to study the time reversal behaviour of Lamb wave modes under broadband and narrowband excitations. The results show that the reconstructed time reversed wave exhibits close similarity to the reversed narrowband tone burst signal validating the theoretical model. To enhance the similarity, the cycle number of the excited signal should be increased. Experiments combining finite element model are then conducted to study the imaging method in the presence of damage like hole in the plate structure. In this work, the time reversal technique is used for the recompression of Lamb wave signals. Damage imaging results with time reversal using broadband and narrowband excitations are compared to those without time reversal. It suggests that the narrowband excitation combined time reversal can locate and determine the size of structural damage more precisely, but the cycle number of the excited signal should be chosen reasonably

  19. Full-Wave Analysis of Traveling-Wave Field-Effect Transistors Using Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichi Narahara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear transmission lines, which define transmission lines periodically loaded with nonlinear devices such as varactors, diodes, and transistors, are modeled in the framework of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD method. Originally, some root-finding routine is needed to evaluate the contributions of nonlinear device currents appropriately to the temporally advanced electrical fields. Arbitrary nonlinear transmission lines contain large amount of nonlinear devices; therefore, it costs too much time to complete calculations. To reduce the calculation time, we recently developed a simple model of diodes to eliminate root-finding routines in an FDTD solver. Approximating the diode current-voltage relation by a piecewise-linear function, an extended Ampere's law is solved in a closed form for the time-advanced electrical fields. In this paper, we newly develop an FDTD model of field-effect transistors (FETs, together with several numerical examples that demonstrate pulse-shortening phenomena in a traveling-wave FET.

  20. Numerical simulation of electromagnetic waves in Schwarzschild space-time by finite difference time domain method and Green function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shouqing; La, Dongsheng; Ma, Xuelian

    2018-04-01

    The finite difference time domain (FDTD) algorithm and Green function algorithm are implemented into the numerical simulation of electromagnetic waves in Schwarzschild space-time. FDTD method in curved space-time is developed by filling the flat space-time with an equivalent medium. Green function in curved space-time is obtained by solving transport equations. Simulation results validate both the FDTD code and Green function code. The methods developed in this paper offer a tool to solve electromagnetic scattering problems.

  1. Anatomy of a local-scale drought: Application of assimilated remote sensing products, crop model, and statistical methods to an agricultural drought study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashok K.; Ines, Amor V. M.; Das, Narendra N.; Prakash Khedun, C.; Singh, Vijay P.; Sivakumar, Bellie; Hansen, James W.

    2015-07-01

    Drought is of global concern for society but it originates as a local problem. It has a significant impact on water quantity and quality and influences food, water, and energy security. The consequences of drought vary in space and time, from the local scale (e.g. county level) to regional scale (e.g. state or country level) to global scale. Within the regional scale, there are multiple socio-economic impacts (i.e., agriculture, drinking water supply, and stream health) occurring individually or in combination at local scales, either in clusters or scattered. Even though the application of aggregated drought information at the regional level has been useful in drought management, the latter can be further improved by evaluating the structure and evolution of a drought at the local scale. This study addresses a local-scale agricultural drought anatomy in Story County in Iowa, USA. This complex problem was evaluated using assimilated AMSR-E soil moisture and MODIS-LAI data into a crop model to generate surface and sub-surface drought indices to explore the anatomy of an agricultural drought. Quantification of moisture supply in the root zone remains a gray area in research community, this challenge can be partly overcome by incorporating assimilation of soil moisture and leaf area index into crop modeling framework for agricultural drought quantification, as it performs better in simulating crop yield. It was noted that the persistence of subsurface droughts is in general higher than surface droughts, which can potentially improve forecast accuracy. It was found that both surface and subsurface droughts have an impact on crop yields, albeit with different magnitudes, however, the total water available in the soil profile seemed to have a greater impact on the yield. Further, agricultural drought should not be treated equal for all crops, and it should be calculated based on the root zone depth rather than a fixed soil layer depth. We envisaged that the results of

  2. Determination of the atomic C/N assimilation ratio values of a pure culture of dunaliella and samples from rivers in Terengganu using the sup 14 C tracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokman bin Shamsudin

    1990-01-01

    The C/N assimilation ratio has been defined by Chan and Raine as the ratio of carbon assimilated by a given algal population to that of the total inorganic nitrogen assimilated. The apparent carbon to nitrogen assimilation ratio for Dunaliella (pure algal culture) as well as subsurface water taken from some rivers in Terengganu was mainly attributed to the assimilation of the type of inorganic nitrogen, namely ammonium or nitrate found in the medium. The high C/N value for the various water samples was mainly attributed to the assimilation of ammonium nitrogen available in large amount in the tropical aquatic environment. The ammonium-nitrogen contents exceeds that of nitrate contents at the two stations

  3. An extended Fourier modal method for plane-wave scattering from finite structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisarenco, M.; Maubach, J.M.L.; Setija, I.D.; Mattheij, R.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends the area of application of the Fourier modal method from periodic structures to aperiodic ones, in particular for plane-wave illumination at arbitrary angles. This is achieved by placing perfectly matched layers at the lateral sides of the computational domain and reformulating

  4. Stress Wave Propagation in Soils Modelled by the Boundary Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K. M.

    This thesis deals with different aspects of the boundary element method (BEM) applied to stress wave propagation problems in soils. Among other things BEM formulations for coupled FEM and BEM, moving loads, direct BEM and indirect BEM are presented. For all the formulations both analytical...

  5. A Fatigue Crack Size Evaluation Method Based on Lamb Wave Simulation and Limited Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing He

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic and general method for Lamb wave-based crack size quantification using finite element simulations and Bayesian updating. The method consists of construction of a baseline quantification model using finite element simulation data and Bayesian updating with limited Lamb wave data from target structure. The baseline model correlates two proposed damage sensitive features, namely the normalized amplitude and phase change, with the crack length through a response surface model. The two damage sensitive features are extracted from the first received S0 mode wave package. The model parameters of the baseline model are estimated using finite element simulation data. To account for uncertainties from numerical modeling, geometry, material and manufacturing between the baseline model and the target model, Bayesian method is employed to update the baseline model with a few measurements acquired from the actual target structure. A rigorous validation is made using in-situ fatigue testing and Lamb wave data from coupon specimens and realistic lap-joint components. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated under different loading and damage conditions.

  6. A Semi-Analytical Method for the PDFs of A Ship Rolling in Random Oblique Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-qin; Liu, Ya-liu; Xu, Wan-hai; Li, Yan; Tang, You-gang

    2018-03-01

    The PDFs (probability density functions) and probability of a ship rolling under the random parametric and forced excitations were studied by a semi-analytical method. The rolling motion equation of the ship in random oblique waves was established. The righting arm obtained by the numerical simulation was approximately fitted by an analytical function. The irregular waves were decomposed into two Gauss stationary random processes, and the CARMA (2, 1) model was used to fit the spectral density function of parametric and forced excitations. The stochastic energy envelope averaging method was used to solve the PDFs and the probability. The validity of the semi-analytical method was verified by the Monte Carlo method. The C11 ship was taken as an example, and the influences of the system parameters on the PDFs and probability were analyzed. The results show that the probability of ship rolling is affected by the characteristic wave height, wave length, and the heading angle. In order to provide proper advice for the ship's manoeuvring, the parametric excitations should be considered appropriately when the ship navigates in the oblique seas.

  7. Asymptotic method for non-linear magnetosonic waves in an isothermal plasma with a finite conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fusco, D [Messina Univ. (Italy). Instituto de Matematica

    1979-01-01

    The paper is concerned with a three-dimensional theory of non-linear magnetosonic waves in a turbulent plasma. A perturbation method is used that allows a transport equation, like Burgers equation but with a variable coefficient to be obtained.

  8. Splendor and misery of the distorted wave method applied to heavy ions transfer reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermaz, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    The success and failure of the Distorted Wave Method (DWM) applied to heavy ion transfer reactions are illustrated by few examples: one and multi-nucleon transfer reactions induced by 15 N and 18 O on 28 Si target nucleus performed on the vicinity of Coulomb barrier respectively at 44 and 56 MeV incident energy

  9. Symmetrized partial-wave method for density-functional cluster calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averill, F.W.; Painter, G.S.

    1994-01-01

    The computational advantage and accuracy of the Harris method is linked to the simplicity and adequacy of the reference-density model. In an earlier paper, we investigated one way the Harris functional could be extended to systems outside the limits of weakly interacting atoms by making the charge density of the interacting atoms self-consistent within the constraints of overlapping spherical atomic densities. In the present study, a method is presented for augmenting the interacting atom charge densities with symmetrized partial-wave expansions on each atomic site. The added variational freedom of the partial waves leads to a scheme capable of giving exact results within a given exchange-correlation approximation while maintaining many of the desirable convergence and stability properties of the original Harris method. Incorporation of the symmetry of the cluster in the partial-wave construction further reduces the level of computational effort. This partial-wave cluster method is illustrated by its application to the dimer C 2 , the hypothetical atomic cluster Fe 6 Al 8 , and the benzene molecule

  10. The success of the distorted wave method at very high incident energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrette, J.; Berthier, B.; Gastebois, J.

    1986-05-01

    The one-proton and one-neutron direct surface transfer reactions induced by 793 MeV 16 O incident energy beam bombarding a 208 Pb target nucleus, are widely explained by two selection rules contained in the Dirtorted Wave Method formalism

  11. Multiple attenuation to reflection seismic data using Radon filter and Wave Equation Multiple Rejection (WEMR) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erlangga, Mokhammad Puput [Geophysical Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Ganesha Street no.10 Basic Science B Buliding fl.2-3 Bandung, 40132, West Java Indonesia puput.erlangga@gmail.com (Indonesia)

    2015-04-16

    Separation between signal and noise, incoherent or coherent, is important in seismic data processing. Although we have processed the seismic data, the coherent noise is still mixing with the primary signal. Multiple reflections are a kind of coherent noise. In this research, we processed seismic data to attenuate multiple reflections in the both synthetic and real seismic data of Mentawai. There are several methods to attenuate multiple reflection, one of them is Radon filter method that discriminates between primary reflection and multiple reflection in the τ-p domain based on move out difference between primary reflection and multiple reflection. However, in case where the move out difference is too small, the Radon filter method is not enough to attenuate the multiple reflections. The Radon filter also produces the artifacts on the gathers data. Except the Radon filter method, we also use the Wave Equation Multiple Elimination (WEMR) method to attenuate the long period multiple reflection. The WEMR method can attenuate the long period multiple reflection based on wave equation inversion. Refer to the inversion of wave equation and the magnitude of the seismic wave amplitude that observed on the free surface, we get the water bottom reflectivity which is used to eliminate the multiple reflections. The WEMR method does not depend on the move out difference to attenuate the long period multiple reflection. Therefore, the WEMR method can be applied to the seismic data which has small move out difference as the Mentawai seismic data. The small move out difference on the Mentawai seismic data is caused by the restrictiveness of far offset, which is only 705 meter. We compared the real free multiple stacking data after processing with Radon filter and WEMR process. The conclusion is the WEMR method can more attenuate the long period multiple reflection than the Radon filter method on the real (Mentawai) seismic data.

  12. Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) is the system used by the Global Forecast System (GFS) model to place observations into a gridded model space for the...

  13. Data assimilation in hydrological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drecourt, Jean-Philippe

    Data assimilation is an invaluable tool in hydrological modelling as it allows to efficiently combine scarce data with a numerical model to obtain improved model predictions. In addition, data assimilation also provides an uncertainty analysis of the predictions made by the hydrological model....... In this thesis, the Kalman filter is used for data assimilation with a focus on groundwater modelling. However the developed techniques are general and can be applied also in other modelling domains. Modelling involves conceptualization of the processes of Nature. Data assimilation provides a way to deal...... with model non-linearities and biased errors. A literature review analyzes the most popular techniques and their application in hydrological modelling. Since bias is an important problem in groundwater modelling, two bias aware Kalman filters have been implemented and compared using an artificial test case...

  14. Data Assimilation in Marine Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendall, Jan

    maximum likelihood framework. These issues are discussed in paper B. The third part of the thesis falls a bit out of the above context is work published in papers C, F. In the first paper, a simple data assimilation scheme was investigated to examine the potential benefits of incorporating a data......This thesis consists of six research papers published or submitted for publication in the period 2006-2009 together with a summary report. The main topics of this thesis are nonlinear data assimilation techniques and estimation in dynamical models. The focus has been on the nonlinear filtering...... techniques for large scale geophysical numerical models and making them feasible to work with in the data assimilation framework. The filtering techniques investigated are all Monte Carlo simulation based. Some very nice features that can be exploited in the Monte Carlo based data assimilation framework from...

  15. Multigrid preconditioned conjugate-gradient method for large-scale wave-front reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Luc; Vogel, Curtis R; Ellerbroek, Brent L

    2002-09-01

    We introduce a multigrid preconditioned conjugate-gradient (MGCG) iterative scheme for computing open-loop wave-front reconstructors for extreme adaptive optics systems. We present numerical simulations for a 17-m class telescope with n = 48756 sensor measurement grid points within the aperture, which indicate that our MGCG method has a rapid convergence rate for a wide range of subaperture average slope measurement signal-to-noise ratios. The total computational cost is of order n log n. Hence our scheme provides for fast wave-front simulation and control in large-scale adaptive optics systems.

  16. Tsunami Modeling and Prediction Using a Data Assimilation Technique with Kalman Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnier, G.; Dunham, E. M.

    2016-12-01

    Earthquake-induced tsunamis cause dramatic damages along densely populated coastlines. It is difficult to predict and anticipate tsunami waves in advance, but if the earthquake occurs far enough from the coast, there may be enough time to evacuate the zones at risk. Therefore, any real-time information on the tsunami wavefield (as it propagates towards the coast) is extremely valuable for early warning systems. After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, a dense tsunami-monitoring network (S-net) based on cabled ocean-bottom pressure sensors has been deployed along the Pacific coast in Northeastern Japan. Maeda et al. (GRL, 2015) introduced a data assimilation technique to reconstruct the tsunami wavefield in real time by combining numerical solution of the shallow water wave equations with additional terms penalizing the numerical solution for not matching observations. The penalty or gain matrix is determined though optimal interpolation and is independent of time. Here we explore a related data assimilation approach using the Kalman filter method to evolve the gain matrix. While more computationally expensive, the Kalman filter approach potentially provides more accurate reconstructions. We test our method on a 1D tsunami model derived from the Kozdon and Dunham (EPSL, 2014) dynamic rupture simulations of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. For appropriate choices of model and data covariance matrices, the method reconstructs the tsunami wavefield prior to wave arrival at the coast. We plan to compare the Kalman filter method to the optimal interpolation method developed by Maeda et al. (GRL, 2015) and then to implement the method for 2D.

  17. Pseudo-spectral method using rotated staggered grid for elastic wave propagation in 3D arbitrary anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Zou, Peng; Cheng, Jiubing

    2017-01-01

    -difference method, we propose a modified pseudo-spectral method for wave propagation in arbitrary anisotropic media. Compared with an existing remedy of staggered-grid pseudo-spectral method based on stiffness matrix decomposition and a possible alternative using

  18. Assessment of high-resolution methods for numerical simulations of compressible turbulence with shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsen, Eric; Larsson, Johan; Bhagatwala, Ankit V.; Cabot, William H.; Moin, Parviz; Olson, Britton J.; Rawat, Pradeep S.; Shankar, Santhosh K.; Sjoegreen, Bjoern; Yee, H.C.; Zhong Xiaolin; Lele, Sanjiva K.

    2010-01-01

    Flows in which shock waves and turbulence are present and interact dynamically occur in a wide range of applications, including inertial confinement fusion, supernovae explosion, and scramjet propulsion. Accurate simulations of such problems are challenging because of the contradictory requirements of numerical methods used to simulate turbulence, which must minimize any numerical dissipation that would otherwise overwhelm the small scales, and shock-capturing schemes, which introduce numerical dissipation to stabilize the solution. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the performance of several numerical methods capable of simultaneously handling turbulence and shock waves. A comprehensive range of high-resolution methods (WENO, hybrid WENO/central difference, artificial diffusivity, adaptive characteristic-based filter, and shock fitting) and suite of test cases (Taylor-Green vortex, Shu-Osher problem, shock-vorticity/entropy wave interaction, Noh problem, compressible isotropic turbulence) relevant to problems with shocks and turbulence are considered. The results indicate that the WENO methods provide sharp shock profiles, but overwhelm the physical dissipation. The hybrid method is minimally dissipative and leads to sharp shocks and well-resolved broadband turbulence, but relies on an appropriate shock sensor. Artificial diffusivity methods in which the artificial bulk viscosity is based on the magnitude of the strain-rate tensor resolve vortical structures well but damp dilatational modes in compressible turbulence; dilatation-based artificial bulk viscosity methods significantly improve this behavior. For well-defined shocks, the shock fitting approach yields good results.

  19. Comparison of the surface wave method and the indentation method for measuring the elasticity of gelatin phantoms of different concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Qiang, Bo; Greenleaf, James

    2011-02-01

    The speed of the surface Rayleigh wave, which is related to the viscoelastic properties of the medium, can be measured by noninvasive and noncontact methods. This technique has been applied in biomedical applications such as detecting skin diseases. Static spherical indentation, which quantifies material elasticity through the relationship between loading force and displacement, has been applied in various areas including a number of biomedical applications. This paper compares the results obtained from these two methods on five gelatin phantoms of different concentrations (5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15%). The concentrations are chosen because the elasticity of such gelatin phantoms is close to that of tissue types such as skin. The results show that both the surface wave method and the static spherical indentation method produce the same values for shear elasticity. For example, the shear elasticities measured by the surface wave method are 1.51, 2.75, 5.34, 6.90 and 8.40kPa on the five phantoms, respectively. In addition, by studying the dispersion curve of the surface wave speed, shear viscosity can be extracted. The measured shear viscosities are 0.00, 0.00, 0.13, 0.39 and 1.22Pa.s on the five phantoms, respectively. The results also show that the shear elasticity of the gelatin phantoms increases linearly with their prepared concentrations. The linear regressions between concentration and shear elasticity have R(2) values larger than 0.98 for both methods. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A New Method to Extract CSP Gather of Topography for Scattered Wave Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The seismic method is one of the major geophysical tools to study the structure of the earth. The extraction of the common scatter point (CSP gather is a critical step to accomplish the seismic imaging with a scattered wave. Conventionally, the CSP gather is obtained with the assumption that the earth surface is horizontal. However, errors are introduced to the final imaging result if the seismic traces obtained at the rugged surface are processed using the conventional method. Hence, we propose the method of the extraction of the CSP gather for the seismic data collected at the rugged surface. The proposed method is validated by two numerical examples and expected to reduce the effect of the topography on the scattered wave imaging.

  1. A stabilised nodal spectral element method for fully nonlinear water waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Eskilsson, C.; Bigoni, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    can cause severe aliasing problems and consequently numerical instability for marginally resolved or very steep waves. We show how the scheme can be stabilised through a combination of over-integration of the Galerkin projections and a mild spectral filtering on a per element basis. This effectively......We present an arbitrary-order spectral element method for general-purpose simulation of non-overturning water waves, described by fully nonlinear potential theory. The method can be viewed as a high-order extension of the classical finite element method proposed by Cai et al. (1998) [5], although...... the numerical implementation differs greatly. Features of the proposed spectral element method include: nodal Lagrange basis functions, a general quadrature-free approach and gradient recovery using global L2 projections. The quartic nonlinear terms present in the Zakharov form of the free surface conditions...

  2. High-precision terahertz frequency modulated continuous wave imaging method using continuous wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Wang, Tianyi; Dai, Bing; Li, Wenjun; Wang, Wei; You, Chengwu; Wang, Kejia; Liu, Jinsong; Wang, Shenglie; Yang, Zhengang

    2018-02-01

    Inspired by the extensive application of terahertz (THz) imaging technologies in the field of aerospace, we exploit a THz frequency modulated continuous-wave imaging method with continuous wavelet transform (CWT) algorithm to detect a multilayer heat shield made of special materials. This method uses the frequency modulation continuous-wave system to catch the reflected THz signal and then process the image data by the CWT with different basis functions. By calculating the sizes of the defects area in the final images and then comparing the results with real samples, a practical high-precision THz imaging method is demonstrated. Our method can be an effective tool for the THz nondestructive testing of composites, drugs, and some cultural heritages.

  3. A system and method for online high-resolution mapping of gastric slow-wave activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Simon H; O'Grady, Gregory; Du, Peng; Cheng, Leo K

    2014-11-01

    High-resolution (HR) mapping employs multielectrode arrays to achieve spatially detailed analyses of propagating bioelectrical events. A major current limitation is that spatial analyses must currently be performed "off-line" (after experiments), compromising timely recording feedback and restricting experimental interventions. These problems motivated development of a system and method for "online" HR mapping. HR gastric recordings were acquired and streamed to a novel software client. Algorithms were devised to filter data, identify slow-wave events, eliminate corrupt channels, and cluster activation events. A graphical user interface animated data and plotted electrograms and maps. Results were compared against off-line methods. The online system analyzed 256-channel serosal recordings with no unexpected system terminations with a mean delay 18 s. Activation time marking sensitivity was 0.92; positive predictive value was 0.93. Abnormal slow-wave patterns including conduction blocks, ectopic pacemaking, and colliding wave fronts were reliably identified. Compared to traditional analysis methods, online mapping had comparable results with equivalent coverage of 90% of electrodes, average RMS errors of less than 1 s, and CC of activation maps of 0.99. Accurate slow-wave mapping was achieved in near real-time, enabling monitoring of recording quality and experimental interventions targeted to dysrhythmic onset. This work also advances the translation of HR mapping toward real-time clinical application.

  4. Imaging of underground karst water channels using an improved multichannel transient Rayleigh wave detecting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xuhui; Liu, Lei; Sun, Jinzhong; Li, Gao; Zhou, Fubiao; Xu, Jiemin

    2018-01-01

    Geological and hydrogeological conditions in karst areas are complicated from the viewpoint of engineering. The construction of underground structures in these areas is often disturbed by the gushing of karst water, which may delay the construction schedule, result in economic losses, and even cause heavy casualties. In this paper, an innovative method of multichannel transient Rayleigh wave detecting is proposed by introducing the concept of arrival time difference phase between channels (TDP). Overcoming the restriction of the space-sampling law, the proposed method can extract the phase velocities of different frequency components from only two channels of transient Rayleigh wave recorded on two adjacent detecting points. This feature greatly improves the work efficiency and lateral resolution of transient Rayleigh wave detecting. The improved multichannel transient Rayleigh wave detecting method is applied to the detection of karst caves and fractures in rock mass of the foundation pit of Yan'an Road Station of Guiyang Metro. The imaging of the detecting results clearly reveals the distribution of karst water inflow channels, which provided significant guidance for water plugging and enabled good control over karst water gushing in the foundation pit.

  5. Optimization method for identifying the source term in an inverse wave equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Deiveegan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigate the inverse problem of identifying a space-wise dependent source term of wave equation from the measurement on the boundary. On the basis of the optimal control framework, the inverse problem is transformed into an optimization problem. The existence and necessary condition of the minimizer for the cost functional are obtained. The projected gradient method and two-parameter model function method are applied to the minimization problem and numerical results are illustrated.

  6. WaveSeq: a novel data-driven method of detecting histone modification enrichments using wavelets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apratim Mitra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next-generation sequencing is a genome-wide analysis technique that can be used to detect various epigenetic phenomena such as, transcription factor binding sites and histone modifications. Histone modification profiles can be either punctate or diffuse which makes it difficult to distinguish regions of enrichment from background noise. With the discovery of histone marks having a wide variety of enrichment patterns, there is an urgent need for analysis methods that are robust to various data characteristics and capable of detecting a broad range of enrichment patterns. RESULTS: To address these challenges we propose WaveSeq, a novel data-driven method of detecting regions of significant enrichment in ChIP-Seq data. Our approach utilizes the wavelet transform, is free of distributional assumptions and is robust to diverse data characteristics such as low signal-to-noise ratios and broad enrichment patterns. Using publicly available datasets we showed that WaveSeq compares favorably with other published methods, exhibiting high sensitivity and precision for both punctate and diffuse enrichment regions even in the absence of a control data set. The application of our algorithm to a complex histone modification data set helped make novel functional discoveries which further underlined its utility in such an experimental setup. CONCLUSIONS: WaveSeq is a highly sensitive method capable of accurate identification of enriched regions in a broad range of data sets. WaveSeq can detect both narrow and broad peaks with a high degree of accuracy even in low signal-to-noise ratio data sets. WaveSeq is also suited for application in complex experimental scenarios, helping make biologically relevant functional discoveries.

  7. Application of Wave Distribution Function Method to the ERG/PWE Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, M.; Kasahara, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Kojima, H.; Matsuoka, A.; Hikishima, M.; Kasaba, Y.; Ozaki, M.; Yagitani, S.; Tsuchiya, F.; Kumamoto, A.

    2017-12-01

    The ERG (Arase) satellite was launched on 20 December 2016 to study acceleration and loss mechanisms of relativistic electrons in the Earth's magnetosphere. The Plasma Wave Experiment (PWE), which is one of the science instruments on board the ERG satellite, measures electric field and magnetic field. The PWE consists of three sub-systems; EFD (Electric Field Detector), OFA/WFC (Onboard Frequency Analyzer and Waveform Capture), and HFA (High Frequency Analyzer).The OFA/WFC measures electromagnetic field spectra and raw waveforms in the frequency range from few Hz to 20 kHz. The OFA produces three kind of data; OFA-SPEC (power spectrum), OFA-MATRIX (spectral matrix), and OFA-COMPLEX (complex spectrum). The OFA-MATRIX measures ensemble averaged complex cross-spectra of two electric field components, and of three magnetic field components. The OFA-COMPLEX measures instantaneous complex spectra of electric and magnetic fields. These data are produced every 8 seconds in the nominal mode, and it can be used for polarization analysis and wave propagation direction finding.In general, spectral matrix composed by cross-spectra of observed signals is used for direction finding, and many algorithms have been proposed. For example, Means method and SVD method can be applied on the assumption that the spectral matrix is consists of a single plane wave, while wave distribution function (WDF) method is applicable even to the data in which multiple numbers of plane waves are simultaneously included. In this presentation, we introduce the results when the WDF method is applied to the ERG/PWE data.

  8. Three-Dimensional Passive-Source Reverse-Time Migration of Converted Waves: The Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahang; Shen, Yang; Zhang, Wei

    2018-02-01

    At seismic discontinuities in the crust and mantle, part of the compressional wave energy converts to shear wave, and vice versa. These converted waves have been widely used in receiver function (RF) studies to image discontinuity structures in the Earth. While generally successful, the conventional RF method has its limitations and is suited mostly to flat or gently dipping structures. Among the efforts to overcome the limitations of the conventional RF method is the development of the wave-theory-based, passive-source reverse-time migration (PS-RTM) for imaging complex seismic discontinuities and scatters. To date, PS-RTM has been implemented only in 2D in the Cartesian coordinate for local problems and thus has limited applicability. In this paper, we introduce a 3D PS-RTM approach in the spherical coordinate, which is better suited for regional and global problems. New computational procedures are developed to reduce artifacts and enhance migrated images, including back-propagating the main arrival and the coda containing the converted waves separately, using a modified Helmholtz decomposition operator to separate the P and S modes in the back-propagated wavefields, and applying an imaging condition that maintains a consistent polarity for a given velocity contrast. Our new approach allows us to use migration velocity models with realistic velocity discontinuities, improving accuracy of the migrated images. We present several synthetic experiments to demonstrate the method, using regional and teleseismic sources. The results show that both regional and teleseismic sources can illuminate complex structures and this method is well suited for imaging dipping interfaces and sharp lateral changes in discontinuity structures.

  9. Improving operational flood forecasting through data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovec, Oldrich; Weerts, Albrecht; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Hazenberg, Pieter; Torfs, Paul

    2010-05-01

    Accurate flood forecasts have been a challenging topic in hydrology for decades. Uncertainty in hydrological forecasts is due to errors in initial state (e.g. forcing errors in historical mode), errors in model structure and parameters and last but not least the errors in model forcings (weather forecasts) during the forecast mode. More accurate flood forecasts can be obtained through data assimilation by merging observations with model simulations. This enables to identify the sources of uncertainties in the flood forecasting system. Our aim is to assess the different sources of error that affect the initial state and to investigate how they propagate through hydrological models with different levels of spatial variation, starting from lumped models. The knowledge thus obtained can then be used in a data assimilation scheme to improve the flood forecasts. This study presents the first results of this framework and focuses on quantifying precipitation errors and its effect on discharge simulations within the Ourthe catchment (1600 km2), which is situated in the Belgian Ardennes and is one of the larger subbasins of the Meuse River. Inside the catchment, hourly rain gauge information from 10 different locations is available over a period of 15 years. Based on these time series, the bootstrap method has been applied to generate precipitation ensembles. These were then used to simulate the catchment's discharges at the outlet. The corresponding streamflow ensembles were further assimilated with observed river discharges to update the model states of lumped hydrological models (R-PDM, HBV) through Residual Resampling. This particle filtering technique is a sequential data assimilation method and takes no prior assumption of the probability density function for the model states, which in contrast to the Ensemble Kalman filter does not have to be Gaussian. Our further research will be aimed at quantifying and reducing the sources of uncertainty that affect the initial

  10. Disconfirmed hedonic expectations produce perceptual contrast, not assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, Debra A; Strickhouser, Dinah; Tornow, Carina E

    2004-01-01

    In studies of hedonic ratings, contrast is the usual result when expectations about test stimuli are produced through the presentation of context stimuli, whereas assimilation is the usual result when expectations about test stimuli are produced through labeling, advertising, or the relaying of information to the subject about the test stimuli. Both procedures produce expectations that are subsequently violated, but the outcomes are different. The present studies demonstrate that both assimilation and contrast can occur even when expectations are produced by verbal labels and the degree of violation of the expectation is held constant. One factor determining whether assimilation or contrast occurs appears to be the certainty of the expectation. Expectations that convey certainty are produced by methods that lead to social influence on subjects' ratings, producing assimilation. When social influence is not a factor and subjects give judgments influenced only by the perceived hedonic value of the stimulus, contrast is the result.

  11. Satellite Sounder Data Assimilation for Improving Alaska Region Weather Forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Stevens, E.; Zavodsky, B. T.; Zhang, X.; Heinrichs, T.; Broderson, D.

    2014-01-01

    Data assimilation has been demonstrated very useful in improving both global and regional numerical weather prediction. Alaska has very coarser surface observation sites. On the other hand, it gets much more satellite overpass than lower 48 states. How to utilize satellite data to improve numerical prediction is one of hot topics among weather forecast community in Alaska. The Geographic Information Network of Alaska (GINA) at University of Alaska is conducting study on satellite data assimilation for WRF model. AIRS/CRIS sounder profile data are used to assimilate the initial condition for the customized regional WRF model (GINA-WRF model). Normalized standard deviation, RMSE, and correlation statistic analysis methods are applied to analyze one case of 48 hours forecasts and one month of 24-hour forecasts in order to evaluate the improvement of regional numerical model from Data assimilation. The final goal of the research is to provide improved real-time short-time forecast for Alaska regions.

  12. Identifying deterministic signals in simulated gravitational wave data: algorithmic complexity and the surrogate data method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yi; Small, Michael; Coward, David; Howell, Eric; Zhao Chunnong; Ju Li; Blair, David

    2006-01-01

    We describe the application of complexity estimation and the surrogate data method to identify deterministic dynamics in simulated gravitational wave (GW) data contaminated with white and coloured noises. The surrogate method uses algorithmic complexity as a discriminating statistic to decide if noisy data contain a statistically significant level of deterministic dynamics (the GW signal). The results illustrate that the complexity method is sensitive to a small amplitude simulated GW background (SNR down to 0.08 for white noise and 0.05 for coloured noise) and is also more robust than commonly used linear methods (autocorrelation or Fourier analysis)

  13. A Galerkin Finite Element Method for Numerical Solutions of the Modified Regularized Long Wave Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liquan Mei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Galerkin method for a modified regularized long wave equation is studied using finite elements in space, the Crank-Nicolson scheme, and the Runge-Kutta scheme in time. In addition, an extrapolation technique is used to transform a nonlinear system into a linear system in order to improve the time accuracy of this method. A Fourier stability analysis for the method is shown to be marginally stable. Three invariants of motion are investigated. Numerical experiments are presented to check the theoretical study of this method.

  14. Modification of 2-D Time-Domain Shallow Water Wave Equation using Asymptotic Expansion Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuman, Teuku; Nasruddin, MN; Tulus; Ramli, Marwan

    2018-01-01

    Generally, research on the tsunami wave propagation model can be conducted by using a linear model of shallow water theory, where a non-linear side on high order is ignored. In line with research on the investigation of the tsunami waves, the Boussinesq equation model underwent a change aimed to obtain an improved quality of the dispersion relation and non-linearity by increasing the order to be higher. To solve non-linear sides at high order is used a asymptotic expansion method. This method can be used to solve non linear partial differential equations. In the present work, we found that this method needs much computational time and memory with the increase of the number of elements.

  15. Rayleigh's, Stoneley's, and Scholte's Interface Waves in Elastic Models Using a Boundary Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Flores-Mendez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on studying interface waves for three canonical models, that is, interfaces formed by vacuum-solid, solid-solid, and liquid-solid. These interfaces excited by dynamic loads cause the emergence of Rayleigh's, Stoneley's, and Scholte's waves, respectively. To perform the study, the indirect boundary element method is used, which has proved to be a powerful tool for numerical modeling of problems in elastodynamics. In essence, the method expresses the diffracted wave field of stresses, pressures, and displacements by a boundary integral, also known as single-layer representation, whose shape can be regarded as a Fredholm's integral representation of second kind and zero order. This representation can be considered as an exemplification of Huygens' principle, which is equivalent to Somigliana's representation theorem. Results in frequency domain for the three types of interfaces are presented; then, using the fourier discrete transform, we derive the results in time domain, where the emergence of interface waves is highlighted.

  16. Hyperspherical time-dependent method with semiclassical outgoing waves for double photoionization of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazansky, A.K.; Selles, P.; Malegat, L.

    2003-01-01

    The hyperspherical time-dependent method with semiclassical outgoing waves for study of double photoionization of helium is presented. It is closely related to the hyperspherical R-matrix method with semiclassical outgoing waves [Phys. Rev. A 65, 032711 (2002)]: both split configuration space into two regions to solve the stationary inhomogeneous Schroedinger equation associated with the one-photon ionization problem, and both apply the same treatment to the outer region. However, the two methods differ radically in their treatments of the problem in the inner region: the most recent one applies a time-dependent approach for calculating the stationary wave function, while the previous one uses a R-matrix treatment. The excellent agreement observed between the triple differential cross sections obtained from these two basically different methods provides very strong support for both of them. Importantly, the very different numerical structures of both methods might make the most recent one a better candidate for investigating the near-threshold region

  17. A stochastic collocation method for the second order wave equation with a discontinuous random speed

    KAUST Repository

    Motamed, Mohammad

    2012-08-31

    In this paper we propose and analyze a stochastic collocation method for solving the second order wave equation with a random wave speed and subjected to deterministic boundary and initial conditions. The speed is piecewise smooth in the physical space and depends on a finite number of random variables. The numerical scheme consists of a finite difference or finite element method in the physical space and a collocation in the zeros of suitable tensor product orthogonal polynomials (Gauss points) in the probability space. This approach leads to the solution of uncoupled deterministic problems as in the Monte Carlo method. We consider both full and sparse tensor product spaces of orthogonal polynomials. We provide a rigorous convergence analysis and demonstrate different types of convergence of the probability error with respect to the number of collocation points for full and sparse tensor product spaces and under some regularity assumptions on the data. In particular, we show that, unlike in elliptic and parabolic problems, the solution to hyperbolic problems is not in general analytic with respect to the random variables. Therefore, the rate of convergence may only be algebraic. An exponential/fast rate of convergence is still possible for some quantities of interest and for the wave solution with particular types of data. We present numerical examples, which confirm the analysis and show that the collocation method is a valid alternative to the more traditional Monte Carlo method for this class of problems. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

  18. Ultrasound viscoelasticity assessment using an adaptive torsional shear wave propagation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouared, Abderrahmane [Laboratory of Biorheology and Medical Ultrasonics, University of Montréal Hospital Research Center (CRCHUM), Montréal, Québec H2X 0A9, Canada and Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Kazemirad, Siavash; Montagnon, Emmanuel [Laboratory of Biorheology and Medical Ultrasonics, University of Montréal Hospital Research Center (CRCHUM), Montréal, Québec H2X 0A9 (Canada); Cloutier, Guy, E-mail: guy.cloutier@umontreal.ca [Laboratory of Biorheology and Medical Ultrasonics, University of Montréal Hospital Research Center (CRCHUM), Montréal, Québec H2X 0A9 (Canada); Department of Radiology, Radio-Oncology and Nuclear Medicine, University of Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3T 1J4 (Canada); Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Montréal, Montréal, Québec H3T 1J4 (Canada)

    2016-04-15

    Purpose: Different approaches have been used in dynamic elastography to assess mechanical properties of biological tissues. Most techniques are based on a simple inversion based on the measurement of the shear wave speed to assess elasticity, whereas some recent strategies use more elaborated analytical or finite element method (FEM) models. In this study, a new method is proposed for the quantification of both shear storage and loss moduli of confined lesions, in the context of breast imaging, using adaptive torsional shear waves (ATSWs) generated remotely with radiation pressure. Methods: A FEM model was developed to solve the inverse wave propagation problem and obtain viscoelastic properties of interrogated media. The inverse problem was formulated and solved in the frequency domain and its robustness to noise and geometric constraints was evaluated. The proposed model was validated in vitro with two independent rheology methods on several homogeneous and heterogeneous breast tissue-mimicking phantoms over a broad range of frequencies (up to 400 Hz). Results: Viscoelastic properties matched benchmark rheology methods with discrepancies of 8%–38% for the shear modulus G′ and 9%–67% for the loss modulus G″. The robustness study indicated good estimations of storage and loss moduli (maximum mean errors of 19% on G′ and 32% on G″) for signal-to-noise ratios between 19.5 and 8.5 dB. Larger errors were noticed in the case of biases in lesion dimension and position. Conclusions: The ATSW method revealed that it is possible to estimate the viscoelasticity of biological tissues with torsional shear waves when small biases in lesion geometry exist.

  19. Solitary wave solutions to the modified form of Camassa-Holm equation by means of the homotopy analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasbandy, S.

    2009-01-01

    Solitary wave solutions to the modified form of Camassa-Holm (CH) equation are sought. In this work, the homotopy analysis method (HAM), one of the most effective method, is applied to obtain the soliton wave solutions with and without continuity of first derivatives at crest

  20. Non-contact radio frequency shielding and wave guiding by multi-folded transformation optics method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madni, Hamza Ahmad; Zheng, Bin; Yang, Yihao; Wang, Huaping; Zhang, Xianmin; Yin, Wenyan; Li, Erping; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-11-14

    Compared with conventional radio frequency (RF) shielding methods in which the conductive coating material encloses the circuits design and the leakage problem occurs due to the gap in such conductive material, non-contact RF shielding at a distance is very promising but still impossible to achieve so far. In this paper, a multi-folded transformation optics method is proposed to design a non-contact device for RF shielding. This "open-shielded" device can shield any object at a distance from the electromagnetic waves at the operating frequency, while the object is still physically open to the outer space. Based on this, an open-carpet cloak is proposed and the functionality of the open-carpet cloak is demonstrated. Furthermore, we investigate a scheme of non-contact wave guiding to remotely control the propagation of surface waves over any obstacles. The flexibilities of such multi-folded transformation optics method demonstrate the powerfulness of the method in the design of novel remote devices with impressive new functionalities.

  1. Piecewise parabolic method for simulating one-dimensional shear shock wave propagation in tissue-mimicking phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, B. B.; Espíndola, D.; Pinton, G. F.

    2017-11-01

    The recent discovery of shear shock wave generation and propagation in the porcine brain suggests that this new shock phenomenology may be responsible for a broad range of traumatic injuries. Blast-induced head movement can indirectly lead to shear wave generation in the brain, which could be a primary mechanism for injury. Shear shock waves amplify the local acceleration deep in the brain by up to a factor of 8.5, which may tear and damage neurons. Currently, there are numerical methods that can model compressional shock waves, such as comparatively well-studied blast waves, but there are no numerical full-wave solvers that can simulate nonlinear shear shock waves in soft solids. Unlike simplified representations, e.g., retarded time, full-wave representations describe fundamental physical behavior such as reflection and heterogeneities. Here we present a piecewise parabolic method-based solver for one-dimensional linearly polarized nonlinear shear wave in a homogeneous medium and with empirical frequency-dependent attenuation. This method has the advantage of being higher order and more directly extendable to multiple dimensions and heterogeneous media. The proposed numerical scheme is validated analytically and experimentally and compared to other shock capturing methods. A Riemann step-shock problem is used to characterize the numerical dissipation. This dissipation is then tuned to be negligible with respect to the physical attenuation by choosing an appropriate grid spacing. The numerical results are compared to ultrasound-based experiments that measure planar polarized shear shock wave propagation in a tissue-mimicking gelatin phantom. Good agreement is found between numerical results and experiment across a 40 mm propagation distance. We anticipate that the proposed method will be a starting point for the development of a two- and three-dimensional full-wave code for the propagation of nonlinear shear waves in heterogeneous media.

  2. Zero Field Splitting of the chalcogen diatomics using relativistic correlated wave-function methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rota, Jean-Baptiste; Knecht, Stefan; Fleig, Timo

    2011-01-01

    The spectrum arising from the (π*)2 configuration of the chalcogen dimers, namely the X21, a2 and b0+ states, is calculated using Wave-Function Theory (WFT) based methods. Two-component (2c) and four-component (4c) MultiReference Configuration Interaction (MRCI) and Fock-Space Coupled Cluster (FSCC......) methods are used as well as two-step methods Spin-Orbit Complete Active Space Perturbation Theory at 2nd order (SO-CASPT2) and Spin-Orbit Difference Dedicated Configuration Interaction (SODDCI). The energy of the X21 state corresponds to the Zero-Field Splitting (ZFS) of the ground state spin triplet...

  3. Fourier Deconvolution Methods for Resolution Enhancement in Continuous-Wave EPR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, George H; Poyner, Russell R

    2015-01-01

    An overview of resolution enhancement of conventional, field-swept, continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectra using Fourier transform-based deconvolution methods is presented. Basic steps that are involved in resolution enhancement of calculated spectra using an implementation based on complex discrete Fourier transform algorithms are illustrated. Advantages and limitations of the method are discussed. An application to an experimentally obtained spectrum is provided to illustrate the power of the method for resolving overlapped transitions. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ab initio nonequilibrium quantum transport and forces with the real-space projector augmented wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jingzhe; Thygesen, Kristian S.; Jacobsen, Karsten W.

    2012-01-01

    We present an efficient implementation of a nonequilibrium Green's function method for self-consistent calculations of electron transport and forces in nanostructured materials. The electronic structure is described at the level of density functional theory using the projector augmented wave method...... over k points and real space makes the code highly efficient and applicable to systems containing several hundreds of atoms. The method is applied to a number of different systems, demonstrating the effects of bias and gate voltages, multiterminal setups, nonequilibrium forces, and spin transport....

  5. Soft Computing Methods for Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Design Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Chauhan, Narendra; Mittal, Ankush

    2012-01-01

    The growing commercial market of Microwave/ Millimeter wave industry over the past decade has led to the explosion of interests and opportunities for the design and development of microwave components.The design of most microwave components requires the use of commercially available electromagnetic (EM) simulation tools for their analysis. In the design process, the simulations are carried out by varying the design parameters until the desired response is obtained. The optimization of design parameters by manual searching is a cumbersome and time consuming process. Soft computing methods such as Genetic Algorithm (GA), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Fuzzy Logic (FL) have been widely used by EM researchers for microwave design since last decade. The aim of these methods is to tolerate imprecision, uncertainty, and approximation to achieve robust and low cost solution in a small time frame.  Modeling and optimization are essential parts and powerful tools for the microwave/millimeter wave design. This boo...

  6. Method for measuring retardation of infrared wave-plate by modulated-polarized visible light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Song, Feijun

    2012-11-01

    A new method for precisely measuring the optical phase retardation of wave-plates in the infrared spectral region is presented by using modulated-polarized visible light. An electro-optic modulator is used to accurately determine the zero point by the frequency-doubled signal of the Modulated-polarized light. A Babinet-Soleil compensator is employed to make the phase delay compensation. Based on this method, an instrument is set up to measure the retardations of the infrared wave-plates with visible region laser. Measurement results with high accuracy and sound repetition are obtained by simple calculation. Its measurement precision is less than and repetitive precision is within 0.3%.

  7. Analysis of perturbation methods for rearrangement collisions: Comparison of distorted-wave and coupled-channel-wave transition amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suck Salk, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    With the use of projection operators, the formal expressions of distorted-wave and coupled-channel-wave transition amplitudes for rearrangement collisions are derived. Use of projection operators (for the transition amplitudes) sharpens our understanding of the structural differences between the two transition amplitudes. The merit of each representation of the transition amplitudes is discussed. Derived perturbation potentials are found to have different structures. The rigorously derived distorted-wave Born-approximation (DWBA) transition amplitude is shown to be a generalization of the earlier DWBA expression obtained from the assumption of the dominance of elastic scattering in rearrangement collisions

  8. Time-domain hybrid method for simulating large amplitude motions of ships advancing in waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukui Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Typical results obtained by a newly developed, nonlinear time domain hybrid method for simulating large amplitude motions of ships advancing with constant forward speed in waves are presented. The method is hybrid in the way of combining a time-domain transient Green function method and a Rankine source method. The present approach employs a simple double integration algorithm with respect to time to simulate the free-surface boundary condition. During the simulation, the diffraction and radiation forces are computed by pressure integration over the mean wetted surface, whereas the incident wave and hydrostatic restoring forces/moments are calculated on the instantaneously wetted surface of the hull. Typical numerical results of application of the method to the seakeeping performance of a standard containership, namely the ITTC S175, are herein presented. Comparisons have been made between the results from the present method, the frequency domain 3D panel method (NEWDRIFT of NTUA-SDL and available experimental data and good agreement has been observed for all studied cases between the results of the present method and comparable other data.

  9. Comparison of methods for the detection of gravitational waves from unknown neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, S.; Pitkin, M.; Oliver, M.; D'Antonio, S.; Dergachev, V.; Królak, A.; Astone, P.; Bejger, M.; Di Giovanni, M.; Dorosh, O.; Frasca, S.; Leaci, P.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Miller, A.; Palomba, C.; Papa, M. A.; Piccinni, O. J.; Riles, K.; Sauter, O.; Sintes, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Rapidly rotating neutron stars are promising sources of continuous gravitational wave radiation for the LIGO and Virgo interferometers. The majority of neutron stars in our galaxy have not been identified with electromagnetic observations. All-sky searches for isolated neutron stars offer the potential to detect gravitational waves from these unidentified sources. The parameter space of these blind all-sky searches, which also cover a large range of frequencies and frequency derivatives, presents a significant computational challenge. Different methods have been designed to perform these searches within acceptable computational limits. Here we describe the first benchmark in a project to compare the search methods currently available for the detection of unknown isolated neutron stars. The five methods compared here are individually referred to as the PowerFlux, sky Hough, frequency Hough, Einstein@Home, and time domain F -statistic methods. We employ a mock data challenge to compare the ability of each search method to recover signals simulated assuming a standard signal model. We find similar performance among the four quick-look search methods, while the more computationally intensive search method, Einstein@Home, achieves up to a factor of two higher sensitivity. We find that the absence of a second derivative frequency in the search parameter space does not degrade search sensitivity for signals with physically plausible second derivative frequencies. We also report on the parameter estimation accuracy of each search method, and the stability of the sensitivity in frequency and frequency derivative and in the presence of detector noise.

  10. Comparative study of finite element method, isogeometric analysis, and finite volume method in elastic wave propagation of stress discontinuities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berezovski, A.; Kolman, Radek; Blažek, Jiří; Kopačka, Ján; Gabriel, Dušan; Plešek, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2014) ISSN 1435-4934. [European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing (ECNDT 2014) /11./. Praha, 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/11/0288; GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/12/2315 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : elastic wave propagation * finite element method * isogeometric analysis * finite volume method * stress discontinuities * spurious oscillations Subject RIV: JR - Other Machinery http://www.ndt.net/events/ECNDT2014/app/content/Paper/25_Berezovski_Rev1.pdf

  11. Hydraulic experiment on evaluation method of tsunami wave pressure using inundation depth and velocity in front of land structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimitsu, Tsuyoshi; Ooe, Kazuya; Kawasaki, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic experiments were conducted to estimate tsunami wave pressure acting on several different types of land structures and examine the influence of a seawall in front of the structure on tsunami wave pressure. Wave pressures were measured at some points on the structure. The existing hydrostatic formula tended to underestimate tsunami wave pressure under the condition of inundation flow with large Froude number. Estimation method of tsunami wave pressure using inundation depth and horizontal velocity at the front of the structure was proposed based on the experimental results. It was confirmed from comparison with the experiments that the vertical distribution of the maximum tsunami wave pressure can be reproduced by employing the proposed method in this study. (author)

  12. Studies of renal parenchymal impairments with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) by diagnostic imaging methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohishi, Yukihiko; Machida, Toyohei; Tashiro, Kazuya; Wada, Tetsuro; Mochizuki, Atsushi; Torii, Shinichiro; Yoshigoe, Fukuo; Kawashima, Yoshio; Asano, Koji (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-05-01

    Renal parenchymal impairments with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) were studied by diagnostic imaging methods. The subjects were 25 patients with renal stones, and EDAP LT-01 (piezoelectric system) was used for the equipment of ESWL. The examination by MRI, X-ray CT and /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA scintigraphy using SPECT were performed before and after ESWL. To the 24 kidneys of 12 adult dogs, shock waves were fired in order to examine the experimental renal parenchymal impairments. After the treatment with ESWL, renal abnormal findings were obtained with MRI in 6 patients out of 11 (54.5%), with X-ray CT in 1 patient out of 12 (8.3%), and with the /sup 99m/Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in 4 patients out of 6 (66.7%). In the inspections with X-ray CT and renal scintigraphy conducted in 4 weeks, it was noted that the conditions of patients were recovered to the states before ESWL was performed. Using the therapeutic doses of shock wave for humans, the renal parenchymal impairments in the kidney in dogs were normalized in 7 days. Although it has been considered that the degree of renal parenchymal impairments with ESWL treatment may be influenced by the kind of the equipment, frequency of shock waves and their strength, the extent of impairments were rather mild, and it was presumed that the impairments might be recovered on the images in 3 to 4 weeks at the latest. (author).

  13. Studies of renal parenchymal impairments with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) by diagnostic imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, Yukihiko; Machida, Toyohei; Tashiro, Kazuya; Wada, Tetsuro; Mochizuki, Atsushi; Torii, Shinichiro; Yoshigoe, Fukuo; Kawashima, Yoshio; Asano, Koji

    1989-01-01

    Renal parenchymal impairments with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) were studied by diagnostic imaging methods. The subjects were 25 patients with renal stones, and EDAP LT-01 (piezoelectric system) was used for the equipment of ESWL. The examination by MRI, X-ray CT and 99m Tc-DMSA scintigraphy using SPECT were performed before and after ESWL. To the 24 kidneys of 12 adult dogs, shock waves were fired in order to examine the experimental renal parenchymal impairments. After the treatment with ESWL, renal abnormal findings were obtained with MRI in 6 patients out of 11 (54.5%), with X-ray CT in 1 patient out of 12 (8.3%), and with the 99m Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in 4 patients out of 6 (66.7%). In the inspections with X-ray CT and renal scintigraphy conducted in 4 weeks, it was noted that the conditions of patients were recovered to the states before ESWL was performed. Using the therapeutic doses of shock wave for humans, the renal parenchymal impairments in the kidney in dogs were normalized in 7 days. Although it has been considered that the degree of renal parenchymal impairments with ESWL treatment may be influenced by the kind of the equipment, frequency of shock waves and their strength, the extent of impairments were rather mild, and it was presumed that the impairments might be recovered on the images in 3 to 4 weeks at the latest. (author)

  14. Computational simulation in architectural and environmental acoustics methods and applications of wave-based computation

    CERN Document Server

    Sakamoto, Shinichi; Otsuru, Toru

    2014-01-01

    This book reviews a variety of methods for wave-based acoustic simulation and recent applications to architectural and environmental acoustic problems. Following an introduction providing an overview of computational simulation of sound environment, the book is in two parts: four chapters on methods and four chapters on applications. The first part explains the fundamentals and advanced techniques for three popular methods, namely, the finite-difference time-domain method, the finite element method, and the boundary element method, as well as alternative time-domain methods. The second part demonstrates various applications to room acoustics simulation, noise propagation simulation, acoustic property simulation for building components, and auralization. This book is a valuable reference that covers the state of the art in computational simulation for architectural and environmental acoustics.  

  15. On-line monitoring of water amount in fresh concrete by radioactive-wave method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemi, T.; Arai, M.; Enomoto, S.; Suzki, K.; Kumahara, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The committee on nondestructive inspection for steel reinforced concrete structures in the Federation of Construction Materials Industries, Japan has published a proposed standard for on-line monitoring of water amount in fresh concrete by the radioactive wave method. By applying a neutron technique, water amount in fresh concrete is estimated continuously from the energy consumption of neutron due to hydrogen. A standard is discussed along with results of verification tests. Thus, on-line monitoring for water amount is proposed

  16. A new method for building an atomic matter-wave interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Hongyi; Chen Jianwen; Xie Honglan; Chen Min; Xu Zhizhan; Xiao Tiqiao; Zhu Peiping

    2002-01-01

    A new method for building an atomic matter-wave interferometry is proposed. A Fresnel zone-plate is used for restricting the linewidth of atomic beams, then a quasi-monochromatic atomic beam is obtained to illuminate four slits on a copper foil. The phenomenon of atomic interference and holograph can be observed, which is used to measure the coherent length of atomic beams

  17. 2.5-D frequency-domain viscoelastic wave modelling using finite-element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian-guo; Huang, Xing-xing; Liu, Wei-fang; Zhao, Wei-jun; Song, Jian-yong; Xiong, Bin; Wang, Shang-xu

    2017-10-01

    2-D seismic modelling has notable dynamic information discrepancies with field data because of the implicit line-source assumption, whereas 3-D modelling suffers from a huge computational burden. The 2.5-D approach is able to overcome both of the aforementioned limitations. In general, the earth model is treated as an elastic material, but the real media is viscous. In this study, we develop an accurate and efficient frequency-domain finite-element method (FEM) for modelling 2.5-D viscoelastic wave propagation. To perform the 2.5-D approach, we assume that the 2-D viscoelastic media are based on the Kelvin-Voigt rheological model and a 3-D point source. The viscoelastic wave equation is temporally and spatially Fourier transformed into the frequency-wavenumber domain. Then, we systematically derive the weak form and its spatial discretization of 2.5-D viscoelastic wave equations in the frequency-wavenumber domain through the Galerkin weighted residual method for FEM. Fixing a frequency, the 2-D problem for each wavenumber is solved by FEM. Subsequently, a composite Simpson formula is adopted to estimate the inverse Fourier integration to obtain the 3-D wavefield. We implement the stiffness reduction method (SRM) to suppress artificial boundary reflections. The results show that this absorbing boundary condition is valid and efficient in the frequency-wavenumber domain. Finally, three numerical models, an unbounded homogeneous medium, a half-space layered medium and an undulating topography medium, are established. Numerical results validate the accuracy and stability of 2.5-D solutions and present the adaptability of finite-element method to complicated geographic conditions. The proposed 2.5-D modelling strategy has the potential to address modelling studies on wave propagation in real earth media in an accurate and efficient way.

  18. A Laplace transform certified reduced basis method; application to the heat equation and wave equation

    OpenAIRE

    Knezevic, David; Patera, Anthony T.; Huynh, Dinh Bao Phuong

    2010-01-01

    We present a certified reduced basis (RB) method for the heat equation and wave equation. The critical ingredients are certified RB approximation of the Laplace transform; the inverse Laplace transform to develop the time-domain RB output approximation and rigorous error bound; a (Butterworth) filter in time to effect the necessary “modal” truncation; RB eigenfunction decomposition and contour integration for Offline–Online decomposition. We present numerical results to demonstrate the accura...

  19. Application of the Analog Method to Modelling Heat Waves: A Case Study with Power Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-21

    UNCLASSIFIED Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory APPLICATION OF THE ANALOG METHOD TO MODELLING HEAT WAVES: A CASE STUDY WITH...18 2 Calibration and validation statistics with the use of five atmospheric vari- ables to construct analogue diagnostics for JJA of transformer T2...electrical grid as a series of nodes (transformers) and edges (transmission lines) so that basic mathematical anal- ysis can be performed. The mathematics

  20. Love waves in functionally graded piezoelectric materials by stiffness matrix method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salah, Issam; Wali, Yassine; Ben Ghozlen, Mohamed Hédi

    2011-04-01

    A numerical matrix method relative to the propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in functionally graded piezoelectric heterostructure is given in order to make a comparative study with the respective performances of analytical methods proposed in literature. The preliminary obtained results show a good agreement, however numerical approach has the advantage of conceptual simplicity and flexibility brought about by the stiffness matrix method. The propagation behaviour of Love waves in a functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) is investigated in this article. It involves a thin FGPM layer bonded perfectly to an elastic substrate. The inhomogeneous FGPM heterostructure has been stratified along the depth direction, hence each state can be considered as homogeneous and the ordinary differential equation method is applied. The obtained solutions are used to study the effect of an exponential gradient applied to physical properties. Such numerical approach allows applying different gradient variation for mechanical and electrical properties. For this case, the obtained results reveal opposite effects. The dispersive curves and phase velocities of the Love wave propagation in the layered piezoelectric film are obtained for electrical open and short cases on the free surface, respectively. The effect of gradient coefficients on coupled electromechanical factor, on the stress fields, the electrical potential and the mechanical displacement are discussed, respectively. Illustration is achieved on the well known heterostructure PZT-5H/SiO(2), the obtained results are especially useful in the design of high-performance acoustic surface devices and accurately prediction of the Love wave propagation behaviour. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation Overview and Research Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auligne, T.

    2017-12-01

    In 2001 NOAA/NESDIS, NOAA/NWS, NOAA/OAR, and NASA, subsequently joined by the US Navy and Air Force, came together to form the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation (JCSDA) for the common purpose of accelerating the use of satellite data in environmental numerical prediction modeling by developing, using, and anticipating advances in numerical modeling, satellite-based remote sensing, and data assimilation methods. The primary focus was to bring these advances together to improve operational numerical model-based forecasting, under the premise that these partners have common technical and logistical challenges assimilating satellite observations into their modeling enterprises that could be better addressed through cooperative action and/or common solutions. Over the last 15 years, the JCSDA has made and continues to make major contributions to operational assimilation of satellite data. The JCSDA is a multi-agency U.S. government-owned-and-operated organization that was conceived as a venue for the several agencies NOAA, NASA, USAF and USN to collaborate on advancing the development and operational use of satellite observations into numerical model-based environmental analysis and forecasting. The primary mission of the JCSDA is to "accelerate and improve the quantitative use of research and operational satellite data in weather, ocean, climate and environmental analysis and prediction systems." This mission is fulfilled through directed research targeting the following key science objectives: Improved radiative transfer modeling; new instrument assimilation; assimilation of humidity, clouds, and precipitation observations; assimilation of land surface observations; assimilation of ocean surface observations; atmospheric composition; and chemistry and aerosols. The goal of this presentation is to briefly introduce the JCSDA's mission and vision, and to describe recent research activities across various JCSDA partners.

  2. Yeast identification: reassessment of assimilation tests as sole universal identifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J; Rawling, S; Stratford, M; Steels, H; Novodvorska, M; Archer, D B; Chandra, S

    2011-11-01

    To assess whether assimilation tests in isolation remain a valid method of identification of yeasts, when applied to a wide range of environmental and spoilage isolates. Seventy-one yeast strains were isolated from a soft drinks factory. These were identified using assimilation tests and by D1/D2 rDNA sequencing. When compared to sequencing, assimilation test identifications (MicroLog™) were 18·3% correct, a further 14·1% correct within the genus and 67·6% were incorrectly identified. The majority of the latter could be attributed to the rise in newly reported yeast species. Assimilation tests alone are unreliable as a universal means of yeast identification, because of numerous new species, variability of strains and increasing coincidence of assimilation profiles. Assimilation tests still have a useful role in the identification of common species, such as the majority of clinical isolates. It is probable, based on these results, that many yeast identifications reported in older literature are incorrect. This emphasizes the crucial need for accurate identification in present and future publications. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. IASI Radiance Data Assimilation in Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, K.; Hyoung-Wook, C.; Jo, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Korea institute of Atmospheric Prediction Systems (KIAPS) is developing NWP model with data assimilation systems. Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) system, one of the data assimilation systems, has been developed for KIAPS Integrated Model (KIM) based on cubed-sphere grid and has successfully assimilated real data. LETKF data assimilation system has been extended to 4D- LETKF which considers time-evolving error covariance within assimilation window and IASI radiance data assimilation using KPOP (KIAPS package for observation processing) with RTTOV (Radiative Transfer for TOVS). The LETKF system is implementing semi operational prediction including conventional (sonde, aircraft) observation and AMSU-A (Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A) radiance data from April. Recently, the semi operational prediction system updated radiance observations including GPS-RO, AMV, IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) data at July. A set of simulation of KIM with ne30np4 and 50 vertical levels (of top 0.3hPa) were carried out for short range forecast (10days) within semi operation prediction LETKF system with ensemble forecast 50 members. In order to only IASI impact, our experiments used only conventional and IAIS radiance data to same semi operational prediction set. We carried out sensitivity test for IAIS thinning method (3D and 4D). IASI observation number was increased by temporal (4D) thinning and the improvement of IASI radiance data impact on the forecast skill of model will expect.

  4. Ultrasonic Guided Wave Method For Crack Detection In Buried Plastic Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Hamat Wan Sofian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic pipe are widely used in many fields for the fluid or gaseous product conveyance but basic components of a plastic material made it very sensitive to damage, which requires techniques for detecting damage reliable and efficient. Ultrasonic guided wave is a sensitive method based on propagation of low-frequency excitation in solid structures for damage detection. Ultrasonic guided wave method are performed to investigate the effect of crack to the frequency signal using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT analysis. This paper researched to determine performance of ultrasonic guided wave method in order to detect crack in buried pipeline. It was found that for an uncrack pipe, FFT analysis shows one peak which is the operating frequency by the piezoelectric actuator itself while the FFT analysis for single cracked pipe shows two peak which is the operating frequency by the piezoelectric actuator itself and the resultant frequency from the crack. For multi cracked pipe, the frequency signal shows more than two peak depend the number of crack. The results presented here may facilitate improvements in the accuracy and precision of pipeline crack detection.

  5. Quantifying Diastolic Function: From E-Waves as Triangles to Physiologic Contours via the 'Geometric Method'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golman, Mikhail; Padovano, William; Shmuylovich, Leonid; Kovács, Sándor J

    2018-03-01

    Conventional echocardiographic diastolic function (DF) assessment approximates transmitral flow velocity contours (Doppler E-waves) as triangles, with peak (E peak ), acceleration time (AT), and deceleration time (DT) as indexes. These metrics have limited value because they are unable to characterize the underlying physiology. The parametrized diastolic filling (PDF) formalism provides a physiologic, kinematic mechanism based characterization of DF by extracting chamber stiffness (k), relaxation (c), and load (x o ) from E-wave contours. We derive the mathematical relationship between the PDF parameters and E peak , AT, DT and thereby introduce the geometric method (GM) that computes the PDF parameters using E peak , AT, and DT as input. Numerical experiments validated GM by analysis of 208 E-waves from 31 datasets spanning the full range of clinical diastolic function. GM yielded indistinguishable average parameter values per subject vs. the gold-standard PDF method (k: R 2  = 0.94, c: R 2  = 0.95, x o : R 2  = 0.95, p PDF method to quantify DF in terms of physiologic chamber properties.

  6. Variational data assimilation using targetted random walks

    KAUST Repository

    Cotter, S. L.

    2011-02-15

    The variational approach to data assimilation is a widely used methodology for both online prediction and for reanalysis. In either of these scenarios, it can be important to assess uncertainties in the assimilated state. Ideally, it is desirable to have complete information concerning the Bayesian posterior distribution for unknown state given data. We show that complete computational probing of this posterior distribution is now within the reach in the offline situation. We introduce a Markov chain-Monte Carlo (MCMC) method which enables us to directly sample from the Bayesian posterior distribution on the unknown functions of interest given observations. Since we are aware that these methods are currently too computationally expensive to consider using in an online filtering scenario, we frame this in the context of offline reanalysis. Using a simple random walk-type MCMC method, we are able to characterize the posterior distribution using only evaluations of the forward model of the problem, and of the model and data mismatch. No adjoint model is required for the method we use; however, more sophisticated MCMC methods are available which exploit derivative information. For simplicity of exposition, we consider the problem of assimilating data, either Eulerian or Lagrangian, into a low Reynolds number flow in a two-dimensional periodic geometry. We will show that in many cases it is possible to recover the initial condition and model error (which we describe as unknown forcing to the model) from data, and that with increasing amounts of informative data, the uncertainty in our estimations reduces. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Simple analytical methods for computing the gravity-wave contribution to the cosmic background radiation anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.

    1996-01-01

    We present two simple analytical methods for computing the gravity-wave contribution to the cosmic background radiation (CBR) anisotropy in inflationary models; one method uses a time-dependent transfer function, the other methods uses an approximate gravity-mode function which is a simple combination of the lowest order spherical Bessel functions. We compare the CBR anisotropy tensor multipole spectrum computed using our methods with the previous result of the highly accurate numerical method, the open-quote open-quote Boltzmann close-quote close-quote method. Our time-dependent transfer function is more accurate than the time-independent transfer function found by Turner, White, and Lindsey; however, we find that the transfer function method is only good for l approx-lt 120. Using our approximate gravity-wave mode function, we obtain much better accuracy; the tensor multipole spectrum we find differs by less than 2% for l approx-lt 50, less than 10% for l approx-lt 120, and less than 20% for l≤300 from the open-quote open-quote Boltzmann close-quote close-quote result. Our approximate graviton mode function should be quite useful in studying tensor perturbations from inflationary models. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  8. Applications of Data Assimilation to Analysis of the Ocean on Large Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert N.; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Hackert, Eric C.

    1997-01-01

    It is commonplace to begin talks on this topic by noting that oceanographic data are too scarce and sparse to provide complete initial and boundary conditions for large-scale ocean models. Even considering the availability of remotely-sensed data such as radar altimetry from the TOPEX and ERS-1 satellites, a glance at a map of available subsurface data should convince most observers that this is still the case. Data are still too sparse for comprehensive treatment of interannual to interdecadal climate change through the use of models, since the new data sets have not been around for very long. In view of the dearth of data, we must note that the overall picture is changing rapidly. Recently, there have been a number of large scale ocean analysis and prediction efforts, some of which now run on an operational or at least quasi-operational basis, most notably the model based analyses of the tropical oceans. These programs are modeled on numerical weather prediction. Aside from the success of the global tide models, assimilation of data in the tropics, in support of prediction and analysis of seasonal to interannual climate change, is probably the area of large scale ocean modeling and data assimilation in which the most progress has been made. Climate change is a problem which is particularly suited to advanced data assimilation methods. Linear models are useful, and the linear theory can be exploited. For the most part, the data are sufficiently sparse that implementation of advanced methods is worthwhile. As an example of a large scale data assimilation experiment with a recent extensive data set, we present results of a tropical ocean experiment in which the Kalman filter was used to assimilate three years of altimetric data from Geosat into a coarsely resolved linearized long wave shallow water model. Since nonlinear processes dominate the local dynamic signal outside the tropics, subsurface dynamical quantities cannot be reliably inferred from surface height

  9. Parameter estimation method that directly compares gravitational wave observations to numerical relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, J.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Boyle, M.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Campanelli, M.; Chu, T.; Clark, J. A.; Demos, N.; Fong, H.; Healy, J.; Hemberger, D. A.; Hinder, I.; Jani, K.; Khamesra, B.; Kidder, L. E.; Kumar, P.; Laguna, P.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Ossokine, S.; Pfeiffer, H.; Scheel, M. A.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Szilagyi, B.; Teukolsky, S.; Zlochower, Y.

    2017-11-01

    We present and assess a Bayesian method to interpret gravitational wave signals from binary black holes. Our method directly compares gravitational wave data to numerical relativity (NR) simulations. In this study, we present a detailed investigation of the systematic and statistical parameter estimation errors of this method. This procedure bypasses approximations used in semianalytical models for compact binary coalescence. In this work, we use the full posterior parameter distribution for only generic nonprecessing binaries, drawing inferences away from the set of NR simulations used, via interpolation of a single scalar quantity (the marginalized log likelihood, ln L ) evaluated by comparing data to nonprecessing binary black hole simulations. We also compare the data to generic simulations, and discuss the effectiveness of this procedure for generic sources. We specifically assess the impact of higher order modes, repeating our interpretation with both l ≤2 as well as l ≤3 harmonic modes. Using the l ≤3 higher modes, we gain more information from the signal and can better constrain the parameters of the gravitational wave signal. We assess and quantify several sources of systematic error that our procedure could introduce, including simulation resolution and duration; most are negligible. We show through examples that our method can recover the parameters for equal mass, zero spin, GW150914-like, and unequal mass, precessing spin sources. Our study of this new parameter estimation method demonstrates that we can quantify and understand the systematic and statistical error. This method allows us to use higher order modes from numerical relativity simulations to better constrain the black hole binary parameters.

  10. One step linear reconstruction method for continuous wave diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhrowiyah, N.; Yasin, M.

    2017-09-01

    The method one step linear reconstruction method for continuous wave diffuse optical tomography is proposed and demonstrated for polyvinyl chloride based material and breast phantom. Approximation which used in this method is selecting regulation coefficient and evaluating the difference between two states that corresponding to the data acquired without and with a change in optical properties. This method is used to recovery of optical parameters from measured boundary data of light propagation in the object. The research is demonstrated by simulation and experimental data. Numerical object is used to produce simulation data. Chloride based material and breast phantom sample is used to produce experimental data. Comparisons of results between experiment and simulation data are conducted to validate the proposed method. The results of the reconstruction image which is produced by the one step linear reconstruction method show that the image reconstruction almost same as the original object. This approach provides a means of imaging that is sensitive to changes in optical properties, which may be particularly useful for functional imaging used continuous wave diffuse optical tomography of early diagnosis of breast cancer.

  11. Hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin method for the 2-D frequency-domain elastic wave equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnasse-Gahot, Marie; Calandra, Henri; Diaz, Julien; Lanteri, Stéphane

    2018-04-01

    Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods are nowadays actively studied and increasingly exploited for the simulation of large-scale time-domain (i.e. unsteady) seismic wave propagation problems. Although theoretically applicable to frequency-domain problems as well, their use in this context has been hampered by the potentially large number of coupled unknowns they incur, especially in the 3-D case, as compared to classical continuous finite element methods. In this paper, we address this issue in the framework of the so-called hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) formulations. As a first step, we study an HDG method for the resolution of the frequency-domain elastic wave equations in the 2-D case. We describe the weak formulation of the method and provide some implementation details. The proposed HDG method is assessed numerically including a comparison with a classical upwind flux-based DG method, showing better overall computational efficiency as a result of the drastic reduction of the number of globally coupled unknowns in the resulting discrete HDG system.

  12. Measurement of through-thickness thermal diffusivity of thermoplastics using thermal wave method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R.; Mellinger, A.

    2015-04-01

    Thermo-physical properties, such as thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat are important quantities that are needed to interpret and characterize thermoplastic materials. Such characterization is necessary for many applications, ranging from aerospace engineering to food packaging, electrical and electronic industry and medical science. In this work, the thermal diffusivity of commercially available polymeric films is measured in the thickness direction at room temperature using thermal wave method. The results obtained with this method are in good agreement with theoretical and experimental values.

  13. A local adaptive method for the numerical approximation in seismic wave modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galuzzi Bruno G.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new numerical approach for the solution of the 2D acoustic wave equation to model the predicted data in the field of active-source seismic inverse problems. This method consists in using an explicit finite difference technique with an adaptive order of approximation of the spatial derivatives that takes into account the local velocity at the grid nodes. Testing our method to simulate the recorded seismograms in a marine seismic acquisition, we found that the low computational time and the low approximation error of the proposed approach make it suitable in the context of seismic inversion problems.

  14. Iterative and range test methods for an inverse source problem for acoustic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Carlos; Kress, Rainer; Serranho, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    We propose two methods for solving an inverse source problem for time-harmonic acoustic waves. Based on the reciprocity gap principle a nonlinear equation is presented for the locations and intensities of the point sources that can be solved via Newton iterations. To provide an initial guess for this iteration we suggest a range test algorithm for approximating the source locations. We give a mathematical foundation for the range test and exhibit its feasibility in connection with the iteration method by some numerical examples

  15. Unconditionally stable WLP-FDTD method for the modeling of electromagnetic wave propagation in gyrotropic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zheng-Wei; Xi, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Jin-Sheng; Liu, Jiang-fan

    2015-12-14

    The unconditional stable finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method based on field expansion with weighted Laguerre polynomials (WLPs) is applied to model electromagnetic wave propagation in gyrotropic materials. The conventional Yee cell is modified to have the tightly coupled current density components located at the same spatial position. The perfectly matched layer (PML) is formulated in a stretched-coordinate (SC) system with the complex-frequency-shifted (CFS) factor to achieve good absorption performance. Numerical examples are shown to validate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

  16. The method of impedance transformation for electromagnetic waves propagating in one-dimension plasma photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Jingfeng; Yuan, Chengxun, E-mail: yuancx@hit.edu.cn, E-mail: zhouzx@hit.edu.cn; Gao, Ruilin; Jia, Jieshu; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Zhongxiang, E-mail: yuancx@hit.edu.cn, E-mail: zhouzx@hit.edu.cn; Wang, Xiaoou [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wu, Jian [National Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Environment (LEME), China Research Institute of Radio Wave Propagation, Beijing 102206 (China); Li, Hui [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); National Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Environment (LEME), China Research Institute of Radio Wave Propagation, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2016-08-15

    This study focuses on the transmission of normal-incidence electromagnetic waves in one-dimensional plasma photonic crystals. Using the Maxwell's equations in a medium, a method that is based on the concept of impendence is employed to perform the simulation. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by simulating a one-layer plasma and conventional photonic crystal. In frequency-domain, the transmission and reflection coefficients in the unmagnetized plasma photonic crystal were calculated, and the influence factors on plasma photonic crystals including dielectric constants of dielectric, spatial period, filling factor, plasma frequency, and collision frequency were studied.

  17. Numerical simulation of the regularized long wave equation by He's homotopy perturbation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inc, Mustafa [Department of Mathematics, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)], E-mail: minc@firat.edu.tr; Ugurlu, Yavuz [Department of Mathematics, Firat University, 23119 Elazig (Turkey)

    2007-09-17

    In this Letter, we present the homotopy perturbation method (shortly HPM) for obtaining the numerical solution of the RLW equation. We obtain the exact and numerical solutions of the Regularized Long Wave (RLW) equation for certain initial condition. The initial approximation can be freely chosen with possible unknown constants which can be determined by imposing the boundary and initial conditions. Comparison of the results with those of other methods have led us to significant consequences. The numerical solutions are compared with the known analytical solutions.

  18. Numerical simulation of the regularized long wave equation by He's homotopy perturbation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inc, Mustafa; Ugurlu, Yavuz

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter, we present the homotopy perturbation method (shortly HPM) for obtaining the numerical solution of the RLW equation. We obtain the exact and numerical solutions of the Regularized Long Wave (RLW) equation for certain initial condition. The initial approximation can be freely chosen with possible unknown constants which can be determined by imposing the boundary and initial conditions. Comparison of the results with those of other methods have led us to significant consequences. The numerical solutions are compared with the known analytical solutions

  19. Measuring the band structures of periodic beams using the wave superposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyi, L.; Ruffini, V.; Balint, D.

    2016-11-01

    Phononic crystals and elastic metamaterials are artificially engineered periodic structures that have several interesting properties, such as negative effective stiffness in certain frequency ranges. An interesting property of phononic crystals and elastic metamaterials is the presence of band gaps, which are bands of frequencies where elastic waves cannot propagate. The presence of band gaps gives this class of materials the potential to be used as vibration isolators. In many studies, the band structures were used to evaluate the band gaps. The presence of band gaps in a finite structure is commonly validated by measuring the frequency response as there are no direct methods of measuring the band structures. In this study, an experiment was conducted to determine the band structure of one dimension phononic crystals with two wave modes, such as a bi-material beam, using the frequency response at only 6 points to validate the wave superposition method (WSM) introduced in a previous study. A bi-material beam and an aluminium beam with varying geometry were studied. The experiment was performed by hanging the beams freely, exciting one end of the beams, and measuring the acceleration at consecutive unit cells. The measured transfer function of the beams agrees with the analytical solutions but minor discrepancies. The band structure was then determined using WSM and the band structure of one set of the waves was found to agree well with the analytical solutions. The measurements taken for the other set of waves, which are the evanescent waves in the bi-material beams, were inaccurate and noisy. The transfer functions at additional points of one of the beams were calculated from the measured band structure using WSM. The calculated transfer function agrees with the measured results except at the frequencies where the band structure was inaccurate. Lastly, a study of the potential sources of errors was also conducted using finite element modelling and the errors in

  20. Exact solution to the Coulomb wave using the linearized phase-amplitude method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Kiyokawa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The author shows that the amplitude equation from the phase-amplitude method of calculating continuum wave functions can be linearized into a 3rd-order differential equation. Using this linearized equation, in the case of the Coulomb potential, the author also shows that the amplitude function has an analytically exact solution represented by means of an irregular confluent hypergeometric function. Furthermore, it is shown that the exact solution for the Coulomb potential reproduces the wave function for free space expressed by the spherical Bessel function. The amplitude equation for the large component of the Dirac spinor is also shown to be the linearized 3rd-order differential equation.

  1. Methods and apparatus for use in detecting seismic waves in a borehole

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Phillip B.; Fincke, James R.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2006-05-23

    The invention provides methods and apparatus for detecting seismic waves propagating through a subterranean formation surrounding a borehole. In a first embodiment, a sensor module uses the rotation of bogey wheels to extend and retract a sensor package for selective contact and magnetic coupling to casing lining the borehole. In a second embodiment, a sensor module is magnetically coupled to the casing wall during its travel and dragged therealong while maintaining contact therewith. In a third embodiment, a sensor module is interfaced with the borehole environment to detect seismic waves using coupling through liquid in the borehole. Two or more of the above embodiments may be combined within a single sensor array to provide a resulting seismic survey combining the optimum of the outputs of each embodiment into a single data set.

  2. Method for the Direct Solve of the Many-Body Schrödinger Wave Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerke, Jonathan; Tymczak, C. J.; Poirier, Bill

    We report on theoretical and computational developments towards a computationally efficient direct solve of the many-body Schrödinger wave equation for electronic systems. This methodology relies on two recent developments pioneered by the authors: 1) the development of a Cardinal Sine basis for electronic structure calculations; and 2) the development of a highly efficient and compact representation of multidimensional functions using the Canonical tensor rank representation developed by Belykin et. al. which we have adapted to electronic structure problems. We then show several relevant examples of the utility and accuracy of this methodology, scaling with system size, and relevant convergence issues of the methodology. Method for the Direct Solve of the Many-Body Schrödinger Wave Equation.

  3. Demonstration of improved seismic source inversion method of tele-seismic body wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Y.; Okuwaki, R.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic rupture inversion of tele-seismic body wave has been widely applied to studies of large earthquakes. In general, tele-seismic body wave contains information of overall rupture process of large earthquake, while the tele-seismic body wave is inappropriate for analyzing a detailed rupture process of M6 7 class earthquake. Recently, the quality and quantity of tele-seismic data and the inversion method has been greatly improved. Improved data and method enable us to study a detailed rupture process of M6 7 class earthquake even if we use only tele-seismic body wave. In this study, we demonstrate the ability of the improved data and method through analyses of the 2016 Rieti, Italy earthquake (Mw 6.2) and the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan earthquake (Mw 7.0) that have been well investigated by using the InSAR data set and the field observations. We assumed the rupture occurring on a single fault plane model inferred from the moment tensor solutions and the aftershock distribution. We constructed spatiotemporal discretized slip-rate functions with patches arranged as closely as possible. We performed inversions using several fault models and found that the spatiotemporal location of large slip-rate area was robust. In the 2016 Kumamoto, Japan earthquake, the slip-rate distribution shows that the rupture propagated to southwest during the first 5 s. At 5 s after the origin time, the main rupture started to propagate toward northeast. First episode and second episode correspond to rupture propagation along the Hinagu fault and the Futagawa fault, respectively. In the 2016 Rieti, Italy earthquake, the slip-rate distribution shows that the rupture propagated to up-dip direction during the first 2 s, and then rupture propagated toward northwest. From both analyses, we propose that the spatiotemporal slip-rate distribution estimated by improved inversion method of tele-seismic body wave has enough information to study a detailed rupture process of M6 7 class earthquake.

  4. Extended Jacobi Elliptic Function Rational Expansion Method and Its Application to (2+1)-Dimensional Stochastic Dispersive Long Wave System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Lina; Zhang Hongqing

    2007-01-01

    In this work, by means of a generalized method and symbolic computation, we extend the Jacobi elliptic function rational expansion method to uniformly construct a series of stochastic wave solutions for stochastic evolution equations. To illustrate the effectiveness of our method, we take the (2+1)-dimensional stochastic dispersive long wave system as an example. We not only have obtained some known solutions, but also have constructed some new rational formal stochastic Jacobi elliptic function solutions.

  5. Spectral element method for elastic and acoustic waves in frequency domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Linlin; Zhou, Yuanguo; Wang, Jia-Min; Zhuang, Mingwei [Institute of Electromagnetics and Acoustics, and Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Liu, Na, E-mail: liuna@xmu.edu.cn [Institute of Electromagnetics and Acoustics, and Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Liu, Qing Huo, E-mail: qhliu@duke.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27708 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Numerical techniques in time domain are widespread in seismic and acoustic modeling. In some applications, however, frequency-domain techniques can be advantageous over the time-domain approach when narrow band results are desired, especially if multiple sources can be handled more conveniently in the frequency domain. Moreover, the medium attenuation effects can be more accurately and conveniently modeled in the frequency domain. In this paper, we present a spectral-element method (SEM) in frequency domain to simulate elastic and acoustic waves in anisotropic, heterogeneous, and lossy media. The SEM is based upon the finite-element framework and has exponential convergence because of the use of GLL basis functions. The anisotropic perfectly matched layer is employed to truncate the boundary for unbounded problems. Compared with the conventional finite-element method, the number of unknowns in the SEM is significantly reduced, and higher order accuracy is obtained due to its spectral accuracy. To account for the acoustic-solid interaction, the domain decomposition method (DDM) based upon the discontinuous Galerkin spectral-element method is proposed. Numerical experiments show the proposed method can be an efficient alternative for accurate calculation of elastic and acoustic waves in frequency domain.

  6. Data Assimilation in Forest Inventory: First Empirical Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Nyström

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Data assimilation techniques were used to estimate forest stand data in 2011 by sequentially combining remote sensing based estimates of forest variables with predictions from growth models. Estimates of stand data, based on canopy height models obtained from image matching of digital aerial images at six different time-points between 2003 and 2011, served as input to the data assimilation. The assimilation routines were built on the extended Kalman filter. The study was conducted in hemi-boreal forest at the Remningstorp test site in southern Sweden (lat. 13°37′ N; long. 58°28′ E. The assimilation results were compared with two other methods used in practice for estimation of forest variables: the first was to use only the most recent estimate obtained from remotely sensed data (2011 and the second was to forecast the first estimate (2003 to the endpoint (2011. All three approaches were validated using nine 40 m radius validation plots, which were carefully measured in the field. The results showed that the data assimilation approach provided better results than the two alternative methods. Data assimilation of remote sensing time series has been used previously for calibrating forest ecosystem models, but, to our knowledge, this is the first study with real data where data assimilation has been used for estimating forest inventory data. The study constitutes a starting point for the development of a framework useful for sequentially utilizing all types of remote sensing data in order to provide precise and up-to-date estimates of forest stand parameters.

  7. Seismic surface-wave prospecting methods for sinkhole hazard assessment along the Dead Sea shoreline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezersky, M.; Bodet, L.; Al-Zoubi, A.; Camerlynck, C.; Dhemaied, A.; Galibert, P.-Y.; Keydar, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Dead Sea's coastal areas have been dramatically hit by sinkholes occurrences since around 1990 and there is an obvious potential for further collapse beneath main highways, agricultural lands and other populated places. The sinkhole hazard in this area threatens human lives and compromise future economic developments. The understanding of such phenomenon is consequently of great importance in the development of protective solutions. Several geological and geophysical studies tend to show that evaporite karsts, caused by slow salt dissolution, are linked to the mechanism of sinkhole formation along both Israel and Jordan shorelines. The continuous drop of the Dead Sea level, at a rate of 1m/yr during the past decade, is generally proposed as the main triggering factor. The water table lowering induces the desaturation of shallow sediments overlying buried cavities in 10 to 30 meters thick salt layers, at depths from 25 to 50 meters. Both the timing and location of sinkholes suggest that: (1) the salt weakens as result of increasing fresh water circulation, thus enhancing the karstification process; (2) sinkholes appear to be related to the decompaction of the sediments above karstified zones. The location, depth, thickness and weakening of salt layers along the Dead Sea shorelines, as well as the thickness and mechanical properties of the upper sedimentary deposits, are thus considered as controlling factors of this ongoing process. Pressure-wave seismic methods are typically used to study sinkhole developments in this area. P-wave refraction and reflection methods are very useful to delineate the salt layers and to determine the thickness of overlying sediments. But the knowledge of shear-wave velocities (Vs) should add valuable insights on their mechanical properties, more particularly when the groundwater level plays an important role in the process. However, from a practical point of view, the measurement of Vs remains delicate because of well-known shear

  8. Recent Updates to SWANFAR (registered trademark), a 5DVAR Data Assimilation System for SWAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-10

    inside surf zone. Blue, red, and black lines illustrate heights of small, medium, and large waves as they approach shore (from right to left). If...small, medium, or large offshore waves. Only assimilation from outside the surf zone (such as within the dashed box region) will accu- rately reflect...involv- ing a systematic and consistent examination of much larger global wave datasets and many more model simulations at global , regional, and local

  9. Reconstruction of Historical Weather by Assimilating Old Weather Diary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neluwala, P.; Yoshimura, K.; Toride, K.; Hirano, J.; Ichino, M.; Okazaki, A.

    2017-12-01

    Climate can control not only human life style but also other living beings. It is important to investigate historical climate to understand the current and future climates. Information about daily weather can give a better understanding of past life on earth. Long-term weather influences crop calendar as well as the development of civilizations. Unfortunately, existing reconstructed daily weather data are limited to 1850s due to the availability of instrumental data. The climate data prior to that are derived from proxy materials (e.g., tree-ring width, ice core isotopes, etc.) which are either in annual or decadal scale. However, there are many historical documents which contain information about weather such as personal diaries. In Japan, around 20 diaries in average during the 16th - 19th centuries have been collected and converted into a digitized form. As such, diary data exist in many other countries. This study aims to reconstruct historical daily weather during the 18th and 19th centuries using personal daily diaries which have analogue weather descriptions such as `cloudy' or `sunny'. A recent study has shown the possibility of assimilating coarse weather data using idealized experiments. We further extend this study by assimilating modern weather descriptions similar to diary data in recent periods. The Global Spectral model (GSM) of National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) is used to reconstruct weather with the Local Ensemble Kalman filter (LETKF). Descriptive data are first converted to model variables such as total cloud cover (TCC), solar radiation and precipitation using empirical relationships. Those variables are then assimilated on a daily basis after adding random errors to consider the uncertainty of actual diary data. The assimilation of downward short wave solar radiation using weather descriptions improves RMSE from 64.3 w/m2 to 33.0 w/m2 and correlation coefficient (R) from 0.5 to 0.8 compared with the case without any

  10. A generalized multiscale finite element method for elastic wave propagation in fractured media

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Eric T.

    2016-02-26

    In this paper, we consider elastic wave propagation in fractured media applying a linear-slip model to represent the effects of fractures on the wavefield. Fractured media, typically, are highly heterogeneous due to multiple length scales. Direct numerical simulations for wave propagation in highly heterogeneous fractured media can be computationally expensive and require some type of model reduction. We develop a multiscale model reduction technique that captures the complex nature of the media (heterogeneities and fractures) in the coarse scale system. The proposed method is based on the generalized multiscale finite element method, where the multiscale basis functions are constructed to capture the fine-scale information of the heterogeneous, fractured media and effectively reduce the degrees of freedom. These multiscale basis functions are coupled via the interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin method, which provides a block-diagonal mass matrix. The latter is needed for fast computation in an explicit time discretization, which is used in our simulations. Numerical results are presented to show the performance of the presented multiscale method for fractured media. We consider several cases where fractured media contain fractures of multiple lengths. Our numerical results show that the proposed reduced-order models can provide accurate approximations for the fine-scale solution.

  11. A Novel Complementary Method for the Point-Scan Nondestructive Tests Based on Lamb Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Gorgin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel area-scan damage identification method based on Lamb waves which can be used as a complementary method for point-scan nondestructive techniques. The proposed technique is able to identify the most probable locations of damages prior to point-scan test which lead to decreasing the time and cost of inspection. The test-piece surface was partitioned with some smaller areas and the damage probability presence of each area was evaluated. A0 mode of Lamb wave was generated and collected using a mobile handmade transducer set at each area. Subsequently, a damage presence probability index (DPPI based on the energy of captured responses was defined for each area. The area with the highest DPPI value highlights the most probable locations of damages in test-piece. Point-scan nondestructive methods can then be used once these areas are found to identify the damage in detail. The approach was validated by predicting the most probable locations of representative damages including through-thickness hole and crack in aluminum plates. The obtained experimental results demonstrated the high potential of developed method in defining the most probable locations of damages in structures.

  12. Newmark-Beta-FDTD method for super-resolution analysis of time reversal waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-Bing; Shao, Wei; Ma, Jing; Jin, Congjun; Wang, Xiao-Hua

    2017-09-01

    In this work, a new unconditionally stable finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method with the split-field perfectly matched layer (PML) is proposed for the analysis of time reversal (TR) waves. The proposed method is very suitable for multiscale problems involving microstructures. The spatial and temporal derivatives in this method are discretized by the central difference technique and Newmark-Beta algorithm, respectively, and the derivation results in the calculation of a banded-sparse matrix equation. Since the coefficient matrix keeps unchanged during the whole simulation process, the lower-upper (LU) decomposition of the matrix needs to be performed only once at the beginning of the calculation. Moreover, the reverse Cuthill-Mckee (RCM) technique, an effective preprocessing technique in bandwidth compression of sparse matrices, is used to improve computational efficiency. The super-resolution focusing of TR wave propagation in two- and three-dimensional spaces is included to validate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

  13. A generalized multiscale finite element method for elastic wave propagation in fractured media

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Eric T.; Efendiev, Yalchin R.; Gibson, Richard L.; Vasilyeva, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider elastic wave propagation in fractured media applying a linear-slip model to represent the effects of fractures on the wavefield. Fractured media, typically, are highly heterogeneous due to multiple length scales. Direct numerical simulations for wave propagation in highly heterogeneous fractured media can be computationally expensive and require some type of model reduction. We develop a multiscale model reduction technique that captures the complex nature of the media (heterogeneities and fractures) in the coarse scale system. The proposed method is based on the generalized multiscale finite element method, where the multiscale basis functions are constructed to capture the fine-scale information of the heterogeneous, fractured media and effectively reduce the degrees of freedom. These multiscale basis functions are coupled via the interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin method, which provides a block-diagonal mass matrix. The latter is needed for fast computation in an explicit time discretization, which is used in our simulations. Numerical results are presented to show the performance of the presented multiscale method for fractured media. We consider several cases where fractured media contain fractures of multiple lengths. Our numerical results show that the proposed reduced-order models can provide accurate approximations for the fine-scale solution.

  14. 9Be scattering with microscopic wave functions and the continuum-discretized coupled-channel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descouvemont, P.; Itagaki, N.

    2018-01-01

    We use microscopic 9Be wave functions defined in a α +α +n multicluster model to compute 9Be+target scattering cross sections. The parameter sets describing 9Be are generated in the spirit of the stochastic variational method, and the optimal solution is obtained by superposing Slater determinants and by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian. The 9Be three-body continuum is approximated by square-integral wave functions. The 9Be microscopic wave functions are then used in a continuum-discretized coupled-channel (CDCC) calculation of 9Be+208Pb and of 9Be+27Al elastic scattering. Without any parameter fitting, we obtain a fair agreement with experiment. For a heavy target, the influence of 9Be breakup is important, while it is weaker for light targets. This result confirms previous nonmicroscopic CDCC calculations. One of the main advantages of the microscopic CDCC is that it is based on nucleon-target interactions only; there is no adjustable parameter. The present work represents a first step towards more ambitious calculations involving heavier Be isotopes.

  15. Study on Meshfree Hermite Radial Point Interpolation Method for Flexural Wave Propagation Modeling and Damage Quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Ghaffarzadeh

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper investigates the numerical modeling of the flexural wave propagation in Euler-Bernoulli beams using the Hermite-type radial point interpolation method (HRPIM under the damage quantification approach. HRPIM employs radial basis functions (RBFs and their derivatives for shape function construction as a meshfree technique. The performance of Multiquadric(MQ RBF to the assessment of the reflection ratio was evaluated. HRPIM signals were compared with the theoretical and finite element responses. Results represent that MQ is a suitable RBF for HRPIM and wave propagation. However, the range of the proper shape parameters is notable. The number of field nodes is the main parameter for accurate wave propagation modeling using HRPIM. The size of support domain should be less thanan upper bound in order to prevent high error. With regard to the number of quadrature points, providing the minimum numbers of points are adequate for the stable solution, but the existence of more points in damage region does not leads to necessarily the accurate responses. It is concluded that the pure HRPIM, without any polynomial terms, is acceptable but considering a few terms will improve the accuracy; even though more terms make the problem unstable and inaccurate.

  16. A balanced Kalman filter ocean data assimilation system with application to the South Australian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Toumi, Ralf

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, an Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) based regional ocean data assimilation system has been developed and applied to the South Australian Sea. This system consists of the data assimilation algorithm provided by the NCAR Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) and the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS). We describe the first implementation of the physical balance operator (temperature-salinity, hydrostatic and geostrophic balance) to DART, to reduce the spurious waves which may be introduced during the data assimilation process. The effect of the balance operator is validated in both an idealised shallow water model and the ROMS model real case study. In the shallow water model, the geostrophic balance operator eliminates spurious ageostrophic waves and produces a better sea surface height (SSH) and velocity analysis and forecast. Its impact increases as the sea surface height and wind stress increase. In the real case, satellite-observed sea surface temperature (SST) and SSH are assimilated in the South Australian Sea with 50 ensembles using the Ensemble Adjustment Kalman Filter (EAKF). Assimilating SSH and SST enhances the estimation of SSH and SST in the entire domain, respectively. Assimilation with the balance operator produces a more realistic simulation of surface currents and subsurface temperature profile. The best improvement is obtained when only SSH is assimilated with the balance operator. A case study with a storm suggests that the benefit of the balance operator is of particular importance under high wind stress conditions. Implementing the balance operator could be a general benefit to ocean data assimilation systems.

  17. Impact of assimilation window length on diurnal features in a Mars atmospheric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjing Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Effective simulation of diurnal variability is an important aspect of many geophysical data assimilation systems. For the Martian atmosphere, thermal tides are particularly prominent and contribute much to the Martian atmospheric circulation, dynamics and dust transport. To study the Mars diurnal variability and Mars thermal tides, the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Mars Global Climate Model with the 4D-local ensemble transform Kalman filter (4D-LETKF is used to perform an analysis assimilating spacecraft temperature retrievals. We find that the use of a ‘traditional’ 6-hr assimilation cycle induces spurious forcing of a resonantly enhanced semi-diurnal Kelvin waves represented in both surface pressure and mid-level temperature by forming a wave 4 pattern in the diurnal averaged analysis increment that acts as a ‘topographic’ stationary forcing. Different assimilation window lengths in the 4D-LETKF are introduced to remove the artificially induced resonance. It is found that short assimilation window lengths not only remove the spurious resonance, but also push the migrating semi-diurnal temperature variation at 50 Pa closer to the estimated ‘true’ tides even in the absence of a radiatively active water ice cloud parameterisation. In order to compare the performance of different assimilation window lengths, short-term to mid-range forecasts based on the hour 00 and 12 assimilation are evaluated and compared. Results show that during Northern Hemisphere summer, it is not the assimilation window length, but the radiatively active water ice clouds that influence the model prediction. A ‘diurnal bias correction’ that includes bias correction fields dependent on the local time is shown to effectively reduce the forecast root mean square differences between forecasts and observations, compensate for the absence of water ice cloud parameterisation and enhance Martian atmosphere prediction. The implications of these results for

  18. Testbed model and data assimilation for ARM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louis, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this contract are to further develop and test the ALFA (AER Local Forecast and Assimilation) model originally designed at AER for local weather prediction and apply it to three distinct but related purposes in connection with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program: (a) to provide a testbed that simulates a global climate model in order to facilitate the development and testing of new cloud parametrizations and radiation models; (b) to assimilate the ARM data continuously at the scale of a climate model, using the adjoint method, thus providing the initial conditions and verification data for testing parameumtions; (c) to study the sensitivity of a radiation scheme to cloud parameters, again using the adjoint method, thus demonstrating the usefulness of the testbed model. The data assimilation will use a variational technique that minimizes the difference between the model results and the observation during the analysis period. The adjoint model is used to compute the gradient of a measure of the model errors with respect to nudging terms that are added to the equations to force the model output closer to the data. The radiation scheme that will be included in the basic ALFA model makes use of a gen two-stream approximation, and is designed for vertically inhonogeneous, multiple-scattering atmospheres. The sensitivity of this model to the definition of cloud parameters will be studied. The adjoint technique will also be used to compute the sensitivities. This project is designed to provide the Science Team members with the appropriate tools and modeling environment for proper testing and tuning of new radiation models and cloud parametrization schemes

  19. Studies on the translocation and distribution characteristics of carbon assimilates in blackberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuyu; Liu Hongjia

    1990-08-01

    The translocation and distribution characteristics of carbon assimilates were studied with the method of 14 CO 2 feeding. The results indicated that there were different translocation and distribution characteristics of carbon assimilates among the upper, middle and lower leaves in a shoot during annual cycle. Taking away leaves, sun-shading and drought could raise the exporting ratio of carbon assimilates in the feeding leaves and could change the distributing model of the tree. Most of the carbon assimilates were translocated to basic born branch after sun-shading and drought

  20. Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Methods for Wave Propagation in Heterogeneous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Eric T.

    2014-11-13

    Numerical modeling of wave propagation in heterogeneous media is important in many applications. Due to their complex nature, direct numerical simulations on the fine grid are prohibitively expensive. It is therefore important to develop efficient and accurate methods that allow the use of coarse grids. In this paper, we present a multiscale finite element method for wave propagation on a coarse grid. The proposed method is based on the generalized multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM) (see [Y. Efendiev, J. Galvis, and T. Hou, J. Comput. Phys., 251 (2012), pp. 116--135]). To construct multiscale basis functions, we start with two snapshot spaces in each coarse-grid block, where one represents the degrees of freedom on the boundary and the other represents the degrees of freedom in the interior. We use local spectral problems to identify important modes in each snapshot space. These local spectral problems are different from each other and their formulations are based on the analysis. To the best of knowledge, this is the first time that multiple snapshot spaces and multiple spectral problems are used and necessary for efficient computations. Using the dominant modes from local spectral problems, multiscale basis functions are constructed to represent the solution space locally within each coarse block. These multiscale basis functions are coupled via the symmetric interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin method which provides a block diagonal mass matrix and, consequently, results in fast computations in an explicit time discretization. Our methods\\' stability and spectral convergence are rigorously analyzed. Numerical examples are presented to show our methods\\' performance. We also test oversampling strategies. In particular, we discuss how the modes from different snapshot spaces can affect the proposed methods\\' accuracy.

  1. A New Method of Assessing Uncertainty of the Cross-Convolution Method of Shear Wave Splitting Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutt, D.; Breidt, J.; Corbalan Castejon, A.; Witt, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Shear wave splitting is a commonly used and powerful method for constraining such phenomena as lithospheric strain history or asthenospheric flow. However, a number of challenges with the statistics of shear wave splitting have been noted. This creates difficulties in assessing whether two separate measurements are statistically similar or are indicating real differences in anisotropic structure, as well as for created proper station averaged sets of parameters for more complex situations such as multiple or dipping layers of anisotropy. We present a new method for calculating the most likely splitting parameters using the Menke and Levin [2003] method of cross-convolution. The Menke and Levin method is used because it can more readily be applied to a wider range of anisotropic scenarios than the commonly used Silver and Chan [1991] technique. In our approach, we derive a formula for the spectral density of a function of the microseismic noise and the impulse response of the correct anisotropic model that holds for the true anisotropic model parameters. This is compared to the spectral density of the observed signal convolved with the impulse response for an estimated set of anisotropic parameters. The most likely parameters are found when the former and latter spectral densities are the same. By using the Whittle likelihood to compare the two spectral densities, a likelihood grid for all possible anisotropic parameter values is generated. Using bootstrapping, the uncertainty and covariance between the various anisotropic parameters can be evaluated. We will show this works with a single layer of anisotropy and a vertically incident ray, and discuss the usefulness for a more complex case. The method shows great promise for calculating multiple layer anisotropy parameters with proper assessment of uncertainty. References: Menke, W., and Levin, V. 2003. The cross-convolution method for interpreting SKS splitting observations, with application to one and two

  2. Assimilating uncertain, dynamic and intermittent streamflow observations in hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, Maurizio; Alfonso, Leonardo; Chacon-Hurtado, Juan; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2015-09-01

    Catastrophic floods cause significant socio-economical losses. Non-structural measures, such as real-time flood forecasting, can potentially reduce flood risk. To this end, data assimilation methods have been used to improve flood forecasts by integrating static ground observations, and in some cases also remote sensing observations, within water models. Current hydrologic and hydraulic research works consider assimilation of observations coming from traditional, static sensors. At the same time, low-cost, mobile sensors and mobile communication devices are becoming also increasingly available. The main goal and innovation of this study is to demonstrate the usefulness of assimilating uncertain streamflow observations that are dynamic in space and intermittent in time in the context of two different semi-distributed hydrological model structures. The developed method is applied to the Brue basin, where the dynamic observations are imitated by the synthetic observations of discharge. The results of this study show how model structures and sensors locations affect in different ways the assimilation of streamflow observations. In addition, it proves how assimilation of such uncertain observations from dynamic sensors can provide model improvements similar to those of streamflow observations coming from a non-optimal network of static physical sensors. This can be a potential application of recent efforts to build citizen observatories of water, which can make the citizens an active part in information capturing, evaluation and communication, helping simultaneously to improvement of model-based flood forecasting.

  3. Dispersion calculation method based on S-transform and coordinate rotation for Love channel waves with two components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Lei; Zhang, Yugui

    2017-08-01

    Dispersion analysis is an important part of in-seam seismic data processing, and the calculation accuracy of the dispersion curve directly influences pickup errors of channel wave travel time. To extract an accurate channel wave dispersion curve from in-seam seismic two-component signals, we proposed a time-frequency analysis method based on single-trace signal processing; in addition, we formulated a dispersion calculation equation, based on S-transform, with a freely adjusted filter window width. To unify the azimuth of seismic wave propagation received by a two-component geophone, the original in-seam seismic data undergoes coordinate rotation. The rotation angle can be calculated based on P-wave characteristics, with high energy in the wave propagation direction and weak energy in the vertical direction. With this angle acquisition, a two-component signal can be converted to horizontal and vertical directions. Because Love channel waves have a particle vibration track perpendicular to the wave propagation direction, the signal in the horizontal and vertical directions is mainly Love channel waves. More accurate dispersion characters of Love channel waves can be extracted after the coordinate rotation of two-component signals.

  4. AMSR2 all-sky radiance assimilation and its impact on the analysis and forecast of Hurricane Sandy with a limited-area data assimilation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A method to assimilate all-sky radiances from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2 was developed within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model's data assimilation (WRFDA system. The four essential elements are: (1 extending the community radiative transform model's (CRTM interface to include hydrometeor profiles; (2 using total water Qt as the moisture control variable; (3 using a warm-rain physics scheme for partitioning the Qt increment into individual increments of water vapour, cloud liquid water and rain; and (4 adopting a symmetric observation error model for all-sky radiance assimilation.Compared to a benchmark experiment with no AMSR2 data, the impact of assimilating clear-sky or all-sky AMSR2 radiances on the analysis and forecast of Hurricane Sandy (2012 was assessed through analysis/forecast cycling experiments using WRF and WRFDA's three-dimensional variational (3DVAR data assimilation scheme. With more cloud/precipitation-affected data being assimilated around tropical cyclone (TC core areas in the all-sky AMSR2 assimilation experiment, better analyses were obtained in terms of the TC's central sea level pressure (CSLP, warm-core structure and cloud distribution. Substantial (>20 % error reduction in track and CSLP forecasts was achieved from both clear-sky and all-sky AMSR2 assimilation experiments, and this improvement was consistent from the analysis time to 72-h forecasts. Moreover, the all-sky assimilation experiment consistently yielded better track and CSLP forecasts than the clear-sky did for all forecast lead times, due to a better analysis in the TC core areas. Positive forecast impact from assimilating AMSR2 radiances is also seen when verified against the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF analysis and the Stage IV precipitation analysis, with an overall larger positive impact from the all-sky assimilation experiment.

  5. Disintegration-wave method of recovery of industrial waste iron and steel industry enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Vasechkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational use of raw materials and waste is one of the most important factors determining the effectiveness of any processing enterprise. Industrial wastes of mining and metallurgical industries are a valuable source of many elements. However, little activity of the mineral and inconsistent chemical and phase composition of the waste reduce their attractiveness for use as a secondary raw material, and the presence of heavy metals and water-soluble compounds is a serious environmental threat. Fractional excretion of elements that make up the slag can be carried out with the help of their recovery by disintegration-wave method. The paper presents a machine-hardware circuits for the implementation of recovery process of slag and disintegrator design. In conducting research on the example of slag samples of the enterprises in Stavropol and Krasnoyarsk territories, it was found out that the observed enrichment of slags on the composition of iron takes place, its physical and chemical activity increases and persists for a long period of time. These facts were noted in the study of the microstructure and the results of spectral analysis of the initial slags and subjected to recovery by disintegration-wave method. The results analysis led to the conclusion about the possibility of waste recovery of mining and metallurgical industries with by disintegration-wave method. Resulting in the processing materials with enhanced activity of the mineral part and certain chemical and phase composition, can be used as raw material for the production of metallurgical, cement and other industries.

  6. Music playlist generation by assimilating GMMs into SOMs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkema, Wietse; van der Heijden, Ferdinand

    A method for music playlist generation, using assimilated Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) in self organizing maps (SOMs) is presented. Traditionally, the neurons in a SOM are represented by vectors, but in this paper we propose to use GMMs instead. To this end, we introduce a method to adapt a GMM

  7. Data assimilation and PWR primary measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, Thibaud

    2015-01-01

    A Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Reactor Coolant System (RCS) is a highly complex physical process: heterogeneous power, flow and temperature distributions are difficult to be accurately measured, since instrumentations are limited in number, thus leading to the relevant safety and protection margins. EDF R and D is seeking to assess the potential benefits of applying Data Assimilation to a PWR's RCS (Reactor Coolant System) measurements, in order to improve the estimators for parameters of a reactor's operating setpoint, i.e. improving accuracy and reducing uncertainties and biases of measured RCS parameters. In this thesis, we define a 0D semi-empirical model for RCS, satisfying the description level usually chosen by plant operators, and construct a Monte-Carlo Method (inspired from Ensemble Methods) in order to use this model with Data Assimilation tools. We apply this method on simulated data in order to assess the reduction of uncertainties on key parameters: results are beyond expectations, however strong hypothesis are required, implying a careful preprocessing of input data. (author)

  8. An extended numerical calibration method for an electrochemical probe in thin wavy flow with large amplitude waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ki Yong; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-31

    The calibrating method for an electrochemical probe, neglecting the effect of the normal velocity on the mass transport, can cause large errors when applied to the measurement of wall shear rates in thin wavy flow with large amplitude waves. An extended calibrating method is developed to consider the contributions of the normal velocity. The inclusion of the turbulence-induced normal velocity term is found to have a negligible effect on the mass transfer coefficient. The contribution of the wave-induced normal velocity can be classified on the dimensionless parameter, V. If V is above a critical value of V, V{sub crit}, the effects of the wave-induced normal velocity become larger with an increase in V. While its effects negligible for inversely. The present inverse method can predict the unknown shear rate more accurately in thin wavy flow with large amplitude waves than the previous method. 18 refs., 8 figs. (Author)

  9. An extended numerical calibration method for an electrochemical probe in thin wavy flow with large amplitude waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ki Yong; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The calibrating method for an electrochemical probe, neglecting the effect of the normal velocity on the mass transport, can cause large errors when applied to the measurement of wall shear rates in thin wavy flow with large amplitude waves. An extended calibrating method is developed to consider the contributions of the normal velocity. The inclusion of the turbulence-induced normal velocity term is found to have a negligible effect on the mass transfer coefficient. The contribution of the wave-induced normal velocity can be classified on the dimensionless parameter, V. If V is above a critical value of V, V{sub crit}, the effects of the wave-induced normal velocity become larger with an increase in V. While its effects negligible for inversely. The present inverse method can predict the unknown shear rate more accurately in thin wavy flow with large amplitude waves than the previous method. 18 refs., 8 figs. (Author)

  10. Source Estimation for the Damped Wave Equation Using Modulating Functions Method: Application to the Estimation of the Cerebral Blood Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Asiri, Sharefa M.; Laleg-Kirati, Taous-Meriem

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a method based on modulating functions is proposed to estimate the Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF). The problem is written in an input estimation problem for a damped wave equation which is used to model the spatiotemporal variations

  11. Definition of Scatterer in Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Environment Using Image Processing Based on FDTD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Falah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we implement real irregular terrain model in computer program by using image processing. We show how this approach can be used in simulation of E.M. wave propagation on irregular earth’s surface in a realistic manner. Some simulations are performed for implementation of longitudinal height differences over the propagation path as PEC surface .We also describe that how this approach can be used for any boundary condition in computational space. The results observed in Snapshots of the field profiles taken at different simulation times, validates capability of this method.

  12. Optimal Control of the Valve Based on Traveling Wave Method in the Water Hammer Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, H. Z.; Wang, F.; Feng, J. L.; Tan, H. P.

    2011-09-01

    Valve regulation is an effective method for process control during the water hammer. The principle of d'Alembert traveling wave theory was used in this paper to construct the exact analytical solution of the water hammer, and the optimal speed law of the valve that can reduce the water hammer pressure in the maximum extent was obtained. Combining this law with the valve characteristic curve, the principle corresponding to the valve opening changing with time was obtained, which can be used to guide the process of valve closing and to reduce the water hammer pressure in the maximum extent.

  13. Polarization characterization of PZT disks and of embedded PZT plates by thermal wave methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eydam, Agnes; Suchaneck, Gunnar; Gerlach, Gerald; Esslinger, Sophia; Schönecker, Andreas; Neumeister, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the thermal wave method was applied to characterize PZT disks and embedded PZT plates with regard to the polarization magnitude and spatial homogeneity. The samples were exposed to periodic heating by means of a laser beam and the pyroelectric response was determined. Thermal relaxation times (single time constants or distributions of time constants) describe the heat losses of the PZT samples to the environment. The resulting pyroelectric current spectrum was fitted to the superposition of thermal relaxation processes. The pyroelectric coefficient gives insight in the polarization distribution. For PZT disks, the polarization distribution in the surface region showed a characteristic decrease towards the electrodes

  14. Shear wave velocity investigation of soil liquefaction sites from the Tangshan, China M7.8 earthquake of 1976 using active and passive surface wave methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayen, Robert E; Tao, Xiaxin; Shi, Lijing; Shi, Hailiang

    2008-01-01

    An initial investigation of soil liquefaction sites from the July, 28 1976 Tangshan M7.8 earthquake was conducted between 1976 and 1978 by the National Ministry of Railways, China. These data are the basis of the ‘Chinese Method’ for assessment of liquefaction potential of silty-sand deposits, and are an important component of the worldwide data set for modern probabilistic methods for assessment of soil liquefaction using Bayesian updating and system reliability tools. We revisited 26 sites identified in the maps and published 198 report of the Ministry of Railways in order to investigate these locations with a suite of active- and passive-array surface wave methods. These sites are clustered along the north coast of the Bo Hai Sea in three areas: Lutai, Tianjin; Tangshan City and outlying village, Hebei; and Luannan county, Hebei. First, we gathered and evaluated the Rayleigh wave dispersion characteristics of the ground by comparing dispersion curves from the active source harmonic wave-spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) method and the passive array Spatial Auto-Correlation method (SPAC). The dispersive properties of the liquefied ground as measured by these two methods were found to be almost identical. These tests were hybridized and the data sets merged in order to invert of shear wave velocities for analysis of liquefaction potential using a probabilistic framework. The data from high-values of seismic intensity near Tangshan city to low-intensities distant of the event in Luannan County segregate out into clusters of liquefied and non liquefied points clearly separated by liquefaction boundary curves developed from a large global data set of 310 sites

  15. An innovative method for automatic determination of time of arrival for Lamb waves excited by impact events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junxiao; Parvasi, Seyed Mohammad; Ho, Siu Chun Michael; Patil, Devendra; Ge, Maochen; Li, Hongnan; Song, Gangbing

    2017-05-01

    Lamb waves have great potential as a diagnostic tool in the application of structural health monitoring. Propagation properties of Lamb waves are affected by the state of the structure that the waves are traveling upon. Thus Lamb waves can carry information about the structure as they travel across a structure. However, the dispersive, multimodal and attenuation characteristics of Lamb waves make it difficult to determine the time of arrival of Lamb waves. To deal with these characteristics, an innovative method to automatically determine the time of arrival for impact-induced Lamb waves without human intervention is proposed in this paper. Lead zirconate titanate sensors mounted on the surface of an aluminum plate were used to measure the Lamb waves excited by an impact. The time of arrival was determined based on wavelet decomposition, Hilbert transform and statistics (Grubbs’ test and maximum likelihood estimation). Both of numerical analysis and physical measurements have verified the accuracy of this method for impacts on an aluminum plate.

  16. Nouvelles méthodes d'identification des fractures par diagraphie acoustique en full wave form New Methods of Identifying Fractures by Full Wave Form Acoustic Logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les outils acoustiques de dernière génération permettent maintenant d'enregistrer l'ensemble des ondes générées par une source acoustique à l'intérieur d'une géométrie cylindrique telle qu'un puits de sondage. Le train d'onde qu'il est alors possible d'analyser se compose successivement de trois composantes majeures (l'onde de compression, de cisaillement et de Stoneley dont nous avons une représentation pour chaque position de la sonde à l'intérieur du puits. Nous présentons, dans ce texte, trois méthodes originales et rapides (calculs possibles sur le site même pour identifier, à partir du traitement de l'onde de Stoneley, les fractures ouvertes recoupées par un forage. Nous donnons, dans un premier temps, nos motivations pour le choix unique du traitement de l'onde de Stoneley pour, dans un deuxième temps, exposer les trois méthodes développées et montrer pour chacune d'entre elles une application pratique. Interest in recognizing and identifying fractures in a coherent formation for the petroleum, geothermal and storage (oil and gas, wastes sectors has led to the development of indirect prospection methods inside boreholes such as acoustic logging. The latest acoustic tools are capable of recording all waves generated by an acoustic logging tool inside a cyclindrical geometry such as a borehole. The wavetrain that can then be analyzed is successively made up of three major components (the P compression wave, the S shear wave and the Stoneley wave for which we have a representation for each position of the logging tool in the borehole. An example of a recording is shown in Fig. 1. Because of its specific features (high amplitudes, low frequency, high signal-to-noise ratio, the Stoneley wave is recognized to be a good indicator of open fractures. Therefore, we use simple digital processing to quantify the influence of fracturing on the propagation of the Stoneley wave. Three methods stemming from the digital processing of

  17. Bed Evolution under Rapidly Varying Flows by a New Method for Wave Speed Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khawar Rehman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a sediment-transport model based on coupled Saint-Venant and Exner equations. A finite volume method of Godunov type with predictor-corrector steps is used to solve a set of coupled equations. An efficient combination of approximate Riemann solvers is proposed to compute fluxes associated with sediment-laden flow. In addition, a new method is proposed for computing the water depth and velocity values along the shear wave. This method ensures smooth solutions, even for flows with high discontinuities, and on domains with highly distorted grids. The numerical model is tested for channel aggradation on a sloping bottom, dam-break cases at flume-scale and reach-scale with flat bottom configurations and varying downstream water depths. The proposed model is tested for predicting the position of hydraulic jump, wave front propagation, and for predicting magnitude of bed erosion. The comparison between results based on the proposed scheme and analytical, experimental, and published numerical results shows good agreement. Sensitivity analysis shows that the model is computationally efficient and virtually independent of mesh refinement.

  18. An Adaptive Physics-Based Method for the Solution of One-Dimensional Wave Motion Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Shafiei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an adaptive physics-based method is developed for solving wave motion problems in one dimension (i.e., wave propagation in strings, rods and beams. The solution of the problem includes two main parts. In the first part, after discretization of the domain, a physics-based method is developed considering the conservation of mass and the balance of momentum. In the second part, adaptive points are determined using the wavelet theory. This part is done employing the Deslauries-Dubuc (D-D wavelets. By solving the problem in the first step, the domain of the problem is discretized by the same cells taking into consideration the load and characteristics of the structure. After the first trial solution, the D-D interpolation shows the lack and redundancy of points in the domain. These points will be added or eliminated for the next solution. This process may be repeated for obtaining an adaptive mesh for each step. Also, the smoothing spline fit is used to eliminate the noisy portion of the solution. Finally, the results of the proposed method are compared with the results available in the literature. The comparison shows excellent agreement between the obtained results and those already reported.

  19. Detecting Damage in Composite Material Using Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Michele; Polimeno, Umberto; Zumpano, Giuseppe

    2008-05-01

    Modern aerospace structures make increasing use of fibre reinforced plastic composites, due to their high specific mechanical properties. However, due to their brittleness, low velocity impact can cause delaminations beneath the surface, while the surface may appear to be undamaged upon visual inspection. Such damage is called barely visible impact damage (BVID). Such internal damages lead to significant reduction in local strengths and ultimately could lead to catastrophic failures. It is therefore important to detect and monitor damages in high loaded composite components to receive an early warning for a well timed maintenance of the aircraft. Non-linear ultrasonic spectroscopy methods are promising damage detection and material characterization tools. In this paper, two different non-linear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) methods are presented: single mode nonlinear resonance ultrasound (NRUS) and nonlinear wave modulation technique (NWMS). The NEWS methods were applied to detect delamination damage due to low velocity impact (<12 J) on various composite plates. The results showed that the proposed methodology appear to be highly sensitive to the presence of damage with very promising future NDT and structural health monitoring applications.

  20. Development of a particle method of characteristics (PMOC) for one-dimensional shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Y.-H.

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, a particle method of characteristics is put forward to simulate the evolution of one-dimensional shock waves in barotropic gaseous, closed-conduit, open-channel, and two-phase flows. All these flow phenomena can be described with the same set of governing equations. The proposed scheme is established based on the characteristic equations and formulated by assigning the computational particles to move along the characteristic curves. Both the right- and left-running characteristics are traced and represented by their associated computational particles. It inherits the computational merits from the conventional method of characteristics (MOC) and moving particle method, but without their individual deficiencies. In addition, special particles with dual states deduced to the enforcement of the Rankine-Hugoniot relation are deliberately imposed to emulate the shock structure. Numerical tests are carried out by solving some benchmark problems, and the computational results are compared with available analytical solutions. From the derivation procedure and obtained computational results, it is concluded that the proposed PMOC will be a useful tool to replicate one-dimensional shock waves.

  1. Standard test method for measurement of roll wave optical distortion in heat-treated flat glass

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method is applicable to the determination of the peak-to-valley depth and peak-to-peak distances of the out-of-plane deformation referred to as roll wave which occurs in flat, heat-treated architectural glass substrates processed in a heat processing continuous or oscillating conveyance oven. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses are mathematical conversions to SI units that are provided for information only and are not considered standard. 1.3 This test method does not address other flatness issues like edge kink, ream, pocket distortion, bow, or other distortions outside of roll wave as defined in this test method. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  2. Research for developing precise tsunami evaluation methods. Probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis/numerical simulation method with dispersion and wave breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The present report introduces main results of investigations on precise tsunami evaluation methods, which were carried out from the viewpoint of safety evaluation for nuclear power facilities and deliberated by the Tsunami Evaluation Subcommittee. A framework for the probabilistic tsunami hazard analysis (PTHA) based on logic tree is proposed and calculation on the Pacific side of northeastern Japan is performed as a case study. Tsunami motions with dispersion and wave breaking were investigated both experimentally and numerically. The numerical simulation method is verified for its practicability by applying to a historical tsunami. Tsunami force is also investigated and formulae of tsunami pressure acting on breakwaters and on building due to inundating tsunami are proposed. (author)

  3. MATLAB algorithm to implement soil water data assimilation with the Ensemble Kalman Filter using HYDRUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes-Abellan, Javier; Pachepsky, Yakov; Martinez, Gonzalo

    2018-01-01

    Data assimilation is becoming a promising technique in hydrologic modelling to update not only model states but also to infer model parameters, specifically to infer soil hydraulic properties in Richard-equation-based soil water models. The Ensemble Kalman Filter method is one of the most widely employed method among the different data assimilation alternatives. In this study the complete Matlab© code used to study soil data assimilation efficiency under different soil and climatic conditions is shown. The code shows the method how data assimilation through EnKF was implemented. Richards equation was solved by the used of Hydrus-1D software which was run from Matlab. •MATLAB routines are released to be used/modified without restrictions for other researchers•Data assimilation Ensemble Kalman Filter method code.•Soil water Richard equation flow solved by Hydrus-1D.

  4. Data assimilation strategies for volcano geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yan; Gregg, Patricia M.

    2017-09-01

    Ground deformation observed using near-real time geodetic methods, such as InSAR and GPS, can provide critical information about the evolution of a magma chamber prior to volcanic eruption. Rapid advancement in numerical modeling capabilities has resulted in a number of finite element models targeted at better understanding the connection between surface uplift associated with magma chamber pressurization and the potential for volcanic eruption. Robust model-data fusion techniques are necessary to take full advantage of the numerical models and the volcano monitoring observations currently available. In this study, we develop a 3D data assimilation framework using the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) approach in order to combine geodetic observations of surface deformation with geodynamic models to investigate volcanic unrest. The EnKF sequential assimilation method utilizes disparate data sets as they become available to update geodynamic models of magma reservoir evolution. While the EnKF has been widely applied in hydrologic and climate modeling, the adaptation for volcano monitoring is in its initial stages. As such, our investigation focuses on conducting a series of sensitivity tests to optimize the EnKF for volcano applications and on developing specific strategies for assimilation of geodetic data. Our numerical experiments illustrate that the EnKF is able to adapt well to the spatial limitations posed by GPS data and the temporal limitations of InSAR, and that specific strategies can be adopted to enhance EnKF performance to improve model forecasts. Specifically, our numerical experiments indicate that: (1) incorporating additional iterations of the EnKF analysis step is more efficient than increasing the number of ensemble members; (2) the accuracy of the EnKF results are not affected by initial parameter assumptions; (3) GPS observations near the center of uplift improve the quality of model forecasts; (4) occasionally shifting continuous GPS stations to

  5. Analysis of a time fractional wave-like equation with the homotopy analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hang; Cang Jie

    2008-01-01

    The time fractional wave-like differential equation with a variable coefficient is studied analytically. By using a simple transformation, the governing equation is reduced to two fractional ordinary differential equations. Then the homotopy analysis method is employed to derive the solutions of these equations. The accurate series solutions are obtained. Especially, when h f =h g =-1, these solutions are exactly the same as those results given by the Adomian decomposition method. The present work shows the validity and great potential of the homotopy analysis method for solving nonlinear fractional differential equations. The basic idea described in this Letter is expected to be further employed to solve other similar nonlinear problems in fractional calculus

  6. New method for measuring time-resolved spectra of lanthanide emission using square-wave excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Feng; Zhao, Hua; Cai, Wei; Duan, Qianqian; Zhang, Zhiguo; Cao, Wenwu

    2013-01-01

    A method using modulated continuous wave (CW) visible laser to measure time-resolved fluorescence spectra of trivalent rare-earth ions has been developed. Electro-optic modulator was used to modulate the CW pumping laser with a rise time of 2 μs. CW Nd 3+ lasers were used as examples to present the method. Upconversion dynamic process of Ho 3+ was studied utilizing a 532 nm CW laser. Quantum cutting dynamic process from Tb 3+ to Yb 3+ was analyzed by a 473 nm CW laser. This method can be applied to any CW laser such as He-Ne laser, Ar + laser, Kr + laser, Ti:sapphire laser, etc

  7. An accurate optical design method for synchrotron radiation beamlines with wave-front aberration theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xiaojiang, E-mail: slsyxj@nus.edu.sg; Diao, Caozheng; Breese, Mark B. H. [Singapore Synchrotron Light Source, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117603 (Singapore)

    2016-07-27

    An aberration calculation method which was developed by Lu [1] can treat individual aberration term precisely. Spectral aberration is the linear sum of these aberration terms, and the aberrations of multi-element systems also can be calculated correctly when the stretching ratio, defined herein, is unity. Evaluation of focusing mirror-grating systems which are optimized according to Lu’s method, along with the Light Path Function (LPF) and the Spot Diagram method (SD) are discussed to confirm the advantage of Lu’s methodology. Lu’s aberration terms are derived from a precise wave-front treatment, whereas the terms of the power series expansion of the light path function do not yield an accurate sum of the aberrations. Moreover, Lu’s aberration terms can be individually optimized. This is not possible with the analytical spot diagram formulae.

  8. Spectral finite element method wave propagation, diagnostics and control in anisotropic and inhomogeneous structures

    CERN Document Server

    Gopalakrishnan, Srinivasan; Roy Mahapatra, Debiprosad

    2008-01-01

    The use of composites and Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) in structural applications has increased. FGMs allow the user to design materials for a specified functionality and have many uses in structural engineering. However, the behaviour of these structures under high-impact loading is not well understood. This book is the first to apply the Spectral Finite Element Method (SFEM) to inhomogeneous and anisotropic structures in a unified and systematic manner. It focuses on some of the problems with this media which were previously thought unmanageable. Types of SFEM for regular and damaged 1-D and 2-D waveguides, solution techniques, methods of detecting the presence of damages and their locations, and methods for controlling the wave propagation responses are discussed. Tables, figures and graphs support the theory and case studies are included. This book is of value to senior undergraduates and postgraduates studying in this field, and researchers and practicing engineers in structural integrity.

  9. The Application of Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW) Method as a New Rock Mass Classification Technique in Engineering Geology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahim Samsuddin; Abdul Ghani Rafek; Umar Hamzah; Suharsono; Khairul Anuar Mohd Nayan

    2008-01-01

    Spectral analysis of surface waves (SASW) is a seismic method that uses the dispersive characteristics of Rayleigh waves propagating through layered material to evaluate S-wave velocity profile. The SASW is an in situ non intrusive method for geotechnical site characterization which is cost effective as compared to the conventional drilling method. In this study, a total of 20 stations from 13 sites were selected. A software (WINSASW 2.0) was used for the inversion process to produce S-wave velocity versus depth profiles. These profiles were then separately analyzed in relation to several engineering rock mass geological parameters such as stiffness, rock quality designation (RQD), anisotropy and the excavability properties. The analysis of the SASW data was based on the assumption that the rock mass is an isotropic homogeneous material with various intensity of discontinuity which influenced the velocity of surface wave propagation within the rock mass. Measurement of dynamic soil properties was carried out employing the shear wave velocities and the N values of the Standard Penetration Test (N SPT ) from borehole data. A new linear equation V s = 4.44 N SPT + 213.84 which relates S-wave and N SPT was deduced. An empirical equation is also proposed to calculate Rock Quality Designation (RQD) values based on S-wave velocity derived from SASW and that of ultrasonic tests. The result of this equation was found to be less than 10% in comparison to the RQD obtained from actual borehole data. An isotropic analysis of the rock mass was carried out using S-wave velocities derived from SASW measurements in four directions. The plots of S-wave - ultrasonic velocity ratio versus ultrasonic velocity were used to evaluate the excavability properties of rock mass. Five classes of rock mass excavability curves were finally proposed in relation to easy digging, easy ripping, hard ripping, hydraulic breaking and blasting. (author)

  10. A spectral hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin method for elastic-acoustic wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrana, S.; Vilotte, J. P.; Guillot, L.

    2018-04-01

    We introduce a time-domain, high-order in space, hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin (DG) spectral element method (HDG-SEM) for wave equations in coupled elastic-acoustic media. The method is based on a first-order hyperbolic velocity-strain formulation of the wave equations written in conservative form. This method follows the HDG approach by introducing a hybrid unknown, which is the approximation of the velocity on the elements boundaries, as the only globally (i.e. interelement) coupled degrees of freedom. In this paper, we first present a hybridized formulation of the exact Riemann solver at the element boundaries, taking into account elastic-elastic, acoustic-acoustic and elastic-acoustic interfaces. We then use this Riemann solver to derive an explicit construction of the HDG stabilization function τ for all the above-mentioned interfaces. We thus obtain an HDG scheme for coupled elastic-acoustic problems. This scheme is then discretized in space on quadrangular/hexahedral meshes using arbitrary high-order polynomial basis for both volumetric and hybrid fields, using an approach similar to the spectral element methods. This leads to a semi-discrete system of algebraic differential equations (ADEs), which thanks to the structure of the global conservativity condition can be reformulated easily as a classical system of first-order ordinary differential equations in time, allowing the use of classical explicit or implicit time integration schemes. When an explicit time scheme is used, the HDG method can be seen as a reformulation of a DG with upwind fluxes. The introduction of the velocity hybrid unknown leads to relatively simple computations at the element boundaries which, in turn, makes the HDG approach competitive with the DG-upwind methods. Extensive numerical results are provided to illustrate and assess the accuracy and convergence properties of this HDG-SEM. The approximate velocity is shown to converge with the optimal order of k + 1 in the L2-norm

  11. Variational assimilation of streamflow into operational distributed hydrologic models: effect of spatiotemporal adjustment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.; Seo, D.-J.; Liu, Y.; Koren, V.; McKee, P.; Corby, R.

    2012-01-01

    State updating of distributed rainfall-runoff models via streamflow assimilation is subject to overfitting because large dimensionality of the state space of the model may render the assimilation problem seriously under-determined. To examine the issue in the context of operational hydrology, we carry out a set of real-world experiments in which streamflow data is assimilated into gridded Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) and kinematic-wave routing models of the US National Weather Service (NWS) Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (RDHM) with the variational data assimilation technique. Study basins include four basins in Oklahoma and five basins in Texas. To assess the sensitivity of data assimilation performance to dimensionality reduction in the control vector, we used nine different spatiotemporal adjustment scales, where state variables are adjusted in a lumped, semi-distributed, or distributed fashion and biases in precipitation and potential evaporation (PE) are adjusted hourly, 6-hourly, or kept time-invariant. For each adjustment scale, three different streamflow assimilation scenarios are explored, where streamflow observations at basin interior points, at the basin outlet, or at both interior points and the outlet are assimilated. The streamflow assimilation experiments with nine different basins show that the optimum spatiotemporal adjustment scale varies from one basin to another and may be different for streamflow analysis and prediction in all of the three streamflow assimilation scenarios. The most preferred adjustment scale for seven out of nine basins is found to be the distributed, hourly scale, despite the fact that several independent validation results at this adjustment scale indicated the occurrence of overfitting. Basins with highly correlated interior and outlet flows tend to be less sensitive to the adjustment scale and could benefit more from streamflow assimilation. In comparison to outlet flow assimilation, interior flow

  12. Assimilation of Altimeter Data into a Quasigeostrophic Model of the Gulf Stream System. Part 2; Assimilation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capotondi, Antonietta; Holland, William R.; Malanotte-Rizzoli, Paola

    1995-01-01

    The improvement in the climatological behavior of a numerical model as a consequence of the assimilation of surface data is investigated. The model used for this study is a quasigeostrophic (QG) model of the Gulf Stream region. The data that have been assimilated are maps of sea surface height that have been obtained as the superposition of sea surface height variability deduced from the Geosat altimeter measurements and a mean field constructed from historical hydrographic data. The method used for assimilating the data is the nudging technique. Nudging has been implemented in such a way as to achieve a high degree of convergence of the surface model fields toward the observations. Comparisons of the assimilation results with available in situ observations show a significant improvement in the degree of realism of the climatological model behavior, with respect to the model in which no data are assimilated. The remaining discrepancies in the model mean circulation seem to be mainly associated with deficiencies in the mean component of the surface data that are assimilated. On the other hand, the possibility of building into the model more realistic eddy characteristics through the assimilation of the surface eddy field proves very successful in driving components of the mean model circulation that are in relatively good agreement with the available observations. Comparisons with current meter time series during a time period partially overlapping the Geosat mission show that the model is able to 'correctly' extrapolate the instantaneous surface eddy signals to depths of approximately 1500 m. The correlation coefficient between current meter and model time series varies from values close to 0.7 in the top 1500 m to values as low as 0.1-0.2 in the deep ocean.

  13. Assimilate partitioning during reproductive growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finazzo, S.F.; Davenport, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Leaves having various phyllotactic relationships to fruitlets were labeled for 1 hour with 10/sub r/Ci of 14 CO 2 . Fruitlets were also labeled. Fruitlets did fix 14 CO 2 . Translocation of radioactivity from the peel into the fruit occurred slowly and to a limited extent. No evidence of translocation out of the fruitlets was observed. Assimilate partitioning in avocado was strongly influenced by phyllotaxy. If a fruit and the labeled leaf had the same phyllotaxy then greater than 95% of the radiolabel was present in this fruit. When the fruit did not have the same phyllotaxy as the labeled leaf, the radiolabel distribution was skewed with 70% of the label going to a single adjacent position. Avocado fruitlets exhibit uniform labeling throughout a particular tissue. In avocado, assimilates preferentially move from leaves to fruits with the same phyllotaxy

  14. Data Assimilation by delay-coordinate nudging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazo, Diego; Lopez, Juan Manuel; Carrassi, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    A new nudging method for data assimilation, delay-coordinate nudging, is presented. Delay-coordinate nudging makes explicit use of present and past observations in the formulation of the forcing driving the model evolution at each time-step. Numerical experiments with a low order chaotic system show that the new method systematically outperforms standard nudging in different model and observational scenarios, also when using an un-optimized formulation of the delay-nudging coefficients. A connection between the optimal delay and the dominant Lyapunov exponent of the dynamics is found based on heuristic arguments and is confirmed by the numerical results, providing a guideline for the practical implementation of the algorithm. Delay-coordinate nudging preserves the easiness of implementation, the intuitive functioning and the reduced computational cost of the standard nudging, making it a potential alternative especially in the field of seasonal-to-decadal predictions with large Earth system models that limit the use of more sophisticated data assimilation procedures.

  15. Turbulent viscosity optimized by data assimilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Leredde

    Full Text Available As an alternative approach to classical turbulence modelling using a first or second order closure, the data assimilation method of optimal control is applied to estimate a time and space-dependent turbulent viscosity in a three-dimensional oceanic circulation model. The optimal control method, described for a 3-D primitive equation model, involves the minimization of a cost function that quantifies the discrepancies between the simulations and the observations. An iterative algorithm is obtained via the adjoint model resolution. In a first experiment, a k + L model is used to simulate the one-dimensional development of inertial oscillations resulting from a wind stress at the sea surface and with the presence of a halocline. These results are used as synthetic observations to be assimilated. The turbulent viscosity is then recovered without the k + L closure, even with sparse and noisy observations. The problems of controllability and of the dimensions of the control are then discussed. A second experiment consists of a two-dimensional schematic simulation. A 2-D turbulent viscosity field is estimated from data on the initial and final states of a coastal upwelling event.

    Key words. Oceanography: general (numerical modelling · Oceanography: physical (turbulence · diffusion · and mixing processes

  16. Two-dimensional simulation of broad-band ferrite electromagnetic wave absorbers by using the FDTD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hyun Jin; Kim, Dong Il [Korea Maritime University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-10-15

    The purpose of this simulation study is to design and fabricate an electromagnetic (EM) wave absorber in order to develop a wide-band absorber. We have proposed and modeled a bird-eye-type and cutting-cone-type EM wave absorber by using the equivalent material constants method (EMCM), and we simulated them by using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. A two or a three-dimensional simulation would be desirable to analyze the EM wave absorber characteristics and to develop new structures. The two-dimensional FDTD simulation requires less computer resources than a three-dimensional simulation to consider the structural effects of the EM wave absorbers. The numerical simulation by using the FDTD method shows propagating EM waves in various types of periodic structure EM wave absorbers. Simultaneously, a Fourier analysis is used to characterize the input pulse and the reflected EM waves for ferrite absorbers with various structures. The results have a wide-band reflection-reducing characteristic. The validity of the proposed model was confirmed by comparing the two-dimensional simulation with the experimental results. The simulations were carried out in the frequency band from 30 MHz to 10 GHz.

  17. Two-dimensional simulation of broad-band ferrite electromagnetic wave absorbers by using the FDTD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hyun Jin; Kim, Dong Il

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this simulation study is to design and fabricate an electromagnetic (EM) wave absorber in order to develop a wide-band absorber. We have proposed and modeled a bird-eye-type and cutting-cone-type EM wave absorber by using the equivalent material constants method (EMCM), and we simulated them by using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. A two or a three-dimensional simulation would be desirable to analyze the EM wave absorber characteristics and to develop new structures. The two-dimensional FDTD simulation requires less computer resources than a three-dimensional simulation to consider the structural effects of the EM wave absorbers. The numerical simulation by using the FDTD method shows propagating EM waves in various types of periodic structure EM wave absorbers. Simultaneously, a Fourier analysis is used to characterize the input pulse and the reflected EM waves for ferrite absorbers with various structures. The results have a wide-band reflection-reducing characteristic. The validity of the proposed model was confirmed by comparing the two-dimensional simulation with the experimental results. The simulations were carried out in the frequency band from 30 MHz to 10 GHz.

  18. Shock wave-bubble interaction near soft and rigid boundaries during lithotripsy: numerical analysis by the improved ghost fluid method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi [Division of Mechanical and Space Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8628 (Japan); Kodama, Tetsuya [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Takahira, Hiroyuki, E-mail: kobakazu@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 599-8531 (Japan)

    2011-10-07

    In the case of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), a shock wave-bubble interaction inevitably occurs near the focusing point of stones, resulting in stone fragmentation and subsequent tissue damage. Because shock wave-bubble interactions are high-speed phenomena occurring in tissue consisting of various media with different acoustic impedance values, numerical analysis is an effective method for elucidating the mechanism of these interactions. However, the mechanism has not been examined in detail because, at present, numerical simulations capable of incorporating the acoustic impedance of various tissues do not exist. Here, we show that the improved ghost fluid method (IGFM) can treat shock wave-bubble interactions in various media. Nonspherical bubble collapse near a rigid or soft tissue boundary (stone, liver, gelatin and fat) was analyzed. The reflection wave of an incident shock wave at a tissue boundary was the primary cause for the acceleration or deceleration of bubble collapse. The impulse that was obtained from the temporal evolution of pressure created by the bubble collapse increased the downward velocity of the boundary and caused subsequent boundary deformation. Results of this study showed that the IGFM is a useful method for analyzing the shock wave-bubble interaction near various tissues with different acoustic impedance.

  19. Shock wave-bubble interaction near soft and rigid boundaries during lithotripsy: numerical analysis by the improved ghost fluid method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Kodama, Tetsuya; Takahira, Hiroyuki

    2011-01-01

    In the case of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), a shock wave-bubble interaction inevitably occurs near the focusing point of stones, resulting in stone fragmentation and subsequent tissue damage. Because shock wave-bubble interactions are high-speed phenomena occurring in tissue consisting of various media with different acoustic impedance values, numerical analysis is an effective method for elucidating the mechanism of these interactions. However, the mechanism has not been examined in detail because, at present, numerical simulations capable of incorporating the acoustic impedance of various tissues do not exist. Here, we show that the improved ghost fluid method (IGFM) can treat shock wave-bubble interactions in various media. Nonspherical bubble collapse near a rigid or soft tissue boundary (stone, liver, gelatin and fat) was analyzed. The reflection wave of an incident shock wave at a tissue boundary was the primary cause for the acceleration or deceleration of bubble collapse. The impulse that was obtained from the temporal evolution of pressure created by the bubble collapse increased the downward velocity of the boundary and caused subsequent boundary deformation. Results of this study showed that the IGFM is a useful method for analyzing the shock wave-bubble interaction near various tissues with different acoustic impedance.

  20. Shock wave-bubble interaction near soft and rigid boundaries during lithotripsy: numerical analysis by the improved ghost fluid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazumichi; Kodama, Tetsuya; Takahira, Hiroyuki

    2011-10-01

    In the case of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), a shock wave-bubble interaction inevitably occurs near the focusing point of stones, resulting in stone fragmentation and subsequent tissue damage. Because shock wave-bubble interactions are high-speed phenomena occurring in tissue consisting of various media with different acoustic impedance values, numerical analysis is an effective method for elucidating the mechanism of these interactions. However, the mechanism has not been examined in detail because, at present, numerical simulations capable of incorporating the acoustic impedance of various tissues do not exist. Here, we show that the improved ghost fluid method (IGFM) can treat shock wave-bubble interactions in various media. Nonspherical bubble collapse near a rigid or soft tissue boundary (stone, liver, gelatin and fat) was analyzed. The reflection wave of an incident shock wave at a tissue boundary was the primary cause for the acceleration or deceleration of bubble collapse. The impulse that was obtained from the temporal evolution of pressure created by the bubble collapse increased the downward velocity of the boundary and caused subsequent boundary deformation. Results of this study showed that the IGFM is a useful method for analyzing the shock wave-bubble interaction near various tissues with different acoustic impedance.

  1. Triple collocation-based estimation of spatially correlated observation error covariance in remote sensing soil moisture data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Shu, Hong; Nie, Lei; Jiao, Zhenhang

    2018-01-01

    Spatially correlated errors are typically ignored in data assimilation, thus degenerating the observation error covariance R to a diagonal matrix. We argue that a nondiagonal R carries more observation information making assimilation results more accurate. A method, denoted TC_Cov, was proposed for soil moisture data assimilation to estimate spatially correlated observation error covariance based on triple collocation (TC). Assimilation experiments were carried out to test the performance of TC_Cov. AMSR-E soil moisture was assimilated with a diagonal R matrix computed using the TC and assimilated using a nondiagonal R matrix, as estimated by proposed TC_Cov. The ensemble Kalman filter was considered as the assimilation method. Our assimilation results were validated against climate change initiative data and ground-based soil moisture measurements using the Pearson correlation coefficient and unbiased root mean square difference metrics. These experiments confirmed that deterioration of diagonal R assimilation results occurred when model simulation is more accurate than observation data. Furthermore, nondiagonal R achieved higher correlation coefficient and lower ubRMSD values over diagonal R in experiments and demonstrated the effectiveness of TC_Cov to estimate richly structuralized R in data assimilation. In sum, compared with diagonal R, nondiagonal R may relieve the detrimental effects of assimilation when simulated model results outperform observation data.

  2. Development Of A Data Assimilation Capability For RAPID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, C. M.; David, C. H.; Turmon, M.; Hobbs, J.; Allen, G. H.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    The global decline of in situ observations associated with the increasing ability to monitor surface water from space motivates the creation of data assimilation algorithms that merge computer models and space-based observations to produce consistent estimates of terrestrial hydrology that fill the spatiotemporal gaps in observations. RAPID is a routing model based on the Muskingum method that is capable of estimating river streamflow over large scales with a relatively short computing time. This model only requires limited inputs: a reach-based river network, and lateral surface and subsurface flow into the rivers. The relatively simple model physics imply that RAPID simulations could be significantly improved by including a data assimilation capability. Here we present the early developments of such data assimilation approach into RAPID. Given the linear and matrix-based structure of the model, we chose to apply a direct Kalman filter, hence allowing for the preservation of high computational speed. We correct the simulated streamflows by assimilating streamflow observations and our early results demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. Additionally, the use of in situ gauges at continental scales motivates the application of our new data assimilation scheme to altimetry measurements from existing (e.g. EnviSat, Jason 2) and upcoming satellite missions (e.g. SWOT), and ultimately apply the scheme globally.

  3. Evaluation of Maximum a Posteriori Estimation as Data Assimilation Method for Forecasting Infiltration-Inflow Affected Urban Runoff with Radar Rainfall Input

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wied Pedersen, Jonas; Lund, Nadia Schou Vorndran; Borup, Morten

    2016-01-01

    High quality on-line flow forecasts are useful for real-time operation of urban drainage systems and wastewater treatment plants. This requires computationally efficient models, which are continuously updated with observed data to provide good initial conditions for the forecasts. This paper...... period of time that precedes the forecast. The method is illustrated for an urban catchment, where flow forecasts of 0–4 h are generated by applying a lumped linear reservoir model with three cascading reservoirs. Radar rainfall observations are used as input to the model. The effects of different prior...

  4. Fatigue crack detection and identification by the elastic wave propagation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawiarski, Adam; Barski, Marek; Pająk, Piotr

    2017-05-01

    In this paper the elastic wave propagation phenomenon was used to detect the initiation of the fatigue damage in isotropic plate with a circular hole. The safety and reliability of structures mostly depend on the effectiveness of the monitoring methods. The Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system based on the active pitch-catch measurement technique was proposed. The piezoelectric (PZT) elements was used as an actuators and sensors in the multipoint measuring system. The comparison of the intact and defected structures has been used by damage detection algorithm. One part of the SHM system has been responsible for detection of the fatigue crack initiation. The second part observed the evolution of the damage growth and assess the size of the defect. The numerical results of the wave propagation phenomenon has been used to present the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed method. The preliminary experimental analysis has been carried out during the tension test of the aluminum plate with a circular hole to determine the efficiency of the measurement technique.

  5. Nonuniform grid implicit spatial finite difference method for acoustic wave modeling in tilted transversely isotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Chu, Chunlei

    2012-01-01

    Discrete earth models are commonly represented by uniform structured grids. In order to ensure accurate numerical description of all wave components propagating through these uniform grids, the grid size must be determined by the slowest velocity of the entire model. Consequently, high velocity areas are always oversampled, which inevitably increases the computational cost. A practical solution to this problem is to use nonuniform grids. We propose a nonuniform grid implicit spatial finite difference method which utilizes nonuniform grids to obtain high efficiency and relies on implicit operators to achieve high accuracy. We present a simple way of deriving implicit finite difference operators of arbitrary stencil widths on general nonuniform grids for the first and second derivatives and, as a demonstration example, apply these operators to the pseudo-acoustic wave equation in tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) media. We propose an efficient gridding algorithm that can be used to convert uniformly sampled models onto vertically nonuniform grids. We use a 2D TTI salt model to demonstrate its effectiveness and show that the nonuniform grid implicit spatial finite difference method can produce highly accurate seismic modeling results with enhanced efficiency, compared to uniform grid explicit finite difference implementations. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Prediction of shear wave velocity using empirical correlations and artificial intelligence methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Shahoo; Moradzadeh, Ali; Riabi, Reza Ghavami; Gholami, Raoof; Sadeghzadeh, Farhad

    2014-06-01

    Good understanding of mechanical properties of rock formations is essential during the development and production phases of a hydrocarbon reservoir. Conventionally, these properties are estimated from the petrophysical logs with compression and shear sonic data being the main input to the correlations. This is while in many cases the shear sonic data are not acquired during well logging, which may be for cost saving purposes. In this case, shear wave velocity is estimated using available empirical correlations or artificial intelligent methods proposed during the last few decades. In this paper, petrophysical logs corresponding to a well drilled in southern part of Iran were used to estimate the shear wave velocity using empirical correlations as well as two robust artificial intelligence methods knows as Support Vector Regression (SVR) and Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN). Although the results obtained by SVR seem to be reliable, the estimated values are not very precise and considering the importance of shear sonic data as the input into different models, this study suggests acquiring shear sonic data during well logging. It is important to note that the benefits of having reliable shear sonic data for estimation of rock formation mechanical properties will compensate the possible additional costs for acquiring a shear log.

  7. The coupling technique: A two-wave acoustic method for the study of dislocation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremaud, G.; Bujard, M.; Benoit, W.

    1987-03-01

    Progress in the study of dislocation dynamics has been achieved using a two-wave acoustic method, which has been called the coupling technique. In this method, the attenuation α and the velocity v of ultrasonic waves are measured in a sample submitted simultaneously to a harmonic stress σ of low frequency. Closed curves Δα(σ) and Δv/v(σ) are drawn during each cycle of the applied stress. The shapes of these curves and their evolution are characteristic of each dislocation motion mechanism which is activated by the low-frequency applied stress. For this reason, the closed curves Δα(σ) and Δv/v(σ) can be considered as signatures of the interaction mechanism which controls the low-frequency dislocation motion. In this paper, the concept of signature is presented and explained with some experimental examples. It will also be shown that theoretical models can be developed which explain very well the experimental results.

  8. Prediction of shear wave velocity using empirical correlations and artificial intelligence methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahoo Maleki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Good understanding of mechanical properties of rock formations is essential during the development and production phases of a hydrocarbon reservoir. Conventionally, these properties are estimated from the petrophysical logs with compression and shear sonic data being the main input to the correlations. This is while in many cases the shear sonic data are not acquired during well logging, which may be for cost saving purposes. In this case, shear wave velocity is estimated using available empirical correlations or artificial intelligent methods proposed during the last few decades. In this paper, petrophysical logs corresponding to a well drilled in southern part of Iran were used to estimate the shear wave velocity using empirical correlations as well as two robust artificial intelligence methods knows as Support Vector Regression (SVR and Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN. Although the results obtained by SVR seem to be reliable, the estimated values are not very precise and considering the importance of shear sonic data as the input into different models, this study suggests acquiring shear sonic data during well logging. It is important to note that the benefits of having reliable shear sonic data for estimation of rock formation mechanical properties will compensate the possible additional costs for acquiring a shear log.

  9. Search method for long-duration gravitational-wave transients from neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prix, R.; Giampanis, S.; Messenger, C.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a search method for a new class of gravitational-wave signals, namely, long-duration O(hours-weeks) transients from spinning neutron stars. We discuss the astrophysical motivation from glitch relaxation models and we derive a rough estimate for the maximal expected signal strength based on the superfluid excess rotational energy. The transient signal model considered here extends the traditional class of infinite-duration continuous-wave signals by a finite start-time and duration. We derive a multidetector Bayes factor for these signals in Gaussian noise using F-statistic amplitude priors, which simplifies the detection statistic and allows for an efficient implementation. We consider both a fully coherent statistic, which is computationally limited to directed searches for known pulsars, and a cheaper semicoherent variant, suitable for wide parameter-space searches for transients from unknown neutron stars. We have tested our method by Monte-Carlo simulation, and we find that it outperforms orthodox maximum-likelihood approaches both in sensitivity and in parameter-estimation quality.

  10. Method and analysis for determining yielding of titanium alloy with nonlinear Rayleigh surface waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shifeng; Zhang, Lei; Mirshekarloo, Meysam Sharifzadeh; Chen, Shuting; Chen, Yi Fan; Wong, Zheng Zheng; Shen, Zhiyuan; Liu, Huajun; Yao, Kui, E-mail: k-yao@imre.a-star.edu.sg

    2016-07-04

    Methods for determining yielding of titanium (Ti) alloy material with second harmonic Rayleigh ultrasonic wave are investigated. Both piezoelectric angle beam transducers and high frequency laser scanning vibrometer (LSV) are used to detect ultrasonic signals in the Ti alloy specimens with different plastic strain levels. Technical features and outcomes with use of piezoelectric transducers and LSV are compared. The method using piezoelectric transducers, with much higher signal-to-noise ratio than LSV, has been further improved by deploying two transducers with central frequencies corresponding to the fundamental and second order harmonic signals respectively to improve the testing reliability and accuracy. Both the techniques using piezoelectric transducer and LSV demonstrate consistently that the acoustic nonlinearity increases with plastic strain, and the second harmonic Rayleigh ultrasonic wave can be utilized for effective determination of yielding in Ti alloy. Our experiments further show that the acoustic nonlinearity increases gradually with plastic strain at small plastic strain level, and there is a more significant increase of acoustic nonlinearity when the plastic strain reaches a higher level. Microscopic investigations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) are conducted for clarifying the relationship between the observed acoustic nonlinearity and micro-structural changes.

  11. Second-order wave diffraction by a circular cylinder using scaled boundary finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H; Tao, L

    2010-01-01

    The scaled boundary finite element method (SBFEM) has achieved remarkable success in structural mechanics and fluid mechanics, combing the advantage of both FEM and BEM. Most of the previous works focus on linear problems, in which superposition principle is applicable. However, many physical problems in the real world are nonlinear and are described by nonlinear equations, challenging the application of the existing SBFEM model. A popular idea to solve a nonlinear problem is decomposing the nonlinear equation to a number of linear equations, and then solves them individually. In this paper, second-order wave diffraction by a circular cylinder is solved by SBFEM. By splitting the forcing term into two parts, the physical problem is described as two second-order boundary-value problems with different asymptotic behaviour at infinity. Expressing the velocity potentials as a series of depth-eigenfunctions, both of the 3D boundary-value problems are decomposed to a number of 2D boundary-value sub-problems, which are solved semi-analytically by SBFEM. Only the cylinder boundary is discretised with 1D curved finite-elements on the circumference of the cylinder, while the radial differential equation is solved completely analytically. The method can be extended to solve more complex wave-structure interaction problems resulting in direct engineering applications.

  12. Evaluation of Maximum a Posteriori Estimation as Data Assimilation Method for Forecasting Infiltration-Inflow Affected Urban Runoff with Radar Rainfall Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas W. Pedersen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High quality on-line flow forecasts are useful for real-time operation of urban drainage systems and wastewater treatment plants. This requires computationally efficient models, which are continuously updated with observed data to provide good initial conditions for the forecasts. This paper presents a way of updating conceptual rainfall-runoff models using Maximum a Posteriori estimation to determine the most likely parameter constellation at the current point in time. This is done by combining information from prior parameter distributions and the model goodness of fit over a predefined period of time that precedes the forecast. The method is illustrated for an urban catchment, where flow forecasts of 0–4 h are generated by applying a lumped linear reservoir model with three cascading reservoirs. Radar rainfall observations are used as input to the model. The effects of different prior standard deviations and lengths of the auto-calibration period on the resulting flow forecast performance are evaluated. We were able to demonstrate that, if properly tuned, the method leads to a significant increase in forecasting performance compared to a model without continuous auto-calibration. Delayed responses and erratic behaviour in the parameter variations are, however, observed and the choice of prior distributions and length of auto-calibration period is not straightforward.

  13. Time-frequency energy density precipitation method for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y., E-mail: thuzhangyu@foxmail.com; Huang, S. L., E-mail: huangsling@tsinghua.edu.cn; Wang, S.; Zhao, W. [State Key Laboratory of Power Systems, Department of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-05-15

    The time-of-flight of the Lamb wave provides an important basis for defect evaluation in metal plates and is the input signal for Lamb wave tomographic imaging. However, the time-of-flight can be difficult to acquire because of the Lamb wave dispersion characteristics. This work proposes a time-frequency energy density precipitation method to accurately extract the time-of-flight of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals in metal plates. In the proposed method, a discrete short-time Fourier transform is performed on the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals to obtain the corresponding discrete time-frequency energy density distribution. The energy density values at the center frequency for all discrete time points are then calculated by linear interpolation. Next, the time-domain energy density curve focused on that center frequency is precipitated by least squares fitting of the calculated energy density values. Finally, the peak times of the energy density curve obtained relative to the initial pulse signal are extracted as the time-of-flight for the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals. An experimental platform is established for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals, and sensitivity analysis of the proposed time-frequency energy density precipitation method is performed in terms of propagation distance, dispersion characteristics, center frequency, and plate thickness. For comparison, the widely used Hilbert–Huang transform method is also implemented for time-of-flight extraction. The results show that the time-frequency energy density precipitation method can accurately extract the time-of-flight with relative error of <1% and thus can act as a universal time-of-flight extraction method for narrowband Lamb wave detection signals.

  14. Time-frequency energy density precipitation method for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Huang, S. L.; Wang, S.; Zhao, W.

    2016-01-01

    The time-of-flight of the Lamb wave provides an important basis for defect evaluation in metal plates and is the input signal for Lamb wave tomographic imaging. However, the time-of-flight can be difficult to acquire because of the Lamb wave dispersion characteristics. This work proposes a time-frequency energy density precipitation method to accurately extract the time-of-flight of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals in metal plates. In the proposed method, a discrete short-time Fourier transform is performed on the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals to obtain the corresponding discrete time-frequency energy density distribution. The energy density values at the center frequency for all discrete time points are then calculated by linear interpolation. Next, the time-domain energy density curve focused on that center frequency is precipitated by least squares fitting of the calculated energy density values. Finally, the peak times of the energy density curve obtained relative to the initial pulse signal are extracted as the time-of-flight for the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals. An experimental platform is established for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals, and sensitivity analysis of the proposed time-frequency energy density precipitation method is performed in terms of propagation distance, dispersion characteristics, center frequency, and plate thickness. For comparison, the widely used Hilbert–Huang transform method is also implemented for time-of-flight extraction. The results show that the time-frequency energy density precipitation method can accurately extract the time-of-flight with relative error of <1% and thus can act as a universal time-of-flight extraction method for narrowband Lamb wave detection signals.

  15. Comparison of different statistical methods for estimation of extreme sea levels with wave set-up contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kergadallan, Xavier; Bernardara, Pietro; Benoit, Michel; Andreewsky, Marc; Weiss, Jérôme

    2013-04-01

    Estimating the probability of occurrence of extreme sea levels is a central issue for the protection of the coast. Return periods of sea level with wave set-up contribution are estimated here in one site : Cherbourg in France in the English Channel. The methodology follows two steps : the first one is computation of joint probability of simultaneous wave height and still sea level, the second one is interpretation of that joint probabilities to assess a sea level for a given return period. Two different approaches were evaluated to compute joint probability of simultaneous wave height and still sea level : the first one is multivariate extreme values distributions of logistic type in which all components of the variables become large simultaneously, the second one is conditional approach for multivariate extreme values in which only one component of the variables have to be large. Two different methods were applied to estimate sea level with wave set-up contribution for a given return period : Monte-Carlo simulation in which estimation is more accurate but needs higher calculation time and classical ocean engineering design contours of type inverse-FORM in which the method is simpler and allows more complex estimation of wave setup part (wave propagation to the coast for example). We compare results from the two different approaches with the two different methods. To be able to use both Monte-Carlo simulation and design contours methods, wave setup is estimated with an simple empirical formula. We show advantages of the conditional approach compared to the multivariate extreme values approach when extreme sea-level occurs when either surge or wave height is large. We discuss the validity of the ocean engineering design contours method which is an alternative when computation of sea levels is too complex to use Monte-Carlo simulation method.

  16. Assimilation of SAPHIR radiance: impact on hyperspectral radiances in 4D-VAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indira Rani, S.; Doherty, Amy; Atkinson, Nigel; Bell, William; Newman, Stuart; Renshaw, Richard; George, John P.; Rajagopal, E. N.

    2016-04-01

    Assimilation of a new observation dataset in an NWP system may affect the quality of an existing observation data set against the model background (short forecast), which in-turn influence the use of an existing observation in the NWP system. Effect of the use of one data set on the use of another data set can be quantified as positive, negative or neutral. Impact of the addition of new dataset is defined as positive if the number of assimilated observations of an existing type of observation increases, and bias and standard deviation decreases compared to the control (without the new dataset) experiment. Recently a new dataset, Megha Tropiques SAPHIR radiances, which provides atmospheric humidity information, is added in the Unified Model 4D-VAR assimilation system. In this paper we discuss the impact of SAPHIR on the assimilation of hyper-spectral radiances like AIRS, IASI and CrIS. Though SAPHIR is a Microwave instrument, its impact can be clearly seen in the use of hyper-spectral radiances in the 4D-VAR data assimilation systems in addition to other Microwave and InfraRed observation. SAPHIR assimilation decreased the standard deviation of the spectral channels of wave number from 650 -1600 cm-1 in all the three hyperspectral radiances. Similar impact on the hyperspectral radiances can be seen due to the assimilation of other Microwave radiances like from AMSR2 and SSMIS Imager.

  17. Novel Methods for Optically Measuring Whitecaps Under Natural Wave Breaking Conditions in the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, K. L.; Dierssen, H. M.; Cifuentes-Lorenzen, A.; Balch, W. M.; Monahan, E. C.; Zappa, C. J.; Drapeau, D.; Bowler, B.

    2016-02-01

    Breaking waves on the ocean surface mark areas of significant importance to air-sea flux estimates of gas, aerosols, and heat. Traditional methods of measuring whitecap coverage using digital photography can miss features that are small in size or do not show high enough contrast to the background. The geometry of the images collected captures the near surface, bright manifestations of the whitecap feature and miss a portion of the bubble plume that is responsible for the production of sea salt aerosols and the transfer of lower solubility gases. Here, a novel method for accurately measuring both the fractional coverage of whitecaps and the intensity and decay rate of whitecap events using above water radiometry is presented. The methodology was developed using data collected during the austral summer in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean under a large range of wind (speeds of 1 to 15 m s-1) and wave (significant wave heights 2 to 8 m) conditions as part of the Southern Ocean Gas Exchange experiment. Whitecap metrics were retrieved by employing a magnitude threshold based on the interquartile range of the radiance or reflectance signal for a single channel (411 nm) after a baseline removal, determined using a moving minimum/maximum filter. Breaking intensity and decay rate metrics were produced from the integration of, and the exponential fit to, radiance or reflectance over the lifetime of the whitecap. When compared to fractional whitecap coverage measurements obtained from high resolution digital images, radiometric estimates were consistently higher because they capture more of the decaying bubble plume area that is difficult to detect with photography. Radiometrically-retrieved whitecap measurements are presented in the context of concurrently measured meteorological (e.g., wind speed) and oceanographic (e.g., wave) data. The optimal fit of the radiometrically estimated whitecap coverage to the instantaneous wind speed, determined using ordinary least

  18. A stochastic multiscale method for the elastodynamic wave equation arising from fiber composites

    KAUST Repository

    Babuška, Ivo; Motamed, Mohammad; Tempone, Raul

    2014-01-01

    We present a stochastic multilevel global–local algorithm for computing elastic waves propagating in fiber-reinforced composite materials. Here, the materials properties and the size and location of fibers may be random. The method aims at approximating statistical moments of some given quantities of interest, such as stresses, in regions of relatively small size, e.g. hot spots or zones that are deemed vulnerable to failure. For a fiber-reinforced cross-plied laminate, we introduce three problems (macro, meso, micro) corresponding to the three natural scales, namely the sizes of laminate, ply, and fiber. The algorithm uses the homogenized global solution to construct a good local approximation that captures the microscale features of the real solution. We perform numerical experiments to show the applicability and efficiency of the method.

  19. Modeling and simulation of ocean wave propagation using lattice Boltzmann method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuraiman, Dian

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we present on modeling and simulation of ocean wave propagation from the deep sea to the shoreline. This requires high computational cost for simulation with large domain. We propose to couple a 1D shallow water equations (SWE) model with a 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations (NSE) model in order to reduce the computational cost. The coupled model is solved using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) with the lattice Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) scheme. Additionally, a special method is implemented to treat the complex behavior of free surface close to the shoreline. The result shows the coupled model can reduce computational cost significantly compared to the full NSE model.

  20. A gravitational wave burst search method based on the S transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapson, Andre-Claude; Barsuglia, Matteo; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Brisson, Violette; Cavalier, Fabien; Davier, Michel; Hello, Patrice; Kreckelberg, Stephane; Varvella, Monica

    2005-01-01

    The detection of burst-type events in the output of ground gravitational wave observatories is particularly challenging due to the expected variety of astrophysical waveforms and the issue of discriminating them from instrumental noise. Robust methods, that achieve reasonable detection performances over a wide range of signals, would be most useful. We present a burst-detection pipeline based on a time-frequency transform, the S transform. This transform offers good time-frequency localization of energy without requiring prior knowledge of the event structure. We set a simple (and robust) event extraction chain. Results are provided for a variety of signals injected in simulated Gaussian statistics data (from the LIGO-Virgo joint working group). Indications are that detection is robust with respect to event type and that efficiency compares reasonably with reference methods. The time-frequency representation is shown to be affected by spectral features such as resonant lines. This emphasizes the role of pre-processing

  1. A stochastic multiscale method for the elastodynamic wave equation arising from fiber composites

    KAUST Repository

    Babuška, Ivo

    2014-03-21

    We present a stochastic multilevel global–local algorithm for computing elastic waves propagating in fiber-reinforced composite materials. Here, the materials properties and the size and location of fibers may be random. The method aims at approximating statistical moments of some given quantities of interest, such as stresses, in regions of relatively small size, e.g. hot spots or zones that are deemed vulnerable to failure. For a fiber-reinforced cross-plied laminate, we introduce three problems (macro, meso, micro) corresponding to the three natural scales, namely the sizes of laminate, ply, and fiber. The algorithm uses the homogenized global solution to construct a good local approximation that captures the microscale features of the real solution. We perform numerical experiments to show the applicability and efficiency of the method.

  2. A Stochastic Multiscale Method for the Elastic Wave Equations Arising from Fiber Composites

    KAUST Repository

    Babuska, Ivo

    2016-01-06

    We present a stochastic multilevel global-local algorithm [1] for computing elastic waves propagating in fiber-reinforced polymer composites, where the material properties and the size and distribution of fibers in the polymer matrix may be random. The method aims at approximating statistical moments of some given quantities of interest, such as stresses, in regions of relatively small size, e.g. hot spots or zones that are deemed vulnerable to failure. For a fiber-reinforced cross-plied laminate, we introduce three problems: 1) macro; 2) meso; and 3) micro problems, corresponding to the three natural length scales: 1) the sizes of plate; 2) the tickles of plies; and 3) and the diameter of fibers. The algorithm uses a homogenized global solution to construct a local approximation that captures the microscale features of the problem. We perform numerical experiments to show the applicability and efficiency of the method.

  3. Implicit Monte Carlo methods and non-equilibrium Marshak wave radiative transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Two enhancements to the Fleck implicit Monte Carlo method for radiative transport are described, for use in transparent and opaque media respectively. The first introduces a spectral mean cross section, which applies to pseudoscattering in transparent regions with a high frequency incident spectrum. The second provides a simple Monte Carlo random walk method for opaque regions, without the need for a supplementary diffusion equation formulation. A time-dependent transport Marshak wave problem of radiative transfer, in which a non-equilibrium condition exists between the radiation and material energy fields, is then solved. These results are compared to published benchmark solutions and to new discrete ordinate S-N results, for both spatially integrated radiation-material energies versus time and to new spatially dependent temperature profiles. Multigroup opacities, which are independent of both temperature and frequency, are used in addition to a material specific heat which is proportional to the cube of the temperature. 7 refs., 4 figs

  4. A gravitational wave burst search method based on the S transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clapson, Andre-Claude; Barsuglia, Matteo; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Brisson, Violette; Cavalier, Fabien; Davier, Michel; Hello, Patrice; Kreckelberg, Stephane; Varvella, Monica [Groupe Virgo, LAL, Universite Paris-Sud, Batiment 208, BP 34, F-91898 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2005-09-21

    The detection of burst-type events in the output of ground gravitational wave observatories is particularly challenging due to the expected variety of astrophysical waveforms and the issue of discriminating them from instrumental noise. Robust methods, that achieve reasonable detection performances over a wide range of signals, would be most useful. We present a burst-detection pipeline based on a time-frequency transform, the S transform. This transform offers good time-frequency localization of energy without requiring prior knowledge of the event structure. We set a simple (and robust) event extraction chain. Results are provided for a variety of signals injected in simulated Gaussian statistics data (from the LIGO-Virgo joint working group). Indications are that detection is robust with respect to event type and that efficiency compares reasonably with reference methods. The time-frequency representation is shown to be affected by spectral features such as resonant lines. This emphasizes the role of pre-processing.

  5. Proposal of evaluation method of tsunami wave pressure using 2D depth-integrated flow simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimitsu, Tsuyoshi; Ooe, Kazuya; Kawasaki, Koji

    2012-01-01

    To design and construct land structures resistive to tsunami force, it is most essential to evaluate tsunami pressure quantitatively. The existing hydrostatic formula, in general, tended to underestimate tsunami wave pressure under the condition of inundation flow with large Froude number. Estimation method of tsunami pressure acting on a land structure was proposed using inundation depth and horizontal velocity at the front of the structure, which were calculated employing a 2D depth-integrated flow model based on the unstructured grid system. The comparison between the numerical and experimental results revealed that the proposed method could reasonably reproduce the vertical distribution of the maximum tsunami pressure as well as the time variation of the tsunami pressure exerting on the structure. (author)

  6. Multivariate and multiscale data assimilation in terrestrial systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montzka, Carsten; Pauwels, Valentijn R N; Franssen, Harrie-Jan Hendricks; Han, Xujun; Vereecken, Harry

    2012-11-26

    More and more terrestrial observational networks are being established to monitor climatic, hydrological and land-use changes in different regions of the World. In these networks, time series of states and fluxes are recorded in an automated manner, often with a high temporal resolution. These data are important for the understanding of water, energy, and/or matter fluxes, as well as their biological and physical drivers and interactions with and within the terrestrial system. Similarly, the number and accuracy of variables, which can be observed by spaceborne sensors, are increasing. Data assimilation (DA) methods utilize these observations in terrestrial models in order to increase process knowledge as well as to improve forecasts for the system being studied. The widely implemented automation in observing environmental states and fluxes makes an operational computation more and more feasible, and it opens the perspective of short-time forecasts of the state of terrestrial systems. In this paper, we review the state of the art with respect to DA focusing on the joint assimilation of observational data precedents from different spatial scales and different data types. An introduction is given to different DA methods, such as the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF), Particle Filter (PF) and variational methods (3/4D-VAR). In this review, we distinguish between four major DA approaches: (1) univariate single-scale DA (UVSS), which is the approach used in the majority of published DA applications, (2) univariate multiscale DA (UVMS) referring to a methodology which acknowledges that at least some of the assimilated data are measured at a different scale than the computational grid scale, (3) multivariate single-scale DA (MVSS) dealing with the assimilation of at least two different data types, and (4) combined multivariate multiscale DA (MVMS). Finally, we conclude with a discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of the assimilation of multiple data types in a

  7. Multivariate and Multiscale Data Assimilation in Terrestrial Systems: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Vereecken

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available More and more terrestrial observational networks are being established to monitor climatic, hydrological and land-use changes in different regions of the World. In these networks, time series of states and fluxes are recorded in an automated manner, often with a high temporal resolution. These data are important for the understanding of water, energy, and/or matter fluxes, as well as their biological and physical drivers and interactions with and within the terrestrial system. Similarly, the number and accuracy of variables, which can be observed by spaceborne sensors, are increasing. Data assimilation (DA methods utilize these observations in terrestrial models in order to increase process knowledge as well as to improve forecasts for the system being studied. The widely implemented automation in observing environmental states and fluxes makes an operational computation more and more feasible, and it opens the perspective of short-time forecasts of the state of terrestrial systems. In this paper, we review the state of the art with respect to DA focusing on the joint assimilation of observational data precedents from different spatial scales and different data types. An introduction is given to different DA methods, such as the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF, Particle Filter (PF and variational methods (3/4D-VAR. In this review, we distinguish between four major DA approaches: (1 univariate single-scale DA (UVSS, which is the approach used in the majority of published DA applications, (2 univariate multiscale DA (UVMS referring to a methodology which acknowledges that at least some of the assimilated data are measured at a different scale than the computational grid scale, (3 multivariate single-scale DA (MVSS dealing with the assimilation of at least two different data types, and (4 combined multivariate multiscale DA (MVMS. Finally, we conclude with a discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of the assimilation of multiple data types in a

  8. Assimilation of radar-based nowcast into HIRLAM NWP model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, David Getreuer; Petersen, Claus; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study introduces a nowcast scheme that assimilates radar extrapolation data (RED) into a nowcasting version of the high resolution limited area model (HIRLAM) numerical weather prediction (NWP) model covering the area of Denmark. The RED are based on the Co-TREC (tracking radar echoes...... by correlation) methodology and are generated from cleaned radar mosaics from the Danish weather radar network. The assimilation technique is a newly developed method that increases model precipitation by increasing low-level convergence and decreasing convergence aloft in order to increase the vertical velocity....... The level of improved predictability relies on the RED quality, which again relies on the type of event....

  9. A Novel 3D Viscoelastic Acoustic Wave Equation Based Update Method for Reservoir History Matching

    KAUST Repository

    Katterbauer, Klemens

    2014-12-10

    The oil and gas industry has been revolutionized within the last decade, with horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing enabling the extraction of huge amounts of shale gas in areas previously considered impossible and the recovering of hydrocarbons in harsh environments like the arctic or in previously unimaginable depths like the off-shore exploration in the South China sea and Gulf of Mexico. With the development of 4D seismic, engineers and scientists have been enabled to map the evolution of fluid fronts within the reservoir and determine the displacement caused by the injected fluids. This in turn has led to enhanced production strategies, cost reduction and increased profits. Conventional approaches to incorporate seismic data into the history matching process have been to invert these data for constraints that are subsequently employed in the history matching process. This approach makes the incorporation computationally expensive and requires a lot of manual processing for obtaining the correct interpretation due to the potential artifacts that are generated by the generally ill-conditioned inversion problems. I have presented here a novel approach via including the time-lapse cross-well seismic survey data directly into the history matching process. The generated time-lapse seismic data are obtained from the full wave 3D viscoelastic acoustic wave equation. Furthermore an extensive analysis has been performed showing the robustness of the method and enhanced forecastability of the critical reservoir parameters, reducing uncertainties and exhibiting the benefits of a full wave 3D seismic approach. Finally, the improved performance has been statistically confirmed. The improvements illustrate the significant improvements in forecasting that are obtained via readily available seismic data without the need for inversion. This further optimizes oil production in addition to increasing return-on-investment on oil & gas field development projects, especially

  10. System and Method for Measuring the Transfer Function of a Guided Wave Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froggatt, Mark E. (Inventor); Erdogan, Turan (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method/system are provided for measuring the NxN scalar transfer function elements for an N-port guided wave device. Optical energy of a selected wavelength is generated at a source and directed along N reference optical paths having N reference path lengths. Each reference optical path terminates in one of N detectors such that N reference signals are produced at the N detectors. The reference signals are indicative of amplitude, phase and frequency of the optical energy carried along the N reference optical paths. The optical energy from the source is also directed to the N-ports of the guided wave device and then on to each of the N detectors such that N measurement optical paths are defined between the source and each of the N detectors. A portion of the optical energy is modified in terms of at least one of the amplitude and phase to produce N modified signals at each of the N detectors. At each of the N detectors, each of the N modified signals is combined with a corresponding one of the N reference signals to produce corresponding N combined signals at each of the N detectors. A total of N(sup 2) measurement signals are generated by the N detectors. Each of the N(sup 2) measurement signals is sampled at a wave number increment (Delta)k so that N(sup 2) sampled signals are produced. The NxN transfer function elements are generated using the N(sup 2) sampled signals. Reference and measurement path length constraints are defined such that the N combined signals at each of the N detectors are spatially separated from one another in the time domain.

  11. Time-frequency energy density precipitation method for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Huang, S L; Wang, S; Zhao, W

    2016-05-01

    The time-of-flight of the Lamb wave provides an important basis for defect evaluation in metal plates and is the input signal for Lamb wave tomographic imaging. However, the time-of-flight can be difficult to acquire because of the Lamb wave dispersion characteristics. This work proposes a time-frequency energy density precipitation method to accurately extract the time-of-flight of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals in metal plates. In the proposed method, a discrete short-time Fourier transform is performed on the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals to obtain the corresponding discrete time-frequency energy density distribution. The energy density values at the center frequency for all discrete time points are then calculated by linear interpolation. Next, the time-domain energy density curve focused on that center frequency is precipitated by least squares fitting of the calculated energy density values. Finally, the peak times of the energy density curve obtained relative to the initial pulse signal are extracted as the time-of-flight for the narrowband Lamb wave detection signals. An experimental platform is established for time-of-flight extraction of narrowband Lamb wave detection signals, and sensitivity analysis of the proposed time-frequency energy density precipitation method is performed in terms of propagation distance, dispersion characteristics, center frequency, and plate thickness. For comparison, the widely used Hilbert-Huang transform method is also implemented for time-of-flight extraction. The results show that the time-frequency energy density precipitation method can accurately extract the time-of-flight with relative error of wave detection signals.

  12. Smart wave filtering method of a rectangular panel using Hilbert transformers and its application to an adaptive control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Nobuo; Hill, Simon G

    2010-01-01

    This paper concerns the active vibration control of a rectangular panel using smart sensors from the viewpoint of an active wave control theory. The objective of this paper is to present a new type of filter which enables the measurement of the wave amplitude of a rectangular panel in real time for the application of an adaptive feedforward control system which inactivates vibration modes. Firstly, a novel wave filtering method using smart PVDF sensors is proposed. It is found that the shaping function of smart sensors is a complex function. To realize the smart sensor in a practical situation, a Hilbert transformer is utilized to implement a phase shifter of 90° for broadband frequencies. Then, from the viewpoint of a numerical analysis, the characteristics of the proposed wave filter and the performance of the adaptive feedforward control system using the wave filter are discussed. Finally, experiments implementing the active wave control theory which uses the proposed wave filter are conducted, demonstrating the validity of the proposed method in suppressing the vibration of a rectangular panel

  13. Free Vibration Characteristics of Cylindrical Shells Using a Wave Propagation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghoshal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, concept of a periodic structure is used to study the characteristics of the natural frequencies of a complete unstiffened cylindrical shell. A segment of the shell between two consecutive nodal points is chosen to be a periodic structural element. The present effort is to modify Mead and Bardell's approach to study the free vibration characteristics of unstiffened cylindrical shell. The Love-Timoshenko formulation for the strain energy is used in conjunction with Hamilton's principle to compute the natural propagation constants for two shell geometries and different circumferential nodal patterns employing Floquet's principle. The natural frequencies were obtained using Sengupta's method and were compared with those obtained from classical Arnold-Warburton's method. The results from the wave propagation method were found to compare identically with the classical methods, since both the methods lead to the exact solution of the same problem. Thus consideration of the shell segment between two consecutive nodal points as a periodic structure is validated. The variations of the phase constants at the lower bounding frequency for the first propagation band for different nodal patterns have been computed. The method is highly computationally efficient.

  14. An Enhanced Plane Wave Expansion Method to Solve Piezoelectric Phononic Crystal with Resonant Shunting Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyang Lian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An enhanced plane wave expansion (PWE method is proposed to solve piezoelectric phononic crystal (PPC connected with resonant shunting circuits (PPC-C, which is named as PWE-PPC-C. The resonant shunting circuits can not only bring about the locally resonant (LR band gap for the PPC-C but also conveniently tune frequency and bandwidth of band gaps through adjusting circuit parameters. However, thus far, more than one-dimensional PPC-C has been studied just by Finite Element method. Compared with other methods, the PWE has great advantages in solving more than one-dimensional PC as well as various lattice types. Nevertheless, the conventional PWE cannot accurately solve coupling between the structure and resonant shunting circuits of the PPC-C since only taking one-way coupling from displacements to electrical parameters into consideration. A two-dimensional PPC-C model of orthorhombic lattice is established to demonstrate the whole solving process of PWE-PPC-C. The PWE-PPC-C method is validated by Transfer Matrix method as well as Finite Element method. The dependence of band gaps on circuit parameters has been investigated in detail by PWE-PPC-C. Its advantage in solving various lattice types is further illustrated by calculating the PPC-C of triangular and hexagonal lattices, respectively.

  15. Background estimation in short-wave region during determination of total sample composition by x-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simakov, V.A.; Kordyukov, S.V.; Petrov, E.N.

    1988-01-01

    Method of background estimation in short-wave spectral region during determination of total sample composition by X-ray fluorescence method is described. 13 types of different rocks with considerable variations of base composition and Zr, Nb, Th, U content below 7x10 -3 % are investigated. The suggested method of background accounting provides for a less statistical error of the background estimation than direct isolated measurement and reliability of its determination in a short-wave region independent on the sample base. Possibilities of suggested method for artificial mixtures conforming by the content of main component to technological concemtrates - niobium, zirconium, tantalum are estimated

  16. An investigation on how inner-core structures obtained through radar data assimilation affect track forecasting of typhoon Jangmi (2008) near Taiwan Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingjun; Xue, Ming; Zhao, Kun

    2016-09-01

    The impacts of radar data assimilation (DA) on the westward track deflection of Typhoon Jangmi (2008) near Taiwan Island and the deflection mechanism are investigated. Initial conditions from two data assimilation experiments with significant track forecast differences are analyzed and compared. The environmental, axisymmetric, wave number 1 to 3 asymmetric fields of the typhoon are decomposed by using vortex separation and Fourier decomposition methods. The components are selectively recomposed into new initial conditions that include different vortex-scale components to examine the impact of individual components on the track prediction. The wave number 1 asymmetric structure is found to play a dominant role in the westward deflection of Typhoon Jangmi, and the accurate analysis of this component with radar DA helps to improve the track forecast. The wave number 1 asymmetric circulation is manifested as a pair of cyclonic and anticyclonic gyres with well-defined ventilation flows through the inner-core region, which provides additional steering of the typhoon vortex. The layer-mean environmental steering flow and ventilation flow associated with the wave number 1 gyres are further calculated to quantitatively evaluate the impact of ventilation flow. The ventilation flow is shown to be responsible for most of the westward motion component, suggesting again its role in causing the westward track deflection of Typhoon Jangmi. The results also suggest the importance of analyzing vortex-scale asymmetric structures for accurate tropical cyclone track forecasting, especially when there is a significant track deflection.

  17. Assimilation of satellite altimeter data into an open ocean model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeler, Armin; SchröTer, Jens

    1995-08-01

    Geosat sea surface height data are assimilated into an eddy-resolving quasi-geostrophic open ocean model using the adjoint technique. The method adjusts the initial conditions for all layers and is successful on the timescale of a few weeks. Time-varying values for the open boundaries are prescribed by a much larger quasi-geostrophic model of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC). Both models have the same resolution of approximately 20×20 km (1/3°×1/6°), have three layers, and include realistic bottom topography and coastlines. The open model box is embedded in the African sector of the ACC. For continuous assimilation of satellite data into the larger model the nudging technique is applied. These results are used for the adjoint optimization procedure as boundary conditions and as a first guess for the initial condition. For the open model box the difference between model and satellite sea surface height that remains after the nudging experiment amounts to a 19-cm root-mean-square error (rmse). By assimilation into the regional model this value can be reduced to a 6-cm rmse for an assimilation period of 20 days. Several experiments which attempt to improve the convergence of the iterative optimization method are reported. Scaling and regularization by smoothing have to be applied carefully. Especially during the first 10 iterations, the convergence can be improved considerably by low-pass filtering of the cost function gradient. The result of a perturbation experiment shows that for longer assimilation periods the influence of the boundary values becomes dominant and they should be determined inversely by data assimilation into the open ocean model.

  18. Solitary wave solutions of the fourth order Boussinesq equation through the exp(-Ф(η))-expansion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, M Ali; Hj Mohd Ali, Norhashidah

    2014-01-01

    The exp(-Ф(η))-expansion method is an ascending method for obtaining exact and solitary wave solutions for nonlinear evolution equations. In this article, we implement the exp(-Ф(η))-expansion method to build solitary wave solutions to the fourth order Boussinesq equation. The procedure is simple, direct and useful with the help of computer algebra. By using this method, we obtain solitary wave solutions in terms of the hyperbolic functions, the trigonometric functions and elementary functions. The results show that the exp(-Ф(η))-expansion method is straightforward and effective mathematical tool for the treatment of nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics and engineering. 35C07; 35C08; 35P99.

  19. An extended Jacobi elliptic function rational expansion method and its application to (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qi; Chen Yong; Zhang Hongqing

    2005-01-01

    With the aid of computerized symbolic computation, a new elliptic function rational expansion method is presented by means of a new general ansatz, in which periodic solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations that can be expressed as a finite Laurent series of some of 12 Jacobi elliptic functions, is more powerful than exiting Jacobi elliptic function methods and is very powerful to uniformly construct more new exact periodic solutions in terms of rational formal Jacobi elliptic function solution of nonlinear partial differential equations. As an application of the method, we choose a (2+1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation to illustrate the method. As a result, we can successfully obtain the solutions found by most existing Jacobi elliptic function methods and find other new and more general solutions at the same time. Of course, more shock wave solutions or solitary wave solutions can be gotten at their limit condition

  20. An assimilation test of Doppler radar reflectivity and radial velocity from different height layers in improving the WRF rainfall forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiyang; Liu, Jia; Yan, Denghua; Li, Chuanzhe; Chu, Zhigang; Yu, Fuliang

    2017-12-01

    Hydrological forecasts require high-resolution and accurate rainfall information, which is one of the most difficult variables to be captured by the mesoscale Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) systems. Radar data assimilation is an effective method for improving rainfall forecasts by correcting the initial and lateral boundary conditions of the NWP system. The aim of this study is to explore an efficient way of utilizing the Doppler radar observations for data assimilation, which is implemented by exploring the effect of assimilating radar data from different height layers on the improvement of the NWP rainfall accuracy. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used for numerical rainfall forecast in the Zijingguan catchment located in the ;Jing-Jin-Ji; (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) Region of Northern China, and the three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3-DVar) technique is adopted to assimilate the radar data. Radar reflectivity and radial velocity are assimilated separately and jointly. Each type of radar data is divided into seven data sets according to the height layers: (1) 2000 m, and (7) all layers. The results show that radar reflectivity assimilation leads to better results than radial velocity assimilation. The accuracy of the forecasted rainfall deteriorates with the rise of the height of the assimilated radar reflectivity. The same results can be found when assimilating radar reflectivity and radial velocity at the same time. The conclusions of this study provide a reference for efficient assimilation of the radar data in improving the NWP rainfall products.

  1. Continuum kinetic methods for analyzing wave physics and distribution function dynamics in the turbulence dissipation challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juno, J.; Hakim, A.; TenBarge, J.; Dorland, W.

    2015-12-01

    We present for the first time results for the turbulence dissipation challenge, with specific focus on the linear wave portion of the challenge, using a variety of continuum kinetic models: hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell, gyrokinetic, and full Vlasov-Maxwell. As one of the goals of the wave problem as it is outlined is to identify how well various models capture linear physics, we compare our results to linear Vlasov and gyrokinetic theory. Preliminary gyrokinetic results match linear theory extremely well due to the geometry of the problem, which eliminates the dominant nonlinearity. With the non-reduced models, we explore how the subdominant nonlinearities manifest and affect the evolution of the turbulence and the energy budget. We also take advantage of employing continuum methods to study the dynamics of the distribution function, with particular emphasis on the full Vlasov results where a basic collision operator has been implemented. As the community prepares for the next stage of the turbulence dissipation challenge, where we hope to do large 3D simulations to inform the next generation of observational missions such as THOR (Turbulence Heating ObserveR), we argue for the consideration of hybrid Vlasov and full Vlasov as candidate models for these critical simulations. With the use of modern numerical algorithms, we demonstrate the competitiveness of our code with traditional particle-in-cell algorithms, with a clear plan for continued improvements and optimizations to further strengthen the code's viability as an option for the next stage of the challenge.

  2. Application of Modified G'/G-Expansion Method to Traveling Wave Solutions for Whitham-Broer-Kaup-Like Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yubin; Li Chao

    2009-01-01

    A modified G'/G-expansion method is presented to derive traveling wave solutions for a class of nonlinear partial differential equations called Whitham-Broer-Kaup-Like equations. As a result, the hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions, and rational solutions with parameters to the equations are obtained. When the parameters are taken as special values the solitary wave solutions can be obtained. (general)

  3. Solving ground eigenvalue and eigenfunction of spheroidal wave equation at low frequency by supersymmetric quantum mechanics method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Wen-Lin; Tian Gui-Hua

    2011-01-01

    The spheroidal wave functions are found to have extensive applications in many branches of physics and mathematics. We use the perturbation method in supersymmetric quantum mechanics to obtain the analytic ground eigenvalue and the ground eigenfunction of the angular spheroidal wave equation at low frequency in a series form. Using this approach, the numerical determinations of the ground eigenvalue and the ground eigenfunction for small complex frequencies are also obtained.

  4. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....

  5. A surface acoustic wave response detection method for passive wireless torque sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yanping; Kong, Ping; Qi, Hongli; Liu, Hongye; Ji, Xiaojun

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an effective surface acoustic wave (SAW) response detection method for the passive wireless SAW torque sensor to improve the measurement accuracy. An analysis was conducted on the relationship between the response energy-entropy and the bandwidth of SAW resonator (SAWR). A self-correlation method was modified to suppress the blurred white noise and highlight the attenuation characteristic of wireless SAW response. The SAW response was detected according to both the variation and the duration of energy-entropy ascension of an acquired RF signal. Numerical simulation results showed that the SAW response can be detected even when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is 6dB. The proposed SAW response detection method was evaluated with several experiments at different conditions. The SAW response can be well distinguished from the sinusoidal signal and the noise. The performance of the SAW torque measurement system incorporating the detection method was tested. The obtained repeatability error was 0.23% and the linearity was 0.9934, indicating the validity of the detection method.

  6. Radiophysical methods of diagnostics the Earth's ionosphere and the underlying earth's surface by remote sensing in the short-wave range of radio waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, S. Yu.; Belova, I. N.

    2017-11-01

    Monitoring of the earth's surface by remote sensing in the short-wave band can provide quick identification of some characteristics of natural systems. This band range allows one to diagnose subsurface aspects of the earth, as the scattering parameter is affected by irregularities in the dielectric permittivity of subsurface structures. This method based on the organization of the monitoring probe may detect changes in these environments, for example, to assess seismic hazard, hazardous natural phenomena such as earthquakes, as well as some man-made hazards and etc. The problem of measuring and accounting for the scattering power of the earth's surface in the short-range of radio waves is important for a number of purposes, such as diagnosing properties of the medium, which is of interest for geological, environmental studies. In this paper, we propose a new method for estimating the parameters of incoherent signal/noise ratio. The paper presents the results of comparison of the measurement method from the point of view of their admissible relative analytical errors. The new method is suggested. Analysis of analytical error of estimation of this parameter allowed to recommend new method instead of standard method. A comparative analysis and shows that the analytical (relative) accuracy of the determination of this parameter new method on the order exceeds the widely-used standard method.

  7. Topology optimization for three-dimensional electromagnetic waves using an edge element-based finite-element method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yongbo; Korvink, Jan G

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops a topology optimization procedure for three-dimensional electromagnetic waves with an edge element-based finite-element method. In contrast to the two-dimensional case, three-dimensional electromagnetic waves must include an additional divergence-free condition for the field variables. The edge element-based finite-element method is used to both discretize the wave equations and enforce the divergence-free condition. For wave propagation described in terms of the magnetic field in the widely used class of non-magnetic materials, the divergence-free condition is imposed on the magnetic field. This naturally leads to a nodal topology optimization method. When wave propagation is described using the electric field, the divergence-free condition must be imposed on the electric displacement. In this case, the material in the design domain is assumed to be piecewise homogeneous to impose the divergence-free condition on the electric field. This results in an element-wise topology optimization algorithm. The topology optimization problems are regularized using a Helmholtz filter and a threshold projection method and are analysed using a continuous adjoint method. In order to ensure the applicability of the filter in the element-wise topology optimization version, a regularization method is presented to project the nodal into an element-wise physical density variable.

  8. A New Method for Simulating Power Flow Density Focused by a Silicon Lens Antenna Irradiated with Linearly Polarized THz Wave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Apriono

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A terahertz system uses dielectric lens antennas for focusing and collimating beams of terahertz wave radiation. Linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation has been widely applied in the terahertz system. Therefore, an accurate method for analyzing the power flow density in the dielectric lens antenna irradiated with the linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation is important to design the terahertz systems. In optics, ray-tracing method has been used to calculate the power flow density by a number density of rays. In this study, we propose a method of ray-tracing combined with Fresnel’s transmission, including transmittance and polarization of the terahertz wave radiation to calculate power flow density in a Silicon lens antenna. We compare power flow density calculated by the proposed method with the regular ray-tracing method. When the Silicon lens antenna is irradiated with linearly polarized terahertz wave radiation, the proposed method calculates the power flow density more accurately than the regular ray-tracing.

  9. General method for eliminating wave reflection in 2D photonic crystal waveguides by introducing extra scatterers based on interference cancellation of waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Ouyang, Zhengbiao

    2018-01-01

    We propose a general method for eliminating the reflection of waves in 2 dimensional photonic crystal waveguides (2D-PCWs), a kind of 2D material, by introducing extra scatterers inside the 2D-PCWs. The intrinsic reflection in 2D-PCWs is compensated by the backward-scattered waves from these scatterers, so that the overall reflection is greatly reduced and the insertion loss is improved accordingly. We first present the basic theory for the compensation method. Then, as a demonstration, we give four examples of extremely-low-reflection and high-transmission 90°bent 2D-PCWs created according to the method proposed. In the four examples, it is demonstrated by plane-wave expansion method and finite-difference time-domain method that the 90°bent 2D-PCWs can have high transmission ratio greater than 90% in a wide range of operating frequency, and the highest transmission ratio can be greater than 99.95% with a return loss higher than 43 dB, better than that in other typical 90°bent 2D-PCWs. With our method, the bent 2D-PCWs can be optimized to obtain high transmission ratio at different operating wavelengths. As a further application of this method, a waveguide-based optical bridge for light crossing is presented, showing an optimum return loss of 46.85 dB, transmission ratio of 99.95%, and isolation rates greater than 41.77 dB. The method proposed provides also a useful way for improving conventional waveguides made of cables, fibers, or metal walls in the optical, infrared, terahertz, and microwave bands.

  10. Assimilating data into open ocean tidal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivman, Gennady A.

    The problem of deriving tidal fields from observations by reason of incompleteness and imperfectness of every data set practically available has an infinitely large number of allowable solutions fitting the data within measurement errors and hence can be treated as ill-posed. Therefore, interpolating the data always relies on some a priori assumptions concerning the tides, which provide a rule of sampling or, in other words, a regularization of the ill-posed problem. Data assimilation procedures used in large scale tide modeling are viewed in a common mathematical framework as such regularizations. It is shown that they all (basis functions expansion, parameter estimation, nudging, objective analysis, general inversion, and extended general inversion), including those (objective analysis and general inversion) originally formulated in stochastic terms, may be considered as utilizations of one of the three general methods suggested by the theory of ill-posed problems. The problem of grid refinement critical for inverse methods and nudging is discussed.

  11. Guided Waves in Structures for SHM The Time - domain Spectral Element Method

    CERN Document Server

    Ostachowicz, Wieslaw; Krawczuk, Marek; Zak, Arkadiusz

    2011-01-01

    Presents the state of the art in the modelling, analysis and experimental investigation of elastic wave propagation using a technique of rapidly increasing interest and development Addressing an important issue in the field of guided-wave-based damage identification and structural health monitoring,Guided Waves in Structures for SHM presents the modelling, analysis and experimental investigation of elastic wave propagation in engineering structures made of isotropic or composite materials. The authors begin by summarising present-day knowledge on elastic wave propagation in solids, focusing on

  12. Assimilation of LAI time-series in crop production models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooistra, Lammert; Rijk, Bert; Nannes, Louis

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture is worldwide a large consumer of freshwater, nutrients and land. Spatial explicit agricultural management activities (e.g., fertilization, irrigation) could significantly improve efficiency in resource use. In previous studies and operational applications, remote sensing has shown to be a powerful method for spatio-temporal monitoring of actual crop status. As a next step, yield forecasting by assimilating remote sensing based plant variables in crop production models would improve agricultural decision support both at the farm and field level. In this study we investigated the potential of remote sensing based Leaf Area Index (LAI) time-series assimilated in the crop production model LINTUL to improve yield forecasting at field level. The effect of assimilation method and amount of assimilated observations was evaluated. The LINTUL-3 crop production model was calibrated and validated for a potato crop on two experimental fields in the south of the Netherlands. A range of data sources (e.g., in-situ soil moisture and weather sensors, destructive crop measurements) was used for calibration of the model for the experimental field in 2010. LAI from cropscan field radiometer measurements and actual LAI measured with the LAI-2000 instrument were used as input for the LAI time-series. The LAI time-series were assimilated in the LINTUL model and validated for a second experimental field on which potatoes were grown in 2011. Yield in 2011 was simulated with an R2 of 0.82 when compared with field measured yield. Furthermore, we analysed the potential of assimilation of LAI into the LINTUL-3 model through the 'updating' assimilation technique. The deviation between measured and simulated yield decreased from 9371 kg/ha to 8729 kg/ha when assimilating weekly LAI measurements in the LINTUL model over the season of 2011. LINTUL-3 furthermore shows the main growth reducing factors, which are useful for farm decision support. The combination of crop models and sensor

  13. Numerical simulation of the solitary wave interacting with an elastic structure using MPS-FEM coupled method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chengping; Zhang, Youlin; Wan, Decheng

    2017-12-01

    Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) caused by fluid impacting onto a flexible structure commonly occurs in naval architecture and ocean engineering. Research on the problem of wave-structure interaction is important to ensure the safety of offshore structures. This paper presents the Moving Particle Semi-implicit and Finite Element Coupled Method (MPS-FEM) to simulate FSI problems. The Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method is used to calculate the fluid domain, while the Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to address the structure domain. The scheme for the coupling of MPS and FEM is introduced first. Then, numerical validation and convergent study are performed to verify the accuracy of the solver for solitary wave generation and FSI problems. The interaction between the solitary wave and an elastic structure is investigated by using the MPS-FEM coupled method.

  14. The modified extended Fan's sub-equation method and its application to (2 + 1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yomba, Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    By using a modified extended Fan's sub-equation method, we have obtained new and more general solutions including a series of non-travelling wave and coefficient function solutions namely: soliton-like solutions, triangular-like solutions, single and combined non-degenerative Jacobi elliptic wave function-like solutions for the (2 + 1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation. The most important achievement of this method lies on the fact that, we have succeeded in one move to give all the solutions which can be previously obtained by application of at least four methods (method using Riccati equation, or first kind elliptic equation, or auxiliary ordinary equation, or generalized Riccati equation as mapping equation)

  15. Computing wave functions in multichannel collisions with non-local potentials using the R-matrix method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitati, Joey; Slimmer, Ben; Li, Weichuan; Potel, Gregory; Nunes, Filomena

    2017-09-01

    The calculable form of the R-matrix method has been previously shown to be a useful tool in approximately solving the Schrodinger equation in nuclear scattering problems. We use this technique combined with the Gauss quadrature for the Lagrange-mesh method to efficiently solve for the wave functions of projectile nuclei in low energy collisions (1-100 MeV) involving an arbitrary number of channels. We include the local Woods-Saxon potential, the non-local potential of Perey and Buck, a Coulomb potential, and a coupling potential to computationally solve for the wave function of two nuclei at short distances. Object oriented programming is used to increase modularity, and parallel programming techniques are introduced to reduce computation time. We conclude that the R-matrix method is an effective method to predict the wave functions of nuclei in scattering problems involving both multiple channels and non-local potentials. Michigan State University iCER ACRES REU.

  16. An improved method to experimentally determine temperature and pressure behind laser-induced shock waves at low Mach numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendijanifard, Mohammad; Willis, David A

    2011-01-01

    Laser-matter interactions are frequently studied by measuring the propagation of shock waves caused by the rapid laser-induced material removal. An improved method for calculating the thermo-fluid parameters behind shock waves is introduced in this work. Shock waves in ambient air, induced by pulsed Nd : YAG laser ablation of aluminium films, are measured using a shadowgraph apparatus. Normal shock solutions are applied to experimental data for shock wave positions and used to calculate pressure, temperature, and velocity behind the shock wave. Non-dimensionalizing the pressure and temperature with respect to the ambient values, the dimensionless pressure and temperature are estimated to be as high as 90 and 16, respectively, at a time of 10 ns after the ablation pulse for a laser fluence of F = 14.5 J cm -2 . The results of the normal shock solution and the Taylor-Sedov similarity solution are compared to show that the Taylor-Sedov solution under-predicts pressure when the Mach number of the shock wave is small. At a fluence of 3.1 J cm -2 , the shock wave Mach number is less than 3, and the Taylor-Sedov solution under-predicts the non-dimensional pressure by as much as 45%.

  17. Generalized Multiscale Finite-Element Method (GMsFEM) for elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Kai; Fu, Shubin; Gibson, Richard L.; Chung, Eric T.; Efendiev, Yalchin

    2015-01-01

    It is important to develop fast yet accurate numerical methods for seismic wave propagation to characterize complex geological structures and oil and gas reservoirs. However, the computational cost of conventional numerical modeling methods, such as finite-difference method and finite-element method, becomes prohibitively expensive when applied to very large models. We propose a Generalized Multiscale Finite-Element Method (GMsFEM) for elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic media, where we construct basis functions from multiple local problems for both the boundaries and interior of a coarse node support or coarse element. The application of multiscale basis functions can capture the fine scale medium property variations, and allows us to greatly reduce the degrees of freedom that are required to implement the modeling compared with conventional finite-element method for wave equation, while restricting the error to low values. We formulate the continuous Galerkin and discontinuous Galerkin formulation of the multiscale method, both of which have pros and cons. Applications of the multiscale method to three heterogeneous models show that our multiscale method can effectively model the elastic wave propagation in anisotropic media with a significant reduction in the degrees of freedom in the modeling system

  18. Generalized Multiscale Finite-Element Method (GMsFEM) for elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Kai, E-mail: kaigao87@gmail.com [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Fu, Shubin, E-mail: shubinfu89@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Gibson, Richard L., E-mail: gibson@tamu.edu [Department of Geology and Geophysics, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Chung, Eric T., E-mail: tschung@math.cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Mathematics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, NT (Hong Kong); Efendiev, Yalchin, E-mail: efendiev@math.tamu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Numerical Porous Media SRI Center (NumPor), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-08-15

    It is important to develop fast yet accurate numerical methods for seismic wave propagation to characterize complex geological structures and oil and gas reservoirs. However, the computational cost of conventional numerical modeling methods, such as finite-difference method and finite-element method, becomes prohibitively expensive when applied to very large models. We propose a Generalized Multiscale Finite-Element Method (GMsFEM) for elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic media, where we construct basis functions from multiple local problems for both the boundaries and interior of a coarse node support or coarse element. The application of multiscale basis functions can capture the fine scale medium property variations, and allows us to greatly reduce the degrees of freedom that are required to implement the modeling compared with conventional finite-element method for wave equation, while restricting the error to low values. We formulate the continuous Galerkin and discontinuous Galerkin formulation of the multiscale method, both of which have pros and cons. Applications of the multiscale method to three heterogeneous models show that our multiscale method can effectively model the elastic wave propagation in anisotropic media with a significant reduction in the degrees of freedom in the modeling system.

  19. Generalized Multiscale Finite-Element Method (GMsFEM) for elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Kai

    2015-04-14

    It is important to develop fast yet accurate numerical methods for seismic wave propagation to characterize complex geological structures and oil and gas reservoirs. However, the computational cost of conventional numerical modeling methods, such as finite-difference method and finite-element method, becomes prohibitively expensive when applied to very large models. We propose a Generalized Multiscale Generalized Multiscale Finite-Element Method (GMsFEM) for elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous, anisotropic media, where we construct basis functions from multiple local problems for both boundaries and the interior of a coarse node support or coarse element. The application of multiscale basis functions can capture the fine scale medium property variations, and allows us to greatly reduce the degrees of freedom that are required to implement the modeling compared with conventional finite-element method for wave equation, while restricting the error to low values. We formulate the continuous Galerkin and discontinuous Galerkin formulation of the multiscale method, both of which have pros and cons. Applications of the multiscale method to three heterogeneous models show that our multiscale method can effectively model the elastic wave propagation in anisotropic media with a significant reduction in the degrees of freedom in the modeling system.

  20. B-spline based finite element method in one-dimensional discontinuous elastic wave propagation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolman, Radek; Okrouhlík, Miloslav; Berezovski, A.; Gabriel, Dušan; Kopačka, Ján; Plešek, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 46, June (2017), s. 382-395 ISSN 0307-904X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/12/2315; GA MŠk(CZ) EF15_003/0000493 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) DAAD-16-12; AV ČR(CZ) ETA-15-03 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce; Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : discontinuous elastic wave propagation * B-spline finite element method * isogeometric analysis * implicit and explicit time integration * dispersion * spurious oscillations Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics OBOR OECD: Acoustics Impact factor: 2.350, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X17300835

  1. Stable and high order accurate difference methods for the elastic wave equation in discontinuous media

    KAUST Repository

    Duru, Kenneth

    2014-12-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Inc. In this paper, we develop a stable and systematic procedure for numerical treatment of elastic waves in discontinuous and layered media. We consider both planar and curved interfaces where media parameters are allowed to be discontinuous. The key feature is the highly accurate and provably stable treatment of interfaces where media discontinuities arise. We discretize in space using high order accurate finite difference schemes that satisfy the summation by parts rule. Conditions at layer interfaces are imposed weakly using penalties. By deriving lower bounds of the penalty strength and constructing discrete energy estimates we prove time stability. We present numerical experiments in two space dimensions to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed method for simulations involving typical interface phenomena in elastic materials. The numerical experiments verify high order accuracy and time stability.

  2. Accuracy and Precision of a Plane Wave Vector Flow Imaging Method in the Healthy Carotid Artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Traberg, Marie Sand

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study described here was to investigate the accuracy and precision of a plane wave 2-D vector flow imaging (VFI) method in laminar and complex blood flow conditions in the healthy carotid artery. The approach was to study (i) the accuracy for complex flow by comparing...... of laminar flow in vivo. The precision in vivo was calculated as the mean standard deviation (SD) of estimates aligned to the heart cycle and was highest in the center of the common carotid artery (SD = 3.6% for velocity magnitudes and 4.5° for angles) and lowest in the external branch and for vortices (SD...... the velocity field from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation to VFI estimates obtained from the scan of an anthropomorphic flow phantom and from an in vivo scan; (ii) the accuracy for laminar unidirectional flow in vivo by comparing peak systolic velocities from VFI with magnetic resonance...

  3. SO-FDTD method and its application to the calculation of electromagnetic wave reflection coefficients of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hongwei; Nanjing Agricultural Univ., Nanjing; Chen Rushan; Zhang Yun

    2006-01-01

    The dielectric property of dispersive media is written as rational polynomial function, the relation between D and E is derived in time domain. It is named shift operator FDTD (SO-FDTD) method. The high accuracy and efficiency of this method is confirmed by computing the reflection coefficients of electromagnetic waves by a collisional plasma slab. The reflection coefficients between plasma and the atmosphere or vacuum can be calculated by using the SO-FDTD method. The result is that the reflection coefficients are affected by plasma thickness, electron numerical density, the distributing orderliness of electron density, and incidence wave frequency. (authors)

  4. Solutions of Heat-Like and Wave-Like Equations with Variable Coefficients by Means of the Homotopy Analysis Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alomari, A. K.; Noorani, M. S. M.; Nazar, R.

    2008-01-01

    We employ the homotopy analysis method (HAM) to obtain approximate analytical solutions to the heat-like and wave-like equations. The HAM contains the auxiliary parameter ħ, which provides a convenient way of controlling the convergence region of series solutions. The analysis is accompanied by several linear and nonlinear heat-like and wave-like equations with initial boundary value problems. The results obtained prove that HAM is very effective and simple with less error than the Adomian decomposition method and the variational iteration method

  5. Estimate of Small Stiffness and Damping Ratio in Residual Soil Using Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bawadi Nor Faizah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in the important parameters for modeling the dynamic behavior of soils has led to rapid development of the small strain stiffness and damping ratio for use in the seismic method. It is because, the experimental determination of the damping ratio is problematic, especially for hard soils sample. Many researchers have proved that the surface wave method is a reliable tool to determine shear wave velocity and damping ratio profiles at a site with very small strains level. Surface wave methods based on Rayleigh waves propagation and the resulting attenuation curve can become erroneous when higher modes contribute to the soil’s response. In this study, two approaches has been used to determine the shear strain amplitude and damping ratio of residual soils at small strain level using Spectral Analysis of Surface Wave (SASW method. One is to derive shear strain amplitude from the frequency-response curve and the other is to derive damping ratio from travel-time data. Then, the results are compared to the conventional method.

  6. A reduced adjoint approach to variational data assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Altaf, Muhammad; El Gharamti, Mohamad; Heemink, Arnold W.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    The adjoint method has been used very often for variational data assimilation. The computational cost to run the adjoint model often exceeds several original model runs and the method needs significant programming efforts to implement the adjoint model code. The work proposed here is variational data assimilation based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) which avoids the implementation of the adjoint of the tangent linear approximation of the original nonlinear model. An ensemble of the forward model simulations is used to determine the approximation of the covariance matrix and only the dominant eigenvectors of this matrix are used to define a model subspace. The adjoint of the tangent linear model is replaced by the reduced adjoint based on this reduced space. Thus the adjoint model is run in reduced space with negligible computational cost. Once the gradient is obtained in reduced space it is projected back in full space and the minimization process is carried in full space. In the paper the reduced adjoint approach to variational data assimilation is introduced. The characteristics and performance of the method are illustrated with a number of data assimilation experiments in a ground water subsurface contaminant model. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  7. A reduced adjoint approach to variational data assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Altaf, Muhammad

    2013-02-01

    The adjoint method has been used very often for variational data assimilation. The computational cost to run the adjoint model often exceeds several original model runs and the method needs significant programming efforts to implement the adjoint model code. The work proposed here is variational data assimilation based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) which avoids the implementation of the adjoint of the tangent linear approximation of the original nonlinear model. An ensemble of the forward model simulations is used to determine the approximation of the covariance matrix and only the dominant eigenvectors of this matrix are used to define a model subspace. The adjoint of the tangent linear model is replaced by the reduced adjoint based on this reduced space. Thus the adjoint model is run in reduced space with negligible computational cost. Once the gradient is obtained in reduced space it is projected back in full space and the minimization process is carried in full space. In the paper the reduced adjoint approach to variational data assimilation is introduced. The characteristics and performance of the method are illustrated with a number of data assimilation experiments in a ground water subsurface contaminant model. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Local Fractional Variational Iteration and Decomposition Methods for Wave Equation on Cantor Sets within Local Fractional Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Baleanu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We perform a comparison between the fractional iteration and decomposition methods applied to the wave equation on Cantor set. The operators are taken in the local sense. The results illustrate the significant features of the two methods which are both very effective and straightforward for solving the differential equations with local fractional derivative.

  9. Traveling wave solutions of a biological reaction-convection-diffusion equation model by using $(G'/G$ expansion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnam Javadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the $(G'/G$-expansion method is applied to solve a biological reaction-convection-diffusion model arising in mathematical biology. Exact traveling wave solutions are obtained by this method. This scheme can be applied to a wide class of nonlinear partial differential equations.

  10. A novel method for surface defect inspection of optic cable with short-wave infrared illuminance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohong; Liu, Ning; You, Bo; Xiao, Bin

    2016-07-01

    Intelligent on-line detection of cable quality is a crucial issue in optic cable factory, and defects on the surface of optic cable can dramatically depress cable grade. Manual inspection in optic cable quality cannot catch up with the development of optic cable industry due to its low detection efficiency and huge human cost. Therefore, real-time is highly demanded by industry in order to replace the subjective and repetitive process of manual inspection. For this reason, automatic cable defect inspection has been a trend. In this paper, a novel method for surface defect inspection of optic cable with short-wave infrared illuminance is presented. The special condition of short-wave infrared cannot only provide illumination compensation for the weak illumination environment, but also can avoid the problem of exposure when using visible light illuminance, which affects the accuracy of inspection algorithm. A series of image processing algorithms are set up to analyze cable image for the verification of real-time and veracity of the detection method. Unlike some existing detection algorithms which concentrate on the characteristics of defects with an active search way, the proposed method removes the non-defective areas of the image passively at the same time of image processing, which reduces a large amount of computation. OTSU algorithm is used to convert the gray image to the binary image. Furthermore, a threshold window is designed to eliminate the fake defects, and the threshold represents the considered minimum size of defects ε . Besides, a new regional suppression method is proposed to deal with the edge burrs of the cable, which shows the superior performance compared with that of Open-Close operation of mathematical morphological in the boundary processing. Experimental results of 10,000 samples show that the rates of miss detection and false detection are 2.35% and 0.78% respectively when ε equals to 0.5 mm, and the average processing period of one frame

  11. [A new method to orthodontically correct dental occlusal plane canting: wave-shaped arch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X; Hu, X X; Ma, N; Chen, X H

    2017-02-18

    ; after treatment the angles were from -0.17° to 2.57° with a median of 1.87°, the decrease of the angles between AOP and BBP after treatment ranged from 1.08° to 4.15° with a median of 2.21°. Paired Wilcoxon test P was 0.000. The wave-shaped arch can be used independently or in combination with other treatment methods, which can take advantage of left and right interactive anchorage to correct AOPC effectively, so it has certain application value in clinical practice.

  12. An analytical study of M2 tidal waves in the Taiwan Strait using an extended Taylor method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Fang, Guohong; Cui, Xinmei; Teng, Fei

    2018-02-01

    The tides in the Taiwan Strait (TS) feature large semidiurnal lunar (M2) amplitudes. An extended Taylor method is employed in this study to provide an analytical model for the M2 tide in the TS. The strait is idealized as a rectangular basin with a uniform depth, and the Coriolis force and bottom friction are retained in the governing equations. The observed tides at the northern and southern openings are used as open boundary conditions. The obtained analytical solution, which consists of a stronger southward propagating Kelvin wave, a weaker northward propagating Kelvin wave, and two families of Poincaré modes trapped at the northern and southern openings, agrees well with the observations in the strait. The superposition of two Kelvin waves basically represents the observed tidal pattern, including an anti-nodal band in the central strait, and the cross-strait asymmetry (greater amplitudes in the west and smaller in the east) of the anti-nodal band. Inclusion of Poincaré modes further improves the model result in that the cross-strait asymmetry can be better reproduced. To explore the formation mechanism of the northward propagating wave in the TS, three experiments are carried out, including the deep basin south of the strait. The results show that the southward incident wave is reflected to form a northward wave by the abruptly deepened topography south of the strait, but the reflected wave is slightly weaker than the northward wave obtained from the above analytical solution, in which the southern open boundary condition is specified with observations. Inclusion of the forcing at the Luzon Strait strengthens the northward Kelvin wave in the TS, and the forcing is thus of some (but lesser) importance to the M2 tide in the TS.

  13. A coherent structure approach for parameter estimation in Lagrangian Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, John; Santitissadeekorn, Naratip; Jones, Christopher K. R. T.

    2017-12-01

    We introduce a data assimilation method to estimate model parameters with observations of passive tracers by directly assimilating Lagrangian Coherent Structures. Our approach differs from the usual Lagrangian Data Assimilation approach, where parameters are estimated based on tracer trajectories. We employ the Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) framework to avoid computing the likelihood function of the coherent structure, which is usually unavailable. We solve the ABC by a Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) method, and use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to identify the coherent patterns from tracer trajectory data. Our new method shows remarkably improved results compared to the bootstrap particle filter when the physical model exhibits chaotic advection.

  14. Development of numerical methods to calculate the propagation and the absorption of the hybrid wave in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebelin, E.

    1997-01-01

    Full-wave calculations based on trial functions are carried out for solving the lower hybrid current drive problem in tokamaks. A variational method is developed and provides an efficient system to describe in a global manner both the propagation and the absorption of the electromagnetic waves in plasmas. The calculation is fully carried out in the case of circular and concentric flux surfaces. The existence and uniqueness of the solution of the wave propagation equation is mathematically proved. The first realistic simulations are performed for the high aspect ratio tokamak TRIAM-1M. It is checked that the main features of the lower-hybrid wave dynamics are well described numerically. (A.C.)

  15. A high-order multiscale finite-element method for time-domain acoustic-wave modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kai; Fu, Shubin; Chung, Eric T.

    2018-05-01

    Accurate and efficient wave equation modeling is vital for many applications in such as acoustics, electromagnetics, and seismology. However, solving the wave equation in large-scale and highly heterogeneous models is usually computationally expensive because the computational cost is directly proportional to the number of grids in the model. We develop a novel high-order multiscale finite-element method to reduce the computational cost of time-domain acoustic-wave equation numerical modeling by solving the wave equation on a coarse mesh based on the multiscale finite-element theory. In contrast to existing multiscale finite-element methods that use only first-order multiscale basis functions, our new method constructs high-order multiscale basis functions from local elliptic problems which are closely related to the Gauss-Lobatto-Legendre quadrature points in a coarse element. Essentially, these basis functions are not only determined by the order of Legendre polynomials, but also by local medium properties, and therefore can effectively convey the fine-scale information to the coarse-scale solution with high-order accuracy. Numerical tests show that our method can significantly reduce the computation time while maintain high accuracy for wave equation modeling in highly heterogeneous media by solving the corresponding discrete system only on the coarse mesh with the new high-order multiscale basis functions.

  16. A method for detecting crack wave arrival time and crack localization in a tunnel by using moving window technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Chul; Park, Tae Jin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Source localization in a dispersive medium has been carried out based on the time-of-arrival-differences (TOADs) method: a triangulation method and a circle intersection technique. Recent signal processing advances have led to calculation TOAD using a joint time-frequency analysis of the signal, where a short-time Fourier transform(STFT) and wavelet transform can be included as popular algorithms. The time-frequency analysis method is able to provide various information and more reliable results such as seismic-attenuation estimation, dispersive characteristics, a wave mode analysis, and temporal energy distribution of signals compared with previous methods. These algorithms, however, have their own limitations for signal processing. In this paper, the effective use of proposed algorithm in detecting crack wave arrival time and source localization in rock masses suggest that the evaluation and real-time monitoring on the intensity of damages related to the tunnels or other underground facilities is possible. Calculation of variances resulted from moving windows as a function of their size differentiates the signature from noise and from crack signal, which lead us to determine the crack wave arrival time. Then, the source localization is determined to be where the variance of crack wave velocities from real and virtual crack localization becomes a minimum. To validate our algorithm, we have performed experiments at the tunnel, which resulted in successful determination of the wave arrival time and crack localization.

  17. Traveling wave solutions of the Boussinesq equation via the new approach of generalized (G'/G)-expansion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Md Nur; Akbar, M Ali; Roshid, Harun-Or-

    2014-01-01

    Exact solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs) play a vital role to reveal the internal mechanism of complex physical phenomena. In this work, the exact traveling wave solutions of the Boussinesq equation is studied by using the new generalized (G'/G)-expansion method. Abundant traveling wave solutions with arbitrary parameters are successfully obtained by this method and the wave solutions are expressed in terms of the hyperbolic, trigonometric, and rational functions. It is shown that the new approach of generalized (G'/G)-expansion method is a powerful and concise mathematical tool for solving nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics and engineering. 05.45.Yv, 02.30.Jr, 02.30.Ik.

  18. Exact traveling wave solutions of fractional order Boussinesq-like equations by applying Exp-function method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatullah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We have computed new exact traveling wave solutions, including complex solutions of fractional order Boussinesq-Like equations, occurring in physical sciences and engineering, by applying Exp-function method. The method is blended with fractional complex transformation and modified Riemann-Liouville fractional order operator. Our obtained solutions are verified by substituting back into their corresponding equations. To the best of our knowledge, no other technique has been reported to cope with the said fractional order nonlinear problems combined with variety of exact solutions. Graphically, fractional order solution curves are shown to be strongly related to each other and most importantly, tend to fixate on their integer order solution curve. Our solutions comprise high frequencies and very small amplitude of the wave responses. Keywords: Exp-function method, New exact traveling wave solutions, Modified Riemann-Liouville derivative, Fractional complex transformation, Fractional order Boussinesq-like equations, Symbolic computation

  19. Data Assimilation - Advances and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Brian J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-07-30

    This presentation provides an overview of data assimilation (model calibration) for complex computer experiments. Calibration refers to the process of probabilistically constraining uncertain physics/engineering model inputs to be consistent with observed experimental data. An initial probability distribution for these parameters is updated using the experimental information. Utilization of surrogate models and empirical adjustment for model form error in code calibration form the basis for the statistical methodology considered. The role of probabilistic code calibration in supporting code validation is discussed. Incorporation of model form uncertainty in rigorous uncertainty quantification (UQ) analyses is also addressed. Design criteria used within a batch sequential design algorithm are introduced for efficiently achieving predictive maturity and improved code calibration. Predictive maturity refers to obtaining stable predictive inference with calibrated computer codes. These approaches allow for augmentation of initial experiment designs for collecting new physical data. A standard framework for data assimilation is presented and techniques for updating the posterior distribution of the state variables based on particle filtering and the ensemble Kalman filter are introduced.

  20. Data assimilation with inequality constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, W. C.

    If values of variables in a numerical model are limited to specified ranges, these restrictions should be enforced when data are assimilated. The simplest option is to assimilate without regard for constraints and then to correct any violations without worrying about additional corrections implied by correlated errors. This paper addresses the incorporation of inequality constraints into the standard variational framework of optimal interpolation with emphasis on our limited knowledge of the underlying probability distributions. Simple examples involving only two or three variables are used to illustrate graphically how active constraints can be treated as error-free data when background errors obey a truncated multi-normal distribution. Using Lagrange multipliers, the formalism is expanded to encompass the active constraints. Two algorithms are presented, both relying on a solution ignoring the inequality constraints to discover violations to be enforced. While explicitly enforcing a subset can, via correlations, correct the others, pragmatism based on our poor knowledge of the underlying probability distributions suggests the expedient of enforcing them all explicitly to avoid the computationally expensive task of determining the minimum active set. If additional violations are encountered with these solutions, the process can be repeated. Simple examples are used to illustrate the algorithms and to examine the nature of the corrections implied by correlated errors.