WorldWideScience

Sample records for waterworks

  1. Application of waterworks sludge in wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Anitha Kumari; Thornberg, D.; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    for removal of phosphate in the wastewater treatment was limited, because the dissolved iron in the digester liquid was limited by siderite (FeCO3) precipitation. It is concluded that both acidic and anaerobic dissolution of iron-rich waterworks sludge can be achieved at the wastewater treatment plant......The potential for reuse of iron-rich sludge from waterworks as a replacement for commercial iron salts in wastewater treatment was investigated using acidic and anaerobic dissolution. The acidic dissolution of waterworks sludge both in sulphuric acid and acidic products such as flue gas washing...

  2. Evaluation of NORM residues in the Morro Redondo waterworks, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Michele C.F. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: michelecristinafp@yahoo.com.br; Rocha, Zildete [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Quimica e Radioquimica]. E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br

    2007-07-01

    Most mineral resources present naturally occurring radioactive material known by the acronym NORM. Some of them, specially those geological material originated from igneous rock present elevated radionuclides concentration. The exploration of these materials may elevate human exposure to the natural ionizing radiation, by removing them from the natural compartment or by increasing the radionuclides concentration in products, by products and more frequently in the industrial residues, these are referred as TENORM Technologically Enhanced NORM. The residues of the waterworks, especially those of the iron and manganese remotion are expected to contain radioactivity concentration due to geological reasons. The paper evaluates the natural radionuclide concentration in the waste water sludge of the iron removing process carried out by the Water Treatment Plant (WTP) - Morro Redondo waterwork operated by Companhia de Saneamento de Minas Gerais - COPASA. Such waterwork supplies drink water for more than 200.000 people, inhabitants of the south part of Belo Horizonte and Nova Lima. The water is extracted from three rock source formations in the iron quadrangle of Minas Gerais, namely Cercadinho, Fechos and Mutuca. The sludges samples analysed have shown values around 300 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, in radiological point of view, the most important radionuclide. Values taken from literature were considered - 10.000 Bq kg{sup -1} are not rare, and the ones around 300 Bq kg{sup -1} are normal. (author)

  3. Analytic-graphic testing of deformities at the waterworks Pod Bukovcom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeèný Miloš

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some geodetic measurement results in a frame of deformity survey of the bulk dam at the waterworks Pod Bukovcom nearby Košice. Periodic geodetic position and levelling measurement are realized on the dam since 1999. Testing statistics are applied into the deformity survey. Geodetic data obtained from individual measurements in the geodetic network on the bulk dam at the waterworks Pod Bukovcom are adjusted using Gauss-Markov model. Accuracy analysis by means of using relative and confidence ellipses is complemented to geodetic measurements.

  4. Managing the performance risk of conventional waterworks in compliance with the natural organic matter regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, F; Chen, J; Tong, Q; Zeng, S

    2008-01-01

    In order to understand the dual impact of both deteriorating water resources and stringent water quality regulations on the performance of conventional waterworks on a nationwide level, a methodology of a risk-based screening analysis is developed and further applied to evaluate the natural organic matter (NOM) regulation in the new standards for drinking water quality. Due to the large number of drinking water sources and conventional waterworks, as well as the lack of detailed field observations in China, such an analysis is wholly based on a validated conceptual model. The performance risk of conventional waterworks in compliance with the new regulation is estimated within the framework of risk assessment through Monte Carlo simulation to account for the uncertainties associated with model parameters, source water quality and operation conditions across different waterworks. A screening analysis is simultaneously performed using a task-based Hornberger-Spear-Young algorithm to identify the critical operation parameters that determine the performance risk, based on which potential strategies to manage the performance risk are proposed and evaluated. The effects of the model parameter uncertainties on the simulation results are also discussed.

  5. Multi-objective optimization of the management of a waterworks using an integrated well field model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Kirstine; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This study uses multi-objective optimization of an integrated well field model to improve the management of a waterworks. The well field model, called WELLNES (WELL field Numerical Engine Shell) is a dynamic coupling of a groundwater model, a pipe network model, and a well model. WELLNES is capable...... of predicting the water level and the energy consumption of the individual production wells. The model has been applied to Søndersø waterworks in Denmark, where it predicts the energy consumption within 1.8% of the observed. The objectives of the optimization problem are to minimize the specific energy...... provides the decision-makers with compromise solutions between the two competing objectives. In the test case the Pareto optimal solutions are compared with an exhaustive benchmark solution. It is shown that the energy consumption can be reduced by 4% by changing the pumping configuration without violating...

  6. Mecoprop (MCPP) removal in full-scale rapid sand filters at a groundwater-based waterworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mathilde Jørgensen; Arvin, Erik; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.;

    2014-01-01

    Contamination by the herbicide mecoprop (MCPP) was detected in groundwater abstraction wells at Kerteminde Waterworks in concentrations up to 0.08μg/L. MCPP was removed to below detection limit in a simple treatment line where anaerobic groundwater was aerated and subsequently filtered by primary...... filters, MCPP concentration decreased from 0.037μg/L to below the detection limit of 0.01μg/L. MCPP was removed continuously at different filter depths (0.80m).Additionally, biodegradation, mineralisation and adsorption were investigated in the laboratory in order to elucidate removal mechanisms.......It was concluded that MCPP was removed in secondary rapid sand filters at Kerteminde Waterworks, to which both adsorption and microbial degradation contributed....

  7. Mecoprop (MCPP) removal in full-scale rapid sand filters at a groundwater-based waterworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedegaard, Mathilde J., E-mail: mjhe@env.dtu.dk; Arvin, Erik; Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-11-15

    Contamination by the herbicide mecoprop (MCPP) was detected in groundwater abstraction wells at Kerteminde Waterworks in concentrations up to 0.08 μg/L. MCPP was removed to below detection limit in a simple treatment line where anaerobic groundwater was aerated and subsequently filtered by primary and secondary rapid sand filters. Water quality parameters were measured throughout the waterworks, and they behaved as designed for. MCPP was removed in secondary rapid sand filters — removal was the greatest in the sand filters in the filter line with the highest contact time (63 min). In these secondary sand filters, MCPP concentration decreased from 0.037 μg/L to below the detection limit of 0.01 μg/L. MCPP was removed continuously at different filter depths (0.80 m). Additionally, biodegradation, mineralisation and adsorption were investigated in the laboratory in order to elucidate removal mechanisms in the full-scale system. Therefore, microcosms were set up with filter sand, water and {sup 14}C-labelled MCPP at an initial concentration of 0.2 μg/L. After 24 h, 79–86% of the initial concentration of MCPP was removed. Sorption removed 11–15%, while the remaining part was removed by microbial processes, leading to a complete mineralisation of 13–18%. Microbial removal in the filter sand was similar at different depths of the rapid sand filter, while the amount of MCPP which adsorbed to the filter sand after 48 h decreased with depth from 21% of the initial MCPP in the top layer to 7% in the bottom layer. It was concluded that MCPP was removed in secondary rapid sand filters at Kerteminde Waterworks, to which both adsorption and microbial degradation contributed. - Highlights: • A full-scale groundwater based waterworks was able to remove MCPP. • In the secondary rapid sand filters, MCPP decreased from 0.037 μg/L to < 0.010 μg/L. • The filter sand removed MCPP both by sorption and by microbial degradation. • Microbial removal was unchanged while

  8. Preparation of modified waterworks sludge particles as adsorbent to enhance coagulation of slightly polluted source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Gao, Xiaohong; Xu, Hang; Wang, Kang; Chen, Taoyuan

    2017-07-04

    Without treatment, waterworks sludge is ineffective as an adsorbent. In this study, raw waterworks sludge was used as the raw material to prepare modified sludge particles through high-temperature calcination and alkali modification. The feasibility of using a combination of modified particles and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) as a coagulant for treatment of slightly polluted source water was also investigated. The composition, structure, and surface properties of the modified particles were characterized, and their capabilities for removing ammonia nitrogen and turbidity were determined. The results indicate that the optimal preparation conditions for the modified sludge particles were achieved by preparing the particles with a roasting temperature of 483.12 °C, a roasting time of 3.32 h, and a lye concentration of 3.75%. Furthermore, enhanced coagulation is strengthened with the addition of modified sludge particles, which is reflected by reduction of the required PAC dose and enhancement of the removal efficiency of ammonia nitrogen and turbidity by over 80 and 93%, respectively. Additional factors such as pH, temperature, dose, and dosing sequence were also evaluated. The optimum doses of modified particles and PAC were 40 and 15 mg/L, respectively, and adding modified particles at the same time as or prior to adding PAC improves removal efficiency.

  9. Cell-phone based assistance for waterworks/sewage plant maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, T; Nakamichi, K; Hisano, N; Kitamura, M; Miyahara, K

    2006-01-01

    Cell-phones are now incorporating the functions necessary for them to be used as mobile IT devices. In this paper, we present our results of the evaluation of cell-phones as the mobile IT device to assist workers in industrial plants. We use waterworks and sewage plants as examples. By employing techniques to squeeze the SCADA screen on CRT into a small cell-phone LCD, we have made it easier for a plant's field workers to access the information needed for effective maintenance, regardless of location. An idea to link SCADA information and the plant facility information on the cell-phone is also presented. Should an accident or emergency situation arise, these cell-phone-based IT systems can efficiently deliver the latest plant information, thus the worker out in the field can respond to and resolve the emergency.

  10. Reuse of acid coagulant-recovered drinking waterworks sludge residual to remove phosphorus from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lan; Wei, Jie; Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Dongtian

    2014-06-01

    Acid coagulant-recovered drinking waterworks sludge residual (DWSR) is a waste product from drinking waterworks sludge (DWS) treatment with acid for coagulant recovery. In this study, we evaluated DWSR as a potential phosphorus (P) removing material in wastewater treatment by conducting a series of batch and semi-continuous tests. Batch tests were carried out to study the effects of pH, initial concentration, and sludge dose on P removal. Batch test results showed that the P removal efficiency of DWSR was highly dependent on pH. Calcinated DWSR (C-DWSR) performed better in P removal than DWSR due to its higher pH. At an optimum initial pH value of 5-6 and a sludge dose of 10 g/L, the P removal rates of DWSR and DWS decreased from 99% and 93% to 84% and 14%, respectively, and the specific P uptake of DWSR and DWS increased from 0.19 and 0.19 mg P/g to 33.60 and 5.72 mg P/g, respectively, when the initial concentration was increased from 2 to 400 mg/L. The effective minimum sludge doses of DWSR and DWS were 0.5 g/L and 10 g/L, respectively, when the P removal rates of 90% were obtained at an initial concentration of 10 mg/L. Results from semi-continuous test indicated that P removal rates over 99% were quickly achieved for both synthetic and actual wastewater (lake water and domestic sewage). These rates could be maintained over a certain time under a certain operational conditions including sludge dose, feed flow, and initial concentration. The physicochemical properties analysis results showed that the contents of aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe) in DWSR were reduced by 50% and 70%, respectively, compared with DWS. The insoluble Al and Fe hydroxide in DWS converted into soluble Al and Fe in DWSR. Metal leaching test results revealed that little soluble Al and Fe remained in effluent when DWSR was used for P removal. We deduced that chemical precipitation might be the major action for P removal by DWSR and that adsorption played only a marginal role.

  11. Modeling of replenishment of sediments on a water-worked gravel bed channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juez, Carmelo; Battisacco, Elena; Schleiss, Anton J.; Franca, Mário J.

    2016-04-01

    The presence of dams causes a sediment deficit downstream. Hence, the surface structure of the riverbeds is altered by this interruption in the sediment continuity and The presence of dams causes a sediment deficit downstream. The surface structure of the riverbed is altered by this interruption in the sediment continuity and becoming water-worked. The main morphological effects verified in these cases are thus the generation of armored layers, bank instability, riverbed incision, changes in the channel width and coarsening of the bed particles. These results impact on the riverbed topographic variability and structure of the bedforms. Surface complexity is thus reduced with further ecological implications. The lack of fine material and surface complexity leads to the loss of aquatic and riparian habitats, limiting the possibilities for fish spawning. Nowadays, the revitalization of disturbed river reaches forms an integral part of river management. Sediment transport and associated channel morphology are understood as key processes for recreating and maintaining aquatic ecosystems. For this purpose several replenishment techniques have been considered in order to supply sediments lacking in the downstream reaches. The replenishment techniques can be seen as a pulse-like addition of sedimentary material that initially disturbs the channel. In this work, the response of the flow to the complementary material which is added in the channel is studied by means of the 2D shallow water equations in combination with the Exner equation. The numerical scheme is built by means of a weakly-coupled treatment between the hydrodynamic and morphodynamic equations leading to an efficient and robust solution. Computational outcomes are compared with experimental data obtained from several replenishment configurations studied in the laboratory. The results are analyzed by means of: (i) temporal evolution of the material spreading, (ii) occupational ratio along the channel which is

  12. Geoarchaeological research for Roman waterworks in the Rhine-Meuse river delta, the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Jan; Kluiving, Sjoerd; van Leeuwen, Liz; Anker, Emiel

    2015-04-01

    It is known that Romans in the Low Countries at the northern margin of their empire were practicing diverse systems of water state management to maintain economic and above all strategic stability. In early Roman period Romans created a shipping route from the Rhine towards the north by digging canals and constructing dams. This was done in order to submit the northern part of Germania through the Waddenzee and the German rivers Eems, Weser and Elbe. During the middle Roman period the Romans had canceled their efforts to submit Germania. In that period we know the River Rhine as the limes, which not only was a borderline of the Roman empire, but can also be seen as a guarded transport route. The research area is situated in the eastern part of the Rhine-Meuse river valley/delta system. The area represents a highly dynamic geological history of erosion and deposition close to the river system's equilibrium point. In order to reconstruct the former landscape and investigate whether traces of Roman waterworks could be indicated or disproved geoarchaeological coring campaigns have been carried out with lithological, textural and palaeoecological analyses. The results of the research presented in this poster will be: 1) Assessment of the condition of the covered Pleistocene sediments in the area, 2) Identification of the buried gullies and levees in the vicinity of the remains of the Roman castellum 'Carvium ad molem', which should have been built at the bifurcation of the delta branches of Rhine and Waal, 3) Chronological control of gullies and levees, 4) Landscape reconstruction in different time periods. Finally based on the geoarchaeological results a comment will be made on the location of the Drusus dam in the study area, the landscape context of the castellum and its position on the apex of the Insula Batavorum.

  13. Studies on potential of Portland cement mortar for binding of waterworks sludge to reduce heavy metal leaching

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PARAMALINGGAM THANALECHUMI; ABDULL RAHIM MOHD YUSOFF; MOHANADOSS PONRAJ; HANIM AWAB

    2016-03-01

    The investigation of heavy metal leaching and physicochemical properties of cement-solidified waterworks sludge (CMWWS) formed by incorporating waterworks sludge (WWS) into cement mortar was carried out. The chemical composition, compressive strength and other physicochemical properties of the CMWWS cube specimens were determined using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The major type of chemical components present in CMWWS was found to be Al and Fe. The increasing amount of WWS added to cement mortar resulted in the increasing of organic matter, urchin-like morphology and clear peak intensity. At the end of 28 days of curing, the soaking solution became strongly basic and CMWWS cube specimens leached out higher amount of heavy metals. The compressive strength of CMWWS increased up to a WWS percentage of 10%, and basic (pH [ 7) curing solution was found to be better than water for curing purposes. It is concluded that solidification–stabilisation (S/S) technique is able to effectively reduce the leaching of heavy metals from the WWS and CMWWS containing up to 10% WWS can be used as construction material.

  14. Estonian waterworks treatment plants: clearance of residues, discharge of effluents and efficiency of removal of radium from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotti, F; Caldognetto, E; Forte, M; Nuccetelli, C; Risica, S; Rusconi, R

    2013-12-01

    Considerable levels of radium were detected in a certain fraction of the Estonian drinking water supply network. Some of these waterworks have treatment systems for the removal of (mainly) iron and manganese from drinking water. Three of these waterworks and another one equipped with a radium removal pilot plant were examined, and a specific study was conducted in order to assess the environmental compatibility of effluents and residues produced in the plants. (226)Ra and (228)Ra activity concentrations were analysed in both liquid (backwash water) and solid (sand filter and sediment) materials to evaluate their compliance, from the radiological point of view, with current Estonian legislation and international technical documents that propose reference levels for radium in effluents and residues. Also with regard to water treatment by-products, a preliminary analysis was done of possible consequences of the transposition of the European Basic Safety Standards Draft into Estonian law. Radium removal efficiency was also tested in the same plants. Iron and manganese treatment plants turned out to be scarcely effective, whilst the radium mitigation pilot plant showed a promising performance.

  15. Drinking water biofilms on copper and stainless steel exhibit specific molecular responses towards different disinfection regimes at waterworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungfer, Christina; Friedrich, Frank; Varela Villarreal, Jessica; Brändle, Katharina; Gross, Hans-Jürgen; Obst, Ursula; Schwartz, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Biofilms growing on copper and stainless steel substrata in natural drinking water were investigated. A modular pilot-scale distribution facility was installed at four waterworks using different raw waters and disinfection regimes. Three-month-old biofilms were analysed using molecular biology and microscopy methods. High total cell numbers, low counts of actively respiring cells and low numbers of cultivable bacteria indicated the high abundance of viable but not cultivable bacteria in the biofilms. The expression of the recA SOS responsive gene was detected and underlined the presence of transcriptionally active bacteria within the biofilms. This effect was most evident after UV disinfection, UV oxidation and UV disinfection with increased turbidity at waterworks compared to chemically treated and non-disinfected systems. Furthermore, live/dead staining techniques and environmental scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed the presence of living and intact bacteria in biofilms on copper substrata. Cluster analyses of DGGE profiles demonstrated differences in the composition of biofilms on copper and steel materials.

  16. Contaminatiom of sediment loads of the Waterwork Ružín I. by heavy metals in relation to mining sludge basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brehuv Ján

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available From the results of monitoring of the quality of surface water in the Hnilec and Hornád rivers and their tributaries followed that in addition to industrial toxic substances, it were the heavy metals from localities of former and still continuing mining, treatment or metallurgic activities that significantly influence a long-term polution. The subsequent project showed a need to monitor the impact of anthropogenic activity, namely on the Waterwork (VD Ružín I. It was a task of our institution to judge the quality of sediment loads in the waterwork area.The first samples of sediment loads of the waterwork were taken in 1994. The sampling process then continued on the same places in following years. The special methods of sampling of sediment loads (sediments from the waterwork bed were worked out depending on the locality of sampling. The total analysis of obtained air-dried samples was caried out using the AAS method. The heavy metals were also analysed. In the consent with standards and requiremnts of the co-ordinator of task, the sediment deposits were assessed in consent with Decree of the Ministry of Land Managment of the Slovak Republik 531/1994-540 on the highest admissible values of harmful subsatances in land.Comparing the results of sampling we have observed that the critical values have been achieved in case of Cu. Its high values were found in the branches of Hnilec and Hornád rivers, as well sa in the branch of Opátka. The increased contents of Co are in Beliansky and Opatsky branches, at the inflow of Hnilec and Folkmarsky brook into the waterwork. The position of Hg is interesting, as it was the main contaminating element of The Hornad river and its sediments in the past. Hg is not currently present at significant quantities.The vertical sampling was also carried out in the course of research. It was proved that the content of contaminating elements in sediments of waterwork originates in the industrial activity perfomed 15

  17. Large-scale renewal of electric facility for industrial waterworks; Kogyo yosui denki setsubi no daikibo renewal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-29

    The receiving/transformation, power and supervisory control facilities were renewed for Tomo industrial waterworks of Bureau of Public Utilities, Gunma Prefecture. (1) The receiving/transformation facility adopts 6kV 2-circuit power receiving and 2-circuit power supply to every facility for easy maintenance and stable power supply. (2) The power facility adopts PWM converter type inverters for water supply pumps as harmonics control measures, and a CC300M control center (including IPMAT-L) for power circuit to reduce relays as much as possible. The instrumentation facility adopts alarm setting by CRT supervisory control equipment to eliminate various troublesome changes of setting. (3) The supervisory control facility adopts the EIC integrated system composed of an operator station micronet-OPS8000 and a process control station UNISEQUE ADC4000. Like the power supply system, the 2-circuit system is adopted for I/O of common information to prevent various risks. Switching of automatic control modes and setting of various parameters are easily possible systematically on CRT screens. (translated by NEDO)

  18. Application of Corrugated Lamella in Settler of Waterworks%波纹型斜板在水厂沉淀池改造中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李钟珮

    2009-01-01

    在水厂沉淀池前部沿池宽方向增设侧向流不锈钢波纹斜板组,可在占地受限的情况下,有效改善现有水厂絮凝沉淀池的沉淀条件,达到进一步提高水质的目的.%A side-flow stainless steel corrugated lamella unit was additionally installed foreside a-long the width direction of settler in waterworks. In the case of limited land, it can improve the settling condition of flocculation settler, achieving the goal of further improving water quality.

  19. 上海大场水厂给水工艺设计及特点%Improved Technological Design of Dachang Waterworks in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑国兴; 沈裘昌

    2001-01-01

    This project of waterworks with design capacity of 400 thousand cubic meters per day is the first waterworks constructed on BOT contract in this country. In this paper the main figures of this project including the water purification process, expected quality of output water, water purification facilities with design parameters, equipment allocation, chemical dosage system and their control and online metering instruments are presented in detail. Also the particularities in process design and equipment provision are discussed.%上海大场水厂是我国第一座以BOT形式建设的自来水厂,设计规模为40万m3/d。介绍了水厂的净水工艺流程、水质目标、各净水构筑物及其主要设计参数、设备配置、各种药剂的投加系统和控制方式,以及各在线检测仪表等内容,并分析了大场水厂的工艺设计和设备配置的一些特点。

  20. 管网水力与水质模型在多水厂供水管理中的应用%Application of Hydraulic and Water Quality Model to Management of Water Supply System with Multiple Waterworks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐强; 陈求稳; 李伟峰; 顾军农

    2011-01-01

    The water demand of a city keeps increasing due to rapid expansion, which can no longer be met by a single waterworks. In many cities, water is supplied by several waterworks. However,the water supply system with multiple waterworks brings new challenges to the pressure regulation and water quality security. Taking the water supply system of a city in the northern China as the ease, the characteristics of hydraulics and water quality of the system with multiple waterworks are analyzed by using EPANET as the computational engine. The water supply area of each main supplier is calculated. The zoning management can be achieved by closing the valves at the boundaries of each covering area.%随着城市规模的扩大,城市居民生产和生活用水量日益增加,以往单水厂供水已不能满足用水需求,多数城市都是多水厂供水,但此供水模式给压力调度和水质管理带来了新的问题.以北方某市供水管网为例,基于EPANET计算引擎,分析了多水厂供水条件下管网的水力学和水质特征;计算了主要水厂的供水范围,通过关闭供水范围边界阀门可实现供水的分区管理.

  1. Reducing water loss in a water supply system using a district metering area (DMA: A case study of the Provincial Waterworks Authority (PWA, Lop Buri Branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thee Jitong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Water loss from broken or leaking pipe networks is still a major water management problem for the Provincial Waterworks Authority (PWA in Thailand. To reduce this loss and benefit from the savings, a district metering area (DMA was applied as a management measure to control leaking water losses at the PWA Lop Buri Branch. The DMA was divided into 8 zones, covering about 60.47 % of the total service area. A surveillance system was set up that compared the observed flow rates and the upper limit of warning values for each DMA. Comparison of results before and after implementation of the DMA showed that rate of water loss decreased from 34.55 to 30.87 %. To further reduce these losses, sensitive warning values based on seasonal and daily patterns of water consumption were defined and implemented with an increased number of DMAs covering the entire service area. Financial analysis confirmed that the DMA measures are worth the investment because they significantly reduce the operational costs for water production.

  2. Production-ecological analysis of herb layer in the softwood floodplain forests formed after the gabčíkovo waterwork construction and their characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtková Jana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on phytocoenological characteristics and production analysis of herbaceous layer biomass of the softwood floodplain forests (Salici-Populetum (R. Tx. 1931 Meijer Drees 1936 association and their phytocoenological characteristics. The sampling site was located in the young stands, which were formed after the Gabčíkovo Waterwork construction in 1992. Redirection of the major ratio of flow into the supply channel has caused essential decrease of water level in the old Danube riverbed. As a result of this, new bare sites have appeared having character of pioneer habitat. In the process of primary succession, new softwood floodplain forests have formed here within a few years. These stands are the subject of the study presented in this paper. We estimated herb layer biomass using indirect sampling modified for non-repeated field measurements (Kubíček, Brechtl, 1970. Total biomass of herbaceous layer was estimated to be 5577 kg ha−1, the aboveground biomass was 4065 kg ha−1 while the belowground biomass was 1512 kg ha−1. The results were compared with the data of Kubíček et al. (2009 and Kollár et al. (2010. Some attention was also paid to their phytocoenologic characteristics. Considering this, it seems that they represent full-value softwood floodplain forest of the Salici-Populetum association despite a bit higher occurrence of some synanthropic species. Such statement is supported by comparison with the data of Jurko (1958 and Šomšák (2003.

  3. Investigation of Chlorinated Disinfection Byproducts in Township Waterworks in Zigong%自贡市乡镇自来水厂氯化消毒副产物调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅玉琴; 李谦; 刘天洁; 黄伟; 廖青; 樊文明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the current situation of disinfection byproducts in township waterworks in Zigong. Methods The hygienic investigation was carried out in 32 township waterworks during wet season and the dry season, with trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids in source water, product water and tap water detected. Results The disinfection byproducts were detected in different degrees in all of the 32 waterworks, byproducts including 4 kinds of trihalomethanes (chloroform, monobrorno - dichloro - methane, dibromo - monochlo-ro - methane and methenyl bromide) and 2 kinds of haloacetic acids (dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid). The over standard rate of chloroform, dichloroacetic acid and monobromo - dichloro -methane was 28% , 22% and 3% , respectively. Conclusion Pollution of disinfection byproducts exists in all the township waterworks in Zigong in different degrees, that harms people's health.%目的 调查自贡市乡镇自来水厂消毒副产物的现状.方法 2010年分别在丰水期和枯水期对32家乡镇自来水厂进行卫生学调查并对源水、出厂水及末梢水中三卤甲烷、卤乙酸等指标进行测定.结果 32家自来水厂均检出氯化消毒副产物,包括4种三卤甲烷(三氯甲烷、二氯一溴甲烷、一氯二溴甲烷和三溴甲烷)和2种卤乙酸(二氯乙酸、三氯乙酸),三氯甲烷超标率为28%,二氯乙酸超标率为22%,二氯一溴甲烷超标率为3%.结论 自贡市乡镇水厂均存在不同程度的消毒副产物污染,其对居民身体健康的影响不容忽视.

  4. 超滤技术在无锡中桥水厂深度处理工程中的应用%Application of Ultrafiltration Technology in Advanced Treatment Project at Wuxi Zhongqiao Waterworks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    笪跃武; 殷之雄; 李廷英; 任振远

    2012-01-01

    The application of membrane technology in water treatment has matured in recent times. With increased attention to the water supply safety, the use of ultra-filtration (UF) membrane technology is becoming more and more popular in drinking water treatment plants. A drinking water treatment system utilizing ultra-filtration membranes with 150 000 mVd capacity was first built with Siemens pressurized ultra-filtration membranes at Zhongqiao Waterworks of Wuxi Water Supply General Company in 2009. The effluent quality met the Standards for Drinking Water Quality ( GB 5749 -2006) with some effluent quality parameters superior to the standards. The operating characteristics of UF system were analyzed according to the experiences gained during the upgrading project at Wuxi Zhongqiao Waterworks and the real operation in over 2 years. By summarizing experiences and statistics of economical and technical indexes, the application of UF technology at Wuxi Zhongqiao Waterworks can provide useful references for upgrading projects of other water plants in China, especially the decision making and construction of UF membrane projects of large-scale water plants.%近年来,膜处理技术在水处理领域的应用已趋成熟.随着对供水安全的日益关注,超滤技术在饮用水处理领域中得到越来越广泛的应用.无锡市自来水总公司中桥水厂于2009年采用西门子外压式超滤膜处理技术,率先建成15×104 m3/d采用超滤膜饮用净水处理系统,出水水质全面达到且部分优于《生活饮用水卫生标准》( GB 5749-2006).根据无锡中桥水厂升级改造工程的经验以及两年多的实际运行情况,分析了超滤系统运行操作的特点.超滤技术在无锡中桥水厂的应用可以为国内其他水厂的工艺升级改造,特别是大型水厂的膜法水处理工程项目的决策和建设提供参考.

  5. 天津市自来水集团供水运营管理信息化建设研究%Information Construction on Water Supply Operation and Management in Tianjin Waterworks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张卉; 何文杰; 黄廷林; 韩宏大

    2011-01-01

    The current status of information construction on water supply operation and management in Tianjin Waterworks is introduced, including the functions, structures and applications of SCADA system, GIS, charge management system and customer service system.To solve the problems in the operation and management, a scheme of integrating all information resources about water supply operation and management by GIS is proposed.That means using the technologies of database primary key and Web Services for information sharing on GIS and establishing deep applications of those systems through data mining for decision and analysis.The scheme is a further step of information construction in Tianjin Waterworks and can promote the implementation of optimal enterprise operation and management.%介绍了天津市自来水集团有限公司在供水运营管理方面的信息化现状,包括管网SCADA系统、GIS、营业收费系统和客服中心管理系统的功能、结构及应用状况;针对目前供水企业在运营管理中存在的问题,提出利用GIS整合自来水运营管理信息资源的建设方案,即通过数据库主键访问、Web Services技术,实现GIS平台上的信息互通和共享,并利用数据挖掘技术,建立信息系统的深层次应用,以辅助企业决策管理.该方案的提出,标志着天津市自来水集团信息化建设又向前迈进了一步,为最终企业优化运营的实现奠定了基础.

  6. Technology Characteristics, Emergency Mechanism and Case Analysis of Plant B of Chengdu No.6 Waterworks%成都市自来水六厂B厂工艺特点、应急机制及案例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖强; 刘钰; 赵欣; 李伟进; 平文凯; 陈晓华

    2011-01-01

    Plant B of Chengdu No.6 Waterworks is the first domestic BOT municipal water supply project. It includes an 800000 m3/d water-intake facility, a 400000 m3/d water purification plant, a 1.4 million m3/d chief drainage of the plant and a 27 km water distribution pipeline. The MultifloTM settler and the TGV filters are described. Many effective measures in process design , management and operation , taken to deal with all the emergencies , including water pollution , abrupt change of raw water quality , failure of equipment, double power cut, chlorine gas leak and other events of force majeure are introduced to provide guarantee for safe and sustainable production.%成都市自来水六厂B厂是国内第一个BOT市政供水项目,包括80×104m3/d的取水工程、40×104m3/d的净水厂、140×104m3/d净水厂的排水总渠以及27km长的输水管道.该厂采用MultifloTM高密度沉淀池工艺和高速砂滤池工艺,为应对水质污染、原水水质突变、设备故障、双电源停电、氯气泄漏以及其他不可抗力事件,从工艺设计、管理、运行上采取了多种有效措施,为安全持续生产提供了有力的保障.

  7. 基于图像处理的水厂加矾量自动决策系统%Flocculating agent adding automatic decision system based on image processing in waterworks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘倩; 王良元; 程恩; 袁飞

    2013-01-01

    The status of the auto flocculating agent adding system in waterworks at home and abroad is summarized.Aiming at its defects,a set of flocculating agent adding automatic decision system based on image processing is designed.The hardware part of the system uses PC as its main controller,circumscribed by video surveillance system and flocculating agent adding control circuit,while the software part of the system uses C++ as its basis,OpenCV as the image processing and machine vision library,and the software system interface based on MFC is developed.This system can snapshot water quality pictures automatically,process the water quality pictures to get some critical water quality parameters,and control the flocculating agent adding properly and automatically according to water quality changes.%文章总结了国内外水厂加矾控制系统的现状,针对其不足设计了一套基于图像处理的水厂加矾量自动决策系统.该系统硬件部分以PC为主控制器,外接视频监控系统及投药控制电路,系统软件部分以C++编程语言为基础,OpenCV为图像处理和机器视觉库,开发出了基于MFC的软件系统界面.该系统可自动抓拍水质图像,对其进行相关图像处理后得到关键的水质参数,并根据水质变化适当自动地控制絮凝剂的投加量.

  8. 水厂全分布式管控一体化网络前端智能节点与Neuron C程序设计%Front-end intelligent node and Neuron C programming to Waterworks' fully fully distributed integrated management and control network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建铎

    2014-01-01

    At present,Majority Waterworks' select and use Distributed Control System(DCS) based on PLC.Here introduce the ways and means to build Waterworks' fully distributed integrated management and control network based Lorworks, Include configuration of front-end monitoring and control equipment, configuration of intelligent node,and Neuron C programming. Finally, the input and output control program,for reference. This is a configuration and design of front-end node to true fully distributed integrated management and control network.%目前,国内大多数自来水厂采用的是一种基于 PLC的集散式(DCS,Distributed Control System)控制系统。这里介绍构建基于 Lorworks的水厂管控一体化网络的方法和途径,包括前端测控设备的配置、智能节点的配置和Neuron C编程。最后给出输入输出控制程序,供参考。这是一种真正全分布式管控一体化网络的前端智能节点配置与设计方案。

  9. Effect of Sodium Hypochlorite Instead of Liquid Chlorine Disinfection on Water Quality in Waterworks%次氯酸钠代替液氯消毒对自来水厂供水水质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白晓慧; 支兴华; 朱斌; 马玉英

    2012-01-01

    对使用同一水源的两条相同制水工艺分别采用次氯酸钠和液氯消毒,对比研究了两种消毒剂的消毒效果及消毒副产物的生成特性.结果表明,两种消毒剂对菌落总数和异养菌的去除效果都较好,出厂水的菌落总数和异养菌数都未超过100 CFU/mL,微生物安全性可以得到保障.两种消毒剂对三氯甲烷和四氯化碳含量的控制水平均可达到《生活饮用水卫生标准》(GB5749-2006)的要求.液氯消毒出水中的三氯甲烷和卤乙酸含量比次氯酸钠消毒出水中的略高,四氯化碳含量基本相同.采用次氯酸钠替代液氯消毒可有效降低水厂生产安全风险,同时在保证消毒效果的前提下有利于降低水中消毒副产物的生成水平.%Sodium hypochlorite and liquid chlorine were used for disinfection in two same water treatment processes using a common water source. Their specific disinfection efficiency and production of disinfection by-products were compared. The results showed that both disinfection processes could efficiently disinfect total bacteria and heterotrophic bacteria to below 100 CFU/mL. Microbial safety was guaranteed by the two disinfectants. Trichleromethane and carbon tetrachloride in the finished water satisfied the requirement of the Standards for Drinking Water Quality (GB 5749 - 2006). The concentration of trichloromethane and haloacetic acid in the finished water from the liquid chlorine disinfection process was a little higher than that from the sodium hypochlorite disinfection process. The output concentration of carbon tetrachloride was the same. Sodium hypochlorite disinfection, compared to liquid chlorine disinfection , effectively reduces production safety risk and the formation of disinfection by-products in waterworks.

  10. UV waterworks outreach support. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P.

    1998-12-31

    A recently invented device uses UV light (254 nm) to inexpensively disinfect community drinking water supplies. Its novel features are: low cost (about US $600), robust design, rapid disinfection (12 seconds), low electricity use (40W), low maintenance (every 6 months), high flow rate (15 l/min) and ability to work with unpressurized water sources. The device could service a community of 1,000 persons, at an annual total cost of 14 cents US per person. This device has been tested in a number of independent laboratories worldwide. The laboratory tests have confirmed that the unit is capable of disinfecting waters to drinking water standards for bacteria and viruses. An extended field trial of the device began in South Africa in February 1997, with lab testing at the municipal water utility. A unit installed at the first field site, an AIDS hospice near Durban, has been in continuous operation since August, 1997. Additional test sites are being identified. The author describes the results of the initial lab tests, reports the most recent findings from the ongoing field test-monitoring program, and discusses plans for future tests.

  11. Removal of radionuclides at a waterworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gäfvert, T.; Ellmark, C.; Holm, E.

    2002-01-01

    filtration and from the municipal distribution network. The samples were analysed with respect to their content of uranium, thorium, polonium, radium, plutonium and caesium. The results show a high removal capacity for uranium (about 85%), thorium (>90%), plutonium (>95%) and polonium (>90......% in the coagulation–flocculation process) while caesium, strontium and radium pass through the purification process with almost unchanged activity concentrations. During transportation of the water in the tunnel it was also observed that infiltration of groundwater leads to a change in isotopic ratios and/or activity...

  12. Treatment of Effluent from Sedimentation Tank of Waterworks by Ultrafiltration Membrane%超滤膜处理净水厂沉淀池出水的中试研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜宇; 顾平; 王海燕; 何凤华; 韩涛

    2012-01-01

    采用中试规模的内压式超滤膜系统处理水厂沉淀池出水,考察超滤膜系统长期运行的出水水质情况.结果表明,超滤膜系统在处理不同水质期沉淀池出水时具有较高的除浊率,平均除浊率达到93.4%,且99.4%的出水浊度<0.1 NTU,去除效果明显优于同期传统的滤池工艺.超滤膜系统对沉淀池出水中有机物的去除效果有限,对CODMn和UV254的平均去除率分别为17.2%和8.2%,出水CODMn≤2.0 mg/L的保证率在98%以上,膜出水CODMn浓度受进水水质和运行条件的影响不大.膜进水中以小分子质量有机物为主,在MW<1 ku区间内的DOC和UV254占到整体有机物含量的57.3%和53.5%.超滤膜系统对微生物的去除效果良好,膜出水水质大部分时间无需经过消毒就能保证卫生要求,可降低后续消毒的加氯量,从而减少消毒副产物的生成量.%A pilot-scale internal pressure ultraiiltration (UF) membrane system was used to treat effluent from sedimentation tank in a waterworks and the quality of produced water from UF membrane system was investigated for a long time. The results demonstrated that a high removal rate of turbidity was achieved in different water quality periods, with an average removal rate of 93.4%. The guarantee rate of turbidity below 0.1 NTU was 99.4%. The removal efficiency of UF membrane system was significantly better than that of conventional filter process. The removal efficiency of organic matters in the effluent from sedimentation tank by UF membrane system was limited. The average removal rates of CODMn and UV254 were 17.2% and 8. 2% , respectively. The guarantee rate of CODMn≤2 mg/L was above 98%. The CODMn concentration in membrane effluent was little influenced by the influent quality and the operation condition. Organics with low molecular weight were dominant in membrane influent. DOC and UV^ with MW of less than 1 ku accounted for 57.3% and 53.5% of the total organics

  13. 高速给水曝气生物滤池应用于大型自来水厂的预处理%Application of High-Rate Up-Flow Biological Aerated Filter to Pretreatment for Large-Scale Waterworks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆少鸣; 李芳; 李少文

    2012-01-01

    In order to avoid the micro-pollution of drinking water source due to ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and or-ganics, for the first time, a waterworks in Guangzhou city adopted the high-rate up-flow biological aerated filter ( HUBAF) with a flow rate of 735 thousand ton per day as a pretreatment process. In the first three months after the stable operation, the NH3-N content and CODMn in raw water respectively reached 0. 44 ~ 2. 22 mg/L and 1. 84 ~ 6. 06 mg/L, and those in the pretreatment effluent were respectively below 0.5mg/L and 2. Omg/L. Moreover, the iron and manganese contents in the raw water were respectively up to 1. 16 and 0.22 mg/L, while those in the waterworks effluent were respectively 0. 05 and 0. 03 mg/L. Due to the large-particle ceramic filter media combined with fluid-bed technology, the average removal of turbidity was only about 2.5 NTU and the head loss was steadily below 1.0m. HUBAF adopts an air-water-combined backwashing system with up-and-down flow, which keeps the change of head loss within 0.1m and makes it possible to share a common aeration system in the filter. The application of HUBAF demonstrates that, as compared with the biological pretreatment technologies that have been put into application, such as the elastic packing-contact oxidation technology and the suspended-ball fluidized technology, HUBAF possesses stronger resistance to impact loading, higher NH3-N nitration rate and better removal of iron and manganese, and that the "HUBAF-conventional treatment" combined system is of a organics removal similar to that of the "O3-BAC" advanced process.%为克服氨氮和有机物对饮用水源的微污染,广州市某水厂首次采用了高速给水曝气生物滤池(HUBAF)生物预处理新工艺,处理规模为73.5万m3/d.工程投产稳定运行后,初期3个月原水氨氮和CODMn分别为0.44~2.22 mg/L和1.84~6.06 mg/L,预处理出水分别小于0.5 mg/L和2.0mg/L;原水的铁和锰最高达1.16 mg/L和0.22 mg

  14. Wash water in waterworks: contaminants and process options for reclamation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C B Chidambara Raj; Tan Ee Kwong; Wong Wai Cheng; Lee Mun Fong; Soh Hoo Tiong; Paul Stefan Klose

    2008-01-01

    Reclamation of clean water from filter backwash water was studied through pilot-scale experiments. The pilot plant consisted of clarification, sand-filtration, and ultrafiltration modules in sequence, with a provision to bypass the sand filter. Clean water that conformed to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on Potable Quality was reclaimed. Turbidity, aluminum and iron were found to be critical contaminants in process selection and design. Clarification, followed by sand filtration, was found to be the minimum requirement for recycling filter backwash. However, membrane filtration would enhance reclaimed water quality as the membrane acts as an additional barrier against Giardia and Cryptosporidium.

  15. Weirs in the Waterworks of the Tsarev Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savel’ev Nikita I.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The location and design of weirs as part of water supply system on the Tsarev settlement and its neighborhood are considered in the article. The descriptions of the 19th – early 20th cc. and archaeological data made it possible to establish the fact that the weirs had been constructed of earth with a backfill made of stones, bricks and slag. They served to regulate water discharge and to construct reservoirs. On the basis of 19th-century topographic maps and satellite images, it has been possible to figure out the locations and purpose of four major weirs, which had occupied key positions both outside and inside the town. Two reservoirs were constructed to the west and east of the town by means of large weirs (over 200 m long and 10 m tall. Two lesser weirs used to form internal water reservoirs.

  16. Reduction of haloforms by UV-irradiation and simultaneous addition of hydrogenperoxide in waterworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stachel, B.; Cetinkaya, M.; von Dueszeln, J.; Lahl, U.; Thiemann, W.; Gabel, B.; Kozicki, R.; Podbielski, A.

    1982-04-01

    One method of water treatment which is still under discussion today is UV/H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ desinfection and oxidation. This paper is a study of the reduction of ..gamma..-hexachlorocyclohexane (..gamma..-BHC), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), heptachlor, aldrin polychlorinated biphenyl (2-PCB) and two dichlorobenzenes in water by UV-irradiation and simultaneous H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ addition. The reduction of these compounds under various H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ concentrations and water flux rates were measured. There were obtained reductions between 0 and 89% of the organo-chlorine compounds which were added. The method's reliability was examined by error analysis. Problems in the use of UV/H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and capabilities of the method for the purpose of water treatment are discussed.

  17. ANALYSIS OF WATER CONSUMER SAFETY ARISING FROM HAZARD IN RURAL WATERWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Tchórzewska-Cieślak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work is the analysis of issues related to the safety of water supply systems in rural areas. In the paper the characteristics of risks in the water supply system (WSS resulting directly from the operation of the system and damage of its elements, failures of water pipes and external causes as a result of accidental contamination of water sources, forces of nature, flood, drought, etc. The method of safety assessment of WSS and the method of determining criterion levels of safety were presented.

  18. Microbial community structure and a core microbiome in biological rapid sand filters at Danish waterworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gülay, Arda; Musovic, Sanin; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    Rapid sand filtration is a traditional and common technology for drinking water purification from groundwater. Despite its wide scale and long-term use, the diversity and characterization of microbial communities in these engineered systems have remained unexplored and their roles in removal...

  19. Realizing innovative public waterworks: Aligning administrative capacities in collaborative innovation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Grotenbreg (Sanne); M.W. van Buuren (Arwin)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe importance of government support for innovation is widely acknowledged, but the way governments support innovation is changing. We discern three trends: local innovation policies are gaining importance; governments increasingly choose a bottom-up, tailor-made approach to support

  20. Design, optimization, and deployment of a waterworks pumping station control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Dariusz; Wetula, Andrzej; Bień, Andrzej

    2012-07-01

    This article presents a summary of the development and realization of a custom control and monitoring system for a water supply facility consisting of fixed-capacity intake pumps, a reservoir tank, and variable-speed outtake pumps. Project realization included the design and building of control hardware, as well as the design and deployment of the intake pump switching algorithm. Details of the control system design with an emphasis on the pump switching algorithm are given. The stages of the system development, including process modeling, design goal formulation, optimization of control algorithm using genetic algorithms, simulation, and implementation, are presented. Finally, deployment and real-life results are shown. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of the performance of numerical modeling in reproducing a replenishment of sediments in a water-worked channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juez, C.; Battisacco, E.; Schleiss, A. J.; Franca, M. J.

    2016-06-01

    The artificial replenishment of sediment is used as a method to re-establish sediment continuity downstream of a dam. However, the impact of this technique on the hydraulics conditions, and resulting bed morphology, is yet to be understood. Several numerical tools have been developed during last years for modeling sediment transport and morphology evolution which can be used for this application. These models range from 1D to 3D approaches: the first being over simplistic for the simulation of such a complex geometry; the latter requires often a prohibitive computational effort. However, 2D models are computationally efficient and in these cases may already provide sufficiently accurate predictions of the morphology evolution caused by the sediment replenishment in a river. Here, the 2D shallow water equations in combination with the Exner equation are solved by means of a weak-coupled strategy. The classical friction approach considered for reproducing the bed channel roughness has been modified to take into account the morphological effect of replenishment which provokes a channel bed fining. Computational outcomes are compared with four sets of experimental data obtained from several replenishment configurations studied in the laboratory. The experiments differ in terms of placement volume and configuration. A set of analysis parameters is proposed for the experimental-numerical comparison, with particular attention to the spreading, covered surface and travel distance of placed replenishment grains. The numerical tool is reliable in reproducing the overall tendency shown by the experimental data. The effect of fining roughness is better reproduced with the approach herein proposed. However, it is also highlighted that the sediment clusters found in the experiment are not well numerically reproduced in the regions of the channel with a limited number of sediment grains.

  2. Application of BOT Mode in Waterworks%BOT模式在自来水厂的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周文萍

    2016-01-01

    BOT(建设-经营-转让,build-operte-transfer)模式是将城市基础设施引进民间资本和市场化运作的模式,现已成为吸引国内外直接投资基础设施的有效手段。通过BOT融资模式在某公用事业自来水项目中的具体实践和应用,分析了BOT模式在运营阶段的运用,阐述了新融资模式在现代化水厂运营管理实践中的关键做法。%Based on the concrete practice and application of BOT fun-raising mode in public utilities tap water project, the paper analyzes the application of BOT mode and expounds the key practice of the new fun-raising mode in the operation, management and practice of the modern water plant.

  3. Reconstruction of Blower Control System in Waterworks%水厂的风机控制系统改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李展峰; 邹振裕

    2008-01-01

    对沙口水厂风机控制系统在运行过程中经常出现的风机启动失败、电机启动电流过大、电机发热严重等问题进行了分析.针对上述问题,提出了相应的改造措施,改造完成后解决了风机控制系统存在的问题,保证了水厂的安全生产.

  4. Does the Coase theorem hold in real markets? An application to the negotiations between waterworks and farmers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildtrup, Jens; Jensen, Frank; Dubgaard, Alex

    2012-01-01

    The Coase theorem depends on a number of assumptions, among others, perfect information about each other’s payoff function, maximising behaviour and zero transaction costs. An important question is whether the Coase theorem holds for real market transactions when these assumptions are violated...

  5. Application of anionic PAM in sludge dewatering of waterworks%阴离子型PAM在水厂污泥脱水中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨兴涛; 赵建伟; 刘杨; 孙颖; 李荣光; 徐正

    2007-01-01

    以污泥比阻、离心液体积和离心液浊度作为污泥脱水性能的比较依据,研究了阴离子型PAM AN934PWG对污泥脱水性能的影响.结果表明:阴离子型PAM能有效改善污泥的脱水性能,且投加量较阳离子型PAM低,可作为污泥脱水首选药剂;阴离子型PAM存在一个最佳投加量范围,超过最佳值时,污泥脱水性能反而下降;在测量污泥比阻和离心液体积时得到的PAM最佳投量范围比较一致,可用离心液体积来快速确定PAM最佳投加量.

  6. Research on ETL Based on the Data Warehouse System of Waterworks%基于水厂数据仓库系统的ETL技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪东忍

    2012-01-01

    ETL是指数据抽取(extract)、转换(transform)、装载(load)的过程,是数据仓库构建过程中的核心环节和技术难点.基于水厂数据仓库系统,研究了如何运用ETL技术实现水厂数据仓库中数据的抽取、转换和装载.

  7. Evaluation of Policy Implementation at Norm Strategy Criteria Procedure Safety Management System that Influence the Safety Culture in Building Construction, Housing, Waterworks, Road and Bridge Project in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Latief

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Unideal Safety culture in Indonesia requires an evaluation of policy implementation refers to the construction safety regulation, Ministry Regulation 05/PRT/2014. Out of Norms, Standards, Procedures and Criteria (NSPK, we only have Norms and Procedure. As for Standard and Criteria are still being planned. This research on building, housing, water resource, roads and bridges construction at the Ministry of General Works and Housing resulted in having significant relation between safety policy implementation dimension (Monitoring and sanction / penalty and safety culture dimensions (behavior, safety cost, policy, leadership, man, and strategy. Recommendations for policy improvement are obtained from review and implementation strategy of the significant relation between safety policy implementation dimension and safety culture dimensions.

  8. Study on the groundwater exploitation test in the Yellow River lower reaches--A case study on the north suburb waterworks of Zhengzhou,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Zisheng; LIN Xueyu; SHI Qinzhou; Gnansounou Raoul; DU Xinqiang

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the studies on groundwater resources potential of the Yellow River (YR) terrace in Zhengzhou area, China. The main aim of the research was to resolve water shortage problems induced by recent but frequent drying ups of the YR in its lower reaches. Geologic explorations and grouped-pumping tests were conducted in the area. Based on collected data a groundwater flow net was established. The buried depth of groundwater level and water bearing potential of the aquifers were evaluated.Conventional method was used to determine recharge of the groundwater by lateral infiltration of the YR in pumping patterns. The results show that the study region has a high water bearing potential and offers conditions for the construction of large water works. However, only limited recharge by lateral infiltration from the river is available when developing large scale groundwater exploitation in the riverside of the YR.Environmental impacts induced by embankment stability of the Great dyke of the YR could be minimized or eliminated by appropriate engineering methods.

  9. DNA damage and oxidative stress in human liver cell L-02 caused by surface water extracts during drinking water treatment in a waterworks in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shao-Hua; Liu, Ai-Lin; Chen, Yan-Yan; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Hui-Juan; Jin, Bang-Xiong; Lu, Wen-Hong; Li, Xiao-Yan; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2010-04-01

    Because of the daily and life-long exposure to disinfection by-products formed during drinking water treatment, potential adverse human health risk of drinking water disinfection is of great concern. Toxicological studies have shown that drinking water treatment increases the genotoxicity of surface water. Drinking water treatment is comprised of different potabilization steps, which greatly influence the levels of genotoxic products in the surface water and thus may alter the toxicity and genotoxicity of surface water. The aim of the present study was to understand the influence of specific steps on toxicity and genotoxicity during the treatment of surface water in a water treatment plant using liquid chlorine as the disinfectant in China. An integrated approach of the comet and oxidative stress assays was used in the study, and the results showed that both the prechlorination and postchlorination steps increased DNA damage and oxidative stress caused by water extracts in human derived L-02 cells while the tube settling and filtration steps had the opposite effect. This research also highlighted the usefulness of an integrated approach of the comet and oxidative stress assays in evaluating the genotoxicity of surface water during drinking water treatment.

  10. Design and Construction of Luanda Waterworks Project in Angola%安哥拉罗安达净水厂工程的设计与施工

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈平; 李治中

    2008-01-01

    介绍了安哥拉罗安达净水厂工程在设计与施工过程中遇到的主要问题和解决的途径.由于承揽国际工程风险较大,投标时应对合同条款、当地政策、环境、材料价格等进行详细的了解.

  11. Screening of endocrine-disrupting phenols, herbicides, steroid estrogens, and estrogenicity in drinking water from the waterworks of 35 Italian cities and from PET-bottled mineral water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, Silvia; Balaguer, Patrick; Chiozzotto, Claudia; Benfenati, Emilio

    2013-03-01

    We investigated contamination by endocrine-disrupting chemicals in drinking water from 35 major Italian cities and five popular Italian brands of bottled mineral water. The quality of Italian drinking water was assessed by combing chemical analysis with bioassay to quantify specific estrogenic contaminants and to characterize the actual biological effect of the mixture of chemicals present in drinking water including the contribution of not targeted compounds. The selected contaminants were natural and synthetic steroid estrogens, alkylphenols and bisphenol A, linuron, triazine herbicides, and their metabolites. A specific analytical method was developed based on solid phase extraction of 1 L of water and concentration to 100 μL for quantification by electrospray ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, achieving quantification limits of 0.05-0.36 ng/L for herbicides and 0.64-7.70 ng/L for steroids and phenols. No steroid estrogens were detected in any of the samples, while bisphenol A and nonylphenols were detected in the ranges of 0.82-102.00 and 10.30-84.00 ng/L respectively. Herbicides and their degradation products, when present, were found from slightly above the quantification limits up to 49.91 ng/L, mainly from cities in northern Italy. Chemical analyses were complemented by the performance of a bioassay for the determination of the estrogenic activity in the extracts based on the transactivation of estrogen receptor α-transfected reporter HeLa-ERE-Luciferase-Neomycin cell line. Activity was generally low with maximum estrogenicity of 13.6 pg/L estradiol equivalents.

  12. Application of Bulk Lime Feed System in Waterworks%散装石灰投加系统在水厂的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢建景; 张焕俐; 陈守庆; 张德跃

    2011-01-01

    温州陈岙泵站散装石灰投加系统由石灰料仓、石灰计量及输送系统、石灰乳配制系统和石灰乳输送投加系统组成.该系统在运行过程中存在富余能力过大、石灰易形成空穴、无法掌握仓内石灰余量等问题,通过降低多螺旋给料机的给料能力、增加破拱刮片机以及统计分析实际石灰使用量等措施,较好地解决了上述问题.%The bulk lime feed system of Wenzhou Chen' ao pump station is composed of lime hopper , lime dosing and transportation system, lime milk preparation system and lime milk transportation and feed system. Problems of excessive surplus capacity, lime cavity formation and unknown lime residue in the hopper existed in the operation of the system. The above-mentioned problems are solved by reducing feed capacity of multiple screw feeder, adding scraper and analyzing the actual lime consumption.

  13. 自来水厂水泵变频节电改造效果分析%Analysis on the Effect of Frequency Conversion and Power Saving of Water Pump in Waterworks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李会祥; 赵敏

    2015-01-01

    节能降耗是建设资源节约型社会的重要措施,也是企业降低生产成本最有效和最安全的一种方法。随着电力电子技术和自动控制技术的快速发展,变频调速技术在节能降耗、自动化生产等方面的优势得到充分体现,并得到了迅速的普及和应用,产生了巨大的经济效益和社会效益。简要介绍了变频调速技术的节能原理,并对自来水厂水泵变频节能改造后的效果进行探讨和分析。%Energy saving and consumption reduction is an important measure to construct the resource saving society, and it is also the most effective and safe method for enterprise to reduce production cost. Along with the rapid development of power electronic technology and automatic control technology, frequency conversion speed regulation technology in saving energy and reducing consumption, automated production advantages are fully reflected, and the rapid popularization and application, resulting in huge economic benefit and social benefit. This paper briefly introduces energy saving principle of variable frequency speed regulation technology, and discusses the effect of energy saving and energy saving of water pump frequency conversion.

  14. Removal of Algal Dissolved Organic Nitrogen by Water Treatment Process in Waterworks%水厂处理工艺对藻源含氮有机物的去除效能分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成; 朱浩强; 曹军; 陈彬

    2014-01-01

    通过现场调研的方式,分别以太湖水源水及无锡某水厂为对象,在细致分析太湖水源水中含氮有机物基本状况的基础上,探讨了水厂处理工艺对含氮有机物的去除效能.结果表明,太湖水源水中的溶解性有机氮(DON)含量介于0.05 ~ 0.4 mg/L之间,且与水中的藻类数量有较好的相关性;水厂常规工艺对DON的去除效果相对较差,去除率为15%~20%;臭氧/生物活性炭工艺对DON不仅没有去除效果,还会有少量的增加,且增加部分主要集中于分子质量为10~100ku的部分;而超滤工艺对分子质量>10 ku的DON有较好的去除效果.因此,含氮有机物的控制需要根据原水水质情况进行有针对性的处理.

  15. Study and Practice on Coagulants Feed of MFA Control and SCM Control in Waterworks%水厂混凝剂投加MFA控制与SCM控制的研究及实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹振裕; 罗永恒; 李展峰; 徐廷国

    2010-01-01

    主要阐述水厂混凝剂投加的MFA控制和SCM控制的研究及实践,通过中试基地的MFA混凝剂投加控制的测试和水厂生产流程上的SCM混凝剂投加控制的实践应用,获取相关数据和曲线图,分析两种控制方式的混凝剂投加曲线特性,对比两种控制方式的效果,为水厂混凝剂投加控制的技术改造和研究提供参考依据.

  16. Pilot-scale Experiment on Ultrafiltration Membrane for Process Transformation of Waterworks%超滤膜用于水厂工艺改造的中试研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张耀宗; 王启山

    2012-01-01

    采用超滤膜结合水厂的传统处理工艺,考察了絮凝/沉淀/超滤组合工艺(工艺1)和絮凝/沉淀/砂滤/超滤组合工艺(工艺2)对不同水质期的滦河原水的处理效果.结果表明,两种工艺对浊度均具有良好的去除效果,出水浊度都稳定在0.1 NTU以下;相比之下,工艺2对CODMn、UV254、TOC和氨氮的去除效果更好,并且其出水水质更稳定,抗水质冲击能力更强,可用通量和产水率更高;两种工艺对DOM和UV254的去除作用主要体现在分子质量>30 ku的有机物上.%The combined process of flocculation, sedimentation and ultrafiltration membrane (process 1) and the combined process of flocculation, sedimentation, sand filtration and ultrafiltration membrane (process 2 ) were used to treat Luan River water. The treatment efficiency of the two combined processes in different water quality periods was investigated. The results showed that turbidity could be effectively removed by the two combined processes, and the effluent turbidity was all less than 0.1 NTU. Compared with the process 1, the process 2 has better removal rates of CODMnl, UV254, NH3 - N and TOC, a more stable effluent quality, a stronger shock load resistance and a higher membrane flux and permeability. The removal of DOM and UV254 in the two processes was mainly reflected in the molecular weight range of more than 30 ku.

  17. Risk control of acrylamide in wastewater reuse of waterworks%净水厂生产废水回用中丙烯酰胺的风险控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文英; 黄廷林; 李辰; 黄卓

    2012-01-01

    Taking the major urban surface source water plant in Xi'an as object, the paper carried out a study on the risk control of acrylamide content. The results showed that PAM of both cation type and anion type can be used to improve the performance of sludge dewatering. Although the dewatering performance was improved at similar levels, the residual acrylamide monomer in the effluent was lower using PAM of anion type. To meet the purposes of small specific resistance to filtration of sludge and low residual acrylamide monomer in the supernatant, it is recommended to use anion type PAM. As the optimum PAM dosages were 0. 09 g/L-0.16 g/L for the water supply plant, the risk of acrylamide monomer in the effluent would be decreased if the above optimum PAM dosages were used in the wastewater treatment process.%以西安市某地表水厂为例,针对生产废水回用后出厂水中丙烯酰胺含量超标问题,进行了相关的风险控制研究.研究结果表明:对不同浓度的污泥,投加阴离子型和阳离子型PAM均能有效降低污泥比阻值,改善污泥的脱水性能,但使用阴离子型PAM,出厂水丙烯酰胺含量更低.综合考虑污泥脱水效果及脱水分离液中丙烯酰胺的残留量,采用阴离子型PAM,投药量在0.09~0.16 g/L之间时,可有效控制出厂水中丙烯酰胺含量超标的风险.

  18. Application of pH automatic measurement and control system in Tahu Waterworks%pH值自动测控系统在獭湖水厂的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩勇华

    2013-01-01

    针对常规控制方式的严重滞后导致出厂水pH值波动较大,且大部分给水厂未在工艺中端或末端设置pH调节措施,造成出厂水pH值超标的问题,自主开发了pH值自动测控系统,并将该系统应用于獭湖水厂.运行结果表明,该pH值自动测控系统实现了预定的控制目标,保证了出厂水pH值的稳定性.

  19. Treatment Design of Waterworks clarifier Sludge and Filter Backwash Water%水厂澄清池排泥水和滤池反冲洗水处理工艺设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓风; 张雯; 陈敏

    2009-01-01

    为减少水厂生产废水排放量,节约水资源费用,建设水厂排泥水处理工程.水厂制水规模20万m3/d,设计干污泥总量为31.14 t/d.滤池反冲洗水由排水池收集,经调节后送至澄清池回用.澄清池排泥水进人排泥池,与排水池底泥一道经过浓缩及机械压滤脱水,浓缩池上清液回流至排水池.

  20. IMPACT OF REALIZED IMS SYSTEM IN PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF WATER ON QUALITY OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Todorović

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper from the assessments: the satisfaction of the citizens with the services PUC "Waterworks and Sewerage" and the total time interruption in water supply, appreciating their importance, we carried out the assessment of the implemented IMS PUC "Waterworks and Sewerage" in Kragujevac.

  1. Groundwater and Distribution Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, John E.

    Presented is a student manual designed for the Wisconsin Vocational, Technical and Adult Education Groundwater and Distribution Training Course. This program introduces waterworks operators-in-training to basic skills and knowledge required for the operation of a groundwater distribution waterworks facility. Arranged according to the general order…

  2. HACCP and water safety plans in Icelandic water supply: preliminary evaluation of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdóttir, María J; Gissurarson, Loftur R

    2008-09-01

    Icelandic waterworks first began implementing hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) as a preventive approach for water safety management in 1997. Since then implementation has been ongoing and currently about 68% of the Icelandic population enjoy drinking water from waterworks with a water safety plan based on HACCP. Preliminary evaluation of the success of HACCP implementation was undertaken in association with some of the waterworks that had implemented HACCP. The evaluation revealed that compliance with drinking water quality standards improved considerably following the implementation of HACCP. In response to their findings, waterworks implemented a large number of corrective actions to improve water safety. The study revealed some limitations for some, but not all, waterworks in relation to inadequate external and internal auditing and a lack of oversight by health authorities. Future studies should entail a more comprehensive study of the experience with the use of HACCP with the purpose of developing tools to promote continuing success.

  3. Regularize Waterworks Market Order and Strengthen Franchised Permission Business Management%规范水务市场秩序加强特许经营管理——对供排水行业特许经营管理的几点思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈依云

    2007-01-01

    回顾上海供排水行业改革开放以来特许经营管理的情况,论述加强特许经营管理的必要性,提出要抓紧制订有关法规和规范性文件,以及应重点明确的一些内容.

  4. Organizational-economic mechanism on the introduction of an environmental risk insurance system of water management at reclaimed lands

    OpenAIRE

    R.A. Kyseliova

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism on implementation of the environmental risk insurance system of economic activi ty on reclaimed land and insurance of environmental risks in the operation of waterworks facilities, hydraulic structures and drainage systems have been designed.

  5. Removal of radon by aeration testing of various aeration techniques for small water works. For European Commission under Contract No FI4PCT960054 TENAWA project

    CERN Document Server

    Salonen, L; Mehtonen, J; Mjoenes, L; Raff, O; Turunen, H

    2002-01-01

    Capability of various aeration techniques to remove radon from water in small waterworks was studied as a part of project (Treatment Techniques for Removing Natural Radionuclides from Drinking Water), which was carried out during 1997-1999 on a cost-shared basis (contract No. F14PCT960054) with The European Commission (CEC) under the supervision of the Directorate-General XII Radiation Protection Research Unit. In TENAWA project both laboratory and field experiments were performed in order to find reliable methods and equipment for removing natural radionuclides from ground water originating either from private wells or small waterworks. Because such techniques are more often needed in private households than at waterworks, the main emphasis of the research was aimed to solve the water treatment problems related to the private water supplies, especially bedrock wells. Radon was the most important radionuclide to be removed from water at waterworks whereas the removal of other radionuclides ( sup 2 sup 3 sup 4...

  6. Occurrence and Removal Characteristics of Phthalate Esters from Typical Water Sources in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of phthalate esters (PAEs in the environment has gained a considerable attention due to their potential impacts on public health. This study reports the first data on the occurrence of 15 PAEs in the water near the Mopanshan Reservoir—the new and important water source of Harbin city in Northeast China. As drinking water is a major source for human exposure to PAEs, the fate of target PAEs in the two waterworks (Mopanshan Waterworks and Seven Waterworks was also analyzed. The results demonstrated that the total concentrations of 15 PAEs in the water near the Mopanshan Reservoir were relatively moderate, ranging from 355.8 to 9226.5 ng/L, with the mean value of 2943.1 ng/L. DBP and DEHP dominated the PAE concentrations, which ranged from 52.5 to 4498.2 ng/L and 128.9 to 6570.9 ng/L, respectively. The occurrence and concentrations of these compounds were heavily spatially dependent. Meanwhile, the results on the waterworks samples suggested no significant differences in PAE levels with the input of the raw waters. Without effective and stable removal of PAEs after the conventional drinking water treatment in the waterworks (25.8% to 76.5%, the risks posed by PAEs through drinking water ingestion were still existing, which should be paid special attention to the source control in the Mopanshan Reservoir and some advanced treatment processes for drinking water supplies.

  7. Nitrate, Nitrite, and Ammonium Variability in Drinking Water Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schullehner, Jörg; Stayner, Leslie; Hansen, Birgitte

    2017-03-09

    Accurate assessments of exposure to nitrate in drinking water is a crucial part of epidemiological studies investigating long-term adverse human health effects. However, since drinking water nitrate measurements are usually collected for regulatory purposes, assumptions on (1) the intra-distribution system variability and (2) short-term (seasonal) concentration variability have to be made. We assess concentration variability in the distribution system of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonium, and seasonal variability in all Danish public waterworks from 2007 to 2016. Nitrate concentrations at the exit of the waterworks are highly correlated with nitrate concentrations within the distribution net or at the consumers' taps, while nitrite and ammonium concentrations are generally lower within the net compared with the exit of the waterworks due to nitrification. However, nitrification of nitrite and ammonium in the distribution systems only results in a relatively small increase in nitrate concentrations. No seasonal variation for nitrate, nitrite, or ammonium was observed. We conclude that nitrate measurements taken at the exit of the waterworks are suitable to calculate exposures for all consumers connected to that waterworks and that sampling frequencies in the national monitoring programme are sufficient to describe temporal variations in longitudinal studies.

  8. Micro-components survey of residential indoor water consumption in Chiang Mai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Aramaki

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The direct measurement of the micro-components of water consumption (i.e., consumption by each residential activity, such as toilet-, laundry-, bath-, and kitchen-use, both in the dry season and in the rainy season, was conducted in Chiang Mai, Thailand. It was expected that rainfall differences between the dry and rainy season would influence awareness for water resources so that water consumption in the dry season would be smaller than that in the rainy season. In addition, it was examined whether the differences in water resources such as public waterworks or non-public waterworks (i.e., community waterworks, mountainous water and groundwater, affected the amount of water use. A small-sized accumulative water meter was developed for measurement. This survey provides important information for water demand estimations and water supply planning in middle-developed countries where water consumption is expected to increase in future.

  9. Micro-components survey of residential indoor water consumption in Chiang Mai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Aramaki

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The direct measurement of the micro-components of water consumption (i.e., consumption by each residential activity, such as toilet, laundry, bath, and kitchen both in the dry season and in the rainy season was conducted in Chiang Mai, Thailand. It was expected that rainfall differences between the dry and rainy season could influence awareness for water resources so that water consumption in the dry season may be smaller than that in the rainy season. It was also examined that whether the differences in water resources such as public waterworks or non-public waterworks like community waterworks, mountainous water and groundwater, affect the water use amount. A small-sized accumulative water meter was developed for measurement. This survey can provide the important information for water demand estimation and water supply planning in middle-developed countries where their water consumption should be expected to increase from here on.

  10. Microbial degradation of pesticides in rapid sand filters for treatment of drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mathilde Jørgensen; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    to remove pesticides from the water phase and pesticides are detected in 24% of the active Danish waterworks wells. This study aimed at investigating the potential of microbial pesticide removal in rapid sand filters for drinking water treatment. Removal of the pesticides MCPP, bentazone, glyphosate...... of pesticides in the water decreased – MCPP decreased to 42-85%, bentazone to 15-35%, glyphosate to 7-14% and p-nitrophenol 1-3% – from the initial concentration over a period of 6-13 days. The largest microbial removal was observed at Sjælsø waterworks Plant II, where the pesticides were partially mineralised......In Denmark drinking water supply is based on groundwater which is treated by aeration followed by filtration in rapid sand filters. Unfortunately pesticide contamination of the groundwater poses a threat to the water supply, since the simple treatment process at the waterworks is not considered...

  11. Preliminary experience in the monitoring of geothermal probes by borehole logging; Erste Erfahrungen bei der bohrlochgeophysikalischen Ueberpruefung von Erdwaermesonden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Karsten [Bohrlochmessung-Storkow GmbH, Storkow (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Authorities as well as waterworks experts have long been calling for a control strategy to ensure that groundwater protection is considered in geothermal projects. So far, control options for geothermal probes were lacking, which raised doubts about the efficiency of sealing. Waterworks experts also were unable to understand why new groundwater wells or groundwater measuring fonts are subject to careful control via geophysical borehole logs while geothermal probes with a depth of 100 m and more can be installed nearby without adequate monitoring. The contribution presents a preliminary approach for monitoring and testing of shallow geothermal probes. (orig.)

  12. Energetic uses of groundwater in urban areas. Planning in consideration of competing uses.; Energetische Grundwassernutzung im staedtischen Bereich. Planung bei konkurrierenden Nutzungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conzen, Thomas [Kuehn Geoconsulting GmbH, Bonn (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Groundwater utilisation in the Bonn Rhine valley has a long tradition. Even when Bonn was still the German capital city, up to 5 million cubic metres p.a. of water were pumped by the Plittersdorf waterworks and the Altes Wasserwerk waterworks near the former German parliament building. In these times of high energy prices and with the need to reduce CO2 emissions, heating and cooling of buildings with groundwater is an interesting option. With careful planning, it may be achieved sustainably and economically.

  13. Removal of arsenic from contaminated groundwater with application of iron electrodissolution, aeration and sand filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalski, Krysztof; Arturi, Kasia; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2014-01-01

    The results from a new water treatment system for arsenic removal are presented. The technology is based on the employment of an electrolytic iron dissolution and efficient aeration procedure prior to sand filtration. The treatment was introduced and investigated in a pilot scale plant and full...... scale waterworks. The pilot scale results showed a possibility for an efficient arsenic removal from spiked solutions (with As in the range of 50–85 μg/L) depending on the process conditions (flow and applied current). In the waterworks where the system was implemented for a period of 14 months...

  14. Heterogeneous Nitrification in a Full Scale Rapid Sand Filter Treating Groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopato, Laure; Röttgers, Nina; Binning, Philip John

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine ammonium removal kinetics in an operating biologically active sand filter at a waterworks treating anaerobic groundwater. The ammonium load varied between 0.7 and 3 g N/h/m2 (concentration ranged from 0.23 to 0.78 mg N/l) and the inlet water flux varied...

  15. GIS used as a tool in NOM modelling - Examples from the NOMiNOR project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaland, Ståle

    2016-04-01

    GIS incorporate spatial data information. Regarding NOM, spatial information on basic data on rainfall-runoff and air temperature is interesting. The NOMiNOR project is a cooperation between waterworks in Finland, Norway, Scotland and Sweden. NOMiNOR uses digital terrain models (DTMs) in GIS environments for modelig and predicting future NOM concentrations and quality changes for raw water sources.

  16. The Potential of Umbul Sungsang Spring Water for Drinking Wate, PDAM, and Irigation Purposes at Banyudono, Boyolali, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohman Hakim

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Umbul Sungsang spring located in the foot of a Merapi is on shift zone between volcanic foot plain and fluvial volcanic fott plain constitutes spring belt. Up to the present, the population use that spring for drinking water and irrigation. The planning of taking water by Municipal Waterworks to supply Solo population causes people around it worried because the usually use that spring. Therefore it is needed to conduct a research to know the potential of that spring. The aim of this research is to account how much the need of drinking water, manucipal waterworks and irrigation and the potential of the spring which is available. The research uses survey method. Primary and secondary data are collected, analyzed quantitatively by using software aid to do simulation the need of irrigation. The result of the research shows that the need of drinking water is 0.068 lt/second/day taken in dry season; manucipal waterworks uses 200 lt/second/day and for irrigation is about 442.2 lt/second/day with the pattern rice – tobacco – rice. Irrigation is also supplied from Bendung Bukur Ireng. The result of the research also shows that in October period I, II, III, and November period II and I lack of water. Therefore municipal waterworks must not use water on Otober and November, while on July and September adjust to the rest of discharge of water, which is available. Its water quality fulfils the requirement for various needs.

  17. Configuration management in large scale infrastructure development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, T.P.J. van; Belt, H. van de; Los, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    Large Scale Infrastructure (LSI) development projects such as the construction of roads, rail-ways and other civil engineering (water)works is tendered differently today than a decade ago. Traditional workflow requested quotes from construction companies for construction works where the works to be

  18. De aanwezigheid van methyl tert-butylether (MTBE) in drinkwater en drinkwaterbronnen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgenstern PP; Korte GAL de; Hogendoorn EA; Versteegh JFM; LWD; IEM

    2002-01-01

    In 2001 the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) in the Netherlands conducted a drinking water measurement programme in co-operation with the Netherlands Waterworks Association (VEWIN) for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in drinking water and the corresponding sources. This

  19. Observations on the plankton of some inland waters, especially ”wielen”, in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leentvaar, P.

    1958-01-01

    In August 1941, the Municipal Waterworks of Amsterdam started an investigation on the biological an hydrographical conditions of the water in some ”wielen”. ”Wielen” are exceptionally deep pools. They originate from old dikebursts caused by high floods of the river. The new dike has been constructed

  20. Field-testing UV disinfection of drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadgil, A.; Drescher, A.; Greene, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Miller, P. [Natural Resources Defense Council (United States); Motau, C. [South African Center for Essential Community Services (South Africa); Stevens, F. [Durban Metro Water (South Africa)

    1997-09-01

    A recently invented device, ``UV Waterworks,`` uses ultraviolet (UV) light to disinfect drinking water. Its novel features are: low cost, robust design, rapid disinfection, low electricity use, low maintenance, high flow rate and ability to work with unpressurized water sources. The device could service a community of 1,000 persons, at an annual total cost of less than 10 US cents per person. UV Waterworks has been successfully tested in the laboratory. Limited field trials of an early version of the device were conducted in India in 1994--95. Insights from these trials led to the present design. Extended field trials of UV Waterworks, initiated in South Africa in February 1997, will be coordinated by the South African Center for Essential Community Services (SACECS), with technical and organizational support from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory(LBNL) and the Natural Resources Defense Council (both US). The first of the eight planned sites of the year long trial is an AIDS hospice near Durban. Durban metro Water and LBNL lab-tested a UV Waterworks unit prior to installing it at the hospice in August, 1997. The authors describe the field test plans and preliminary results from Durban.

  1. Saltwater intrusion and water management in the unconfined coastal aquifer of Ravenna (Italy): a numerical model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giambastiani, Beatrice Maria Sole; Antonellini, Marco; Oude Essink, Gualbert; Stuurman, Roelof J.

    2007-01-01

    The Ravenna pine forests represent an historical landmark in the Po River Plain. They have great environmental, historical and tourist value. The San Vitale pine for- est is located 10 km north of the town. It is surrounded by an urban area, the city indus- trial infrastructure and the waterworks of

  2. Is there an environmental benefit from remediation of a contaminated site? Combined assessments of the risk reduction and life cycle impact of remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Binning, Philip John;

    2012-01-01

    determined by a numerical risk assessment and remedial performance model, which predicted the contaminant mass discharge over time at a point of compliance in the aquifer and at the waterworks. The combined assessment of risk reduction and life cycle impacts showed that all management options result...

  3. Microbial pesticide removal in rapid sand filters for drinking water treatment – Potential and kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mathilde Jørgensen; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    or metabolites mecoprop (MCPP), bentazone, glyphosate and p-nitrophenol were applied in initial concentrations of 0.03–2.4 μg/L. In all the investigated waterworks the concentration of pesticides in the water decreased – MCPP decreased to 42–85%, bentazone to 15–35%, glyphosate to 7–14% and p-nitrophenol 1......–3% – from the initial concentration over a period of 6–13 days. Mineralisation of three out of four investigated pesticides was observed at Sjælsø waterworks Plant II – up to 43% of the initial glyphosate was mineralised within six days. At Sjælsø waterworks Plant II the removal kinetics of bentazone......Filter sand samples, taken from aerobic rapid sand filters used for treating groundwater at three Danish waterworks, were investigated for their pesticide removal potential and to assess the kinetics of the removal process. Microcosms were set up with filter sand, treated water, and the pesticides...

  4. Optimization of well field management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Kirstine

    Groundwater is a limited but important resource for fresh water supply. Differ- ent conflicting objectives are important when operating a well field. This study investigates how the management of a well field can be improved with respect to different objectives simultaneously. A framework...... objectives. The sequential scheduling optimizes the management stepwise for daily time steps, and allows the final management to vary in time. The research shows that this method performs better than the constant scheduling when large variations in the hydrological conditions occur. This novel approach can...... multi-objective optimization framework has shown to be useful in optimizing the management of well fields, and it has successfully been applied to the two case studies, Hardhof and Søndersø waterworks. If the method is applied to all Danish waterworks it is estimated that 20-32 GWh/year could be saved...

  5. Development of mathematical models for forecasting hydraulic loads of water and wastewater networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studzinki, Jan [Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland). Systems Research Institute; Bartkiewicz, Lidia [Technical Univ. Kielce (Poland); Stachura, Marcin [Warsaw University of Technology (Poland)

    2013-07-01

    In municipal waterworks the operation of water and wastewater networks decides about the functioning of the sewage treatment plant that is the last element of the whole water and sewage system. The both networks are connected each other and the work of the water net affects the operation of the wastewater one. The parameters which are important for right leading of all waterworks objects are their hydraulic loads that have to be not exceeded. Too large loads can cause accidents in the wastewater net or the treatment plant and an early knowledge of them is of importance for undertaking some counteractions. In the paper different algorithms to model hydraulic loads of municipal water and wastewater nets are described and compared regarding their computation velocity and accuracy. Some exemplary computations have been done with some real data received from a Polish water company. (orig.)

  6. Investigation on Urban Water Treatment of Western Countries%欧美城市给水处理技术考察与比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱孟康

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of the investigation in recent years on 26 European and American waterworks, the water sources, conventional purification process, design parameters, chemical feeding, desinfection and bio-activated carbon filtration, micro-filtration, water quality control, automation and management of waterworks as well are presented in this paper.%根据近年对欧美国家及地区26座水厂进行的考察和调研,较详细地介绍了欧美城市给水处理的水源、常规工艺流程、设计参数、加药、消毒,以及活性炭过滤、微过滤技术、水质控制、水厂自控和管理等情况。

  7. Bench and Full Scale Study of Removal Effect and Mutagenicity on Mesocyclops Leukarti with Chlorine Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Jin-long; YANG Wei; LIU Yan-an; LIN Tao

    2006-01-01

    Mesocyclops Leukarti of zooplankton propagates excessively in eutrophic water body and it can not be effectively inactivated by the conventional process in drinking waterworks for its special surface structure. In this paper, a study of removal efficiency on Mesocyclops Leukarti with chlorine dioxide in a drinking waterworks was performed.Bench scale results showed that chlorine dioxide is more effective against Mesocyclops Leukarti. And Mesocyclops Leukarti could be effectively removed from water by 1.0 mg/L chlorine dioxide preoxidation cooperated with the conventional process during the full scale study. The chlorite, by-preduct of prechlorine dioxide, was constant at 0.45 mg/L after filtration, which was lower than the critical value of the USEPA. GC-MS examination and Ames test showed that the quantity of organics and the mutagenicity in the water treated by chlorine dioxide is obviously less than that of prechlorination.

  8. Characterization of Natural Organic Matter and Disinfection Byproducts Formation Potential in Pilot-Scale Coagulation-Ultrafiltration Membrane Combined Process in Winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张耀宗; 王启山; 何凤华; 丁莎莎

    2010-01-01

    A pilot-scale ultrafiltration membrane plant was set up for treating Luanhe River water with flocculating and precipitation process of waterworks.The aim is to investigate the variation and characteristics of natural organic matter and disinfection byproducts formation potential in the whole process in winter.The results show that dissolved organic matter(DOM),UV254,trihalomethanes formation potential(THMsFP) and haloacetic acids formation potential(HAAsFP) of Luanhe River water were mainly distributed in t...

  9. Controllo del rischio clinico waterborne: modello di applicazione della metodologia Water Safety Plan in un’Azienda Ospedaliera

    OpenAIRE

    Congiu, Margherita

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to apply the Water Safety Plan – the effective methodology for waterborne risk management in waterworks (WHO) – to hospital settings, such as those in the AOU of Sassari. WSP was applied to an hospital within the AOU, to control the waterborne risk from Legionella and Pseudomonas. The Control Plan was draft, team inspections, meetings, water samples were performed (Legionella, Ps.aeruginosa, CRAL, T) and organizational/operative information were taken. The following...

  10. Ceramics Vitreous China Produced by Utilizing Sediment Soil from Water Supply Treatment Process

    OpenAIRE

    Wangrakdiskul Ubolrat; Wanasbodee Jindakarn; Sansroi Pornnapa

    2017-01-01

    Due to generating the abundant of sediment soil, it makes the high burden of disposal cost to the metropolitan waterworks authority. Enhancing the value of sediment soil has been explored. This research aims to utilize the sediment soil, wastes of water supply treatment process for producing ceramics vitreous china. In this experiment, five types of raw materials are exploited, namely, sediment soil, ball clay, kaolin, feldspar and silica sand. The formulas have been divided into two groups. ...

  11. Underestimation of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria abundance by amplification bias in amoA-targeted qPCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Musovic, Sanin; Palomo, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Molecular methods to investigate functional groups in microbial communities rely on the specificity and selectivity of the primer set towards the target. Here, using rapid sand filters for drinking water production as model environment, we investigated the consistency of two commonly used quantit......RNA. In contrast, both approaches performed very similarly at waterworks with high Cluster 7 prevalence. Our results highlight that caution is warranted when comparing AOB abundances obtained using different qPCR primer sets....

  12. Studi Eksperimen Agradasi Dasar Sungai pada Hulu Bangunan Air

    OpenAIRE

    Randanan, Dian Permata

    2014-01-01

    Aggradation is a buildup of materials that occurs because of the style transport stops , for instance, through the course of the river bed where the transport is no longer continued but turn out of to be flat transformed into flat . The process aggradation riverbed upstream as a result of the installation of waterworks . moreover degradation is also influenced by the discharge , runoff and sediment transport time . Therefore carried out a study aimed to determine the basic trends as a result...

  13. DETERMINATION OF WATER FLOW CONNECTION IN WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM IN PUBLIC BUILDINGS

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    An important factor for selection of main water meters is a precise determination of design flow, value of “nieprzewyższenia”. Presently, technical norms, on which determination of design flow for diameter selection of waterworks selection and consequently water meters selection are based, are no reliable in relation to the actual flow. This gives arguments to ascertain that harmonized standards do not meet Polish conditions and it requires correction. The article presents the method of de...

  14. Performance of conventional multi-barrier drinking water treatment plants for the removal of four artificial sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurer, Marco; Storck, Florian R; Brauch, Heinz-J; Lange, Frank T

    2010-06-01

    Due to incomplete removal of artificial sweeteners in wastewater treatment plants some of these compounds end up in receiving surface waters, which are used for drinking water production. The sum of removal efficiency of single treatment steps in multi-barrier treatment systems affects the concentrations of these compounds in the provided drinking water. This is the first systematic study revealing the effectiveness of single treatment steps in laboratory experiments and in waterworks. Six full-scale waterworks using surface water influenced raw water were sampled up to ten times to study the fate of acesulfame, saccharin, cyclamate and sucralose. For the most important treatment technologies the results were confirmed by laboratory batch experiments. Saccharin and cyclamate proved to play a minor role for drinking water treatment plants as they were eliminated by nearly 100% in all waterworks with biologically active treatment units like river bank filtration (RBF) or artificial groundwater recharge. Acesulfame and sucralose were not biodegraded during RBF and their suitability as wastewater tracers under aerobic conditions was confirmed. Sucralose proved to be persistent against ozone and its transformation was < 20% in lab and field investigations. Remaining traces were completely removed by subsequent granular activated carbon (GAC) filters. Acesulfame readily reacts with ozone (pseudo first-order rate constant k = 1.3 x 10(-3) s(-1) at 1 mg L(-1) ozone concentration). However, the applied ozone concentrations and contact times under typical waterworks conditions only led to an incomplete removal (18-60%) in the ozonation step. Acesulfame was efficiently removed by subsequent GAC filters with a low throughput of less than 30 m(3) kg(-1), but removal strongly depended on the GAC preload. Thus, acesulfame was detected up to 0.76 microg L(-1) in finished water.

  15. Determination of inorganic compounds in drinking water on the basis of house water heater scale, part 1: Determination of heavy metals and uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of scale originated from drinking water on the house water heater, showed that scale is basically calcium carbonate that crystallizes hexagonally in the form of calcite. Scale taken as a sample from different spots in Belgrade – upper town of Zemun (sample 1 and Pančevo (sample 2 showed different configuration although it came from the same waterworks. That indicates either that the water flowing through waterworks pipes in different parts of the city is not the same or the waterworks net is not the same (age, maintaining, etc. All the elements which are dominant in drinking water (Ca, Mg, K, and Na, and which could be found in water by natural processes, are by their content far below the values regulated by law. The analysis also showed the presence of many metals: Ti, Pb, Zn, Cu Li, Sr, Cd, and Cr in the first sample, which are not found in the scale taken near Pančevo. The results obtained by calculating the mass concentration in drinking water on the basis of scale content, showed that both waters belonged to the category of low mineral waters. Contents of inorganic substances in these waters (117.85 mg/dm3 for sample 1 or 80.83 mg/dm3 for sample 2 are twice lower than the values predicted by the legislation. Gammaspectrometric analysis indicates the presence of radioactive elements – uranium and strontium which can influence human health.

  16. Groundwater protection: What can we learn from Germany?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan ZHU; Klaus-Dieter BALKE

    2008-01-01

    For drinking water security the German waterworks proceed on a comprehensive concept, i.e., the protection of all the regions from the recharge area to the client. It includes the protection of the recharge area by a precautionary management, a safe water treatment, a strict maintenance of the water distribution network, continuous control and an intensive training of staff. Groundwater protection zones together with effective regulations and control play a very important role. Three protection zones with different restrictions in land-use are distinguished. Water in reservoirs and lakes is also protected by Surface Water Protection Zones. Within the surrounding area the land-use is controlled, too. Special treatment is necessary if acidification happens caused by acid rain, or eutrophication caused by the inflow of sewage. Very important is the collaboration between waterworks and the farmers cultivating land in the recharge area in order to execute water-protecting ecological farming with the aim to reduce the application of fertilizers and plant protection agents. Probable financial losses have to be compensated by the waterworks.

  17. Disturbance of fluvial gravel substrates by signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew; Rice, Stephen; Reid, Ian

    2010-05-01

    The reworking of substrates by organisms, termed bioturbation, is considered a fundamental processes in marine and terrestrial environments but has remained relatively unstudied in fluvial environments. This studies looks at the bioturbation of fluvial gravel substrates by signal crayfish, an internationally important invasive species. We investigated the impact of signal crayfish activity in a laboratory flume. Bioturbation by crayfish on both loose arrangements of gravel and water-worked surfaces were studied and two sizes of narrowly-graded gravel were used; 11 - 16 mm and 16 - 22 mm. A laser scanner was used to obtain high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) of gravel surfaces before and after crayfish activity. These DEMs were used to quantify topographic and structural changes to the surfaces due to the activity of crayfish. It was found that crayfish moved substantial quantities of material from all surfaces within six hours of introduction. The majority of the disturbance was associated with small scale (≤ 1 median grain diameter) movements of surface grains due to walking and foraging by crayfish. This textural change resulted in a structural alteration to the substrate surface. After six hours of crayfish activity, there was a 14% reduction in the imbrication of the grains from water-worked surfaces. Crayfish also constructed shallow pits and heaped excavated material into a series of mounds around its edge. Crayfish would always posture in pits in the same way. They would fold their vulnerable tails under their body and place their claws in front of their heads. When in pits crayfish predominately orientated themselves so they were facing an upstream direction. This implies that crayfish dig pits in order to streamline their bodies in the flow and lower their protrusion. Although pits and mounds contributed a relatively small proportion to the overall disturbance of substrates, they significantly increased the roughness of substrates. Pit and

  18. Health risk assessment of cadmium pollution emergency for urban populations in Foshan City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Ming; Zhao, Peipei; Wang, Yanyan; Li, Guiqiu

    2017-03-01

    With rapid socioeconomic development, water pollution emergency has become increasingly common and could potentially harm the environment and human health, especially heavy metal pollution. In this paper, we investigate the Cd pollution emergency that occurred in the Pearl River network, China, in 2005, and we build a migration and transformation model for heavy metals to simulate the spatiotemporal distribution of Cd concentrations under various scenarios of Cd pollution emergency in Foshan City. Moreover, human health hazard and carcinogenic risk for local residents of Foshan City were evaluated. The primary conclusions were as follows: (1) the number of carcinogen-affected people per year under scenario 1 reached 254.41 when the frequency was 0.1 year/time; specifically, the number of people with cancer per year in the area of the Datang, Lubao, and Nanbian waterworks was 189.36 accounting for 74% of the total number per year; (2) at the frequency of 5 years/time, the Lubao waterwork is the only one in extremely high- or high-risk grade, while besides it, the risk grade in the Datang, Nanbian, Xinan, Shitang, and Jianlibao waterworks is in the extremely high or high grade when the frequency is 0.1 year/time; (3) when Cd pollution accidents with the same level occurs again, Cd concentration decreases to a low level in the water only if the migration distance of Cd is at least 40-50 km. Based on the health risk assessment of Cd pollution, this study gives the recommendation that the distance should keep above 50 km in tidal river network of the Pearl River Delta between those factories existing the possibility of heavy metal pollution and the drinking water source. Only then can the public protect themselves from hazardous effects of higher levels of heavy metal.

  19. Investigation, Pollution Mapping and Simulative Leakage Health Risk Assessment for Heavy Metals and Metalloids in Groundwater from a Typical Brownfield, Middle China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Qiu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jingdong; Liu, Wenchu; Liu, Chaoyang; Zeng, Guangming

    2017-07-13

    Heavy metal and metalloid (Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, As and Hg) concentrations in groundwater from 19 typical sites throughout a typical brownfield were detected. Mean concentrations of toxic metals in groundwater decreased in the order of Cr > Zn > Cu > Cd > Ni > Pb > Hg > As. Concentration of Cr(6+) in groundwater was detected to further study chromium contamination. Cr(6+) and Cd in groundwater were recommended as the priority pollutants because they were generally 1399-fold and 12-foldgreater than permissible limits, respectively. Owing to the fact that a waterproof curtain (WPC) in the brownfield is about to pass the warranty period, a steady two-dimensional water quality model and health risk assessment were applied to simulate and evaluate adverse effects of Cr(6 +) and Cd on the water quality of Xiangjiang River and the drinking-water intake of Wangcheng Waterworks. The results indicated that when groundwater in the brownfield leaked with valid curtain prevention, the water quality in Xiangjiang River and drinking-water intake downstream were temporarily unaffected. However, if there was no curtain prevention, groundwater leakage would have adverse impact on water quality of Xiangjiang River. Under the requirements of Class III surface water quality, the pollution belt for Cr(6+) was 7500 m and 200 m for Cd. The non-carcinogenic risk of toxic metals in Xiangjiang River exceeded the threshold in a limited area, but did not threaten Wangcheng Waterworks. By contrast, the carcinogenic risk area for adults was at a transverse distance of 200 m and a longitudinal distance of 18,000 m, which was close to the Wangcheng Waterworks (23,000 m). Therefore, it was essential to reconstruct the WPC in the brownfield for preventing pollution diffusion.

  20. Coagulant recovery and reuse for drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, James; Jarvis, Peter; Smith, Andrea D; Judd, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Coagulant recovery and reuse from waterworks sludge has the potential to significantly reduce waste disposal and chemicals usage for water treatment. Drinking water regulations demand purification of recovered coagulant before they can be safely reused, due to the risk of disinfection by-product precursors being recovered from waterworks sludge alongside coagulant metals. While several full-scale separation technologies have proven effective for coagulant purification, none have matched virgin coagulant treatment performance. This study examines the individual and successive separation performance of several novel and existing ferric coagulant recovery purification technologies to attain virgin coagulant purity levels. The new suggested approach of alkali extraction of dissolved organic compounds (DOC) from waterworks sludge prior to acidic solubilisation of ferric coagulants provided the same 14:1 selectivity ratio (874 mg/L Fe vs. 61 mg/L DOC) to the more established size separation using ultrafiltration (1285 mg/L Fe vs. 91 mg/L DOC). Cation exchange Donnan membranes were also examined: while highly selective (2555 mg/L Fe vs. 29 mg/L DOC, 88:1 selectivity), the low pH of the recovered ferric solution impaired subsequent treatment performance. The application of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to ultrafiltration or alkali pre-treated sludge, dosed at 80 mg/mg DOC, reduced recovered ferric DOC contamination to water quality parameters. Several PAC-polished recovered coagulants provided the same or improved DOC and turbidity removal as virgin coagulant, as well as demonstrating the potential to reduce disinfection byproducts and regulated metals to levels comparable to that attained from virgin material.

  1. Is there an environmental benefit from remediation of a contaminated site? Combined assessments of the risk reduction and life cycle impact of remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemming, Gitte; Chambon, Julie C; Binning, Philip J; Bjerg, Poul L

    2012-12-15

    A comparative life cycle assessment is presented for four different management options for a trichloroethene-contaminated site with a contaminant source zone located in a fractured clay till. The compared options are (i) long-term monitoring (ii) in-situ enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD), (iii) in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) with permanganate and (iv) long-term monitoring combined with treatment by activated carbon at the nearby waterworks. The life cycle assessment included evaluation of both primary and secondary environmental impacts. The primary impacts are the local human toxic impacts due to contaminant leaching into groundwater that is used for drinking water, whereas the secondary environmental impacts are related to remediation activities such as monitoring, drilling and construction of wells and use of remedial amendments. The primary impacts for the compared scenarios were determined by a numerical risk assessment and remedial performance model, which predicted the contaminant mass discharge over time at a point of compliance in the aquifer and at the waterworks. The combined assessment of risk reduction and life cycle impacts showed that all management options result in higher environmental impacts than they remediate, in terms of person equivalents and assuming equal weighting of all impacts. The ERD and long-term monitoring were the scenarios with the lowest secondary life cycle impacts and are therefore the preferred alternatives. However, if activated carbon treatment at the waterworks is required in the long-term monitoring scenario, then it becomes unfavorable because of large secondary impacts. ERD is favorable due to its low secondary impacts, but only if leaching of vinyl chloride to the groundwater aquifer can be avoided. Remediation with ISCO caused the highest secondary impacts and cannot be recommended for the site. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improved Aeration Process - Catalytic Role Of The Iron Oxides In Arsenic Oxidation And Coprecipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowalski, Krysztof; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2013-01-01

    an improved aeration process that can also help in developing better arsenic removal treatment. The results present advantages of arsenic oxidation in an aeration process in the presence of ferrihydrite surface that have been shown to adsorb arsenic simultaneously to its oxidation. The presence...... of precipitated (ferrihydrite surface) and dissolved iron enhanced arsenic oxidation in comparison to solution with absence of precipitated iron in laboratory scale experiments. However, in the pilot scale studies the adsorption of arsenite on ferrihydrite was found to be the main process occurring during...... implementation of the process in the waterworks that are struggling with arsenic related issues....

  3. Adhesion to sand and ability to mineralise low pesticide concentrations are required for efficient bioaugmentation of flow-through sand filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Elin Djurhuus; Badawi, Nora; Nybroe, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide-polluted drinking water may be remediated by inoculating waterworks sand filters with specific degrading bacteria. However, degradation efficiency is often hampered by the poor adhesion behaviour of the introduced bacteria. The phenoxy acid herbicide 4-chloro-2-methyl-phenoxy-acetic acid...... (MCPA) is a widespread groundwater contaminant. The aim of this study was to investigate whether specific surface characteristics of MCPA-degrading bacteria could be linked to their degrading capabilities in sand filters. Four MCPA degraders with different taxonomic affiliations and original habitats...

  4. An improved method to set significance thresholds forβdiversity testing in microbial community comparisons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gülay, Arda; Smets, Barth F.

    2015-01-01

    -community. The proposed technique was applied to several in silico generated operational taxonomic unit (OTU) libraries and experimental 16S rRNA pyrosequencing libraries. The latter represented microbial communities from different biological rapid sand filters at a full-scale waterworks. We observe that β diversity......, after subsampling, is inflated by intra-sample differences; this inflation is avoided in the proposed method. In addition, microbial community evenness (Gini > 0.08) strongly affects all β diversity estimations due to bias associated with rarefaction. Where published methods to test β significance often...

  5. Vulnerability for nitrate loading and acid deposition as represented by geohydrochemical districts in The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beek, C.G.E.M. van; Hesen, P.L.G.M. [Kiwa Water Research, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Willems, W.J. [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    Geohydrochemical districts are areas which behave similarly with regard to pollution, resulting in comparable groundwater chemistries. Recognition of geohydrochemical districts gives a quick assessment of effects of pollution on the chemical composition of groundwater, and conversely also in effects of remedial measures. Moreover, geohydrochemical districts may serve as a starting point for predicting the future chemical composition of groundwater abstracted from phreatic aquifers by waterworks for the public drinking water supply. In this contribution geohydrochemical districts are distinguished in The Netherlands with respect to nitrate loading and acid deposition, but the same approach may be used for estimating the vulnerability of (abstracted) groundwater for pesticides and other chemical pollutants.

  6. Processes of microbial pesticide degradation in rapid sand filters for treatment of drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Mathilde Jørgensen; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    concentrations of 0.04-2.4 μg/L. The pesticides were removed from the water in microcosms with filter sand from all three investigated sand filters. Within the experimental periode of six to 13 days, 65-85% of the bentazone, 86-93% of the glyphosate, 97-99% of the p-nitrophenol was removed from the water phase......Aerobic rapid sand filters for treatment of groundwater at waterworks were investigated for the ability to remove pesticides. The potential, kinetics and mechanisms of microbial pesticide removal was investigated in microcosms consisting of filter sand, treated water and pesticides in initial...

  7. Langley Research Center Utility Risk from Future Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Young, Russell J.; Ganoe, Rene

    2015-01-01

    The successful operation of NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) depends on services provided by several public utility companies. These include Newport News Waterworks, Dominion Virginia Power, Virginia Natural Gas and Hampton Roads Sanitation District. LaRC's plan to respond to future climate change should take into account how these companies plan to avoid interruption of services while minimizing cost to the customers. This report summarizes our findings from publicly available documents on how each company plans to respond. This will form the basis for future planning for the Center. Our preliminary findings show that flooding and severe storms could interrupt service from the Waterworks and Sanitation District but the potential is low due to plans in place to address climate change on their system. Virginia Natural Gas supplies energy to produce steam but most current steam comes from the Hampton trash burning plant, thus interruption risk is low. Dominion Virginia Power does not address climate change impacts on their system in their public reports. The potential interruption risk is considered to be medium. The Hampton Roads Sanitation District is projecting a major upgrade of their system to mitigate clean water inflow and infiltration. This will reduce infiltration and avoid overloading the pump stations and treatment plants.

  8. 65. report of Arbeitsgemeinschaft Rhein-Wasserwerke e.V. (ARW). Annual report 2008; 65. Bericht der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Rhein-Wasserwerke e.V. (ARW). Jahresbericht 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The annual report 2008 of the International Association of Waterworks in the Rhine catchment area (Cologne, Federal Republic of Germany) consists of the following contributions: (1) Main results from the investigation program 2008 of the International Association of Waterworks in the Rhine catchment area (Heinz-Juergen Brauch, Michael Fleig, Wolfgang Kuehn); (2) Special events in the years 2008 and 2009 (Michael Fleig, Heinz-Juergen Brauch); (3) Long-term investigations to the solubility behaviour of calcite and removal of trace compounds at an aerobic bank filtration at Wittlaer / Lower Rhine (Egon Denecke, Carsten K. Schmidt); (4) Investigation of the removal of trace compounds during bank filtration in dependence on the water bearing and temperature of the river Rhine (Carsten k. Schmidt, Hans-Juergen Brauch); (5) Local impresses of the climate change and potential consequences on the now formation of groundwater in Hessisch Ried (Julia Sarah Becker, Rolf Dieter Wilken); (6) Animal life in groundwater as a supplement feature of quality in the assessment of the filtrate of banks (Sven E. Berkhoff, Joerg Bork, Hans-Juergen Hahn, Carsten K. Schmidt).

  9. Occurrence and potential causes of androgenic activities in source and drinking water in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinxin; Shi, Wei; Wei, Si; Zhang, Xiaowei; Feng, Jianfang; Hu, Guanjiu; Chen, Sulan; Giesy, John P; Yu, Hongxia

    2013-09-17

    The increased incidences of disorders of male reproductive tract as well as testicular and prostate cancers have been attributed to androgenic pollutants in the environment. Drinking water is one pathway of exposure through which humans can be exposed. In this study, both potencies of androgen receptor (AR) agonists and antagonists were determined in organic extracts of raw source water as well as finished water from waterworks, tap water, boiled water, and poured boiled water in eastern China. Ten of 13 samples of source water exhibited detectable AR antagonistic potencies with AR antagonist equivalents (Ant-AR-EQs) ranging from activity was detected in any source water. All finished water from waterworks, tap water, boiled water, and poured boiled water exhibited neither AR agonistic nor antagonistic activity. Although potential risks are posed by source water, water treatment processes effectively removed AR antagonists. Boiling and pouring of water further removed these pollutants. Phthalate esters (PAEs) including diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were identified as major contributors to AR antagonistic potencies in source waters. Metabolites of PAEs exhibited no AR antagonistic activity and did not increase potencies of PAEs when they coexist.

  10. Occurrence of thyroid hormone activities in drinking water from eastern China: contributions of phthalate esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Hu, Xinxin; Zhang, Fengxian; Hu, Guanjiu; Hao, Yingqun; Zhang, Xiaowei; Liu, Hongling; Wei, Si; Wang, Xinru; Giesy, John P; Yu, Hongxia

    2012-02-07

    Thyroid hormone is essential for the development of humans. However, some synthetic chemicals with thyroid disrupting potentials are detectable in drinking water. This study investigated the presence of thyroid active chemicals and their toxicity potential in drinking water from five cities in eastern China by use of an in vitro CV-1 cell-based reporter gene assay. Waters were examined from several phases of drinking water processing, including source water, finished water from waterworks, tap water, and boiled tap water. To identify the responsible compounds, concentrations and toxic equivalents of a list of phthalate esters were quantitatively determined. None of the extracts exhibited thyroid receptor (TR) agonist activity. Most of the water samples exhibited TR antagonistic activities. None of the boiled water displayed the TR antagonistic activity. Dibutyl phthalate accounted for 84.0-98.1% of the antagonist equivalents in water sources, while diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate also contributed. Approximately 90% of phthalate esters and TR antagonistic activities were removable by waterworks treatment processes, including filtration, coagulation, aerobic biodegradation, chlorination, and ozonation. Boiling water effectively removed phthalate esters from tap water. Thus, this process was recommended to local residents to reduce certain potential thyroid related risks through drinking water.

  11. Genotoxicity evaluation of drinking water sources in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using the comet assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yulin; CHEN Haigang; LI Zhaoli; SUN Liwei; QU Mengmeng; LI Mei; KONG Zhiming

    2008-01-01

    The potential harm of organic pollutants in drinking water to human health is widely focused on in the world; more and more pollutants with genotoxic substances are released into the aquatic environment. Water source samples were collected from 7 different localities of Nanjing City. The potential genotoxicity of organic extracts from drinking water sources were investigated by means of the comet assay in human peripheral lymphocytes. The results showed that all the organic extracts from all the water source samples could induce DNA damages of human peripheral blood lymphocytes at different levels. A significant difference (P < 0.01) was observed when compared with the solvent control. The DNA damage increased with the increase of the dosage of the original water source. Significant differences of DNA damage were observed in different drinking water sources, as shown by the multiple comparisons analysis at the dosage of 100×; the degree of DNA damage treated by Hushu waterworks (at town level) was the most serious, the arbitrary units (AU) was 141.62±6.96, however, that of Shangyuanmen waterworks (at city level) was only 109.64±2.97. The analysis also revealed that the genotoxicity of town's water sources was higher than that of the city. The results demonstrated that the comet assay can be successfully applied to the genotoxicity monitoring programs of drinking water sources.

  12. Indemnification of the quality of water supply in residential areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENJing; GUOShiquan

    2003-01-01

    Most cities of our country now adopt the method of concentative pipe nets in water supply. In order to meet the users'' request of hydraulic pressure, some small residential areas or building groups have established water supply systems of secondary compression. Now most water supply enterprises do much work in purification processes of waterworks so as to improve the water quality; however, the secondary pollution because of water supply pipe nets is ignored. An investigation was done by special team of “security technology of water quality in residential areas” and they investigated water quality of waterworks and health and quarantine stations in big and middle cities of the whole country. The result indicates that secondary pollution of pipeline networks indeed exists. So, in order to resolve the question of secondary pollution and to provide people with clean and secure drinking water, the reason that secondary pollution came into being must be understood, moreover, concrete methods and measures aimed at each reason should be found out.

  13. Tracing gadolinium-based contrast agents from surface water to drinking water by means of speciation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birka, Marvin; Wehe, Christoph A; Hachmöller, Oliver; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades, a significant amount of anthropogenic gadolinium has been released into the environment as a result of the broad application of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Since this anthropogenic gadolinium anomaly has also been detected in drinking water, it has become necessary to investigate the possible effect of drinking water purification on these highly polar microcontaminats. Therefore, a novel highly sensitive method for speciation analysis of gadolinium is presented. For that purpose, the hyphenation of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was employed. In order to enhance the detection power, sample introduction was carried out by ultrasonic nebulization. In combination with a novel HILIC method using a diol-based stationary phase, it was possible to achieve superior limits of detection for frequently applied gadolinium-based contrast agents below 20pmol/L. With this method, the contrast agents Gd-DTPA, Gd-DOTA and Gd-BT-DO3A were determined in concentrations up to 159pmol/L in samples from several waterworks in a densely populated region of Germany alongside the river Ruhr as well as from a waterworks near a catchment lake. Thereby, the direct impact of anthropogenic gadolinium species being present in the surface water on the amount of anthropogenic gadolinium in drinking water was shown. There was no evidence for the degradation of contrast agents, the release of Gd(3+) or the presence of further Gd species.

  14. Analysis of a pico tubular-type hydro turbine performance by runner blade shape using CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Lee, N. J.; Wata, J. V.; Hwang, Y. C.; Kim, Y. T.; Lee, Y. H.

    2012-11-01

    There has been a considerable interest recently in the topic of renewable energy. This is primarily due to concerns about environmental impacts of fossil fuels. Moreover, fluctuating and rising oil prices, increase in demand, supply uncertainties and other factors have led to increased calls for alternative energy sources. Small hydropower, among other renewable energy sources, has been evaluated to have adequate development value because it is a clean, renewable and abundant energy resource. In addition, small hydropower has the advantage of low cost development by using rivers, agricultural reservoirs, sewage treatment plants, waterworks and water resources. The main concept of the tubular-type hydro turbine is based on the difference in water pressure levels in pipe lines, where the energy which was initially wasted by using a reducing valve at the pipeline of waterworks, is collected by turbine in the hydro power generator. In this study, in order to acquire the performance data of a pico tubular-type hydro turbine, the output power, head and efficiency characteristics by different runner blade shapes are examined. The pressure and velocity distributions with the variation of guide vane and runner vane angle on turbine performance are investigated by using a commercial CFD code.

  15. Radioactivity of drinking water in Finland - basis for quality requirements; Talousveden radioaktiivisuus - perusteita laatuvaatimuksille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekelaeinen, I.; Huikuri, P.; Salonen, L.; Markkanen, M.; Arvela, H

    2001-07-01

    Several natural radioactive substances occur in drinking water in Finland, among which radon-222 is the most harmful from radiation protection viewpoint. Also long-lived alpha-active substances like uranium-238, uranium-234, polonium-210 and radium-226, as well as beta-active lead-210 and radium-228 occur in drinking water. Elevated concentrations are found only in ground water, those originating from bedrock being clearly higher than those from soil. Assessments based on dosimetry indicate that radioactivity in drinking water causes annually 20 fatal cancers. About 40% of cases is due to inhaled waterborn radon, 40% is due to ingested radon and 20% is due to other natural radioactive substances than radon. This report gives motivation for a proposition to restrict and monitor the radiation exposure from radioactive substances in drinking water, delivered by STUK to the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health in March 1999. The proposition introduces an action level of 300 Bq/l for radon concerning the waterworks. For other radionuclides except radon the action level proposed is 0.1 millisieverts per year (mSv/a), collectively. This new proposition does not bring in notable changes in the monitoring practice, although the calculated doses will change slightly. The proposed guideline for radon in private wells is 1000 Bq/l. According to the present monitoring data, less than 200 Finns served by waterworks use drinking water with radon concentration exceeding 300 Bq/l. Approximately 1000 waterworks consumers receive an annual dose that exceeds 0.1 mSv from other radionuclides than radon. About 20 000 Finns served by private wells use drinking water with radon concentration exceeding the STUK guideline 1 000 Bq/l. Radon can be removed from drinking water using aeration or granular activated carbon filtration (GAC), whereas uranium and radium can be effectively removed by ion exchange resins and lead and polonium using reverse osmosis. There are two methods to determine

  16. 基于PSO-RBF神经网络模型的原水水质评价方法及应用%Assessment method of raw water quality based on PSO-RBF neural network model and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬生; 李世华; 周杏鹏

    2011-01-01

    针对自来水生产过程的原水水质评价问题,提出了一种基于PSO-RBF神经网络模型的原水水质评价方法.首先,根据水厂生产经验和历史数据分析,制定面向自来水生产过程的原水水质评价标准.然后,采用粒子群优化(PSO)算法训练的RBF神经网络模型,对苏州市相城水厂的进厂原水水质实施在线评价.最后,将进厂原水水质在线评价结果作为前馈量,增加相城水厂药剂(矾和臭氧)投加过程的前馈控制环节,使得药剂投加量能够根据原水水质的变化及时做出调整.实际应用效果表明,与改进前的反馈控制过程相比,过程出水水质更加平稳,提高了自来水生产过程应对原水水质变化的能力.%In consideration of the assessment problem of raw water quality oriented to drinking water treatment process, an assessment method of raw rater quality based on the PSO-RBF neural network model is proposed. First, on the basis of productive experiences and analysis of historical data in the waterworks, an assessment standard oriented to the process of drinking water treatment is established. Then, the radial basis function (RBF) neural network model trained by the particle swarm optimization ( PSO) algorithm is used for the on-line assessment of raw water quality in the Xiangcheng Waterworks of Suzhou city. Finally, feed-forward control elements are added to the pharmaceutical (alum and ozone) dosing control processes of Xiangcheng Waterworks, using the online assessment result as the feed-forward compensation. The results of the practical operation show that the produced water quality becomes more stable, and the adaptation ability of drinking water treatment to the variation of raw water quality is improved.

  17. Radioactivity of drinking water in Finland - basis for quality requirements; Talousveden radioaktiivisuus - perusteita laatuvaatimuksille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekelaeinen, I.; Huikuri, P.; Salonen, L.; Markkanen, M.; Arvela, H

    2001-07-01

    Several natural radioactive substances occur in drinking water in Finland, among which radon-222 is the most harmful from radiation protection viewpoint. Also long-lived alpha-active substances like uranium-238, uranium-234, polonium-210 and radium-226, as well as beta-active lead-210 and radium-228 occur in drinking water. Elevated concentrations are found only in ground water, those originating from bedrock being clearly higher than those from soil. Assessments based on dosimetry indicate that radioactivity in drinking water causes annually 20 fatal cancers. About 40% of cases is due to inhaled waterborn radon, 40% is due to ingested radon and 20% is due to other natural radioactive substances than radon. This report gives motivation for a proposition to restrict and monitor the radiation exposure from radioactive substances in drinking water, delivered by STUK to the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health in March 1999. The proposition introduces an action level of 300 Bq/l for radon concerning the waterworks. For other radionuclides except radon the action level proposed is 0.1 millisieverts per year (mSv/a), collectively. This new proposition does not bring in notable changes in the monitoring practice, although the calculated doses will change slightly. The proposed guideline for radon in private wells is 1000 Bq/l. According to the present monitoring data, less than 200 Finns served by waterworks use drinking water with radon concentration exceeding 300 Bq/l. Approximately 1000 waterworks consumers receive an annual dose that exceeds 0.1 mSv from other radionuclides than radon. About 20 000 Finns served by private wells use drinking water with radon concentration exceeding the STUK guideline 1 000 Bq/l. Radon can be removed from drinking water using aeration or granular activated carbon filtration (GAC), whereas uranium and radium can be effectively removed by ion exchange resins and lead and polonium using reverse osmosis. There are two methods to determine

  18. Nitrate in drinking water and colorectal cancer - a nationwide population-based follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schullehner, Jörg; Hansen, Birgitte; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    Importance of work and objectives Studies have suggested that nitrate in drinking water increased the risk of colorectal cancer. However, often exposure estimations and study size were insufficient to yield unequivocal results. We addressed these challenges by conducting a detailed exposure...... assessment of the entire Danish population. Methodologies GIS methods were used to assign nitrate concentrations at the waterworks to the 2,779 water supply areas and 55,752 private wells. Annual nitrate concentrations were assigned to each resident of Denmark from 1978-2012, based on their exact address...... in the Civil Registration System. For each person the individual adult exposure (age 20-35) was calculated. Information on colon and rectal cancer diagnoses was obtained from the national Cancer Registry. Cox proportional hazard models using age as time scale were fit to assess the risk within exposure deciles...

  19. Upgrading the removal of humic substances and mutagen precursors in water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Ari V. O.; Pelkonen, Markku T.; Vartiainen, Terttu

    This study aimed at investigating different methods of upgrading conventional water treatment plants for improved removal of organic substances. Ozonation, activated carbon filtration and slow sand filtration were tested. Pilot scale experiments were performed at Bodom waterworks in Espoo, Finland. The TOC-value of the influent was 3.2 mg/l (6.7 mg/l CODMn). The average removal of TOC during activated carbon filtration was 29% (41% removal of CODMn). Preozonation caused no significant change in treatment efficiency. Mutagenicity (test strain TA100), after chlorination, was lower in ozonated and filtered water than in non-ozonated. The level of mutagenicity achieved was close to that of chlorinated groundwater.

  20. Large wind ripples on Mars: A record of atmospheric evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapotre, M G A; Ewing, R C; Lamb, M P; Fischer, W W; Grotzinger, J P; Rubin, D M; Lewis, K W; Ballard, M J; Day, M; Gupta, S; Banham, S G; Bridges, N T; Des Marais, D J; Fraeman, A A; Grant, J A; Herkenhoff, K E; Ming, D W; Mischna, M A; Rice, M S; Sumner, D A; Vasavada, A R; Yingst, R A

    2016-07-01

    Wind blowing over sand on Earth produces decimeter-wavelength ripples and hundred-meter- to kilometer-wavelength dunes: bedforms of two distinct size modes. Observations from the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reveal that Mars hosts a third stable wind-driven bedform, with meter-scale wavelengths. These bedforms are spatially uniform in size and typically have asymmetric profiles with angle-of-repose lee slopes and sinuous crest lines, making them unlike terrestrial wind ripples. Rather, these structures resemble fluid-drag ripples, which on Earth include water-worked current ripples, but on Mars instead form by wind because of the higher kinematic viscosity of the low-density atmosphere. A reevaluation of the wind-deposited strata in the Burns formation (about 3.7 billion years old or younger) identifies potential wind-drag ripple stratification formed under a thin atmosphere.

  1. Low risk of suicide and lithium in drinking water: A Danish individual-level cohort study using spatial analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nikoline Nygård; Schullehner, Jörg; Jørgensen, Lisbeth Flindt;

    ) of which 15,370 committed suicide from 1990-2012. Information on suicides was obtained from the nationwide Danish Register of Causes of Death. Data on lithium concentrations were obtained through a nationwide drinking water campaign from 2013 including 151 measurements from waterworks supplying......Importance of the work and objectives: Lithium occurs naturally in drinking water and may have a positive effect on mental health and suicide. In clinical practice, lithium in high therapeutic doses is used as a mood-stabilizer in the treatment of affective disorders. Previous studies performed...... at an ecological level have found an association between lithium in drinking water and risk of suicide. The present study is the first to investigate this association at an individual level considering long-term exposure. Methodologies: The study population consisted of all 3,724,588 Danish adults (≥20 years...

  2. Does drinking water influence hospital-admitted sialolithiasis on an epidemiological level in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Stine; Homøe, Preben; Wagner, Niels;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Sialolithiasis, or salivary stones, is not a rare disease of the major salivary glands. However, the aetiology and incidence remain largely unknown. Since sialoliths are comprised mainly of calcium phosphate salts, we hypothesise that drinking water calcium levels and other elements...... and drinking water data from the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland retrieved as weighted data on all major drinking water constituents for each of the 3364 waterworks in Denmark. All patient cases with International Statistical Classification of Diseases 10th Revision (ICD-10) codes for sialolithiasis...... registered between the years 2000 and 2010 were included in the study (n=3014) and related to the drinking water composition on a municipality level (n=98). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Multiple regression analysis using iterative search and testing among all demographic and drinking water...

  3. Hydrodynamics of free surface flows modelling with the finite element method

    CERN Document Server

    Hervouet, Jean-Michel

    2007-01-01

    A definitive guide for accurate state-of-the-art modelling of free surface flows Understanding the dynamics of free surface flows is the starting point of many environmental studies, impact studies, and waterworks design. Typical applications, once the flows are known, are water quality, dam impact and safety, pollutant control, and sediment transport. These studies used to be done in the past with scale models, but these are now being replaced by numerical simulation performed by software suites called "hydro-informatic systems". The Telemac system is the leading software package worldwide, and has been developed by Electricité de France and Jean-Michel Hervouet, who is the head and main developer of the Telemac project. Written by a leading authority on Computational Fluid Dynamics, the book aims to provide environmentalists, hydrologists, and engineers using hydro-informatic systems such as Telemac and the finite element method, with the knowledge of the basic principles, capabilities, different hypothese...

  4. Large wind ripples on Mars: A record of atmospheric evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapotre, M. G. A.; Ewing, R. C.; Lamb, M. P.; Fischer, W. W.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Rubin, D. M.; Lewis, K. W.; Ballard, M. J.; Day, M.; Gupta, S.; Banham, S. G.; Bridges, N. T.; Des Marais, D. J.; Fraeman, A. A.; Grant, J. A.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Ming, D. W.; Mischna, M. A.; Rice, M. S.; Sumner, D. A.; Vasavada, A. R.; Yingst, R. A.

    2016-07-01

    Wind blowing over sand on Earth produces decimeter-wavelength ripples and hundred-meter- to kilometer-wavelength dunes: bedforms of two distinct size modes. Observations from the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover and the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reveal that Mars hosts a third stable wind-driven bedform, with meter-scale wavelengths. These bedforms are spatially uniform in size and typically have asymmetric profiles with angle-of-repose lee slopes and sinuous crest lines, making them unlike terrestrial wind ripples. Rather, these structures resemble fluid-drag ripples, which on Earth include water-worked current ripples, but on Mars instead form by wind because of the higher kinematic viscosity of the low-density atmosphere. A reevaluation of the wind-deposited strata in the Burns formation (about 3.7 billion years old or younger) identifies potential wind-drag ripple stratification formed under a thin atmosphere.

  5. Oxidation of artificial sweetener sucralose by advanced oxidation processes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Virender K; Oturan, Mehmet; Kim, Hyunook

    2014-01-01

    Sucralose, a chlorinated carbohydrate, has shown its increased use as an artificial sweetener and persistently exists in wastewater treatment plant effluents and aquatic environment. This paper aims to review possible degradation of sucralose and related carbohydrates by biological, electrochemical, chemical, and advanced oxidation processes. Biodegradation of sucralose in waterworks did not occur significantly. Electrochemical oxidation of carbohydrates may be applied to seek degradation of sucralose. The kinetics of the oxidation of sucralose and the related carbohydrates by different oxidative species is compared. Free chlorine, ozone, and ferrate did not show any potential to degrade sucralose in water. Advanced oxidation processes, generating highly strong oxidizing agent hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH), have demonstrated effectiveness in transforming sucralose in water. The mechanism of oxidation of sucralose by (•)OH is briefly discussed.

  6. Regional and national extension of the interconnected power system of MVV Energie. New tasks for a grid control room; Regionaler und ueberregionaler Ausbau des Verbundleitsystems der MVV Energie. Neue Aufgaben fuer eine Verbundleitwarte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, F. [MVV Energie, Mannheim (Germany); Koenen, M. [PSI AG, Aschaffenburg (Germany)

    2004-06-01

    The article deals with the regional and national extension of the interconnected power system of MVV Energie. Steps had been: regional extension of a control system: decentralising of 'remote multiplexing heads'; build-up of an emergency control room; linking to MVV-waterworks. National extension of a control system: operation of the energy supply of Offenbach; Linking of the Offenburg control systems with the central control system in Mannheim; integration of the module georeferencing. [German] Die MVV Energie versorgt als Regionalnetzbetreiber bis zu 1,2 Mio. Netzkunden. Die Netz-Betriebsfuehrung obliegt einer zentralen Verbundleitwarte in Mannheim. Mit einem neu eingefuehrten Leitsystem eroeffnete sich MVV neben den Synergien des Querverbundes auch die Moeglichkeit, Betriebsfuehrungsdienstleistungen anbieten zu koennen, z. B. fuer einen weiteren Regionalversorger im MVV-Konzern. Parallel wurde aus Sicherheitsaspekten die digitale Uebertragungskapazitaet des MVV-Tochterunternehmens MAnet zur Dezentralisierung der Fernwirkankopplung, der flexiblen Anbindung von Kleinleitsystemen und der Anbindung einer Ausweichleitwarte genutzt. (orig.)

  7. Bioaugmentation of flow-through sand filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Elin Djurhuus

    Global applications of pesticides in agricultural production have led to the detection of trace amounts of pesticides in groundwater resources in levels exceeding the EU threshold limit for drinking water of 0.1 µg L-1. Pesticide-polluted groundwater may be remediated by inoculating waterworks sand...... filters with specific degrading bacteria. However, degradation efficiency is often hampered by poor adhesion and a lack of sustained catabolic activity of the introduced bacteria. The overall objective of this thesis was to investigate the significance of selected bacterial surface properties...... coincided with efficient mineralisation/degradation, and proposed the tfdC gene as a suitable marker for monitoring phenoxy acid degradation in strain PM2. Furthermore, when testing strain PM2s degradation performance in flow-through sand columns, we found that strain PM2 was able to sustain induced...

  8. Application of a Stereo Constructed Wetland Mode to the Treatment of Slightly Polluted Source Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Yu-quan; ZUO; Zhuo; GUO; Xiao

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to discuss the application of a stereo constructed wetland to the treatment of slightly polluted source water. [Method] In this study, a new stereo constructed wetland mode was put forward, and a pilot project of water ecological purification in Xinsheng River, the diversion channel of Shijiuyang Waterwork in Jiaxing City, were analyzed. Afterwards, the impact factors of water purification by the technology were discussed from water quality and quantity, season and climate, species configuration, management and maintenance. [Result] Under three different hydraulic loading conditions, the pilot project effectively improved water SD and DO level, and reduced SS, CODCr, NH3-N, TN and TP significantly in summer and autumn, so that effluent water quality reached surface water standard at Grade III. [Conclusion] The stereo constructed wetland mode composed of constructed wetland and underwater forest used to treat slightly polluted source water is feasible and has a good promotion prospect.

  9. Microbiological investigations of rainwater and graywater collected for toilet flushing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Seven Danish rainwater systems were investigated with respect to the microbial water quality. The general microbiological quality (total numbers of bacteria (AODC)), and heterotrophic plate counts on R2A and Plate Count Agar in the toilets supplied with rainwater were approximately the same...... as in the reference toilets supplied with drinking water. However, in 12 of the 27 analysed samples one or more pathogens were observed (Aeromonas sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella non-pneumophila, Campylobacter jejuni, Mycobacterium avium, and Cryptosporidium sp.). These pathogens were not found in any...... of the reference toilets (32 toilets). This means that the use of rainwater introduced new, potentially pathogenic microorganisms into the households which would normally not occur in toilets supplied with water from waterworks. Furthermore, four graywater systems were investigated where water from the shower...

  10. Bioaugmentation of flow-through sand filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Elin Djurhuus

    Global applications of pesticides in agricultural production have led to the detection of trace amounts of pesticides in groundwater resources in levels exceeding the EU threshold limit for drinking water of 0.1 µg L-1. Pesticide-polluted groundwater may be remediated by inoculating waterworks sand...... for degradation performances in flow-through sand columns, with the aim of identifying a suitable inoculant strain for future environmental applications. Another aim was to identify a suitable genetic marker to monitor phenoxy acid degradation in strain Sphingobium sp. PM2. We were not able to link motility...... and biofilm formation to the strains´ ability to adhere to sand. Nevertheless, a correlation was found between cell surface hydrophobicity and adhesion and overall degradation performances in flow-through sand columns. We identified S phingobium sp. PM2 as a promising inoculant strain, displaying efficient...

  11. The toxicity of a new disinfection by-product, 2,2-dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm), on adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) and its occurrence in the chlorinated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shilin; Lin, Tao; Chen, Wei; Tao, Hui

    2015-11-01

    The detection method of 2,2-dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm), a new disinfection by-product (DBP) in chlorinated drinking water, was established using a gas chromatograph coupled with a micro-electron capture detector. The chlorinated water samples were taken from ten drinking water treatment plants around Yangtze River or Taihu Lake in China. The concentration of DCAcAm was detected ranging from 0.5 to 1.8μg/L in the waterworks around Yangtze River, and 1.5-2.6μg/L around Taihu Lake. The toxicity of DCAcAm on adult zebrafish was assessed by investigating the metabolism damage with multiple metabolic biomarkers and the accumulation capability with bio-concentration factor. The results showed that DCAcAm could cause the acute metabolism damage and was easily accumulated in zebrafish, and should be extremely cautioned.

  12. Determination of Transport Parameters in Unsaturated Zone by Tracer Experiment in the Porous Aquifer located at Ljubljana, Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmar, S.; Cencur Curk, B.

    2009-04-01

    The gravel sandy aquifer of Ljubljansko polje is the source of drinking water for nearly 300.000 inhabitants of the Ljubljana city and vicinity. There are two main waterworks: Kleče and Hrastje. The plain area of Ljubljansko polje is a tectonic sink and consists of river sediments that can reach in thickness more than 100 m in the deepest part. The bedrock is the impermeable permocarbonic clayey shale, mudstones and sandstones. The hydraulic conductivity of Ljubljansko polje sediments is very good, from 10-2 m/s in the central part to 3.7•10-3 m/s on the borders of the plain. The average groundwater level is 20 m below surface. A numerical groundwater flow model was established for the wider area of the Ljubljansko polje aquifer. The fore mentioned model was not calibrated on solute transport parameters but only on water levels and this lead to unreliability in the transport model and its predictions of pollution scenarios. The transport model needs to calculate reliable scenarios of pollution dispersion, which can only be achieved with the application of real transport parameters. Human activities in the area of the Hrastje waterworks of Ljubljana threaten to degrade groundwater quality. For this reason several tracer experiments were carried out in the past. Despite a great risk, the experiments were performed on the catchment area of the Hrastje waterworks, inside the second water protection zone. During the experiments the water from Hrastje waterworks was still in use for drinking water supply. The tracer experiments were carried out in order to determine the solute transport parameters such as advection, dispersion and sorption. The research proved that the tracers could be used safely on sensitive area and that the researchers are capable and qualified to carry it out with a highest level of security. Since none of the past tracer experiments, carried out in the same area, gave us any detailed information on pollutant spreading in unsaturated zone a new

  13. Instruments to reduce the leaching of heavy metals from building materials in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breemen, A J H; Vermij, P H M

    2007-01-01

    In the Netherlands the leaching of heavy metals from metal building and constructing materials results in serious contamination problems in the water system. The most common sources of these heavy metals in construction materials are copper waterworks and roofs, zinc roofs, gutters and rain pipes, zinced steel, stainless steel, and lead sealing material. In urban waters the surface water and sediment standards are often exceeded. Although building and construction materials are certainly not the only source of heavy metals, they are an important part of the problem. This article focuses on six instruments that are in use in the Netherlands to try to reduce impact on the surface waters. In addition to this, national as well as international, a reconsideration of the risks and surface water standards for several heavy metals is considered. A balanced use of instruments can be considered as the application of a best practice.

  14. Influence of radioactive fallout on water supply and sewerage in Finland; Radioaktiivisen laskeuman vaikutukset vesihuoltoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantavaara, A.; Saxen, R.; Puhakainen, M. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Hatva, T.; Ahosilta, P.; Tenhunen, J. [National Board of Waters and the Environment, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-09-01

    The report reviews the practices and organization of water supply and sewerage in Finland and is related to their response to radioactive fallout situations. The contribution of drinking water to the internal radiation dose caused by radioactive fallout has earlier been small in Finland. However, in a wide-scale fallout situation, the decreasing of collective dose received from water may be justified, if the dose can be reduced at a reasonable cost, for instance by a temporary change of the raw water source. Efficient exchange of information between radiation protection and water supply experts is important for successful dose reduction measures. In Finland waterworks deliver tap water to 4.2 million people. Half of the water is ground water, and generally very well protected against fallout radioactivity. The other half is treated surface water. (6 figs., 5 tabs.).

  15. Biostimulation and enhancement of pesticide degradation around water abstraction fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi, Suzi

    Groundwater contamination by pesticides is a widespread environmental problem and a major threat to drinking water supplies. Diffuse source contamination of groundwater that enters from an extensive area is characterized by low pesticide concentrations (nanogram-microgram per liter) in large...... volumes of water. It is regarded as one of the major threats to groundwater quality originating from agriculture, roads and railways. These large volumes of water in combination with the low concentration cause difficulties in preventing contamination of drinking water supplies and this is a challenge...... to develop remediation solutions. Abstraction fields often include several wells. Even if only one of the wells is contaminated, this water mixes with uncontaminated groundwater from the other wells and causes excessive volumes of water to be treated at the waterworks. An alternative approach...

  16. Study of removal effect on Mesocyclops leukarti with oxidants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Cyclops of zooplankton propagates prolifically in eutrophic waterbody and it cannot be exterminated by conventional disinfection process. The mutagenicity of Mesocyclops leukarti and its extermination with oxidants in a drinking waterworks in China were studied. Among five oxidants for use in bench-scale, chlorine dioxide is the most effective and the potassium permanganate is the weakest against Mesocyclops leukarti under the same conditions. Full-scale results showed that Mesocyclops leukarti could be effectively removed from water by 1.0 mg/L chlorine dioxide preoxidation combined with conventional removal physical process. After filtration, chlorite, a by-product of prechlorine dioxide, is stable at 0.45 mg/L, which is lower than the critical value of the USEPA. GC-MS examination and Ames test further showed that the quantity of organic substance and the mutagenicity in water treated by chlorine dioxide preoxidation are obviously less than those of prechlorination.

  17. Life cycle assessment of central softening of very hard drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Rygaard, Martin;

    2012-01-01

    Many consumers prefer softened water due to convenience issues such as avoidance of removing limescale deposits from household appliances and surfaces, and to reduce consumption of cleaning agents and laundry detergents leading to lower household expenses. Even though central softening of drinking...... water from the initial hardness of the region of study (Copenhagen, Denmark) which is 362 mg/L as CaCO(3) to a final hardness as CaCO(3) of 254 (a softening depth of 108) mg/L or 145 (a softening depth of 217) mg/L. Our study showed that the consumer preference can be met together with reducing...... Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to quantify the environmental impacts of central softening of drinking water considering both the negative effects at the waterworks and the positive effects imposed by the changed water quality in the households. The LCA modeling considered central softening of drinking...

  18. Early warning risk assessment for drinking water production: decoding subtle evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Christoph; Lischeid, Gunnar; Böttcher, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing demands for high quality water for drinking water supply all over the world there is acute need for methods to detect possible threats to groundwater resources early. Especially drinking water production in complex geologic settings has a particularly high risk for unexpected degradation of the groundwater quality due to the unknown interplay between anthropogenically induced hydraulic changes and geochemical processes. This study investigates the possible benefit of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for groundwater and drinking water management using common sets of physicochemical monitoring data. The approach was used to identify the prevailing processes driving groundwater quality shifts and related threats, which might be masked in anthropogenically impacted aquifer systems. The approach was applied to a data set from a waterworks located in the state of Brandenburg, NE Germany, which has been operating since nearly four decades. The region faces confronting and increasing demands due to rising peri-urban settlements. The PCA subdivided the data set according to different strengths of effects induced by differing geochemical processes at different sites in the capture zone of the waterworks and varying in time. Thus a spatial assessment of these processes could be performed as well as a temporal assessment of long-term groundwater quality shifts in the extracted water. The analysis revealed that over the period of 16 years of water withdrawal the geochemistry of the extracted groundwater had become increasingly more dissimilar compared to the characteristics found at the majority of observation wells. This component could be identified as highly mineralized CaSO4 dominated water from unexamined deeper zones of the aquifer system. Due to the complex geochemical and hydraulic interactions in the system, this process was masked and was not evident in the data set without validation by the applied statistical analysis. The findings give a

  19. Establishment and control of urban water supply dispatching system%城镇供水调度系统的建立与调度控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余少伟; 陈文丰

    2009-01-01

    介绍了广东省汕头市澄海区南洋自来水公司供水调度系统的建立、运行管理及调控作用.系统的建设包括生产自动化远程(公司)监控系统和管网调度系统(无线)、大用户水表监测系统(无线)、公司调度中心、信息化网络架构、生产信息的发送以及网络查询系统.系统以SLC500及MicroLogix1200、MicroLogix1500、Controllogix为可编程控制器,以光纤为传输介质,GPRS/GSM为无线网络通讯方式,以RSVIEW为监控组态软件,能实现水厂、加压泵站、大用户和输水管网的自动监测、远程查询、监控和管理.%The establishment, operation management and control of a water supply dispatching system in Chenghai Nanyang Waterworks Co., Shantou City, Guangdong Province were introduced. The establishment included an automatic remote supervision system, a network dispatching system(wireless), a water meter monitoring system for important users (wireless), a dispatching center of the company, an information-based network framework, transmission of operation information and a network inquiry system.SLC500, MicroLogix1200, MicroLogix1500 and Controllogix were used as a programmable controller, fiber as the transmission media, GPRS/GSM as the wireless network communication and RSVIEW as the supervisory control configuration software for the system.It could be automatic monitoring, remote inquiry, supervision and management for waterworks, booster pump station, important users and distribution network.

  20. Life cycle assessment of central softening of very hard drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godskesen, B; Hauschild, M; Rygaard, M; Zambrano, K; Albrechtsen, H-J

    2012-08-30

    Many consumers prefer softened water due to convenience issues such as avoidance of removing limescale deposits from household appliances and surfaces, and to reduce consumption of cleaning agents and laundry detergents leading to lower household expenses. Even though central softening of drinking water entailed an increased use of energy, sand and chemicals at the waterworks, the distributed and softened drinking water supported a decrease in consumption of energy and chemical agents in the households along with a prolonged service life of household appliances which heat water. This study used Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to quantify the environmental impacts of central softening of drinking water considering both the negative effects at the waterworks and the positive effects imposed by the changed water quality in the households. The LCA modeling considered central softening of drinking water from the initial hardness of the region of study (Copenhagen, Denmark) which is 362 mg/L as CaCO(3) to a final hardness as CaCO(3) of 254 (a softening depth of 108) mg/L or 145 (a softening depth of 217) mg/L. Our study showed that the consumer preference can be met together with reducing the impact on the environment and the resource consumption. Environmental impacts decreased by up to 3 mPET (milli Personal Equivalent Targeted) and the break-even point from where central softening becomes environmentally beneficial was reached at a softening depth of only 22 mg/L as CaCO(3). Both energy-related and chemically related environmental impacts were reduced as well as the consumption of resources. Based on scarcity criteria, nickel was identified as the most problematic non-renewable resource in the system, and savings of up to 8 mPR (milli Person Reserve) were found.

  1. Incorporating Simulated Zinc Ash by Kaolinite- and Sludge-based Ceramics: Phase Transformation and Product Leachability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施凯闵; 唐圆圆

    2012-01-01

    Zinc is one of the hazardous metals commonly found in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ash, and this study reveals the stabilization mechanisms when sintering zinc-laden ash and ceramic precursors as a waste-to-resource strategy. Using ZnO to simulate the zinc-laden ash and sintering with kaolinite and mullite ce- ramic precursors, both zinc aluminate spinel (ZnA1204) and willemite (Zn2SiO4) phases were found in the products under the tested thermal conditions. The results also indicate that kaolinite and mullite precursors exhibit different incorporation behavior, and ZnA1204 and Zn2SiO4 were found to be competitive as the Zn-hosting phases in the system. A prolonged leaching test was used to evaluate the leachability of potential product phases in the system. The concentrations of zinc in ZnO and Zn2SiO4 leachates were about two orders of magnitude higher than that in ZnA1204 leachate, indicating the preference of forming ZnA1204 for zinc stabilization. Furthermore, the alumi- num-rich sludge generated from waterworks could be beneficially used as a material resource to stabilize zinc in this study. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern collected from the 1150 ~C and 3-h sintered sample shows the suc- cess of incorporating zinc into the ZnA1204 spinel structure with waterworks sludge precursor. The formation of ZnA1204 indicates a strong potential for employing aluminum- and silicon-based materials to thermally immobilize zinc and achieve the beneficial use of metal-laden MSWI ash.

  2. Seasonal changes in the invertebrate community of granular activated carbon filters and control technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; You, Wei; Li, Xiaowei; Yang, Yufeng; Liu, Lijun

    2014-03-15

    Invertebrate colonization of granular activated carbon (GAC) filters in the waterworks is one of the most frequently occurring and least studied biological problems of water processing in China. A survey of invertebrate colonization of GAC filters was carried out weekly from October 2010 to December 2011 at a reservoir water treatment works in South China. Twenty-six kinds of invertebrates were observed. The abundance was as high as 5600ind.m(-3) with a mean of 860ind.m(-3). Large variations in abundance were observed among different seasons and before and after GAC filtration. The dominant organisms were rotifers and copepods. The average invertebrate abundance in the filtrate was 12-18.7 times of that in the pre-filtered water. Results showed that the GAC filters were colonized by invertebrates which may lead to a higher output of organisms in the filtrate than in the pre-filtered water. The invertebrate abundance in the GAC filters was statistically correlated with the water temperature. Seasonal patterns were observed. The invertebrate abundance grew faster in the spring and summer. Copepods were dominant in the summer while rotifers dominated in all other seasons of the year. There was a transition of small invertebrates (rotifers) gradually being substituted by larger invertebrates (copepods) from spring to summer. Control measures such as backwashing with chloric water, drying filter beds and soaking with saliferous water were implemented in the waterworks to reduce invertebrate abundances in the GAC filters. The results showed that soaking with saliferous water (99%, reduction in percent) was best but drying the filter beds (84%) was more economical. Soaking filter beds with 20g/L saliferous water for one day can be implemented in case of emergency. In order to keep invertebrate abundance in the acceptable range, some of these measures should be adopted.

  3. Influence of organic pollutants in source water on formation of chlorinated disinfection byproducts in drinking water%源水中有机污染物对饮用水氯化消毒副产物形成的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李谦; 樊文明; 黄伟; 梅玉琴; 廖青; 刘天洁

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the influence of organic pollutants in source water on the formation of chlorinated disinfection byproducts in drinking water.Methods:Trihalomethanes,haloacetic acids and potassium permanganate oxygen consumption in finished water and peripheral water of the 36 waterworks in Zigong were determined by gas chromatograph and colorimeter.Results:The disinfection byproducts were detected in defferent degrees in all of the 36 waterworks.Conclusion:The influencing factors of disinfection byproducts in water were consisted of the type of source water and organic pollution,the disinfection byproducts increased in the water of river and the source water with high oxygen consumption.%目的:研究源水中有机物污染对饮用水中氯化消毒副产物形成的影响.方法:采用安捷伦7890A气相色谱仪、ECD检测器,对自贡市36家自来水厂出厂水管网末梢水中的三卤甲烷、卤乙酸、高锰酸钾耗氧量进行测定.结果:36家自来水厂的出厂水管网末梢水不同程度检出氯化消毒副产物三卤甲烷(三氯甲烷、二氯一溴甲烷、一氯二溴甲烷、三溴甲烷),卤乙酸(二氯乙酸、三氯乙酸).结论:水源水种类、有机物污染是影响消毒副产物生成的因素,江河水、耗氧量高的源水消毒副产物较多.

  4. Do cadmium, lead, and aluminum in drinking water increase the risk of hip fractures? A NOREPOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Cecilie; Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Tell, Grethe S; Flaten, Trond Peder; Hongve, Dag; Omsland, Tone Kristin; Holvik, Kristin; Meyer, Haakon E; Aamodt, Geir

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate relations between cadmium, lead, and aluminum in municipality drinking water and the incidence of hip fractures in the Norwegian population. A trace metals survey in 566 waterworks was linked geographically to hip fractures from hospitals throughout the country (1994-2000). In all those supplied from these waterworks, 5,438 men and 13,629 women aged 50-85 years suffered a hip fracture. Poisson regression models were fitted, adjusting for age, region of residence, urbanization, and type of water source as well as other possibly bone-related water quality factors. Effect modification by background variables and interactions between water quality factors were examined (correcting for false discovery rate). Men exposed to a relatively high concentration of cadmium (IRR = 1.10; 95 % CI 1.01, 1.20) had an increased risk of fracture. The association between relatively high lead and hip fracture risk was significant in the oldest age group (66-85 years) for both men (IRR = 1.11; 95 % CI 1.02, 1.21) and women (IRR = 1.10; 95 % CI 1.04, 1.16). Effect modification by degree of urbanization on hip fracture risk in men was also found for all three metals: cadmium, lead, and aluminum. In summary, a relatively high concentration of cadmium, lead, and aluminum measured in drinking water increased the risk of hip fractures, but the associations depended on gender, age, and urbanization degree. This study could help in elucidating the complex effects on bone health by risk factors found in the environment.

  5. Administração limpa e enxuta em sistemas hidráulicos de colhedoras de cana-de-açúcar Clean and lean administration in hydraulic systems of sugarcane harvesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Tomazela

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Dentre as importantes mudanças nos processos de produção, está à necessidade de garantir sustentabilidade aos empreendimentos. Isso faz prever mudanças na gestão empresarial para adequar-se a um novo modelo, com a inserção dos conceitos de Produção Limpa, Mais Limpa, Enxuta e Manutenção Produtiva Total (MPT. O foco principal deste trabalho foi elaborar uma metodologia que possibilitou aumentar a confiabilidade nos sistemas hidráulicos das colhedoras de cana-de-açúcar, identificando e analisando os modos de falhas, visando à melhoria da qualidade ambiental e socioeconômica em uma indústria sucroalcooleira, promovendo a diminuição significativa do desperdício de óleo hidráulico durante o processo de colheita motomecanizada. O histórico existente no controle do planejamento da empresa, utilizado na Usina sucroalcooleira, permitiu a avaliação do desempenho operacional de colhedoras de cana-de--açúcar durante três safras. Durante esse período, por meio da elaboração e da efetivação de um controle total, acompanharam-se os modos de falhas no sistema hidráulico de cinco colhedoras. Com base na metodologia desenvolvida, elaborou-se um programa computacional para processar os dados obtidos e facilitar a tomada de decisões.Among the important changes in the production processes, it is necessary to guarantee the sustainability of the human enterprises, what makes us to foresee changes in the managerial administration to adapt to a new model, with the insert of the concepts of Clean Production, Cleaner, Lean and Total Productive Maintenance (TPM. The main focus of this work was to elaborate a methodology that made it possible to guarantee the reliability in the waterworks of the sugarcane harvester, identifying and analyzing the manners of flaws, in order to result in the improvement of the environmental and socioeconomic quality in the atmosphere of an industry of sugarcane through the significant decrease of hydraulic

  6. Future water supply management adaptation measures - case study of Ljubljana field aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čenčur Curk, B.; Zajc Benda, T.; Souvent, P.; Bračič Železnik, B.; Bogardi, I.

    2012-04-01

    The main drinking water supply problems are related to the significant change of groundwater quantity and quality observed in the last decades as an effect of land use practices and very likely also climate change. The latter may affect the ability of drinking water suppliers to provide enough water of sufficient quality to the consumers. These topics were studied in the frame of SEE project CC-WaterS (Climate Change and Impact on Water Supply) with the main goal to develop a water supply management system regarding optimisation of water extraction and land use restrictions under climate change scenarios for water suppliers, since existing management practices are mostly inadequate to reduce impacts of CC on water supply reliability. The main goal was a designation of appropriate measures and risk assessment to adapt water supply to changing climate and land use activities considering socio-economic aspects. This was accomplished by using 'Fuzzy Decimaker', which is a tool for selecting and ranking risk reduction measures or management actions for local waterworks or water authorities under the pressure of climate change. Firstly, management options were selected and ranked. For public water supply of Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, several management options were selected. For improvement of water supply and preservation of water resource quantities there is a need for engineering interventions, such as reducing water losses on pipelines. For improving drinking water safety and preserving water resource quality farmers are not allowed to use fertilisers in the first safeguarding zone and they get compensations for income reduction because of lower farming production. Compensations for farming restrictions in the second safeguarding zone were applied as additional management option. On the other hand, drinking water treatment is another management option to be considered. Trends in groundwater level are decreasing, above all recharge areas of waterworks

  7. Spatial variability of drinking water iodine in Denmark: implications for future policy making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutchkova, Denitza; Ernstsen, Vibeke; Kristiansen, Søren; Hansen, Birgitte

    2014-05-01

    The iodine-an essential component of human thyroid hormones-is provided to our organisms naturally from the food and water and/or is added artificially to the diet. One of the major natural contributors to the dietary iodine intake in Denmark is the drinking water. Both insufficient or excessive iodine intake can cause health problems however the attention falls mainly on the iodine deficiency (ID). Denmark is classified to have mild ID, which is based on sub-national data only. On a bigger scale, in Europe, about 40% of the general population is estimated to suffer from insufficient iodine intake (based on recent update on the iodine status worldwide). A mandatory addition of iodine to the salt was introduced in 2001 in Denmark to address the population's mild deficiency. One of the components of the Danish monitoring program investigating the effect of the salt iodizing (DanThyr) was based on the geographical variation of drinking water iodine levels. More specifically, the location of the two DanThyr cohort studies was chosen to reflect the low concentrations in the western part of Denmark and higher concentration in the eastern part. However, the knowledge about the spatial variability of iodine in Danish ground- and drinking water at that time was quite limited and misrepresentation of the natural variability is suspected. The presented sampling campaign was completed in 2013, and includes 144 waterworks with annual abstraction of about 175 mio m3 groundwater (~45% of the total groundwater abstraction by all active public and private Danish waterworks). The results show a surprisingly complex spatial pattern concerning both the iodine concentrations and speciation. By estimating the dietary iodine intake from water and comparing it to the WHO recommendations, it becomes possible to recognize potentially deficient/excessive geographical areas. Moreover, it is demonstrated that drinking water iodine levels (major dietary iodine contributor in Denmark) can be

  8. Bed disturbance via foraging fish increases bedload transport during subsequent high flows and is controlled by fish size and species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pledger, A. G.; Rice, S. P.; Millett, J.

    2016-01-01

    Benthic foraging by fish can modify the nature and rates of fine sediment accrual and the structure and topography of coarse-grained fluvial substrates, with the potential to alter bed material characteristics, particle entrainment thresholds, and bedload transport fluxes. However, knowledge of what controls the nature, extent, and intensity of benthic foraging and the consequent influence of these controls on geomorphic impact remain rudimentary. An ex-situ experiment utilising Barbel Barbus barbus and Chub Leuciscus cephalus extended previous work by considering the role of fish size and species as controls of sediment disturbance by foraging and the implications for bed material characteristics and bedload transport. In a laboratory flume, changes in bed microtopography and structure were measured when a water-worked bed of 5.6-22.6 mm gravels was exposed to four size classes of Barbel (4-5″, 5-6″, 6-8″, 8-10″ in length) and a single size class of Chub (8-10″). In line with other studies that have investigated animal size as a control of zoogeomorphic agency, increasing the size of Barbel had a significant effect on measured disturbance and transport metrics. Specifically, the area of disturbed substrate, foraging depth, and the fish's impact on microtopographic roughness and imbrication all increased as a function of fish size. In a comparison of the foraging effects of like-sized Barbel and Chub, 8-10″ in length, Barbel foraged a larger area of the test bed and had a greater impact on microtopographic roughness and sediment structure. Relative to water-worked beds that were not foraged, bed conditioning by both species was associated with increased bedload transport during the subsequent application of high flows. However, the bedload flux after foraging by Barbel, which is a specialist benthivore, was 150% higher than that following foraging by Chub, which feed opportunistically from the bed, and the total transported mass of sediment was 98

  9. THE UTILIZATION STRUCTURE OF THERMAL WATER WELLS AND ITS UNEXPLOITED CAPACITIES IN HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BALÁZS KULCSÁR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to mitigate Hungary’s vulnerability in energy supply and accomplish the renewable energy production targets, it is essential to discover exploitable alternative opportunities for energy production and step up the utilization of the available capacities. The purpose of this publication is to map up the utilization structure of the existing Hungarian thermal water wells, describe its changes over the past 16 years, reveal the associated reasons and define the unutilized well capacities that may contribute to increasing the exploitation of geothermal heat by municipalities. The studies have been conducted in view of the Cadaster of Thermal Water Wells of Hungary compiled in 1994, the well cadasters kept by the regional water management directorates, as well as the data of the digital thermal water cadaster of 2010. The calculations performed for the evaluation of data have been based on the ratios and respective utilization areas of the existing wells. In the past 150 years, nearly 1500 thermal water wells have been drilled for use by a broad range of economic operations. The principal goals of constructing thermal water wells encompass the use of water in balneology, water and heat supply to the agriculture, hydrocarbon research and the satisfaction of municipal water demands. In 1994, 26% of the facilities was operated as baths, 21% was used by agriculture, while 13% and 12% served communal and waterworks supply, respectively. Then in 2010, 31% of thermal water wells was continued to be used for the water supply of bathing establishments, followed by 20% for agricultural use, 19% for utilization by waterworks, 11% for observation purposes and 10% for communal use. During the 16 years between 1994 and 2010, the priorities of utilization often changed, new demands emerged in addition to the former utilization goals of thermal water wells. The economic landscape and changes in consumer habits have transformed the group of consumers, which

  10. Distribution of Asellus aquaticus and microinvertebrates in a non-chlorinated drinking water supply system--effects of pipe material and sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Sarah C B; Nissen, Erling; Arvin, Erik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-05-01

    Danish drinking water supplies based on ground water without chlorination were investigated for the presence of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, microinvertebrates (water samples were collected from fire hydrants at 31 locations, and two elevated tanks (6000 and 36,000 m(3)) as well as one clean water tank at a waterworks (700 m(3)) were inspected. Several types of invertebrates from the phyla: arthropoda, annelida (worms), plathyhelminthes (flatworms) and mollusca (snails) were found. Invertebrates were found at 94% of the sampling sites in the piped system with A. aquaticus present at 55% of the sampling sites. Populations of A. aquaticus were present in the two investigated elevated tanks but not in the clean water tank at a waterworks. Both adult and juvenile A. aquaticus (length of 2-10 mm) were found in tanks as well as in pipes. A. aquaticus was found only in samples collected from two of seven investigated distribution zones (zone 1 and 2), each supplied directly by one of the two investigated elevated tanks containing A. aquaticus. Microinvertebrates were distributed throughout all zones. The distribution pattern of A. aquaticus had not changed considerably over 20 years when compared to data from samples collected in 1988-89. Centrifugal pumps have separated the distribution zones during the whole period and may have functioned as physical barriers in the distribution systems, preventing large invertebrates such as A. aquaticus to pass alive. Another factor characterising zone 1 and 2 was the presence of cast iron pipes. The frequency of A. aquaticus was significantly higher in cast iron pipes than in plastic pipes. A. aquaticus caught from plastic pipes were mainly single living specimens or dead specimens, which may have been transported passively trough by the water flow, while cast iron pipes provided an environment suitable for relatively large populations of A. aquaticus. Sediment volume for each sample was measured and our study described for

  11. RESEARCH ON INFLUENCE FACTORS OF BYPRODUCTS FROM CHLORINATION DISINFECTION IN URBAN DRINKING WATER%城镇饮用水中氯化消毒副产物形成影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李谦; 周敏; 刘天洁; 范正轩; 张正东

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究饮用水中氯化消毒副产物形成的影响因素,为制定控制对策提供依据.方法 通过现场采样和理化分析方法,对自贡市城镇36个水厂出厂水和末梢水进行了监测与分析.结果 该地区自来水厂经氯化处理的水中氯化副产物检出率较高,其中以三卤甲烷检出率最高,其次是三氯乙酸和二氯乙酸.水源水中有机物含量和氯化消毒工艺对氯化副产物的形成有明显影响.通过改善水质和改进氯化消毒工艺可以降低氯化副产物含量.结论 自贡市氯化消毒副产物存在严重污染,消毒副产物的形成与水源水水质质量、消毒剂投入量、氯化消毒工艺、给水处理工艺等因素有关.%Objective To observe the influence factors of the byproducts from chlorination disinfection in drinking water and to provide the basis for the development of the control measures. Methods The on - site sampling and physiochemical analysis were used to monitor the finished water and peripheral water of the 36 urban waterworks in Zigong. Results The detection rate of chlorinated byproducts of chlorinated water was high in those waterworks. The detection rate of trihalometh-anes was the highest, followed by that of trichloroacetic acid and dichloroacetic acid. The organic content of source water and chlorination process had obvious effect on the formation of chlorinated byproducts. The content of the chlorinated byproducts could be reduced by improving water quality and the chlorination process. Conclusion Serious pollution of chlorination disinfection byproducts exist in Zigong. The formation of disinfection byproducts is related with the quality of source water, disinfectant inputs, the chlorination process, the water treatment technology and so on.

  12. Uranium removal from drinking water by adsorption onto granular ferric hydroxide (GEH); Entfernung von Uran aus Trinkwasser durch Adsorption an Granuliertem Eisenhydroxid (GEH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahr, Carsten

    2012-07-01

    Uranium contamination of groundwater is encountered in many regions worldwide. Effective and simple removal technologies are required by waterworks faced with this problem, particularly in Germany which set a specification for maximum permissible uranium content in drinking water in November 2011. The present thesis examines the suitability of Granular Ferric Hydroxide (GEH) as a water treatment adsorbent for uranium removal. Adsorption isotherms generated in the studies showed that GEH is capable of adsorbing uranium, in fact achieving highest loading levels as compared to other oxide-based absorbents. Experimental data for uranium adsorption as a function of pH for the model systems U(VI) / H{sub 2}O and U(VI) / H{sub 2}O / CO{sub 2} successfully fits the Surface Complexation Model using the adjusted parameter set for ferrihydrite. Test findings showed that adsorption capacity varies substantially depending on the water matrix processed and is significantly reduced when real ground water or drinking water is processed. The main parameters influencing adsorption capacity were found to be pH and the associated carbonate concentration, as well as the concentrations of calcium and phosphate and to a lesser extent of sulfate and humic substances. The reduced capacity is caused by adsorption competition and changes in chemical speciation of uranium brought about by the water matrix at hand. Both the kinetics and the dynamics of adsorption can be successfully described by the Homogeneous Surface Diffusion Model (HSDM). The characteristic transport coefficients for film diffusion and particle diffusion were determined using empirical correlations and lab testing. The comparatively slow kinetics of adsorption are caused by the rate-determining particle diffusion and lead to a relatively flat breakthrough curve. Experiments on small adsorber columns (RSSCT method) were used to simulate uranium breakthrough in GEH fixed-bed filters on a laboratory scale, permitting accurate

  13. A large waterborne outbreak of campylobacteriosis in Norway: The need to focus on distribution system safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Helge

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On 7 May 2007 the medical officer in Røros (population 5600 reported 15 patients with gastroenteritis. Three days later he estimated hundreds being ill. Untreated tap water from a groundwater source was suspected as the vehicle and chlorination was started 11 May. Campylobacter was isolated from patients' stool samples. We conducted an investigation to identify the source and describe the extent of the outbreak. Methods We undertook a retrospective cohort study among a random sample of customers of Røros and neighbouring Holtålen waterworks. Holtålen, which has a different water source, was used as a control city. We conducted telephone interviews to gather data on illness from all household members. One randomly selected household member was asked about detailed exposure history. The regional hospital laboratory tested patients' stools for enteropathogens. Campylobacter isolates were typed by AFLP for genetic similarity at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. Local authorities conducted the environmental investigation. Results We identified 105 cases among 340 individuals from Røros and Holtålen (Attack Rate = 31%. Tap water consumption was the only exposure associated with illness. Among randomly selected household members from Røros, a dose-response relationship was observed in daily consumed glasses of tap water (χ2 for trend = 8.1, p = 0.004. Campylobacter with identical AFLP was isolated from 25 out of 26 submitted stool samples. No pathogens were detected in water samples. We identified several events that might have caused pressure fall and influx of contaminated water into the water distribution system. On two occasions, pressure fall was noticed and parts of the distribution system were outdated. Conclusion The investigation confirmed a waterborne outbreak of campylobacteriosis in Røros. Although no single event was identified as the cause of contamination, this outbreak illustrates the vulnerability

  14. Stimulatory drugs of abuse in surface waters and their removal in a conventional drinking water treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Fontela, Maria; Galceran, Maria Teresa; Ventura, Francesc

    2008-09-15

    The presence of psychoactive stimulatory drugs in raw waters used for drinking water production and in finished drinking water was evaluated in a Spanish drinking water treatment plant (DWTP). Contamination of the river basin which provides raw water to this DWTP was also studied. In surface waters, illicit drugs such as cocaine, benzoylecgonine (cocaine metabolite), amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA (ecstasy), and MDA were detected at mean concentrations ranging from 4 to 350 ng/L. Nicotine, caffeine, and their metabolites were also found at the microg/L level. The elimination of these compounds during drinking water treatment was investigated in a real waterworks. Amphetamine-type stimulants (except MDMA) were completely removed during prechlorination, flocculation, and sand filtration steps, yielding concentrations lowerthan their limits of detection (LODs). Further, ozone treatment was shown to be effective in partially eliminating caffeine (76%), while subsequent granulated activated carbon (GAC) filtration removed cocaine (100%), MDMA(88%), benzoylecgonine (72%), and cotinine (63%). Postchlorination achieved the complete elimination of cocaine and nicotine and only one parent compound (caffeine) and two metabolites (cotinine and benzoylecgonine) persisted throughout treatment although reductions of 90% for caffeine and benzoylecgonine and 74% for cotinine were obtained.

  15. Presence of certain enteroviruses (Coxsackie) in sewage effluents and in river waters of Roumania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestor, I; Costin, L

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research studies conducted during a 10-year period (1962-1971) with the view to detect certain enteroviruses (Coxsackie) from sewage, river and drinking water samples, and from the filter sand of drinking water-works supplied with river water. The method consisted first in preconcentrating the samples collected on immersed gauze pads, secondly in the concentration of the virus samples by the following methods-used either separately or in parallel: the Amberlite method, the yeast cell and the aluminium bydroxide concentration method. The isolation of A and B Coxackie viruses averaged 29.12% in the sewage samples and 14.66% in the river water samples. Lower values were found both in aqueduct water and in the filter sand (2 positive samples out of 65 and 3 positive samples out of 39, respectively). A seasonal distribution of the viral incidence was evidenced in the sewage samples with lower value in the river water, while the frequency decreased with the distance from the pollution source. For the lightly contaminated water (river and aqueduct waters) the yeast cell concentration method gave the best results, this method being also the single reliable method for Coxsackie virus isolation from the filter sand samples.

  16. Profit is a dirty word: the development of the public baths and wash-houses in Britain 1847-1915.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheard, S

    2000-04-01

    Researh on sanitary reform in nineteenth-century Britain has focused mainly on the introduction of large-sanitary infrastructure, especially waterworks and sewage systems. Other sanitary measures such as the provision of public baths and wash-houses have been ignored, or discussed in the limited context of working-class responses to middle-class sanitarianism. Yet by 1915 public baths and wash-houses were to be found in nearly every British town and city. A detailed analysis of these 'enterprises' can provide a useful way of understanding the changing priorities of public health professionals and urban authorities as well as the changing attitudes of the working classes. Connections between personal cleanliness and disease evolved during the century, particularly after the formation of germ theory in the 1880s. This paper demonstrates how the introduction of public baths and wash-houses in Liverpool, Belfast, and Glasgow was initially a direct response to sanitary reform campaigns. It also shows that the explicit public health ideology of these developments was constantly compromised by implicit concerns about municipal finance and the potential profit that such enterprises could generate. This city-based analysis shows that this conflict hindered the full sanitary benefit which these schemes potentially offered.

  17. The investigation of fault-controlled groundwater recharge within a suburban area of Damascus, Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannous, M.; Siebert, C.; Tröger, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    Al-Mazraa is a heavily populated suburb of Damascus (Syria) with agricultural activity. It is adjacent to the Cretaceous Qassioun Mountain Range, from which it is structurally separated by the Damascus fault. Al-Mazraa waterworks abstracts from a shallow Quaternary aquifer, whose recharge processes are unidentified. The functions of Qassioun Mountain, the Damascus fault, the agricultural activities, the ascending deeper groundwater, and the through-flowing Tora River are not well understood and they are, hence, subject to study. The application of hydrochemical parameters and ratios in combination with signatures of δD and δ18O revealed that recharge predominantly occurs in the outcropping Cretaceous rocks through subsurface passages rather than through influent conditions of the Tora River or through direct rainfall. Interestingly, high Na/Cl ratios indicate contact with volcanic rocks which exist within the Cretaceous anticline and also in the subsurface of the studied Quaternary aquifer. Evidence for deeper circulating groundwater is given, since replenishing waters are up to 4 °C warmer and have much lower nitrate concentrations than the groundwater in the study area. From these points, it is indicated that the Damascus fault is conductive in respect to groundwater, rather than being impermeable, as it is elsewhere.

  18. Oxidation of the antiviral drug acyclovir and its biodegradation product carboxy-acyclovir with ozone: kinetics and identification of oxidation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasse, Carsten; Wagner, Manfred; Schulz, Ralf; Ternes, Thomas A

    2012-02-21

    The oxidation of the antiviral drug acyclovir (ACV) and its main biotransformation product carboxy-acyclovir (carboxy-ACV) by ozone was investigated. Both compounds have recently been detected in surface water, and carboxy-ACV has also been detected in drinking water. The experiments revealed a strong pH dependence of the oxidation of ACV and carboxy-ACV with reaction rate constants increasing by 4 orders of magnitude between the protonated, positively charged form (k(ox,PH(+)), ∼2.5 × 10(2) M(-1) s(-1)) and the deprotonated, negatively charged form (k(ox,P(-)), 3.4 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)). At pH 8 a single oxidation product was formed which was identified via LC-LTQ-Orbitrap MS and NMR as N-(4-carbamoyl-2-imino-5-oxoimidazolidin)formamido-N-methoxyacetic acid (COFA). Using Vibrio fischeri , an acute bacterial toxicity was found for COFA while carboxy-ACV revealed no toxic effects. Ozonation experiments with guanine and guanosine at pH 8 led to the formation of the respective 2-imino-5-oxoimidazolidines, confirming that guanine derivatives such as carboxy-ACV are undergoing the same reactions during ozonation. Furthermore, COFA was detected in finished drinking water of a German waterworks after ozonation and subsequent activated carbon treatment.

  19. Genotoxicity of drinking water treated with different disinfectants and effects of disinfection conditions detected by umu-test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xuebiao; Liu, Wenjun; Zhang, Liping; Liu, Qing

    2017-06-01

    The genotoxicity of drinking water treated with 6 disinfection methods and the effects of disinfection conditions were investigated using the umu-test. The pretreatment procedure of samples for the umu-test was optimized for drinking water analysis. The results of the umu-test were in good correlation with those of the Ames-test. The genotoxicity and production of haloacetic acids (HAAs) were the highest for chlorinated samples. UV+chloramination is the safest disinfection method from the aspects of genotoxicity, HAA production and inactivation effects. For chloramination, the effects of the mass ratio of Cl2 to N of chloramine on genotoxicity were also studied. The changes of genotoxicity were different from those of HAA production, which implied that HAA production cannot represent the genotoxic potential of water. The genotoxicity per chlorine decay of chlorination and chloramination had similar trends, indicating that the reaction of organic matters and chlorine made a great contribution to the genotoxicity. The results of this study are of engineering significance for optimizing the operation of waterworks. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. 变频泵出口恒压力控制的PLC方案%Constant Pressure Output Under PLC and Frequency Converter Controlling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈日斌

    2011-01-01

    It is important to realize constant pressure output in the waterworks. All kinds of disturbance can affect output pressure. We can control the pump speed by feedback pressure to supply constant pressure output. So it is crucial how to control pump speed.%目前淡水厂的泵出口水压力调节绝大部分要求恒压控制,而系统的各种扰动都会影响到泵出口的实时水压力。通过系统反馈的出口供水压力,调节变频泵的转速来实现恒压控制的目的。因此变频泵速度给定的控制方案就成了恒压控制的关键。为了保证变频泵的快速响应并且不出现超调,本文采用了分段速度给定的办法。

  1. Improvement of organics removal by bio-ceramic filtration of raw water with addition of phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Junqiang; Zhang, Xihui; Li, Lingzhi; Wang, Zhansheng

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of phosphorus addition on biological pretreatment of raw water. Experiments were conducted in pilot-scale bio-ceramic filters with raw water from a reservoir located in Beijing, China. The results demonstrated that phosphorus was the limiting nutrient for bacterial growth in the raw water investigated in this study. The measured values of bacterial regrowth potential (BRP) and biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) of the raw water increased by 50-65% and 30-40% with addition of 50 microg of PO4(3-)-PL(-1), respectively. Addition of 25 microg of PO4(3-)-PL(-1) to the influent of bio-ceramic filter enhanced the percent removal of organics by 4.6, 5.7 and 15 percentage points in terms of COD(Mn), TOC and BDOC, respectively. Biomass in terms of phospholipid content increased by 13-22% and oxygen uptake rate (OUR) increased by 35-45%. The ratio of C:P for bacteria growth was 100:1.6 for the raw water used in this study. Since change of phosphorus concentrations can influence the performance of biological pretreatment and the biological stability of drinking water, this study is of substantial significance for waterworks in China. The role of phosphorus in biological processes of drinking water should deserve more attention.

  2. Investigation of natural biofilms formed during the production of drinking water from surface water embankment filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emtiazi, Farahnaz; Schwartz, Thomas; Marten, Silke Mareike; Krolla-Sidenstein, Peter; Obst, Ursula

    2004-03-01

    Populations of bacteria in biofilms from different sites of a drinking water production system were analysed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses revealed changing DNA band patterns, suggesting a population shift during bank filtration and processing at the waterworks. In addition, common DNA bands that were attributed to ubiquitous bacteria were found. Biofilms even developed directly after UV disinfection (1-2m distance). Their DNA band patterns only partly agreed with those of the biofilms from the downstream distribution system. Opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in biofilms were analysed using PCR and Southern blot hybridisation (SBH). Surface water appeared to have a direct influence on the composition of biofilms in the drinking water distribution system. In spite of preceding filtration and UV disinfection, opportunistic pathogens such as atypical mycobacteria and Legionella spp. were found in biofilms of drinking water, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected sporadically. Enterococci were not found in any biofilm. Bacterial cell counts in the biofilms from surface water to drinking water dropped significantly, and esterase and alanine-aminopeptidase activity decreased. beta-glucosidase activity was not found in the biofilms. Contrary to the results for planktonic bacteria, inhibitory effects were not observed in biofilms. This suggested an increased tolerance of biofilm bacteria against toxic compounds.

  3. MENGEMBANGKAN KEMITRAAN PENGELOLAAN SUMBER DAYA AIR DI DUKUH KALIURANG DESA KEMBANGLANGIT KEC. BLADO KAB. BATANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Fakhrina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed: (1 to map socio-economic situation in Kaliurang, (2 to identify the issues that were most felt by the community living in Kaliurang, (3 to know the impact of socio-economic after the water source “Sigintung” controlled by the Municipal Waterworks (PDAM of Batang Regency, (4 to encourage the initiation to build partnership management of water resources between the community and the stakeholders in Batang, and (5 to obtain alternative management schemes that guarantee the rights of local communities with stakeholders in realizing fair and sustainable management of water resources. The approach taken in this study were: (1 Rapid Rural Appraisal, (2 Participatory Rural Appraisal, and (3 Participatory Action Research. The result of this research shows that the controlling water source “Sigintung” by PDAM bring about apprehensive impact to the local community so that they live in poverty, and this is the issue that is most felt by them. Therefore, they want to solve this problem by initiating partnership management of water resources between them and the stakeholders in Batang, and the result is that now, they can access the water from the PDAM’s water receptacle in water source “Sigintung” directly. In addition, they build water installation and receptacle beside the Musholla to transport water from the receptacle to their houses, even though other expectation cannot be realized due to the stakeholders attending the meeting in Kaliurang were not the managements that can make a decision.

  4. Health Risk Assessment Research on Heavy Metals Ingestion Through Groundwater Drinking Pathway for the Residents in Baotou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Liping; Wang, Yeyao; Guo, Yongli; Zhou, Youya; Liu, Li; Yan, Zengguang; Li, Fasheng; Xie, Xuefeng

    2016-01-01

    Drinking groundwater is a significant pathway for human exposure to heavy metals. To evaluate the health effect of some heavy metals ingestion through the groundwater drinking pathway, the authors collected 35 groundwater samples from the drinking water wells of local residents and the exploitation wells of waterworks in Baotou, China. The monitoring results indicate that the groundwater had been polluted by heavy metals in some regions of the study area. A health risk assessment model derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency was used to determine the noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic effects to residents who drink groundwater. All the respondents in the study area were at potential risk of carcinogenic health effects from arsenic when using the lowest safe standard for carcinogenic risk (1E-06). The hazard quotient values for noncarcinogenic health risk of arsenic exceeded 1 in 14.3% of the sampling wells in the study area. The research results could provide baseline data for groundwater utilization and supervision in the Baotou plain area.

  5. A survey on levels and seasonal changes of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and its precursors in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkouchi, Yumiko; Ly, Bich Thuy; Ishikawa, Suguru; Aoki, Yusuke; Echigo, Shinya; Itoh, Sadahiko

    2011-10-01

    In Japan, customers' concerns about chlorinous odour in drinking water have been increasing. One promising approach for reducing chlorinous odour is the minimization of residual chlorine in water distribution, which requires stricter control of organics to maintain biological stability in water supply systems. In this investigation, the levels and seasonal changes of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and its precursors in drinking water were surveyed to accumulate information on organics in terms of biological stability. In tap water samples purified through rapid sand filtration processes, the average AOC concentration was 174 microgC/L in winter and 60 microgC/L in summer. This difference seemed to reflect the seasonal changes of AOC in the natural aquatic environment. On the other hand, very little or no AOC could be removed after use of an ozonation-biological activated carbon (BAC) process. Especially in winter, waterworks should pay attention to BAC operating conditions to improve AOC removal. The storage of BAC effluent with residual chlorine at 0.05-0.15 mgCl2/L increased AOC drastically. This result indicated the possibility that abundant AOC precursors remaining in the finished water could contribute to newly AOC formation during water distribution with minimized residual chlorine. Combined amino acids, which remained at roughly equivalent to AOC in finished water, were identified as major AOC precursors. Prior to minimization of residual chlorine, enhancement of the removal abilities for both AOC and its precursors would be necessary.

  6. 微污染水源水处理技术研究新进展%New Research Progress of Mio-polluted Water Resource Treatment Techonology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘思宇; 张可方; 张立秋; 张朝升

    2014-01-01

    Presently, the water quality of drinking water source in China is faced with grim situation.The conventional treatment processes of waterworks can not meet the new standard of yielding water requirements.In this paper,the treatment measures on slightly polluted water are investigated, analyzed and discussed based on the recent new research、 development and applicationsof the polluted water treatment processes.In the meantime,the proper advanced treatment technologies are also introduced.the prospect and development trend of the technologies of polluted water treatment are proposed.%目前,饮用水水源水质形势严峻,现有常规处理工艺满足不了新标准出水要求。综述了具有较好实际应用价值的微污染水源水处理技术工艺的最新研究、发展及其实践,同时对几种适宜的深度处理技术进行了介绍,展望了微污染水源水处理技术工艺的应用趋势。

  7. EFFECTS OF EXCESS URBAN RUNOFF ON WASTE WATER FLOW IN PÉCS, HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. RONCZYK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Global warming has been leading to climate change that is predicted to cause an increase in the frequency and intensity of rainfall. Urban areas must be designed to cope with the undesired effect and risks associated with stormwater runoff. Stormwater, entering into the sewerage of Pécs, SW Hungary, exerts an extra load on wastewater and sewage transfer in the underground pipeline system. Based on precipitation and pumping station flow data, we identified a strong correspondence between rainfall and flow behavior in Pécs. We also determined the types of foreign waters entering the sewerage according to their source and origin. Our study also indicates that 32% of the entire land area has a low-degree infrastructure for cutting-edge stormwater drainage and management. The results of the current research aid to evaluate the adequate methodology for risk analysis of each sewage catchment. The spatial analysis of waste water system and its physical and human geographical environment became an effective tool to help the local waterworks (Tettye Forrásház Ltd. to estimate potential hazard level in each sewage catchment and allocate and distribute pumping costs and efforts among the pumping stations during spatiallyheterogeneous torrential rainfall events.

  8. Ecological studies on medaka in a remained habitat in Qinhuangdao, Hebei, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiguo LI; Huiguang FU

    2009-01-01

    Ecological studies were carried out in the remaining habitat for medaka (Oryzias latipes), a marsh in the suburbs of Qinhuangdao City, Hebei Province, China. Sewage released from villages increases the nutrient levels in open water areas of the marsh, while in cattail (Typha angustifolia) and reed {Phragmites communis) beds the nutrient levels are decreased. There are fewer zooplanktons in the cattail and reed beds than in the open water areas. Sampling fishes with trap nets showed that medaka lived in dense populations in the cattail and reed beds, while the other three fish species, wild goldfish (Carassius auratus), topmouth gudgeon (Pseudorasbora parva), and mud loach (Misgurnus bipartitus), occupied the open water areas in the marsh. A little amount of paradise fish (Macropodus chinensis) was also found in the marsh. Japanese freshwater shrimps {Macrobrachium nipponense) were found only in the influx canal from waterworks. Indoor aquarium experiments showed that the wild medaka in this marsh was easily cultured with commercial feed similar to domesticated strains. Some ecological aspects of the medaka were discussed based on the observations of the fish in the marsh.

  9. Occurrence and removal of phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals in the water treatment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xuemin; Xiao, Sanhua; Zhang, Gang; Jiang, Pu; Tang, Fei

    2016-03-01

    This paper evaluated the occurrence and removal efficiency of four selected phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (bisphenol A (BPA), octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP) and diethylstilbestrol (DES)) in two drinking waterworks in Jiangsu province which take source water from Taihu Lake. The recombined yeast estrogen screen (YES) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were applied to assess the estrogenicity and detect the estrogens in the samples. The estrogen equivalents (EEQs) ranged from nd (not detected) to 2.96 ng/L, and the estrogenic activities decreased along the processes. Among the 32 samples, DES prevailed in all samples, with concentrations ranging 1.46-12.0 ng/L, BPA, OP and NP were partially detected, with concentrations ranging from nd to 17.73 ng/L, nd to 0.49 ng/L and nd to 3.27 ng/L, respectively. DES was found to be the main contributor to the estrogenicity (99.06%), followed by NP (0.62%), OP (0.23%) and BPA (0.09%). From the observation of treatment efficiency, the advanced treatment processes presented much higher removal ratio in reducing DES, the biodegradation played an important role in removing BPA, ozonation and pre-oxidation showed an effective removal on all the four estrogens; while the conventional ones can also reduce all the four estrogens.

  10. Registration and visualisation of water management data on the basis of a geographic information system; Erfassung und Visualisierung wasserwirtschaftlicher Daten auf der Grundlage eines geographischen Informationssystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, F.J. [ENVIS GmbH, Ascheberg (Germany); Peterwitz, U. [Gelsenwasser AG, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    2001-01-01

    The GELSENWASSER water management system was renewed with regard to future request respectively the changing of millenium. Mobil, manual or long-distance transmission registrated water levels, outflows and precipitations from water catchment areas of several waterworks are administered with the aid of an ORACLE data bank system. Interfaces allow a many sided data in- and export with a third party as for example the federal ground water service. For making reports the wellknown OFFICE tool EXCEL is used. Informations related to areas like for instance water quality data are illustrated by a geographic information system. (orig.) [German] Das Wasserwirtschaftssystem der GELSENWASSER AG wurde im Hinblick auf die zukuenftigen Anforderungen bzw. den Jahrtausendwechsel erneuert. Mobil, manuell oder per Fernuebertragung erfasste Wasserstaende, Abfluesse und Niederschlaege aus den Einzugsgebieten mehrerer Wasserwerke werden mit Hilfe eines ORACLE-Datenbanksystems verwaltet. Schnittstellen erlauben einen vielseitigen Datenim- und -export mit Dritten wie z.B. dem Landesgrundwasserdienst. Beim Berichtswesen wird das vielseits gebraeuchliche OFFICE-Werkzueg EXCEL eingesetzt. Informationen mit Raumbezug wie z.B. Gewaesserguetedaten werden mit einem Geografischen Informationssystem dargestellt. (orig.)

  11. Developmentof the safety monitoring system of hydraulic structuresof the Moscow canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levachev Stanislav Nikolaevich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The basis of the enterprise “Moscow Canal” in its present state is the canal Moscow - Volga constructed in 1937. Today “Moscow Canal” is the biggest water transport and water industry complex. It has 10 filiations and solves a substantial complex of tasks. One of the most important part of hydraulic structures operation is their observation or monitoring of their safety, which gives us timely and adequate picture of their work and helps to forecast and prevent emergency situations.The article is devoted to the development of the monitoring system of the waterworks of the Moscow canal beginning with the moment of its construction to the present time, the observation analysis of the condition of the walls of canal locks chambers, lock no. 2 where destructive processes in the operation of the walls were first discovered and different methods of liquidation of their development were made. The main problems in the field of monitoring of hydrotechnical structures of the Moscow canal are identified basing on the analysis of the observations.

  12. Evolution of Pretreatment Methods for Nanofiltration Membrane Used for Dissolved Organic Matter Removal in Raw Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirikul Siriraksophon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation and microfiltration using polyaluminium chloride (PACl were investigated as a pretreatment process by nanofiltration to reduce dissolved organic matter in both raw water and treated water at water treatment plants. The dissolved organic matter in the raw water supply may be a precursor of carcinogens produced during the disinfection process. Raw water from pumping stations and treated water from Hat Yai Provincial Waterworks Authority, Songkhla Province, Thailand were used as samples for this study. Fractionation of raw water samples by DAX-8 and XAD-4 resin revealed that they contained hydrophilic, transphilic and hydrophobic groups with hydrophilic the major organic component. PACl coagulation resulted in a higher dissolved organic matter removal than microfiltration techniques. A hybrid coagulation-nanofiltration process was studied. This effectively reduced dissolved organic matter as dissolved organic carbon and UV-254 by 86% and 94% respectively. The hybrid coagulation-nanofiltration process reduced dissolved organic carbons of the hydrophobic group more effectively than the hydrophilic group. Chloroform and bromodichloroform were the two major species of the trihalomethane group produced when raw water reacted with chlorine. The hybrid coagulation-nanofiltration process reduced the trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP in raw water samples by up to 90%

  13. Faecal contamination of a municipal drinking water distribution system in association with Campylobacter jejuni infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, Tarja; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Nakari, Ulla-Maija; Takkinen, Johanna; Nieminen, Kalle; Siitonen, Anja; Kuusi, Markku; Holopainen, Arja; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2008-09-01

    After heavy rains Campylobacter jejuni together with high counts of Escherichia coli, other coliforms and intestinal enterococci were detected from drinking water of a municipal distribution system in eastern Finland in August 2004. Three patients with a positive C. jejuni finding, who had drunk the contaminated water, were identified and interviewed. The pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotypes from the patient samples were identical to some of the genotypes isolated from the water of the suspected contamination source. In addition, repetitive DNA element analysis (rep-PCR) revealed identical patterns of E. coli and other coliform isolates along the distribution line. Further on-site technical investigations revealed that one of the two rainwater gutters on the roof of the water storage tower had been in an incorrect position and rainwater had flushed a large amount of faecal material from wild birds into the drinking water. The findings required close co-operation between civil authorities, and application of cultivation and genotyping techniques strongly suggested that the municipal drinking water was the source of the infections. The faecal contamination associated with failures in cleaning and technical management stress the importance of instructions for waterworks personnel to perform maintenance work properly.

  14. Sandakan water supply extension scheme. Sandakan suido secchi kakucho koji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kage, S.: Tsujimura, O.; Shimura, Y.; Shinomiya, H.; Ichise, Y. (Kasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Ozaki, F. (Katetsu Civil Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-09-01

    Waterworks facilities having a maximum supply capacity of 62000m{sup 3}/d were constructed in Sandakan, Saban, Malaysia in November of 1989 after a construction period close to three years. The scope of the work covered civil works for intaks facilities at a river bank, diversed contents of construction, areally scattered construction sites, the managenment of construction at a remote place, etc. over 90km from intake site to the distribution site. This construction included procurement of materials from 10 countries and a diversity of related subsidiary work such as the installment and commissioning of mechanical and electrical facilities. This paper mainly describes the technical features of this scheme. Steel pipe pile retaining walls for bank protection structure were successfully fabricated so as to match the conditions of the construction site. A 50t steel frame base was laid under the water and a network technique of process control was adopted for responding to unpredicted situations. Field technicians were educated positively in order to secure sufficient manpower. The construction required difficult managements because of its diversed processes and broad site. 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Public utilities with renewable energy sources. Proceedings; Stadtwerke mit Erneuerbaren Energien. Konferenzbeitraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Within the Second EUROSOLAR Conference of EUROSOLAR, the European Association for Renewable Energy (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) between 15th and 16th May, 2008, at the Waterworks Braunschweig (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The municipal public utility: The paradigm shift from power distribution companies to municipal infrastructure provider (C. Jaenig); (2) Public utilities and their concepts (Z. Meszaros); (3) The BS Energy Group (U.Lehmann-Grube); (4) New ways with energy (T. Westerheide); (5) Public utilities and their concepts (R. Edzards); (6) Public utilities with renewable energy (P. Asmuth); (7) Total concept of the public utility Wolfhagen (M. Ruehl); (8) Municipal energy concepts for the expansion of the combined heat and power generation and renewable energies (J. van Bergen); (9) Storage of renewable energy (T. Blank); (10) Public utility as a confident partner of a renewable regional economy (R. Hemmers); (11) The regenerative combined cycle power plant (M. Meyr); (12) The solar power system of systaic (O. Achilles); (13) The concession contract as an instrument for restructuring (J. Schwarz); (14) EEG 2009, GasNZV and EEWaermeG: The changed legal framework as a chance for a restructured power generation (M. Altrock).

  16. Tourism Expenditures and Environment in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliga Sompholkrang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tourism activities affect the environment of different destinations, which is influenced by different tourists’ consumption. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between inbound tourist expenditures and three main environmental dimensions, which are carbon dioxide emission from transport, energy demand, and water usage, in Thailand. This paper employs Vector Autoregressive (VAR models to determine the relationship of variables. Data from Ministry of Energy, Bank of Thailand, Metropolitan Electricity Authority, Provincial Waterworks Authority, National Statistical Office, Department of Tourism, and Tourism Authority of Thailand between 1988 and 2012 have been applied in the model. Note that, energy demand is represented by total electricity consumption of hotel and accommodation sector in Thailand, while water usage is represented by the total water consumption of tourists. This study found the relationships among tourists’ expenditures, carbon dioxide emission from transport, energy demand, and water usage. Therefore, the policies recommendations may be essential to prepare the optimal schemes and budgets for encountering the environmental impacts from tourism business expansion.

  17. [Preventive measures for improvement of suitability of water from individual water supply objects in the areas ravaged by war].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venus, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this article was to test the success of sanation of unsatisfactory individual water supply objects in the areas ravages of war. 198 individual water supply objects were consolidated in the area of Voćin, with hyperchlorination and pumping out of water, after which desinfection with chlorine preparation was carried out. Samples of drinking water taken for bacteriological analysis were analyzed on total coliform bacteria, fecal coliform bacteria and fecal streptococci by method of membranous filtration, while the number of colonies of aerobic bacteria at 22 degrees C and 37 degrees C were determined on triptosis-glucosis-yeast agar. Good samples, considering the Regulations on health suitability of drinking water, were 152, or 77%. In unfit samples, which were 46, or 23%, the most common isolates were fecal streptococci, with frequency of 30%. Although public waterworks represent the best way to supply people with good drinking water, it is possible to achieve a satisfactory degree of water quality from individual water supply objects with implementation of public health activities, if we execute them periodically and professionally.

  18. Water catchment areas: Tools for management and control of hazardous compounds - WATCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Track, T.; Huntley, S.; Setford, S.; Barcelo, D.; Rosell, M.; Wijdens, J.; Vermot-Desroches, C.; Werner, P.; Fahl, J.; Rohns, H.-P.; Forner, C.; Hitsch, E.; Brun, A.; Jensen, B. [Dechema e.V., Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    The focus of WATCH is on the creation of early warning systems to identify potential contamination threats to groundwater resources in catchment areas of waterworks. The goal is a sustainable protection and use of drinking water resources. MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether) and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-, o-, p-xylene) compounds were selected as exemplary contaminants that will be considered. Main objectives are (1) to develop and implement analytical methods and instrumentation for in-situ monitoring of BTEX and MTBE in groundwater and sediment (2) an integrated at-site early warning and management tool on a catchment scale (3) evaluation of both objectives on-site. Other objectives include use of oil leak sensors to indicate soil contamination, development and in-situ testing of optical reflectance sensors and rapid on site immunoassay kits, a protocol for sample handling and analysis of BTEX and MTBE, development of a BTEX and MTBE database for degradation behaviour, incl. degradation pathways and inhibition/stimulation assessment for MTBE. The sensors and monitoring system will be tested at 2 end users. Also design of an integrated management tool for catchment areas with contaminant sources, including a risk management and reduction strategy will be addressed. (orig.)

  19. The Water Pricing Effects on the Water Use of the Hungarian Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László VASA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Hungary has remarkable surface and subsurface water resources which result in important comparative benefits. In Hungary, before the political change, the water prices were determined by the state. According to the underlying principles of the communism, the water prices were very low as well. After the political and economical change in Hungary, from 1990 the water market started to be oligopoly-like: today the water supply is managed by regional water-work companies which are operating under state coordinated frames (e.g. price allowance, state-fixed prices containing profit. The consequences of the changeover to the capitalism have several effects; there is a need for the validating of the real costs and the environmental aspects in the water prices. This new approach led to the increased water-prices. In this study, the reaction of the Hungarian households to the growing of the water-rates is examined. The research work is based on primary statistical data. The analysis shows that the water consumption is hardly decreased and the sparing of water became more important. The study overviews the Hungarian water consumption structure as well.

  20. Safe and Affordable Drinking Water for Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2008-09-01

    Safe drinking water remains inaccessible for about 1.2 billion people in the world, and the hourly toll from biological contamination of drinking water is 200 deaths mostly among children under five years of age. This chapter summarizes the need for safe drinking water, the scale of the global problem, and various methods tried to address it. Then it gives the history and current status of an innovation ("UV Waterworks™") developed to address this major public health challenge. It reviews water disinfection technologies applicable to achieve the desired quality of drinking water in developing countries, and specifically, the limitations overcome by one particular invention: UV Waterworks. It then briefly describes the business model and financing option than is accelerating its implementation for affordable access to safe drinking water to the unserved populations in these countries. Thus this chapter describes not only the innovation in design of a UV water disinfection system, but also innovation in the delivery model for safe drinking water, with potential for long term growth and sustainability.

  1. Factors influencing disinfection by-products formation in drinking water of six cities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bixiong; Wang, Wuyi; Yang, Linsheng; Wei, Jianrong; E, Xueli

    2009-11-15

    Based on the measured chemical and physical data in drinking water from six cities in China, the factors including total organic carbon (TOC), ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV(254)), pH, applied chlorine dosage, temperature, concentrations of bromide ion and several chemical elements which possibly affect the formation of trihalomethane (THM) and haloacetic acid (HAA) have been studied. The results showed that: in all factors, TOC and UV(254) have definite correlations with total THM, but have nonsignificant relationships with total HAA. In the studied pH range of 6.5-8.5 for drinking water, the total THM concentration increased with the increasing of pH value, but the total HAA concentration slightly decreased. A low but significant relationship (r=0.26, pwater temperature was low, the variation of THMs and HAAs was little, but in warmer water, the concentration of THMs and HAAs varied quickly. The extent of bromine incorporation into the DBPs increases with increasing bromide ion concentration. Based on the effect of chemical elements for the DBPs remove effect, the polyferric chloride could be a preferred flocculant agent in waterworks.

  2. Ceramics Vitreous China Produced by Utilizing Sediment Soil from Water Supply Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangrakdiskul Ubolrat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to generating the abundant of sediment soil, it makes the high burden of disposal cost to the metropolitan waterworks authority. Enhancing the value of sediment soil has been explored. This research aims to utilize the sediment soil, wastes of water supply treatment process for producing ceramics vitreous china. In this experiment, five types of raw materials are exploited, namely, sediment soil, ball clay, kaolin, feldspar and silica sand. The formulas have been divided into two groups. Sediment soil has been used as substituted material in ball clay for the first group, and substituted in kaolin for the second group. The specimens of each formula are formed by uniaxial pressing at 100 bar of size 50×100×7 mm. Then they have been sintered at two different temperatures, 1200°C and 1250°C, with heating rate 400° C/ hr and soaking for 30 minutes. The result reveals that the suitable formula for ceramics vitreous china is No. 2_4 of Group 2 with sintering temperature 1250°C. Its mixture consists of 0% kaolin, 35% ball clay, 30% feldspar, 20% silica sand and 15% sediment soil. The properties of this formula are 9.4% shrinkage, 9.39 MPa of bending strength, 6.34×10−6/K coefficient of thermal expansion, and 0.66% water absorption.

  3. Solar Fridges and Personal Power Grids: How Berkeley Lab is Fighting Global Poverty (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buluswar, Shashi [Director, LBNL Institute for Globally Transformative Technologies; Gadgil, Ashok

    2012-11-26

    At this November 26, 2012 Science at the Theater, scientists discussed the recently launched LBNL Institute for Globally Transformative Technologies (LIGTT) at Berkeley Lab. LIGTT is an ambitious mandate to discover and develop breakthrough technologies for combating global poverty. It was created with the belief that solutions will require more advanced R&D and a deep understanding of market needs in the developing world. Berkeley Lab's Ashok Gadgil, Shashi Buluswar and seven other LIGTT scientists discussed what it takes to develop technologies that will impact millions of people. These include: 1) Fuel efficient stoves for clean cooking: Our scientists are improving the Berkeley Darfur Stove, a high efficiency stove used by over 20,000 households in Darfur; 2) The ultra-low energy refrigerator: A lightweight, low-energy refrigerator that can be mounted on a bike so crops can survive the trip from the farm to the market; 3) The solar OB suitcase: A low-cost package of the five most critical biomedical devices for maternal and neonatal clinics; 4) UV Waterworks: A device for quickly, safely and inexpensively disinfecting water of harmful microorganisms.

  4. Investigation on the Key Factors and the Solution for pH Value Decrease in Carbon Filter in O3-BAC Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆少鸣; 陈江玲; 李芳

    2013-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to eliminate the decrease of effluent pH value in carbon filter in O3-biological activated carbon process. The influence factors were examined in a pilot test, and pH was adjusted in the pilot and waterworks. Results show that the carbon filter is an acid-base buffer system and the activated carbon is the key factor. Chemical functional groups on activated carbon surface present acid-base properties to buffer the water but decrease with time, so that effluent pH value decreases. The effects of ozone dosage, CO2 in the carbon filter, and the filter influent quality are negligible. A new method to adjust pH is developed:the activated carbon is first modified by soaking in sodium hydroxide solution to make its pH reach the desired value, and then the pH value of inflow is controlled to certain value by dosing lime in sand filter influent. The method is economical and effective.

  5. Water, society and urbanization in the 19th century Belgrade: Lessons for adaptation to the climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćorović Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces urban history of Belgrade in the 19th century by looking into its waterscape in the context of its transformation as the capital of the Princedom of Serbia. Aiming to underline the importance of water as a resource, with the view to contemporary environmental concerns, we explore how citizens historically related to waterscape in everyday life and created a specific socio-spatial water network through use of public baths on the river banks and public fountains, water features and devices in the city. The paper outlines the process of establishing the first modern public water supply system on the foundations of the city’s historical Roman, Austrian and Ottoman waterworks. It also looks at the Topčider River as the most telling example of degradation of a culturally and historically significant urban watercourse from its natural, pastoral and civic past to its current polluted and hazardous state. Could the restitution of the Topčider River be considered as a legacy of sustainability for future generations, and are there lessons to be learned from the urban history which can point to methods of contemporary water management?

  6. Salmonella enterica resistant to antimicrobials in wastewater effluents and black-headed gulls in the Czech Republic, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masarikova, Martina; Manga, Ivan; Cizek, Alois; Dolejska, Monika; Oravcova, Veronika; Myskova, Petra; Karpiskova, Renata; Literak, Ivan

    2016-01-15

    We investigated the presence and epidemiological relatedness of Salmonella isolates from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Brno, Czech Republic and from nestlings of black-headed gulls (Chroicocephalus ridibundus) at the Nove Mlyny waterworks, situated 35 km downstream from the WWTP. During 2012, we collected 37 wastewater samples and 284 gull cloacal swabs. From wastewater samples, we obtained 89 Salmonella isolates belonging to 19 serotypes. At least one resistant strain was contained in 89% of those samples. Ten different serotypes of Salmonella were detected in 38 young gulls, among which 14 (37%) were resistant to antimicrobials. Wastewater isolates were mostly resistant to sulphonamides and tetracycline, gull isolates to tetracycline and ampicillin. We detected the occurrence of blaTEM-1,tet(A), tet(B), tet(G), sul1, sul2, sul3, floR and strA resistance genes. For the first time, we identified a class 1 integron with the dfrA12-orfF-aadA2 gene cassette in S. Infantis. Using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, we confirmed the presence of identical clusters of S. Agona, S. Enteritidis PT8, S. Infantis and S. Senftenberg in wastewater and black-headed gulls, thus indicating the possibility of resistant Salmonella isolates spreading over long distances in the environment.

  7. Formation of biofilms in drinking water distribution networks, a case study in two cities in Finland and Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtola, Markku J; Juhna, Tālis; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Vartiainen, Terttu; Martikainen, Pertti J

    2004-12-01

    The formation of biofilms in drinking water distribution networks is a significant technical, aesthetic and hygienic problem. In this study, the effects of assimilable organic carbon, microbially available phosphorus (MAP), residual chlorine, temperature and corrosion products on the formation of biofilms were studied in two full-scale water supply systems in Finland and Latvia. Biofilm collectors consisting of polyvinyl chloride pipes were installed in several waterworks and distribution networks, which were supplied with chemically precipitated surface waters and groundwater from different sources. During a 1-year study, the biofilm density was measured by heterotrophic plate counts on R2A-agar, acridine orange direct counting and ATP-analyses. A moderate level of residual chlorine decreased biofilm density, whereas an increase of MAP in water and accumulated cast iron corrosion products significantly increased biofilm density. This work confirms, in a full-scale distribution system in Finland and Latvia, our earlier in vitro finding that biofilm formation is affected by the availability of phosphorus in drinking water.

  8. Analysis and occurrence of pharmaceuticals, estrogens, progestogens and polar pesticides in sewage treatment plant effluents, river water and drinking water in the Llobregat river basin (Barcelona, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Marina; López de Alda, Maria José; Hernando, Maria Dolores; Petrovic, Mira; Martín-Alonso, Jordi; Barceló, Damià

    2008-08-01

    SummaryThis work investigated the presence of 21 emerging contaminants of various chemical groups (7 estrogens, 3 progestogens, 6 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), and 5 acidic pesticides) in the Llobregat river basin (NE Spain). Waters from the outlet of various sewage treatment plants (STP) and waterworks located along the river basin, as well as water samples from the river or its tributaries upstream and downstream of these plants were analysed in two pilot monitoring studies. Chemical analyses were performed by means of on-line or off-line solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. Methods detection limits (in ng/L) were ⩽0.85 for estrogens, ⩽3.94 for progestogens, ⩽30 for PPCPs, and ⩽0.99 for pesticides. Of the estrogens and progestogens analysed, only estrone-3-sulfate, estrone, estriol and progesterone were found to be present in the low nanogram per liter range in some of the samples investigated. Except for atenolol, all PPCPs studied (ibuprofen, diclofenac, clofibric acid, salicylic acid, and triclosan) could be identified at levels usually lower than 250 ng/L and up to 1200 ng/l (diclofenac). Of the various pesticides investigated (2,4-D, bentazone; MCPA, mecoprop and propanil) MCPA and 2,4-D were the most ubiquitous and abundant and bentazone the only one not detected. Individual concentrations were most often below 100 ng/L and never surpassed the EU limits.

  9. Coagulation and flocculation in the preparation of drinking water in a pilot plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iličić Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the practical part in this article was to explore the influence of different parameters on coagulation and flocculation processes as well as the influence of this stage on other stages in water purification. Analysis of the water samples was conducted in the chemical laboratory of Banja Luka Municipal Waterworks using standard methods for analyzing drinking water. The results are presented as diagrams that show the dependence of different parameters as a function of the residual turbidity and the content of natural organic matters in water. The following conclusions were drawn It is necessary to conduct the chemical treatment of raw water with the aim to satisfy chemical and bacteriological standards for drinking water. The best results were achieved with Al2(SO4s as coagulant,. Counterrecoil sludge in an amount of 2-3% in relation with the total quantity of water has a positive impacts on coagulation-flocculation processes. 4. For effective purification, all the conditions for coagulation-flocculation must be adjusted for the filter to have a longer useful life. One of example is correction of the pH to pH=7, coagulant dose 20 mg/L Al2(SO4s, flocculant dose 0.1 mg/L PE, counterrecoil sludge dose 90 L/h PM.

  10. Concurrent phenomena of science and history in the 17th century and their essential interdependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, H.

    1992-01-01

    The explanation for the explosion of science in the 17th century lies in history and medical historiography. Without this approach, it becomes fantasy, accidents, or success stories. Sigerist grasped the essential interdependence of science and history, and had no need for devised reasons or speculation. He realized that once the dark night of the Middle Ages was over, the sciences arose with undreamt of force and accelerated development. The advances in astronomy, mathematics, mechanics, and experimental science benefitted a society developing in seafaring, manufacture, and trade in the 17th century. Sigerist's views make the scientific explosion understandable in human and social terms. He did not overlook the capabilities of some extraordinary individuals, such as Paracelsus (1493-1541), to shape the course of medicine, nor the importance of the mechanistic philosophy in the 17th century. Man makes history and science; hence, we find concurrent phenomena of history and science essentially interdependent. The spirit of experimental science of 17th century England was inspired by the new needs of commercial enterprise for more means of transportation and communication. Likewise, the interest in the mechanics of the pump for waterworks and for the drainage of swamps led Harvey to think of the heart as a pump, and to explain the circulation of the blood in terms of its functioning. PMID:1608066

  11. Full-scale study of removal effect on Cyclops of zooplankton with chlorine dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Tao; CUI Fu-yi; LIU Dong-mei; AN Dong

    2004-01-01

    Cyclops of zooplankton propagated excessively in eutrophic water body and could not be effectively inactivated by the conventional disinfections process like chlorination due to its stronger resistance to oxidation. In this paper, a full-scale study of chlorine dioxide preoxidation cooperating with routine clarification process for Cyclops removal was conducted in a waterworks. The experimental results were compared with that of the existing prechlorination process in several aspects: including the Cyclops removal efficiencies of water samples taken from the outlets of sedimentation tank and sand filter and the security of drinking water etc. The results showed that chlorine dioxide might be more effective to inactivate Cyclops than chlorine and Cyclops could be thoroughly removed from water by pre-dosing chlorine dioxide process. The GC-MS examination and Ames test further showed that the sort and amount of organic substance in the treated water by chlorine dioxide preoxidation were evidently less than that of prechlorination and the mutagenicity of drinking water treated by pre-dosing chlorine dioxide was substantially reduced compared with prechlorination.

  12. The drinking water treatment process as a potential source of affecting the bacterial antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaohui; Ma, Xiaolin; Xu, Fengming; Li, Jing; Zhang, Hang; Xiao, Xiang

    2015-11-15

    Two waterworks, with source water derived from the Huangpu or Yangtze River in Shanghai, were investigated, and the effluents were plate-screened for antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) using five antibiotics: ampicillin (AMP), kanamycin (KAN), rifampicin (RFP), chloramphenicol (CM) and streptomycin (STR). The influence of water treatment procedures on the bacterial antibiotic resistance rate and the changes that bacteria underwent when exposed to the five antibiotics at concentration levels ranging from 1 to 100 μg/mL were studied. Multi-drug resistance was also analyzed using drug sensitivity tests. The results indicated that bacteria derived from water treatment plant effluent that used the Huangpu River rather than the Yangtze River as source water exhibited higher antibiotic resistance rates against AMP, STR, RFP and CM but lower antibiotic resistance rates against KAN. When the antibiotic concentration levels ranged from 1 to 10 μg/mL, the antibiotic resistance rates of the bacteria in the water increased as water treatment progressed. Biological activated carbon (BAC) filtration played a key role in increasing the antibiotic resistance rate of bacteria. Chloramine disinfection can enhance antibiotic resistance. Among the isolated ARB, 75% were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Ozone oxidation, BAC filtration and chloramine disinfection can greatly affect the relative abundance of bacteria in the community.

  13. [Development and application of a multi-species water quality model for water distribution systems with EPANET-MSX].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fu; Chen, Ji-ning; Zeng, Si-yu

    2008-12-01

    A conceptual multi-species water quality model for water distribution systems was developed on the basis of the toolkit of the EPANET-MSX software. The model divided the pipe segment into four compartments including pipe wall, biofilm, boundary layer and bulk liquid. The involved processes were substrate utilization and microbial growth, decay and inactivation of microorganisms, mass transfer of soluble components through the boundary layer, adsorption and desorption of particular components between bulk liquid and biofilm, oxidation and halogenation of organic matter by residual chlorine, and chlorine consumption by pipe wall. The fifteen simulated variables included the seven common variables both in the biofilm and in the bulk liquid, i.e. soluble organic matter, particular organic matter, ammonia nitrogen, residual chlorine, heterotrophic bacteria, autotrophic bacteria and inert solids, as well as biofilm thickness on the pipe wall. The model was validated against the data from a series of pilot experiments, and the simulation accuracy for residual chlorine and turbidity were 0.1 mg/L and 0.3 NTU respectively. A case study showed that the model could reasonably reflect the dynamic variation of residual chlorine and turbidity in the studied water distribution system, while Monte Carlo simulation, taking into account both the variability of finished water from the waterworks and the uncertainties of model parameters, could be performed to assess the violation risk of water quality in the water distribution system.

  14. Pilot-scale study of removal effect on Chironomid larvae with chlorine dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Chironomid larvae propagated excessively in eutrophic water body and could not be effectively inactivated by the conventional disinfection process like chlorination due to its stronger resistance to oxidation. In this paper, a pilot-scale study of chlorine dioxide preoxidation cooperating with routine clarification process for Chironomid larvae removal was conducted in Shenzhen Waterworks in Guangdong Province, China. The experimental results were compared with that of the existing prechlorination process in several aspects, including the Chironomid larvae removal efficiencies of water samples taken from the outlets of sedimentation tank, sand filter, the security of drinking water and so on. The results showed that chlorine dioxide might be more effective to inactivate Chironomid larvae than chlorine and Chironomid larvae could be thoroughly removed from water by pre-dosing chlorine dioxide process. The GC-MS examination and Ames test further showed that the sort and amount of organic substance in the treated water by chlorine dioxide preoxidation were evidently less than that ofprechlorination and the mutagenicity of drinking water treated by pre-dosing chlorine dioxide was substantially reduced compared with prechlorination.

  15. Removal effect on Mesocyclops leukarti and mutagenicity with chlorine dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Jin-long; CUI Fu-yi; QU Bo; ZHU Gui-bing

    2006-01-01

    Mesocyclops leukarti of zooplankton propagates excessively in eutrophic water body and it cannot be effectively inactivated by the conventional drinking water treatment process. In order to tackle this problem, a study of removal effect on Mesocyclops leukarti with chlorine dioxide in a waterworks was performed. The results showed that Mesocyclops leukarti could be effectively removed from water by 1.0 mg/L chlorine dioxide preoxidation combined with the conventional drinking water treatment process.Higher oxidizability and molecular state of chlorine dioxide in water is the key to the inactivation of Mesocyclops leukarti. The chlorite, disinfection by-products (DBPs) of chlorine dioxide, was stable at 0.45 mg/L, which is lower than that critical value of the USEPA. GC-MS examination showed that the quantity of organic substance in the water treated by chlorine dioxide obviously decreased. Ames test further revealed that the mutagenicity was reduced by chlorine dioxide with respect to prechlorine. The propagation ofMesocyclops leukarti can be inactivated effectively and safely by chlorine dioxide pre-oxidation.

  16. 2010年西昌邛海水体富营养化状态评价%Evaluation of Water Eutrophication in Qionghai Lake of Xichang in 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱静平; 刘洪; 赵碧

    2011-01-01

    [目的]评价邛海水质富营养化状态。[方法]利用2010年邛海4个监测点数据,运用模糊数学模型,计算其水质营养级别。[结果]青龙寺、二水厂和邛海公园监测点水质属中营养化状态,海河口水质较差,呈中-富营养状态。[讨论]水土流失、农业施肥、包括防水和渔业养殖是导致邛海水质富营养化的主要原因。针对这些因素提出合理化治理对策。%[Objective] The uim was to evaluate the eutrophication of Qionghai Lake.[Method] Used the date of 4 monitoring sites in Qionghai in 2010,the nutritional level of water quality was calaulated by using fuzzy mathematical model.[Result] The results showed that the water in Qinglong temple,the Second Waterworks and Qionghai Park are in mesotrophic state;and in Haihe estuary,water quality is worse than others,it was in meso-wealthytrophic state.[Discussion] Soil erosion,agricultural fertilizer,sewage and fish farming were reasons which led the Qionghai Lake water to eutrophication.

  17. Toward comfort space and future city. ; System design for person and total system. Kaiteki kyoju kukan wo tsukuru. ; Ko to zentai no system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ujigawa, M. (Takenaka Komuten Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-10-05

    This paper considered designs for the comfort space anf future city. The conception of amenity is not yet established but it means to view each environment with diverse senses of value. It may be sometimes necessary to coordinate requirements conflicting between individuals and from each standpoint. Any thermal environments can be represented by the discomfort index or PMV (Predicted Mean Value). But the POE (Post Occupancy Evaluation) is used to coordinate the overall design including other targets. Results obtained from interviews to multiple subjects are summarized to a network diagram by the repertory grid developing approach which is one of POE. A model house used in an intelligent building was made by modifying a part of existing facility and by using this approach, and the comprehensive satisfaction was improved. This approach was applied to a resort facility. In addition, a longitudinal urban idea which incorporates the urban infrastructure such as traffic facilities, waterworks and sewerage, shelf-like artificial ground is prepared and dwellings, offices and stores are constructed, was introduced. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Detection and assessment of micropollutants in the river Elbe. Part project 3: Relevant organic substances for drinking water. Final report; Erfassung und Beurteilung der Belastung der Elbe mit Schadstoffen. Teilprojekt 3: Trinkwasserrelevante Organika. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauch, H.J.; Bethmann, D.; Fichtner, S.; Klinger, J.; Mueller, U.; Pietsch, J.; Sacher, F.; Schmidt, W.

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this research program was the detection and the assessment of micropollutants in the river Elbe, which are recalcitrant and weak adsorbable. Moreover, studies were conducted to determine the recalcitrant and weak adsorbable fraction of substances, measured as sum parameters such as DOC, AOX or IOS, continuing experiments of another research project of the German Research Ministry, registered under WT 9148/5. Sampling of river water was carried out at several places from Monday to Friday over a period of 2 years. Before analysis, samples taken over a period of one month were mixed to avoid short term variations which are typical for surface waters. The analytical program combines measurements with GC and HPLC and technological experiments such as biological degradation and adsorption. The study includes the determination of aromatic sulfonates, chelating agents, chloroacetic acids and pesticides such as phenoxyalkanoic acids and nitrophenol herbicides, which are thought to be recalcitrant and weak adsorbable. Chealting agents such as EDTA, NTA and DTPA were detected in every sample of river Elbe. EDTA and DTPA were considered as substances passing the treatment steps in a waterworks easily. Nineteen different aromatic sulfonates, mostly naphthalene sulfonates, were identified in Elbe water samples. Five of them were insufficient removed in a waterworks. A dependence was found between the structure of the micropollutant and the biological degradability. A new analytical method, based on HPLC/FLD and GC/MS-measurements after pre-enrichment derivatization by FMOC-Cl and TCECF, was developed to determine the occurrence of aliphatic amines in the river Elbe. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Das Forschungsvorhaben befasste sich mit der Erfassung und Bewertung von biologisch resistenten und zudem schlecht adsorbierbaren Einzelsubstanzen im Elbewasser. Ausserdem wurden Untersuchungen aus dem Forschungsprogramm WT 9148/5 weitergefuehrt, bei denen die Ermittlung der

  19. Treatment techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. Final report of the TENAWA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annanmaeki, M.; Turtiainen, T. [eds.

    2000-01-01

    TENAWA project (Treatment Techniques for Removing Natural Radionuclides from Drinking Water) was carried out on a cost-shared basic with the European Commission (CEC) under the supervision of Directorate-General XII, Radiation Protection Unit. TENAWA project was started because in several European countries ground water supplies may contain high amounts of natural radionuclides. During the project both laboratory and field research was performed in order to test the applicability of different equipment and techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. The measurable objectives of the project were: to give recommendations on the most suitable methods for removing radon ({sup 222}Rn), uranium ({sup 238,234}U), radium ({sup 226}, {sup 228}Ra), lead ({sup 210}Pb) and polonium ({sup 210}Po) from drinking water of different qualities (i.e. soft, hard, iron-, manganese- and humus-rich, acidic) to test commercially available equipment for its ability to remove radionuclides; to find new materials, absorbents and membranes effective in the removal of radionuclides and to issue guidelines for the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes produced in water treatment. Radon could be removed efficiently (>95%) from domestic water supplies by both aeration and granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Defects in technical reliability or radon removal efficiency were observed in some aerators. The significant drawback of GAC filtration was the elevated gamma dose rates (up to 120 {mu}Sv/h) near the filter and the radioactivity of spent GAC. Aeration was found to be a suitable method for removing radon at waterworks, too. The removal efficiencies at waterworks where the aeration process was designed to remove radon or carbon dioxide were 67-99%. If the aeration process was properly designed, removal efficiencies higher than 95% could be attained. Uranium could best be removed (>95%) with strong basic anion exchange resins and radium by applying strong

  20. Treatment techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. Final report of the TENAWA project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annanmaeki, M.; Turtiainen, T. [eds.

    2000-01-01

    TENAWA project (Treatment Techniques for Removing Natural Radionuclides from Drinking Water) was carried out on a cost-shared basic with the European Commission (CEC) under the supervision of Directorate-General XII, Radiation Protection Unit. TENAWA project was started because in several European countries ground water supplies may contain high amounts of natural radionuclides. During the project both laboratory and field research was performed in order to test the applicability of different equipment and techniques for removing natural radionuclides from drinking water. The measurable objectives of the project were: to give recommendations on the most suitable methods for removing radon ({sup 222}Rn), uranium ({sup 238,234}U), radium ({sup 226}, {sup 228}Ra), lead ({sup 210}Pb) and polonium ({sup 210}Po) from drinking water of different qualities (i.e. soft, hard, iron-, manganese- and humus-rich, acidic) to test commercially available equipment for its ability to remove radionuclides; to find new materials, absorbents and membranes effective in the removal of radionuclides and to issue guidelines for the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes produced in water treatment. Radon could be removed efficiently (>95%) from domestic water supplies by both aeration and granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Defects in technical reliability or radon removal efficiency were observed in some aerators. The significant drawback of GAC filtration was the elevated gamma dose rates (up to 120 {mu}Sv/h) near the filter and the radioactivity of spent GAC. Aeration was found to be a suitable method for removing radon at waterworks, too. The removal efficiencies at waterworks where the aeration process was designed to remove radon or carbon dioxide were 67-99%. If the aeration process was properly designed, removal efficiencies higher than 95% could be attained. Uranium could best be removed (>95%) with strong basic anion exchange resins and radium by applying strong

  1. Tratamiento de agua potable por filtración inducida en una laguna costera en el sur de Brasil Bank filtration drinking water treatment in a costal lagoon in south Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Guillermo Romero Esquivel

    2012-12-01

    head and a pumping test, showed that the hydraulic conductivity in the same areas is close to 10-4 m / s, same magnitude found in other places where the BF is applied successful. The water from a well at 20 meters from the Lagoa do Peri showed levels of turbidity and apparent color according to the local quality standards. It was observed an increase in hardness and alkalinity, attributed to erosion of subsurface materials, without actually exceed the provisions of the legislation. Finally, the water produced by BF was found to be of better quality in terms of turbidity and apparent color than the lagoon water treated by direct filtration in a waterworks located on the site. The water produced by BF showed anoxic conditions that would require the post treatment by aeration and filtration, to do that, the existing infrastructure of the waterworks would be useful.

  2. 三峡库区血吸虫病潜在流行区改水改厕效果%The Effect of Improving Drinking Water and Lavatories in Potential Endemic Areas of Schistosomiasis in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林长坡; 王震; 曾缓; 赵朝辉; 王宏; 唐文革; 罗飞; 汪洋

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解三峡库区血吸虫病潜在流行区改水改厕的情况,比较改水改厕的效果.方法 采用多阶段整群随机抽样方法,选取三峡库区血吸虫病潜在流行区的4个乡镇作为示范乡镇并对其进行基线调查,在有组织、大规模地进行改水改厕后进行终末调查.结果 基线调查共调查4个示范乡镇807户居民,终末调查共调查4个示范乡镇856户居民.改水改厕后居民中使用水厂自来水的普及率由33.58%上升至66.12%,水厂自来水与简易自来水合计普及率由76.33%上升至96.38%,无害化厕所的普及率由53.68%上升至78.85%,与改水改厕前比较,其差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 有组织、大规模地实施改水改厕项目,有效改善了示范乡镇无害化厕所和安全用水情况,减少了三峡库区血吸虫病流行的潜在危险.%Objective To learn the status and compare the effect of improving drinking water and lavatories in potential endemic areas of schistosomiasis in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Methods A cluster random sampling method was adopted and a questionnaire survey was conducted to four selected villages and towns before and after organized and large scale drinking water and lavatories improvement in the potential endemic areas of schistosomiasis in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. Results A total of 807 households in four demonstrate villages and towns were investigated for the baseline survey, while 856 households in the same four villages and towns were investigated for the terminal survey. The popularity rate of using tap water from waterworks went up from 33.58% to 66.12% (P=0.000); the summation of popularity rate of using tap water from both waterworks and water tower made by local residents went up from 76.33% to 96.38% (P=0.000); and the popularity rate of using decontaminated lavatories went up from 53.68% to 78.85% (P=0.000).According to Chi-square test, there were significant differences

  3. Simulation of Reclaimed-Water Injection and Pumping Scenarios and Particle-Tracking Analysis near Mount Pleasant, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Campbell, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of injecting reclaimed water into the Middendorf aquifer beneath Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, was simulated using a groundwater-flow model of the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province of South Carolina and parts of Georgia and North Carolina. Reclaimed water, also known as recycled water, is wastewater or stormwater that has been treated to an appropriate level so that the water can be reused. The scenarios were simulated to evaluate potential changes in groundwater flow and groundwater-level conditions caused by injecting reclaimed water into the Middendorf aquifer. Simulations included a Base Case and two injection scenarios. Maximum pumping rates were simulated as 6.65, 8.50, and 10.5 million gallons per day for the Base Case, Scenario 1, and Scenario 2, respectively. The Base Case simulation represents a non-injection estimate of the year 2050 groundwater levels for comparison purposes for the two injection scenarios. For Scenarios 1 and 2, the simulated injection of reclaimed water at 3 million gallons per day begins in 2012 and continues through 2050. The flow paths and time of travel for the injected reclaimed water were simulated using particle-tracking analysis. The simulations indicated a general decline of groundwater altitudes in the Middendorf aquifer in the Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, area between 2004 and 2050 for the Base Case and two injection scenarios. For the Base Case, groundwater altitudes generally declined about 90 feet from the 2004 groundwater levels. For Scenarios 1 and 2, although groundwater altitudes initially increased in the Mount Pleasant area because of the simulated injection, these higher groundwater levels declined as Mount Pleasant Waterworks pumping increased over time. When compared to the Base Case simulation, 2050 groundwater altitudes for Scenario 1 are between 15 feet lower to 23 feet higher for production wells, between 41 and 77 feet higher for the injection wells, and between 9 and 23 feet higher for

  4. Water Scarcity in the Northeast Corridor During the Nineteenth Century and its Correlation to Infrastructure Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Hernandez, A.; Arrigo, J. S.; Adams, L. E.; Bain, D. J.; Bray, E. N.; Green, M. B.; Huang, M.; Wilson, J.; Wollheim, W. M.

    2009-12-01

    Water is an essential component in the successful development and economic growth within a region. Throughout recorded history, civilizations have been modifying and controlling local environments in the pursuit of maximizing water benefits. These efforts include the creation of large waterworks to reduce the uncertainties caused by adverse climatic circumstances such as droughts or floodings as well as supporting local economies. In this study, we contend that the development of water infrastructure in the Northeastern Corridor of the United States was a direct result of the degree of water scarcity within that particular region. In order to test this hypothesis, we have applied various water scarcity metrics to local historical data for cities including Boston, Philadelphia, and New York in order to characterize interactions between water scarcity and water infrastructure development. These metrics are based upon the ratio of consumer water demand to water supply. Our preliminary results show that a correlation does exist. Additionally, we explore how the water footprint of these cities evolved through time and how they impacted the demand for water. We expect that technological advancement allowed the ‘water footprint’ to expand into the Midwest U.S. and eventually the entire globe, allowing the Eastern Seaboard megalopolis to thrive. The history and development of water related infrastructure in this region could serve as an example allowing us to understand the relationship between humans and hydrologic systems. We contend that sustainability lessons from the past can be applied to developing countries or developing urban areas with the expectation of minimizing or avoiding the variety of mistakes that occurred in already developed regions, thus reducing the negative effects on populations and the environment.

  5. Characterisation and qualification of natural organic matter with a new online fluorescene sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Martin; Dahlaus, Anna; Moldaenke, Christian; Schmidt, Wido

    2016-04-01

    Natural organic water compounds are determined usually with the bulk parameter DOC (dissolved organic carbon). The DOC is a heterogeneous parameter which consists of various organic fractions and shows often spatially as well as temporally a high dynamic range. The fluorescence spectroscopy is a tool for measuring individual DOC groups in a quick and easy way. A fluorescence sensor was developed within the framework of a research project that provides online detection of humic substances and organic polymers. Humic substances can be differentiated fulvic and humic acids, bio-polymers in proteins and algal chlorophyll-a. The chlorophyll fluorescence can be additionally assigned to green algae and diatoms as well as in cyanobacteria. The sensor has been tested during several measurement programs and was used in various waterworks for monitoring of raw water and treated water. The sensor is based on LED technology, works long term stable and is of low maintenance due to an autonomous cleaning unit. Using the sensor qualitative and quantitative changes of the raw water during drinking water treatment could be estimated efficiently. The processing stage of flocculation/filtration showed a significant reduction in the humic substances concentration, where macromolecular humic acids were removed with higher efficiency than low molecular weighted fulvic acids. Dynamical, seasonal-related processes in the water body of a drinking water reservoir could also be traced. Seasonal and single-event-related changes in temperature, turbidity and the composition of humic substances and algae were collected with high sensitivity for example during the autumn circulation in the water body.

  6. Numerical modelling of climate change impacts on freshwater lenses on the North Sea Island of Borkum using hydrological and geophysical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sulzbacher

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A numerical, density dependent groundwater model is set up for the North Sea Island of Borkum to estimate climate change impacts on coastal aquifers and especially the situation of barrier islands in the Wadden Sea. The database includes information from boreholes, a seismic survey, a helicopter-borne electromagnetic (HEM survey, monitoring of the freshwater-saltwater boundary by vertical electrode chains in two boreholes, measurements of groundwater table, pumping and slug tests, as well as water samples. Based on a statistical analysis of borehole columns, seismic sections and HEM, a hydrogeological model is set up. The groundwater model is developed using the finite-element programme FEFLOW. The density dependent groundwater model is calibrated on the basis of hydraulic, hydrological and geophysical data, in particular spatial HEM and local monitoring data. Verification runs with the calibrated model show good agreement between measured and computed hydraulic heads. A good agreement is also obtained between measured and computed density or total dissolved solids data for both the entire freshwater lens on a large scale and in the area of the well fields on a small scale.

    For simulating future changes in this coastal groundwater system until the end of the current century, we use the climate scenario A2, specified by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and, in particular, the data for the German North Sea coast. Simulation runs show proceeding salinisation with time beneath the well fields of the two waterworks Waterdelle and Ostland.

    The modelling study shows that the spreading of well fields is an appropriate protection measure against excessive salinisation of the water supply until the end of the current century.

  7. The burden of drinking water-associated cryptosporidiosis in China: the large contribution of the immunodeficient population identified by quantitative microbial risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shumin; An, Wei; Chen, Zhimin; Zhang, Dongqing; Yu, Jianwei; Yang, Min

    2012-09-01

    A comprehensive quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) of Cryptosporidium infection, considering pathogen removal efficiency, different exposure pathways and different susceptible subpopulations, was performed based on the result of a survey of source water from 66 waterworks in 33 major cities across China. The Cryptosporidium concentrations in source water were 0-6 oocysts/10 L, with a mean value of 0.7 oocysts/10 L. The annual diarrhea morbidity caused by Cryptosporidium in drinking water was estimated to be 2701 (95% confidence interval (CI): 138-9381) cases per 100,000 immunodeficient persons and 148 (95% CI: 1-603) cases per 100,000 immunocompetent persons, giving an overall rate of 149.0 (95% CI: 1.3-606.4) cases per 100,000 population. The cryptosporidiosis burden associated with drinking water treated with the conventional process was calculated to be 8.31 × 10(-6) (95% CI: 0.34-30.93 × 10(-6)) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) per person per year, which was higher than the reference risk level suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO), but lower than that suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Sixty-six percent of the total health burden due to cryptosporidiosis that occurred in the immunodeficient subpopulation, and 90% of the total DALYs was attributed to adults aged 15-59 years. The sensitivity analysis highlighted the great importance of stability of the treatment process and the importance of watershed protection. The results of this study will be useful in better evaluating and reducing the burden of Cryptosporidium infection.

  8. Smart Irrigation From Soil Moisture Forecast Using Satellite And Hydro -Meteorological Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbari, Chiara; Mancini, Marco; Ravazzani, Giovanni; Ceppi, Alessandro; Salerno, Raffaele; Sobrino, Josè

    2017-04-01

    Increased water demand and climate change impacts have recently enhanced the need to improve water resources management, even in those areas which traditionally have an abundant supply of water. The highest consumption of water is devoted to irrigation for agricultural production, and so it is in this area that efforts have to be focused to study possible interventions. The SIM project funded by EU in the framework of the WaterWorks2014 - Water Joint Programming Initiative aims at developing an operational tool for real-time forecast of crops irrigation water requirements to support parsimonious water management and to optimize irrigation scheduling providing real-time and forecasted soil moisture behavior at high spatial and temporal resolutions with forecast horizons from few up to thirty days. This study discusses advances in coupling satellite driven soil water balance model and meteorological forecast as support for precision irrigation use comparing different case studies in Italy, in the Netherlands, in China and Spain, characterized by different climatic conditions, water availability, crop types and irrigation techniques and water distribution rules. Herein, the applications in two operative farms in vegetables production in the South of Italy where semi-arid climatic conditions holds, two maize fields in Northern Italy in a more water reach environment with flood irrigation will be presented. This system combines state of the art mathematical models and new technologies for environmental monitoring, merging ground observed data with Earth observations. Discussion on the methodology approach is presented, comparing for a reanalysis periods the forecast system outputs with observed soil moisture and crop water needs proving the reliability of the forecasting system and its benefits. The real-time visualization of the implemented system is also presented through web-dashboards.

  9. Removal of cyclops in pre-oxidizing cooperation water treatment process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Zooplankton cyclops propagates profusely in waterbody, cannot be effectively inactivated by conventional disinfection process, and becomes a troublesome drinking water treatment problem. In this work, the qualitative and quantitative experimental studies were carried out on inactivation of zooplankton cyclops using oxidants, such as chlorine (Cl2), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), ozone (O3), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ozone/hydrogen peroxide (O3/H2O2), chloramines (Cl2-NH3) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4). The influences of various factors include different oxidant dosages, organic substance contents and pH values. The results showed that currently available oxidants used all might inactivate cyclops in some extent. According to the experimental results, chlorine dioxide, ozone, ozone/hydrogen peroxide and chloramines can be selected as effective oxidants for inactivating cyclops because of their strong inactivation abilities. Then the synergic removal effects on cyclops with ozone,ozone/hydrogen peroxide pre-oxidation followed by conventional water treatment processes were investigated. The results showed that ozone and ozone/hydrogen peroxide pre-oxidation can inactivate cyclops effectively, which then can be removed thoroughly by conventional water treatment processes. Cyclops cannot appear in water after filtration with 1.65 mg/L of ozone and 6 mg/L of hydrogen peroxide, with the inactivation rate being 62% before conventional water treatment processes. Cyclops cannot appear in water after filtration with 1.8 mg/L of ozone, with the inactivation rate being 50% before conventional water treatment processes. For different oxidants, when removal rate was the best, the inactivation rate was not the same. These results may provide reference and model for actual waterworks.

  10. DNase I and Proteinase K eliminate DNA from injured or dead bacteria but not from living bacteria in microbial reference systems and natural drinking water biofilms for subsequent molecular biology analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Jessica Varela; Jungfer, Christina; Obst, Ursula; Schwartz, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Molecular techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR), are very sensitive, but may detect total DNA present in a sample, including extracellular DNA (eDNA) and DNA coming from live and dead cells. DNase I is an endonuclease that non-specifically cleaves single- and double-stranded DNA. This enzyme was tested in this study to analyze its capacity of digesting DNA coming from dead cells with damaged cell membranes, leaving DNA from living cells with intact cell membranes available for DNA-based methods. For this purpose, an optimized DNase I/Proteinase K (DNase/PK) protocol was developed. Intact Staphylococcus aureus cells, heat-killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells, free genomic DNA of Salmonella enterica, and a mixture of these targets were treated according to the developed DNase/PK protocol. In parallel, these samples were treated with propidium monoazide (PMA) as an already described assay for live-dead discrimination. Quantitative PCR and PCR-DGGE of the eubacterial 16S rDNA fragment were used to test the ability of the DNase/PK and PMA treatments to distinguish DNA coming from cells with intact cell membranes in the presence of DNA from dead cells and free genomic DNA. The methods were applied to three months old autochthonous drinking water biofilms from a pilot facility built at a German waterworks. Shifts in the DNA patterns observed after DGGE analysis demonstrated the applicability of DNase/PK as well as of the PMA treatment for natural biofilm investigation. However, the DNase/PK treatment demonstrated some practical advantages in comparison with the PMA treatment for live/dead discrimination of bacterial targets in drinking water systems.

  11. Influencing Factors of Membrane Fouling in Treatment of Effluent from Sedimentation Tank by Ultrafiltration Membrane%超滤膜处理沉淀池出水的膜污染影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪燕; 魏俊起; 付婉霞; 何凤华; 张顺利

    2011-01-01

    在中试规模下采用超滤膜处理供水厂的沉淀池出水,考察了供水厂原水水质期、混凝剂和助凝剂的种类、膜通量以及过滤周期等因素对膜污染的影响.结果表明,不同水质期的膜污染速度顺序为:低温低浊期>常温常浊期>高温高藻期;混凝剂及助凝剂的种类和投量对膜污染有一定的影响;膜通量越小、过滤周期越短,则膜比通量下降速率和衰减速率越小,膜污染速度越慢.%In a pilot-scale experiment, the ultrafiltration membrane (UF) process was used to treat the effluent from sedimentation tank in waterworks.The influence of water quality phase, types of coagulant and coagulant aid, membrane flux and filtration cycle on the membrane fouling was investigated.The results show that the sequence of membrane fouling rate at different water quality phases is low temperature and turbidity phase > normal temperature and turbidity phase > high temperature and algae phase.The type and dosage of coagulant and coagulant aid influence the membrane fouling.The lower the membrane flux and the shorter filtration cycle are, the smaller the decreasing rate and the decay rate of specific flux are, and the lower the fouling rate is.

  12. Risk of stillbirth in the relation to water disinfection by-products: a population-based case-control study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Bing-Fang; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2012-01-01

    Few epidemiological studies that have assessed the relation between water disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the risk of stillbirth provide inconsistent results. The objective was to assess the relation between exposure to water disinfection by-products and the risk of stillbirth. We conducted a population-based case-control study of 3,289 cases of stillbirth and a random sample of 32,890 control subjects from 396,049 Taiwanese newborns in 2001-2003 using information from the Birth Registry and Waterworks Registry in Taiwan. We compared the risk of stillbirth in four disinfection by-product exposure categories based on the levels of total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) representing high (TTHMs 20+ µg/L), medium (TTHMs 10-19 µg/L), low exposure (TTHMs 5-9 µg/L), and 0-4 µg/L as the reference category. In addition, we conducted a meta-analysis of the results from the present and 5 previous studies focusing on stillbirth. In logistic regression analysis adjusting for gender, maternal age, plurality, conception of season and population density of the municipality where the mother lived during pregnancy, the odds ratio (OR) for stillbirth was 1.10 (95% CI 1.00-1.21) for medium exposure and 1.06 (95% 0.96-1.17) for high exposure compared to reference category. In the meta-analysis, the summary odds ratio for stillbirth (1.11, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.19) was consistently elevated. The present study is consistent with the hypothesis that the risk of stillbirth is related to prenatal exposure to disinfection by-products. This finding on stillbirth is consistent with previous epidemiologic studies, which strengthens the weight of evidence.

  13. Genotoxicity evaluation and a primary risk assessment of organic pollutants in the drinking water sources of Nanjing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi-qiang; WU Yu-lin; CHEN Yuan-gao; KONG Zhi-ming

    2006-01-01

    An increasing number of industrial, agricultural, and commercial chemicals in the aquatic environment leads to various deleterious effects on organisms, which is becoming an increasingly serious problem in China. In this study, the comet assay was conducted to investigate the genotoxicity to human body caused by organic concentrates in the drinking water sources of Nanjing City from Yangtze River of China, and health and ecology risk due to expose to these organic pollutants were evaluated with the multimedia environmental assessment system (MEAS). For all the water samples, they were collected from four different locations in the drinking water sourcr samples, es of Nanjing City. The results of the comet assay showed that all the organic concentrates from the water samples could induce different levels DNA damages on human peripheral blood lymphocytes, and a statistically significant difference (p<0.01) was observed compared with the solvent control, which demonstrated the genotoxicity was in existence.According to the ambient severity (AS) of individual compound, we had sorted out the main organic pollutants in the drinking water source of the four waterworks, and the results showed that there was some potential hazard to human body for all the source water,namely the total ambient severity (TAS) of health for each water source was more than 1. However, the TAS of ecology for each water source was less than 1, which indicated that it was safe to ecology. The results of this investigation demonstrate the application of the comet assay and the MEAS in aquatic environmental monitoring studies, and the comet assay found to be fast, sensitive, and suitable for genotoxicity monitoring programs of drinking water source.

  14. Integration of Regional Mitigation Assessment and Conservation Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Thorne

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Government agencies that develop infrastructure such as roads, waterworks, and energy delivery often impact natural ecosystems, but they also have unique opportunities to contribute to the conservation of regional natural resources through compensatory mitigation. Infrastructure development requires a planning, funding, and implementation cycle that can frequently take a decade or longer, but biological mitigation is often planned and implemented late in this process, in a project-by-project piecemeal manner. By adopting early regional mitigation needs assessment and planning for habitat-level impacts from multiple infrastructure projects, agencies could secure time needed to proactively integrate these obligations into regional conservation objectives. Such practice can be financially and ecologically beneficial due to economies of scale, and because earlier mitigation implementation means potentially developable critical parcels may still be available for conservation. Here, we compare the integration of regional conservation designs, termed greenprints, with early multi-project mitigation assessment for two areas in California, USA. The expected spatial extent of habitat impacts and associated mitigation requirements from multiple projects were identified for each area. We used the reserve-selection algorithm MARXAN to identify a regional greenprint for each site and to seek mitigation solutions through parcel acquisition that would contribute to the greenprint, as well as meet agency obligations. The two areas differed in the amount of input data available, the types of conservation objectives identified, and local land-management capacity. They are representative of the range of conditions that conservation practitioners may encounter, so contrasting the two illustrates how regional advanced mitigation can be generalized for use in a wide variety of settings. Environmental organizations can benefit from this approach because it provides a

  15. Using 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) degrading Aminobacter sp. MSH1 in flow through biofilters--initial adhesion and BAM degradation potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Christian Nyrop; Jacobsen, Ole Stig; Aamand, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Micropollutants in groundwater are given significant attention by water companies and authorities due to an increasing awareness that they might be present even above the legal threshold values. As part of our investigations of the possibility to remove the common groundwater pollutant 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) by introducing the efficient BAM degrader Aminobacter sp. MSH1 into biologically active sand filters, we investigated if the strain adheres to filters containing various filter materials and if the initial adherence and subsequent degradation of BAM could be optimized. We found that most of the inoculated MSH1 cells adhered fast and that parameters like pH and ionic strength had only a minor influence on the adhesion despite huge influence on cell surface hydrophobicity. At the given growth protocol, the MSH1 strain apparently developed a subpopulation that had lost its ability to adhere to the filter materials, which was supported by attempted reinoculation of non-adhered cells. Analysis by quantitative PCR showed that most cells adhered in the top of the filters and that some of these were lost from the filters during initial operation, while insignificant losses occurred after 1 day of operation. The inoculated filters were found to degrade 2.7 μg/L BAM to below 0.1 μg/L at a 1.1-h residence time with insignificant formation of known degradation products. In conclusion, most filter materials and water types should be feasible for inoculation with the MSH1 strain, while more research into degradation at low concentrations and temperatures is needed before this technology is ready for use at actual waterworks.

  16. Prevención y resolución de conflictos en torno al agua ante la construcción de obras hídricas: Un caso de negación de agenda en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ruiz Ortega

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Los conflictos ante obras hídricas son un problema creciente en México. Este trabajo aborda la siguiente cuestión: ¿Por qué a pesar de que en el discurso público se maneja la necesidad de su prevención y/o resolución y contar con una estructura institucional y organizativa, así como con diferentes guías y manuales para ello, estos siguen surgiendo, incluso con mayor intensidad? A partir de revisión documental y hemerográfica, así como de entrevistas con funcionarios mexicanos y actores clave en un conflicto por una obra hídrica, se argumenta que el tema de este tipo de conflictos, asumiendo y demostrando que son un problema público, esta negado en la agenda del gobierno mexicano. Prevention and resolution of conflicts over water to hydric projects: a case of agenda denial in Mexico Conflicts to waterworks are a growing problem in Mexico. This paper addresses the following question: Why despite that in the public discourse is driven the need for prevention and/or resolution and to have an institutional and organizational structure, as well as different guidelines and manuals for it, they continue emerging, even with greater intensity? From a documentary review, newspaper archives and interviews with Mexican officials and key actors in a conflict by a hydric project, it argues that the issue of such conflicts, assuming and proving that they are a public issue, is denied on the Mexican government agenda.

  17. Simultaneous determination of ten taste and odor compounds in drinking water by solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xichao; Luo, Qian; Yuan, Shengguang; Wei, Zi; Song, Hanwen; Wang, Donghong; Wang, Zijian

    2013-11-01

    Taste and odor (T&O) problems in drinking water frequently occur because of many compounds present in the water, of which trans-1,10-dimethyl-trans-9-decalol (geosmin) and 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) are well-known. In this study, a fast and effective method was established for simultaneous determination of 10 T&O compounds, including geosmin, MIB, 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA), 2-methylbenzofuran, 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IPMP), 2-isobutyl-3-methoxypyrazine (IBMP), cis-3-hexenyl acetate, trans,trans-2,4-heptadienal, trans, cis-2,6-nonadienal, and trans-2-decenal in water samples by headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. An orthogonal array experimental design was used to optimize the effects of SPME fiber, extraction temperature, stirring rate, NaCI content, extraction time, and desorption time. The limits of detection ranged from 0.1 to 73 ng/L were lower than or close to the odor threshold concentrations (OTCs). All the 10 T&O compounds were detected in the 14 water samples including surface water, treatment process water and tap water, taken from a waterworks in Lianyungang City, China. MB and geosmin were detected in most samples at low concentration. Six T&O compounds (IPMP, IBMP, trans,cis-2,6-nonadienal, 2-methylbenzofuran, trans-2-decenal, and TCA) were effectively decreased in water treatment process (sedimentation and filtration) that is different from cis-3-hexenyl acetate, MIB and geosmin. It is noted that the TCA concentrations at 15.9-122.3 ng/L and the trans,cis-2,6-nonadienal concentrations at 79.9-190.1 ng/L were over 10 times higher than their OTCs in tap water. The variation of the analytes in the all water samples, especially distribution system indicated that distribution system cannot be ignored as a T&O compounds source.

  18. Degradation and detoxification of microcystin-LR in drinking water by sequential use of UV and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaowei; Chen, Zhonglin; Zhou, Nan; Shen, Jimin; Ye, Miaomiao

    2010-01-01

    Microcystins (MCs) produced by cyanobacteria are strong hepatotoxins and classified as possible carcinogens. MCs pose a considerable threat to human health through tainted drinking and surface waters. Herein filtrated water from a waterworks in Harbin, China, was spiked with microcystin-LR (MC-LR) extracted from a toxic scum of microcystis aeruginosa, and the spiked sample waters were treated using UV irradiation with consequent ozonation process (UV/O3), compared with ozonation at a dose range commonly applied in water treatment plants, UV irradiation at 254 nm and UV irradiation combined with ozonation (UV+O3), respectively. The remaining of toxins were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography and also determined using a protein phosphatase type 2A inhibition assay, which was utilized to evaluate the reduction in toxicity. Results indicated that in comparison to other three processes (O3, UV, and UV+O3), UV/O3 process could effectively decrease both the concentration and toxicity of MC-LR at 100 microg/L level after 5 min UV irradiation with consequent 5 min ozonation at 0.2 mg/L (below 1 microg/L), while 0.5 mg/L ozone dose was required for the level below 0.1 microg/L. The addition of an UV treatment step to the existing treatment train may induce significant transformation of micropollutants and breaks down the natural organic matters into moieties unfavorable for ozone decomposition, stabilizing the ozone residual. These findings suggested that sequential use of UV and ozone may be a suitable method for the removal of these potentially hazardous microcystins from drinking water.

  19. Positive and negative impacts of five Austrian gravel pit lakes on groundwater quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellegger, Christian; Weilhartner, Andreas; Battin, Tom J; Hofmann, Thilo

    2013-01-15

    Groundwater-fed gravel pit lakes (GPLs) affect the biological, organic, and inorganic parameters of inflowing groundwater through combined effects of bank filtration at the inflow, reactions within the lake, and bank filtration at the outflow. GPLs result from wet dredging for sand and gravel and may conflict with groundwater protection programs by removing the protective soil cover and exposing groundwater to the atmosphere. We have investigated the impact on groundwater of five GPLs with different sizes, ages, and mean residence times, and all having low post-excavation anthropogenic usage. The results revealed highly active biological systems within the lake water, in which primary producers significantly reduced inflowing nitrate concentrations. Decalcification also occurred in lake water, reducing water hardness, which could be beneficial for waterworks in hard groundwater areas. Downgradient groundwater nitrate and calcium concentrations were found to be stable, with only minor seasonal variations. Biological degradation of organic material and organic micropollutants was also observed in the GPLs. For young GPLs adequate sediment deposits may not yet have formed and degradation processes at the outflow may consequently not yet be well established. However, our results showed that within 5 years from the cessation of excavation a protective sediment layer is established that is sufficient to prevent the export of dissolved organic carbon to downgradient groundwater. GPLs can improve groundwater quality in anthropogenically (e.g., pesticides and nitrate) or geologically (e.g., hardness) challenging situations. However, post-excavation usage of GPLs is often dominated by human activities such as recreational activities, water sports, or fish farming. These activities will affect lake and groundwater quality and the risks involved are difficult to predict and monitor and can lead to overall negative impacts on groundwater quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B

  20. Nacemento e desenvolvemento dun servicio público esencial: o abastecemento de auga na cidade de A Coruña, 1903-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez López, Alberte

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The founding and development of Coruña's waterworks followed a pattern to that which took place in other Spanish cities. The project phase lasted a long time and was very problematic. The financial and managerial incapacity of the local authorities to set the utility in motion provoked the intervention of local banking capital. During the first ten years of the utilities existence a «basic» service was established, and with the help of the City Council consumption habits were modified. The Company's network expanded greatly during the twenties and early thirties, and the Great Depression was to have little effect.

    [gl] A creación e desenvolvemento do abastecemento de auga na cidade de A Coruña amosa unhas características bastante similares ó acontecido noutras cidades españolas. A fase de efectiva posta en marcha dende que se efectúa a concesión resulta dilatada e problemática. Terá que ser o capital bancario local o que lie dea un pulo definitivo ó proceso, ante a incapacidade fínanceira e xestora municipal. Logo dunha década de conformación do servicio básico e de exitosas presións para modificar os hábitos tradicionais de consumo (con apoio do concello, a empresa coñece unha forte expansión durante os anos vinte e principio dos trinta, sen que a depresión daqueles anos semelle terlle afectado significativamente.

  1. 顺序投加联合消毒剂二氧化氯氯胺对饮用水中消毒副产物的控制%Control of Disinfection Byproducts (DBPs)in Drinking Water by Sequential Dosing of Joint Disinfection with Chlorine Dioxide and Chloramine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易芳; 吴立波; 杨林锋; 叶竹兰; 万芬

    2015-01-01

    Traditional chlorine disinfection process has attracted wide attention because of its harmful disinfection byproducts. The control of disinfection byproducts in drinking water by sequential dosing of joint disinfectants with dioxide and chloramine was investigated in this study. The raw water was taken from filtration water in a waterworks in Tianjin,which was disinfected by the different doses combination of chlorine dioxide and chloramine. The results show that when dosage of chlorine dioxide is 0. 10 ~0. 50 mg / L and chloramine is 0. 50 ~ 1. 50 mg / L,the generation of disinfection byproducts can be effectively controlled,which meets the requirements of relevant standards.%传统氯消毒工艺因易生成对人体有害的消毒副产物被广泛关注,采用替代氯消毒工艺控制消毒副产物是目前的研究重点。该文以天津市某自来水厂滤后水为试验对象,采用二氧化氯氯胺顺序投加联合消毒工艺,分析了不同投加量组合对消毒副产物( THMs,HAAs和亚氯酸盐)产量的控制情况。结果表明当二氧化氯投加量为0.10~0.50 mg / L、氯胺投加量为0.50~1.50 mg / L时,消毒副产物的生成量均能得到有效控制,符合相关标准的要求。

  2. Characterization of Natural Organic Matter and Disinfection Byproducts Formation Potential in Pilot-Scale Coagulation-Ultrafiltration Membrane Combined Process in Winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yaozong; WANG Qishan; HE Fenghua; DING Shasha

    2010-01-01

    A pilot-scale ultrafiltration membrane plant was set up for treating Luanhe River water with flocculating and precipitation process of waterworks. The aim is to investigate the variation and characteristics of natural organic matter and disinfection byproducts formation potential in the whole process in winter. The results show that dissolved organic matter (DOM), UV254, trihaiomethanes formation potential (THMsFP) and haloacetic acids formation poten-tial (HAAsFP) of Luanhe River water were mainly distributed in the range of molecular weight (MW) <1 kDa, so were the membrane feed water and treated water by membrane. Specifc UV absorbance, specific THMsFP and spe-cific HAAsFP have the maximal value in the MW fraction of 1-3 kDa, except that specific UV absorbance of mem-brane feed water is in the range of 3-10 kDa; DOM of membrane backwash water is mainly distributed in the range of MW30 kDa and MW<1 kDa. It is the DOM in water backwashing in up way that made significant contribution to the higher dissolved organic carbon content in membrane backwash water. However, UV254, THMsFP and HAAsFP were mainly distributed in the range of MW<1 kDa. The highest concentrations of specific THMsFP and specific HAAsFP appeared in the MW fraction of 3-10 kDa. CHCl3 was the major THMs species during MBW chlorination and occupied more than 60% of the total THMsFP. Dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid were the main compo-nents in HAAsFP. The concentration of THMsFP and HAAsFP in MBW was influenced by operation period.

  3. Kinetics of the oxidation of cylindrospermopsin and anatoxin-a with chlorine, monochloramine and permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Eva; Sordo, Ana; Metcalf, James S; Acero, Juan L

    2007-05-01

    Cyanobacteria produce toxins that may contaminate drinking water sources. Among others, the presence of the alkaloid toxins cylindrospermopsin (CYN) and anatoxin-a (ANTX) constitutes a considerable threat to human health due to the acute and chronic toxicity of these compounds. In the present study, not previously reported second-order rate constants for the reactions of CYN and ANTX with chlorine and monochloramine and of CYN with potassium permanganate were determined and the influence of pH and temperature was established for the most reactive cases. It was found that the reactivity of CYN with chlorine presents a maximum at pH 7 (rate constant of 1265 M(-1)s(-1)). However, the oxidation of CYN with chloramine and permanganate are rather slow processes, with rate constants <1 M(-1)s(-1). The first chlorination product of CYN was found to be 5-chloro-CYN (5-Cl-CYN), which reacts with chlorine 10-20 times slower than the parent compound. The reactivity of ANTX with chlorine and chloramines is also very low (k<1M(-1)s(-1)). The elimination of CYN and ANTX in surface water was also investigated. A chlorine dose of 1.5 mg l(-1) was enough to oxidize CYN almost completely. However, 3 mg l(-1) of chlorine was able to remove only 8% of ANTX, leading to a total formation of trihalomethanes (TTHM) at a concentration of 150 microg l(-1). Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for CYN degradation during oxidation and disinfection processes but not for ANTX removal. The permanganate dose required for CYN oxidation is very high and not applicable in waterworks.

  4. Reuse of process water in a waste-to-energy plant: An Italian case of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardoni, Davide; Catenacci, Arianna; Antonelli, Manuela

    2015-09-01

    The minimisation of water consumption in waste-to-energy (WtE) plants is an outstanding issue, especially in those regions where water supply is critical and withdrawals come from municipal waterworks. Among the various possible solutions, the most general, simple and effective one is the reuse of process water. This paper discusses the effectiveness of two different reuse options in an Italian WtE plant, starting from the analytical characterisation and the flow-rate measurement of fresh water and process water flows derived from each utility internal to the WtE plant (e.g. cooling, bottom ash quenching, flue gas wet scrubbing). This census allowed identifying the possible direct connections that optimise the reuse scheme, avoiding additional water treatments. The effluent of the physical-chemical wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), located in the WtE plant, was considered not adequate to be directly reused because of the possible deposition of mineral salts and clogging potential associated to residual suspended solids. Nevertheless, to obtain high reduction in water consumption, reverse osmosis should be installed to remove non-metallic ions (Cl(-), SO4(2-)) and residual organic and inorganic pollutants. Two efficient solutions were identified. The first, a simple reuse scheme based on a cascade configuration, allowed 45% reduction in water consumption (from 1.81 to 0.99m(3)tMSW(-1), MSW: Municipal Solid Waste) without specific water treatments. The second solution, a cascade configuration with a recycle based on a reverse osmosis process, allowed 74% reduction in water consumption (from 1.81 to 0.46m(3)tMSW(-1)). The results of the present work show that it is possible to reduce the water consumption, and in turn the wastewater production, reducing at the same time the operating cost of the WtE plant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Historical and Technical Notes on Aqueducts from Prehistoric to Medieval Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni De Feo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the evolution of aqueduct technologies through the millennia, from prehistoric to medieval times. These hydraulic works were used by several civilizations to collect water from springs and to transport it to settlements, sanctuaries and other targets. Several civilizations, in China and the Americas, developed water transport systems independently, and brought these to high levels of sophistication. For the Mediterranean civilizations, one of the salient characteristics of cultural development, since the Minoan Era (ca. 3200–1100 BC, is the architectural and hydraulic function of aqueducts used for the water supply in palaces and other settlements. The Minoan hydrologists and engineers were aware of some of the basic principles of water sciences and the construction and operation of aqueducts. These technologies were further developed by subsequent civilizations. Advanced aqueducts were constructed by the Hellenes and, especially, by the Romans, who dramatically increased the application scale of these structures, in order to provide the extended quantities of water necessary for the Roman lifestyle of frequent bathing. The ancient practices and techniques were not improved but survived through Byzantine and early medieval times. Later, the Ottomans adapted older techniques, reintroducing large-scale aqueducts to supply their emerging towns with adequate water for religious and social needs. The scientific approach to engineering matters during the Renaissance further improved aqueduct technology. Some of these improvements were apparently also implemented in Ottoman waterworks. Finally the industrial revolution established mechanized techniques in water acquisition. Water is a common need of mankind, and several ancient civilizations developed simple but practical techniques from which we can still learn. Their experience and knowledge could still play an important role for sustainable water supply

  6. Sanitary evaluation of domestic water supply facilities with storage tanks and detection of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria in domestic water facilities in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagi, Kazufumi; Sano, Kouichi; Hirai, Itaru

    2017-08-01

    To provide for temporary restrictions of the public water supply system, storage tanks are commonly installed in the domestic water systems of houses and apartment buildings in Okinawa Prefecture of Japan. To learn more about the sanitary condition and management of these water supply facilities with storage tanks (hereafter called "storage tank water systems") and the extent of bacterial contamination of water from these facilities, we investigated their usage and the existence of Aeromonas, enteric and related bacteria. Verbal interviews concerning the use and management of the storage tank water systems were carried out in each randomly sampled household. A total of 54 water samples were collected for bacteriological and physicochemical examinations. Conventional methods were used for total viable count, fecal coliforms, identification of bacteria such as Aeromonas, Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermentative Gram-negative rods (NF-GNR), and measurement of residual chlorine. On Aeromonas species, tests for putative virulence factor and an identification using 16S rRNA and rpoB genes were also performed. Water from the water storage systems was reported to be consumed directly without boiling in 22 of the 54 houses (40.7%). 31 of the sampled houses had installed water storage tanks of more than 1 cubic meter (m(3)) per inhabitant, and in 21 of the sampled houses, the tank had never been cleaned. In all samples, the total viable count and fecal coliforms did not exceed quality levels prescribed by Japanese waterworks law. Although the quantity of bacteria detected was not high, 23 NF-GNR, 14 Enterobacteriaceae and 5 Aeromonas were isolated in 42.6%, 7.4% and 3.7% of samples respectively. One isolated A. hydrophila and four A. caviae possessed various putative virulence factors, especially A. hydrophila which had diverse putative pathogenic genes such as aer, hlyA, act, alt, ast, ser, and dam. Many bacteria were isolated when the concentration of residual chlorine

  7. Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in raw and drinking water - current situation in Sweden, Denmark and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzhaf, Stefan; Bester, Kai; Filipovic, Marko; Lewis, Jeffrey; Licha, Tobias; Sparrenbom, Charlotte; Barthel, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of anthropogenic environmental pollutants which have been used and produced for more than 60 years. PFASs are used for multiple industrial purposes, e.g. as water repellent on clothing, leather, and paper and as firefighting foam. The most well studied PFASs subgroup are perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA). Two PFAAs of particular interest are perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). These are the most studied homologues which are ubiquitously detected in the aquatic environment, wildlife and humans. Some PFASs are recognized as being potentially toxic for both animals and humans (e.g. PFOS), whereas the majority has not been thoroughly studied yet regarding their toxicity. PFAAs are highly mobile once present in the aquatic environment. Currently, they are not eliminated during conventional wastewater or drinking water treatment and therefore pose a severe threat for drinking water supply. We reviewed the current occurrence of PFAAs in the surface and groundwater and legal situation of PFAAs in Sweden, Denmark and Germany. Although first detections of PFAAs were reported in the early 2000s, PFASs only recently attracted huge media attention raising public concern. In Sweden, for instance, several public waterworks needed to cease operation due to high PFASs concentrations in drinking water. Moreover, threshold values for drinking water are under discussion and a first preliminary guiding value for PFOS was recently presented as a first step (Pettersson et al., 2015). Germany only defined a guiding value for the sum of PFOS and PFOA in drinking water so far (Dieter, 2011). Limits of 0.3 μg/L PFOA and 0.1 μg/L PFOS and PFOSA each have been suggested in Denmark (MST, 2015). In summary, none of the three countries has defined a clear threshold value for any PFAS compound in drinking water so far. This is of huge concern as PFASs are detected at increasing rates while it remains unclear when

  8. 磁性树脂对地下水中硝酸盐的去除效能及影响因素%Performance and influencing factors of nitrate removed by magnetic resin from ground water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成; 张谦; 姜成浩; 陈卫

    2014-01-01

    利用小试实验研究了磁性离子交换树脂对水中硝酸盐的去除效能,并探讨了地下水中常见有机物及无机离子对其去除效能的影响.结果表明,磁性离子交换树脂对纯水中20mg/L的NO3--N的交换容量为55.91mg/mL,且去除速率较快,10min基本达到去除平衡;地下水中的腐殖酸类有机物对NO3--N的去除基本没有影响,而常见阴离子具有较明显的影响,其影响程度为SO42->CO32->Cl->HCO3-;针对徐州某水厂地下水的去除研究表明,通水倍数为500BV时磁性离子交换树脂对地下水中NO3--N的去除率约为50%左右.综上,磁性离子交换树脂可以作为去除地下水中的硝酸盐一种处理技术.%The groundwater nitrate removal efficiency and its influence factors which were common organic and inorganic ions in the groundwater were studied by underbrush experiment. The research results showed that the exchange capacity of magnetic ion exchange resin in prepared 20mg/L of nitrate nitrogen(NO3--N) solution was 55.91mg/mL, and the magnetic ion exchange resin removal rate was faster than other common resins, which could get equilibrium in 10min. Humic acid had an unconspicuous influence on nitrate removal by magnetic ion exchange resin. On the contrary, common inorganic anions had more obvious influence, and the influence degree was SO42->CO32->Cl->HCO3-. The research on groundwater of a Xuzhou waterworks showed that magnetic ion exchange resin in the groundwater could remove about 50%NO3--N when the water ratio got to 500BV. In conclusion, magnetic ion exchange resin could be a processing technology on nitrate removal in the groundwater.

  9. 生活饮用水氯化消毒副产物分布的研究%STUDY ON DISTRIBUTION OF CHLORINATED DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN TAP-WATER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李谦; 刘天洁; 范正轩; 黄伟; 梅玉琴

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate formation and distribution regular of chlorinated disinfection by - products in tap -water. Methods The chlorinated disinfection by - products in source water, finished water and terminal water of different sampling was detected by instrument and chemical analysis. Results The detection rate of trihalomethanes is 60- 20% and the excessive rate is 13.40%. The detection rate of haloacetic acids is 50. 05% and the excessive rate is 2. 10%. The concentration of chlorinated disinfection by - products in drinking water during the high - water period is higher than during the low - water period. There is no difference of the pollution degree between waterworks in the city and the downtown. Conclusion The detection rate of trihalomethanes is over 50% and part of the concentration of chlorinated disinfection by -products in drinking water is excessive. Water disinfection process should be improved to strengthen the protection of water sources.%目的 研究饮用水中氯化消毒副产物的形成及其分布规律.方法 采用仪器法和化学分析法,对不同采样点水源水、出厂水和管网水进行氯化消毒副产物检测.结果 水源水、出厂水和管网末梢水中三卤甲烷检出率60.20%、有13.40%超标;卤乙酸的检出率50.05%,超标率为2.10%.丰水期的水中消毒副产物浓度高于枯水期,市县级水厂与乡镇水厂污染程度无差别.结论 某市氯化消毒的饮用水中三氯甲烷副产物检出率达50%以上,部分水中毒副产物含量超标,应改进水消毒工艺,加强水源保护.

  10. Hydrogeological characterisation of a glacially affected barrier island – the North Frisian Island of Föhr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Burschil

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the application of geophysical investigations to characterise and improve the geological/hydrogeological model through the estimation of petrophysical parameters for groundwater modelling. Seismic reflection and airborne electromagnetic surveys in combination with borehole information enhance the 3-D geological model and allow a petrophysical interpretation of the subsurface.

    The North Sea Island of Föhr has a very complex underground structure what was already known from boreholes. The local waterworks use a freshwater body embedded in saline groundwater. Several glaciations disordered the Youngest Tertiary and Quaternary sediments by glaciotectonic thrust-faulting as well as incision and refill of glacial valleys. Both underground structures have a strong impact on the distribution of freshwater bearing aquifers. An initial hydrogeological model of Föhr was built from borehole data alone and was restricted to the southern part of the island where in the sandy areas of the Geest a large freshwater body was formed. We improved the geological/hydrogeological model by adding data from different geophysical methods, e.g. airborne electromagnetics (EM for mapping the resistivity of the entire island, seismic reflections for detailed cross sections in the groundwater catchment area, and geophysical borehole logging for calibration of these measurements. An integrated evaluation of the results from the different geophysical methods yields reliable data.

    To determinate petrophysical parameter about 18 borehole logs, more than 75 m deep, and nearby airborne EM inversion models were analyzed concerning resistivity. We establish an empirical relation between measured resistivity and hydraulic conductivity for the specific area – the North Sea island of Föhr. Five boreholes concerning seismic interval velocities discriminate sand and till.

    The interpretation of these data was the basis for building the geological

  11. Compiling geophysical and geological information into a 3-D model of the glacially-affected island of Föhr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Burschil

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the scope of climatic change and associated sea level rise, coastal aquifers are endangered and are becoming more a focus of research to ensure the future water supply in coastal areas. For groundwater modelling a good understanding of the geological/hydrogeological situation and the aquifer behavior is necessary. In preparation of groundwater modelling and assessment of climate change impacts on coastal water resources, we setup a geological/hydrogeological model for the North Sea Island of Föhr.

    Data from different geophysical methods applied from the air, the surface and in boreholes contribute to the 3-D model, e.g. airborne electromagnetics (SkyTEM for spatial mapping the resistivity of the entire island, seismic reflections for detailed cross-sections in the groundwater catchment area, and geophysical borehole logging for calibration of these measurements. An iterative and integrated evaluation of the results from the different geophysical methods contributes to reliable data as input for the 3-D model covering the whole island and not just the well fields.

    The complex subsurface structure of the island is revealed. The local waterworks use a freshwater body embedded in saline groundwater. Several glaciations reordered the youngest Tertiary and Quaternary sediments by glaciotectonic thrust faulting, as well as incision and refill of glacial valleys. Both subsurface structures have a strong impact on the distribution of freshwater-bearing aquifers. A digital geological 3-D model reproduces the hydrogeological structure of the island as a base for a groundwater model. In the course of the data interpretation, we deliver a basis for rock identification.

    We demonstrate that geophysical investigation provide petrophysical parameters and improve the understanding of the subsurface and the groundwater system. The main benefit of our work is that the successful combination of electromagnetic, seismic and borehole

  12. "Who's been feeding in my bed?" Benthivorous fish affect fluvial sediment transport - fact or fairy tale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Stephen; Pledger, Andrew; Smith, James; Toone, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Many species of fish are benthivorous - they forage for food in the river bed - and their foraging disturbs, displaces and sorts bed materials with implications for fluvial sediment transport. Flume experiments have confirmed that benthic foraging by Barbel (Barbus barbus (L.)) and Chub (Squalius cephalus (L.)) modifies the structure and topography of water-worked gravels, thereby increasing particle entrainment probabilities and the quantity of sediment mobilised during experimental high flows. Field experiments and observations have demonstrated the impact of foraging on patch-scale bed disturbance, gravel structure, grain displacements and grain-size sorting. Initial ex-situ experiments support the suggestion that in low gradient rivers, shoals of fish like Bream (Abramis brama (L.)) entrain fine bed sediments, adding a biotic surcharge to the suspended sediment flux and modifying bed topography. These results underpin a novel proposal: that there is an aggregate, cumulative effect of benthic foraging on fluvial sediment transport at larger scales, including at scales where the contribution to sediment movement and river channel behaviour generates management concerns. Evaluating this proposal is a long-term goal, which is based on two intermediate objectives: to develop deeper mechanistic understanding of foraging impacts and to establish the spatial and temporal extent of geomorphologically significant feeding behaviours in river systems. The latter is crucial because field data are currently limited to a single reach on one UK river. It is reasonable to hypothesise that foraging impacts are spatially and temporally widespread because obligate and opportunistic benthic feeding is common and fish feed throughout their life. However, the effectiveness of foraging as a geomorphological process is likely to vary with factors including substrate size, fish community composition, food availability, water temperature, river flows and seasonal changes in fish

  13. The Perspective of Riverbank Filtration in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Teng, Y.; Zhai, Y.; Zuo, R.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainable drinking water supply can affect the health of people, and the surrounding ecosystems. According to statistics of the monitoring program of drinking water sources in 309 at or above prefecture level of China in 2013, the major pollutants index were total phosphorus, ammonia and manganese in surface drinking water sources, respectively, iron, ammonia and manganese in groundwater drinking water sources, respectively. More than 150 drinking water emergency environmental accidents happened since 2006, 52 of these accidents led to the disruption of water supply in waterworks, and a population of over ten million were affected. It indicated that there is a potential risk for people's health by the use of river water directly and it is necessary to require alternative techniques such as riverbank filtration for improving the drinking water quality. Riverbank filtration is an inexpensive natural process, not only smoothing out normal pollutant concentration found in surface water but also significantly reducing the risk from such emergency events as chemical spill into the river. Riverbank filtration technique has been used in many countries more than 100 years, including China. In China, in 1950s, the bank infiltration technique was first applied in northeast of China. Extensive bank infiltration application was conducted in 1980s, and more than 300 drinking water sources utilities bank infiltration established mainly near the Songhua River Basin, the Yellow River Basin, Haihe River Basin. However, the comparative lack of application and researches on riverbank filtration have formed critical scientific data gap in China. As the performance of riverbank filtration technique depend on not only the design and setting such as well type, pumping rate, but also the local hydrogeology and environmental properties. We recommend more riverbank filtration project and studies to be conducted to collect related significant environmental geology data in China

  14. Disaggregation of Rainy Hours: Compared Performance of Various Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Haha, M.; Hingray, B.; Musy, A.

    In the urban environment, the response times of catchments are usually short. To de- sign or to diagnose waterworks in that context, it is necessary to describe rainfall events with a good time resolution: a 10mn time step is often necessary. Such in- formation is not always available. Rainfall disaggregation models have thus to be applied to produce from rough rainfall data that short time resolution information. The communication will present the performance obtained with several rainfall dis- aggregation models that allow for the disaggregation of rainy hours into six 10mn rainfall amounts. The ability of the models to reproduce some statistical character- istics of rainfall (mean, variance, overall distribution of 10mn-rainfall amounts; ex- treme values of maximal rainfall amounts over different durations) is evaluated thanks to different graphical and numerical criteria. The performance of simple models pre- sented in some scientific papers or developed in the Hydram laboratory as well as the performance of more sophisticated ones is compared with the performance of the basic constant disaggregation model. The compared models are either deterministic or stochastic; for some of them the disaggregation is based on scaling properties of rainfall. The compared models are in increasing complexity order: constant model, linear model (Ben Haha, 2001), Ormsbee Deterministic model (Ormsbee, 1989), Ar- tificial Neuronal Network based model (Burian et al. 2000), Hydram Stochastic 1 and Hydram Stochastic 2 (Ben Haha, 2001), Multiplicative Cascade based model (Olsson and Berndtsson, 1998), Ormsbee Stochastic model (Ormsbee, 1989). The 625 rainy hours used for that evaluation (with a hourly rainfall amount greater than 5mm) were extracted from the 21 years chronological rainfall series (10mn time step) observed at the Pully meteorological station, Switzerland. The models were also evaluated when applied to different rainfall classes depending on the season first and on the

  15. STEEP STREAMS - Solid Transport Evaluation and Efficiency in Prevention: Sustainable Techniques of Rational Engineering and Advanced MethodS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanini, Aronne; Cardoso, Antonio H.; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Bellin, Alberto; Breinl, Korbinian; Canelas, Ricardo B.; Larcher, Michele; Majone, Bruno; Matos, Jorges; Meninno, Sabrina; Nucci, Elena; Rigon, Riccardo; Rosatti, Giorgio; Zardi, Dino

    2017-04-01

    The STEEP STREAMS (Solid Transport Evaluation and Efficiency in Prevention: Sustainable Techniques of Rational Engineering and Advanced MethodS) project consists of a collaboration among the Universities of Trento, Uppsala and Lisbon, who joined in a consortium within the ERANET Water JPI call WaterWorks2014. The aim of the project is to produce new rational criteria for the design of protection works against debris flows, a phenomenon consisting in hyper-concentrated flows of water and sediments, classified as catastrophic events typical of small mountainous basins (area risk of damage and even loss of human lives. These extreme events occur almost annually across Europe, though the formal return period in an exposed site is much larger. Recently, an increase in intensity and frequency of small-scale storm events, leading to extreme solid transport in steep channels, are recognized as one of the effects of climate change. In this context, one of the key challenges of this project is the use of comparatively coarse RCM projections to the small catchments examined in STEEP STREAMS. Given these changes, conventional protection works and their design criteria may not suffice to provide adequate levels of protection to human life and urban settlements. These structures create a storage area upstream the alluvial fans and the settlements, thereby reducing the need of channelization in areas often constrained by urban regulations. To optimize the lamination, and in particular to reduce the peak of solid mass flux, it is necessary that the deposition basin is controlled by a slit check dam, capable of inducing a controlled sedimentation of the solid mas flux. In order to achieve that, reliable design tools are needed. Driftwood represents another important factor increasing the risk, as clogging induced by the vegetal material represents a major problem for the operational reliability of slit check dams. Current procedures in compiling hazardous maps do not account for

  16. 两种材质超滤膜在饮用水处理中的比较研究%Comparison of two kinds of ultrafiltration membranes in treatment of drinking water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方旭东; 赵倩倩; 张茜

    2013-01-01

    In order to contrast the water purifying capacity of two kinds of immersed ultrafiltration (UF) membranes that made of PVC and PVDF,a pilot test on contaminated water source treatment was carried out in a waterwork in southern China.The results showed that,immersed UF membrane process had good removal effect on turbidity,bacteria and organic matters:the effluent turbidity stabilized below 0.1 NTU,the permanganate index was lower than 3 mg/L,and both the total bacteria count and the coliform group count could meet the specification of GB 5749-2006 Sanitar standard for drinking water.Through the comparative analysis between the said two kinds of UF membranes made of different materials,it could be seen that,the purification performances of them was similar.The pollution and energy consumption conditions of the mentioned membranes were also tested,and the results showed that,the UF membrane made of PVDF was superior to the alloy UF membrane made of PVC for its better antifouling ability and lower energy consumption when treating a ton of water.%采用PVC合金和PVDF 2种材质的浸没式超滤膜对南方某水厂受污染的水源进行中试试验,对比2种膜材质在净水处理中的应用性能.结果表明,浸没式超滤膜工艺对浊度、细菌总数和有机物具有较好的去除效果:出水浊度稳定在0.1 NTU以下,高锰酸盐指数低于3 mg/L,细菌总数和大肠菌群数均达到GB 5749-2006《生活饮用水卫生标准》的要求.在净水效能对比分析中,2种材质的超滤膜性能表现基本相当.试验同时对比了2种超滤膜的膜污染及能耗情况,PVDF超滤膜在抗污染性能及吨水能耗上要优于PVC合金超滤膜.

  17. From the tap to the mouth, drinking water quality in the domestic context in Khartoum, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Emilie; Hassan El-Tayib, Noha

    2013-04-01

    waterworks could provide better water without cuts, limiting the storage needs. This poster would present a part of our results financed by the French National Agency of Research (ANR) and published in: Lavie, E. and Hassan El Tayib N. (under press, 2013). Du robinet au consommateur : qualité de l'eau potable dans le contexte domestique de l'agglomération de Khartoum, Soudan. In Cybergeo, European journal of geography.

  18. Hydrogeologic and Hydrochemical Studies in a Semi-arid Watershed in Northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, T.; Vazquez, R.; Hinojosa, A.

    2006-12-01

    Within the Baja California panhandle exist quite a significant number of valleys which hydrogeology conditions are of great importance for the communities of the region. The Guadalupe Valley for example, located 30 km Northeast of Ensenada, hosts an important wine industry which presents a mayor factor for agriculture and tourism in Baja California. The irrigation is carried out basically by groundwater extracted from quaternary sediments filling this post-Miocene depression. Besides the intensive usage of the water by the wine industry in the Guadalupe Valley, the local waterworks installed in 1985 a gallery of 10 wells extracting around 320 l/s or 30 % of the total water extraction in the valley to supply the city of Ensenada with drinking water. A total of more than 500 wells with a combined annual consumption of about 28 Mio m3 are at the moment active in the valley. In the arid portions of northern Mexico Mountain front recharge presents an important recharge source for the alluvial aquifers. Other important sources directly related to precipitation are direct infiltration, recharge by surface water runoff in the arroyos as well as by active fault systems. The principal recharge sources for the Guadalupe Valley aquifer are the Sierra Juárez and the Guadalupe River. To be able to address the state of equilibrium of aquifer, recharge estimates for the watershed were calculated determining the runoff/infiltration relationships obtained by curve number determinations combined with the interpretation of satellite images. These results were integrated into an evaluation and hydrologic modeling of the hydrologic data pointing towards differences of up to over 50 percent in the recharge estimation in comparison to earlier studies carried out in the area. Furthermore hydrochemical and isotopic studies were carried out to show the effects of the excessive ground water extraction on the water quality of the aquifer. The hydrochemical data indicate that intense use of

  19. The quality of drinking water in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kłos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An analysis of the drinking water quality and the degree of access to water supply and sewerage system in Poland was conducted. Materials and methods. Method of analysis of secondary statistical data was applied, mostly based on data available in the materials of the Central Statistical Office in Warsaw, the Waterworks Polish Chamber of Commerce in Bydgoszcz and the National Water Management in Warsaw. Result and discussion. 60 % of Poles do not trust to drink water without prior boiling. Water flowing from the taps, although widely available, is judged to be polluted, with too much fluorine or not having the appropriate consumer values (colour, smell and taste. The current water treatment systems can however improve them, although such a treatment, i.e. mainly through chlorination of water, deteriorates its quality in relation to pure natural water. The result is that fewer and fewer Poles drink water directly from the tap. They also less and less use tap water to cook food for which the bottled water is trusted more. Reason for that is that society does not trust the safety of the water supplied by the municipal water companies. The question thus is: Are they right? Tap water in Poland meets all standards since it is constantly monitored by the water companies and all relevant health services. Tap water supplied through the water supply system can be used without prior boiling. Studies have shown that only the operating parameters of water, suc h as taste, odour and hardness, are not satisfactory everywhere, different in each city, and sometimes in different districts of cities, often waking thoughts among users about its inappropriateness. The lowered water value can be easily improved at home through the use of filters. In conclusion, due to constant monitoring and investment in upgrading treatment processes, the quality of tap water has improved significantly in the last years. Conclusion. The results first allow assessing the

  20. Flood Problematic of the City of Ljubljana and the September 2010 Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilly, M.; Rusjan, S.; Vidmar, A.

    2012-04-01

    In the contribution, the flood protection problematic of the capital of the Republic of Slovenia, the Ljubljana city, is presented. Ljubljana lies in the southern part of the Ljubljana basin, crossing the moor on the south and the north of Ljubljana field. The tectonic subsidence of the area in the geological past has made it an important confluence of the rivers. The area of the City of Ljubljana has a long history of various flood protection measures (e.g. first waterworks in the Ljubljanica River channel by the Romans, Grubar flood canal excavation in 1780 for diversion of Ljubljanica moor floodwaters away from the city center, weir construction on the Ljubljanica River in 1950s for floodwater manipulation and extended widening of the Mali graben channel in the 1970s). However, despite the abovementioned flood protection efforts, many parts of the urban area of the City of Ljubljana is presently heavily threatened by the floods as the one experienced in September 2010. The southern part of the city, particularly in the Ljubljana moor, is exposed to a risk of catastrophic, medium and even small flood events. In the northern part of Ljubljana, at the Sava River area, there is a risk of catastrophic medium floods events. Most heavily endangered is the southern part of the city in the vicinity of the Ljubljanica River and its tributaries. The western part between Podutik and Rožna dolina is endangered by Glinščica stream high waters and its tributaries, south western part of of the city (the whole Vič area) by Gradaščica with Horjulka, southern part of the Rudnik suburbs with moor floodwaters and the central and northern part of the Rudnik by tributaries from Golovec and inland waters. The main reasons for the present insufficient flood protection of the City of Ljubljana lies especially in the discontinuities and mutual exclusion of flood protection measures planning and overall spatial development of the urbanized areas. As a consequence, some of the past

  1. Levels of benzo(a)pyrene in oil shale industry wastes, some bodies of water in the Estonian S.S.R. and in water organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldre, I A; Itra, A R; Paalme, L P

    1979-06-01

    Data on the content of benzo(a)pyrene (BP) in oil shale industry wastewater, the effectiveness of various effluent treatment processes (evaporation, extraction with butyl acetate, trickling filters, aeration tanks) in reducing the level of BP in oil shale wastewater, the level of BP in various bodies of water of Estonia, and in fish and other water organisms are reviewed. The quantitative determination of BP in concentrated diethyl ether extracts of water samples was carried out by ultraviolet and spectroluminescence procedures by use of the quasi-linear spectra at -196 degrees C in solid paraffins. It has been found that oil shale industry wastewater contains large amounts of BP. The most efficient purification process for removing the BP in oil shale industry phenol water is extraction with butyl acetate. The level of BP in the rivers of the oil shale industry area is comparatively higher than in other bodies of water of the Republic. The concentration of BP in the lakes of the Estonian S.S.R. is on the whole insignificant. Even the maximum concentration found in our lakes is as a rule less than the safety limit for BP in bodies of water (0.005 microgram/l). During water is treated at the waterworks. The effectiveness of the water treatment in reducing the level of BP varies from 11 to 88%. Filtration was found to be the most effective treatment. About 20 samples of fish from nine bodies of water in Estonia have been analyzed for content of BP. The average content of BP in the muscular tissue of various species of fish is as a rule less than 1 microgram/kg. There is no significant difference in the concentration of BP in sea and freshwater fish. There is no important difference in the content of BP in the organs of various fish. Fat fish contain more BP than lean ones. The weight (age) of fish does not influence the content of BP in the muscular tissue of fish.

  2. Incomplete degradation of linear alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactants in Brazilian surface waters and pursuit of their polar metabolites in drinking waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, Peter; Rodrigues, Silvana V; Baumann, Wolfram; Knepper, Thomas P

    2002-02-04

    In Brazil more than 90% of the population are not connected to municipal wastewater treatment plants. As a consequence, surface waters receive continuously considerable amounts of untreated domestic sewage containing surfactants as a major constituent. Such polluted waters gave rise to special interest if they are used as a source for the production of drinking water. In this work, the river Rio Macacu (State Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) was monitored for the occurrence of the most widely used anionic surfactant linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS) together with its main degradative product, sulfophenyl carboxylates (SPC). In order to pursue the fate of both compounds after emission into the river, samples were collected at several locations along the river bank, and analyzed applying liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after enrichment by solid-phase extraction. The LAS concentrations ranged between 14 and 155 microg l(-1) and the levels of their metabolic intermediates were found from 1.2 to 14 microg l(-1). The self-purification capacity of the water was impressively demonstrated in the upper course of the river downstream of a town considered as one major discharge point, whereas in the lower course the relative constant concentrations of both analytes were detected which was explained with an overall increasing level of pollution. Furthermore, a series of drinking water samples from Niterói and São Gonçalo, supplied by the same waterworks treating surface waters from the Rio Macacu, were taken during two sampling periods and examined for the presence of the strongly polar SPC which is suspected of by-passing the purification processes. The levels detected in the drinking water ranged between 1.6 and 3.3 microg l(-1). For the analyses of drinking and surface waters the peak pattern of a selected SPC homologue composed by several positional isomers served as an indicator to describe the progression of SPC degradation occurred in the river and could be used to

  3. 固相微萃取-气质联用法测定水中痕量土臭素和二甲基异崁醇%Determination of Geosmin and 2-Methylisoborneolin Water with Solid Microextration-GC/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    誉绚仪; 陈锋; 华勃

    2015-01-01

    this research, Geosmin (GSM) and 2-Methyliso borneol (2-MIB) have been concentrated and detected with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Both of SPME concentration and parameter determination of GC/MS have been optimized to get the best experimental conditions:NaCl dosage 30%,extracted temperature 65 ℃,extracted times 40 min,desorb times 3 min, splitless injection,using SIM data collection,and so on. Moreover, the general knowledge on GSM and 2-MIB in water products and head waters from 28 waterworks, and lake water (which from Qiandenghu Lake and Asian Art Park) have been collected by this method. Those reliable data help to protect headwaters and improve technical water treatment in the future.%采用固相微萃-气相色谱/质谱法(SPME-GC/MS)对GSM和2-MIB进行富集检测。实验对萃取富集和仪器条件进行了优化,得出最佳实验条件:NaCl投加量30%,萃取温度65℃,萃取时间40 min,解吸3 min,不分流进样,SIM模式采集数据。实验还对萃取头的使用次数和维护进行了探讨。利用已经建立的SPME-GC/MS法对佛山市28家水厂的出厂水和原水、佛山典型景观千灯湖和亚艺公园湖水进行普查。该法具有操作简单快速、能实现自动化连续检测、准确、灵敏度高等特点,适用于饮用水中嗅味物质定性和定量。

  4. 上海某黄浦江原水供水系统中主要致嗅物质的迁移规律分析%Migration of Main Odorous Compounds in a Water Supply System with Huangpu River as Raw Water in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白晓慧; 张明德; 贾程慎

    2011-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取-气相色谱质谱联用研究了上海市某黄浦江水源供水系统中2-甲基异莰醇(M1B)、土味素(GSM)和余氯的迁移变化规律.结果表明,黄浦江源水及其各级净水工艺处理水、管网水和二次供水系统末端水中均含有MIB和GSM,分别在2~18 ng/L和2.68~5.06 ng/L之间;其浓度经水厂各级工艺处理后明显下降;在管网输送过程中总体呈下降趋势.对比2种物质嗅阈值,认为MIB是上海饮用水中的致嗅物质.经过水厂投加的余氯水平在管网中呈显著的衰减,但由于出厂水余氯较高,仍可能造成嗅味影响.%Migration and variation of odorous compounds as geosmin ,2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and residual chlorine in drinking water taken from Huangpu River were studied by using headspace solid phase microextraction procedure (HSPME) and gas chromatograph with mass spectrometry. The results showed that, raw water, processed water, pipe water (taken from pump station) and secondarysupply water all contained MIB and geosmin ranging from 2 ng/L to 18 ng/L and 2. 68 ng/L to 5.06 ng/L respectively and decreased dramatically during the water processing and distribution system. MIB is proved to be a kind of the odorous compounds in drinking water of Shanghai by comparing the concentrations of MIB and GSM with their odor threshold. The concentration of residual chlorine declined greatly in the distribution system,but because of the high value at the outlet of waterworks,it still may exceeded the influence of MIB and cause the odour problems.

  5. Study on ecological basic flow for a large multipurpose reservoirs in Anhui Province%安徽省某大型综合利用水库生态基流研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨寅群; 柳雅纯; 赵琰鑫; 康瑾; 操文颖

    2015-01-01

    The operation of large and middle multipurpose reservoirs will change the natural hydrological regime downstream. To avoid irreversible damage to the functions of river aquatic ecosystem, it is necessary to rationally determine the ecological basic flow in the downstream channel. Taking a reservoir as a case, the methods including Tennant, Wetted Perimeter Method, R2-Cross,7Q10 and the most dried monthly average discharge with guarantee rate of 90% etc. are selected on the basis of the com-prehensive analysis on the ecological protection demands and service functions of the downstream channel, through the comparison and selection of the common used ecological basic flow calculation methods. Based on the calculation results and by consideration of the ecological water demand of downstream wetland, water intake of waterworks, water demand of industry and agriculture, the ecological basic flow of the reservoir is determined.%大中型综合利用水库调度运行将使下游河道水文情势发生较大改变,为避免河流水生态系统功能遭受无法恢复的破坏,需要合理确定工程下游河段的生态基流. 在综合分析某水库坝下河段的生态保护需求和服务功能的基础上,通过对常用的生态基流计算方法进行整理与比选,采用Tennant法、湿周法、R2-Cross法、7Q10法和90%保证率最枯月平均流量法等计算了水库下游河段的生态基流. 在此基础上,综合考虑下游湿地的生态需水要求、水厂取水、工农业用水等因素,确定了工程下游河段的生态基流量. 研究结果可为工程规划设计提供技术支持.

  6. Assessment of spatial variation in drinking water iodine and its implications for dietary intake: A new conceptual model for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutchkova, Denitza Dimitrova, E-mail: ddv@geo.au.dk [Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University, Høegh-Guldbergs Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Lyseng Allé 1, DK-8270 Højbjerg (Denmark); Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Ernstsen, Vibeke [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Hansen, Birgitte; Sørensen, Brian Lyngby [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Lyseng Allé 1, DK-8270 Højbjerg (Denmark); Zhang, Chaosheng [GIS Centre and School of Geography and Archaeology, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Kristiansen, Søren Munch [Department of Geoscience, Aarhus University, Høegh-Guldbergs Gade 2, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2014-09-15

    Iodine is essential for human health. Many countries have therefore introduced universal salt iodising (USI) programmes to ensure adequate intake for the populations. However, little attention has been paid to subnational differences in iodine intake from drinking water caused by naturally occurring spatial variations. To address this issue, we here present the results of a Danish nationwide study of spatial trends of iodine in drinking water and the relevance of these trends for human dietary iodine intake. The data consist of treated drinking water samples from 144 waterworks, representing approx. 45% of the groundwater abstraction for drinking water supply in Denmark. The samples were analysed for iodide, iodate, total iodine (TI) and other major and trace elements. The spatial patterns were investigated with Local Moran's I. TI ranges from < 0.2 to 126 μg L{sup −1} (mean 14.4 μg L{sup −1}, median 11.9 μg L{sup −1}). Six speciation combinations were found. Half of the samples (n = 71) contain organic iodine; all species were detected in approx. 27% of all samples. The complex spatial variation is attributed both to the geology and the groundwater treatment. TI > 40 μg L{sup −1} originates from postglacial marine and glacial meltwater sand and from Campanian–Maastrichtian chalk aquifers. The estimated drinking water contribution to human intake varies from 0% to > 100% of the WHO recommended daily iodine intake for adults and from 0% to approx. 50% for adolescents. The paper presents a new conceptual model based on the observed clustering of high or low drinking-water iodine concentrations, delimiting zones with potentially deficient, excessive or optimal iodine status. Our findings suggest that the present coarse-scale nationwide programme for monitoring the population's iodine status may not offer a sufficiently accurate picture. Local variations in drinking-water iodine should be mapped and incorporated into future adjustment of the

  7. Geoelectrical monitoring of water movement in the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, Susann; Geib, Tobias

    2013-04-01

    To continually track the water movement in the unsaturated zone and monitor groundwater recharge, two geoelectrical profiles were permanently installed in the catchment area of a waterworks. The geoelectrical profiles were set up in areas with different groundwater recharge. One profile was installed on a forest clearing, where the unsaturated zone is eight meters thick and dominated by sand. The second profile was installed in heathland, where the unsaturated zone is eleven meters thick and dominated by fine sand. The profile length for the geoelectrical measurements and the number of electrodes per profile were chosen depending on the depth of the groundwater table. The geoelectrical measurements were carried out autonomously twice a day. Remote data transmission made the data instantaneously available for analysis and evaluation. During the entire period of investigation, that is August 2011 to December 2012, the geoelectrical profiles worked independently with low maintenance. During this period, approximately 800 data sets were recorded at each location. Each individual data set contained several thousand measuring points in the geoelectrical cross section. To handle the large amounts of data and efficiently interpret them, a largely automatic algorithm, the so-called ELMON algorithm, was developed. The algorithm reads in the raw measurement values and allows fast acquisition of incorrect measurements and, where appropriate, initiation of maintenance (for example, to troubleshoot browsing by game). The detected erroneous measurements are automatically removed. Then, the change in soil electrical conductivity is determined via a physically founded calculation method developed in the framework of the project. The change in soil electrical conductivity is represented compared to a reference state, e.g. the day prior to a rain event. Using the ELMON algorithm, the water movement through the unsaturated zone could be monitored over a period of more than a year

  8. 2009年昆山市集中式区域供水水质现况调查%Investigation on Water Quality of Centralized Regional Water Supply in Kunshan City in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡见远

    2011-01-01

    reach the standard. [ Conclusion ] The water quality of regional water supply in Kunshan city is steady,which the qualified rate is high, and drinking water quality in the rural areas is improved obviously. But the content of free residual chlorine in total water supply network is imbalanced. It is suggested that waterworks group should improve water treatment process according to the problems, so as to increase water quality.

  9. [Evaluation of a Legionella outbreak emerged in a recently opening hotel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdoğan, Haluk; Arslan, Hande

    2013-04-01

    Legionnaires' disease (LD) is a systemic infection caused by Legionella species especially colonized in the water systems. Hotels are common locations in which waterwork-associated sporadic or epidemic legionellosis can be detected. The aim of this study was to evaluate a small Legionella outbreak emerged in a recently opened 600-bed hotel in Alanya, a touristic county in Mediterranean part of Turkey. A 66 years old male patient who stayed in this hotel opened on May 15th, 2009, was admitted to our hospital on May 21st, 2009 with the complaints of high fever, headache and diarrhea lasting for three days. Since chest X-ray revealed non-homogenous density increase in left middle and inferior zone, the patient was diagnosed as atypical pneumoniae and LD was confirmed by positive urinary Legionella antigen test (Card test, BinaxNOW®Legionella Urinary Antigen Test; Alere Co, USA) result. Following the identification of the index case, the records of our hospital were reviewed and revealed another case being treated with the diagnosis of community acquired pneumonia who was also the guest of the same hotel. This patient was then diagnosed as LD by positive urinary antigen test. Since new cases were identified during the following days (May 22, 25 and 26) the Antalya County Health Department and hotel management were informed about a cluster of LD. In addition subsequent investigation for environmental surveillance and water sampling were conducted. The LD diagnosis and environmental inspections were performed according to the procedure described in the guideline from "Turkish Ministry of Health Travel-Associated Legionnaires' Disease Control Programme". Five definitive cases and one presumptive case of LD were identified during the outbreak period (May 20-26, 2009). All of the cases were successfully treated (intravenous ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin or clarithromycin), however one patient died due to sudden death during sleep after being discharged. Since sputum

  10. Assessing the Economic Cost of Landslide Damage in Low-Relief Regions: Case Study Evidence from the Flemish Ardennes (Belgium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranken, L.; Van Turnhout, P.; Van Den Eeckhaut, M.; Vandekerckhove, L.; Vantilt, G.; Poesen, J.

    2012-04-01

    Several regions around the globe are at risk to incur damage from landslides. These landslides cause significant structural and functional damage to public and private buildings and infrastructure. Numerous studies investigated how natural factors and human activities control the (re-)activation of landslides. However, few studies have concentrated on a quantitative estimate of the overall damage caused by landslides at a regional scale. This study therefore starts with a quantitative economic assessment of the direct and indirect damage caused by landslides in the Flemish Ardennes (Belgium), a low-relief region (area=ca. 700 km2) susceptible to landslides. Based on focus interviews as well as on semi-structured interviews with homeowners, civil servants (e.g. from the technical services from the various towns), or with the owners and providers of lifelines such as electricity and sewage, we have quantitatively estimated the direct and indirect damage induced by landsliding and this for a 10 to 30 year period (depending on the type of infrastructure or buildings). Economic damage to public infrastructure and buildings was estimated for the entire region, while for private damage 10 cases with severe to small damage were quantified. For example, in the last 10 year, costs of road repair augmented to 814 560 €. Costs to repair damaged roads that have not yet been repaired, were estimated at 669 318 €. In the past 30 years, costs of measures to prevent road damage augmented to at least 14 872 380 €. More than 90% of this budget for preventive measures was spent 30 years ago, when an important freeway was damaged and had to be repaired. These preventive measures (building a grout wall and improving the drainage system) were effective as no further damage has been reported until present. To repair and prevent damage to waterworks and sewage systems, expenditures amounted to 551 044 € and this for the last 30 years. In the past 10 years, a new railway line

  11. Experiences and issues with the implementation of microscreen multilevel groundwater samplers in glaciofluvial aquifers in Southern Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracht, Oliver; Dagestad, Atle

    2013-04-01

    Scandinavia many of the most important groundwater resources are situated in glaciofluvial sediments, which are commonly characterised by a high degree of heterogeneity (very coarse to very fine material). This significantly reduces the number of suitable drilling techniques and imposes several restrictions with regard to the connection of filter elements to the surrounding aquifer, and the vertical isolation between the different sampling levels (hole seal quality and vertical flows). Another important mater is the general ease and the cost of installation (which clearly depends on the local availability of certain drilling techniques and services, and the availability of material for well construction). We summarize our experiences gained by using various setups of small volume multi-level samplers with microscreens in unconsolidated sedimentary aquifers at two different experimental sites in S-Norway. Experiments were conducted during year 2010 and 2011 in fine to coarse grained glaciofluvial deposits in the eastern part of the Gardermoen / Øvre Romerike Aquifer (Ullensaker), and in coarse grained glaciofluvial deposits at the Granli waterworks (Kongsvinger). Installations were performed using different drilling techniques (5/4 inch Pionjär handheld drilling equipment, geotechnical drilling rig percussion drilling, and 163 mm ODEX drilling). Samples were extracted by using a multi channel peristaltic suction pump under low flow rates. The suitability of different types of tubing and filter materials has been investigated by checking for unwanted leaching of inorganic compounds.

  12. Review of arsenic contamination and human exposure through water food in rural areas in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Celia

    2016-05-01

    The Red River Delta in Vietnam is one of the regions whose quaternary aquifers are polluted by arsenic. Chronic toxification by arsenic can cause severe illnesses such as cancer, skin lesions, developmental defects, cardiovascular and neurological diseases, and diabetes. In this study, a food processing craft village in the Red River Delta was investigated regarding the potential risk faced by the population due to arsenic. The potential sources of arsenic are the groundwater, the crops grown in the surroundings, and animal products from local husbandry. However, the occurrence of arsenic in nature is variable, and its bioavailability and toxicity depend very much on its specification: trivalent compounds are more toxic and often more mobile than pentavalent compounds, while inorganic species are generally more toxic than organic ones. Local conditions, such as the redox potential, strongly influence its specification and thus potential bioavailability. The introduction to this work elucidates the key factors which potentially cause human exposure to arsenic: the geological setting of the study area, land and water use patterns, and the current state of research regarding the mobilization, bioavailability and plant uptake of arsenic. Although the study area is located in a region where the groundwater is known to be moderately contaminated by arsenic, the level of arsenic in the groundwater in the village had not previously been determined. In this study, water use in the village was examined by a survey among the farmers and by water analyses, which are presented in the following chapters. Four main water sources (rain, river, tube well and a public municipal waterworks) are used for the different daily activities; the highest risk to human health was found to be the bore well water, which is pumped from the shallow Holocene aquifer. The water from the bore wells is commonly used for cleaning and washing as well as to feed the animals and for food processing

  13. Evaluating the soil physical quality under long-term field experiments in Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, Mirko; Stellacci, Anna Maria; Iovino, Massimo; Rinaldi, Michele; Ventrella, Domenico

    2017-04-01

    expected as both indicators depends on soil water contents at saturation and field capacity. Our results reinforce the suggestion that one of the two indicators can be neglected (Cullotta et al., 2016) even if further investigations are necessary to choose the most accurate and/or widely applicable indicator since different optimal ranges were suggested in literature. A positive significant correlation was also generally found between PMAC and AC. PCA analysis identified RFC and AC as the main indicators that explain most of the data variation. When the data collected at the different sampling dates were pooled together, in both experiments the first principal component explained the highest proportion of total variance (67.9% and 81.5%, respectively for residue management and tillage) and RFC showed the highest loadings, followed by AC and PMAC. SDA provided consistent results and RFC was selected as the main variable to assess the effects of tillage. Conversely, the residue management had no effect on SPQ as indicated by negligible differences between indicators. Finally, our results suggest that RFC always reached optimal and steady values between April and June. *The work was supported by the projects "STRATEGA, Sperimentazione e TRAsferimento di TEcniche innovative di aGricoltura conservativA", financed by Regione Puglia - Servizio Agricoltura, and "DESERT, Low-cost water desalination and sensor technology compact module" financed by ERANET-WATERWORKS 2014. References Castellini, M., M. Niedda, M. Pirastru, and D. Ventrella. 2014. Temporal changes of soil physical quality under two residue management systems. Soil Use Management. 30:423-434. doi:10.1111/sum.12137 Cullotta, S., V. Bagarello, G. Baiamonte, G. Gugliuzza, M. Iovino, D.S. La Mela Veca, F. Maetzke, V. Palmeri, and S. Sferlazza. 2016. Comparing Different Methods to Determine Soil Physical Quality in a Mediterranean Forest and Pasture Land. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 80:1038-1056. doi:10.2136/sssaj2015.12.0447

  14. Using Isomap to differentiate between anthropogenic and natural effects on groundwater dynamics in a complex geological setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Steven; Merz, Christoph; Lischeid, Gunnar

    2015-04-01

    control the system. The method was applied on a data set of groundwater head and lake water level. Two factors explaining more than 95 percent of the observed spatial variations were identified: (1) the anthropogenic impact of a waterworks in the study area and (2) natural groundwater recharge dynamics of different degrees of dampening at the respective sites of observation. The spatial variation of the identified processes revealed previously unknown hydraulic connections between two aquifers and between surface water bodies and groundwater. The obtained information can be used to reduce model structure uncertainty and a more efficient process-based modeling of hydraulic system behavior. Thus, the approach provides essential information to evaluate and adapt strategies for an integrated water resources management in complex landscapes. Bloschl, G., Sivapalan, M., 1995. Scale Issues in Hydrological Modeling - a Review. Hydrological Processes, 9(3-4): 251-290. Tenenbaum, J.B., de Silva, V., Langford, J.C., 2000. A global geometric framework for nonlinear dimensionality reduction. Science, 290: 2319-2323. Wood, E.F., Sivapalan, M., Beven, K., Band, L., 1988. Effects of Spatial Variability and Scale with Implications to Hydrologic Modeling. Journal of Hydrology, 102(1-4): 29-47.

  15. Research on Treatment of High Hardness and Alkalinity Wastewater by Electrosorption Technology%电吸附技术处理高硬度高碱度废水的中试研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙英战; 谢海燕; 石文忠; 阿力木江·斯拉木; 史殿彬; 刘丽青

    2012-01-01

    以乌鲁木齐高新区北区再生水厂的出水作为原水,在不同重碳酸盐碱度(HCO-3)和不同总硬度的进水条件下,研究了电吸附设备对TDS、氯离子、总硬度和HCO-3的去除效果.结果表明,在进水HCO-3浓度为80 mg/L,总硬度分别为340,770和1200 mg/L条件下,电吸附设备连续运行6个周期,除HCO-3外,设备对TDS、氯离子、总硬度的去除率较为稳定,当进水HCO-3浓度增加到440 mg/L时,4项指标去除率均呈现逐渐下降趋势,且总硬度越高,TDS、氯化物和HCO-3的去除率下降越明显.分析认为电吸附设备在高重碳酸盐碱度进水条件下运行时,HCO-3与钙等硬度离子相互作用,导致电极板结垢,从而影了设备的脱盐效果.%This research was conducted to investigate the removal effect of eletrosorption equipment of TDS, chloridion, total hardness and HCO3- .under different conditions of bicarbonate alkalinity and total hardness by using the influent from reclaimed waterworks in the north of high and new tech zone in Urumqi City as raw water. The result indicated that when the concentration of influent HCO3- was 80 mg/L, the total hardness was respectively 340,770 and 1 200 mg/L,electrosorption equipment continuously were operated in 6 cycles,except for HCO3-,removal rate of TDS,chloride and total hardness were more stable. When the influent HCOT concentration increasd by 440 mg/L,the removal rate of the above four were decreased gradually,the higher the total hardness,the more obviously the removal rate of TDS,chloride and HCO3- increased. It was analyzed that when the electrosorption equipment was operated under the conditions of influent of high bicarbornate alkalinity, HCCV and calcium and other hardness ions will act on one another,which resulted in scaling of eletrode plate,thus affecting the desalting effect of electrosorption e-quipment.

  16. Monitoring Fluvial Topography at Hyperspatial Resolutions with UAS imagery and Structure from Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, P.; James, T. D.; Black, M.

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring is a fundamental task in remote sensing. As measurement technology progresses, there is a growing interest in hyperspatial (change. Many geomorphologists are approaching this problem of high resolution topographic monitoring with well-proven technology such as ground-based or airborne LiDAR. However, there is also a growing interest in Structure from Motion (SfM) approaches which use images in order to reconstruct dense topographic point clouds. SfM relies on a new generation of image matching algorithms to deliver digital topographic point clouds with an extremely high level of automation and a very low requirement for specialist photogrammetry knowledge. The result is a low-cost, virtually unsupervised process that could foreshadow a new era of widespread hyperspatial topographic data. However, a widespread usage of SfM in fluvial geomorphology will require a rigorous assessment of the associated errors and limitations, a process which has only just begun. Here we present the findings of an experiment aimed at exploring the fundamental limitations of SfM in a fluvial geomorphology context. Our specific aims are to test the suitability of SfM as a hyperspatial topography production method and to explore the relationships between the number of raw images, the resolution of the raw images and the final quality of the resulting point clouds. We compare topographic point clouds generated from SfM and with LiDAR at two scales. First, a simple experiment was conducted on the Science Site of Durham University where an outdoor building was scanned with terrestrial LiDAR and photographed with a small format camera. Second, a field experiment was conducted on a water-worked pro-glacial braiding plain on the arctic island of Svalbard where imagery was acquired with a small Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) and airborne LiDAR data was acquired through the European Facility for Airborne Reseeaarch (EUFAR) and the NERC Airborne Remote Sensing Facility (ARSF). SfM was used

  17. The Prevalence of Radioactivity in a Number of Non-Nuclear Industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaefvert, Torbjoern

    2002-08-01

    Four different non-nuclear industries have been investigated regarding the presence of radioactive elements, with the focus on natural radioactivity. The aim of the studies was to investigate the flow of radionuclides in the processes and/or to estimate doses to exposed workers. The first industry investigated was phosphate processing in the manufacture of dicalcium phosphate (DCP), which is used as a feed supplement for domestic animals. The phosphate ore used at the plant had an average activity concentration of 837 Bq/kg of {sup 238}U in secular equilibrium with its daughters. Investigation of the flow of radioactivity in the manufacturing process showed several separation and concentration processes. The major part of the uranium was found in the DCP, while the major part of radium was found in the by-product calcium chloride. Estimated doses to workers at the plant from external radiation and dust inhalation were below 1 mSv per year. The second study concerned the removal of radioactivity at a waterworks treating mainly surface water. Apart from natural radioactive elements, also {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239,240}Pu, originating from fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests and the Chernobyl accident, were included in the study. The method used for purification is a combination of coagulation/flocculation and filtration in sand beds. Two different coagulants are used. FeCl{sub 3}, and Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}, The results for both coagulants showed high removal efficiencies for uranium. thorium, polonium and plutonium, while radium, strontium and caesium passed through the process and could therefore subsequently reach the municipal distribution network with almost unchanged activity concentrations. The third investigation is a study of exposure to thorium during TIG-welding with thoriated tungsten electrodes. Breathing zone samples were collected for welders at five different workshops. Breathing zone samples from electrode grinding were

  18. The occurrence of methyl tert-butylether (MTBE) in drinking water and sources for drinking water; De aanwezigheid van methyl tert-butylether (MTBE) in drinkwater en drinkwaterbronnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgenstern, P.P.; De Korte, G.A.L.; Hogendoorn, E.A.; Versteegh, J.F.M.

    2002-07-01

    In 2001 the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) in the Netherlands conducted a drinking water measurement programme in co-operation with the Netherlands Waterworks Association (VEWIN) for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in drinking water and the corresponding sources. This study, consisting of two sampling periods, shows a generally low concentration of MTBE in drinking water at the selected drinking water plants. The selection of sampling locations was based on the vulnerability of the water catchment area. Measurements in the June/July period showed a concentration of <0.01 {mu}g/l in 22 samples of raw water; the average concentration was 0.07 {mu}g/l and the highest 0.42 {mu}g/l. The average concentration in drinking water in September/October was 0.09 {mu}g/l and the maximum 2.9 {mu}g/l. This maximum concentration was unusual, considering that the second highest value was 0.14 {mu}g/l MTBE. The raw water (both groundwater and surface water) samples registered a concentration of <0.5 {mu}g/l; the highest concentration in surface water was 3.2 {mu}g/l. However, at one location a relatively high concentration (11.9 {mu}g/l) was found in an individual groundwater well. This contamination could be attributed to a local source. The main conclusion here is that MTBE occurs in drinking water, although the concentrations are generally very low (<0.14 {mu}g/l), with a maximum value of 2.9 {mu}g/l. There are no effects on health expected. It is, however, recommended to screen for MTBE in groundwater at locations with a history of or experience with soil contamination. Taking precautions for future spills at petrol stations remains priority number one. [Dutch] Het RIVM heeft in samenwerking met VEWIN in 2001 een meetprogramma uitgevoerd voor de stof methyl tert-butylether (MTBE) in drinkwater en drinkwaterbronnen. In de periode juni/juli 2001 is een orieenterend meetprogramma uitgevoerd. De concentratie MTBE in ruwwater van 22 pompstations (in

  19. 饮用水中隐孢子虫与贾第虫的危害及其去除灭活研究%Removal and inactivation of cryptosporidium and giardia in drinking water treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宏平; 冉治霖; 李绍峰; 张可方

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the ecology, harm and spreading of the“two worms” firstly, and then it sum-marizes conventional water treatment process, biomembrace treatment process and combined process ’ removal on the“two worms”;Also, the paper analyses the advantages and disadvantages of various disinfectants and disinfec-tion methods on the inactivation of the“two worms”,and it proposes that collaborative inactivation methods is the direction of the disinfection techonology indrinking water treatment. Pretreatment, coagulation, sedimentation, fil-tration and other traditional water treatment processes can not effectively remove the“two worms”,so it is difficult to ensure the safety of drinking water. In addition, the membrane filtration method can also be used to remove the“two worms”, but the cost is high, so it’s not suitable for large-scale application. The traditional way of chlorine disinfection isn't effective in the inactivation of the“two worms”. While in the chlorine, chlorine dioxide and ozone oxidation, the method of ozone oxidation is the best for the inactivation of the“two worms”. UV method can inacti-vate the“two worms”, but ultraviolet penetration is weak and the ultraviolet lamp life is short, additionally, the lamb is easy to aging and the operating costs is high. Ultrasound is an effective way for the inactivation of the“two worms”, but it can't be used in waterworks at present. The effect of single disinfectant is poor in inactivation, if several disinfectants are used in combination, we can achieve a higher rate of inactivation.%本文在介绍“两虫”即贾第虫和隐孢子虫的生态、危害及传播的基础上,综述了常规水处理工艺、膜法及组合工艺对“两虫”去除效果;分析了各种消毒剂和消毒方法灭活的优缺点,提出多种方法协同灭活将成为水消毒技术研究和开发的一个发展方向。预处理、絮凝、沉淀、澄清和过滤等常规

  20. 2006-2011年济南铁路地区生活饮用水污染调查%Survey on drinking water pollution in Jinan railway region from 2006-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑秀玲

    2013-01-01

    . [ Conclusion] Although the sanitary quality of drinking water in Jinan railway area has gradually increased, it affected by water supply modes, quarter and regional factors. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the training of health knowledge, health laws and regulations among workers in waterworks and water supply managers in enterprises, to improve the awareness of health protection of drinking water.

  1. Disinfection Efficiency for Outlet Water from Biological Activated Carbon Process by Different Disinfecting Modes%不同消毒方式对饮用水生物活性炭出水消毒效果的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    支兴华; 白晓慧; 孟明群

    2011-01-01

    针对水厂生物活性炭深度处理工艺可能产生的细菌泄露问题,采用上海徐泾水厂生物活性炭出水,通过对异养菌平板计数和卤代烃气相色谱检测分析,比较了次氯酸钠和氯胺2种消毒方式对出厂水水质安全保障的效果.在水温30℃下,采用NaClO消毒剂进行消毒处理时,初始余氯值达到1.84 mg/L、接触30 min即可保障灭活率lg(N0/N)超过2;若采用NH2Cl消毒,则初始余氯值为2.20 mg/L、消毒接触90 min以上才可达到相同效果.采用NaClO消毒,初始余氯浓度1.53~2.42 mg/L时,CHCl3和CCl4生成量分别为4.97~7.10 μg/L和0.01~0.71 μg/L;NH2Cl消毒,初始余氯2.10~2.86 mg/L时,CHCl3和CCl4生成量分别为4.43~5.55 μg/L和0.01~0.64 μg/L,生成的卤代烃含量低于国家生活饮用水卫生标准.本实验表明水中氯化消毒过程包括初始快速灭菌阶段与后期慢速灭菌阶段;针对水厂活性炭出水微生物含量较高现状,NaClO灭菌效果比NH2Cl好,但均难实现100%灭活,且在水温较高的条件下不会造成消毒副产物超标风险.%Lab-scale tests were designed to treat the leak of bacteria from BAC process. Water samples from outlet of BAC pool in Xujing Waterworks in Shanghai were disinfected by NaCIO and NH2 C1 disinfectant to compare the disinfection efficiency. Heterotrophic bacteria in disinfected water were cultivated and counted and halo hydrocarbons were detected by GC. To keep the disinfecting efficacy [lg(N0/N) ] over 2 under the water temperature of 30℃, NaC10 should have an initial concentration more than 1. 84 mg/L total chlorine and contact with bacteria for about 30 minutes. As to NH2Cl disinfection, the initial concentration should be more than 2.20 mg/L total chlorine and contacting time should be prolonged to about 90 minutes. The production of CHCl3 ranged from 4. 97 to 7. 10 μg/L and CCl4 ranged from 0. 01 to 0. 71 μg/L in NaClO disinfection tests with a initial disinfecting concentration

  2. Selecting minimum dataset soil variables using PLSR as a regressive multivariate method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellacci, Anna Maria; Armenise, Elena; Castellini, Mirko; Rossi, Roberta; Vitti, Carolina; Leogrande, Rita; De Benedetto, Daniela; Ferrara, Rossana M.; Vivaldi, Gaetano A.

    2017-04-01

    ) statistics was used to quantitatively assess the predictors most relevant for response variable estimation and then for variable selection (Andersen and Bro, 2010). PCA and SDA returned TOC and RFC as influential variables both on the set of chemical and physical data analyzed separately as well as on the whole dataset (Stellacci et al., 2016). Highly weighted variables in PCA were also TEC, followed by K, and AC, followed by Pmac and BD, in the first PC (41.2% of total variance); Olsen P and HA-FA in the second PC (12.6%), Ca in the third (10.6%) component. Variables enabling maximum discrimination among treatments for SDA were WEOC, on the whole dataset, humic substances, followed by Olsen P, EC and clay, in the separate data analyses. The highest PLS-VIP statistics were recorded for Olsen P and Pmac, followed by TOC, TEC, pH and Mg for chemical variables and clay, RFC and AC for the physical variables. Results show that different methods may provide different ranking of the selected variables and the presence of a response variable, in regressive techniques, may affect variable selection. Further investigation with different response variables and with multi-year datasets would allow to better define advantages and limits of single or combined approaches. Acknowledgment The work was supported by the projects "BIOTILLAGE, approcci innovative per il miglioramento delle performances ambientali e produttive dei sistemi cerealicoli no-tillage", financed by PSR-Basilicata 2007-2013, and "DESERT, Low-cost water desalination and sensor technology compact module" financed by ERANET-WATERWORKS 2014. References Andersen C.M. and Bro R., 2010. Variable selection in regression - a tutorial. Journal of Chemometrics, 24 728-737. Armenise et al., 2013. Developing a soil quality index to compare soil fitness for agricultural use under different managements in the mediterranean environment. Soil and Tillage Research, 130:91-98. de Paul Obade et al., 2016. A standardized soil quality index

  3. 佛山市某城区饮用水重金属健康危害风险初步评估%Health risk assessment of heavy metals in drinking water in a certain district of Foshan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤汉虎; 庞智锋; 梁雅慧; 林仰锋

    2011-01-01

    Objective To monitor the levels of heavy metals in drinking water in a certain district of Foshan and evaluate the health risks. Methods Five or six urban drinking water monitoring points were selected from three waterworks in a district in Foshan. Drinking water samples were collected from above points in April and November 2010, respectively, to test the contents of heavy metals including arsenic, antimony, cadmium, chromium (VI), beryllium, lead, mercury, selenium, nickel, thallium, aluminum, iron, manganese, copper, and zinc. The contents were evaluated according to the Standard for Drinking Water Quality (GB 5749 -2006) and calculated for cancer risk and hazard index according to health risk assessment models recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency ( US EPA). Results In all 11 water samples, 14 heavy metals except beryllium were detected out, but their contents were from 1.42 x 10-5 mg/L to 8. 00× 10 -2 mg/L, lower than the value of Standard for Drinking Water Quality ( GB 5749 - 2006). Total and particular carcinogenic risk of chromium (VI), arsenic, and cadmium were 4.66 × 10-5 a-1, 3.50×l0-5a-1, 1.14×10-5a-1, and 1.59×10-7 a-1, respectively. In 13 heavy metals except beryllium and iron, total noncarcinogenic risk was 1.41 x 10-7 a-1 and particular non-carcinogenic risks were from 3.97 × 10 -12 a-1 to 9.26 × 10-8. The hazard indices (HI) of aluminum and zinc were 6.76 and 2.82, respectively, while the HI of other heavy metals were lower than 1. Conclusion The contents of heavy metals in drinking water in a certain district in Foshan met the Standard for Drinking Water Quality, but there has been a certain health risk due to the annual average integrated carcinogen-ic risk of particular heavy metals approaching to the maximum acceptable level recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Compared with carcinogenic risk, the annual average noncarcinogenic risk of detected heavy metals was lower

  4. KAJIAN SPASIAL KUALITAS AIR TANAH BEBAS BERDASARKAN KEDALAM MUKA AIR TANAH: STUDI KASUS DI DATARAN ALUVIAL DAS PEMALI KABUPATEN BREBES (Spatial Study of the Quality of Free Groundwater Based on the Surface Depth of Groundwater at an Alluvial Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Sundari Miswadi

    2009-07-01

    kadarnya melebihi NAB. Kedalaman MAT yang menunjukkan kualitas air cukup baik sesuai analisis adalah pada kedalaman di atas 8,51 meter dan antara 5,80-6,70 meter.   ABSTRACT Most of the alluvial areas of Pemali River Basin (DAS in Brebes district are onion, soybean, cassava, and chili farm production centre. Besides, the area is also known for duck husbandry producing eggs, and it is developed fast. The agriculture and husbandry are mostly met in the residential area, whereas the activities use fertilizer and pesticides and also produce cattle waste which, of course, will contaminate people’s wells. Since the clean water service of the Municipal Waterworks (PDAM has not reach all of the Pemali River Basin (DAS, especially in alluvial residential area, so for cooking, drinking, bathing, washing and other needs, the people make well with various depth, without concerning the right well making and health requirements. The purpose of the research is to map the quality of free ground water based on the depth of water ground surface in the Pemali DAS alluvial area. The method used is analyzing the quality of the free ground water laboratorically, and the result is plotted to 30 sample points in the map of groundwater surface depth divided into 11 classes. The result of the research shows that there are 10 parameters of water quality which content over the Limit Edge Value (NAB, they are, TDS, DHL, Organochlorine, Carbamat, Alkalinity, COD, BOD, Coliform Total, waste Coliform, and pH, whether the NO3-, NO2-, SO4=, Ca2+, phosphate, and muddiness parameter generally have content below NAB in all depth. Seen from some of the sample points which parameter amount has content over the NAB,  the 0.37-3.98 meters ground water surface depth has eight parameters which over the NAB, then 0.10-0.36 meter depth with five parameters, and 3.99-8.50 meters with four parameters which over the NAB. Based on the parameter amount of each sample point, so in 0.37-1.27 meters MAT depth there are