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Sample records for water-filtered infrared-a wira

  1. Water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA overcomes swallowing disorders and hypersalivation – a case report

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    Hoffmann, Gerd

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Case description: A patient with a Barrett oesophageal carcinoma and a resection of the oesophagus with gastric pull-up developed swallowing disorders 6 years and 2 months after the operation. Within 1 year and 7 months two recurrences of the tumor at the anastomosis were found and treated with combined chemoradiotherapy or chemotherapy respectively. 7 years and 9 months after the operation local tumor masses and destruction were present with no ability to orally drink or eat (full feeding by jejunal PEG tube: quality of life was poor, as saliva and mucus were very viscous (pulling filaments and could not be swallowed and had to be spat out throughout the day and night resulting in short periods of sleep (awaking from the necessity to spit out. In total the situation was interpreted more as a problem related to a feeling of choking (with food or fluid in the sense of a functional dysphagia rather than as a swallowing disorder from a structural stenosis. At that time acetylcysteine (2 times 200 mg per day, given via the PEG tube and irradiation with water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA, a special form of heat radiation, of the ventral part of the neck and the thorax were added to the therapy. Within 1 day with acetylcysteine saliva and mucus became less viscous. Within 2 days with wIRA (one day with 4 to 5 hours with irradiation with wIRA at home salivation decreased markedly and quality of life clearly improved: For the first time the patient slept without interruption and without the need for sleep-inducing medication. After 5 days with wIRA the patient could eat his first soft dumpling although drinking of fluids was still not possible. After 2½ weeks with wIRA the patient could eat his first minced schnitzel (escalope. Following the commencement of wIRA (with typically approximately 90–150 minutes irradiation with wIRA per day the patient had 8 months with good quality of life with only small amounts of liquid saliva and mucus and without the

  2. Insights into the working mechanism of water filtered infrared A (wIRA) irradiation on Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuratli, Jasmin; Pesch, Theresa; Marti, Hanna; Blenn, Christian; Borel, Nicole

    2018-02-01

    Infections with Chlamydia trachomatis are the major cause for infectious blindness and still represent the most common bacterial sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Considering the possible side effects of antibiotic therapy and the increasing threat of antibiotic resistance, alternative therapeutic strategies are needed. Previous studies showed a reduction of C. trachomatis infectivity after irradiation with water filtered infrared A alone (wIRA) or in combination with visible light (wIRA/VIS). In this study, we aimed to gain further insight into the working mechanism of wIRA/VIS by analyzing cytokine and chemokine levels of infected and non-infected HeLa cells following triple dose irradiation at 24, 36 and 40 hours post infection. Subsequently, we examined the influence of cytokines on irradiation and chlamydial infection using a cytokine/chemokine inhibitor (Azelastine) and by IL-6 and IL-8 gene silencing. A triple dose irradiation significantly reduced chlamydial infectivity in HeLa cells without inducing the chlamydial stress response. The reducing effect was present regardless of the addition of cycloheximide (CHX), a host protein synthesis inhibitor. Chlamydial infection, wIRA/VIS treatment and the combination of both revealed a similar release pattern of a subset of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, RANTES, Serpin E1). The addition of Azelastine induced the chlamydial stress response in non-irradiated samples. This effect was even more pronounced in wIRA/VIS-treated conditions. Silencing of IL-6 and IL-8 resulted in a lower chlamydial infectivity. However, wIRA/VIS treatment of infected and silenced cells reduced the chlamydial infectivity similar to wIRA/VIS treated control cells. Further studies are needed to elucidate the working mechanism of wIRA/VIS.

  3. Influence of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA on reduction of local fat and body weight by physical exercise

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    Schmitz, Gerd

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: Investigation, whether water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA irradiation during moderate bicycle ergometer endurance exercise has effects especially on local fat reduction and on weight reduction beyond the effects of ergometer exercise alone. Methods: Randomised controlled study with 40 obese females (BMI 30-40 (median: 34.5, body weight 76-125 (median: 94.9 kg, age 20-40 (median: 35.5 years, isocaloric nutrition, 20 in the wIRA group and 20 in the control group. In both groups each participant performed 3 times per week over 4 weeks for 45 minutes bicycle ergometer endurance exercise with a constant load according to a lactate level of 2 mmol/l (aerobic endurance load, as determined before the intervention period. In the wIRA group in addition large parts of the body (including waist, hip, and thighs were irradiated during all ergometries of the intervention period with visible light and a predominant part of water-filtered infrared-A (wIRA, using the irradiation unit “Hydrosun® 6000” with 10 wIRA radiators (Hydrosun® Medizintechnik, Müllheim, Germany, radiator type 500, 4 mm water cuvette, yellow filter, water-filtered spectrum 500-1400 nm around a speed independent bicycle ergometer. Main variable of interest: change of “the sum of circumferences of waist, hip, and both thighs of each patient” over the intervention period (4 weeks. Additional variables of interest: body weight, body mass index BMI, body fat percentage, fat mass, fat-free mass, water mass (analysis of body composition by tetrapolar bioimpedance analysis, assessment of an arteriosclerotic risk profile by blood investigation of variables of lipid metabolism (cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoproteins HDL, low density lipoproteins LDL, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, clinical chemistry (fasting glucose, alanin-aminotransferase ALT (= glutamyl pyruvic transaminase GPT, gamma-glutamyl-transferase GGT, creatinine, albumin, endocrinology

  4. Antimicrobial Photoinactivation Using Visible Light Plus Water-Filtered Infrared-A (VIS + wIRA Alters In Situ Oral Biofilms.

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    A Al-Ahmad

    Full Text Available Recently, growing attention has been paid to antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT in dentistry. Changing the microbial composition of initial and mature oral biofilm by aPDT using visible light plus water-filtered infrared-A wavelengths (VIS + wIRA has not yet been investigated. Moreover, most aPDT studies have been conducted on planktonic bacterial cultures. Therefore, in the present clinical study we cultivated initial and mature oral biofilms in six healthy volunteers for 2 hours or 3 days, respectively. The biofilms were treated with aPDT using VIS+wIRA (200 mW cm(-2, toluidine blue (TB and chlorine e6 (Ce6 for 5 minutes. Chlorhexidine treated biofilm samples served as positive controls, while untreated biofilms served as negative controls. After aPDT treatment the colony forming units (CFU of the biofilm samples were quantified, and the surviving bacteria were isolated in pure cultures and identified using MALDI-TOF, biochemical tests and 16S rDNA-sequencing. aPDT killed more than 99.9% of the initial viable bacterial count and 95% of the mature oral biofilm in situ, independent of the photosensitizer. The number of surviving bacterial species was highly reduced to 6 (TB and 4 (Ce6 in the treated initial oral biofilm compared to the 20 different species of the untreated biofilm. The proportions of surviving bacterial species were also changed after TB- and Ce6-mediated aPDT of the mature oral biofilm, resulting in a shift in the microbial composition of the treated biofilm compared to that of the control biofilm. In conclusion, aPDT using VIS + wIRA showed a remarkable potential to eradicate both initial and mature oral biofilms, and also to markedly alter the remaining biofilm. This encourages the clinical use of aPDT with VIS + wIRA for the treatment of periimplantitis and periodontitis.

  5. Water-filtered infrared a irradiation in combination with visible light inhibits acute chlamydial infection.

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    Hanna Marti

    Full Text Available New therapeutic strategies are needed to overcome drawbacks in treatment of infections with intracellular bacteria. Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative bacteria implicated in acute and chronic diseases such as abortion in animals and trachoma in humans. Water-filtered infrared A (wIRA is short wavelength infrared radiation with a spectrum ranging from 780 to 1400 nm. In clinical settings, wIRA alone and in combination with visible light (VIS has proven its efficacy in acute and chronic wound healing processes. This is the first study to demonstrate that wIRA irradiation combined with VIS (wIRA/VIS diminishes recovery of infectious elementary bodies (EBs of both intra- and extracellular Chlamydia (C. in two different cell lines (Vero, HeLa regardless of the chlamydial strain (C. pecorum, C. trachomatis serovar E as shown by indirect immunofluorescence and titration by subpassage. Moreover, a single exposure to wIRA/VIS at 40 hours post infection (hpi led to a significant reduction of C. pecorum inclusion frequency in Vero cells and C. trachomatis in HeLa cells, respectively. A triple dose of irradiation (24, 36, 40 hpi during the course of C. trachomatis infection further reduced chlamydial inclusion frequency in HeLa cells without inducing the chlamydial persistence/stress response, as ascertained by electron microscopy. Irradiation of host cells (HeLa, Vero neither affected cell viability nor induced any molecular markers of cytotoxicity as investigated by Alamar blue assay and Western blot analysis. Chlamydial infection, irradiation, and the combination of both showed a similar release pattern of a subset of pro-inflammatory cytokines (MIF/GIF, Serpin E1, RANTES, IL-6, IL-8 and chemokines (IL-16, IP-10, ENA-78, MIG, MIP-1α/β from host cells. Initial investigation into the mechanism indicated possible thermal effects on Chlamydia due to irradiation. In summary, we demonstrate a non-chemical reduction of chlamydial infection using the combination

  6. Photodynamic therapy (PDT and waterfiltered infrared A (wIRA in patients with recalcitrant common hand and foot warts

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    Hoffmann, Gerd

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Common warts (verrucae vulgares are human papilloma virus (HPV infections with a high incidence and prevalence, most often affecting hands and feet, being able to impair quality of life. About 30 different therapeutic regimens described in literature reveal a lack of a single striking strategy. Recent publications showed positive results of photodynamic therapy (PDT with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA in the treatment of HPV-induced skin diseases, especially warts, using visible light (VIS to stimulate an absorption band of endogenously formed protoporphyrin IX. Additional experiences adding waterfiltered infrared A (wIRA during 5-ALA-PDT revealed positive effects. Aim of the study: First prospective randomised controlled blind study including PDT and wIRA in the treatment of recalcitrant common hand and foot warts. Comparison of "5-ALA cream (ALA vs. placebo cream (PLC" and "irradiation with visible light and wIRA (VIS+wIRA vs. irradiation with visible light alone (VIS". Methods: Pre-treatment with keratolysis (salicylic acid and curettage. PDT treatment: topical application of 5-ALA (Medac in "unguentum emulsificans aquosum" vs. placebo; irradiation: combination of VIS and a large amount of wIRA (Hydrosun® radiator type 501, 4 mm water cuvette, waterfiltered spectrum 590-1400 nm, contact-free, typically painless vs. VIS alone. Post-treatment with retinoic acid ointment. One to three therapy cycles every 3 weeks. Main variable of interest: "Percent change of total wart area of each patient over the time" (18 weeks. Global judgement by patient and by physician and subjective rating of feeling/pain (visual analogue scales. 80 patients with therapy-resistant common hand and foot warts were assigned randomly into one of the four therapy groups with comparable numbers of warts at comparable sites in all groups. Results: The individual total wart area decreased during 18 weeks in group 1 (ALA+VIS+wIRA and in group 2 (PLC

  7. Photoinactivation Using Visible Light Plus Water-Filtered Infrared-A (vis+wIRA and Chlorine e6 (Ce6 eradicates Planktonic Periodontal Pathogens and Subgingival Biofilms

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    Ali Al-Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternative treatment methods for pathogens and microbial biofilms are required due to the widespread rise in antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT has recently gained attention as a novel method to eradicate pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effects of a novel aPDT method using visible light (vis and water infiltrated infrared A (wIRA in combination with chlorine e6 (Ce6 against different periodontal pathogens in planktonic form and within in situ subgingival oral biofilms. Eight different periodontal pathogens were exposed to aPDT using vis+wIRA and 100 µg/ml Ce6 in planktonic culture. Additionally, pooled subgingival dental biofilm was also treated by aPDT and the number of viable cells determined as colony forming units (CFU. Live/dead staining was used in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM to visualize and quantify antimicrobial effects within the biofilm samples. Untreated negative controls as well as 0.2 % chlorhexidine (CHX-treated positive controls were used. All eight tested periodontal pathogens including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Eikenella corrodens, Actinomyces odontolyticus, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, Slackia exigua and Atopopium rimae and the aPDT-treated subgingival biofilm were eliminated over the ranges of 3.43 - 8.34 and 3.91 - 4.28 log10 CFU in the log10 scale, respectively. Thus, aPDT showed bactericidal effects on the representative pathogens as well as on the in situ subgingival biofilm. The live/dead staining also revealed a significant reduction (33.45 % of active cells within the aPDT-treated subgingival biofilm. Taking the favorable tissue healing effects of vis+wIRA into consideration, the significant antimicrobial effects revealed in this study highlight the potential of aPDT using this light source in combination with Ce6 as an adjunctive method to treat periodontitis as well as

  8. The World Indigenous Research Alliance (WIRA): Mediating and Mobilizing Indigenous Peoples' Educational Knowledge and Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitinui, Paul; McIvor, Onowa; Robertson, Boni; Morcom, Lindsay; Cashman, Kimo; Arbon, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    There is an Indigenous resurgence in education occurring globally. For more than a century Euro-western approaches have controlled the provision and quality of education to, and for Indigenous peoples. The World Indigenous Research Alliance (WIRA) established in 2012, is a grass-roots movement of Indigenous scholars passionate about making a…

  9. Cryptosporidium: A Guide to Water Filters

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    ... Tap Water Many but not all available home water filters remove Cryptosporidium . Some filter designs are more suitable for removal of Cryptosporidium than others. Filters that have the words "reverse osmosis" on the label protect against Cryptosporidium . Some other ...

  10. Rotating Ceramic Water Filter Discs System for Water Filtration

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    Riyadh Z. Al Zubaidy

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to design, construct and operate a new laboratory scale water filtration system. This system was used to examine the efficiency of two ceramic filter discs as a medium for water filtration. These filters were made from two different ceramic mixtures of local red clay, sawdust, and water. The filtration system was designed with two rotating interfered modules of these filters. Rotating these modules generates shear force between water and the surfaces of filter discs of the filtration modules that works to reduce thickness of layer of rejected materials on the filters surfaces. Each module consists of seven filtration units and each unit consists of two ceramic filter discs. The average measured hydraulic conductivity of the first module was 13.7mm/day and that for the second module was 50mm/day. Results showed that the water filtration system can be operated continuously with a constant flow rate and the filtration process was controlled by a skin thin layer of rejected materials. The ceramic water filters of both filtration modules have high removal efficiency of total suspended solids up to 100% and of turbidity up to 99.94%.

  11. Compatibility between Hydraulic and Mechanical Properties of Ceramic Water Filters

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    Riyadh Z. Al Zubaidy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, ceramic water filters were produced by using ten mixtures of different ratios of red clay and sawdust under different production conditions. The physical properties of these filters were tested. The production conditions include five press pressures ranged from 10 to 50MPa and a firing schedule having three different final temperatures of 1000, 1070, and 1100˚C. The tests results of the physical properties were used to obtain best compatibility between the hydraulic and the mechanical properties of these filters. Results showed that as the press pressure and the firing temperature are increased, the bulk density and the compressive and bending strengths of the produced filters are increased, while, the porosity and absorption are decreased. As the sawdust content is increased the bulk density and the compressive and bending strengths are decreased, while, the porosity and absorption are increased. High hydraulic conductivity is obtained at a firing temperature of 1070˚C when the sawdust content is less than 10%. Otherwise, it is increased as sawdust content and the firing temperature are increased. Filters made of mixture 92.5% red clay and 7.5% sawdust formed . under a press pressure of 20MPa and a firing temperature of 1070˚C gave the best compatibility between hydraulic and mechanical properties. In this case, the hydraulic conductivity was 50mm/day, the compressive strength was 14MPa, and the bending strength was 10.8MPa.

  12. Modeling the sustainability of a ceramic water filter intervention.

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    Mellor, Jonathan; Abebe, Lydia; Ehdaie, Beeta; Dillingham, Rebecca; Smith, James

    2014-02-01

    Ceramic water filters (CWFs) are a point-of-use water treatment technology that has shown promise in preventing early childhood diarrhea (ECD) in resource-limited settings. Despite this promise, some researchers have questioned their ability to reduce ECD incidences over the long term since most effectiveness trials conducted to date are less than one year in duration limiting their ability to assess long-term sustainability factors. Most trials also suffer from lack of blinding making them potentially biased. This study uses an agent-based model (ABM) to explore factors related to the long-term sustainability of CWFs in preventing ECD and was based on a three year longitudinal field study. Factors such as filter user compliance, microbial removal effectiveness, filter cleaning and compliance declines were explored. Modeled results indicate that broadly defined human behaviors like compliance and declining microbial effectiveness due to improper maintenance are primary drivers of the outcome metrics of household drinking water quality and ECD rates. The model predicts that a ceramic filter intervention can reduce ECD incidence amongst under two year old children by 41.3%. However, after three years, the average filter is almost entirely ineffective at reducing ECD incidence due to declining filter microbial removal effectiveness resulting from improper maintenance. The model predicts very low ECD rates are possible if compliance rates are 80-90%, filter log reduction efficiency is 3 or greater and there are minimal long-term compliance declines. Cleaning filters at least once every 4 months makes it more likely to achieve very low ECD rates as does the availability of replacement filters for purchase. These results help to understand the heterogeneity seen in previous intervention-control trials and reemphasize the need for researchers to accurately measure confounding variables and ensure that field trials are at least 2-3 years in duration. In summary, the CWF

  13. Point-of-use water purification using clay pot water filters and copper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-11-24

    Nov 24, 2011 ... clay pot water filters (CPWFs) were fabricated using terracotta clay and sawdust. The sawdust was .... developed by educational initiatives and non-governmental .... est filtration rate, it had the disadvantage of not being able to.

  14. Low-cost domestic water filter: The case for a process-based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low-cost domestic water filter: The case for a process-based approach for the development of a rural technology product. ... Since the project aims at technology transfer to the rural poor for generating rural livelihoods, appropriate financial models and the general sustainability issues for such an activity are briefly discussed ...

  15. Development of improved low-cost ceramic water filters for viral removal in the Haitian context

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero Latorre, Laura; Rusiñol Arantegui, Marta; Hundesa Gonfa, Ayalkibet; Garcia Vallès, Maite; Martínez Manent, Salvador; Joseph, Osnick; Bofill Mas, Silvia; Gironès Llop, Rosina

    2015-01-01

    Household-based water treatment (HWT) is increasingly being promoted to improve water quality and, therefore, health status in low-income countries. Ceramic water filters (CWFs) are used in many regions as sustainable HWT and have been proven to meet World Health Organization (WHO) microbiological performance targets for bacterial removal (24 log); however, the described viral removal efficiencies are insufficient to significantly reduce the associated risk of viral infection. With the object...

  16. Measurement of Water Quality Parameters for Before and After Maintenance Service in Water Filter System

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    Shaharudin Nuraida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An adequate supply of safe drinking water is one of major ways to obtain healthy life. Water filter system is one way to improve the water quality. However, to maintain the performance of the system, it need to undergo the maintenance service. This study evaluate the requirement of maintenance service in water filter system. Water quality was measured before and after maintenance service. Parameters measured were pH, turbidity, residual chlorine, nitrate and heavy metals and these parameters were compared with National Drinking Water Quality Standards. Collection of data were involved three housing areas in Johor. The quality of drinking water from water filter system were analysed using pH meter, turbidity meter, DR6000 and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer. pH value was increased from 16.4% for before maintenance services to 30.7% for after maintenance service. Increment of removal percentage for turbidity, residual chlorine and nitrate after maintenance were 21.5, 13.6 and 26.7, respectively. This result shows that maintenance service enhance the performance of the system. However, less significant of maintenance service for enhance the removal of heavy metals which the increment of removal percentage in range 0.3 to 9.8. Only aluminium shows percentage removal for after maintenance with 92.8% lower compared to before maintenance service with 95.5%.

  17. Experimental investigation of an optical water filter for Photovoltaic/Thermal conversion module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shohani, Wisam A.M.; Sabouri, Aydin; Al-Dadah, Raya; Mahmoud, Saad; Butt, Haider

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New design of Photovoltaic/Thermal system is proposed. • Using the optical water layer as a spectrum splitter is tested experimentally. • Optical rig is developed to study the optical performance of water layer. • Energy conversion under different water layer thicknesses is determined. - Abstract: This paper presents an experimental investigation of a novel optical water filter used for Photovoltaic/Thermal and Concentrating Photovoltaic/Thermal modules. A water layer is used as a spectrum splitter of solar radiation placed above the photovoltaic cells and as a thermal working fluid simultaneously. The water layer absorbs the ultraviolet and part of infrared, which are not used by the photovoltaic, but transmits the visible and some of infrared to the solar cell surface which are used by the photovoltaic. In this work, the transmittance of the optical water filter was measured for different water thicknesses (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm) and radiation wavelength ranging from 0.35 to 1 μm. Results show that there is a significant effect of the water layer thickness on the transmittance of the spectra where the transmittance decreases as the water layer increases. Moreover, energy conversion rate of photovoltaic with the optical water filter at different water layer thicknesses has been determined.

  18. Clinical and Microbiologic Efficacy of a Water Filter Program in a Rural Honduran Community

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    Jaclyn Arquiette

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Water purification in the rural Honduras is a focus of the nonprofit organization Honduras Outreach Medical Brigade Relief Effort (HOMBRE. We assessed water filter use and tested filter microbiologic and clinical efficacy. A 22-item questionnaire assessed water sources, obtainment/storage, purification, and incidence of gastrointestinal disease. Samples from home clay-based filters in La Hicaca were obtained and paired with surveys from the same home. We counted bacterial colonies of four bacterial classifications from each sample. Sixty-five surveys were completed. Forty-five (69% individuals used a filter. Fifteen respondents reported diarrhea in their home in the last 30 days; this incidence was higher in homes not using a filter. Thirty-three paired water samples and surveys were available. Twenty-eight samples (85% demonstrated bacterial growth. A control sample was obtained from the local river, the principal water source; number and bacterial colony types were innumerable within 24 hours. Access to clean water, the use of filters, and other treatment methods differed within a geographically proximal region. Although the majority of the water samples failed to achieve bacterial eradication, water filters may sufficiently reduce bacterial coliform counts to levels below infectious inoculation. Clay water filters may be sustainable water treatment measures in resource poor settings.

  19. Assessment of a membrane drinking water filter in an emergency setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensink, Jeroen H J; Bastable, Andy; Cairncross, Sandy

    2015-06-01

    The performance and acceptability of the Nerox(TM) membrane drinking water filter were evaluated among an internally displaced population in Pakistan. The membrane filter and a control ceramic candle filter were distributed to over 3,000 households. Following a 6-month period, 230 households were visited and filter performance and use were assessed. Only 6% of the visited households still had a functioning filter, and the removal performance ranged from 80 to 93%. High turbidity in source water (irrigation canals), together with high temperatures and large family size were likely to have contributed to poor performance and uptake of the filters.

  20. Use of remotely reporting electronic sensors for assessing use of water filters and cookstoves in Rwanda.

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    Thomas, Evan A; Barstow, Christina K; Rosa, Ghislaine; Majorin, Fiona; Clasen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Remotely reporting electronic sensors offer the potential to reduce bias in monitoring use of environmental health interventions. In the context of a five-month randomized controlled trial of household water filters and improved cookstoves in rural Rwanda, we collected data from intervention households on product compliance using (i) monthly surveys and direct observations by community health workers and environmental health officers, and (ii) sensor-equipped filters and cookstoves deployed for about two weeks in each household. The adoption rate interpreted by the sensors varied from the household reporting: 90.5% of households reported primarily using the intervention stove, while the sensors interpreted 73.2% use, and 96.5% of households reported using the intervention filter regularly, while the sensors interpreted no more than 90.2%. The sensor-collected data estimated use to be lower than conventionally collected data both for water filters (approximately 36% less water volume per day) and cookstoves (approximately 40% fewer uses per week). An evaluation of intrahousehold consistency in use suggests that households are not using their filters or stoves on an exclusive basis, and may be both drinking untreated water at times and using other stoves ("stove-stacking"). These results provide additional evidence that surveys and direct observation may exaggerate compliance with household-based environmental interventions.

  1. Avoiding the Use of Exhausted Drinking Water Filters: A Filter-Clock Based on Rusting Iron

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    Arnaud Igor Ndé-Tchoupé

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficient but affordable water treatment technologies are currently sought to solve the prevalent shortage of safe drinking water. Adsorption-based technologies are in the front-line of these efforts. Upon proper design, universally applied materials (e.g., activated carbons, bone chars, metal oxides are able to quantitatively remove inorganic and organic pollutants as well as pathogens from water. Each water filter has a defined removal capacity and must be replaced when this capacity is exhausted. Operational experience has shown that it may be difficult to convince some low-skilled users to buy new filters after a predicted service life. This communication describes the quest to develop a filter-clock to encourage all users to change their filters after the designed service life. A brief discussion on such a filter-clock based on rusting of metallic iron (Fe0 is presented. Integrating such filter-clocks in the design of water filters is regarded as essential for safeguarding public health.

  2. Preventing diarrhoea with household ceramic water filters: assessment of a pilot project in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas F; Brown, Joseph; Collin, Simon M

    2006-06-01

    In an attempt to prevent diarrhoea in a rural community in central Bolivia, an international non-governmental organization implemented a pilot project to improve drinking water quality using gravity-fed, household-based, ceramic water filters. We assessed the performance of the filters by conducting a five-month randomized controlled trial among all 60 households in the pilot community. Water filters eliminated thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms from almost all intervention households and significantly reduced turbidity, thereby improving water aesthetics. Most importantly, the filters were associated with a 45.3% reduction in prevalence of diarrhoea among the study population (p = 0.02). After adjustment for household clustering and repeated episodes in individuals and controlling for age and baseline diarrhoea, prevalence of diarrhoea among the intervention group was 51% lower than controls, though the protective effect was only borderline significant (OR 0.49, 95% CI: 0.24, 1.01; p = 0.05). A follow-up survey conducted approximately 9 months after deployment of the filters found 67% being used regularly, 13% being used intermittently, and 21% not in use. Water samples from all regularly used filters were free of thermotolerant coliforms.

  3. Reducing diarrhea through the use of household-based ceramic water filters: a randomized, controlled trial in rural Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas F; Brown, Joseph; Collin, Simon; Suntura, Oscar; Cairncross, Sandy

    2004-06-01

    Ceramic water filters have been identified as one of the most promising and accessible technologies for treating water at the household level. In a six-month trial, water filters were distributed randomly to half of the 50 participating households in a rural community in Bolivia; the remaining households continued to use customary water handling practices and served as controls. In four rounds of sampling following distribution of the filters, 100% of the 96 water samples from the filter households were free of thermotolerant coliforms compared with 15.5% of the control household samples. Diarrheal disease risk for individuals in intervention households was 70% lower than for controls (95% confidence interval [CI] = 53-80%; P ceramic water filters enable low-income households to treat and maintain the microbiologic quality of their drinking water.

  4. Modeling Flow Rate to Estimate Hydraulic Conductivity in a Parabolic Ceramic Water Filter

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    Ileana Wald

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this project we model volumetric flow rate through a parabolic ceramic water filter (CWF to determine how quickly it can process water while still improving its quality. The volumetric flow rate is dependent upon the pore size of the filter, the surface area, and the height of water in the filter (hydraulic head. We derive differential equations governing this flow from the conservation of mass principle and Darcy's Law and find the flow rate with respect to time. We then use methods of calculus to find optimal specifications for the filter. This work is related to the research conducted in Dr. James R. Mihelcic's Civil and Environmental Engineering Lab at USF.

  5. The segregation of silver nanoparticles in low-cost ceramic water filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larimer, Curtis; Ostrowski, Nicole; Speakman, Jacquelyn; Nettleship, Ian

    2010-01-01

    As an impregnated constituent in low-cost ceramic water filters, silver nanoparticles have a demonstrated antibacterial effect. The bactericidal mechanism is believed to be based on direct contact between silver and the cell wall of a contaminant organism. In this study microstructural analysis was used to examine the effect of the processing method on the distribution of silver nanoparticles in the filter material. Silver nanofluid was impregnated into fired clay ceramic samples by a low-cost soak-and-dry method. Analyses of filter samples by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and digital optical topological mapping showed that silver was concentrated in near surface pores, a condition that is not optimal for highest probability of silver contact. A simple experiment showed that segregation of silver occurs during the drying phase of impregnation. Drying curves showed that 90% of contained liquid evaporates from the external surface.

  6. Quantifying the Water Footprint of Manufactured Products: A Case Study of Pitcher Water Filters

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    Ashley Barker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water is a finite resource that is critically needed bysociety for a variety of purposes. The demand for freshwater will grow as the world population and global livingstandard increase, and fresh water shortages will becomemore commonplace. This will put significant stress onsociety. It has been argued that fresh water may becomethe next oil, and efforts have to be made to better manageits fresh water consumption by agricultural and domesticusers. Industry also uses large amounts. Surprisingly, onlyrecently is serious attention being directed toward waterrelatedissues. This effort to quantify the water footprint ofa manufactured product represents one of the first initiativesto characterize the role of water in a discrete good.This study employed a life cycle assessment methodologyto determine the water footprint of a pitcher water filter.This particular product was selected because many waterintensivematerials and processes are needed to produceits major components: for example, agricultural processesused to produce activated carbon and petrochemicalprocesses used to produce the polypropylene casing. Inaddition, a large amount of water is consumed during theproduct’s use phase. Water data was obtained from theEcoinvent 2.1 database and categorized as either beingassociated with blue or green water.The blue water footprint (surface water consumption forthe pitcher water filter was 76 gallons per filter: 10 gallonsconsumed for materials extraction, 15 gallons for themanufacturing stage, and 50 gallons during the use phase.The green water footprint (precipitation was associatedwith the cultivation of the coconut tree; activated carbonis obtained from the coconut shells. The green waterfootprint was calculated to be 164 gallons per filter.The overall water footprint was 240 gallons per filter;the filter footprint is heavily dominated by green water(68% rather than blue water (32%. Future studies mayinvestigate how the production and

  7. Impact of a silver layer on the membrane of tap water filters on the microbiological quality of filtered water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruderek Juliane

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria in the hospital's drinking water system represent a risk for the acquisition of a nosocomial infection in the severely immunocompromised host. Terminal tap water filters may be used to prevent nosocomial Legionnaires' disease. We present data from water samples using an improved kind of tap water filters. Methods In a blinded study on an intermediate care unit of the thoracic surgery department, a modified type of the Germlyser water filter (Aqua-Free Membrane Technology with a newly-introduced silver layer on the filtration membrane was compared to its preceding type without such a layer on 15 water outlets. We determined growth of Legionella, other pathogenic bacteria, and the total heterotrophic plate count in unfiltered water and filtered water samples after filter usage intervals of 1 through 4 weeks. Results A total of 299 water samples were tested. Twenty-nine of the 60 unfiltered water samples contained Legionella of various serogroups (baseline value. In contrast, all samples filtered by the original water filter and all but one of the water samples filtered by the modified filter type remained Legionella-free. No other pathogenic bacteria were detected in any filtered sample. The total plate count in water samples increased during use of both kinds of filters over time. However, for the first 7 days of use, there were significantly fewer water samples containing >100 CFU per mL when using the new filter device compared with the older filters or taps with no filter. No advantage was seen thereafter. Conclusion The use of this type of terminal water filter is an appropriate method to protect immunocompromised patients from water-borne pathogens such as Legionella.

  8. Fabrication of antibacterial water filter by coating silver nanoparticles on flexible polyurethane foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Phuong Phong; Ngo Vo Ke Thanh; Phan Hue Phuong

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we fabricated silver-coated polyurethane foams and used it as a bacterial filter for contaminated drinking water. Flexible PU foams were soaked in silver colloidal solutions for 10 h, then washed and air-dried at room temperature. The prepared silver colloidal solutions and silver-coated PU materials were characterized by several techniques including TEM, FESEM/EDS, UV-VIS, ICP-AAS, and Raman spectroscopy. The TEM images showed that the size of silver nanoparticles in colloidal solutions varies from 6 to 12nm. The Raman, FE-SEM/EDS and ICP-AAS data illustrated that silver nanoparticles were stable on the PU foam and were not washed away by water. Furthermore, the microbiological tests (tube tests and flow test) were carried out on silver-coated PU materials with the Coliforms, E. coli, and B. subtilis. The obtained results showed that the bacteria was killed completely with antibacterial efficiency of 100% being observed. Our research suggests that silver-coated polyurethane foams can be used as excellent antibacterial water filters and would have several applications in other sectors.

  9. Endocrine disruptors in water filters used in the Rio dos Sinos Basin region, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CM Furtado

    Full Text Available The activated carbon filter is used in residences as another step in the treatment of drinking water, based on a physical-chemical process to absorb pollutants that are not removed in conventional treatment. Endocrine disruptors (EDCs are exogenous substances or mixtures of substances that acts on the endocrine system similarly to the endogenously produced hormones, triggering malfunctions and harmful changes to human and animal health. The objective of the present work was to study EDCs through semi-quantitative analysis of residential water filters collected in the region of Rio dos Sinos basin, focusing on two specific classes: hormones and phenols. The solid phase extraction principle was used for the extraction of compounds and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for the separation and characterization of EDCs. Four samples of residential filters collected from public water distribution and artesian wells, from the cities of Novo Hamburgo and São Leopoldo were analysed. Using the developed methodology, it was possible to detect and comparatively quantify selected EDCs in all studied samples, which indicates the presence of these contaminants in drinking water from different sources.

  10. Bacterial treatment effectiveness of point-of-use ceramic water filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielefeldt, Angela R; Kowalski, Kate; Summers, R Scott

    2009-08-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted on six point-of-use (POU) ceramic water filters that were manufactured in Nicaragua; two filters were used by families for ca. 4 years and the other filters had limited prior use in our lab. Water spiked with ca. 10(6)CFU/mL of Escherichia coli was dosed to the filters. Initial disinfection efficiencies ranged from 3 - 4.5 log, but the treatment efficiency decreased with subsequent batches of spiked water. Silver concentrations in the effluent water ranged from 0.04 - 1.75 ppb. Subsequent experiments that utilized feed water without a bacterial spike yielded 10(3)-10(5)CFU/mL bacteria in the effluent. Immediately after recoating four of the filters with a colloidal silver solution, the effluent silver concentrations increased to 36 - 45 ppb and bacterial disinfection efficiencies were 3.8-4.5 log. The treatment effectiveness decreased to 0.2 - 2.5 log after loading multiple batches of highly contaminated water. In subsequent loading of clean water, the effluent water contained filters. This indicates that the silver had some benefit to reducing bacterial contamination by the filter. In general these POU filters were found to be effective, but showed loss of effectiveness with time and indicated a release of microbes into subsequent volumes of water passed through the system.

  11. Hydraulic modeling of clay ceramic water filters for point-of-use water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Ryan W; Cunningham, Jeffrey A; Mihelcic, James R

    2013-01-02

    The acceptability of ceramic filters for point-of-use water treatment depends not only on the quality of the filtered water, but also on the quantity of water the filters can produce. This paper presents two mathematical models for the hydraulic performance of ceramic water filters under typical usage. A model is developed for two common filter geometries: paraboloid- and frustum-shaped. Both models are calibrated and evaluated by comparison to experimental data. The hydraulic models are able to predict the following parameters as functions of time: water level in the filter (h), instantaneous volumetric flow rate of filtrate (Q), and cumulative volume of water produced (V). The models' utility is demonstrated by applying them to estimate how the volume of water produced depends on factors such as the filter shape and the frequency of filling. Both models predict that the volume of water produced can be increased by about 45% if users refill the filter three times per day versus only once per day. Also, the models predict that filter geometry affects the volume of water produced: for two filters with equal volume, equal wall thickness, and equal hydraulic conductivity, a filter that is tall and thin will produce as much as 25% more water than one which is shallow and wide. We suggest that the models can be used as tools to help optimize filter performance.

  12. Removal of virus to protozoan sized particles in point-of-use ceramic water filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielefeldt, Angela R; Kowalski, Kate; Schilling, Cherylynn; Schreier, Simon; Kohler, Amanda; Scott Summers, R

    2010-03-01

    The particle removal performance of point-of-use ceramic water filters (CWFs) was characterized in the size range of 0.02-100 microm using carboxylate-coated polystyrene fluorescent microspheres, natural particles and clay. Particles were spiked into dechlorinated tap water, and three successive water batches treated in each of six different CWFs. Particle removal generally increased with increasing size. The removal of virus-sized 0.02 and 0.1 microm spheres were highly variable between the six filters, ranging from 63 to 99.6%. For the 0.5 microm spheres removal was less variable and in the range of 95.1-99.6%, while for the 1, 2, 4.5, and 10 microm spheres removal was >99.6%. Recoating four of the CWFs with colloidal silver solution improved removal of the 0.02 microm spheres, but had no significant effects on the other particle sizes. Log removals of 1.8-3.2 were found for natural turbidity and spiked kaolin clay particles; however, particles as large as 95 microm were detected in filtered water. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A New Method for the Deposition of Metallic Silver on Porous Ceramic Water Filters

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    Kathryn N. Jackson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method of silver application to a porous ceramic water filter used for point-of-use water treatment is developed. We evaluated filter performance for filters manufactured by the conventional method of painting an aqueous suspension of silver nanoparticles onto the filter and filters manufactured with a new method that applies silver nitrate to the clay-water-sawdust mixture prior to pressing and firing the filter. Filters were evaluated using miscible displacement flow-through experiments with pulse and continuous-feed injections of E. coli. Flow characteristics were quantified by tracer experiments using [3H]H2O. Experiments using pulse injections of E. coli showed similar performance in breakthrough curves between the two application methods. Long-term challenge tests performed with a continuous feed of E. coli and growth medium resulted in similar log removal rates, but the removal rate by nanosilver filters decreased over time. Silver nitrate filters provided consistent removal with lower silver levels in the effluent and effective bacterial disinfection. Results from continued use with synthetic groundwater over 4 weeks, with a pulse injection of E. coli at 2 and 4 weeks, support similar conclusions—nanosilver filters perform better initially, but after 4 weeks of use, nanosilver filters suffer larger decreases in performance. Results show that including silver nitrate in the mixing step may effectively reduce costs, improve silver retention in the filter, increase effective lifespan, and maintain effective pathogen removal while also eliminating the risk of exposure to inhalation of silver nanoparticles by workers in developing-world filter production facilities.

  14. Application of design for six sigma methodology on portable water filter that uses membrane filtration system: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrul Hassan, Mohd; Jusoh, Suhada; Zaini Yunos, Muhamad; Arifin, A. M. T.; Ismail, A. E.; Rasidi Ibrahim, M.; Zulafif Rahim, M.

    2017-09-01

    Portable water filter has grown significantly in recent years. The use of water bottles as a water drink stuff using hand pump water filtration unit has been suggested to replace water bottled during outdoor recreational activities and for emergency supplies. However, quality of water still the issue related to contaminated water due to the residual waste plants, bacteria, and so on. Based on these issues, the study was carried out to design a portable water filter that uses membrane filtration system by applying Design for Six Sigma. Design for Six Sigma methodology consists of five stages which is Define, Measure, Analyze, Design and Verify. There were several tools have been used in each stage in order to come out with a specific objective. In the Define stage, questionnaire approach was used to identify the needs of portable water filter in the future from potential users. Next, Quality Function Deployment (QFD) tool was used in the Measure stage to measure the users’ needs into engineering characteristics. Based on the information in the Measure stage, morphological chart and weighted decision matrix tools were used in the Analyze stage. This stage performed several activities including concept generation and selection. Once the selection of the final concept completed, detail drawing was made in the Design stage. Then, prototype was developed in the Verify stage to conduct proof-of-concept testing. The results that obtained from each stage have been reported in this paper. From this study, it can be concluded that the application of Design for Six Sigma in designing a future portable water filter that uses membrane filtration system is a good start in looking for a new alternative concept with a completed supporting document.

  15. Manufacturing a low-cost ceramic water filter and filter system for the elimination of common pathogenic bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, J. J.; Basson, A. K.

    Africa is one of the most water-scarce continents in the world but it is the lack of potable water which results in diarrhoea being the leading cause of death amongst children under the age of five in Africa (696 million children under 5 years old in Africa contract diarrhoea resulting in 2000 deaths per day: WHO and UNICEF, 2009). Most potable water treatment methods use bulk water treatment not suitable or available to the majority of rural poor in Sub-Saharan Africa. One simple but effective way of making sure that water is of good quality is by purifying it by means of a household ceramic water filter. The making and supply of water filters suitable for the removal of suspended solids, pathogenic bacteria and other toxins from drinking water is therefore critical. A micro-porous ceramic water filter with micron-sized pores was developed using the traditional slip casting process. This locally produced filter has the advantage of making use of less raw materials, cost, labour, energy and expertise and being more effective and efficient than other low cost produced filters. The filter is fitted with a silicone tube inserted into a collapsible bag that acts as container and protection for the filter. Enhanced flow is obtained through this filter system. The product was tested using water inoculated with high concentrations of different bacterial cultures as well as with locally polluted stream water. The filter is highly effective (log10 > 4 with 99.99% reduction efficiency) in providing protection from bacteria and suspended solids found in natural water. With correct cleaning and basic maintenance this filter technology can effectively provide drinking water to rural families affected by polluted surface water sources. This is an African solution for the more than 340 million people in Africa without access to clean drinking water (WHO and UNICEF, 2008).

  16. Behavioral Reactivity Associated With Electronic Monitoring of Environmental Health Interventions--A Cluster Randomized Trial with Water Filters and Cookstoves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A; Tellez-Sanchez, Sarita; Wick, Carson; Kirby, Miles; Zambrano, Laura; Abadie Rosa, Ghislaine; Clasen, Thomas F; Nagel, Corey

    2016-04-05

    Subject reactivity--when research participants change their behavior in response to being observed--has been documented showing the effect of human observers. Electronics sensors are increasingly used to monitor environmental health interventions, but the effect of sensors on behavior has not been assessed. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial in Rwanda among 170 households (70 blinded to the presence of the sensor, 100 open) testing whether awareness of an electronic monitor would result in a difference in weekly use of household water filters and improved cookstoves over a four-week surveillance period. A 63% increase in number of uses of the water filter per week between the groups was observed in week 1, an average of 4.4 times in the open group and 2.83 times in the blind group, declining in week 4 to an insignificant 55% difference of 2.82 uses in the open, and 1.93 in the blind. There were no significant differences in the number of stove uses per week between the two groups. For both filters and stoves, use decreased in both groups over four-week installation periods. This study suggests behavioral monitoring should attempt to account for reactivity to awareness of electronic monitors that persists for weeks or more.

  17. Process evaluation and assessment of use of a large scale water filter and cookstove program in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina K. Barstow

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an effort to reduce the disease burden in rural Rwanda, decrease poverty associated with expenditures for fuel, and minimize the environmental impact on forests and greenhouse gases from inefficient combustion of biomass, the Rwanda Ministry of Health (MOH partnered with DelAgua Health (DelAgua, a private social enterprise, to distribute and promote the use of improved cookstoves and advanced water filters to the poorest quarter of households (Ubudehe 1 and 2 nationally, beginning in Western Province under a program branded Tubeho Neza (“Live Well”. The project is privately financed and earns revenue from carbon credits under the United Nations Clean Development Mechanism. Methods During a 3-month period in late 2014, over 470,000 people living in over 101,000 households were provided free water filters and cookstoves. Following the distribution, community health workers visited nearly 98 % of households to perform household level education and training activities. Over 87 % of households were visited again within 6 months with a basic survey conducted. Detailed adoption surveys were conducted among a sample of households, 1000 in the first round, 187 in the second. Results Approximately a year after distribution, reported water filter use was above 90 % (+/−4 % CI and water present in filter was observed in over 76 % (+/−6 % CI of households, while the reported primary stove was nearly 90 % (+/−4.4 % CI and of households cooking at the time of the visit, over 83 % (+/−5.3 % CI were on the improved stove. There was no observed association between household size and stove stacking behavior. Conclusions This program suggests that free distribution is not a determinant of low adoption. It is plausible that continued engagement in households, enabled by Ministry of Health support and carbon financed revenue, contributed to high adoption rates. Overall, the program was able to demonstrate a privately

  18. Comparison of the bacterial removal performance of silver nanoparticles and a polymer based quaternary amine functiaonalized silsesquioxane coated point-of-use ceramic water filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongyin; Oyanedel-Craver, Vinka

    2013-09-15

    This study compares the disinfection performance of ceramic water filters impregnated with two antibacterial compounds: silver nanoparticles and a polymer based quaternary amine functiaonalized silsesquioxane (poly(trihydroxysilyl) propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (TPA)). This study evaluated these compounds using ceramic disks manufactures with clay obtained from a ceramic filter factory located in San Mateo Ixtatan, Guatemala. Instead of using full size ceramic water filters, manufactured 6.5 cm diameter ceramic water filter disks were used. Results showed that TPA can achieve a log bacterial reduction value of 10 while silver nanoparticles reached up to 2 log reduction using a initial concentration of bacteria of 10(10)-10(11)CFU/ml. Similarly, bacterial transport demonstrated that ceramic filter disks painted with TPA achieved a bacterial log reduction value of 6.24, which is about 2 log higher than the values obtained for disks painted with silver nanoparticles (bacterial log reduction value: 4.42). The release of both disinfectants from the ceramic materials to the treated water was determined measuring the effluent concentrations in each test performed. Regarding TPA, about 3% of the total mass applied to the ceramic disks was released in the effluent over 300 min, which is slightly lower than the release percentage for silver nanoparticles (4%). This study showed that TPA provides a comparable disinfection performance than silver nanoparticles in ceramic water filter. Another advantage of using TPA is the cost as the price of TPA is considerable lower than silver nanoparticles. In spite of the use of TPA in several medical related products, there is only partial information regarding the health risk associated with the ingestion of this compound. Additional long-term toxicological information for TPA should be evaluated before its future application in ceramic water filters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enteric virus removal from water by coal-based sorbents: development of low-cost water filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, M.; Sattar, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    Using poliovirus type 1 (Sabin) and dechlorinated tap water, several coal-based sorbents were tested for their capacity to remove viruses from water. The sorbents included bituminous coal from Giridih, India, pretreated/impregnated with either alum, ferric hydroxide, lime or manganese dioxide. Filtrasorb-400, commercially available active carbon, was used as a reference. In batch tests, with input virus concentration of 2.34-2.83x10/sup 6/ PFU/1 and sorbent concentration of 10 g/l, alum pretreated coal removed about 96% of the virus when pH of the water was between 6.3 and 8.9. Virus sorption was rapid and a plateau was reached in 30 min. Compared with the active carbon, alum pretreated coal exhibited greater sorption energy and about one log higher limiting poliovirus sorption capacity. Downflow column study indicated the potential of alum pretreated coal as a filter media for removing enteric viruses from water. A previous study showed this sorbent to be capable of removing enteric bacteria as well. Water filters prepared from such low-cost material may prove useful for domestic use in rural areas of India and other developing countries. 19 refs.

  20. A post-implementation evaluation of ceramic water filters distributed to tsunami-affected communities in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Lisa M; Walters, Adam; Naghawatte, Ajith; Sobsey, Mark D

    2012-06-01

    Sri Lanka was devastated by the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. During recovery, the Red Cross distributed approximately 12,000 free ceramic water filters. This cross-sectional study was an independent post-implementation assessment of 452 households that received filters, to determine the proportion still using filters, household characteristics associated with use, and quality of household drinking water. The proportion of continued users was high (76%). The most common household water sources were taps or shallow wells. The majority (82%) of users used filtered water for drinking only. Mean filter flow rate was 1.12 L/hr (0.80 L/hr for households with taps and 0.71 for those with wells). Water quality varied by source; households using tap water had source water of high microbial quality. Filters improved water quality, reducing Escherichia coli for households (largely well users) with high levels in their source water. Households were satisfied with filters and are potentially long-term users. To promote sustained use, recovery filter distribution efforts should try to identify households at greatest long-term risk, particularly those who have not moved to safer water sources during recovery. They should be joined with long-term commitment to building supply chains and local production capacity to ensure safe water access.

  1. Selenite resistant rhizobacteria stimulate SeO(3) (2-) phytoextraction by Brassica juncea in bioaugmented water-filtering artificial beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampis, Silvia; Ferrari, Anita; Cunha-Queda, A Cristina F; Alvarenga, Paula; Di Gregorio, Simona; Vallini, Giovanni

    2009-09-01

    Selenium is a trace metalloid of global environmental concern. The boundary among its essentiality, deficiency, and toxicity is narrow and mainly depends on the chemical forms and concentrations in which this element occurs. Different plant species-including Brassica juncea-have been shown to play a significant role in Se removal from soil as well as water bodies. Furthermore, the interactions between such plants, showing natural capabilities of metal uptake and their rhizospheric microbial communities, might be exploited to increase both Se scavenging and vegetable biomass production in order to improve the whole phytoextraction efficiency. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the capability of selenite removal of B. juncea grown in hydroponic conditions on artificially spiked effluents. To optimize phytoextraction efficiency, interactions between B. juncea and rhizobacteria were designedly elicited. Firstly, B. juncea was grown on water-filtering agriperlite beds in the presence of three different selenite concentrations, namely, 0.2, 1.0, and 2.0 mM. Plant growth was measured after 3 and 6 weeks of incubation in order to establish the selenite concentration at which the best plant biomass production could be obtained. Afterwards, water-filtering agriperlite beds were inoculated either with a selenium-acclimated microbial community deriving from the rhizosphere of B. juncea grown, erstwhile, in a selenite-amended soil or with axenic cultures of two bacterial strains, vicelike Bacillus mycoides SeITE01 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia SeITE02, previously isolated and described for their high resistance to selenite. These latter were seeded separately or as a dual consortium. Selenite was amended at a final concentration of 1.0 mM. Total Se content in plant tissues (both shoots and roots), plant biomass production, and persistence of bioaugmented microbial inocula during the experimental time were monitored. Moreover, parameters such as bioconcentration

  2. Local drinking water filters reduce diarrheal disease in Cambodia: a randomized, controlled trial of the ceramic water purifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joe; Sobsey, Mark D; Loomis, Dana

    2008-09-01

    A randomized, controlled intervention trial of two household-scale drinking water filters was conducted in a rural village in Cambodia. After collecting four weeks of baseline data on household water quality, diarrheal disease, and other data related to water use and handling practices, households were randomly assigned to one of three groups of 60 households: those receiving a ceramic water purifier (CWP), those receiving a second filter employing an iron-rich ceramic (CWP-Fe), and a control group receiving no intervention. Households were followed for 18 weeks post-baseline with biweekly follow-up. Households using either filter reported significantly less diarrheal disease during the study compared with a control group of households without filters as indicated by longitudinal prevalence ratios CWP: 0.51 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.41-0.63); CWP-Fe: 0.58 (95% CI: 0.47-0.71), an effect that was observed in all age groups and both sexes after controlling for clustering within households and within individuals over time.

  3. Use, microbiological effectiveness and health impact of a household water filter intervention in rural Rwanda-A matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Miles A; Nagel, Corey L; Rosa, Ghislaine; Umupfasoni, Marie Mediatrice; Iyakaremye, Laurien; Thomas, Evan A; Clasen, Thomas F

    2017-08-01

    Unsafe drinking water is a substantial health risk contributing to child diarrhoea. We investigated impacts of a program that provided a water filter to households in rural Rwandan villages. We assessed drinking water quality and reported diarrhoea 12-24 months after intervention delivery among 269 households in the poorest tertile with a child under 5 from 9 intervention villages and 9 matched control villages. We also documented filter coverage and use. In Round 1 (12-18 months after delivery), 97.4% of intervention households reported receiving the filter, 84.5% were working, and 86.0% of working filters contained water. Sensors confirmed half of households with working filters filled them at least once every other day on average. Coverage and usage was similar in Round 2 (19-24 months after delivery). The odds of detecting faecal indicator bacteria in drinking water were 78% lower in the intervention arm than the control arm (odds ratio (OR) 0.22, 95% credible interval (CrI) 0.10-0.39, p<0.001). The intervention arm also had 50% lower odds of reported diarrhoea among children <5 than the control arm (OR=0.50, 95% CrI 0.23-0.90, p=0.03). The protective effect of the filter is also suggested by reduced odds of reported diarrhoea-related visits to community health workers or clinics, although these did not reach statistical significance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Study design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial to evaluate a large-scale distribution of cook stoves and water filters in Western Province, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Corey L; Kirby, Miles A; Zambrano, Laura D; Rosa, Ghislane; Barstow, Christina K; Thomas, Evan A; Clasen, Thomas F

    2016-12-15

    In Rwanda, pneumonia and diarrhea are the first and second leading causes of death, respectively, among children under five. Household air pollution (HAP) resultant from cooking indoors with biomass fuels on traditional stoves is a significant risk factor for pneumonia, while consumption of contaminated drinking water is a primary cause of diarrheal disease. To date, there have been no large-scale effectiveness trials of programmatic efforts to provide either improved cookstoves or household water filters at scale in a low-income country. In this paper we describe the design of a cluster-randomized trial to evaluate the impact of a national-level program to distribute and promote the use of improved cookstoves and advanced water filters to the poorest quarter of households in Rwanda. We randomly allocated 72 sectors (administratively defined units) in Western Province to the intervention, with the remaining 24 sectors in the province serving as controls. In the intervention sectors, roughly 100,000 households received improved cookstoves and household water filters through a government-sponsored program targeting the poorest quarter of households nationally. The primary outcome measures are the incidence of acute respiratory infection (ARI) and diarrhea among children under five years of age. Over a one-year surveillance period, all cases of acute respiratory infection (ARI) and diarrhea identified by health workers in the study area will be extracted from records maintained at health facilities and by community health workers (CHW). In addition, we are conducting intensive, longitudinal data collection among a random sample of households in the study area for in-depth assessment of coverage, use, environmental exposures, and additional health measures. Although previous research has examined the impact of providing household water treatment and improved cookstoves on child health, there have been no studies of national-level programs to deliver these interventions

  5. Explaining low rates of sustained use of siphon water filter: evidence from follow-up of a randomised controlled trial in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najnin, Nusrat; Arman, Shaila; Abedin, Jaynal; Unicomb, Leanne; Levine, David I; Mahmud, Minhaj; Leder, Karin; Yeasmin, Farzana; Luoto, Jill E; Albert, Jeff; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-04-01

    To assess sustained siphon filter usage among a low-income population in Bangladesh and study relevant motivators and barriers. After a randomised control trial in Bangladesh during 2009, 191 households received a siphon water filter along with educational messages. Researchers revisited households after 3 and 6 months to assess filter usage and determine relevant motivators and barriers. Regular users were defined as those who reported using the filter most of the time and were observed to be using the filter at follow-up visits. Integrated behavioural model for water, sanitation and hygiene (IBM-WASH) was used to explain factors associated with regular filter use. Regular filter usage was 28% at the 3-month follow-up and 21% at the 6-month follow-up. Regular filter users had better quality water at the 6-month, but not at the 3-month visit. Positive predictors of regular filter usage explained through IBM-WASH at both times were willingness to pay >US$1 for filters, and positive attitude towards filter use (technology dimension at individual level); reporting boiling drinking water at baseline (psychosocial dimension at habitual level); and Bengali ethnicity (contextual dimension at individual level). Frequently reported barriers to regular filter use were as follows: considering filter use an additional task, filter breakage and time required for water filtering (technology dimension at individual level). The technological, psychosocial and contextual dimensions of IBM-WASH contributed to understanding the factors related to sustained use of siphon filter. Given the low regular usage rate and the hardware-related problems reported, the contribution of siphon filters to improving water quality in low-income urban communities in Bangladesh is likely to be minimal. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the Impact of Ceramic Water Filters on Prevention of Diarrhea and Cryptosporidiosis in Infants and Young Children-Western Kenya, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jamae Fontain; Murphy, Jennifer; Fagerli, Kirsten; Schneeberger, Chandra; Jaron, Peter; Moke, Fenny; Juma, Jane; Ochieng, J Ben; Omore, Richard; Roellig, Dawn; Xiao, Lihua; Priest, Jeffrey W; Narayanan, Jothikumar; Montgomery, Joel; Hill, Vince; Mintz, Eric; Ayers, Tracy L; O'Reilly, Ciara E

    2018-04-02

    Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of diarrhea among Kenyan infants. Ceramic water filters (CWFs) are used for household water treatment. We assessed the impact of CWFs on diarrhea, cryptosporidiosis prevention, and water quality in rural western Kenya. A randomized, controlled intervention trial was conducted in 240 households with infants 4-10 months old. Twenty-six weekly household surveys assessed infant diarrhea and health facility visits. Stool specimens from infants with diarrhea were examined for Cryptosporidium . Source water, filtered water, and filter retentate were tested for Cryptosporidium and/or microbial indicators. To estimate the effect of CWFs on health outcomes, logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were performed; odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. Households reported using surface water (36%), public taps (29%), or rainwater (17%) as their primary drinking water sources, with no differences in treatment groups. Intervention households reported less diarrhea (7.6% versus 8.9%; OR: 0.86 [0.64-1.16]) and significantly fewer health facility visits for diarrhea (1.0% versus 1.9%; OR: 0.50 [0.30-0.83]). In total, 15% of intervention and 12% of control stools yielded Cryptosporidium ( P = 0.26). Escherichia coli was detected in 93% of source water samples; 71% of filtered water samples met World Health Organization recommendations of filter rinses following passage of large volumes of source water. Water quality was improved among CWF users; however, the short study duration and small sample size limited our ability to observe reductions in cryptosporidiosis.

  7. Assessing the impact of water filters and improved cook stoves on drinking water quality and household air pollution: a randomised controlled trial in Rwanda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislaine Rosa

    Full Text Available Diarrhoea and respiratory infections remain the biggest killers of children under 5 years in developing countries. We conducted a 5-month household randomised controlled trial among 566 households in rural Rwanda to assess uptake, compliance and impact on environmental exposures of a combined intervention delivering high-performance water filters and improved stoves for free. Compliance was measured monthly by self-report and spot-check observations. Semi-continuous 24-h PM2.5 monitoring of the cooking area was conducted in a random subsample of 121 households to assess household air pollution, while samples of drinking water from all households were collected monthly to assess the levels of thermotolerant coliforms. Adoption was generally high, with most householders reporting the filters as their primary source of drinking water and the intervention stoves as their primary cooking stove. However, some householders continued to drink untreated water and most continued to cook on traditional stoves. The intervention was associated with a 97.5% reduction in mean faecal indicator bacteria (Williams means 0.5 vs. 20.2 TTC/100 mL, p<0.001 and a median reduction of 48% of 24-h PM2.5 concentrations in the cooking area (p = 0.005. Further studies to increase compliance should be undertaken to better inform large-scale interventions.Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01882777; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01882777&Search=Search.

  8. Assessing the impact of water filters and improved cook stoves on drinking water quality and household air pollution: a randomised controlled trial in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Majorin, Fiona; Boisson, Sophie; Barstow, Christina; Johnson, Michael; Kirby, Miles; Ngabo, Fidele; Thomas, Evan; Clasen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhoea and respiratory infections remain the biggest killers of children under 5 years in developing countries. We conducted a 5-month household randomised controlled trial among 566 households in rural Rwanda to assess uptake, compliance and impact on environmental exposures of a combined intervention delivering high-performance water filters and improved stoves for free. Compliance was measured monthly by self-report and spot-check observations. Semi-continuous 24-h PM2.5 monitoring of the cooking area was conducted in a random subsample of 121 households to assess household air pollution, while samples of drinking water from all households were collected monthly to assess the levels of thermotolerant coliforms. Adoption was generally high, with most householders reporting the filters as their primary source of drinking water and the intervention stoves as their primary cooking stove. However, some householders continued to drink untreated water and most continued to cook on traditional stoves. The intervention was associated with a 97.5% reduction in mean faecal indicator bacteria (Williams means 0.5 vs. 20.2 TTC/100 mL, pcooking area (p = 0.005). Further studies to increase compliance should be undertaken to better inform large-scale interventions. Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01882777; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01882777&Search=Search.

  9. Household-based ceramic water filters for the prevention of diarrhea: a randomized, controlled trial of a pilot program in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas; Garcia Parra, Gloria; Boisson, Sophie; Collin, Simon

    2005-10-01

    Household water treatment is increasingly recognized as an effective means of reducing the burden of diarrheal disease among low-income populations without access to safe water. Oxfam GB undertook a pilot project to explore the use of household-based ceramic water filters in three remote communities in Colombia. In a randomized, controlled trial over a period of six months, the filters were associated with a 75.3% reduction in arithmetic mean thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) (P Health Organization limits for low risk (1-10 TTCs/100 mL), respectively, compared with 0.9% and 7.3% for control group samples. Overall, prevalence of diarrhea was 60% less among households using filters than among control households (odds ratio = 0.40, 95% confidence interval = 0.25, 0.63, P < 0.0001). However, the microbiologic performance and protective effect of the filters was not uniform throughout the study communities, suggesting the need to consider the circumstances of the particular setting before implementing this intervention.

  10. Influence of two different IR radiators on the antioxidative potential of the human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darvin, M E; Patzelt, A; Meinke, M; Sterry, W; Lademann, J

    2009-01-01

    Resonance Raman spectroscopy was used for the fast in vivo detection of the concentration of carotenoid antioxidant substances such as beta-carotene and lycopene in human skin and for the measurement of their degradation dynamics, subsequent to infrared (IR) irradiation emitted by two different IR radiators applied at the same power density. One of the radiators was equipped with a water filter in front of the radiation source (WIRA) and the other was a usual broadband system without a water filter (standard IR radiator – SIR). It was found that the SIR exerted a higher influence on the degradation of carotenoids in the skin than the WIRA. Furthermore, all twelve volunteers who participated in the study felt that the irradiation with the SIR was disagreeably warmer on the skin surface compared to the WIRA, in spite of the same power density values for both radiators on the skin surface. The average degradation magnitude of the carotenoids in the skin of all volunteers after an IR irradiation was determined at 23% for WIRA and 33% for the SIR. A correlation (R 2 ∼ 0.6) was found between the individual level of carotenoids in the skin of the volunteers and the magnitude of degradation of the carotenoids for both IR radiators. Taking the previous investigations into consideration, which clearly showed production of free radicals in the skin subsequent to IR irradiation, it can be concluded that during the application of WIRA irradiation on the skin, fewer radicals are produced in comparison to the SIR

  11. Penetapan Harga Pokok Produk Hortikultura (Kasus Di Agri Wira Pratama)

    OpenAIRE

    Damaidjati, Effi

    2000-01-01

    Determination of base price sale was very important for every commercial business, including horticutture company, because determination of base price will influence sale price of that product Sale pnce must be determined prerisely; because it will influence company benefits and consumer awake to buy that product. Mistaken in determining sale price will cause neither company loosing nor consumer will move to find another product. From BEP counting, balance point for that comodity it cellerry ...

  12. Ceramic water filters impregnated with silver nanoparticles as a point-of-use water-treatment intervention for HIV-positive individuals in Limpopo Province, South Africa: a pilot study of technological performance and human health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Lydia Shawel; Smith, James A; Narkiewicz, Sophia; Oyanedel-Craver, Vinka; Conaway, Mark; Singo, Alukhethi; Amidou, Samie; Mojapelo, Paul; Brant, Julia; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2014-06-01

    Waterborne pathogens present a significant threat to people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH). This study presents a randomized, controlled trial that evaluates whether a household-level ceramic water filter (CWF) intervention can improve drinking water quality and decrease days of diarrhea in PLWH in rural South Africa. Seventy-four participants were randomized in an intervention group with CWFs and a control group without filters. Participants in the CWF arm received CWFs impregnated with silver nanoparticles and associated safe-storage containers. Water and stool samples were collected at baseline and 12 months. Diarrhea incidence was self-reported weekly for 12 months. The average diarrhea rate in the control group was 0.064 days/week compared to 0.015 days/week in the intervention group (p water and decrease days of diarrhea for PLWH in rural South Africa.

  13. Arsenic removal for ceramic water filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishant Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic in drinking water is a hazard to human health and is a known carcinogen (Mass 1992. Resource Development International – Cambodia (RDIC has researched, developed, and manufactured simple ceramic water fi lters (CWF which have proved to be extremely effective in removing pathogens from water. These fi lters however, do not remove arsenic from water, which exists in the source water at levels above the World Health Organisation (WHO guideline of 10μg/L. The aims of this literature based study were to investigate conventional and non-conventional arsenic removal processes, and to discuss the options for applying an arsenic removal technology to the CWFs produced by RDIC. It was found that conventional arsenic removal technologies are diffi cult to implement in the context of household water treatment in a developing country. This study suggested that non-conventional arsenic removal technologies shall be more effective and that field studies must be undertaken to verify the success of such methods.

  14. Performance of water filters towards the removal of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organic matter removal was found to be 47%, 43%, 53%, 43.4% for bio-sand, slow sand, ceramic and membrane purifier respectively, while, fluoride removal was found to be 95.5% for bone char filter. Furthermore, filters were also assessed in terms of media availability, buying costs, operation, benefits/ effectiveness ...

  15. performance of water filters towards the removal of selected

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morohani Merinyo

    sand, ceramic and membrane purifier respectively, while, fluoride removal was found to be 95.5% ... associated diseases in developing countries ... The main drinking water risks in developing ... Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey.

  16. Protective effect of infrared-A radiation against damage induced by UVB radiation in the melan-a cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portantiolo Lettnin, Aline; Teixeira Santos Figueiredo Salgado, Mariana; Gonsalez Cruz, Camila; Manoel Rodrigues da Silva-Júnior, Flávio; Cunha Gonzalez, Vinícius; de Souza Votto, Ana Paula; Santos Trindade, Gilma; de Moraes Vaz Batista Filgueira, Daza

    2016-10-01

    The present work evaluated the infrared-A (IR-A) protective effect using a light-emitting diode (LED) lamp against the cytotoxic effects of ultraviolet B radiation (UVB). Effects on cell viability (Trypan blue assay), DNA damage (comet assay), lipid peroxidation (FOX method), reactive oxygen species production and antioxidant capacity were analyzed in melan-a, a non-tumoral murine melanocytic cell line. To define the doses used in the interaction experiments between IR-A+UVB, dose/response curves were made after exposure to IR-A or UVB. The IR-A dose chosen was 0.8J/cm(2) because this dose caused no significant inhibition of proliferation effects and viability decreased. For UVB exposure, a dose of 0.015J/cm(2), which showed a decrease in viable cell number by approximately 50% in relation to control until 72h, was selected. For IR-A+UVB, cell proliferation recovery was showed, decreasing DNA damage and lipid peroxide content when compared to UVB alone. Besides, the results obtained for ROS and antioxidant capacity showed that the protection observed was probably not related to decreased oxidative stress. In conclusion, non-thermal IR-A was capable of protecting the melan-a cells from UVB induced damage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. In vitro effects of infrared A radiation on the synthesis of MMP-1, catalase, superoxide dismutase and GADD45 alpha protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Adilson; Eberlin, Samara; Clerici, Stefano P; Abdalla, Beatrice M Z

    2015-01-01

    Harmful influences in the process of photoaging and skin damage are associated with infrared A (IRA) radiation, such as, disturbance of dermal extracellular matrix by up regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1). Furthermore, DNA damage, induction of cytotoxicity and oxidative stress by decreasing natural antioxidant ability has been reported after acute exposure to IRA. The present study provides additional evidence that IRA radiation response in human skin fibroblasts produces deleterious effects to the cell, such as accelerating aging and weakening of their antioxidant defense mechanism. Human skin fibroblasts were exposed to a non-cytotoxic dose of IRA radiation and cultured for different periods for further collection of cell-free supernatants and lysates, and quantification of MMP-1, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and GADD45a. Our results corroborate previous published data and strongly indicate a negative impact of IRA radiation on the skin physiological by mechanisms involving reduced endogenous antioxidant enzymatic defense, increased MMP-1 and decreased repair process of DNA by reducing GADD45a protein, in cultured human fibroblasts. From a clinical perspective, IRA radiation acts by mechanisms distinct from those observed in ultraviolet radiation indicating the need for developing and making available cosmetics for skin care with properties beyond protection exerted by traditional sunscreens.

  18. Effective photoprotection of human skin against infrared A radiation by topically applied antioxidants: results from a vehicle controlled, double-blind, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether-Beck, Susanne; Marini, Alessandra; Jaenicke, Thomas; Krutmann, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Infrared A radiation (IRA) from solar sunlight contributes to photoaging of human skin, e.g. by upregulating MMP-1 expression in dermal fibroblasts, indicating the need for photoprotection of human skin against IRA. Up to now, however, there has been no controlled study to show that effective protection of human skin against IRA radiation is possible. Here, we have conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blinded prospective study in 30 healthy volunteers to assess the capacity of an SPF 30 sunscreen versus the same sunscreen supplemented with an antioxidant cocktail containing grape seed extract, vitamin E, ubiquinone and vitamin C to protect human skin against IRA radiation-induced MMP-1 upregulation. As expected, exposure to IRA radiation significantly upregulated MMP-1 expression, as compared to unirradiated skin, and this response was significantly reduced, if the SPF30 sunscreen plus the antioxidant cocktail had been applied prior to IRA radiation. In contrast, treatment of human skin with the SPF30 sunscreen alone did not provide significant protection. These results indicate that topically applied antioxidants effectively protect human skin against IRA radiation and that regular sunscreens need to be supplemented with specific antioxidants in order to achieve IRA photoprotection. © 2014 The American Society of Photobiology.

  19. Endocrine disruptors in water filters used in the Rio dos Sinos Basin region, Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Furtado,CM; von Mühlen,C

    2015-01-01

    The activated carbon filter is used in residences as another step in the treatment of drinking water, based on a physical-chemical process to absorb pollutants that are not removed in conventional treatment. Endocrine disruptors (EDCs) are exogenous substances or mixtures of substances that acts on the endocrine system similarly to the endogenously produced hormones, triggering malfunctions and harmful changes to human and animal health. The objective of the present work was to study EDCs thr...

  20. Multifunctional Silver Coated E-33/Iron Oxide Water Filters: Inhibition of Biofilm Growth and Arsenic Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoxide® E33 (E-33, Goethite) is a widely used commercial material for arsenic adsorption. It is a mixture of iron oxyhydroxide and oxides. E-33 is primarily used to remove arsenic from water and to a lesser extent, other anions, but generally lacks multifunctuality. It is a non...

  1. Effect of silver nanoparticle coatings on mycobacterial biofilm attachment and growth: Implications for ceramic water filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimer, Curtis James

    Silver is a natural, broad-spectrum antibacterial metal and its toxicity can be enhanced when surface area is maximized. As a result, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have been investigated for use in novel water treatment technologies. The hypothesis of this work is that deposited AgNPs can enhance water treatment technologies by inhibiting growth of planktonic bacteria and biofilms. This was investigated by evaluating the antibacterial efficacy of AgNPs both in solution and as deposited on surfaces. AgNPs were found to be toxic to three species of environmental mycobacteria, M. smegmatis, M. avium, and M. marinum and the level of susceptibility varied widely, probably owing to the varying levels of silver that each species is exposed to in its natural environment. When cultured in a AgNP enriched environment M. smegmatis developed resistance to the toxic effects of both the nanoparticles and silver ions. The resistant mutant was as viable as the unmodified strain and was also resistant to antibiotic isoniazid. However, the strain was more susceptible to other toxic metal ions from ZnSO4 and CuSO4. AgNPs were deposited on silicon wafer substrates by vertical colloidal deposition (VCD). Manipulating deposition speed and also concentration of AgNPs in the depositing liquid led to a range of AgNP coatings with distinctive deposition lines perpendicular to the motion of the meniscus. Experimental results for areal coverage, which was measured from SEM images of AgNP coatings, were compared to Diao's theory of VCD but did not show agreement due to a stick-slip mechanism that is not accounted for by the theory. Durability of AgNP coatings is critical for antibacterial efficacy and to mitigate the risks of exposing the environment to nanomaterials and it was measured by exposing AgNP coatings to liquid flow in a flow cell. Durability was improved by modifying processing to include a heat treatment after deposition. Finally, the antibiofilm efficacy of deposited AgNPs was demonstrated by culturing M. smegmatis on porous membrane filters and Si substrates that were coated with AgNP. In both cases AgNP inhibited biofilm growth with an effect that was concentration or areal coverage dependent.

  2. Comammox Nitrospira are key nitrifiers in diverse groundwater-fed drinking water filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fowler, Jane; Palomo, Alejandro; Smets, Barth F.

    Nitrification is a dominant process in groundwater-fed rapid sand filters (RSFs) used for drinking water purification. Near complete removal of ammonium and nitrite is required in the EU and Denmark due to strict regulatory limits that enable high water stability in the distribution system. RSFs...... this work provides a new assay for the simultaneous detection of clade A and B comammox Nitrospira and expands our current knowledge of the diversity of comammox Nitrospira, while attempting to explain the success of comammox Nitrospira in these groundwater-fed filters....

  3. Designing metallic iron based water filters: Light from methylene blue discoloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Btatkeu-K, B D; Tchatchueng, J B; Noubactep, C; Caré, S

    2016-01-15

    Available water filtration systems containing metallic iron (Fe(0) filters) are pragmatically designed. There is a lack of sound design criteria to exploit the full potential of Fe(0) filters. A science-based design relies on valuable information on processes within a Fe(0) filter, including chemical reactions, hydrodynamics and their relation to the performance of the filter. The aim of this study was to establish a simple method to evaluate the initial performance of Fe(0) filters. The differential adsorptive affinity of methylene blue (MB) onto sand and iron oxide is exploited to characterize the evolution of a Fe(0)/sand system using the pure sand system as operational reference. Five systems were investigated for more than 70 days: pure sand, pure Fe(0), Fe(0)/sand, Fe(0)/pumice and Fe(0)/sand/pumice. Individual systems were characterized by the extent of changes in pH value, iron breakthrough, MB breakthrough and hydraulic conductivity. Results showed that for MB discoloration (i) pure sand was the most efficient system, (ii) hybrid systems were more sustainable than the pure Fe(0) system, and (iii) the pores of used pumice are poorly interconnected. Characterizing the initial reactivity of Fe(0) filters using MB discoloration has introduced a powerful tool for the exploration of various aspects of filter design. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Do low-cost ceramic water filters improve water security in rural South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Jens; Materne, Tineke; Grüner, Jörg

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the performance of a low-cost ceramic candle filter system (CCFS) for point of use (POU) drinking water treatment in the village of Hobeni, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. CCFSs were distributed in Hobeni and a survey was carried out among their users. The performance of 51 CCFSs was evaluated by dip slides and related to human factors. Already after two-thirds of their specified lifetime, none of the distributed CCFSs produced water without distinct contamination, and more than one-third even deteriorated in hygienic water quality. Besides the water source (springs were preferable compared to river or rain water), a high water throughput was the dominant reason for poor CCFS performance. A stepwise laboratory test documented the negative effects of repeated loading and ambient field temperatures. These findings suggest that not every CCFS type per se guarantees improved drinking water security and that the efficiency of low-cost systems should continuously be monitored. For this purpose, dip slides were found to be a cost-efficient alternative to standard laboratory tests. They consistently underestimated microbial counts but can be used by laypersons and hence by the users themselves to assess critical contamination of their filter systems.

  5. The Challenge of Producing and Marketing Colloidal Silver Water Filters in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bogler

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obtaining safe drinking water can be a challenge in Nepal. By training potters and setting up production sites for Colloidal Silver Filters, several non-governmental organizations have tried to provide local people with a low-cost option for household water treatment. Out of 19 trained entrepreneurs, only four are currently producing filters. The goal of this evaluation was to find out what conditions lead to the successful continuation of the production and the reasons for failure. Methods: The evaluation of the potters was based on a Qualitative Comparative Analysis and the conditions looked at were: “Production”, “Collaboration”, “Market” and “Potter”. Results: Analysis showed that production problems and insufficient demand led to the termination of ceramic filter production and that both trouble-free production and high demand are necessary for a sustainable business.

  6. Design, fabrication and testing of support structures for biomimetic water filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Jörg

    Behovet for teknologisk udvikling indenfor rensning af vand er massivt i disse tider og mulighederne for forskellige løsninger er talrige både indenfor traditionel omvendt osmose samt det nye felt direkte osmose. Omvendt osmose er et veletableret forskningsfelt og princippet bag omvendt osmose...

  7. Point-of-use water purification using clay pot water filters and copper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All other critical parameters such as total hardness, turbidity, electrical conductivity and ions in the filtered water were also within acceptable levels for drinking water quality. The filtration rate of the pot was also measured as a function of grain size of the sawdust and height of the water column in it. The filtration rate was ...

  8. Infrared: A Key Technology for Security Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Corsi, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Infrared science and technology has been, since the first applications, mainly dedicated to security and surveillance especially in military field, besides specialized techniques in thermal imaging for medical diagnostic and building structures and recently in energy savings and aerospace context. Till recently the security applications were mainly based on thermal imaging as surveillance and warning military systems. In all these applications the advent of room temperature, more reliable due...

  9. Designing Programme Implementation Strategies to Increase the Adoption and Use of Biosand Water Filters in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Tommy K.K. Ngai; Richard A. Fenner

    2014-01-01

    Low-cost household water treatment systems are innovations designed to improve the quality of drinking water at the point of use. This study investigates how an NGO can design appropriate programme strategies in order to increase the adoption and sustained use of household sand filters in rural India. A system dynamics computer model was developed and used to assess 18 potential programme strategies for their effectiveness in increasing filter use at two and ten years into the future, under s...

  10. Designing Programme Implementation Strategies to Increase the Adoption and Use of Biosand Water Filters in Rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommy K.K. Ngai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost household water treatment systems are innovations designed to improve the quality of drinking water at the point of use. This study investigates how an NGO can design appropriate programme strategies in order to increase the adoption and sustained use of household sand filters in rural India. A system dynamics computer model was developed and used to assess 18 potential programme strategies for their effectiveness in increasing filter use at two and ten years into the future, under seven scenarios of how the external context may plausibly evolve. The results showed that the optimal choice of strategy is influenced by the macroeconomic situation, donor funding, presence of alternative options, and the evaluation time frame. The analysis also revealed some key programme management challenges, including the trade-off between optimising short- or long-term gains, and counter-intuitive results, such as higher subsidy fund allocation leading to fewer filter distribution, and technology advances leading to fewer sales. This study outlines how an NGO can choose effective strategies in consideration of complex system interactions. This study demonstrated that small NGOs can dramatically increase their programme outcomes without necessarily increasing operational budget.

  11. Fabrication of Activated Rice Husk Charcoal by Slip Casting as a Hybrid Material for Water Filter Aid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuaprakone, T; Wongphaet, N; Wasanapiarnpong, T

    2011-01-01

    Activated charcoal has been widely used as an odor absorbent in household and water purification industry. Filtration equipment for drinking water generally consists of four parts, which are microporous membrane (porous alumina ceramic or diatomite, or porous polymer), odor absorbent (activated carbon), hard water treatment (ion exchange resin), and UV irradiation. Ceramic filter aid is usually prepared by slip casting of alumina or diatomite. The membrane offers high flux, high porosity and maximum pore size does not exceed 0.3 μm. This study investigated the fabrication of hybrid activated charcoal tube for water filtration and odor absorption by slip casting. The suitable rice husk charcoal and water ratio was 48 to 52 wt% by weight with 1.5wt% (by dry basis) of CMC binder. The green rice husk charcoal bodies were dried and fired between 700-900 deg. C in reduction atmosphere. The resulting prepared slip in high speed porcelain pot for 60 min and sintered at 700 deg. C for 1 h showed the highest specific surface area as 174.95 m 2 /g. The characterizations of microstructure and pore size distribution as a function of particle size were investigated.

  12. Fabrication of Activated Rice Husk Charcoal by Slip Casting as a Hybrid Material for Water Filter Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuaprakone, T.; Wongphaet, N.; Wasanapiarnpong, T.

    2011-04-01

    Activated charcoal has been widely used as an odor absorbent in household and water purification industry. Filtration equipment for drinking water generally consists of four parts, which are microporous membrane (porous alumina ceramic or diatomite, or porous polymer), odor absorbent (activated carbon), hard water treatment (ion exchange resin), and UV irradiation. Ceramic filter aid is usually prepared by slip casting of alumina or diatomite. The membrane offers high flux, high porosity and maximum pore size does not exceed 0.3 μm. This study investigated the fabrication of hybrid activated charcoal tube for water filtration and odor absorption by slip casting. The suitable rice husk charcoal and water ratio was 48 to 52 wt% by weight with 1.5wt% (by dry basis) of CMC binder. The green rice husk charcoal bodies were dried and fired between 700-900 °C in reduction atmosphere. The resulting prepared slip in high speed porcelain pot for 60 min and sintered at 700 °C for 1 h showed the highest specific surface area as 174.95 m2/g. The characterizations of microstructure and pore size distribution as a function of particle size were investigated.

  13. Fabrication of Activated Rice Husk Charcoal by Slip Casting as a Hybrid Material for Water Filter Aid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuaprakone, T; Wongphaet, N; Wasanapiarnpong, T, E-mail: tonggogo@hotmail.com [Research Unit of Advanced Ceramic, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-04-15

    Activated charcoal has been widely used as an odor absorbent in household and water purification industry. Filtration equipment for drinking water generally consists of four parts, which are microporous membrane (porous alumina ceramic or diatomite, or porous polymer), odor absorbent (activated carbon), hard water treatment (ion exchange resin), and UV irradiation. Ceramic filter aid is usually prepared by slip casting of alumina or diatomite. The membrane offers high flux, high porosity and maximum pore size does not exceed 0.3 {mu}m. This study investigated the fabrication of hybrid activated charcoal tube for water filtration and odor absorption by slip casting. The suitable rice husk charcoal and water ratio was 48 to 52 wt% by weight with 1.5wt% (by dry basis) of CMC binder. The green rice husk charcoal bodies were dried and fired between 700-900 deg. C in reduction atmosphere. The resulting prepared slip in high speed porcelain pot for 60 min and sintered at 700 deg. C for 1 h showed the highest specific surface area as 174.95 m{sup 2}/g. The characterizations of microstructure and pore size distribution as a function of particle size were investigated.

  14. Characterization of the water filters cartridges from the iea-r1 reactor using the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Priscila; Potiens Junior, Ademar J.

    2015-01-01

    Filter cartridges are part of the primary water treatment system of the IEA-R1 Research Reactor and, when saturated, they are replaced and become radioactive waste. The IEA-R1 is located at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN), in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The primary characterization is the main step of the radioactive waste management in which the physical, chemical and radiological properties are determined. It is a very important step because the information obtained in this moment enables the choice of the appropriate management process and the definition of final disposal options. In this paper, it is presented a non-destructive method for primary characterization, using the Monte Carlo method associated with the gamma spectrometry. Gamma spectrometry allows the identification of radionuclides and their activity values. The detection efficiency is an important parameter, which is related to the photon energy, detector geometry and the matrix of the sample to be analyzed. Due to the difficult to obtain a standard source with the same geometry of the filter cartridge, another technique is necessary to calibrate the detector. The technique described in this paper uses the Monte Carlo method for primary characterization of the IEA-R1 filter cartridges. (author)

  15. Hygienic safety of reusable tap water filters (Germlyser® with an operating time of 4 or 8 weeks in a haematological oncology transplantation unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochow Markus

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial safe tap water is crucial for the safety of immunosuppressed patients. Methods To evaluate the suitability of new, reusable point-of-use filters (Germlyser®, Aquafree GmbH, Hamburg, Germany, three variations of a reusable filter with the same filter principle but with different outlets (with and without silver and inner surface coating of the filter encasements (with and without nano-crystalline silver were tested. The filter efficacy was monitored over 1, 4 and 8 weeks operating time in a haematological oncology transplantation unit equipped with 18 water outlets (12 taps, 6 showers. Results The filtered water fulfilled the requirements of absence of pathogens over time. From 348 samples, 8 samples (2.3% exceeded 100 cfu/ml (no sample ≥ 500 cfu/ml. As no reprocessed filter exhibited 100% filter efficacy in the final quality control after each reprocessing, these contaminations could be explained by retrograde contamination during use. Conclusion As a consequence of the study, the manufacturer recommends changing filters after 4 weeks in high risk areas and after 8 weeks in moderate infectious risk areas, together with routine weekly alcohol-based surface disinfection and additionally in case of visible contamination. The filter efficacy of the 3 filters types did not differ significantly regarding total bacterial counts. Manual reprocessing proved to be insufficient. Using a validated reprocessing in a washer/disinfector with alkaline, acid treatment and thermic disinfection, the filters were effectively reprocessable and now provide tap water meeting the German drinking water regulations as well as the WHO guidelines, including absence of pathogens.

  16. Reconsidering 'appropriate technology': the effects of operating conditions on the bacterial removal performance of two household drinking-water filter systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, Jill [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Murcott, Susan [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Ezzati, Majid [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States)

    2007-04-01

    We examined the performance of two household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) systems, the Danvor plastic biosand filter and the Potters for Peace Filtron ceramic filter, under ideal as well as modified operating conditions using systematic and comparable measurements. The operating variables for the biosand filter were (i) pause times between filtration runs (ii) water-dosing volumes and (iii) the effluent volume at which a filtered water sample was collected. For the ceramic filter we examined overflow filtration versus standard filtration. We used the bacterial indicators of total coliforms and Escherichia coli to quantify microbiological removal. With the biosand filter, a 12 h pause time had significantly higher total coliform removal than a 36 h pause time at the 20 l collection point (79.1% versus 73.7%; p < 0.01) and borderline significance at the 10 l collection point (81.0% versus 78.3%; p = 0.07). High-volume filtration (20 l) had significantly lower total coliform removal efficacy than low-volume (10 l) filtration at the 10 l collection point (81.0% versus 84.2%; p = 0.03). We observed a decreasing trend in total coliform removal by sample collection volume with the highest removal efficacy at the 5 l sample collection point (versus at the 10 and 20 l collection points). Using the ceramic filter, mean total coliform and E. coli removal were significantly lower (p < 0.01) in overflow filtration than in standard filtration. The findings indicate that operating conditions can reduce the effectiveness of the systems in a field-based setting and increase environmental risk exposure.

  17. Reconsidering 'appropriate technology': the effects of operating conditions on the bacterial removal performance of two household drinking-water filter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgartner, Jill; Murcott, Susan; Ezzati, Majid

    2007-01-01

    We examined the performance of two household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) systems, the Danvor plastic biosand filter and the Potters for Peace Filtron ceramic filter, under ideal as well as modified operating conditions using systematic and comparable measurements. The operating variables for the biosand filter were (i) pause times between filtration runs (ii) water-dosing volumes and (iii) the effluent volume at which a filtered water sample was collected. For the ceramic filter we examined overflow filtration versus standard filtration. We used the bacterial indicators of total coliforms and Escherichia coli to quantify microbiological removal. With the biosand filter, a 12 h pause time had significantly higher total coliform removal than a 36 h pause time at the 20 l collection point (79.1% versus 73.7%; p < 0.01) and borderline significance at the 10 l collection point (81.0% versus 78.3%; p = 0.07). High-volume filtration (20 l) had significantly lower total coliform removal efficacy than low-volume (10 l) filtration at the 10 l collection point (81.0% versus 84.2%; p = 0.03). We observed a decreasing trend in total coliform removal by sample collection volume with the highest removal efficacy at the 5 l sample collection point (versus at the 10 and 20 l collection points). Using the ceramic filter, mean total coliform and E. coli removal were significantly lower (p < 0.01) in overflow filtration than in standard filtration. The findings indicate that operating conditions can reduce the effectiveness of the systems in a field-based setting and increase environmental risk exposure

  18. A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial to Reduce Childhood Diarrhea Using Hollow Fiber Water Filter and/or Hygiene–Sanitation Educational Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Erik D.; George, C. M.; Perin, Jamie; Neiswender de Calani, Karen J.; Norman, W. Ray; Davis, Thomas P.; Perry, Henry

    2014-01-01

    Safe domestic potable water supplies are urgently needed to reduce childhood diarrheal disease. In periurban neighborhoods in Cochabamba, Bolivia, we conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of a household-level hollow fiber filter and/or behavior change communication (BCC) on water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) to reduce the diarrheal disease in children less than 5 years of age. In total, 952 households were followed for a period of 12 weeks post-distribution of the study interventions. Households using Sawyer PointONE filters had significantly less diarrheal disease compared with the control arm during the intervention period, which was shown by diarrheal prevalence ratios of 0.21 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.15–0.30) for the filter arm and 0.27 (95% CI = 0.22–0.34) for the filter and WASH BCC arm. A non-significant reduction in diarrhea prevalence was reported in the WASH BCC study arm households (0.71, 95% CI = 0.59–0.86). PMID:24865680

  19. Infrared A radiation promotes survival of human melanocytes carrying ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimeswenger, Susanne; Schwarz, Agatha; Födinger, Dagmar; Müller, Susanne; Pehamberger, Hubert; Schwarz, Thomas; Jantschitsch, Christian

    2016-06-01

    The link between solar radiation and melanoma is still elusive. Although infrared radiation (IR) accounts for over 50% of terrestrial solar energy, its influence on human skin is not well explored. There is increasing evidence that IR influences the expression patterns of several molecules independently of heat. A previous in vivo study revealed that pretreatment with IR might promote the development of UVR-induced non-epithelial skin cancer and possibly of melanoma in mice. To expand on this, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of IR on UVR-induced apoptosis and DNA repair in normal human epidermal melanocytes. The balance between these two effects is a key factor of malignant transformation. Human melanocytes were exposed to physiologic doses of IR and UVR. Compared to cells irradiated with UVR only, simultaneous exposure to IR significantly reduced the apoptotic rate. However, IR did not influence the repair of UVR-induced DNA damage. IR partly reversed the pro-apoptotic effects of UVR via modification of the expression and activity of proteins mainly of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. In conclusion, IR enhances the survival of melanocytes carrying UVR-induced DNA damage and thereby might contribute to melanomagenesis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. [Physical treatment modalities for chronic leg ulcers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissemond, J

    2010-05-01

    An increasing numbers of physical treatment options are available for chronic leg ulcer. In this review article, compression therapy, therapeutic ultrasound, negative pressure therapy, extracorporeal shock wave therapy, electrostimulation therapy, electromagnetic therapy, photodynamic therapy, water-filtered infrared-A-radiation and hydrotherapy are discussed in terms of their practical applications and the underlying evidence. With the exception of compression therapy for most of these treatments, good scientific data are not available. However this is a widespread problem in the treatment of chronic wounds. Nevertheless, several of the described methods such as negative pressure therapy represent one of the gold standards in practical treatment of patients with chronic leg ulcers. Although the use of physical treatment modalities may improve healing in patients with chronic leg ulcers, the diagnosis and treatment of the underlying causes are essential for long-lasting success.

  1. Photoprotection beyond ultraviolet radiation--effective sun protection has to include protection against infrared A radiation-induced skin damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, P; Calles, C; Benesova, T; Macaluso, F; Krutmann, J

    2010-01-01

    Solar radiation is well known to damage human skin, for example by causing premature skin ageing (i.e. photoageing). We have recently learned that this damage does not result from ultraviolet (UV) radiation alone, but also from longer wavelengths, in particular near-infrared radiation (IRA radiation, 760-1,440 nm). IRA radiation accounts for more than one third of the solar energy that reaches human skin. While infrared radiation of longer wavelengths (IRB and IRC) does not penetrate deeply into the skin, more than 65% of the shorter wavelength (IRA) reaches the dermis. IRA radiation has been demonstrated to alter the collagen equilibrium of the dermal extracellular matrix in at least two ways: (a) by leading to an increased expression of the collagen-degrading enzyme matrix metalloproteinase 1, and (b) by decreasing the de novo synthesis of the collagen itself. IRA radiation exposure therefore induces similar biological effects to UV radiation, but the underlying mechanisms are substantially different, specifically, the cellular response to IRA irradiation involves the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Effective sun protection requires specific strategies to prevent IRA radiation-induced skin damage. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Pain and mobility improvement and MDA plasma levels in degenerative osteoarthritis, low back pain, and rheumatoid arthritis after infrared A-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siems, W.; Siems, R.; Kitzing, M.; Harting, H.; Bresgen, N.; Eckl, P.M.; Brenke, R.

    2010-01-01

    Infrared (IR)-A irradiation can be useful in back and musculoskeletal pain therapy. In this study joint and vertebral column pain and mobility were measured during two weeks of IR-A irradiation treatment of patients suffering from degenerative osteoarthritis of hip and knee, low back pain, or rheumatoid arthritis. Additionally, before and after IR-A treatment MDA serum levels were measured to check if MDA variations accompany changes in pain intensity and mobility. Two-hundred and seven patients were divided into verum groups getting IR-irradiation, placebo groups getting visible, but not IR irradiation, and groups getting no irradiation. In osteoarthritis significant pain reduction according to Visual Analogue Scale and mobility improvements occurred in the verum group. Even though beneficial mean value changes occurred in the placebo group, the improvements in the placebo and No Irradiation groups were without statistical significance. In low back pain, pain and mobility improvements (by 35 - 40 %) in the verum group were found, too. A delayed (2 nd week) mobility improvement in rheumatoid arthritis was seen. However, pain relief was seen immediately. In patients suffering from low back pain or rheumatoid arthritis, the pain and mobility improvements were accompanied by significant changes of MDA serum levels. However, MDA appears not a sensitive bio factor for changes of the pain intensity in degenerative osteoarthritis. Nevertheless, unaffected or lowered MDA levels during intensive IR-A therapy argue against previous reports on free radical formation upon infrared. In conclusion, rapid beneficial effects of IR-A towards musculoskeletal pain and joint mobility loss were demonstrated. (authors)

  3. First middle-atmospheric zonal wind profile measurements with a new ground-based microwave Doppler-spectro-radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüfenacht, R.; Kämpfer, N.; Murk, A.

    2012-11-01

    We report on the wind radiometer WIRA, a new ground-based microwave Doppler-spectro-radiometer specifically designed for the measurement of middle-atmospheric horizontal wind by observing ozone emission spectra at 142.17504 GHz. Currently, wind speeds in five levels between 30 and 79 km can be retrieved which makes WIRA the first instrument able to continuously measure horizontal wind in this altitude range. For an integration time of one day the measurement error on each level lies at around 25 m s-1. With a planned upgrade this value is expected to be reduced by a factor of 2 in the near future. On the altitude levels where our measurement can be compared to wind data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) very good agreement in the long-term statistics as well as in short time structures with a duration of a few days has been found. WIRA uses a passive double sideband heterodyne receiver together with a digital Fourier transform spectrometer for the data acquisition. A big advantage of the radiometric approach is that such instruments can also operate under adverse weather conditions and thus provide a continuous time series for the given location. The optics enables the instrument to scan a wide range of azimuth angles including the directions east, west, north, and south for zonal and meridional wind measurements. The design of the radiometer is fairly compact and its calibration does not rely on liquid nitrogen which makes it transportable and suitable for campaign use. WIRA is conceived in a way that it can be operated remotely and does hardly require any maintenance. In the present paper, a description of the instrument is given, and the techniques used for the wind retrieval based on the determination of the Doppler shift of the measured atmospheric ozone emission spectra are outlined. Their reliability was tested using Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, a time series of 11 months of zonal wind measurements over Bern (46°57' N

  4. First middle-atmospheric zonal wind profile measurements with a new ground-based microwave Doppler-spectro-radiometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rüfenacht

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on the wind radiometer WIRA, a new ground-based microwave Doppler-spectro-radiometer specifically designed for the measurement of middle-atmospheric horizontal wind by observing ozone emission spectra at 142.17504 GHz. Currently, wind speeds in five levels between 30 and 79 km can be retrieved which makes WIRA the first instrument able to continuously measure horizontal wind in this altitude range. For an integration time of one day the measurement error on each level lies at around 25 m s−1. With a planned upgrade this value is expected to be reduced by a factor of 2 in the near future. On the altitude levels where our measurement can be compared to wind data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF very good agreement in the long-term statistics as well as in short time structures with a duration of a few days has been found.

    WIRA uses a passive double sideband heterodyne receiver together with a digital Fourier transform spectrometer for the data acquisition. A big advantage of the radiometric approach is that such instruments can also operate under adverse weather conditions and thus provide a continuous time series for the given location. The optics enables the instrument to scan a wide range of azimuth angles including the directions east, west, north, and south for zonal and meridional wind measurements. The design of the radiometer is fairly compact and its calibration does not rely on liquid nitrogen which makes it transportable and suitable for campaign use. WIRA is conceived in a way that it can be operated remotely and does hardly require any maintenance.

    In the present paper, a description of the instrument is given, and the techniques used for the wind retrieval based on the determination of the Doppler shift of the measured atmospheric ozone emission spectra are outlined. Their reliability was tested using Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, a time series of 11

  5. Infrared radiation increases skin damage induced by other wavelengths in solar urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gálvez, María Victoria; Aguilera, José; Sánchez-Roldán, Cristina; Herrera-Ceballos, Enrique

    2016-09-01

    Photodermatoses are typically investigated by analyzing the individual or combined effects of ultraviolet A (UVA), ultraviolet B (UVB), and visible light using light sources that simulate portions of the solar spectrum. Infrared radiation (IRR), however, accounts for 53% of incident solar radiation, but its effects are not taken into account in standard phototest protocols. The aim was to analyze the effects of IRR, alone and combined with UVA and visible light on solar urticaria lesions, with a distinction between infrared A (IRA) and infrared B (IRB). We performed standard phototests with UVA and visible light in four patients with solar urticaria and also tested the effects after blocking IRB with a water filter. To analyze the direct effect of IRR, we performed phototests with IRA and IRB. Initial standard phototests that were all positive found the induction of erythema and whealing, while when IRR was blocked from the UVA and visible light sources, three of the patients developed no lesions, while the fourth developed a very small wheal. These results suggest that IRR has the potential to produce and exacerbate lesions caused by other types of radiation. Consideration of these effects during phototesting could help prevent diagnostic errors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Principles and concept 1993 of the systemic cancer multistep therapy (sCMT). Extreme whole-body hyperthermia using the infrared-A technique IRATHERM 2000 - selective thermosensitisation by hyperglycemia - circulatory back-up by adapted hyperoxemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardenne, M. von [Von Ardenne Inst. of Applied Medical Research, Dresden (Germany)

    1994-10-01

    The so-called Cancer Multistep Therapy was conceived by the author in 1965. It is a combined modality treatment with 3 process steps: Whole-body hyperthermia, hyperglycemia and hyperoxemia. The original therapy concept was further developed into a systemic Cancer Multistep Therapy (sCMT) of high efficiency and selectivity. An outline follows of this therapy and the actual state of the sCMT concept as per 1993 (new in timing, dosage, technique). Knowledge of the synergetic-additive efficiency of various groups of cytostatics reacting to the effects of the main treatment process steps (WBH+HG+HO) led in 1974 to an extension of the sCMT concept by including chemotherapy. In addition, a radiotherapeutical treatment was included in this concept as cancer cells clearly show a higher sensibility to radiation while under the influence of sCMT. Following the sCMT treatment, the patient remains under observation on an intensive in-patient basis for 24 hours before he or she is discharged for out-patient post-treatment care. The systemic tolerance of sCMT with minimal side-effects has been proven with several 100 patients and results have been published as part of the phase-I study. A first evaluation of the efficacy of sCMT was documented in the same study. (orig.) [Deutsch] 1965 wurde vom Autor die sogenannte Krebs-Mehrschritt-Therapie konzipiert. Es handelt sich hierbei um eine kombinierte Behandlung, bestehend aus Ganzkoerperhyperthermie, Hyperglykaemie und Hyperoxaemie. Die Weiterentwicklung der aelteren Therapiekonzepte bis hin zu einer systemischen Krebs-Mehrschritt-Therapie (sKMT) hoher Effizienz und Selektivitaet wird skizziert und der heutige Stand des sKMT-Konzeptes 1993 dargestellt. Es wurde ein strahlentherapeutischer Schritt in das Konzept aufgenommen, da unter der Wirkung der Hauptschritte eine deutlich erhoehte Strahlensensibilitaet der Krebszellen gegeben ist. Somit besteht das sKMT-Konzept 1993 aus den Hauptschritten Hyperthermie, Hyperglykaemie, Hyperoxaemie und der optionalen Anwendung einer moderaten Chemotherapie sowie einer Strahlentherapie mit verringerter Strahlendosis. Es unterscheidet sich von den vorangegangenen sKMT-Konzepten 1974 und 1977 in Dosis und Timing sowie im Fortschritt der Hyperthermietechnik. Nach Abschluss der sKMT schliesst sich eine etwa 24stuendige intensivstationaere-Nachbeobachtung des Patienten an, bevor er in die ambulante Nachbetreuung entlassen wird. Die systemische Toleranz der sKMT mit nur minimalen Nebenwirkungen konnte an mehreren 100 Patienten nachgewiesen werden und ist im Rahmen einer Phase-I-Studie veroeffentlicht worden. Eine erste Bewertung der Wirksamkeit der sKMT ist der gleichen Arbeit zu entnehmen. (orig.)

  7. Nanofiber Filters Eliminate Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    With support from Phase I and II SBIR funding from Johnson Space Center, Argonide Corporation of Sanford, Florida tested and developed its proprietary nanofiber water filter media. Capable of removing more than 99.99 percent of dangerous particles like bacteria, viruses, and parasites, the media was incorporated into the company's commercial NanoCeram water filter, an inductee into the Space Foundation's Space Technology Hall of Fame. In addition to its drinking water filters, Argonide now produces large-scale nanofiber filters used as part of the reverse osmosis process for industrial water purification.

  8. Acceptance and Impact of Point-of-Use Water Filtration Systems in Rural Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kim L; Hansen, Corrie; Ritz, Michala; Carreño, Diego

    2017-01-01

    Infants and children in developing countries bear the burden of diarrheal disease. Diarrheal disease is linked to unsafe drinking water and can result in serious long-term consequences, such as impaired immune function and brain growth. There is evidence that point-of-use water filtration systems reduce the prevalence of diarrhea in developing countries. In the summer of 2014, following community forums and interactive workshops, water filters were distributed to 71 households in a rural Maya community in Guatemala. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the uptake of tabletop water filtration systems to reduce diarrheal diseases. A descriptive correlational study was used that employed community partnership and empowerment strategies. One year postintervention, in the summer of 2015, a bilingual, interdisciplinary research team conducted a house-to-house survey with families who received water filters. Survey data were gathered from the head of household on family demographics, current family health, water filter usage, and type of flooring in the home. Interviews were conducted in Spanish and in partnership with a village leader. Each family received a food package of household staples for their participation. Descriptive statistics were calculated for all responses. Fisher's exact test and odds ratios were used to determine relationships between variables. Seventy-nine percent (n = 56) of the 71 households that received a water filter in 2014 participated in the study. The majority of families (71.4%; n = 40) were using the water filters and 16 families (28.6%) had broken water filters. Of the families with working water filters, 15% reported diarrhea, while 31% of families with a broken water filter reported diarrhea. Only 55.4% of the homes had concrete flooring. More households with dirt flooring and broken water filters reported a current case of diarrhea. A record review of attendees at an outreach clinic in this village noted a decrease in intestinal

  9. KEWIRAUSAHAAN DI PERGURUAN TINGGI MENYIAPKAN ENTREPRENEUR UNGGUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margunani Margunani

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Product or service Wira New Business (WUB generated the students have the advantage of science and technology. Independent entrepreneurs from universities that produce the products / services can be developed through the science and technology-based business consulting to experts, research and laboratories on campus. Readiness is integrated and holistic childbirth entrepreneurs from universities, superior, has a broader and more adaptative insight. Entrepreneurship lecture testruktur, entrepreneurial practices chance divasilitasi Entrepreneurship Student Creativity Program (PKM-K through a grant to try to try. Student Entrepreneurial Program (PMW which provide more opportunities, where students who tried because of limited funds got very soft loan (without interest. Useful for students to practice managing capital / funding from outside to study the production, trade, repay, and so on.

  10. IONS FROM AQUEOUS PHASE BY WATER HYACINTH (Eichhornia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Most often there is incomplete metal ion removal, high reagent and ... environmentally friendly water filters for heavy metal ions removal in aqueous systems. Currently E. crassipes is ..... From the results, the singly charged ions have very little ...

  11. Review of Various Solutions for avoiding critical levels of Legionella Bacteria in Domestic Hot Water System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    , electric boiler, compact heat exchanger, water filter, chlorine dioxide, Monochloramine, UV sterilization, copper and silver electrodes. The implementary conditions, effect, limits as well as economic performance of them are demonstrated. For buildings with complicated networks and large volume, chemical...

  12. WEST AFRICAN TECHNOLOGY, EDUCATION AND RECIPROCITY (WATER) FOR BENIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Songhai Center has produced and tested over 300 fully functional point-of-use drinking water filters. The holistic approach of incorporated water treatment, waste reduction, economic development and promoted environmental and health awareness in the community. The ...

  13. [Hygienic study of an activated fibrous charcoal material as a sorbing filtering element for drinking water afterpurification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopov, V A; Mironets, N V; Gakal, R K; Maktaz, E D; Dugan, A M; Teteneva, I A; Tarabarova, S B; Martyshchenko, N V; Nadvornaia, Zh D

    1993-01-01

    The results of complex toxicological and hygienic study showed that the quality of pipe water filtered through the activated carbonic fibrous material (ACFM) "Dnepr-F" forming a part of absorptive filtering element improved markedly. The content of organic substances decreased drastically as well as that of nitrates and iron. Microbiological indices did not suffer appreciable changes and were within permissible limits. The water filtered through the absorptive element with ACFM had no adverse influence on the organisms of warm-blooded animals. Proceeding from foregoing one can conclude that the "Dnepr-F" may be recommended as a part of absorptive filtering element for the final refinement of drinking water.

  14. Differential susceptibility of HIV strains to innate immune factors in human cervical-vaginal secretions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Ghosh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mimi Ghosh, John V Fahey, Charles R WiraDepartment of Physiology and Neurobiology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire, USAAbstract: The female reproductive tract (FRT is protected by innate and adaptive immune mechanisms, which work in concert to defend against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Under the control of sex hormones throughout a woman’s life, the immune system in the FRT has evolved to meet the challenges of protection against STIs, coupled with the need to sustain the development of new life. The studies presented in this review focus on the threat of HIV infection and the levels of protection present in the FRT during the menstrual cycle. Studies from our laboratory and others, examined the presence and variability of immune components against viral infection in the FRT. Our findings indicate that there are some factors in the FRT secretions that inhibit and enhance infectivity of individual strains of HIV. Given the complexities of hormonal regulation, identification of the elements involved in susceptibility to and protection against HIV in women must involve a careful analysis of transmitted viruses and a clear understanding of immune protection in the FRT.Keywords: HIV susceptibility, CVL

  15. Água de beber: a filtração doméstica e a difusão do filtro de água em São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Bellingieri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the advent and diffusion of water filter usage in São Paulo State, during the 20th Century. The water filter, a set of two terracotta vessels equipped with a filtering device, was a product of the ceramics industry, one of the first to be developed in São Paulo. This research shows that in São Paulo at the end of 19th and beginning of 20th Centuries, with the growth of cities and rapid urbanisation, a concern about the quality of water increased due to serious public health hazards, mainly epidemics caused by the consumption of unhealthy drinking water. Despite the existence of an incipient market of domestic equipment for water filtration, these were imported and of limited usage. From the 1910’s, ceramics companies, owned by Portuguese and Italian immigrants, started installing filtering devices in terracotta vessels, launching the water filter set. It caught on and became the main domestic filtering equipment after the 1930’s, when several companies specialized in this kind of product and started catering for the national market, such as Filtros Salus (from São Paulo city, Pozzani (Jundiaí and Stéfani (Jaboticabal. Studying the advent and diffusion of the water filter entails knowledge about one of the first consumer goods of the Brazilian industry and, at the same time, knowledge about the history of the ways in which the Brazilian population obtained water to drink.

  16. 78 FR 79391 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 22-Chicago, Illinois, Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... and nut assemblies; hex, lock and push nuts; lock washers; spring washers; washer packages; rivets; E... plates; oven crumb trays; rubber feet; slow cooker lids; water filter holders; electromagnetic...; washers; shoulder rivets; cotter pins; E-rings; latch, pedal, coil and torque springs; wire racks; bake...

  17. Salts and Co-crystals of Theobromine and their phase ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These results suggest that even though traditional salts are .... Water filtered through a double deionized purification system (AquaDM,. Bhanu, Hyderabad, India) was used in all experiments. ... vent(s) was mounted on the goniometer of Oxford .... Monoclin ic. Monoclin ic. Monoclin ic. Monoclin ic. T riclin ic. S p ace group.

  18. Synthesis, Characterization, Antibacterial, α-Glucosidase Inhibition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The off-white precipitates were collected by filtration, washed with distilled water and dried to acquire the compound 3. ... progress of reaction was monitored by TLC. The product was precipitated by adding cold water, filtered, washed with ...... Micellar chromatographic procedure with direct injection for the determination of.

  19. Optimizing nitrification in biological rapid sand filters: Diagnosing and supplementing micronutrients needed for proper filter performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Carson Odell; Wagner, Florian Benedikt; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus

    Nitrification is an important biological process commonly used in biological drinking water filters to remove ammonium from drinking water. Recent research has shown that a lack of micronutrients could be limiting the performance of these filters. Because nitrification is a biological process, ca...... to be an important diagnostic tool that could decrease regulatory hurdles, and save time and money....

  20. Exercise Balikatan 2012 Technology Insertion Quicklook Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    17 LifeStraw Family...demonstrating the Tulip Water Filter .............................. 17 Figure 10: LifeStraw demonstration at Camp Aguinaldo...Three small scale purification systems; the UH Portable Reverse Osmosis System, Tulip Filter, and LifeStraw systems were demonstrated at multiple

  1. 21 CFR 172.167 - Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.167 Silver nitrate and hydrogen peroxide solution... intended to be filtered through a silver-containing water filter. (g) Bottled water must meet the quality...

  2. Federal support for state and local response operations - PHE

    Science.gov (United States)

    coordinating with Genesee County to assist seniors who need help installing water filters. EPA is working with agencies are working diligently to support state and city officials in responding to the Flint, Michigan federal response and recovery efforts. This means that HHS is working across the federal partners from

  3. Irreversible Wash Aid Additive for Cesium Mitigation: WARRP Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Michael [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This activity demonstrated, on a practical scale, the primary unit operations for building a containment structure for radioactive wash waters, washing down a hypothetically radioactively contaminated vehicle, collecting the hypothetically radioactive slurry waste water, filtering the hypothetically radioactive wash waters, disassembling the containment, and transporting the materials for final disposition.

  4. Water SA - Vol 38, No 5 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Point-of-use water purification using clay pot water filters and copper mesh · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Field testing of polymeric mesh and ash-based ceramic membranes in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) for decentralised sewage treatment · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  5. Removal of waterborne pathogens from liver transplant unit water taps in prevention of healthcare-associated infections: a proposal for a cost-effective, proactive infection control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z Y; Hu, B J; Qin, L; Lin, Y E; Watanabe, H; Zhou, Q; Gao, X D

    2014-04-01

    Hospital water supplies often contain waterborne pathogens, which can become a reservoir for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). We surveyed the extent of waterborne pathogen contamination in the water supply of a Liver Transplant Unit. The efficacy of point-of-use (POU) water filters was evaluated by comparative analysis in routine clinical use. Our baseline environmental surveillance showed that Legionella spp. (28%, 38/136), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8%, 11/136), Mycobacterium spp. (87%, 118/136) and filamentous fungi (50%, 68/136) were isolated from the tap water of the Liver Transplant Unit. 28.9% of Legionella spp.-positive water samples (n = 38) showed high-level Legionella contamination (≥10(3) CFU/L). After installation of the POU water filter, none of these pathogens were found in the POU filtered water samples. Furthermore, colonizations/infections with Gram-negative bacteria determined from patient specimens were reduced by 47% during this period, even if only 27% (3/11) of the distal sites were installed with POU water filters. In conclusion, the presence of waterborne pathogens was common in the water supply of our Liver Transplant Unit. POU water filters effectively eradicated these pathogens from the water supply. Concomitantly, healthcare-associated colonization/infections declined after the POU filters were installed, indicating their potential benefit in reducing waterborne HAIs. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  6. MARKED PERSONAL NAMES: AN ANTROPONIMIC STUDY OF BALINESE STUDENTS’ NAMES IN DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Iwan Indrawan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to account for the Marked Balinese Students’ Personal Names. Four research problems are studied, namely (1 the criteria used to distinguish the marked names (NDMBmk and the unmarked ones (NDMTBmk, (2 the functions of the markedness, (3 the factors that influence it, and (4 the ideologies that operate behind it. The markedness of personal names reflect a relation between the arbitrariness in language uses and the extralinguistic factors influencing it. In the context of Balinese, the tradition, legal practices, and the globalisation may affect the arbitrariness. In order to determine NDMBmk, criteria of markedness was constructed. According to the criteria, structurally, NDMBmk consist of at least five elements, as Anak Agung Arim Kasunu Arya Penarungan. Behaviorally, they may consist of names not derived from Balinese and/or Sanskrit, such as Giovani on I Gede Adeyaka Giovani, adopt a foreign spelling system as Chrisna on Ni Putu Chrisna Wulandari, or use no markers of Balinese ethnics or caste as Yunisari Wira Putri. Out of 698 sampled names, NDMBmk are found 54. Besides denoting, the marked elements also function to distinguish personal identities, to shape the existence of the name holder, to connote particular perception, and to reflect the changing era. The factors influencing the markedness are the need to express something new, a wish to acculturate, to raise status or keep a distance socially, and to demonstrate a linguistic expertise, or when seeing from the concept of imagery, the factors are the imagery on something new and on social status or distancing. The ideologies behind the phenomenon are globalist, nationalist, and the casteless-Balinese.

  7. MARKED PERSONAL NAMES: AN ANTROPONIMIC STUDY OF BALINESE STUDENTS’ NAMES IN DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Iwan Indrawan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to account for the Marked Balinese Students’ Personal Names. Four research problems are studied, namely (1 the criteria used to distinguish the marked names (NDMBmk and the unmarked ones (NDMTBmk, (2 the functions of the markedness, (3 the factors that influence it, and (4 the ideologies that operate behind it. The markedness of personal names reflect a relation between the arbitrariness in language uses and the extralinguistic factors influencing it. In the context of Balinese, the tradition, legal practices, and the globalisation may affect the arbitrariness. In order to determine NDMBmk, criteria of markedness was constructed. According to the criteria, structurally, NDMBmk consist of at least five elements, as Anak Agung Arim Kasunu Arya Penarungan. Behaviorally, they may consist of names not derived from Balinese and/or Sanskrit, such as Giovani on I Gede Adeyaka Giovani, adopt a foreign spelling system as Chrisna on Ni Putu Chrisna Wulandari, or use no markers of Balinese ethnics or caste as Yunisari Wira Putri. Out of 698 sampled names, NDMBmk are found 54. Besides denoting, the marked elements also function to distinguish personal identities, to shape the existence of the name holder, to connote particular perception, and to reflect the changing era. The factors influencing the markedness are the need to express something new, a wish to acculturate, to raise status or keep a distance socially, and to demonstrate a linguistic expertise, or when seeing from the concept of imagery, the factors are the imagery on something new and on social status or distancing. The ideologies behind the phenomenon are globalist, nationalist, and the casteless-Balinese.

  8. Safety Day Prize Competition: results and answers

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    The three winners of the Safety Day Prize Competition are...   • 1st Prize: Fernando LEITE PEREIRA – smoke detector • 2nd Prize: Thomas DE BORTOLI – water filter jug • 3rd Prize: Matti KALLIOKOSKI – safety goggles Please see the image below for the answers to the questionnaire. If you have any questions regarding the Safety Day, please contact: safety.communication@cern.ch. And again, thank you to all the participants!

  9. Photographic and video techniques used in the 1/5-scale Mark I boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.; Lord, D.

    1978-01-01

    The report provides a description of the techniques and equipment used for the photographic and video recordings of the air test series conducted on the 1/5 scale Mark I boiling water reactor (BWR) pressure suppression experimental facility at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) between March 4, 1977, and May 12, 1977. Lighting and water filtering are discussed in the photographic system section and are also applicable to the video system. The appendices contain information from the photographic and video camera logs

  10. Near-Infrared Fluorescence Imaging Guided Therapy: Molecular Beacon-Based Photosensitizers Triggered by Breast Cancer-Specific mRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    experiments was first dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide ( DMSO ) (no more than 0.5% of total volume) and then diluted with 0.1% Tween 80 in DNA-water, filtered...Abbreviations: BSA, bovine serum albumin; DCM, dichlo- romethane; DIPEA, diisopropylethylamine; DMSO , dimethylsulfoxide ; EDTA...example, the standard aqueous solution-based oligonucleotide conjugation protocol, even with the help of organic solvents (ACN), can not be used for

  11. Water nano-filtration device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judkins, Roddie R [Knoxville, TN

    2009-02-03

    A water filter includes a porous support characterized by a mean porosity in the range of 20 to 50% and a mean pore size of 2 to 5 .mu.m; and a carbon filter membrane disposed thereon which is characterized by a mean particle size of no more than 50 .mu.m and a mean pore size of no more than 7.2 .mu.m.

  12. Factors affecting continued use of ceramic water purifiers distributed to Tsunami-affected Communities in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Casanova, Lisa M; Walters, Adam; Naghawatte, Ajith; Sobsey, Mark D

    2012-01-01

    Objectives  There is little information about continued use of point-of-use technologies after disaster relief efforts. After the 2004 tsunami, the Red Cross distributed ceramic water filters in Sri Lanka. This study determined factors associated with filter disuse and evaluate the quality of household drinking water. Methods  A cross-sectional survey of water sources and treatment, filter use and household characteristics was administered by in-person oral interview, and household water qual...

  13. Emergency field water supply system using natural filtration elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikneswaran, M.; Yahya, Muhamad Azani; Yusof, Mohammed Alias; Ismail, Siti Nor Kamariah

    2018-02-01

    Water is the most important resource in times of emergency and during military missions. In addition, if there is a war in a country, sources of clean water are essential for life. But, the safety and cleanliness of the river water for the campers and hikers still uncertain. Usually, polluted and contaminated river water is not safe to be directly consumed by human. However, this problem can be partly resolved by using water filter where the river water can be consumed directly after the filtration process. In respect of that, this study was conducted to design the filter media for personal water purification system. Hence, the objective of this work also is to develop a personal, portable dual purpose handy water filter to provide an easier way to get safe, clean and healthy drinking water for human wherever they go. The water quality of samples collected before and after filtration were analyzed. Water samples were taken from a waterfall near Lestari Block and Lake beside Marine Centre UPNM Campus. The experimental results were analyzed based on the assessment of water quality parameters. Overall, the analysis of the results showed that the water filter was designed with basic mix tabs aqua filter water purification tablets is showing a better result where it achieve the class I of water quality index (WQI). In details, the water sample taken from waterfall near Lestari Block shown the WQI around 93 which is higher than WQI of water sample from Lake near Marine Centre UPNM which is 86, class II A which can be used for external purpose only.

  14. Results of the ARN participation in the quality assessment program of the EML-DOE during period 2000-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equillor, Hugo E.; Serdeiro, Nelida H.; Fernandez, Jorge A.; Gavini, Ricardo M.; Grinman, Ana D.R.; Lewis, Esther C.; Medici, Marcela A.; Palacios, Miguel A.; Diodati, Jorge M.

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) participates every six months in the Quality Assessment Program (QAP), carried out by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory - United States Department Of Energy (EML-USDOE). The aim of this participation is to assess the quality of the radiochemical determinations and alpha, beta, gamma measurements, that ARN realises routinely. The analysed matrix are: water, filter, soil and vegetable. In the present work, the results of the ARN participation in the last four intercomparisons, period 2000-2001, are detailed and analysed statistically. The results are compared with obtained ones by all the laboratories. (author)

  15. A Possibility for Construction of an Iodine Cleaning System Based on Doping for π-Conjugated Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromasa Goto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An iodine accumulation method using polyaniline (PANI and a textile composite is proposed. PANI/pulp paper sheets prepared by a paper making technique are suitable for iodine adsorption, because of good processability. The PANI-based paper sheets can be applied for iodine cleanup as air filters, water filters, and floorcloth. This concept may lead to a development of an iodine cleaning machine or iodine shield cloth based on π-conjugated polymer composites. In-situ vapor phase doping of iodine, observation of surface images, and IR measurements are carried out to examine iodine doping function for the PANI/pulp paper sheets.

  16. Cupriferous peat: embryonic copper ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, D C

    1961-07-01

    A Canadian peat was found to contain up to 10% (dry weight) Cu, and a mechanism for Cu accumulation in peat was discussed. Wet chemical techniques and x-ray diffraction were utilized to identify Cu compounds. Copper was organically bound in peat as a chelate complex and did not occur as an oxide, sulfide, or as elemental Cu. Because of the low S content of peat the Cu was assumed to be bound to nitrogen or oxygen-containing components. Copper, having a greater affinity for N, tended to form the more stable Cu-N chelate. The element was concentrated as circulating cupriferous ground waters filtered through the peat.

  17. Radiological hazards of narghile smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khater, A.E.M.; Abd El-Aziz, N.S.; Al-Sewaidan, H.A.; Chaouachi, K.

    2008-07-01

    Narghile smoking pastes, known as jurak and moassel, are not standardized manufacture. This study aims at drawing the first conclusions on the potential hazards of radioactivity in relation to moassel-narghile smoking. The results indicate the existence of a wide range of variations in the natural radioactivity. The distribution pattern of these natural radio-nuclides, during smoking, between smoke, ash and water filter is unknown, except for 210Po. Radiological dose assessment due to intake of 210Po was calculated and the possible radio-toxicity of the measured radio-nuclides is discussed. Further research in this direction is needed. (author)(tk)

  18. Clay Ceramic Filter for Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zereffa Enyew Amare

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic water filters were prepared from different proportions of kaolin and soft wood and sintered at 900 °C, 950 °C, and 1000 °C. The flow rate, conductivity, pH of filtered water and removal efficiency (microbial, water hardness agent’s, nitrite and turbidity were analysed. The ceramic filter with 15 % saw dust, 80 % clay and 5 % grog that was fired at temperature of 950 °C or 1000 °C showed the best removal efficiency. Statistical ANOVA tests showed a significant difference between ceramic filters with various compositions in their removal efficiencies.

  19. Accumulation, elimination and chemical speciation of mercury in the bivalves Mytilus edulis and Macoma balthica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, H. U.; Kiørboe, Thomas; Møhlenberg, F.

    1985-01-01

    Mussels (Mytilus edulis) transferred in net bags from clean to chronically mercury polluted water readily accumulated mercury during an exposure period of three months. Growth of the transplanted mussels had a “diluting” effect on the mercury concentration, but the absolute weight of mercury uptake...... increased throughout the entire period, though there was a tendency for decreased efficiency of the removal of mercury per liter of water filtered by the mussels. Mussels were also translocated from polluted to clean (laboratory) water to depurate mercury. The biological half-lives of mercury was 293 d...

  20. Participation of ARN-Argentina in the quality assessment program, EML-USDOE since 200-2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equillor, Hugo E.; Serdeiro, Nelida H.; Fernandez, Jorge A.; Gavini, Ricardo M.; Grinman, Ana D.R.; Lewis, Esther C.; Medici, Marcela A.; Palacios, Miguel A.; Diodati, Jorge M.

    2002-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) participates every six months in the Quality Assessment Program (QAP), carried out by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory - United States Department Of Energy (EML-USDOE). The aim of this participation is to assess the quality of the radiochemical determinations and alpha, beta, gamma measurements, that ARN realises routinely. The analysed matrix are: water, filter, soil and vegetable. In the present work, the results of the ARN participation in the last four intercomparisons, period 2000-2001, are detailed and analysed statistically. The results are compared with obtained ones by all the laboratories. (author)

  1. Water chemistry related problems in captive power plant of Heavy Water Plant [Manuguru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasada Rao, G.; Mohapatra, C.

    2000-01-01

    This study is intended to improve the power generating capacity of Turbo Generator-3 in CPP. It was observed that steam flow through TG-3 was not as per rated; however there were no abnormal vibrations. After stopping and opening the turbine, deposits were found on turbine blade. Turbine blade scales were analysed for all the stages, HP, middle, LP, casings. Boiler drum water, feed water, DM water, filter water chemistry were studied. LP blade scale mainly consists of silica, whereas HP blade scale consists of iron oxide, sodium phosphate, silica etc. It was concluded that less generating capacity of power was because of scaling on turbine blade. (author)

  2. Investigation and recovery of unrecovered fuel pellets and cladding tube pieces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Keiji

    1980-01-01

    The total weight of the fuel pellets lost due to break was about 1206 g, and cladding tube pieces were about 217 g. Among these, the pellets of about 527 g and the cladding tube pieces of about 152 g were recovered when broken fuel rods were discovered. It is not desirable to leave these broken pieces as unrecovered in view of safety and the management of nuclear fuel materials. Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., investigated the position and the amount of these pellets and cladding tube pieces for about a year, and recovered a part of them. The results were written in two reports. The objects of the investigation and recovery, and the method of recovery are explained. The UO 2 and zirconium recovered were 58.52 g and 369.58 g, respectively. The solid pellets were recovered from the reactor, fuel assemblies, a spent fuel pit and canals, and the content in sludge was recovered from other installations. The amounts of unrecovered pellets and cladding tube pieces in primary cooling water, coolant filters, sealing water filters, primary cooling pipes, waste resins and fuel assemblies were estimated. The problems concerning the recovery and estimation are pointed out. The results of estimating the amount of uranium in coolant filters and sealing water filters are useful to know the time of the occurrence of accident. (Kako, I.)

  3. Participation of the ARN (Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear) in the quality assessment program of the EML-USDOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonino, N.O.; Equillor, H.E.; Fernandez, J.A.; Gavini, R.M.; Grinman, A.D.R.; Serdeiro, N.H.; Lewis, E.C.; Bomben, A.M.; Diodati, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: A radiochemical laboratory must count with optimized analytical techniques and calibrated measurement systems in order to get reliable results. In addition to the internal controls that each laboratory must carry out, it is indispensable to include in the quality assurance programs, intercomparisons with qualified laboratories. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN) of the Republica Argentina participates since 1995, in the Quality Assessment Program organized by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory - EML, of the United States. The participation in this program consist in: 1) Measurement of different gamma emitters in 4 environmental matrixes: water, filter, soil and vegetation; 2) Determination of actinides in the named matrixes; 3) Determination of tritium and iron-55 in water; 4) Determination of strontium-90 in water, filter, soil and vegetation; 5) Gross alpha and gross beta measurement in water and filter. In this paper, the results of the ARN in the six previous intercomparisons are exposed. An analysis of the deviations of the informed dates related to the EML values are made, and they are compared with the results of the rest of the participating laboratories. The determination methods and the measurement systems utilized in each matrix and for each radionuclide, are mentioned. (author) [es

  4. Study of the efficiency of some water treatment unit that present in houses in Erbil city-Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Janan. Jabbar.; Hanna, Aveen. Matti.

    2017-09-01

    Many people in Erbil city started more than two decade to put special treatment units in their houses to purified water to become safer for drinking uses. The aim of this study was determine the efficiency of six kind water treatment units which include (two replicate of Crystal Water Purifier, So-Safe Water Filter, R O Water Purifier, Kontec Water Purified and Al-Kawther Purified Water). Water samples were collected in two sites one before and other after treatment unit. Each sample was collect with three replication during May to October-2016. Analyzed for Major cations concentration (calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium), anions concentration (nitrate and chloride) and hydrogen ion concentration (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity and total hardness by using standard methods. The water quality index values for all raw water sample befor and after treatment was good and excellent respectively for drinking purposes. Efficiency of So-Safe Water Filter was 66.32% it means was more efficiency than others special water treatment units while in RO Water Purifier was 27.14%, means less efficiency than other water purifier water under this study. Values for major cations, anions and others chemicals characteristics in the water samples after treatment became lower concentrations than befor treatment, likely an indication that these were removed by treatment. According to guideline of world health organization all of variables except total hardness befor treatment are safe and suitable for drinking purposes.

  5. Point-of-Use Removal of Cryptosporidium parvum from Water: Independent Effects of Disinfection by Silver Nanoparticles and Silver Ions and by Physical Filtration in Ceramic Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Lydia S; Su, Yi-Hsuan; Guerrant, Richard L; Swami, Nathan S; Smith, James A

    2015-11-03

    Ceramic water filters (CWFs) impregnated with silver nanoparticles are a means of household-level water treatment. CWFs remove/deactivate microbial pathogens by employing two mechanisms: metallic disinfection and physical filtration. Herein we report on the independent effects of silver salt and nanoparticles on Cryptosporidium parvum and the removal of C. parvum by physical filtration in porous ceramic filter media. Using a murine (mouse) model, we observed that treatment of oocysts with silver nitrate and proteinate-capped silver nanoparticles resulted in decreased infection relative to untreated oocysts. Microscopy and excystation experiments were conducted to support the disinfection investigation. Heat and proteinate-capped silver-nanoparticle treatment of oocysts resulted in morphological modifications and decreased excystation rates of sporozoites. Subsequently, disk-shaped ceramic filters were produced to investigate the transport of C. parvum. Two factors were varied: sawdust size and clay-to-sawdust ratio. Five disks were prepared with combinations of 10, 16, and 20 mesh sawdust and sawdust percentage that ranged from 9 to 11%. C. parvum removal efficiencies ranged from 1.5 log (96.4%) to 2.1 log (99.2%). The 16-mesh/10% sawdust had the greatest mean reduction of 2.1-log (99.2%), though there was no statistically significant difference in removal efficiency. Based on our findings, physical filtration and silver nanoparticle disinfection likely contribute to treatment of C. parvum for silver impregnated ceramic water filters, although the contribution of physical filtration is likely greater than silver disinfection.

  6. Microbial community characterization of ozone-biofiltration systems in drinking water and potable reuse applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrity, Daniel; Arnold, Mayara; Dickenson, Eric; Moser, Duane; Sackett, Joshua D; Wert, Eric C

    2018-05-15

    Microbial community structure in the ozone-biofiltration systems of two drinking water and two wastewater treatment facilities was characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Collectively, these datasets enabled comparisons by facility, water type (drinking water, wastewater), pre-oxidation (ozonation, chlorination), media type (anthracite, activated carbon), media depth, and backwash dynamics. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in drinking water filters, whereas Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and Planctomycetes were differentially abundant in wastewater filters. A positive correlation was observed between media depth and relative abundance of Cyanobacteria in drinking water filters, but there was only a slight increase in one alpha diversity metric with depth in the wastewater filters. Media type had a significant effect on beta but not alpha diversity in drinking water and wastewater filters. Pre-ozonation caused a significant decrease in alpha diversity in the wastewater filters, but the effect on beta diversity was not statistically significant. An evaluation of backwash dynamics resulted in two notable observations: (1) endosymbionts such as Neochlamydia and Legionella increased in relative abundance following backwashing and (2) nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium dominated the microbial community in wastewater filters operated with infrequent backwashing. Bradyrhizobium is known to generate extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which may adversely impact biofilter performance and effluent water quality. These findings have important implications for public health and the operation and resiliency of biofiltration systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance of drippers in two filtering systems using sewage treatment effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre B. Dalri

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of three models of drippers using treated sewage effluent, pure and diluted, and two types of filters, screen and disc. The treated sewage effluent used in the experiment was collected from the city’s treatment plant. The experiment included 12 lateral lines with three types of emitters to apply pure (100% and diluted (50% effluent filtered by screen and disc filters. The combination of those factors set the treatments: T1 (50% effluent diluted in fresh water filtered by a screen filter; T2 (50% effluent diluted in fresh water filtered by a disc filter; T3 (pure effluent filtered by a screen filter; T4 (pure effluent filtered by a disc filter. The results showed that the flat type emitter is less sensitive to clogging, the disc filter is the most suitable to prevent clogging and the use of pure or diluted sewage effluent increases the drippers’ flow rate coefficient of variation.

  8. A qualitative assessment of beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors related to diarrhea and water filtration in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ver Dye, Timothy; Apondi, Rose; Lugada, Eric; Kahn, James G; Sandiford-Day, Mary Ann; Dasbanerjee, Tania

    2011-08-01

    We qualitatively assessed beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors related to diarrhea and water filtration in rural Kenya. A public health campaign was conducted in rural western Kenya to give community members a comprehensive prevention package of goods and services, including a personal water filter or a household water filter (or both). Two months after the campaign, we conducted qualitative interviews with 34 campaign attendees to assess their beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors related to diarrhea and use of the filtration devices. Participants held generally correct perceptions of diarrhea causation. Participants provided positive reports of their experiences with using filters and of their success with obtaining clean water, reducing disease, and reducing consumption of resources otherwise needed to produce clean water. Several participants offered technical suggestions for device improvements, and most participants were still using the devices at the time of the assessment. Novel water filtration devices distributed as part of a comprehensive public health campaign rapidly proved acceptable to community members and were consistent with community practices and beliefs.

  9. Evaluation of a Silver-Embedded Ceramic Tablet as a Primary and Secondary Point-of-Use Water Purification Technology in Limpopo Province, S. Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beeta Ehdaie

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO recognizes point-of-use water treatment (PoUWT technologies as effective means to improve water quality. This paper investigates long-term performance and social acceptance of a novel PoUWT technology, a silver-infused ceramic tablet, in Limpopo Province, South Africa. When placed in a water storage container, the silver-embedded ceramic tablet releases silver ions into water, thereby disinfecting microbial pathogens and leaving the water safe for human consumption. As a result of its simplicity and efficiency, the silver-embedded ceramic tablet can serve as a stand-alone PoUWT method and as a secondary PoUWT to improve exisitng PoUWT methods, such as ceramic water filters. In this paper, three PoUWT interventions were conducted to evaluate the silver-embedded ceramic tablet: (1 the silver-embedded ceramic tablet as a stand-alone PoUWT method, (2 ceramic water filters stand-alone, and (3 a filter-tablet combination. The filter-tablet combination evaluates the silver-embedded ceramic tablet as a secondary PoUWT method when placed in the lower reservoir of the ceramic water filter system to provide residual disinfection post-filtration. Samples were collected from 79 households over one year and analyzed for turbidity, total silver levels and coliform bacteria. Results show that the silver-embedded ceramic tablet effectively reduced total coliform bacteria (TC and E. coli when used as a stand-alone PoUWT method and when used in combination with ceramic water filters. The silver-embedded ceramic tablet's performance as a stand-alone PoUWT method was comparable to current inexpensive, single-use PoUWT methods, demonstrating 100% and 75% median reduction in E. coli and TC, respectively, after two months of use. Overall, the the filter-tablet combination performed the best of the three interventions, providing a 100% average percent reduction in E. coli over one year. User surveys were also conducted and indicated

  10. Seabed Filter Feasibility Study of Om Almisk Island

    KAUST Repository

    Sesler, Kathryn

    2012-06-01

    Freshwater access has always been and is continuing to be a severe problem in desert coastal regions, despite the fact that they have an unlimited supply of easily accessible saline water. Water desalination plants are well established and heavily relied upon throughout the Middle East, Saudi Arabia in particular. However, water desalination tends to be a very expensive and energy intensive solution to the problem. The transition from using open water intake systems and all of the pretreatment processes that they require, to using seabed water filters as an intake, would potentially reduce the lifetime costs, energy consumption, and environmental impacts commonly associated with water desalination. This is because the filtration process that the seabed filter generates, serves as sufficient pretreatment for seawater as well as eliminating any risk of entrainment or impingement of marine organisms. The main objective of this research is to conduct a feasibility study on Om Almisk Island, an island off the coast of King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), to determine if it would be a suitable location to construct a seabed water filter as a replacement for the current open water intake. The Om Almisk Island site was evaluated through collection of sand samples over a radial grid around Om Almisk Island and sample analysis using grain size distribution, porosity, and hydraulic conductivity. The lack of mud, high hydraulic conductivity, proximity to KAUST, and the shallow waters of the sandy apron surrounding Om Almisk Island make this an ideal location for a seabed water filter to be used as an intake and pretreatment for the KAUST desalination plant. This location also has low tide change and the presence of benthic macrofauna to create bioturbation in the sediments, which could inhibit the growth of a schmutzdecke. If this biological layer forms, it could drastically reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the system. Due to the high hydraulic

  11. Studies on aerosols. XI. Influence of particulate matter on the eye irritation produced by volatile irritants and importance of particle size in connection with atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dautrebande, L; Shaver, J; Capps, R

    1951-01-01

    This is a review of smog irritation prevented by water filters which remove > 2-..mu..m particles. Formaldehyde, HNO/sub 3/, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ vapors combined plus used oil produced stronger irritation than vapors alone. Vapors produced irritation essentially only at concentrations above 4.2 x 10/sup -3/ mg/liter air of each constituent. Three trained human volunteers were exposed to various aerosols via goggles. Blinking and lacrimation were observed. Reaction varied largely between the 3 and between different exposure periods. NaCl, Si dust, and used oil in combination required a much higher concentration to produce eye irritation than with vapors present. NaCl and Si combined did not irritate; used oil did. Photomicrographs showed small (approx. 0.05 ..mu..m), long-chained (1 to 7 ..mu..m), and aggregated (1 to 10 ..mu..m) particles.

  12. Replacement Saltwell Pumping System Document Bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BELLOMY, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    This document bibliography is prepared to identify engineering documentation developed during the design of the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System. The bibliography includes all engineering supporting documents and correspondence prepared prior to the deployment of the system in the field. All documents referenced are available electronically through the Records Management Information System (RMIS). Major components of the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System include the Sundyne Canned Motor Pump, the Water Filter Skid, the Injection Water Skid and the Backflow Preventer Assembly. Drawing H-14-104498 provides an index of drawings (fabrication details, PandIDs, etc.) prepared to support development of the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System. Specific information pertaining to new equipment can be found in Certified Vendor Information (CVI) File 50124. This CVI file has been established specifically for new equipment associated with the Replacement Saltwell Pumping System

  13. Results of special security inspection on improvement of security management setup in Head Office and Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station of the Japan Atomic Power Company and improvement of facilities in Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In connection with the series of accidents in the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station, the Agency of Natural Resources and Energy had instructed JAPC to make comprehensive inspection on the security management setup and to take improvement measures in the nuclear power station. The results of the subsequent inspection by ANRE confirmed that the improvements made by JAPC are adequate, and the following items are described: improvement of security management setup - communication and reporting in emergency, the management of inspection and maintenance records, work control and supervision in repair, improvement, etc., functional authority and responsibility in maintenance management, operation management, radiation control, personnel education; improvement of facilities - feed water heaters, laundry waste-water filter room, radioactive waste treatment facility, general drainage, concentrated waste liquid storage tanks in newly-built waste treatment building, etc. (J.P.N.)

  14. Laser Nanosoldering of Golden and Magnetite Particles and its Possible Application in 3D Printing Devices and Four-Valued Non-Volatile Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaworski Jacek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the 3D printing methods have been developing rapidly. This article presents researches about a new composite consisted of golden and magnetite nanoparticles which could be used for this technique. Preparation of golden nanoparticles by laser ablation and their soldering by laser green light irradiation proceeded in water environment. Magnetite was obtained on chemical way. During experiments it was tested a change of a size of nanoparticles during laser irradiation, surface plasmon resonance, zeta potential. The obtained golden - magnetite composite material was magnetic after laser irradiation. On the end there was considered the application it for 3D printing devices, water filters and four-valued non-volatile memories.

  15. Toxic and Beneficial Potential of Silver Nanoparticles: The Two Sides of the Same Coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lilian Rodrigues Rosa; da Silva, Veronica Santana; Franchi, Leonardo Pereira; de Souza, Tiago Alves Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Nanotechnology has allowed great changes in chemical, biological and physical properties of metals when compared to their bulk counterparts. Within this context, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) play a major role due to their unique properties, being widely used in daily products such as fabrics, washing machines, water filters, food and medicine. However, AgNPs can enter cells inducing a "Trojan-horse" type mechanism which potentially leads to cellular autophagy, apoptosis or necrosis. On the other hand, this cytotoxicity mechanism can be optimized to develop drug nanocarriers and anticancer therapies. The increasing use of these NPs entails their release into the environment, damaging ecosystems balance and representing a threat to human health. In this context, the possible deleterious effects that these NPs may represent for the biotic and abiotic ecosystems components represent an obstacle that must be overcome in order to guarantee the safety use of their unique properties.

  16. Radioactivity levels in the marine environment along the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qaradawi, Ilham; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed; Al-Yafei, Mohsin Al-Ansi; Al-Ansari, Ebrahim; Al-Maslamani, Ibrahim; Holm, Elis; Al-Shaikh, Ismail; Mauring, Alexander; Pinto, Primal V; Abdulmalik, Dana; Amir, Amina; Miller, Mark; Yigiterhan, Oguz; Persson, Bertil

    2015-01-15

    A study on (137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, and (238)U was carried out along the EEZ of Qatar. Results serve as the first ever baseline data. The level of (137)Cs (mean value 1.6 ± 0.4 Bq m(-3)) in water filters was found to be in the same order of magnitude as reported by others in worldwide marine radioactivity studies. Results are also in agreement with values reported from other Gulf regions. The computed values of sediment-water distribution coefficients Kd, are lower than the values given by IAEA. Measurements were carried out for bottom sediments, biota samples like fish, oyster, sponge, seashell, mangrove, crab, shrimp, starfish, dugong and algae. The 'concentration factors' reported for biota samples are below the levels published by IAEA and cause no significant impact on human health for seafood consumers in Qatar. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Wastewater purification in a willow plantation. The case study at Aarike

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuusemets, V.; Mauring, T.

    1996-01-01

    In order to combine wastewater purification and biomass production for energy purposes, a willow plantation for wastewater treatment was established in 1995 in Aarike, Southern Estonia. Wastewater from a dwelling house (25 person equivalents, pe) is treated in a combined free-water filter system consisting of three separate basins, isolated with clay and having filter beds of gravel and sand mixture. The beds were planted with Salix viminalis. At the end of the first growing season, the purification efficiency of the newly established treatment system was 65% for BOD 7 , 43% for nitrogen and 11% for phosphorus removal. At the end of the establishment year, the above ground production of willow stems (bark and wood) and leaves was 1.3 and 0.3 t ha -1 , respectively. The figures are about three to five times higher than those recorded in previously established energy forest plantations of comparable ages in Estonia. 15 refs, 2 figs

  18. Determination of Uranium plus Plutonium by Alpha spectrometry in different matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equillor, Hugo E.; Campos, Juan M.

    2011-01-01

    Usually, the determination of alpha emitters by alpha spectrometry is performed with a prior purification of each of the elements to be quantified. In this work, a methodology for the determination of uranium and plutonium isotopes as jointly described, in order to improve analytical processing times and measurement. The method includes purifying uranium and plutonium, and the subsequent electrodeposition for alpha spectrometry measurement. The technique is based on the use of TBP (tributyl phosphate) as extractant and easy to obtain reactants. It is applicable to various matrices, including water, filters and soils. In the conditions described, is applied to small aliquots of approximately 0.5 g of solid. The technique produces high quality electrodeposits. (authors) [es

  19. Results from measurements of natural radiation in and from filters in some water treatment plants; Maetningar av naturlig radioaktivitet i och fraan filter vid naagra vattenverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergren, Inger; Aakerblom, Gustav [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden); Ek, Britt-Marie [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Large water treatment plants often process surface water where the concentration of natural radionuclides is so low that treatment of the water produces no radiation dose or waste problem. The level of natural radionuclides in ground water is higher than in surface water and often so high that mitigation is needed to clean the water. Specific treatment of the filters and filter masses is needed in some cases because the natural radionuclides precipitate in the filters. The radiation doses received by personnel at the ground water treatment plants are often low because of the relatively short time the workers spend inside the treatment plant. The results presented here indicate no need for extra action to insure radiation protection with regard to radioactivity inside the treatment plant or during processing of the filters and waste. A comprehensive discussion of the problems associated with the concentrating of natural radionuclides in water filters is presented in this report.

  20. Characterization of filters and filtration process using X-ray computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschio, Celio; Arruda, Antonio Celso Fonseca de

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this work is to present the potential of X-Ray computerized tomography as a tool for internal characterization of filters used in the solid-liquid separation, mainly the water filters. Cartridge filters (for industrial and domestic applications) contaminated with glass beads were used. The scanning process was carried out both with and without contaminant in the filter to compare the attenuation coefficient of the clean filter and the contaminated filter. The images showed that is possible the mapping the internal structure of the filters and the distribution of the contaminant, permitting a local analysis, that is not possible through the standard tests used by the manufactures. These standard tests reveal only global characteristics of the filter media. The possibility of application for manufacturing process control was also shown, because the non invasive nature is a important advantage of the technique, which also permitted damage detection in filters submitted to severe operational conditions. (author)

  1. The state of improvement of security management setup in the Japan Atomic Power Company and improvement of facilities in its Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    In connection with the series of accidents in the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station of the Japan Atomic Power Company, the state of security management in JAPC and the safety of facilities in the Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station, which have resulted from improvement efforts, are described on the following items: security management setup - communication and reporting in emergency, the management of inspection and maintenance records, work control and supervision in repair, improvement, etc., functional authority and responsibility in maintenance management, operation management, radiation control, personnel education; improvement of facilities - feed water heaters, laundry waste-water filter room, radioactive waste treatment facility, general drainage, concentrated waste liquid storage tanks in newly-built waste treatment building, etc. (Mori, K.)

  2. Willingness to pay for small solar powered bed net fans: results of a Becker-DeGroot-Marschak auction in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukich, Joshua O; Briët, Olivier J T; Ahorlu, Collins K; Nardini, Peter; Keating, Joseph

    2017-08-07

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are one of the main interventions recommended by the World Health Organization for malaria vector control. LLINs are ineffective if they are not being used. Subsequent to the completion of a cluster randomized cross over trial conducted in rural Greater Accra where participants were provided with the 'Bɔkɔɔ System'-a set of solar powered net fan and light consoles with a solar panel and battery-or alternative household water filters, all trial participants were invited to participate in a Becker-DeGroot-Marschak auction to determine the mean willingness to pay (WTP) for the fan and light consoles and to estimate the demand curve for the units. Results demonstraed a mean WTP of approximately 55 Cedis (~13 USD). Demand results suggested that at a price which would support full manufacturing cost recovery, a majority of households in the area would be willing to purchase at least one such unit.

  3. Measurement of water filtration in skeletal muscle in man by an osmotic transient method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palm, T; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1983-01-01

    Water filtration in the human forearm was determined with a new method using a hyperoncotic transient of albumin solution infused into the brachial artery. Baseline dilution of labelled albumin in deep forearm vein plasma in excess of the contribution from arterial blood and from infusate...... was assumed to originate from extravascular water filtered into the blood by the transient. The filtration coefficient (Fc) was determined as the ratio between filtered water and increase in colloid osmotic pressure in the blood samples, and gives the filtrative water permeability in the exchange areas...... muscles, but it is of the same order of magnitude as the capillary filtration coefficient (CFC) determined plethysmographically for the entire forearm by the venous stasis technique....

  4. Transfers in porous medium, drying; Transferts en milieu poreux, sechage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrasse, J.H.; Arlabosse, P.; Puaux, J.P. [Ecole des Mines d' Albi-Carnaux, Centre Energetique Environnement, 81 - Albi (France)] (and others)

    2000-07-01

    This congress, on thermology, took place at Lyon in France, the 15-17 may 2000 with a presentation of 143 papers on the recent researches and specialized discussions. The talks published in this book are sorted out in ten thema. One of the thema concerns the transfers in porous medium and the drying, with seven talks presented. They can be applied to many natural domains as the residual waters filtering, the hydrocarbons extraction, the soil utilization for energy source or reserve, the thermal insulation improvement. In the drying domain, two papers are presented, one on the development of the drying of sewage sludges, the other on a drying process for superheated steam. (A.L.B.)

  5. Modification of cellulose foam paper for use as a high-quality biocide disinfectant filter for drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydarifard, Solmaz; Taneja, Kapila; Bhanjana, Gaurav; Dilbaghi, Neeraj; Nazhad, Mousa M; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kumar, Sandeep

    2018-02-01

    Development of a foam-formed cellulose filter paper with high wet strength was carried out for application as a drinking water filter. The wet strength and antimicrobial activity of cellulose foam paper against several bacteria species (Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441 (Gram +ve), B. cereus NCDC 240 (Gram +ve), Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCDC 105 (Gram -ve), Klebsiella pneumonia NCDC 138 (Gram -ve), and Escherichia coli MTCC 40 (Gram -ve)) were investigated. The morphology and structure of the cellulose foam paper were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of our study confirmed that glutaraldehyde solution or 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) added to cellulose foam paper pretreated with cationic polyacrylamide (C-PAM) provided very high and stable wet strength performance together with excellent antimicrobial properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Simultaneous determination of U and Pu isotopes by alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equillor, H.E.; Campos, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Determination of actinides by alpha spectrometry is usually carried out after full separation of each of the components of the sample. The procedure presented in this paper permits U and Pu isotopes to be measured together allowing faster sample processing and measurement. The method consists in the extraction with tributyl phosphate of U and Pu isotopes from the rest of the matrix, followed by a cathodic electrodeposition to obtain alpha spectrometry suitable pieces. It can be applied to various environmental samples, such as water, filters and soil (about 0.5 g of solid sample for the described conditions). High-quality electroplated discs are essential for simultaneous processing, so a technique to achieve this requirement is also explained. (authors) [es

  7. Question of automation of periodical slow process in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berta, S.

    1985-01-01

    In Hungary one 440 MW PRW unit is in service and the second one is under commission. Two units have one background complex. Further two PWR units are being made and of course another background complex. In the PWR technology these background technological processes ensure safe and contamination free operation. Their task is to prevent the escape of noxious, chemical or radioactive by-products. The main technological parts of the background complex are: Fuel cell resting; Four different water filtering systems; Hydrogen contact burners; Two gas filtering systems; Fluid wastage and contaminated resin handling; Preparation of chemical solutions. The aim of this article is to study the possibilities of automation of the background complex

  8. Energy and environmental nanotechnology in conductive paper and textiles

    KAUST Repository

    Hu, Liangbing

    2012-01-01

    Paper and textiles have been used ubiquitously in our everyday lives, such as books and newspapers for propagating information, clothing and packaging. In this perspective, we will summarize our recent efforts in exploring these old materials for emerging energy and environmental applications. The motivations and challenges of using paper and textiles for device applications will be discussed. Various types of energy and environmental devices have been demonstrated including supercapacitors, Li-ion batteries, microbial fuel cells and water filters. Due to their unique morphologies, paper and textile-based devices not only can be fabricated with simple processing, but also show outstanding device performance. Being renewable and earth-abundant materials, paper and textiles could play significant roles in addressing future energy and environmental challenges. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Smanjenje štetnosti ispušnih plinova dizelskog motora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Golubić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with some possibilities of reduction of Diesel engine exhaust emission hazards. For purposes of purification of exhaust emissions, the in-built filters can be provided, like ceramic filters for sooth and water filters for gases. The oxidation catalyst may also be provided in addition to filters. Hybrid systems have been tested in "Golf' automobiles i.e. the combination of internal combustion engine and electric drive. This vehicle has been named "Eco Golf'. A mixture of Diesel fuel and n-butanol in the ratio of 60:40 has been used as the alternative fuel introducing the reduction of NOx by 8% and of particles by 36%. All limit values of Diesel engine exhaust gas components have been given in ECE R49 test.

  10. Virus removal efficiency of Cambodian ceramic pot water purifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsali, Hamidreza; McBean, Edward; Brunsting, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    Virus removal efficiency is described for three types of silver-impregnated, ceramic water filters (CWFs) produced in Cambodia. The tests were completed using freshly scrubbed filters and de-ionized (DI) water as an evaluation of the removal efficiency of the virus in isolation with no other interacting water quality variables. Removal efficiencies between 0.21 and 0.45 log are evidenced, which is significantly lower than results obtained in testing of similar filters by other investigators utilizing surface or rain water and a less frequent cleaning regime. Other experiments generally found virus removal efficiencies greater than 1.0 log. This difference may be because of the association of viruses with suspended solids, and subsequent removal of these solids during filtration. Variability in virus removal efficiencies between pots of the same manufacturer, and observed flow rates outside the manufacturer's specifications, suggest tighter quality control and consistency may be needed during production.

  11. The filtering of raw water with partition system in pool row water for the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harahap, Sentot Alibasya; Djunaidi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of filtering raw water in the pool is decreasing soluble dirty in the water from Puspiptek PAM also the dirty from the environments. The monitoring of raw water since 1998 that the raw water is not so good in the quality. This partition system use tree type of screen a.i. the opened 10 mm, Mesh 60 and Mesh 100. The down position use a plat with 400 mm higher from the floor of the pool that given support frame from the L profile and strip plate by stainless steel (SS-304), use for deposited the impurities. The filter capability from the monitoring that the filtering result is a good quality, the TDS drop (Total Dissolved Solvent) is 2,5 gram/liter and the water filtering static type is (4 - 8,5) gram/liter

  12. Spin-offs from Research Exhibition Science Bringing Nations Together

    CERN Multimedia

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that the results of fundamental research can have unexpected and suc-cessful applications in different fields of human activity. A good example is that of nuclear track membranes. These membranes are produced by exposing polymer films to ion beams at isochronous cyclotrons in JINR. They are used in all fields that require reliable and ecologically safe filters; e.g. in medicine and in the food and elec-tronics industries. It is not surprising that Finnish businessmen readily accepted the proposal of the specialists from JINR's Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions to establish a joint venture for production of household water filters, and that these simple but effective devices are now used in many countries.

  13. Upregulated epidermal growth factor receptor expression following near-infrared irradiation simulating solar radiation in a three-dimensional reconstructed human corneal epithelial tissue culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yohei; Nakayama, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Humans are increasingly exposed to near-infrared (NIR) radiation from both natural (eg, solar) and artificial (eg, electrical appliances) sources. Although the biological effects of sun and ultraviolet (UV) exposure have been extensively investigated, the biological effect of NIR radiation is still unclear. We previously reported that NIR as well as UV induces photoaging and standard UV-blocking materials, such as sunglasses, do not sufficiently block NIR. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in gene expression in three-dimensional reconstructed corneal epithelial tissue culture exposed to broad-spectrum NIR irradiation to simulate solar NIR radiation that reaches human tissues. DNA microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis were used to assess gene expression levels in a three-dimensional reconstructed corneal epithelial model composed of normal human corneal epithelial cells exposed to water-filtered broad-spectrum NIR irradiation with a contact cooling (20°C). The water-filter allowed 1,000-1,800 nm wavelengths and excluded 1,400-1,500 nm wavelengths. A DNA microarray with >62,000 different probes showed 25 and 150 genes that were up- or downregulated by at least fourfold and twofold, respectively, after NIR irradiation. In particular, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was upregulated by 19.4-fold relative to control cells. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that two variants of EGFR in human corneal epithelial tissue were also significantly upregulated after five rounds of 10 J/cm(2) irradiation (Psolar energy reaching the Earth is in the NIR region, which cannot be adequately blocked by eyewear and thus can induce eye damage with intensive or long-term exposure, protection from both UV and NIR radiation may prevent changes in gene expression and in turn eye damage.

  14. Evaluation on the Quality of Bangkok Tap Water with Other Drinking Purpose Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordach, A.; Chardwattananon, C.; Wongin, K.; Chayaput, B.; Wongpat, N.

    2018-02-01

    The concern of drinking purposed water quality in Bangkok, Nonthaburi, and Samutprakarn provinces has been a problem for over fifteen years. Metropolitan Water Works Authority (MWA) of Thailand is fully responsible for providing water supply to the mentioned areas. The objective of Drinkable Tap Water Project is to make people realize in quality of tap water. Communities, school, government agencies, hotels, hospitals, department stores, and other organizations are participating in this project. MWA have collected at least 3 samples of water from the corresponding places and the samples have to meet the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines level. This study is to evaluate water quality of tap water, storage water, filtered water, and filtered water dispenser. The water samples from 2,354 attending places are collected and analyzed. From October 2011 to September 2016, MWA analyzed 32,711 samples. The analyzed water parameters are free residual chlorine, appearance color, turbidity, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), and pathogenic bacteria; E.coli. The results indicated that a number of tap water samples had the highest number compliance with WHO guidelines levels at 98.40%. The filtered water, filtered water dispenser, and storage water were received 96.71%, 95.63%, and 90.88%, respectively. However, the several samples fail to pass WHO guideline level because they were contaminated by E.coli. The result is that tap water has the highest score among other sources probably because tap water has chlorine for disinfection and always is monitored by professional team round-the-clock services compared to the other water sources with less maintenance or cleaning. Also, water quality reports are continuously sent to customers by mail addresses. Tap water quality data are shown on MWA websites and Facebook. All these steps of work should enhance the confidence of tap water quality.

  15. Influence of larval and pupal products on the oviposition behavior of Aedes Fluviatilis (Lutz (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotraut A. G. B. Consoli

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Several larval and pupal products of Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz were tested for their influence on the oviposition behaviour of females of the same species. Significant (alfa = 0,05 atractiveness was shown by: larval water, previously containing 5 to 15 larvae/1,5 ml; larval water, preserved up to 38 days; evaporate and reconstructed larval water extracts up to 2 years after production and water filtered through fresh or dried ground larvae. hexanic larval water extracts and water filtered through fresh or dired ground pupae did not influence oviposition.Estudou-se a influência sobre o comportamento de oviposição das fêmeas de Aedes fluviatilis (Lutz de produtos derivados das formas imaturas da mesma espécie. As fêmeas foram atraídas significativamente (x=0,05 por ocasião da ovoposição por: água destilada que contivera 5 ou 15 larvas/1,5 ml, a mesma água (5 larvas/1,5 mlapós sua preservação por 38 dias; extratos evaporados e reconstituídos de água que conteve larvas, por até dois anos a sua produção, e filtrados de macerados frescos e secos de larvas. Extratos hexânicos de água que conteve larvas e filtrados de macerados descos e secos de pupas não atraíram a ovoposição das fêmeas.

  16. Promoting household water treatment through women's self help groups in Rural India: assessing impact on drinking water quality and equity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Freeman

    Full Text Available Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC of drinking water samples (source and household were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk, and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the

  17. Promoting Household Water Treatment through Women's Self Help Groups in Rural India: Assessing Impact on Drinking Water Quality and Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Matthew C.; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent

  18. Evaluation on the Quality of Bangkok Tap Water with Other Drinking Purpose Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordach A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The concern of drinking purposed water quality in Bangkok, Nonthaburi, and Samutprakarn provinces has been a problem for over fifteen years. Metropolitan Water Works Authority (MWA of Thailand is fully responsible for providing water supply to the mentioned areas. The objective of Drinkable Tap Water Project is to make people realize in quality of tap water. Communities, school, government agencies, hotels, hospitals, department stores, and other organizations are participating in this project. MWA have collected at least 3 samples of water from the corresponding places and the samples have to meet the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines level. This study is to evaluate water quality of tap water, storage water, filtered water, and filtered water dispenser. The water samples from 2,354 attending places are collected and analyzed. From October 2011 to September 2016, MWA analyzed 32,711 samples. The analyzed water parameters are free residual chlorine, appearance color, turbidity, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS, and pathogenic bacteria; E.coli. The results indicated that a number of tap water samples had the highest number compliance with WHO guidelines levels at 98.40%. The filtered water, filtered water dispenser, and storage water were received 96.71%, 95.63%, and 90.88%, respectively. However, the several samples fail to pass WHO guideline level because they were contaminated by E.coli. The result is that tap water has the highest score among other sources probably because tap water has chlorine for disinfection and always is monitored by professional team round-the-clock services compared to the other water sources with less maintenance or cleaning. Also, water quality reports are continuously sent to customers by mail addresses. Tap water quality data are shown on MWA websites and Facebook. All these steps of work should enhance the confidence of tap water quality.

  19. Enhanced Column Filtration for Arsenic Removal from Water: Polymer-Templated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Immobilized on Sand via Layer-by-Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Calvin Chia-Hung

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in water sources around the world and is highly toxic. While precipitation and membrane filtration techniques are successfully implemented in developed cities, they are unsuitable for rural and low-resource settings lacking centralized facilities. This thesis presents the use of ultra-small iron oxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles functionalized on sand granules for use as a house-hold scale adsorption filter. Water-stable alpha-Fe2O3 (hematite) nanoparticles (arsenic adsorption, with 147 +/- 2 mg As(III) per g Fe2O3 and 91 +/- 10 mg As(V) per g Fe2O3. The platform was also used to synthesize iron-based composites, including magnetite (Fe 3O4) and Fe-Cu oxide nanoparticles. For use as a column filter, Fe2O3-PAA nanoparticles were functionalized on sand granules using a layer-by-layer deposition method, with the nanoparticles embedded in the negative layer. The removal of As(III) by the Fe2O 3-PAA functionalized column was described by reversible 1st order kinetics where the forward and reverse rate constants were 0.31 hr -1 and 0.097 hr-1, respectively. Implemented as a passive water filter with 30 x 30 x 50 cm3 dimensions, the filter has an expected lifetime in the order of many years. By controlling the flow rate of the column depending on contamination levels, the filter effectively removes arsenic down to the safety limit of 0.01 mg/L. In a parallel project, the layer-by-layer deposition of Poly(diallydimethyl ammonium chloride) (PDDA) and poly(sodium 5-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) was exploited for a highly practical synthesis of discrete gradient surfaces. By independently controlling the concentration of NaCl in PDDA and PSS deposition solutions, a 2-dimensional matrix of surfaces was created in 96-well microtiter plates. Distinct non-monotonic dye adsorption patterns on the gradient surfaces was observed. Practical knowledge from this project was also used to enhance the nanoparticle surface functionalization described above. In all, a practical

  20. Upregulated epidermal growth factor receptor expression following near-infrared irradiation simulating solar radiation in a three-dimensional reconstructed human corneal epithelial tissue culture model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Y

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Yohei Tanaka,1,2 Jun Nakayama2 1Department of Plastic Surgery, Clinica Tanaka Plastic, Reconstructive Surgery and Anti-aging Center, 2Department of Molecular Pathology, Shinshu University Graduate School of Medicine, Matsumoto, Nagano, Japan Background and objective: Humans are increasingly exposed to near-infrared (NIR radiation from both natural (eg, solar and artificial (eg, electrical appliances sources. Although the biological effects of sun and ultraviolet (UV exposure have been extensively investigated, the biological effect of NIR radiation is still unclear. We previously reported that NIR as well as UV induces photoaging and standard UV-blocking materials, such as sunglasses, do not sufficiently block NIR. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in gene expression in three-dimensional reconstructed corneal epithelial tissue culture exposed to broad-spectrum NIR irradiation to simulate solar NIR radiation that reaches human tissues.Materials and methods: DNA microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis were used to assess gene expression levels in a three-dimensional reconstructed corneal epithelial model composed of normal human corneal epithelial cells exposed to water-filtered broad-spectrum NIR irradiation with a contact cooling (20°C. The water-filter allowed 1,000–1,800 nm wavelengths and excluded 1,400–1,500 nm wavelengths.Results: A DNA microarray with >62,000 different probes showed 25 and 150 genes that were up- or downregulated by at least fourfold and twofold, respectively, after NIR irradiation. In particular, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR was upregulated by 19.4-fold relative to control cells. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that two variants of EGFR in human corneal epithelial tissue were also significantly upregulated after five rounds of 10 J/cm2 irradiation (P<0.05.Conclusion: We found that NIR irradiation induced the

  1. The effects of surface aging on nanoparticle fate and transport in natural and engineered porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelman, Anjuliee M.

    Nanomaterials will be subjected to various surface transformations in the environment and within water and wastewater treatment systems. A comprehensive understanding of the fate and transport behavior of "aged" nanomaterials in both natural and engineered porous media is required in order to accurately quantify ecological and human health risks. This research sought to (1) evaluate the impact of ultraviolet (UV) light aging on nanoparticle transport in water-saturated porous media; and (2) assess the effects of influent water quality on silver nanoparticle retention and dissolution in ceramic water filters. Additionally, the value of quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D) data in nanoparticle fate and transport studies was evaluated by comparing deposition behavior in complementary QCM-D and sand columns experiments. Silver (nAg) and iron oxide nanoparticles exposed to UV light were up to 50% more strongly retained in porous media compared with freshly prepared suspensions due to less negative surface charge and larger aggregate sizes. UV-aged nAg were more prone to dissolution in sand columns, resulting in effluent Ag+ concentrations as high as 1.2 mg/L. In ceramic water filters, dissolution and cation exchange processes controlled silver release into treated water. The use of acidic, high salinity, or high hardness water accelerated oxidative dissolution of the silver coating and resulted in effluent silver concentrations 5-10 times above international drinking water guidelines. Results support the recommendation for a regular filter replacement or silver re-application schedule to ensure ongoing efficacy. Taken in concert, these research findings suggest that oxidative aging of nanomaterial surfaces (either through exposure to UV light or aggressive water chemistries) will alter the fate of nanomaterials in the environment and may decrease the effective lifetime of devices which utilize nanotechnology. Corresponding QCM-D and column experiments revealed that

  2. The effect of small solar powered 'Bͻkͻͻ' net fans on mosquito net use: results from a randomized controlled cross-over trial in southern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briët, Olivier J T; Yukich, Joshua O; Pfeiffer, Constanze; Miller, William; Jaeger, Mulako S; Khanna, Nitin; Oppong, Samuel; Nardini, Peter; Ahorlu, Collins K; Keating, Joseph

    2017-01-03

    Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are ineffective malaria transmission prevention tools if they are unused. Discomfort due to heat is the most commonly reported reason for not using nets, but this problem is largely unaddressed. With increasing rural electrification and the dropping price of solar power, fans could improve comfort inside nets and be affordable to populations in malaria endemic areas. Here, results are presented from a pilot randomized controlled cross-over study testing the effect of fans on LLIN use. Eighty-three households from two rural communities in Greater Accra, Ghana, randomized into three groups, participated in a 10-month cross-over trial. After a screening survey to identify eligible households, all households received new LLINs. Bͻkͻͻ net fan systems (one fan per member) were given to households in Group 1 and water filters were given to households in Group 2. At mid-point, Group 1 and 2 crossed over interventions. Households in Group 1 and 2 participated in fortnightly surveys on households' practices related to nets, fans and water filters, while households in Group 3 were surveyed only at screening, mid-point and study end. Entomological and weather data were collected throughout the study. Analysis took both 'per protocol' (PP) and 'intention to treat' (ITT) approaches. The mid- and end-point survey data from Group 1 and 2 were analysed using Firth logistic regressions. Fortnightly survey data from all groups were analysed using logistic regressions with random effects. Provision of fans to households appeared to increase net use in this study. Although the increase in net use explained by fans was not significant in the primary analyses (ITT odds ratio 3.24, p > 0.01; PP odds ratio = 1.17, p > 0.01), it was significant in secondary PP analysis (odds ratio = 1.95, p Fan use was 90-100% depending on the fortnightly visit. This pilot study could not provide definitive evidence that fans increase net use. A larger

  3. Micro- and Nano- Porous Adsorptive Materials for Removal of Contaminants from Water at Point-of-Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakub, Ismaiel

    Water is food, a basic human need and a fundamental human right, yet hundreds of millions of people around the world do not have access to clean drinking water. As a result, about 5000 people die each day from preventable water borne diseases. This dissertation presents the results of experimental and theoretical studies on three different types of porous materials that were developed for the removal of contaminants from water at point of use (household level). First, three compositionally distinct porous ceramic water filters (CWFs) were made from a mixture of redart clay and sieved woodchips and processed into frustum shape. The filters were tested for their flow characteristics and bacteria filtration efficiencies. Since, the CWFs are made from brittle materials, and may fail during processing, transportation and usage, the mechanical and physical properties of the porous clays were characterized, and used in modeling designed to provide new insights for the design of filter geometries. The mechanical/physical properties that were characterized include: compressive strength, flexural strength, facture toughness and resistance curve behavior, keeping in mind the anisotropic nature of the filter structure. The measured flow characteristics and mechanical/physical properties were then related to the underlying porosity and characteristic pore size. In an effort to quantify the adhesive interactions associated with filtration phenomena, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to measure the adhesion between bi-material pairs that are relevant to point-of-use ceramic water filters. The force microscopy measurements of pull-off force and adhesion energy were used to rank the adhesive interactions. Similarly, the adsorption of fluoride to hydroxyapatite-doped redart clay was studied using composites of redart clay and hydroxyapatite (C-HA). The removal of fluoride from water was explored by carrying out adsorption experiments on C-HA adsorbents with different ratios of

  4. Fourier-transform imaging of cotton and botanical and field trash mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botanical and field cotton trash comingled with cotton lint can greatly reduce the marketability and quality of cotton. Trash can be found comingled with cotton lint during harvesting, ginning, and processing, thus this study is of interest. Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (A...

  5. Novel uses of rice-husk-ash (a natural silica-carbon matrix) in low-cost water purification applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Chetan; Patil, Rajshree; Kausley, Shankar; Ahmad, Dilshad

    2013-06-01

    Rice-husk-ash is used as the base material for developing novel compositions to deal with the challenge of purifying drinking water in low-income households in India. For example, rice-husk-ash cast in a matrix of cement and pebbles can be formed into a filtration bed which can trap up to 95% of turbidity and bacteria present in water. This innovation was proliferated in villages across India as a do-it-yourself rural water filter. Another innovation involves embedding silver nanoparticles within the rice husk ash matrix to create a bactericidal filtration bed which has now been commercialized in India as a low-cost for-profit household water purifier. Other innovations include the impregnation of rice-husk-ash with iron hydroxide for the removal of arsenic from water and the impregnation of rice-husk ash with aluminum hydroxide for the removal of fluoride ions from water which together have the potential to benefit over 100 million people across India who are suffering from the health effects of drinking groundwater contaminated with arsenic and fluoride.

  6. An Investigation of Parallel Post-Laminar Flow through Coarse Granular Porous Media with the Wilkins Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashes Banerjee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Behaviour of flow resistance with velocity is still undefined for post-laminar flow through coarse granular media. This can cause considerable errors during flow measurements in situations like rock fill dams, water filters, pumping wells, oil and gas exploration, and so on. Keeping the non-deviating nature of Wilkins coefficients with the hydraulic radius of media in mind, the present study further explores their behaviour to independently varying media size and porosity, subjected to parallel post-laminar flow through granular media. Furthermore, an attempt is made to simulate the post-laminar flow conditions with the help of a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD Model in ANSYS FLUENT, since conducting large-scale experiments are often costly and time-consuming. The model output and the experimental results are found to be in good agreement. Percentage deviations between the experimental and numerical results are found to be in the considerable range. Furthermore, the simulation results are statistically validated with the experimental results using the standard ‘Z-test’. The output from the model advocates the importance and applicability of CFD modelling in understanding post-laminar flow through granular media.

  7. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Bivalves Molluscs of Apulian Region: a 3-years control activity of a EU Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miedico O.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The bivalve molluscs represent an important matrix to be studied for several reasons. Their nutritional properties make them valuable to the consumers, so that their consumption and commercial value has risen worldwide. Simultaneously, their significant water-filtering capability and their persistence in the same place make them good bio-indicators of marine ecosystems. The presence of the heavy metal contaminants, as Cd, Pb and Hg, was investigated in bivalve molluscs such as mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis, clams (Venus gallina and oysters (Ostrea edulis. In the present study, a survey was carried out on 334 samples addressed to the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale – Puglia e Basilicata, Foggia (ITALY between 2009-2011, and collected by official authorities along the coasts of Apulia Region. The conformity of heavy metal content in bivalve molluscs was verified, in according to EC Reg. 1881/2006. The compliance was found for the total amount of samples. The obtained data on heavy metals concentration in bivalve molluscs were compared with data found in monitoring studies on the incidence of heavy metals in 1981 in North-Western Mediterranean Sea, in 2003 in Tyrrhenian Sea and in 2010 in Pacific Ocean (Chile, reported in literature. The information obtained from this work offer an essential database, not only for the authorities involved in food control, but also for the official institutions responsible of a constant control of the marine ecosystem pollution.

  8. Rotating Reverse-Osmosis for Water Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueptow, RIchard M.

    2004-01-01

    A new design for a water-filtering device combines rotating filtration with reverse osmosis to create a rotating reverse- osmosis system. Rotating filtration has been used for separating plasma from whole blood, while reverse osmosis has been used in purification of water and in some chemical processes. Reverse- osmosis membranes are vulnerable to concentration polarization a type of fouling in which the chemicals meant not to pass through the reverse-osmosis membranes accumulate very near the surfaces of the membranes. The combination of rotating filtration and reverse osmosis is intended to prevent concentration polarization and thereby increase the desired flux of filtered water while decreasing the likelihood of passage of undesired chemical species through the filter. Devices based on this concept could be useful in a variety of commercial applications, including purification and desalination of drinking water, purification of pharmaceutical process water, treatment of household and industrial wastewater, and treatment of industrial process water. A rotating filter consists of a cylindrical porous microfilter rotating within a stationary concentric cylindrical outer shell (see figure). The aqueous suspension enters one end of the annulus between the inner and outer cylinders. Filtrate passes through the rotating cylindrical microfilter and is removed via a hollow shaft. The concentrated suspension is removed at the end of the annulus opposite the end where the suspension entered.

  9. Ten years of radiometric monitoring in water samples in Uruguay potables plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perruni, P.

    2000-01-01

    The work exposes the summary of having been radiometrics obtained during the last 10 years in several water treatment plants of the national territory, with the purpose of determining if in the total dose to the one that this exposed one naturally the population of the country, is important the contribution of polluting radioactives in the drinkable water, in function of the geographical area and the time of the year. The investigation is framed inside the Program of Control Radiometrics of Products of Fission in waters, floors, foods and aerosols of the Uruguay developed by the Radiochemistry Department, of the Nuclear Research Center, Montevideo (UY) The samples of water filter, they process and they analyze according to laboratory protocols, had duplicated by each plant, parallel with radio-active, white bottom measures and standards. The results net average obtained for each factory, gave below the one it limits of detection: 2 BQ/Kg for geometry Marinelli and 0.02 BQ/g for plane geometry, with 99,3% of dependability (standard 3 deviations), very below the maximum values admitted by International Organisms (WHO, FAO, ICRP) [es

  10. Research of leaching of disseminated copper-nickel ores in their interaction with mine waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlov A. V.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A great amount of mine waste creates serious problems for economy and ecology in mining regions. Keeping of dumps and tailings storages requires huge capital costs and material inputs. Removal of overburden volumes cause ecological disequilibrium, ingress of chemical agents and heavy metals in ground and surface water have an adverse influence on eco-systems and human health. These hazards are particularly high under extreme climatic conditions, when mines create vast desert lands around themselves. Foreign researchers use the terms "acid mine drainage" (AМD and "acid rock drainage" (ARD when speaking on mine water oxidation and contamination of the environment with heavy metals. AMD is induced by underground mine drainage, natural sulfide-bearing rock exposures, etc. The processes occurring in the interaction the mine water with fine dust particles, as well as water filtering through the thick sulfide rocks have been studied. It has been shown that the reduction in potential environmental hazard of mine water of JSC "Kola MMC" is achieved through precipitation of heavy metals by iron hydroxide and magnesium hydrosilicate. Preliminary assessment of the feasibility of hydrometallurgical processing of disseminated copper-nickel ores has been made

  11. Enteric virus removal inactivation by coal-based media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, A.; Chaudhuri, M. [Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur (India). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-02-01

    Four coal-based media, viz. alum-pretreated or ferric hydroxide-impregnated Giridih bituminous coal and lignite (alum-GBC, Fe-GBC; alum-lignite and Fe-Lignite) were laboratory tested to assess their potential in removing/inactivating enteric viruses in water. Batch-sorption screening tests, employing a poliovirus-spiked canal water, indicated high poliovirus sorption by Fe-GBC and alum-GBC in a short contact time of 5 min. Based on the results of further batch-sorption tests, using silver incorporated media (alum/Ag-GBC, alum-GBC-Ag and Fe-GBC-Ag), as well as aesthetic water quality consideration and previous findings on removal of coliforms and turbidity, alum/Ag-GBC, alum-GBC and alum-GBC-AG were included in downflow column studies employing poliovirus-spiked canal water. All three media showed potential in removing/inactivating enteric viruses. In a separate column study employing a joint challenge of poliovirus and rotavirus, alum/Ag-GBC removed 59.3-86.5% of the viruses along with more than 99% reduction in indigenous heterotrophic bacteria. Alum/silver-pretreated bituminous coal medium appears promising for use in household water filters in rural areas of the developing world. However, improved medium preparation to further enhance its efficiency is needed; also, its efficacy in removing/inactivating indigenous enteric bacteria, viruses and protozoa has to be ensured and practicalities or economics of application need to be considered.

  12. Use of industrial by-products and natural media to adsorb nutrients, metals and organic carbon from drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Maebh A; Healy, Mark G; Clifford, Eoghan

    2015-06-15

    Filtration technology is well established in the water sector but is limited by inability to remove targeted contaminants, found in surface and groundwater, which can be damaging to human health. This study optimises the design of filters by examining the efficacy of seven media (fly ash, bottom ash, Bayer residue, granular blast furnace slag (GBS), pyritic fill, granular activated carbon (GAC) and zeolite), to adsorb nitrate, ammonium, total organic carbon (TOC), aluminium, copper (Cu) and phosphorus. Each medium and contaminant was modelled to a Langmuir, Freundlich or Temkin adsorption isotherm, and the impact of pH and temperature (ranging from 10 °C to 29 °C) on their performance was quantified. As retention time within water filters is important in contaminant removal, kinetic studies were carried out to observe the adsorption behaviour over a 24h period. Fly ash and Bayer residue had good TOC, nutrient and Cu adsorption capacity. Granular blast furnace slag and pyritic fill, previously un-investigated in water treatment, showed adsorption potential for all contaminants. In general, pH or temperature adjustment was not necessary to achieve effective adsorption. Kinetic studies showed that at least 60% of adsorption had occurred after 8h for all media. These media show potential for use in a multifunctional water treatment unit for the targeted treatment of specific contaminants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Functional Nano fibers: Production and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatri, Z.; Kim, I.S.; Kim, S.H.

    2016-01-01

    Nano fibers are lighter material with higher surface area in comparison to polymeric film. The ease of producing functional nano fiber is another advantage over many nano materials. Functional nano fiber in particular has attained a greater interest in recent years. The applications of functional nano fibers are increasing in various technical fields such as water filter membranes, tissue engineering, biosensors, drug delivery systems, wound dressings, catalysis, antibacterial. This special issue is comprised of well-selective articles that discuss production of functional nano fibers their applications in different emerging fields. M. Zhang et al. have presented exciting work on drug delivery using nano fibers. They used collagen that was extracted from abandoned Rana chensinensis skin in northeastern China via an acid enzymatic extraction method. They demonstrated two different nano fiber-vancomycin (VCM) systems, that is, VCM blended nano fibers and core-shell nano fibers with VCM in the core, and both systems sustained control release for a period of 80 hours. Another work was presented by R. Takai et al. on blood purification using composite nano fibers. About 10% of the population worldwide is affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD). The authors developed nano fiber meshes zeolite-polymer composite nano fibers for efficient adsorption of creatinine, which is a simpler and more accessible method for hemodialysis (HD) patients.

  14. Dietary arsenic consumption and urine arsenic in an endemic population: response to improvement of drinking water quality in a 2-year consecutive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Anirban; Deb, Debasree; Ghose, Aloke; Du Laing, Gijs; De Neve, Jan; Santra, Subhas Chandra; Guha Mazumder, Debendra Nath

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the association between arsenic intake through water and diet, and arsenic levels in first morning-void urine under variable conditions of water contamination. This was done in a 2-year consecutive study in an endemic population. Exposure of arsenic through water and diet was assessed for participants using arsenic-contaminated water (≥50 μg L(-1)) in a first year (group I) and for participants using water lower in arsenic (water in groups I and II males was 7.44 and 0.85 μg kg body wt.(-1) day(-1) (p water were reduced to below 50 μg L(-1) (Indian permissible limit), total arsenic intake and arsenic intake through the water significantly decreased, but arsenic uptake through the diet was found to be not significantly affected. Moreover, it was found that drinking water mainly contributed to variations in urine arsenic concentrations. However, differences between male and female participants also indicate that not only arsenic uptake, but also many physiological factors affect arsenic behavior in the body and its excretion. As total median arsenic exposure still often exceeded 3.0 μg kg body wt.(-1) day(-1) (the permissible lower limit established by the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives) after installation of the drinking water filters, it can be concluded that supplying the filtered water only may not be sufficient to minimize arsenic availability for an already endemic population.

  15. Development and validation of an LC-MS/MS method for the quantification of tiamulin, trimethoprim, tylosin, sulfadiazine and sulfamethazine in medicated feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyra, Ewelina; Nebot, Carolina; Gavilán, Rosa Elvira; Cepeda, Alberto; Kwiatek, Krzysztof

    2018-01-22

    A new multi-compound method for the analysis of veterinary drugs, namely tiamulin, trimethoprim, tylosin, sulfadiazine and sulfamethazine was developed and validated in medicated feeds. After extraction, the samples were centrifuged, diluted in Milli-Q water, filtered and analysed by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The separation of the analytes was performed on a biphenyl column with a gradient of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in Milli-Q water. Quantitative validation was done in accordance with the guidelines laid down in European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Method performances were evaluated by the following parameters: linearity (R 2  tiamulin, tylosin and sulfamethazine were detected at the concentration levels declared by the manufacturers. The developed method can therefore be successfully used to routinely control the content and homogeneity of these antibacterial substances in medicated feed. Abbreviations AAFCO - Association of American Feed Control Officials; TYL - tylosin; TIAM - tiamulin fumarate; TRIM - trimethoprim; SDZ - sulfadiazine; SMZ - sulfamethazine; UV - ultraviolet detector; FLD - fluorescence detector; HPLC - high performance liquid chromatography; MS/MS - tandem mass spectrometry; LOD - limit of detection; LOQ - limit of quantification; CV - coefficient of variation; SD - standard deviation; U - uncertainty.

  16. A simple and high-resolution stereolithography-based 3D bioprinting system using visible light crosslinkable bioinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zongjie; Parker, Benjamin; Samanipour, Roya; Kim, Keekyoung; Abdulla, Raafa; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2015-01-01

    Bioprinting is a rapidly developing technique for biofabrication. Because of its high resolution and the ability to print living cells, bioprinting has been widely used in artificial tissue and organ generation as well as microscale living cell deposition. In this paper, we present a low-cost stereolithography-based bioprinting system that uses visible light crosslinkable bioinks. This low-cost stereolithography system was built around a commercial projector with a simple water filter to prevent harmful infrared radiation from the projector. The visible light crosslinking was achieved by using a mixture of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogel with eosin Y based photoinitiator. Three different concentrations of hydrogel mixtures (10% PEG, 5% PEG + 5% GelMA, and 2.5% PEG + 7.5% GelMA, all w/v) were studied with the presented systems. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the developed bioink were measured and discussed in detail. Several cell-free hydrogel patterns were generated to demonstrate the resolution of the solution. Experimental results with NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells show that this system can produce a highly vertical 3D structure with 50 μm resolution and 85% cell viability for at least five days. The developed system provides a low-cost visible light stereolithography solution and has the potential to be widely used in tissue engineering and bioengineering for microscale cell patterning. (paper)

  17. Optical Characteristics and Distribution of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter in Onega Bay (White Sea) during the Summer Season (Findings from an Expedition from June 22 to 26, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, A. F.; Konyukhov, I. V.; Kazimirko, Yu. V.; Pogosyan, S. I.

    2018-03-01

    Onega Bay waters are characterized by a high content of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). The absorbance spectra and fluorescence intensity (excitation wavelength 455 nm, emission wavelength >680 nm) were used to assess the distribution of CDOM content in water filtered through a GF/F filter. The CDOM content at different points in Onega Bay showed more than a fourfold difference, as inferred from the measured values. The CDOM content in surface waters was, as a rule, higher than in the deeper horizons. A higher CDOM content was measured near the Onega River, near the middle part of the Onega shore, and near the Pomor shore opposite the town of Belomorsk. River runoff is the major source of CDOM in Onega Bay water. The CDOM chemical composition in Onega Bay waters was heterogeneous. The ratio of the fluorescence intensity to the absorbance value was higher near the mouths of rivers and in intensive mixing zones than in water characterized by high salinity. A highly significant linear correlation ( R 2 = 0.7825) between water salinity and CDOM fluorescence intensity was demonstrated. The contribution of fluorescent compounds to river runoff CDOM is substantially higher than the contribution to the composition marine CDOM.

  18. A simple and high-resolution stereolithography-based 3D bioprinting system using visible light crosslinkable bioinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongjie; Abdulla, Raafa; Parker, Benjamin; Samanipour, Roya; Ghosh, Sanjoy; Kim, Keekyoung

    2015-12-22

    Bioprinting is a rapidly developing technique for biofabrication. Because of its high resolution and the ability to print living cells, bioprinting has been widely used in artificial tissue and organ generation as well as microscale living cell deposition. In this paper, we present a low-cost stereolithography-based bioprinting system that uses visible light crosslinkable bioinks. This low-cost stereolithography system was built around a commercial projector with a simple water filter to prevent harmful infrared radiation from the projector. The visible light crosslinking was achieved by using a mixture of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA) and gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogel with eosin Y based photoinitiator. Three different concentrations of hydrogel mixtures (10% PEG, 5% PEG + 5% GelMA, and 2.5% PEG + 7.5% GelMA, all w/v) were studied with the presented systems. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the developed bioink were measured and discussed in detail. Several cell-free hydrogel patterns were generated to demonstrate the resolution of the solution. Experimental results with NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells show that this system can produce a highly vertical 3D structure with 50 μm resolution and 85% cell viability for at least five days. The developed system provides a low-cost visible light stereolithography solution and has the potential to be widely used in tissue engineering and bioengineering for microscale cell patterning.

  19. Photocatalytic and antibacterial properties of a TiO2/nylon-6 electrospun nanocomposite mat containing silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, Hem Raj; Pandeya, Dipendra Raj; Nam, Ki Taek; Baek, Woo-il; Hong, Seong Tshool; Kim, Hak Yong

    2011-01-01

    Silver-impregnated TiO 2 /nylon-6 nanocomposite mats exhibit excellent characteristics as a filter media with good photocatalytic and antibacterial properties and durability for repeated use. Silver nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully embedded in electrospun TiO 2 /nylon-6 composite nanofibers through the photocatalytic reduction of silver nitrate solution under UV-light irradiation. TiO 2 NPs present in nylon-6 solution were able to cause the formation of a high aspect ratio spider-wave-like structure during electrospinning and facilitated the UV photoreduction of AgNO 3 to Ag. TEM images, UV-visible and XRD spectra confirmed that monodisperse Ag NPs (approximately 4 nm in size) were deposited selectively upon the TiO 2 NPs of the prepared nanocomposite mat. The antibacterial property of a TiO 2 /nylon-6 composite mat loaded with Ag NPs was tested against Escherichia coli, and the photoactive property was tested against methylene blue. All of the results showed that TiO 2 /nylon-6 nanocomposite mats loaded with Ag NPs are more effective than composite mats without Ag NPs. The prepared material has potential as an economically friendly photocatalyst and water filter media because it allows the NPs to be reused.

  20. Surface characteristics and antibacterial activity of a silver-doped carbon monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Vukčević et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A carbon monolith with a silver coating was prepared and its antimicrobial behaviour in a flow system was examined. The functional groups on the surface of the carbon monolith were determined by temperature-programmed desorption and Boehm's method, and the point of zero charge was determined by mass titration. The specific surface area was examined by N2 adsorption using the Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET method. As a test for the surface activity, the deposition of silver from an aqueous solution of a silver salt was used. The morphology and structure of the silver coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The resistance to the attrition of the silver deposited on the carbon monolith was tested. The antimicrobial activity of the carbon monolith with a silver coating was determined using standard microbiological methods. Carbon monolith samples with a silver coating showed good antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, and are therefore suitable for water purification, particularly as personal disposable water filters with a limited capacity.

  1. Thermal hydraulic analysis of BWR containment venting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baburajan, P.K.; Sharma, Prashant; Paul, U.K.; Gaikwad, Avinash

    2015-01-01

    Installation of additional containment filtered venting system (CFVS) is necessary to depressurize the containment to maintain its mechanical integrity due to over pressurization during severe accident condition. A typical venting system for BWR is modelled using RELAP5 and analysed to investigate the effect of various thermal hydraulic parameters on the operational parameters of the venting system. The venting system consists of piping from the containment to the scrubber tank and exit line from the scrubber tank. The scrubber tank is partially filled with water to enable the scrubbing action to remove the particulate radionuclides from the incoming containment air. The pipe line from the containment is connected to the venturi inlet and the throat of the venturi is open to the scrubber tank water inventory at designed submergence level. The exit of the venturi is open to scrubber tank water. Filters are used in the upper air space of the scrubber tank as mist separator before venting out the air into the atmosphere through the exit vent line. The effect of thermal hydraulic parameters such as inlet fluid temperature, inlet steam content and venturi submergence in the scrubber tank on the venting flow rate, exit steam content, scrubber tank inventory, overflow line and siphon breaker flow rate is analysed. Results show that inlet steam content and the venturi nozzle submergence influence the venting system parameters. (author)

  2. Mercury and arsenic in the gold mining regions of the Ankobra River basin in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerman, W.; Potin-Gautier, M.; Amoureux, D.; Tellier, S.; Rambaud, A.; Babut, M.; Adimado, A.; Beinhoff, C.

    2003-05-01

    The river Ankobra flows through the principal gold mining centres in Western Ghana, draining a total area of 8272 km^2 to join the Atlantic ocean. Mercury is used by thousands of small-scale miners in the region to amalgamate gold. Ores mined in some deep shafts and surface mines are arsenopyrites and the region is marked by the presence of heaps of arsenic - rich mine tailings from both past and recent activities. This study was conducted to assess the impact of mining activities on the distribution and speciation of arsenic and mercury in the aquatic environment of the Ankobra River. In all, water (filtered and non-filtered) and bed sediments were collected from various locations within the watershed. Principal parameters investigated include total mercury, arsenic (III), arsenic (V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMAA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA). Seasonal and spatial variations of these parameters were investigated. Quality control systems were adopted at both the environmental and analytical stages of the study. ln general, areas close to the mining centres are the most pollilited. As (V)/As (III) ratios in water are reversed after the first 100-km of the river length with the onset of industrial influence downstream.

  3. Photocatalytic and antibacterial properties of a TiO{sub 2}/nylon-6 electrospun nanocomposite mat containing silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pant, Hem Raj [Department of Bionanosystem Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Engineering Science and Humanities, Institute of Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu (Nepal); Pandeya, Dipendra Raj [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Medical Science, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Ki Taek; Baek, Woo-il [Department of Textile Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Seong Tshool [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Institute for Medical Science, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hak Yong, E-mail: khy@jbnu.ac.kr [Department of Textile Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Silver-impregnated TiO{sub 2}/nylon-6 nanocomposite mats exhibit excellent characteristics as a filter media with good photocatalytic and antibacterial properties and durability for repeated use. Silver nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully embedded in electrospun TiO{sub 2}/nylon-6 composite nanofibers through the photocatalytic reduction of silver nitrate solution under UV-light irradiation. TiO{sub 2} NPs present in nylon-6 solution were able to cause the formation of a high aspect ratio spider-wave-like structure during electrospinning and facilitated the UV photoreduction of AgNO{sub 3} to Ag. TEM images, UV-visible and XRD spectra confirmed that monodisperse Ag NPs (approximately 4 nm in size) were deposited selectively upon the TiO{sub 2} NPs of the prepared nanocomposite mat. The antibacterial property of a TiO{sub 2}/nylon-6 composite mat loaded with Ag NPs was tested against Escherichia coli, and the photoactive property was tested against methylene blue. All of the results showed that TiO{sub 2}/nylon-6 nanocomposite mats loaded with Ag NPs are more effective than composite mats without Ag NPs. The prepared material has potential as an economically friendly photocatalyst and water filter media because it allows the NPs to be reused.

  4. MAGNET/INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Document Server

    A. Gaddi

    Most of the infrastructure at Pt5 has been completed and is now passing their commissioning phase. The power distribution is almost completed. During autumn the powering of UXC55 racks from USC55 cabinets has been achieved. The full control/safety chain has been tested by injecting smoke into the sensitive rack volume in YE+ racks and is being extended to all the other racks as soon as cabling is done. The USC55 cooling station has all the water circuits commissioned and running. The annual maintenance of the surface cooling towers has been done during weeks 45 and 46 and a special plan has been set up, in close coordination with the CERN technical department. All the USC55 racks have passed a campaign of cleaning of the water filters and quality checks. A new partition of the USC55 area, for the function of the AUG (General Emergency Stop) buttons, is being done. This has an impact on the design of the underground UPS (Uninterruptible Power System) that secure the Magnet system and the electronics racks ...

  5. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Document Server

    Andrea Gaddi

    2010-01-01

    During the last six months, the main activity on the cooling circuit has essentially been preventive maintenance. At each short machine technical stop, a water sample is extracted out of every cooling circuit to measure the induced radioactivity. Soon after, a visual check of the whole detector cooling network is done, looking for water leaks in sensitive locations. Depending on sub-system availability, the main water filters are replaced; the old ones are inspected and sent to the CERN metallurgical lab in case of suspicious sediments. For the coming winter technical stop, a number of corrective maintenance activities and infrastructure consolidation work-packages are foreseen. A few faulty valves, found on the muon system cooling circuit, will be replaced; the cooling gauges for TOTEM and CASTOR, in the CMS Forward region, will be either changed or shielded against the magnetic stray field. The demineralizer cartridges will be replaced as well. New instrumentation will also be installed in the SCX5 PC farm ...

  6. A qualitative assessment of participation in a rapid scale-up, diagonally-integrated MDG-related disease prevention campaign in Rural Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy De Ver Dye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many countries face severe scale-up barriers toward achievement of MDGs. We ascertained motivational and experiential dimensions of participation in a novel, rapid, "diagonal" Integrated Prevention Campaign (IPC in rural Kenya that provided prevention goods and services to 47,000 people within one week, aimed at rapidly moving the region toward MDG achievement. Specifically, the IPC provided interventions and commodities targeting disease burden reduction in HIV/AIDS, malaria, and water-borne illness. METHODS: Qualitative in-depth interviews (IDI were conducted with 34 people (18 living with HIV/AIDS and 16 not HIV-infected randomly selected from IPC attendees consenting to participate. Interviews were examined for themes and patterns to elucidate participant experience and motivation with IPC. FINDINGS: Participants report being primarily motivated to attend IPC to learn of their HIV status (through voluntary counseling and testing, and with receipt of prevention commodities (bednets, water filters, and condoms providing further incentive. Participants reported that they were satisfied with the IPC experience and offered suggestions to improve future campaigns. INTERPRETATION: Learning their HIV status motivated participants along with the incentive of a wider set of commodities that were rapidly deployed through IPC in this challenging region. The critical role of wanting to know their HIV status combined with commodity incentives may offer a new model for rapid scaled-up of prevention strategies that are wider in scope in rural Africa.

  7. Analysis of groundwater from deep boreholes in Gideaa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, S.

    1983-03-01

    Groundwaters from two boreholes in granitic rock at an ivestigation site in Gideaa has been sampled and analysed. This is part of a larger program of geological, geophysical and hydrogeological investigations aimed at finding a suitable site for a high level radioactive waste respository. Five water-bearing levels in each borehole down to the deepest at about 500 m in the first and about 600 m in the second borehole were selected. Prior to sampling, the waterbearing level is isolated between packer sleeves. The water is then pumped to the surface where sensitive parameters such as redox potential, pH, sulphide and oxygen content are measured electrochemically on the flowing water in a system isolated from the air. Water, filter and gas samples are sent to several laboratories for further analysis. The present report is a presentation of the groundwater analysis. The reliability of the results is discussed but there is no evaluation relation to geology and hydrogeology. This report presents the basic results from the groundwater analyses to be further evaluated by experts in different fields. (Forf)

  8. A preliminary assessment of sup(239,240)Pu concentrations in a stream near Argonne National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, H.; Marshall, J.S.

    1977-01-01

    The plutonium levels in Sawmill Creek, a stream which flows through the site of the Argonne National Laboratory have been determined and are compared here with the environmental levels reported in related studies. The major source of artificial radioactivity in the creek is Argonne's nuclear facilities which produce low-level wastes following clean-up and dilution in the ANL sewage plant. Samples were collected within 1 mile upstream and 1 mile downstream of ANL's waste discharge into the creek. Samples consisted of filtered water, filterable solids, whole water, Cladophora sp., sunfish (gill and G.I. tracts), isopods, and sediments. Results showed that: (1) The filterable solids from the effluent water contained 99% of 239 Pu in contrast to 37% from the upstream water sample. (2) The downstream 239 Pu levels in the whole water of Sawmill Creek were much higher than those reported in related studies. (3) 239 Pu appears to be scavenged primarily by Cladophora sp. in the downstream water of the creek. (4) Fish G.I. tract and its content contained seven times more 239 Pu activity than fish gills. (U.K.)

  9. Selection of commercial biofilters for rearing aquatic animals in closed system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuayrodmod, J.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was made to select the most suitable biofilter from 7 types of commercial water filters by rearing hybrid catfish (Clarias macrocephalus x C. gariepinus in aquaria for 64 days. It was found that diminishing concentrations of ammonia and nitrite were attributed mainly to nitrifying bacteria that convert ammonia into nitrite and nitrate which required a minimum period of 16-28 days for the process to function. Low absorption of ammonia was achieved through using activated carbon, coconut shell charcoal, zeolite and ceramic. Durability and filtering efficiency of the filters depended upon porosity and amount of biofilm on the filter surface. The filter using one coarse meshed plastic sheet and 37 bioballs was the most suitable, though it caused a problem with low total alkalinity resulting in mortality of the biofilm which peeled off, thus increasing the concentrations of ammonia, nitrite and suspended solids toward the end of the experimental period. The catfish growth rate, survival and FCR in all treatments were in the ranges of 7.39-8.91 g/d, 84.44-95.56% and 0.21-0.25, respectively.

  10. DLVO Approximation Methods for Predicting the Attachment of Silver Nanoparticles to Ceramic Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikelonis, Anne M; Youn, Sungmin; Lawler, Desmond F

    2016-02-23

    This article examines the influence of three common stabilizing agents (citrate, poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), and branched poly(ethylenimine) (BPEI)) on the attachment affinity of silver nanoparticles to ceramic water filters. Citrate-stabilized silver nanoparticles were found to have the highest attachment affinity (under conditions in which the surface potential was of opposite sign to the filter). This work demonstrates that the interaction between the electrical double layers plays a critical role in the attachment of nanoparticles to flat surfaces and, in particular, that predictions of double-layer interactions are sensitive to boundary condition assumptions (constant charge vs constant potential). The experimental deposition results can be explained when using different boundary condition assumptions for different stabilizing molecules but not when the same assumption was assumed for all three types of particles. The integration of steric interactions can also explain the experimental deposition results. Particle size was demonstrated to have an effect on the predicted deposition for BPEI-stabilized particles but not for PVP.

  11. Ceramic media amended with metal oxide for the capture of viruses in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J; Sobsey, M D

    2009-04-01

    Ceramic materials that can adsorb and/or inactivate viruses in water may find widespread application in low-tech drinking-water treatment technologies in developing countries, where porous ceramic filters and ceramic granular media filters are increasingly promoted for that purpose. We examined the adsorption and subsequent inactivation of bacteriophages MS2 and (phiX-174 on five ceramic media in batch adsorption studies to determine media suitability for use in a ceramic water filter application. The media examined were a kaolinitic ceramic medium and four kaolinitic ceramic media amended with iron or aluminium oxides that had been incorporated into the kaolinitic clays before firing. Batch adsorption tests indicate increased sorption and inactivation of surrogate viruses by media amended with Fe and Al oxide, with FeOOH-amended ceramic inactivating all bacteriophages up to 8 log10. Unmodified ceramic was a poor adsorbent of bacteriophages at less than 1 log10 adsorption-inactivation and high recovery of sorbed phages. These studies suggest that contact with ceramic media, modified with electropositive Fe or Al oxides, can reduce bacteriophages in waters to a greater extent than unmodified ceramic.

  12. Accuracy, precision, usability, and cost of portable silver test methods for ceramic filter factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Rhiana D; Murray, Anna L; Mittelman, Anjuliee M; Rayner, Justine; Lantagne, Daniele S

    2017-02-01

    Locally manufactured ceramic water filters are one effective household drinking water treatment technology. During manufacturing, silver nanoparticles or silver nitrate are applied to prevent microbiological growth within the filter and increase bacterial removal efficacy. Currently, there is no recommendation for manufacturers to test silver concentrations of application solutions or filtered water. We identified six commercially available silver test strips, kits, and meters, and evaluated them by: (1) measuring in quintuplicate six samples from 100 to 1,000 mg/L (application range) and six samples from 0.0 to 1.0 mg/L (effluent range) of silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate to determine accuracy and precision; (2) conducting volunteer testing to assess ease-of-use; and (3) comparing costs. We found no method accurately detected silver nanoparticles, and accuracy ranged from 4 to 91% measurement error for silver nitrate samples. Most methods were precise, but only one method could test both application and effluent concentration ranges of silver nitrate. Volunteers considered test strip methods easiest. The cost for 100 tests ranged from 36 to 1,600 USD. We found no currently available method accurately and precisely measured both silver types at reasonable cost and ease-of-use, thus these methods are not recommended to manufacturers. We recommend development of field-appropriate methods that accurately and precisely measure silver nanoparticle and silver nitrate concentrations.

  13. Systems Approach to Climate, Water, and Diarrhea in Hubli-Dharwad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Jonathan; Kumpel, Emily; Ercumen, Ayse; Zimmerman, Julie

    2016-12-06

    Anthropogenic climate change will likely increase diarrhea rates for communities with inadequate water, sanitation, or hygiene facilities including those with intermittent water supplies. Current approaches to study these impacts typically focus on the effect of temperature on all-cause diarrhea while excluding precipitation and diarrhea etiology while not providing actionable adaptation strategies. We develop a partially mechanistic, systems approach to estimate future diarrhea prevalence and design adaptation strategies. The model incorporates downscaled global climate models, water quality data, quantitative microbial risk assessment, and pathogen prevalence in an agent-based modeling framework incorporating precipitation and diarrhea etiology. It is informed using water quality and diarrhea data from Hubli-Dharwad, India-a city with an intermittent piped water supply exhibiting seasonal water quality variability vulnerable to climate change. We predict all-cause diarrhea prevalence to increase by 4.9% (Range: 1.5-9.0%) by 2011-2030, 11.9% (Range: 7.1-18.2%) by 2046-2065, and 18.2% (Range: 9.1-26.2%) by 2080-2099. Rainfall is an important modifying factor. Rotavirus prevalence is estimated to decline by 10.5% with Cryptosporidium and E. coli prevalence increasing by 9.9% and 6.3%, respectively, by 2080-2099 in this setting. These results suggest that ceramic water filters would be recommended as a climate adaptation strategy over chlorination. This work highlights the vulnerability of intermittent water supplies to climate change and the urgent need for improvements.

  14. Assessing antibacterial effect of filter media coated with silver nanoparticles against Bacillus spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Nafisi Bahabadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nanotechnology is a field of applied science and technology covering a broad range of topics. Use of nanotechnology and especially silver nanoparticles in control of bacterial diseases and infections has been studied in the recent years. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro antibacterial effect of filter media coated with silver nanoparticles against Bacillus spp. Materials and methods: In this research, first, the antibacterial effects of silver nanoparticles against mentioned bacteria were evaluated by microdilution method in Broth medium. After confidence of inhibitory effect of colloidal silver nanoparticles, antibacterial effect of filter media coated with silver nanoparticles was evaluated via in vitro microbiology tests (zone of inhibition test and test tube test. Results: Present study showed that colloidal silver nanoparticles have good antimicrobial effects against tested bacteria, so that MIC and MBC of silver nanoparticles for Bacillus spp. were calculated 3.9 and 31.25 mg/L, respectively. Also significant decrease was observed in bacterial growth after exposure to filter media coated with silver nanoparticles in test tube test and  zone of inhibition test (P≤ 5%. Conclusion: The results of this research indicate that filter media coated with silver nanoparticles have considerable antimicrobial effects; therefore they could possibly be used as excellent antibacterial water filters and would have several applications in other sectors.

  15. Deposition and retention of air pollutants on vegetation and other atmospheric interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, R.

    1984-09-01

    The question of the deposition of aerosols and gases are applied to biological and ecological problems concerning the filtering aspect of atmospheric interfaces, especially vegetation, with respect to air pollution, and also the resulting pollutant effect. In order to determine the deposition of aerosols, numerous field experiments were carried out. The deposition of gases was treated on the basis of current literature data. The experiments indicate that the deposition of aerosols on grass largely depends on aerosol diameter, dry weight per unit area and the wind velocity or turbulence of the air layer near the ground. Of the interfaces studied, namely soil without vegetation, water, filter paper, smooth and structured metals, grass, clover and trees, the latter had the greatest dust collecting capability. It is recommended that in the afforestation of areas in the close proximity of industrial regions the common beech, silver birch and Japanese larch should be taken into particular consideration due to their great deposition effectiveness with respect to dusts and their comparatively high resistance to pollutant gases. Silver birch and moreover red horse chestnut should be considered for filtering the air in urban regions because of the high aerosol deposition. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Water transport inside carbon nanotubes mediated by phonon-induced oscillating friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming; Grey, François; Shen, Luming; Urbakh, Michael; Wu, Shuai; Liu, Jefferson Zhe; Liu, Yilun; Zheng, Quanshui

    2015-08-01

    The emergence of the field of nanofluidics in the last decade has led to the development of important applications including water desalination, ultrafiltration and osmotic energy conversion. Most applications make use of carbon nanotubes, boron nitride nanotubes, graphene and graphene oxide. In particular, understanding water transport in carbon nanotubes is key for designing ultrafiltration devices and energy-efficient water filters. However, although theoretical studies based on molecular dynamics simulations have revealed many mechanistic features of water transport at the molecular level, further advances in this direction are limited by the fact that the lowest flow velocities accessible by simulations are orders of magnitude higher than those measured experimentally. Here, we extend molecular dynamics studies of water transport through carbon nanotubes to flow velocities comparable with experimental ones using massive crowd-sourced computing power. We observe previously undetected oscillations in the friction force between water and carbon nanotubes and show that these oscillations result from the coupling between confined water molecules and the longitudinal phonon modes of the nanotube. This coupling can enhance the diffusion of confined water by more than 300%. Our results may serve as a theoretical framework for the design of new devices for more efficient water filtration and osmotic energy conversion devices.

  17. An Artificial Turf-Based Surrogate Surface Collector for the Direct Measurement of Atmospheric Mercury Dry Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima L. Hall

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a new artificial turf surrogate surface (ATSS sampler for use in the measurement of mercury (Hg dry deposition. In contrast to many existing surrogate surface designs, the ATSS utilizes a three-dimensional deposition surface that may more closely mimic the physical structure of many natural surfaces than traditional flat surrogate surface designs (water, filter, greased Mylar film. The ATSS has been designed to overcome several complicating factors that can impact the integrity of samples with other direct measurement approaches by providing a passive system which can be deployed for both short and extended periods of time (days to weeks, and is not contaminated by precipitation and/or invalidated by strong winds. Performance characteristics including collocated precision, in-field procedural and laboratory blanks were evaluated. The results of these performance evaluations included a mean collocated precision of 9%, low blanks (0.8 ng, high extraction efficiency (97%–103%, and a quantitative matrix spike recovery (100%.

  18. Analysis of groundwater from deep boreholes in Svartboberget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, S.

    1983-06-01

    Groundwater from two boreholes in granitic rock at an investigation site in Svartboberget has been sampled and analysed. This is part of a larger program of geological, geophysical and hydrogeological investigations aimed at finding a suitable site for a high level radioactive waste repository. Four water-bearing levels in each borehole down to the deepest at about 600m were selected. Prior to sampling, the water-bearing level is isolated between packer sleeves. The water is then pumped to the surface where sensitive parameters such as redox potential, pH, sulphide and oxygen content are measured electrochemically on the flowing water in a system isolated from the air. Water, filter and gas samples are sent to several laboratories for further analysis. The present report is a presentation of the results of the groundwater analyses. The reliability of the results is discussed but there is no evaluation in relation to geology and hydrogeology. This report presents the basic results from the groundeater analyses to be further evaluated by experts in different fields. (author)

  19. The Definition of Community: A Student Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Link

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available When designing service-learning programs, catch-words like ‘community engagement’ and ‘community partners’ comes to mind. As undergraduate students seeking funding for research-service projects abroad, we are told to work with and through ‘the community’ and to have ‘community-centered’ project design. The dominant rhetoric gives rise to a homogenizing and simplifying view of ‘community’ that is implicit to ‘community engagement’ initiatives. In June 2010, we traveled to Belize on a research grant with the goal of installing slow-sand water filters in a rural community. Our perceptions of ‘community’ profoundly shaped the way we designed and implemented our project, and we quickly found that our initial conception of the ‘community’ was incorrect. We saw that there is a large difference between how the ‘community’ is treated in service-learning discourse and actual on-the-ground realities. This paper offers a unique student perspective on the definition of ‘community.’ We hope that other students will learn from our experiences and that educators will be able to more critically examine how the concept of ‘community’ is presented to students. KEYWORDSservice-learning; community engagement; definition of community; student perspective

  20. Metal geochemistry of Nerus River, Terengganu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chee, Poh Seng; Suhaimi Suratman; Keat, Chew Choon; Norhayati Mohd Tahir

    2008-01-01

    The Nerus River passes through the Setiu and Kuala Terengganu districts, on the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. It passes through the populated urban area of northeastern Kuala Terengganu and receives and carries different kinds of agricultural and urban solid and liquid wastes produces by agricultural based industries and domestic sewage. The objective of this study is to investigate trace metal concentration in suspended particulate and water of the Nerus River and relate this to the anthropogenic activities. Water samples were collected from nine sites during dry and pre monsoon seasons (from May to October). Water pH, temperature, electric conductivity and salinity were measured in-situ. The suspended particulate was separated from water by using 0.45 μm pore size acetate cellulose membrane filter. Water (filtered) samples were subjected to APDC-MIBK pre-concentration and particulate samples were totally digested by using strong acids. Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb were analyzed using GFAAS and ICP-OES. Although the overall concentration of the metals obtained were still within Class I limit of the INWQS, however the results indicated that there is an increasing trend of Cu and Zn concentration in Nerus River water compared to previous study done in 2001. High Cu and Zn concentration in suspended matter sampled at downstream station which received effluent from nearby factories. (author)

  1. Perfluorinated compounds: Levels, trophic web enrichments and human dietary intakes in transitional water ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renzi, Monia; Guerranti, Cristiana; Giovani, Andrea; Perra, Guido; Focardi, Silvano E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • PFOA/S levels in a trophic web of a heavily human-stressed lagoon are measured. • High levels were found in mussels, clams and crabs. • The principal PFCs inflow sources for the ecosystem is the river. • Biota (i.e. macroalgae proliferation) contributes to redistribute pollutants in the lagoon. • Human daily dietary intakes are below maximum tolerable levels suggested by the EFSA. -- Abstract: The results of a study on levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), analyzed in terms of HPLC-ESI-MS in water, sediment, macrophyte, bivalve, crustacean and fish samples, are reported here. The aim of the research is to define, for the first time, PFOA/S levels in a heavily human-stressed transitional water ecosystem (Orbetello lagoon, Italy) and evaluate trophic web enrichments and human dietary intakes. The results obtained show that: (i) levels significantly higher than those reported in the literature were found in mussels, clams and crabs; (ii) the river is a significant pollution source; (iii) although absolute levels are relatively low, macroalgae proliferation contributes to redistribute pollutants from river-affected areas throughout the entire lagoon basin; (iv) to the best of our current knowledge, water-filtering species considered in this study are the most exposed to PFOA/S pollution; (v) human daily dietary intakes of PFOA/S through Slow Food-endorsed product consumption are below maximum tolerable levels suggested by the EFSA

  2. Assessing the impact of drinking water and sanitation on diarrhoeal disease in low- and middle-income settings: systematic review and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Jennyfer; Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Cumming, Oliver; Bartram, Jamie; Bonjour, Sophie; Cairncross, Sandy; Clasen, Thomas; Colford, John M; Curtis, Valerie; De France, Jennifer; Fewtrell, Lorna; Freeman, Matthew C; Gordon, Bruce; Hunter, Paul R; Jeandron, Aurelie; Johnston, Richard B; Mäusezahl, Daniel; Mathers, Colin; Neira, Maria; Higgins, Julian P T

    2014-08-01

    To assess the impact of inadequate water and sanitation on diarrhoeal disease in low- and middle-income settings. The search strategy used Cochrane Library, MEDLINE & PubMed, Global Health, Embase and BIOSIS supplemented by screening of reference lists from previously published systematic reviews, to identify studies reporting on interventions examining the effect of drinking water and sanitation improvements in low- and middle-income settings published between 1970 and May 2013. Studies including randomised controlled trials, quasi-randomised trials with control group, observational studies using matching techniques and observational studies with a control group where the intervention was well defined were eligible. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified Ottawa-Newcastle scale. Study results were combined using meta-analysis and meta-regression to derive overall and intervention-specific risk estimates. Of 6819 records identified for drinking water, 61 studies met the inclusion criteria, and of 12,515 records identified for sanitation, 11 studies were included. Overall, improvements in drinking water and sanitation were associated with decreased risks of diarrhoea. Specific improvements, such as the use of water filters, provision of high-quality piped water and sewer connections, were associated with greater reductions in diarrhoea compared with other interventions. The results show that inadequate water and sanitation are associated with considerable risks of diarrhoeal disease and that there are notable differences in illness reduction according to the type of improved water and sanitation implemented. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd The World Health Organization retains copyright and all other rights in the manuscript of this article as submitted for publication.

  3. Physical-chemical effects of irrigation with treated wastewater on Dusky Red Latosol soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ribeiro Urbano

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current water crisis underlines the importance of improving water management. The use of effluent from secondary treatment in agriculture can reduce the discharge of effluent into natural bodies and provide nutrients to crops. This study evaluated the physical and chemical properties of a Dusky Red Latosol soil that had been irrigated with treated wastewater. Conducted at the Center of Agricultural Sciences (CCA of Federal University of São Carlos (UFSCar, in Araras/São Paulo/Brazil, 18 undisturbed soil samples were collected and deposited on a constant-head permeameter in order to simulate the irrigation of five growth cycles of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L., organized in five different treatments and one control group. For each treatment 0.58 L, 1.16 L, 1.74 L, 2.32 L, and 2.90 L of treated wastewater and distilled water were applied . The treated wastewater came from a domestic waste treatment plant. After the water filtered through the soil, samples of treated wastewater were collected for analyses of electrical conductivity (EC, sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, turbidity, pH, Na, K, Mg, P and Ca and, in the soil the granulometry, complete fertility, exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP and saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat. The Ksat decreased, but did not alter the infiltration of water and nutrients in the soil. The concentration of nutrients in the soil increased, including Na, which raises the need for monitoring soil’s salinity. In conclusion, the application of wastewater did not cause damage to the physical properties of the soil, but resulted in a tendency towards salinization.

  4. Metal oxide/hydroxide-coated dual-media filter for simultaneous removal of bacteria and heavy metals from natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahammed, M Mansoor; Meera, V

    2010-09-15

    The present study was conducted to compare the performance of a dual-media filter consisting of manganese oxide-coated (MOCS) and iron hydroxide-coated sand (IOCS) with that of IOCS filter and uncoated sand filter in treating water contaminated by microorganisms, heavy metals and turbidity with a view to its use in simple household water purification devices in developing countries. Long-duration column tests were conducted using two natural waters namely, roof-harvested rainwater and canal water. Performance of the filters showed that dual-media filter was more efficient in removing bacteria and heavy metals compared to IOCS filter, while uncoated sand filter showed very poor performance. The average effluent levels for dual-media filter when tested with rainwater were: turbidity 1.0+/-0.1 NTU; total coliforms 3+/-2 MPN/100 mL; heterotrophic plate count 170+/-20 CFU/mL; zinc 0.06+/-0.01 mg/L, while that for IOCS filter were: turbidity 1.0+/-0.1 NTU; total coliforms 4+/-2 MPN/100 mL; heterotrophic plate count 181+/-37 CFU/mL; zinc 0.20+/-0.07 mg/L. Similar results were obtained for canal water also. Up to 900 bed volumes (BV) could be treated without affecting the efficiency in the case of rainwater, while the filter operation had to be terminated after 500 BV due to excessive headloss in the case of canal water. The study thus showed the potential of the dual-media for use in low-cost household water filters for purification of natural waters. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Chitosan Coagulation to Improve Microbial and Turbidity Removal by Ceramic Water Filtration for Household Drinking Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Lydia S; Chen, Xinyu; Sobsey, Mark D

    2016-02-27

    The use of porous ceramic filters is promoted globally for household water treatment, but these filters are ineffective in removing viruses from water. In order to increase virus removal, we combine a promising natural coagulant, chitosan, as a pretreatment for ceramic water filters (CWFs) and evaluate the performance of this dual barrier water treatment system. Chitosan is a non-toxic and biodegradable organic polymer derived by simple chemical treatments from chitin, a major source of which is the leftover shells of crustacean seafoods, such as shrimp, prawns, crabs, and lobsters. To determine the effectiveness of chitosan, model test water was contaminated with Escherichia coli K011 and coliphage MS2 as a model enteric bacterium and virus, respectively. Kaolinite clay was used to model turbidity. Coagulation effectiveness of three types of modified chitosans was determine at various doses ranging from 5 to 30 mg/L, followed by flocculation and sedimentation. The pre-treated supernatant water was then decanted into the CWF for further treatment by filtration. There were appreciable microbial removals by chitosan HCl, acetate, and lactate pretreatment followed by CWF treatment, with mean reductions (95% CI) between 4.7 (± 1.56) and 7.5 (± 0.02) log10 for Escherichia coli, and between 2.8 (± 0.10) and 4.5 (± 1.04) log10 for MS2. Turbidity reduction with chitosan treatment and filtration consistently resulted in turbidities water treatment technology, chitosan coagulation achieved health protective targets for both viruses and bacteria. Therefore, the results of this study support the use of chitosan to improve household drinking water filtration processes by increasing virus and bacteria reductions.

  6. Development of a water purifier for radioactive cesium removal from contaminated natural water by radiation-induced graft polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seko, Noriaki; Hoshina, Hiroyuki; Kasai, Noboru; Shibata, Takuya; Saiki, Seiichi; Ueki, Yuji

    2018-02-01

    Six years after the Fukushima-nuclear accident, the dissolved radioactive cesium (Cs) is now hardly detected in environmental natural waters. These natural waters are directly used as source of drinking and domestic waters in disaster-stricken areas in Fukushima. However, the possibility that some radioactive Cs adsorbed on soil or leaves will contaminate these natural waters during heavy rains or typhoon is always present. In order for the returning residents to live with peace of mind, it is important to demonstrate the safety of the domestic waters that they will use for their daily life. For this purpose, we have synthesized a material for selective removal of radioactive Cs by introducing ammonium 12-molybdophosphate (AMP) onto polyethylene nonwoven fabric through radiation-induced emulsion graft polymerization technique. Water purifiers filled with the grafted Cs adsorbent were installed in selected houses in Fukushima. The capability of the grafted adsorbent to remove Cs from domestic waters was evaluated for a whole year. The results showed that the tap water filtered through the developed water purifier contained no radioactive Cs, signifying the very effective adsorption performance of the developed grafted adsorbent. From several demonstrations, we have commercialized the water purifier named "KranCsair®". Furthermore, we have also developed a method for the mass production of the grafted nonwoven fabric. Using a 30 L grafting reactor, it was possible to produce the grafted nonwoven fabric with a suitable range of degree of grafting. When an irradiated roll of nonwoven trunk fabric with a length of 10 m and a width of 30 cm was set in the reactor filled with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), AMP, Tween 80 monomer emulsion solution at 40 °C for 1 h, the difference of Dgs in the length and the width on roll of fabrics was negligible.

  7. Molecular detection of vertebrates in stream water: a demonstration using Rocky Mountain tailed frogs and Idaho giant salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Caren S; Pilliod, David S; Arkle, Robert S; Waits, Lisette P

    2011-01-01

    Stream ecosystems harbor many secretive and imperiled species, and studies of vertebrates in these systems face the challenges of relatively low detection rates and high costs. Environmental DNA (eDNA) has recently been confirmed as a sensitive and efficient tool for documenting aquatic vertebrates in wetlands and in a large river and canal system. However, it was unclear whether this tool could be used to detect low-density vertebrates in fast-moving streams where shed cells may travel rapidly away from their source. To evaluate the potential utility of eDNA techniques in stream systems, we designed targeted primers to amplify a short, species-specific DNA fragment for two secretive stream amphibian species in the northwestern region of the United States (Rocky Mountain tailed frogs, Ascaphus montanus, and Idaho giant salamanders, Dicamptodon aterrimus). We tested three DNA extraction and five PCR protocols to determine whether we could detect eDNA of these species in filtered water samples from five streams with varying densities of these species in central Idaho, USA. We successfully amplified and sequenced the targeted DNA regions for both species from stream water filter samples. We detected Idaho giant salamanders in all samples and Rocky Mountain tailed frogs in four of five streams and found some indication that these species are more difficult to detect using eDNA in early spring than in early fall. While the sensitivity of this method across taxa remains to be determined, the use of eDNA could revolutionize surveys for rare and invasive stream species. With this study, the utility of eDNA techniques for detecting aquatic vertebrates has been demonstrated across the majority of freshwater systems, setting the stage for an innovative transformation in approaches for aquatic research.

  8. Molecular detection of vertebrates in stream water: a demonstration using Rocky Mountain tailed frogs and Idaho giant salamanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren S Goldberg

    Full Text Available Stream ecosystems harbor many secretive and imperiled species, and studies of vertebrates in these systems face the challenges of relatively low detection rates and high costs. Environmental DNA (eDNA has recently been confirmed as a sensitive and efficient tool for documenting aquatic vertebrates in wetlands and in a large river and canal system. However, it was unclear whether this tool could be used to detect low-density vertebrates in fast-moving streams where shed cells may travel rapidly away from their source. To evaluate the potential utility of eDNA techniques in stream systems, we designed targeted primers to amplify a short, species-specific DNA fragment for two secretive stream amphibian species in the northwestern region of the United States (Rocky Mountain tailed frogs, Ascaphus montanus, and Idaho giant salamanders, Dicamptodon aterrimus. We tested three DNA extraction and five PCR protocols to determine whether we could detect eDNA of these species in filtered water samples from five streams with varying densities of these species in central Idaho, USA. We successfully amplified and sequenced the targeted DNA regions for both species from stream water filter samples. We detected Idaho giant salamanders in all samples and Rocky Mountain tailed frogs in four of five streams and found some indication that these species are more difficult to detect using eDNA in early spring than in early fall. While the sensitivity of this method across taxa remains to be determined, the use of eDNA could revolutionize surveys for rare and invasive stream species. With this study, the utility of eDNA techniques for detecting aquatic vertebrates has been demonstrated across the majority of freshwater systems, setting the stage for an innovative transformation in approaches for aquatic research.

  9. Chitosan Coagulation to Improve Microbial and Turbidity Removal by Ceramic Water Filtration for Household Drinking Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Lydia S.; Chen, Xinyu; Sobsey, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    The use of porous ceramic filters is promoted globally for household water treatment, but these filters are ineffective in removing viruses from water. In order to increase virus removal, we combine a promising natural coagulant, chitosan, as a pretreatment for ceramic water filters (CWFs) and evaluate the performance of this dual barrier water treatment system. Chitosan is a non-toxic and biodegradable organic polymer derived by simple chemical treatments from chitin, a major source of which is the leftover shells of crustacean seafoods, such as shrimp, prawns, crabs, and lobsters. To determine the effectiveness of chitosan, model test water was contaminated with Escherichia coli K011 and coliphage MS2 as a model enteric bacterium and virus, respectively. Kaolinite clay was used to model turbidity. Coagulation effectiveness of three types of modified chitosans was determine at various doses ranging from 5 to 30 mg/L, followed by flocculation and sedimentation. The pre-treated supernatant water was then decanted into the CWF for further treatment by filtration. There were appreciable microbial removals by chitosan HCl, acetate, and lactate pretreatment followed by CWF treatment, with mean reductions (95% CI) between 4.7 (±1.56) and 7.5 (±0.02) log10 for Escherichia coli, and between 2.8 (±0.10) and 4.5 (±1.04) log10 for MS2. Turbidity reduction with chitosan treatment and filtration consistently resulted in turbidities turbidity standards of the US EPA and guidance by the World Health Organization (WHO). According to WHO health-based microbial removal targets for household water treatment technology, chitosan coagulation achieved health protective targets for both viruses and bacteria. Therefore, the results of this study support the use of chitosan to improve household drinking water filtration processes by increasing virus and bacteria reductions. PMID:26927152

  10. Treatment of radioactive ionic exchange resins by super- and sub-critical water oxidation (SCWO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyeongsook; Son, Soon Hwan; Kim, Kwang Sin; Han, Joo Hee; Han, Kee Do; Do, Seung Hoe

    2010-01-01

    As the usage of ion exchange resins increases the inventory of spent ion exchange resins increases in nuclear power plants. This study is to find an environmental-friendly process to treat theses spent resins. The test samples were prepared by diluting the slurry made by wet ball milling the spent cationic exchange resins for 24 h. The spent cationic exchange resins were separated from mixed ion exchange resins by a fluidized bed gravimetric separator. The decomposition of the samples was investigated with super-critical water oxidation (SCWO) equipment. A statistical test method - the central composite design as a statistical design of experiments - was adopted to find the optimum condition to decompose the spent exchange resins. The optimum condition was 60% of excess oxygen, 22.5 min of residence time, 0.615 wt% of NaOH, 358 of reaction temperature, and 3600 psi of reaction pressure, which is a sub-critical condition. The liquid product of the decomposition has the characteristics of 80-185 ppm of COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), 4.0-6.0 of pH, and <1.0 ppm of corrosive components (Ni, Fe, Cr, and Mo). The exhaust gas from the SCWO equipment contained NOx of 0 ppm, SOx of 3 ppm (environment exhaust standard in Korea: NOx 200 ppm, SOx 300 ppm). Co-substituted mock samples were prepared to simulate spent cationic exchange resins from nuclear power plants which can contain radioactive Co isotopes. The conditions to obtain organic compound destruction ratio which conforms the effluent stand for the mock samples were found. The treated water filtered with 0.2-filter contained less than 1 ppm of Co. Thus Co recovery rate of more 99% was achieved.

  11. A comparison study of the start-up of a MnOx filter for catalytic oxidative removal of ammonium from groundwater and surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ya; Li, Ye; Huang, Tinglin; Sun, Yuankui; Shi, Xinxin; Shao, Yuezong

    2018-03-01

    As an efficient method for ammonium (NH 4 + ) removal, contact catalytic oxidation technology has drawn much attention recently, due to its good low temperature resistance and short start-up period. Two identical filters were employed to compare the process for ammonium removal during the start-up period for ammonium removal in groundwater (Filter-N) and surface water (Filter-S) treatment. Two types of source water (groundwater and surface water) were used as the feed waters for the filtration trials. Although the same initiating method was used, Filter-N exhibited much better ammonium removal performance than Filter-S. The differences in catalytic activity among these two filters were probed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and compositional analysis. XRD results indicated that different manganese oxide species were formed in Filter-N and Filter-S. Furthermore, the Mn3p XPS spectra taken on the surface of the filter films revealed that the average manganese valence of the inactive manganese oxide film collected from Filter-S (FS-MnO x ) was higher than in the film collected from Filter-N (FN-MnO x ). Mn(IV) was identified as the predominant oxidation state in FS-MnO x and Mn(III) was identified as the predominant oxidation state in FN-MnO x . The results of compositional analyses suggested that polyaluminum ferric chloride (PAFC) used during the surface water treatment was an important factor in the mineralogy and reactivity of MnO x . This study provides the theoretical basis for promoting the wide application of the technology and has great practical significance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. [Evaluation of drinking-water treatment by Lifestraw® and Ceramic-pot filters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Vidal, Andrea; Díaz-Gómez, Jaime; Salamanca-Rojas, Karen L; Rojas-Torres, Leidy Y

    2016-04-01

    Objective To evaluate under laboratory conditions, the removal efficiency of turbidity and E. coli of two household water filters: LifeStraw® family (MF) and ceramic pot filter (CPF). Methods The two systems were operated over 6 months using two identical control units per system, treating 7.5 L/d of a synthetic substrate used as raw water. The turbidity of the substrate was adjusted with Kaolinite and the E. coli concentration, with a replica of the ATCC 95922 strain. The differences of effluent quality of the systems, in terms of turbidity and E. coli, were evaluated with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Operative and maintenance aspects, that could limit or enhance the use of the systems, were also considered in the evaluation. Results The water synthetic substrate quality had an average of 32.2 ± 2.8 NTU for turbidity and 3,9x105 UFC/100 mL for E. coli. Both systems reduce the turbidity to values below 2 NTU with an inactivation of 100 % of E. coli. Statistical differences were found between the systems in terms of turbidity removal, MF being more efficient than the CPF (99,2 ± 0.4 % and 97.6 % ± 1.14, respectively). Conclusions Both systems are suitable for household water supply treatment, acheiving the water quality standards established by Colombian regulations. The MF was more efficient for suspended solids removal and filtration rate, but when economic, operative, and maintenance aspects along with social acceptability and lifespan are considered, the CPF seems more suitable, especially in rural areas.

  13. Development of sustainable water treatment technology using scientifically based calculated indexes of source water quality indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. С. Трякина

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article describes selection process of sustainable technological process flow chart for water treatment procedure developed on scientifically based calculated indexes of quality indicators for water supplied to water treatment facilities. In accordance with the previously calculated values of the indicators of the source water quality, the main purification facilities are selected. A more sustainable flow chart for the modern water quality of the Seversky Donets-Donbass channel is a two-stage filtering with contact prefilters and high-rate filters. The article proposes a set of measures to reduce such an indicator of water quality as permanganate oxidation. The most suitable for these purposes is sorption purification using granular activated carbon for water filtering. The increased water hardness is also quite topical. The method of ion exchange on sodium cation filters was chosen to reduce the water hardness. We also evaluated the reagents for decontamination of water. As a result, sodium hypochlorite is selected for treatment of water, which has several advantages over chlorine and retains the necessary aftereffect, unlike ozone. A technological flow chart with two-stage purification on contact prefilters and two-layer high-rate filters (granular activated carbon - quartz sand with disinfection of sodium hypochlorite and softening of a part of water on sodium-cation exchangers filters is proposed. This technological flow chart of purification with any fluctuations in the quality of the source water is able to provide purified water that meets the requirements of the current sanitary-hygienic standards. In accordance with the developed flow chart, guidelines and activities for the reconstruction of the existing Makeevka Filtering Station were identified. The recommended flow chart uses more compact and less costly facilities, as well as additional measures to reduce those water quality indicators, the values of which previously were in

  14. Evaluation of Plastic Household Biosand Filter (BSF) In Combination with Solar Disinfection (SODIS) For Water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, G.; Haydar, S.; Bari, A. J.; Anis, M.; Asif, Z.; Aziz, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Efficiency of a household plastic biosand filter (BSF) for the removal of turbidity and fecal contamination was evaluated. Water of river Ravi was used as influent. Water filtered through BSF was further treated using Solar Disinfection (SODIS). The study was conducted for raw water with low pollution level (total coliforms <500 MPN/100 ml) and high pollution level (total coliforms between 500-20,000 MPN/100 ml). The average value of turbidity removal by BSF was 94.5 percentage with 0.9 NTU as average turbidity of effluent. For raw water with low pollution level, the BSF was able to achieve a maximum of 2.2 log10 unit reduction (99.4 percentage) for total coliforms (39 MPN/100 mL in effluent) and 1.95 log10 unit reduction (98.5 percentage) for fecal coliforms (9 MPN/100 mL in effluent). While for raw water with high pollution level, the maximum removal of 1.5 log10 unit (97.5 percentage) for total coliforms (1430 MPN/100 mL in effluent) and 1.8 log10 units (98.4 percentage) for fecal coliforms (387 MPN/100 mL in effluent) was achieved in BSF. To make the effluent fit for drinking it was further treated using SODIS, which rendered the BSF effluent fit for drinking with zero fecal coliforms count (for full sunny and partially cloudy conditions). Newly proposed plastic BSF could be a good replacement of already used concrete household BSF (used in more than 63 countries) being cheaper in cost and lighter in weight by 85 percentage and 80 percentage, respectively than the concrete BSF. (author)

  15. Water purification from radionuclides with using fibroid sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaydarov, R. A.; Gapurova, O.U.; Khaydarov, R.R.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Purification waste water and drinking water from radionuclides, heavy metal ions, organic contamination is one of the important problems today. For solving this problem we have created three types of fibroid sorbents on the base of Polyester: cationic and anionic exchange and carbonic. Main properties of these sorbents are described in this article. For example characteristics of the sorbents for removing radionuclides Co-60,57, Zn-65, Sr-89,90, Cs-134,137, etc., radionuclides containing organic molecules M-P-32, M-I-131, M-Mo-99+Tc-99m, M-C-14, etc., heavy metal ions Zn, Ni, Cu, Sb, Pb, Cd, Cr, U, etc., organic molecules (pesticides, phenols, dioxin, benzene, toluene, etc.) were investigated. Influence of pH on percent removal, influence of K, Na and another ions concentrations in the liquid on the percent removal, decreasing of the saturation capacity from number of regeneration and another characteristics are described. Static exchange capacity of the cationic sorbents is 1-2 mg-equ/g and anionic - 0.5-1 mg-equ/g. Capacity of the carbonic sorbents for benzene is 100 mg/g. Time of chemical balance setting is 1-2 s. The sorbents are effective in removing the low concentrations of contamination from the water (lower than 100-200 mg/l) and the air (lower than 100 mg/m 3 ). The use of sorbents in drinking water filters and mini-systems is described. The industrial water purification system consists of coagulating unit, sorbent unit and disinfectant unit. The systems are used in atomic power stations, electroplating plants, matches plants, leather and skin treating plants, car-washing stations, etc

  16. Ice-associated norovirus outbreak predominantly caused by GII.17 in Taiwan, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hao-Yuan; Hung, Min-Nan; Chen, Wan-Chin; Lo, Yi-Chun; Su, Ying-Shih; Wei, Hsin-Yi; Chen, Meng-Yu; Tuan, Yen-Chang; Lin, Hui-Chen; Lin, Hsu-Yang; Liu, Tsung-Yen; Wang, Yu-Ying; Wu, Fang-Tzy

    2017-11-07

    On 5 March 2015, Taiwan Centers for Disease Control was notified of more than 200 students with gastroenteritis at a senior high school during excursion to Kenting. We conducted an outbreak investigation to identify the causative agent and possible vehicle of the pathogen. We conducted a retrospective cohort study by using a structured questionnaire to interview all students for consumed food items during their stay at the resort. Students were defined as a gastroenteritis case while having vomiting or diarrhea after the breakfast on 4 March. We inspected the environment to identify possible contamination route. We collected stool or vomitus samples from ill students, food handlers and environmental specimens for bacterial culture for common enteropathogens, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for norovirus and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for rotavirus. Norovirus PCR-positive products were then sequenced and genotyped. Of 267 students enrolled, 144 (54%) met our case definition. Regression analysis revealed elevated risk associated with iced tea, which was made from tea powder mixed with hot water and self-made ice (risk ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.98). Ice used for beverages, water before and after water filter of the ice machine and 16 stool and vomitus samples from ill students were tested positive for norovirus; Multiple genotypes were identified including GI.2, GI.4 and GII.17. GII.17 was the predominant genotype and phylogenetic analyses showed that noroviruses identified in ice, water and human samples were clustered into the same genotypes. Environmental investigation revealed the ice was made by inadequate-filtered and un-boiled water. We identified the ice made by norovirus-contaminated un-boiled water caused the outbreak and the predominant genotype was GII.17. Adequately filtered or boiled water should be strongly recommended for making ice to avoid possible contamination.

  17. Evaluating the Sensitivity of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment to a Hydrous Melt at 410 km Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, A. M.; Milne, G. A.; Ranalli, G.

    2017-12-01

    We present a sensitivity analysis aimed at testing whether observables related to GIA can support or refute the existence of a low viscosity partial melt layer located above the mantle transition zone, as required by the so-called "Transition Zone Water Filter" model (Bercovici and Karato 2003). In total, 400 model runs were performed sampling a range of melt layer thicknesses (1, 10 & 20 km) and viscosities (1015 - 1019 Pas) as well as plausible viscosity values in the upper and lower mantle. Comparing model output of postglacial decay times and j2, 18 of the considered viscosity models were found to be compatible with all of the observational constraints. Amongst these, only three `background' upper and lower mantle viscosities are permitted regardless of the properties of the melt layer: an upper mantle value of 3×1020 Pas and lower mantle values of 1022, 3×1022 and 5×1022 Pas. Concerning the properties of the melt layer itself, a thin (1 km) layer may have any of the investigated viscosities (1015 to 1019 Pas). For thicker melt layers, the viscosity must be ≥1018 Pas (20 km) or ≥1017 Pas (10 km). Our results indicate clear parameter trade-offs between the properties of the melt layer and the background viscosity structure. Given that the observations permit several values of lower mantle viscosity, we conclude that tightening constraints on this parameter would be valuable for future investigation of the type presented here. Furthermore, while decay times from both locations considered in this investigation (Ångerman River, Sweden; Richmond Gulf, Canada) offer meaningful constraints on viscosity structure, the value for Richmond Gulf is significantly more uncertain and so increasing its precision would likely result in improved viscosity constraints.

  18. Factors affecting continued use of ceramic water purifiers distributed to tsunami-affected communities in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Lisa M; Walters, Adam; Naghawatte, Ajith; Sobsey, Mark D

    2012-11-01

    There is little information about continued use of point-of-use technologies after disaster relief efforts. After the 2004 tsunami, the Red Cross distributed ceramic water filters in Sri Lanka. This study determined factors associated with filter disuse and evaluate the quality of household drinking water. A cross-sectional survey of water sources and treatment, filter use and household characteristics was administered by in-person oral interview, and household water quality was tested. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model probability of filter non-use. At the time of survey, 24% of households (107/452) did not use filters; the most common reason given was breakage (42%). The most common household water sources were taps and wells. Wells were used by 45% of filter users and 28% of non-users. Of households with taps, 75% had source water Escherichia coli in the lowest World Health Organisation risk category (<1/100 ml), vs. only 30% of households reporting wells did. Tap households were approximately four times more likely to discontinue filter use than well households. After 2 years, 24% of households were non-users. The main factors were breakage and household water source; households with taps were more likely to stop use than households with wells. Tap water users also had higher-quality source water, suggesting that disuse is not necessarily negative and monitoring of water quality can aid decision-making about continued use. To promote continued use, disaster recovery filter distribution efforts must be joined with capacity building for long-term water monitoring, supply chains and local production. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Prevention and control of blood stream infection using the balanced scorecard approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohsiswatmo, Rinawati; Rafika, Sarah; Marsubrin, Putri M T

    2014-07-01

    to obtain formulation of an effective and efficient strategy to overcome blood stream infection (BSI). operational research design with qualitative and quantitative approach. The study was divided into two stages. Stage I was an operational research with problem solving approach using qualitative and quantitative method. Stage II was performed using quantitative method, a form of an interventional study on strategy implementation, which was previously established in stage I. The effective and efficient strategy for the prevention and control of infection in neonatal unit Cipto Mangunkusumo (CM) Hospital was established using Balanced Scorecard (BSC) approach, which involved several related processes. the BSC strategy was proven to be effective and efficient in substantially reducing BSI from 52.31°/oo to 1.36°/oo in neonates with birth weight (BW) 1000-1499 g (p=0.025), and from 29.96°/oo to 1.66°/oo in BW 1500-1999 g (p=0.05). Gram-negative bacteria still predominated as the main cause of BSI in CMH Neonatal Unit. So far, the sources of the microorganisms were thought to be from the environment of treatment unit (tap water filter and humidifying water in the incubator). Significant reduction was also found in neonatal mortality rate weighing 1000-1499 g at birth, length of stay, hospitalization costs, and improved customer satisfaction. effective and efficient infection prevention and control using BSC approach could significantly reduce the rate of BSI. This approach may be applied for adult patients in intensive care unit with a wide range of adjustment.

  20. Rapid Response to Evaluate the Presence of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and Ranavirus in Wild Amphibian Populations in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, Jonathan E.; Smith, Kristine M.; Ramirez, Sara D.; Rabemananjara, Falitiana; Pessier, Allan P.; Brunner, Jesse L.; Goldberg, Caren S.; Berger, Lee; Skerratt, Lee F.

    2015-01-01

    We performed a rapid response investigation to evaluate the presence and distribution of amphibian pathogens in Madagascar following our identification of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) and ranavirus in commercially exported amphibians. This targeted risk-based field surveillance program was conducted from February to April 2014 encompassing 12 regions and 47 survey sites. We simultaneously collected amphibian and environmental samples to increase survey sensitivity and performed sampling both in wilderness areas and commercial amphibian trade facilities. Bd was not detected in any of 508 amphibian skin swabs or 68 water filter samples, suggesting pathogen prevalence was below 0.8%, with 95% confidence during our visit. Ranavirus was detected in 5 of 97 amphibians, including one adult Mantidactylus cowanii and three unidentified larvae from Ranomafana National Park, and one adult Mantidactylus mocquardi from Ankaratra. Ranavirus was also detected in water samples collected from two commercial amphibian export facilities. We also provide the first report of an amphibian mass-mortality event observed in wild amphibians in Madagascar. Although neither Bd nor ranavirus appeared widespread in Madagascar during this investigation, additional health surveys are required to disentangle potential seasonal variations in pathogen abundance and detectability from actual changes in pathogen distribution and rates of spread. Accordingly, our results should be conservatively interpreted until a comparable survey effort during winter months has been performed. It is imperative that biosecurity practices be immediately adopted to limit the unintentional increased spread of disease through the movement of contaminated equipment or direct disposal of contaminated material from wildlife trade facilities. The presence of potentially introduced strains of ranaviruses suggests that Madagascar's reptile species might also be threatened by disease

  1. Synergistic effect of PANI-ZrO2 composite as antibacterial, anti-corrosion, and phosphate adsorbent material: synthesis, characterization and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masim, Frances Camille P; Tsai, Cheng-Hsien; Lin, Yi-Feng; Fu, Ming-Lai; Liu, Minghua; Kang, Fei; Wang, Ya-Fen

    2017-11-03

    The increasing number of bacteria-related problems and presence of trace amounts of phosphate in treated wastewater effluents have become a growing concern in environmental research. The use of antibacterial agents and phosphate adsorbents for the treatment of wastewater effluents is of great importance. In this study, the potential applications of a synthesized polyaniline (PANI)-zirconium dioxide (ZrO 2 ) composite as an antibacterial, phosphate adsorbent and anti-corrosion material were systematically investigated. The results of an antibacterial test reveal an effective area of inhibition of 14 and 18 mm for the Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacterial strains, respectively. The antibacterial efficiency of the PANI-ZrO 2 composite is twice that of commercial ZrO 2 . In particular, the introduction of PANI increased the specific surface area and roughness of the composite material, which was beneficial to increase the contact area with bacterial and phosphate. The experimental results demonstrated that phosphate adsorption studies using 200 mg P/L phosphate solution showed a significant phosphate removal efficiency of 64.4%, and the maximum adsorption capacity of phosphate on the solid surface of PANI-ZrO 2 is 32.4 mg P/g. Furthermore, PANI-ZrO 2 coated on iron substrate was tested for anti-corrosion studies by a natural salt spray test (7.5% NaCl), which resulted in the formation of no rust. To the best of our knowledge, no works have been reported on the synergistic effects of the PANI-ZrO 2 composite as an antibacterial, anti-corrosion, and phosphate adsorbent material. PANI-ZrO 2 composite is expected to be a promising comprehensive treatment method for water filters in the aquaculture industry and for use in water purification applications.

  2. Long-term temporal and spatial changes in the richness and relative abundance of the inshore fish community of the British North Sea Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Peter A.

    2017-09-01

    Changes in temporal and spatial composition of the British inshore North Sea fish community are reviewed. Sampling from the cooling water filter screens of power stations bordering the North Sea commenced in the early 1960s. To date, a total of 112 marine fish species have been recorded, a high proportion of the total inshore fish species complement of shallow North Sea British waters. The unrecorded top predators, such as large sharks, swordfish and tuna are not regularly observed in waters fish diversity and abundance in large industrialised estuaries such as the Thames and the Firth of Forth. Linked to spawning and nursery habitat gain, smelt, Osmerus eperlangus, and bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, have greatly increased in abundance. There is no evidence for a decline in species richness since the 1970s. However, elasmobranch species number has declined while two species Raja clavata and Scyliorhinus canicula have remained abundant and one, Mustelus asterias, has increased in abundance. It is argued that overexploitation and habitat destruction remain, as they have been for the last 300 years, the most serious threats to the health of North Sea inshore fish communities. There are no clear signs that climate change is causing species loss, although it may be influencing relative species abundance as species at the southern edge of their range such as the viviparous blenny, Zoarces viviparous, have declined in the southern British North Sea. Power station water temperature records do not show a warming trend, in some estuarine locations temperature has declined with reduced thermal pollution; the temperature record cannot explain the observed major changes in fish relative abundance observed since the 1970s.

  3. Results of the International Energy Agency Round Robin on Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Meier, Dietrich; Oasmaa, Anja; van de Beld, Bert; Bridgwater, Anthony V.; Marklund, Magnus

    2017-04-06

    An international round robin study of the production of fast pyrolysis bio-oil was undertaken. Fifteen institutions in six countries contributed. Three biomass samples were distributed to the laboratories for processing in fast pyrolysis reactors. Samples of the bio-oil produced were transported to a central analytical laboratory for analysis. The round robin was focused on validating the pyrolysis community understanding of production of fast pyrolysis bio-oil by providing a common feedstock for bio-oil preparation. The round robin included: •distribution of 3 feedstock samples from a common source to each participating laboratory; •preparation of fast pyrolysis bio-oil in each laboratory with the 3 feedstocks provided; •return of the 3 bio-oil products (minimum 500 ml) with operational description to a central analytical laboratory for bio-oil property determination. The analyses of interest were: density, viscosity, dissolved water, filterable solids, CHN, S, trace element analysis, ash, total acid number, pyrolytic lignin, and accelerated aging of bio-oil. In addition, an effort was made to compare the bio-oil components to the products of analytical pyrolysis through GC/MS analysis. The results showed that clear differences can occur in fast pyrolysis bio-oil properties by applying different reactor technologies or configurations. The comparison to analytical pyrolysis method suggested that Py-GC/MS could serve as a rapid screening method for bio-oil composition when produced in fluid-bed reactors. Furthermore, hot vapor filtration generally resulted in the most favorable bio-oil product, with respect to water, solids, viscosity, and total acid number. These results can be helpful in understanding the variation in bio-oil production methods and their effects on bio-oil product composition.

  4. Radionuclide content and state of isotopic disequilibrium in some utilized smoking pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabana, El-Said Ibrahim; Yahya, Ahmad Abu Bakre [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Faculty of Engineering, Radiation Protection and Training Centre; Kinsara, Abdulraheem Abdulrahman [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia). Faculty of Engineering, Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    2014-10-01

    {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po were measured in some jurak and mehassel samples collected from the local market. Jurak is a paste mixture composed of 30% tobacco, 50% molasses and 20% spices and minced fruits. Mehassel is a local trade-name of a paste mixture of unknown ratios of tobacco to spices and minced fruits. Both jurak and mehassel are used for smoking by Shisha (a pipe used for smoking and has a water filter). Just for comparison, these radionuclides were measured in some cigarette tobacco samples. In cigarette tobacco samples, the average activity concentrations were 0.32 ± 0.10, 0.51 ± 0.11, 3.6 ± 1.0, 16.1 ± 2.4 and 15.8 ± 2.2 Bq/kg for {sup 238}U, {sup 234}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Po, respectively. These values for the same isotopes were 1.01 ± 0.25, 1.04 ± 0.27, 1.2 ± 0.4, 4.4 ± 1.0 and 4.2 ± 0.9 Bq/kg in jurak samples and 0.17 ± 0.07, 0.24 ± 0.08, 1.8 ± 0.7, 7.5 ± 1.7 and 7.0 ± 1.6 Bq/kg in mehassel samples, respectively. Generally, the mean values of the results indicated that, except for uranium in jurak, the activity concentration for all the analyzed radionuclides in the different samples followed the sequence: {sup 210}Po ∼ {sup 210}Pb > {sup 226}Ra >> {sup 234}U > {sup 238}U, whereas for each radionuclide, its activity concentration followed the sequence: cigarette tobacco > mehassel > jurak. Molasses contributed to the enhanced uranium content in jurak samples. The obtained results are discussed in detail.

  5. Dental unit water lines decontamination with the aid of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramashivaiah, Rashmi; Prabhuji, M L V; Narayanan, Roopalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the issue of dental unit waterline (DUWL) contamination which affects all the clinical and hospital settings. The contaminating microorganisms commonly isolated from these settings and the most pathogenic among them have serious consequences. Over the years several measures are inculcated for decontamination of water, their advantages and shortcomings have been addressed. Options using nanotechnology which are available in the market are described briefly. A manual and electronic search was conducted. Google and PubMed were searched for relevant material from studies up to 2013. Medical Subject Headings words looked for were "Nanotechnology," "Water purification," and "Biofilms." Reviewed findings were summarized by topic, using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses statement for reporting. Seventy articles were shortlisted for articles pertaining to our topic of discussion. A systematic approach was followed by two independent reviewers and included eligibility criteria for study inclusion, data extraction, data synthesis, and drawing of conclusion. Dental waterline contamination is widespread in any type of dental setting having serious implications on clinicians and patients alike, especially elderly and immune-compromised. Hence, international bodies like center for disease and control and American Dental Association have come up with stringent measures for maintenance of water quality. A gamut of procedures has been tried to overcome this problem ranging from chlorinated products, water filters to the usage of distilled water. The use of nanoemulsions, nanofilters, nanomembranes, etc., and their applicability for routine usage is discussed. Biofilm formation in DUWLs is inevitable with the subsequent release of part of microbiota into the otherwise sterile dental settings. These consequences can be quite serious on clinicians and dental patients. Though conventional measures in water decontamination have

  6. The therapeutic effect of carbogaseous natural mineral waters in the metabolic syndrome

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    Cinteza Delia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (syndrome X or insulin resistance syndrome is a complex of metabolic disturbances that increase the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Entity includes: dyslipidemia (altered lipid profile, with increasing levels of serum triglycerides and low serum levels of HDL-cholesterol, which promotes the development of atherosclerosis, high blood sugar (diabetes type II or increased insulin resistance, hypertension, abdominal obesity syndrome, proinflammatory, prothrombotic syndrome. In the last 20 years, there was a continuous increase in individuals suffering from this syndrome, the cause remains unknown, but several studies also claim that it is a complex interaction between genetic, metabolic and environmental factors. Of environmental factors, diet low in micronutrients such as calcium, magnesium and potassium seems to be an essential contributor element (Feldsein et al, 2007, Cidalia Pereira et al, 2011. Decreased intake of sodium and increased intake of calcium, magnesium and potassium, proposed by Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension - DASH diet (Van Leer et al 1995, Meigl et al 2008 leads to optimized blood pressure. Even in the absence of increased sodium intake, low levels of magnesium in the blood and cells can induce in some conditions, hypertension, diabetes, insulin resistance or completely metabolic syndrom.Among the methods proposed to correct dietary intake of micronutrients, natural mineral water, often very complex in terms of chemical composition and versatile in terms of the intended effect is one handy, safe and simple.Although used in order to preserve the health from ancient times, scientific studies proving natural mineral water effects on the human body takes place only since the twentieth century. Carbonated mineral waters are the result of deep water filtering through volcanic soils, which contain CO2, carbon dioxide, thus obtained, will help dissolve other elements contained in the soil layers

  7. Integrated HIV testing, malaria, and diarrhea prevention campaign in Kenya: modeled health impact and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, James G; Muraguri, Nicholas; Harris, Brian; Lugada, Eric; Clasen, Thomas; Grabowsky, Mark; Mermin, Jonathan; Shariff, Shahnaaz

    2012-01-01

    Efficiently delivered interventions to reduce HIV, malaria, and diarrhea are essential to accelerating global health efforts. A 2008 community integrated prevention campaign in Western Province, Kenya, reached 47,000 individuals over 7 days, providing HIV testing and counseling, water filters, insecticide-treated bed nets, condoms, and for HIV-infected individuals cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and referral for ongoing care. We modeled the potential cost-effectiveness of a scaled-up integrated prevention campaign. We estimated averted deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) based on published data on baseline mortality and morbidity and on the protective effect of interventions, including antiretroviral therapy. We incorporate a previously estimated scaled-up campaign cost. We used published costs of medical care to estimate savings from averted illness (for all three diseases) and the added costs of initiating treatment earlier in the course of HIV disease. Per 1000 participants, projected reductions in cases of diarrhea, malaria, and HIV infection avert an estimated 16.3 deaths, 359 DALYs and $85,113 in medical care costs. Earlier care for HIV-infected persons adds an estimated 82 DALYs averted (to a total of 442), at a cost of $37,097 (reducing total averted costs to $48,015). Accounting for the estimated campaign cost of $32,000, the campaign saves an estimated $16,015 per 1000 participants. In multivariate sensitivity analyses, 83% of simulations result in net savings, and 93% in a cost per DALY averted of less than $20. A mass, rapidly implemented campaign for HIV testing, safe water, and malaria control appears economically attractive.

  8. Integrated HIV testing, malaria, and diarrhea prevention campaign in Kenya: modeled health impact and cost-effectiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G Kahn

    Full Text Available Efficiently delivered interventions to reduce HIV, malaria, and diarrhea are essential to accelerating global health efforts. A 2008 community integrated prevention campaign in Western Province, Kenya, reached 47,000 individuals over 7 days, providing HIV testing and counseling, water filters, insecticide-treated bed nets, condoms, and for HIV-infected individuals cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and referral for ongoing care. We modeled the potential cost-effectiveness of a scaled-up integrated prevention campaign.We estimated averted deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs based on published data on baseline mortality and morbidity and on the protective effect of interventions, including antiretroviral therapy. We incorporate a previously estimated scaled-up campaign cost. We used published costs of medical care to estimate savings from averted illness (for all three diseases and the added costs of initiating treatment earlier in the course of HIV disease.Per 1000 participants, projected reductions in cases of diarrhea, malaria, and HIV infection avert an estimated 16.3 deaths, 359 DALYs and $85,113 in medical care costs. Earlier care for HIV-infected persons adds an estimated 82 DALYs averted (to a total of 442, at a cost of $37,097 (reducing total averted costs to $48,015. Accounting for the estimated campaign cost of $32,000, the campaign saves an estimated $16,015 per 1000 participants. In multivariate sensitivity analyses, 83% of simulations result in net savings, and 93% in a cost per DALY averted of less than $20.A mass, rapidly implemented campaign for HIV testing, safe water, and malaria control appears economically attractive.

  9. Effects of mining activities on heavy metal concentrations in water, sediment, and macroinvertebrates in different reaches of the Pilcomayo River, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolders, A J P; Lock, R A C; Van der Velde, G; Medina Hoyos, R I; Roelofs, J G M

    2003-04-01

    From 1997 until 1999 the extent and the ecological effects of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium pollution were studied in different reaches of the South American Pilcomayo River. A comparison of metal concentrations in water, sediment, and chironomid larvae, as well as the diversity of macroinvertebrate species, was made between sites near the origin of the Pilcomayo River, with hardly any mining activities, sites in the Potosí region, with intensive mining, and sites located 500 km or further downstream of Potosí, in the Chaco plain. Samples were also collected in an unpolluted river (Cachi Mayu River) and in the Tarapaya River, which is strongly contaminated by mine tailings (1000 tons a day). The upper parts of the Pilcomayo River are strongly affected by the release of mine tailings from the Potosí mines where mean concentrations of lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in water, filtered water, sediment, and chironomid larvae were up to a thousand times higher than the local background levels. The diversity of the benthic macroinvertebrate community was strongly reduced in the contaminated parts; 97% of the benthic macroinvertebrates consisted of chironomid larvae. The degree of contamination in the lower reaches of the river, however, was fairly low because of sedimentation processes and the strong dilution of mine tailings with enormous amounts of clean sediment from erosion processes. Analysis of sediment cores from the Ibibobo floodplain, however, reveal an increase of the heavy metal concentrations in the lower reaches since the introduction of the contaminating flotation process in the mine industry in 1985.

  10. Dialysis and Quality of Dialysate in Southeast Asian Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomotaka Naramura

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The number of dialysis patients has been increasing in Southeast Asia, but statistical data about these patients and on the quality of dialysates in Southeast Asian dialysis facilities are still imprecise. For this study, dialysis-related statistical data were collected in Southeast Asia. Methods: A survey of the quality of dialysates was carried out at 4 dialysis facilities in Vietnam and Cambodia. The dialysis patient survey included the numbers of dialysis facilities and patients receiving dialysis, a ranking of underlying diseases causing the initiation of dialysis, the number of patients receiving hemodialysis (HD/on-line hemodiafiltration/continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, the number of HD monitoring devices installed, the cost of each session of dialysis (in USD, the percentage of out-of-pocket payments, and the 1-year survival rates of the dialysis patients (in percent. The dialysate survey covered the endotoxin (ET level and bacterial count in tap water, in water filtered through a reverse osmosis system and in dialysate. Results: In each of the countries, the most frequent reason for the initiation of dialysis is diabetes mellitus. HD is usually carried out according to the ‘reuse' principle. The 1-year survival rates are 70% in Myanmar and about 90% in the Philippines and Malaysia. The ET levels in standard dialysates were satisfactory at 2 facilities. The bacterial counts in dialysates were not acceptable at any of the facilities investigated. Conclusion: There is an urgent need to teach medical workers involved in dialysis how to prepare sterile and ET-free dialysates.

  11. Sustainability of arsenic mitigation interventions – an evaluation of different alternative safe drinking water options provided in Matlab, an arsenic hot spot in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMED eHOSSAIN

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The wide spread occurrence of geogenic arsenic (As in Bangladesh groundwater drastically reduced the safe water access across the country. Since its discovery in 1993, different mitigation options tested at household and community scale have resulted in limited success. In an arsenic hotspot of southeastern Bangladesh, 841 arsenic removal filter (ARF, 190 surface water filter membrane, 23 pond sand filter (PSF, 147 rain water harvester (RWH and 59 As-safe tubewell were distributed among the severely exposed population by AsMat, a Sida supported project. After three-four years of providing these safe water options, this study was carried out during 2010-2011 for performance analysis of these options, in terms of technical viability and effectiveness and thus to evaluate the preference of different options to the end users. Household and community based surveys were done to make an assessment of the current water use pattern as impact of the distributed options, overall condition of the options provided and to identify the reasons why these options are in use and/or abandoned. In total, 284 households were surveyed and information was collected for 23 PSF, 147 RWH and 59 tubewells. None of the filters was found in use. Among other options distributed, 13% of PSF, 40% RWH and 93% of tubewell were found functioning. In all cases, tubewells were found As-safe. About 89% of households are currently using tubewell water which was 58% before. Filter was abandoned for high cost and complicated maintenance. The use of RWH and PSF was not found user friendly and ensuring year round water quality is a big challenge. Arsenic-safe tubewell was found as a widely accepted option mainly because of its easy operation and availability of water, good water quality and negligible maintenance. This study validated tubewell as the most feasible option and holds significance for planning water supply projects, improving mitigation policy as well as developing awareness

  12. Supplementation with Folic Acid, but Not Creatine, Increases Plasma Betaine, Decreases Plasma Dimethylglycine, and Prevents a Decrease in Plasma Choline in Arsenic-Exposed Bangladeshi Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Megan N; Howe, Caitlin G; Liu, Xinhua; Caudill, Marie A; Malysheva, Olga; Ilievski, Vesna; Lomax-Luu, Angela M; Parvez, Faruque; Siddique, Abu B; Shahriar, Hasan; Uddin, Mohammad N; Islam, Tariqul; Graziano, Joseph H; Gamble, Mary V

    2016-05-01

    Folic acid (FA) supplementation facilitates urinary excretion of arsenic, a human carcinogen. A better understanding of interactions between one-carbon metabolism intermediates may improve the ability to design nutrition interventions that further facilitate arsenic excretion. The objective was to determine if FA and/or creatine supplementation increase choline and betaine and decrease dimethylglycine (DMG). We conducted a secondary analysis of the Folic Acid and Creatine Trial, a randomized trial in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults (n = 605, aged 24-55 y, 50.3% male) who received arsenic-removal water filters. We examined treatment effects of FA and/or creatine supplementation on plasma choline, betaine, and DMG concentrations, measured by LC-tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and at week 12. Group comparisons were between 1) 400 and 800 μg FA/d (FA400 and FA800, respectively) compared with placebo, 2) creatine (3 g/d) compared with placebo, and 3) creatine plus FA400 compared with FA400. Choline decreased in the placebo group (-6.6%; 95% CI: -10.2%, -2.9%) but did not change in the FA groups (FA400: 2.5%; 95% CI: -0.9%, 6.1%; FA800: 1.4%; 95% CI: -2.5%, 5.5%; P creatine treatment arms and their respective reference groups. Supplementation for 12 wk with FA, but not creatine, increases plasma betaine, decreases plasma DMG, and prevents a decrease in plasma choline in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01050556. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Reduced risk estimations after remediation of lead (Pb) in drinking water at two US school districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Le, Trung; Gallagher, Daniel; Edwards, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The risk of students to develop elevated blood lead from drinking water consumption at schools was assessed, which is a different approach from predictions of geometric mean blood lead levels. Measured water lead levels (WLLs) from 63 elementary schools in Seattle and 601 elementary schools in Los Angeles were acquired before and after voluntary remediation of water lead contamination problems. Combined exposures to measured school WLLs (first-draw and flushed, 50% of water consumption) and home WLLs (50% of water consumption) were used as inputs to the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model for each school. In Seattle an average 11.2% of students were predicted to exceed a blood lead threshold of 5 μg/dL across 63 schools pre-remediation, but predicted risks at individual schools varied (7% risk of exceedance at a "low exposure school", 11% risk at a "typical exposure school", and 31% risk at a "high exposure school"). Addition of water filters and removal of lead plumbing lowered school WLL inputs to the model, and reduced the predicted risk output to 4.8% on average for Seattle elementary students across all 63 schools. The remnant post-remediation risk was attributable to other assumed background lead sources in the model (air, soil, dust, diet and home WLLs), with school WLLs practically eliminated as a health threat. Los Angeles schools instead instituted a flushing program which was assumed to eliminate first-draw WLLs as inputs to the model. With assumed benefits of remedial flushing, the predicted average risk of students to exceed a BLL threshold of 5 μg/dL dropped from 8.6% to 6.0% across 601 schools. In an era with increasingly stringent public health goals (e.g., reduction of blood lead safety threshold from 10 to 5 μg/dL), quantifiable health benefits to students were predicted after water lead remediation at two large US school systems. © 2013.

  14. Water sanitation, access, use and self-reported diarrheal disease in rural Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Gabriela E; Bearman, Gonzalo; Sanogo, Kakotan; Stevens, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Only 79% of individuals living in rural Honduras use improved water sources. Inadequate drinking water quality is related to diarrheal illness, which in Honduras contributes to 18.6 episodes of diarrhea per child year in children under five years of age. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare access to drinking water and sanitation, as well as self-reported diarrheal disease incidence among three proximal communities in the Department of Yoro area of Honduras. An 11-item language-specific, interviewer-administered, anonymous questionnaire was administered to 263 randomly selected adults attending a June 2011 medical brigade held in the communities of Coyoles, La Hicaca, and Lomitas. Chi-square with Fisher exact tests were utilized to compare water access, sanitation, and self-reported diarrheal incidence among these communities. Coyoles and La Hicaca used private faucets as their primary water sources. Coyoles had the greatest use of bottled water. Lomitas used rivers as their primary water source, and did not use bottled water. Mostly, females were responsible for acquiring water. Usage of multiple water sanitation methods was most common in Coyoles, while no sanitation method was most common in Lomitas. In Lomitas and La Hicaca, water filters were mostly provided via donation by non-governmental organizations. Lomitas had the highest reported incidence of diarrhea among self and other household members. Critical differences in water access, sanitation, and self-reported diarrheal incidence among three geographically distinct, yet proximal, communities highlights the need for targeted interventions even in geographically proximal rural areas.

  15. Control of microbial contamination in drinking water from microfiltering dispensers by dialysis ultrafilters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolelli Luca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tap water filtering devices are widely employed to improve odor and taste of tap water, or to obtain refrigerated or sparkling drinking water. The presence of disinfectants-resistant bacteria in tap water is responsible of the biofilm formation inside tubes and tanks. The consequent contamination of dispensed water is a well-known hygiene problem because of the quite constant presence of potentially pathogenic bacteria likes P. aeruginosa. In this study, we tested the technical feasibility and effectiveness of the addition to different commercial devices of a packaged polysulphone fibers filter. We aimed to find a simple solution to implement the quality of the delivered water. Water contamination levels were determined in a wide selection of microfiltered water dispensers and we selected among them a representative group of 10 devices, new or in use. The packaged ultrafilter was introduced in about half of them, to monitor, when possible, in parallel the contamination levels and flow rate of a couple of identical units, with and without the filter. The placement of the dialysis filters resulted feasible at different positions along the water circuits of the variously designed filtration units. Delivered water resulted completely free from bacteria when the filter was placed exactly at, or very close to, the outlet in spite of the inner surfaces contamination. This performance was not obtained in presence of a more or less long tract of water circuits downstream the ultrafilter: a significant but not complete reduction of the plate count numbers was observed. The filters worked in continue over the whole study period, ten months, showing exactly the same efficiency. Moreover, the flow rate in presence of the filter was quite unaffected. The addition of this kind of filter to already in use water dispensers was technically easy, and its use can be recommended in all cases a simple but reliable water sanitization is requested.

  16. PERBAIKAN KUALITAS AIR DENGAN SISTEM PENYARINGAN DI PENAMBANGAN RAKYAT INTAN DAN EMAS DI KECAMATAN CEMPAKA KOTA BANJARBARU PROVINSI KALIMANTAN SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyas Astari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Writing of this thesis is motivated by the declining water quality in rivers around the mining area due to mining of the people that do not meet clean water requirements. Purpose of this study was to determine the influence of the filtering system of physical and chemical water quality in the watershed are derived from the people of the diamond and gold mining areas as well as the assessment of water quality in producing water that meets the requirements of clean water in accordance with the requirements of Health Minister of Republic (PerMenKes RI No. 416/MenKes/Per/IX/90. The research method used was semi-experimental. What matters is whether a particular filtering technology can improve the quality of river water and can produce better water quality?. The results showed that there is a difference between before filtering with post filtering (sand filter and activated charcoal filter. By the two different filters (sand and activated charcoal, the finest and most effective sand filters in the improvement of physical and chemical quality of water. Sand filter has a high effectiveness of the reduction. By the ten parameters of the observed parameters of TSS, turbidity and reduction of Fe which has a high effectiveness. The results can be concluded that the filtration systems (sand filter and activated charcoal filter affects the physical and chemical quality of water. Filtering results with a sand filter and activated charcoal filters have improved physical and chemical quality of water that clean water has been qualified in accordance with the requirements of Health Minister of Republic (PerMenKes RI No. 416/MenKes/Per/1990.

  17. Chitosan Coagulation to Improve Microbial and Turbidity Removal by Ceramic Water Filtration for Household Drinking Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia S. Abebe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of porous ceramic filters is promoted globally for household water treatment, but these filters are ineffective in removing viruses from water. In order to increase virus removal, we combine a promising natural coagulant, chitosan, as a pretreatment for ceramic water filters (CWFs and evaluate the performance of this dual barrier water treatment system. Chitosan is a non-toxic and biodegradable organic polymer derived by simple chemical treatments from chitin, a major source of which is the leftover shells of crustacean seafoods, such as shrimp, prawns, crabs, and lobsters. To determine the effectiveness of chitosan, model test water was contaminated with Escherichia coli K011 and coliphage MS2 as a model enteric bacterium and virus, respectively. Kaolinite clay was used to model turbidity. Coagulation effectiveness of three types of modified chitosans was determine at various doses ranging from 5 to 30 mg/L, followed by flocculation and sedimentation. The pre-treated supernatant water was then decanted into the CWF for further treatment by filtration. There were appreciable microbial removals by chitosan HCl, acetate, and lactate pretreatment followed by CWF treatment, with mean reductions (95% CI between 4.7 (±1.56 and 7.5 (±0.02 log10 for Escherichia coli, and between 2.8 (±0.10 and 4.5 (±1.04 log10 for MS2. Turbidity reduction with chitosan treatment and filtration consistently resulted in turbidities < 1 NTU, which meet turbidity standards of the US EPA and guidance by the World Health Organization (WHO. According to WHO health-based microbial removal targets for household water treatment technology, chitosan coagulation achieved health protective targets for both viruses and bacteria. Therefore, the results of this study support the use of chitosan to improve household drinking water filtration processes by increasing virus and bacteria reductions.

  18. Rapid Response to Evaluate the Presence of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Ranavirus in Wild Amphibian Populations in Madagascar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Kolby

    Full Text Available We performed a rapid response investigation to evaluate the presence and distribution of amphibian pathogens in Madagascar following our identification of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd and ranavirus in commercially exported amphibians. This targeted risk-based field surveillance program was conducted from February to April 2014 encompassing 12 regions and 47 survey sites. We simultaneously collected amphibian and environmental samples to increase survey sensitivity and performed sampling both in wilderness areas and commercial amphibian trade facilities. Bd was not detected in any of 508 amphibian skin swabs or 68 water filter samples, suggesting pathogen prevalence was below 0.8%, with 95% confidence during our visit. Ranavirus was detected in 5 of 97 amphibians, including one adult Mantidactylus cowanii and three unidentified larvae from Ranomafana National Park, and one adult Mantidactylus mocquardi from Ankaratra. Ranavirus was also detected in water samples collected from two commercial amphibian export facilities. We also provide the first report of an amphibian mass-mortality event observed in wild amphibians in Madagascar. Although neither Bd nor ranavirus appeared widespread in Madagascar during this investigation, additional health surveys are required to disentangle potential seasonal variations in pathogen abundance and detectability from actual changes in pathogen distribution and rates of spread. Accordingly, our results should be conservatively interpreted until a comparable survey effort during winter months has been performed. It is imperative that biosecurity practices be immediately adopted to limit the unintentional increased spread of disease through the movement of contaminated equipment or direct disposal of contaminated material from wildlife trade facilities. The presence of potentially introduced strains of ranaviruses suggests that Madagascar's reptile species might also be threatened by

  19. Rapid Response to Evaluate the Presence of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and Ranavirus in Wild Amphibian Populations in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolby, Jonathan E; Smith, Kristine M; Ramirez, Sara D; Rabemananjara, Falitiana; Pessier, Allan P; Brunner, Jesse L; Goldberg, Caren S; Berger, Lee; Skerratt, Lee F

    2015-01-01

    We performed a rapid response investigation to evaluate the presence and distribution of amphibian pathogens in Madagascar following our identification of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) and ranavirus in commercially exported amphibians. This targeted risk-based field surveillance program was conducted from February to April 2014 encompassing 12 regions and 47 survey sites. We simultaneously collected amphibian and environmental samples to increase survey sensitivity and performed sampling both in wilderness areas and commercial amphibian trade facilities. Bd was not detected in any of 508 amphibian skin swabs or 68 water filter samples, suggesting pathogen prevalence was below 0.8%, with 95% confidence during our visit. Ranavirus was detected in 5 of 97 amphibians, including one adult Mantidactylus cowanii and three unidentified larvae from Ranomafana National Park, and one adult Mantidactylus mocquardi from Ankaratra. Ranavirus was also detected in water samples collected from two commercial amphibian export facilities. We also provide the first report of an amphibian mass-mortality event observed in wild amphibians in Madagascar. Although neither Bd nor ranavirus appeared widespread in Madagascar during this investigation, additional health surveys are required to disentangle potential seasonal variations in pathogen abundance and detectability from actual changes in pathogen distribution and rates of spread. Accordingly, our results should be conservatively interpreted until a comparable survey effort during winter months has been performed. It is imperative that biosecurity practices be immediately adopted to limit the unintentional increased spread of disease through the movement of contaminated equipment or direct disposal of contaminated material from wildlife trade facilities. The presence of potentially introduced strains of ranaviruses suggests that Madagascar's reptile species might also be threatened by disease

  20. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI PERASAN MENGKUDU (Morinda citrofilia Linn TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN Shygella disenteriae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Ariana

    2017-09-01

    Abstract Mengkudu (Morinda citrofilia Linn Indonesia is known as a medicinal plant that can treat a variety of diseases. This study  to determine the effect of noni juice concentration on the growth of Shigella dysenteriae, the bacteria that causes the disease shigellosis (bacillary dysentery. The design of this study used an experimental design to test laboratory, noni juice obtained by weighing 100g were still ripe noni fruit (puti yellowish color and texture is still hard and washed, blender 100gr noni plus 100ml of sterile distilled water, filtered with sterile gauze and then Stril put in a test tube, back in autoclav sterilized for 15 minutes at a temperature of 1210C that noni juice is really sterile. Inhibition test with freshly made juice dilution method at concentrations of 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, 6.25%, 3.13%, 1.57% and 0.78%, followed planted in the media Muller Hinton Shigella to know whether it is growing or not growing, Statistical data analysis using Chisquer test on α = 0.05. The test results showed λ2 Chisquer count> λ2 table, then Ho is rejected. The results showed 12.5% of concentration - 100% can inhibit the growth of Shigella dysenteriae while the concentration of 0.78% - 6.25% solid not inhibit the growth of Shigella dysenteriae, so it can be concluded that the noni (Morinda citrofilia Linn can inhibit the growth of Shigella dysenteriae and noni efficiently used for dysentery patients because of the concentration of 12.5% was able to inhibit the growth of Shygella dysenteriae. Keywords: Mengkudu (Morinda citrofilia Linn , Shigella dysenteriae

  1. Naturally occurring radioactive elements, arsenic and other metals in drinking water from private wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ek, Britt-Marie; Thunholm, Bo; Oestergren, Inger; Falk, Rolf; Mjoenes, Lars

    2008-04-01

    island of Gotland, where the bedrock is dominated by Silurian limestones, the majority of the water samples showed boron concentrations far exceeding the provisional guide line value 500 μg/l set by WHO. Metals like lead, cadmium, nickel and chromium are only rarely found in harmful concentrations in Swedish drinking-water. A conclusion of the results from this study is that ordinary analyses of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters as well as radon-222, should be complemented with analyses of metals including uranium and arsenic, especially in waters from drilled wells in bedrock. A direct finding from this study is that radium-226 accumulates in some types of common water filters, which are often used to decrease iron and manganese. With arsenic concentrations in the drinking water exceeding the guide line 10 μg/l, actions should be taken to reduce the concentrations below this limit. Recent tests by the National Board of Health and Welfare of Sweden have shown that adsorption and ion exchange can reduce arsenic in drinking water up to 98 %. This project has shown that arsenic accumulates to a large degree in common water filters installed to remove iron and manganese. This study gives an overview of how drinking water, extracted from private wells, is influenced by various elements that occur naturally in our environment. New problem areas such as a radiation dose from lead-210 and polonium-210 have been identified. Information campaigns addressing different target groups, like county councils and municipalities, are necessary to inform well owners about the issues on radon, uranium, arsenic, fluoride and water filters. Additional studies are needed to further increase our knowledge on radioactive elements, arsenic and other possibly harmful elements in drinking water. A further mapping of lead-210 and polonium-210 occurrence in drinking water would allow for better estimates of dose to the public

  2. Infrared and X-ray observations of the decline of A 0620-00

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citterio, O.; Conti, G.; Di Benedetto, P.; Tanzi, E.G.; Perola, G.C.; White, N.E.; Charles, P.A.; Sanford, P.W.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of the 1.65- and 2.2-μ flux on five nights from October 3 to 31 and the 3 to 9 keV flux from October 7 to December 1 of the transient X-ray source A 0620-00 show a regular decline. The infrared flux is consistent with an extrapolation of a bremstrahlung spectrum fitted to the X-rays if the source is self-absorbed in the infrared, a situation similar to Sco X-I. (author)

  3. Magnetic zeolites a and p synthesized from kaolin: synthesis and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessa, R.A.; Oliveira, C.P.; Nascimento, R.F.; Bohn, F.; Loiola, A.R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFCE), CE (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Zeolites are hydrated aluminosilicates of open chain, formed by silica and alumina tetrahedral structures linked by common oxygen atoms, generating interconnected pores and cages with molecular dimensions and well defined sizes that limit matter transference between internal surface and application medium. They can be found naturally or synthesized using different aluminum and silicon sources that may modify the produced zeolite. Their industrial application has grown enormously over the last century. However, a big issue that still remains is the difficulty in retrieving zeolite powders when used in aqueous media. This work reports the use of kaolin as an alternative raw material for zeolite syntheses by means of hydrothermal route and subsequent preparation of magnetic composites through magnetite impregnation. The syntheses of two different zeolites were carried out by mixing appropriate amounts of metakaolin (kaolin previously calcined at 600 deg C for 2 h), sodium metasilicate and sodium hydroxide solution, aged for 18 h and heated at 100 °C for 4-48 h. After these processes, the final materials were washed several times with distilled water, filtered and dried at 80 deg C for 12 h. Magnetic composites were prepared by impregnating the zeolites with of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NP) synthesized by the partial oxidation and precipitation of Fe2+ ions. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, FTIR spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. The results of XRD and FTIR provide evidence of the success in the synthesis of both zeolites A and P as well as Fe3O4. Subsequently, composites were formed by mixtures of zeolite A + NP and zeolite P + NP. The existence of secondary crystalline phases was also confirmed. However, it did not interfered significantly in the results as these phases appear as minor amounts and are most likely residues from the clay used as the main silica and alumina sources. Scanning

  4. Filters for water purification from radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, V.V.; Khaydarov, R.R.; Khaydarov, R.A.; Gapurova, O.U.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: At present purification of waste water and drinking water from radionuclides, heavy metal ions, and organic contaminants is one of the most important problems. One of widely used methods for solving this problem is the ion exchange method based on using of different types of resins and fibroid sorbents. This paper deals with new chemically modified polyester fibroid filters having satisfactory adsorption characteristics. The process of the filter production includes their treatment by acrylonitrilic emulsion for improving mechanical characteristics. An advantage of the fibroid ion-exchange sorbents over resin is in their high sorption rate, effective regeneration and small value of pressure drop of the sorbent layer for purified water. The specific surface of the fibroid sorbents is (2 - 3). 10 4 m 2 / kg, i.e. about 10 2 times greater than that of the resin (10 2 m 2 / kg). Owing to that fact the rate of the sorption process on the developed fibroid sorbents is much greater than that on the resin. The developed cation- and anion-exchange filters can be used for removing metal ions (Zn, Ni, Cu, Sb, Co, Cd, Cr, etc.) and organic compounds (M- 32 P, M- 131 I, M- 99 Mo+ 99m Tc, etc.) from water. Capacity of the cation-exchange sorbents is 0.25 meq/g (Cu 2+ ) and that of the anion - exchange is 0.45 meq/g (Cr 6+ ). The cation- and anion-exchange filters are also selective for removing radionuclides 134 , 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 60 Co and 129 I in presence of Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Cl - ions in water at concentrations up to 500 mg/L. New developed ion-exchange sorbents have been used in drinking water filters and mini-systems for removing organic and inorganic contaminants, in the equipment for waste water purification from oil products (at atomic power stations, car-washing stations, etc), from heavy metal ions (in electronic industry, match fabrics, leather processing plants etc). (author)

  5. Filters for water purification from oil products and radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaydarov, R.R.; Khaydarov, R.A.; Gapurova, O.U.; Malikov, Sh.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Purification of waste water and drinking water from radionuclides, heavy metal ions, and organic contaminants is one of the most important problems at present day. One of widely used methods for solving this problem is the ionic exchange method based on using different types of resins and fibroid sorbents. The paper deals with new chemically modified polyester fibroid filters having satisfactory adsorption characteristics. The process of the filter production includes their treatment by acrylo nitrilic emulsion for improving mechanical characteristics. An advantage of the fibroid ion-exchange sorbents over resin is in high rate of a sorption process, effective regeneration and small value of pressure drop of the sorbent layer for purified water. The specific surface of the fibroid sorbents is (2 - 3). 10'4 m 2 / kg, i.e. about 102 times greater than that of the resin (10 2 m 2 / kg). Owing to that fact the rate of the sorption process on the developed fibroid sorbents is much greater than that on the resin. The developed cation- and anion-exchange filters can be used for removing metal ions (Zn, Ni, Cu, Sb, Co, Cd, Cr, etc.) and organic compounds (M- P 32, M- I 131, M-Mo 99 mTc+99, etc.) from water. Capacity of the cation-exchange sorbents is 0.25 meq/g (Cu 2 +) and that of the anion - exchange is 0.45 meq/g (Cr 6 +). The cation- and anion-exchange filters are also selective for removing radionuclides Cs 134,137, Sr 90, Co 60 and I 129 in presence of Na + , K + , Ca 2 +, Mg 2 +, Cl - ions in water at concentrations up to 500 mg/L. New developed ionic-exchange sorbents have been used in drinking water filters and mini-systems for removing organic and inorganic contaminants, in the equipment for waste water purification from oil products (at atomic power stations, car-washing stations, etc), from heavy metal ions (in electronic industry, match fabrics, leather processing plants etc)

  6. Zooplâncton do estuário do Pina (Recife-Pernambuco-Brasil: composição e distribuição temporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneida Maria Eskinazi-Sant'Anna

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre a composição e variação diurna do zooplâncton do estuário do Pina (PE foram reali;r.ados, baseando-se em 200 litros de água superficial, coletada e filtrada em uma rede com malha de 69 11m de abertura, durante os períodos seco Uaneiro e fevereiro/91 e chuvoso Uunho e julho/91, em um ciclo diurno de 12 h. Paralelamente, foram coletados dados hidrolÓgicos. O zooplâncton esteve representado por 19 taxa, além do meroplâncton. Destacaram-se Favella ehrenbergi, Brachionus plicatilis, Copepoda nauplii e Oithona osvaldocnlzi (♀. Valores quantitativos mais altos foram registrados no peJíodo seco. O máximo registrado foi de 411.7490rg.m-3 e o mínimo 2.6230rg.m-3 .As correntes de marés foram as principais responsáveis pela variação espacial do zooplâncton. A diversidade específica foi baixa, evidenciando processos seletivos no estuário.Composieionand daily variation of zooplankton in the estuary of Pina (Brazil- PE was studied based on 200L of water filtered at surface through a net mesh size of 69 Jlm, during the dry (January-February/91 and the rainy (June-July/91 seasons. The samplcs were collected with time interval of three hours, during a daylight period. Concurrent hydrological data were obtained. Nineteen taxon of zooplankton were registered, including meroplankton, of which the most abundant was Favella ehrenbergi, followed by Brachionus plicatilis, Copepoda nauplii and Oithona osvaldocnlzi (♀. Higher quantitatives values occured in the dry reason. The maximum registered was 411,7490rg.m-3 and the minimum 2,6230rg.m-3 . The tidal currents were the main factor influencing the zooplankton spacial variation. Specific diversity was low, highlighting selcctive processes in the Pina estuary.

  7. Monitoring system for the study of autotrophic biofilms in bioremediation of polyaromatic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarie, Jean P.; Bruttig, A.; Miller, Gordon H.; Hill, Walter; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1999-02-01

    Bacterial and other natural materials such as plants and algae have received increasing interest for bioremediation efforts. The identificatIon of materials capable of biodegrading or sequestering environmental pollutants offers an attractive alternative to chemical or physical means of remediation. A number of bacteria capable of biodegrAding organic or reducing metal pollutants have received great interest. Similarly, the use of natural plants to absorb pollutants from soil anD liquid samples is another potential approach. Our interest lies in identification of naturally occurring algae and their ability to absorb polyaromatic compounds (PAC) from groundwater sources (i.e. streams). These algae could serve as natural water filters for streams contaminated with Polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Polycyclic aromatic compounds, which comprise a complex class of condensed multi-ring benzenoid compounds, are important environmental pollutants originating from a wide variety of natural and anthropogenic sources. PACs are generally formed during incomplete combustion or pyrolysis of organic matter containing carbon and hydrogen. Because combustion of organic materials is involved in countless natural processes or human activities, PACs are omnipresent and abundant pollutants in air, soil and water. Among energy-related products, fossil fuels are the major sources of PACs. The primary sources of airborne PACs are associated with combustion, coal coking, and petroleum catalytic cracking. Coal and shale conversion also contribute to production of PACs. Production, transportation and, use of synthetic fuels and petroleum products provide emission sources for PACs. In urban environments an significant source of PACs is diesel exhaust. Food cooking and cigarette smoking activities contribute to PAC occurrence in indoor environments. Chemical analysis of PACs is of great environmental and toxicological interest because many of them have been shown to be mutagens and/or potent

  8. Pb-Sr isotopic and geochemical constraints on sources and processes of lead contamination in well waters and soil from former fruit orchards, Pennsylvania, USA: A legacy of anthropogenic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Foley, Nora K.

    2016-01-01

    Isotopic discrimination can be an effective tool in establishing a direct link between sources of Pb contamination and the presence of anomalously high concentrations of Pb in waters, soils, and organisms. Residential wells supplying water containing up to 1600 ppb Pb to houses built on the former Mohr orchards commercial site, near Allentown, PA, were evaluated to discern anthropogenic from geogenic sources. Pb (n = 144) and Sr (n = 40) isotopic data and REE (n = 29) data were determined for waters from residential wells, test wells (drilled for this study), and surface waters from pond and creeks. Local soils, sediments, bedrock, Zn-Pb mineralization and coal were also analyzed (n = 94), together with locally used Pb-As pesticide (n = 5). Waters from residential and test wells show overlapping values of 206Pb/207Pb, 208Pb/207Pb and 87Sr/86Sr. Larger negative Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce*) distinguish residential wells from test wells. Results show that residential and test well waters, sediments from residential water filters in water tanks, and surface waters display broad linear trends in Pb isotope plots. Pb isotope data for soils, bedrock, and pesticides have contrasting ranges and overlapping trends. Contributions of Pb from soils to residential well waters are limited and implicated primarily in wells having shallow water-bearing zones and carrying high sediment contents. Pb isotope data for residential wells, test wells, and surface waters show substantial overlap with Pb data reflecting anthropogenic actions (e.g., burning fossil fuels, industrial and urban processing activities). Limited contributions of Pb from bedrock, soils, and pesticides are evident. High Pb concentrations in the residential waters are likely related to sediment build up in residential water tanks. Redox reactions, triggered by influx of groundwater via wells into the residential water systems and leading to subtle changes in pH, are implicated in precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxides

  9. Soils and public health: the vital nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachepsky, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Soils sustain life. They affect human health via quantity, quality, and safety of available food and water, and via direct exposure of individuals to soils. Throughout the history of civilization, soil-health relationships have inspired spiritual movements, philosophical systems, cultural exchanges, and interdisciplinary interactions, and provided medicinal substances of paramount impact. Given the climate, resource, and population pressures, understanding and managing the soil-health interactions becomes a modern imperative. We are witnessing a paradigm shift from recognizing and yet disregarding the 'soil-health' nexus complexity to parameterizing this complexity and identifying reliable controls. This becomes possible with the advent of modern research tools as a source of 'big data' on multivariate nonlinear soil systems and the multiplicity of health metrics. The phenomenon of suppression of human pathogens in soils and plants presents a recent example of these developments. Evidence is growing about the dependence of pathogen suppression on the soil microbial community structure which, in turn, is affected by the soil-plant system management. Soil eutrophication appears to create favorable conditions for pathogen survival. Another example of promising information-rich research considers links and feedbacks between the soil microbial community structure and structure of soil physical pore space. The two structures are intertwined and involved in the intricate self-organization that controls soil services to public health. This, in particular, affects functioning of soils as a powerful water filter and the capacity of this filter with respect to emerging contaminants in both 'green' and 'blue' waters. To evaluate effects of soil services to public health, upscaling procedures are needed for relating the fine-scale mechanistic knowledge to available coarse-scale information on soil properties and management. More needs to be learned about health effects of soils

  10. Static Compression of Hydrous Komatiite Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, C. B.

    2005-12-01

    High pressure sink/float experiments have been performed on komatiite with 3 and 10 wt% added H2O in order to investigate the effect of water on magma density at high pressure and to determine if density crossovers between equilibrium olivine and hydrous komatiite can exist in the upper mantle. The starting composition komatiite, from Munro Township, with MgO=28 wt%, has been previously studied using sink/float experiments under anhydrous conditions up to 9.3 GPa (Agee and Walker, 1988, 1993). In the present study the starting material mechanical mixtures consisted of powdered komatiite, brucite, fayalite, and reagent oxides of SiO2, Al203, and CaO. Samples were contained in compression-sealed molybdenum capsules. Sink/float marker spheres implemented were gem quality synthetic forsterite (Fo100) and San Carlos olivine (Fo90). Experimental run times were 30 seconds, thus minimizing sphere-liquid reactions and liquid reaction with capsule and pressure media. All experiments were carried out in a Walker multi-anvil apparatus at the Institute of Meteoritics, University of New Mexico. The komatiite + 3 wt% H2O liquid density was bracketed at 1900-1950°C by a float of Fo100 at 7 GPa and a sink at 6 GPa. Neutral buoyancy of Fo100 was observed at 6.4 GPa. An additional neutral buoyancy of Fo90 was observed at 9 GPa. These preliminary results suggest that a density crossover between equilibrium olivine (Fo93) and hydrous komatiite with up to 3 wt% H2O can exist in the mantle, thus lending support to the water filter hypothesis for the region above the 410 km discontinuity (Bercovici and Karato, 2003). Our results for static compression of komatiite + 3 wt% H2O are in good agreement with diamond sink/float observations by Sakamaki et al.(2005) on MORB + 2 wt% H2O. Our komatiite + 10 wt% H2O liquid density measurements are still in progress; however, flotation of Fo100 has not been observed in these experiments up to 9.2 GPa.

  11. High abundance of salps in the coastal Gulf of Alaska during 2011: A first record of bloom occurrence for the northern Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kaizhi; Doubleday, Ayla J.; Galbraith, Moira D.; Hopcroft, Russell R.

    2016-10-01

    Atypical high abundances of two salp species occurred in the coastal Gulf of Alaska during 2011. Salpa aspera dominated numerically in aggregate form during spring, and became uncommon during summer, while Cyclosalpa bakeri increased from low during spring to high abundance during summer. Both species were absent, or nearly so, by fall. C. bakeri abundance was positively correlated to surface temperature in spring and summer, and both species abundances were negatively correlated to chlorophyll a. The proportion of aggregate forms of both species was higher than that of solitary forms during spring and summer. The length-frequency of S. aspera aggregate individuals ranged primarily from 10 to 50 mm, and solitary forms reached 130 mm, while C. bakeri aggregates were 10-25 mm, with solitary forms up to 75 mm. Estimated biomass of S. aspera was 0.35±0.64 mg C m-3 in southeastern Alaska during spring then decreased to 0.03±0.12 mg C m-3 during summer. Estimated biomass of C. bakeri was 0.03±0.06 mg C m-3 over the entire sampling domain during spring, then rose to 0.15±0.25 mg C m-3 during summer. The volume of water filtered daily by S. aspera was estimated to be up to 17% of the 200 m water column at some stations during spring, but only up to 3.5% during summer. Substantially higher grazing impact was possible if animals were largely confined to the surface mixed layer (typically 20-30 m thick). The average volume filtrated was higher during spring for S. aspera, but for C. bakeri it was higher during summer. We propose that the combined effect of the northward transport of seed populations, their rapid biomass increase through asexual reproduction, and the high clearance rate of salps contributed to atypically low chlorophyll a in the Gulf of Alaska during spring and summer of 2011. This unusual event impacted ecosystem function during 2011, and might be expected to increase in frequency as the Gulf continues to respond to climate variations.

  12. Interdisciplinary Research to Elucidate Mechanisms Governing Silver Nanoparticle Fate and Transport in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, K. D.; Mittleman, A.; Taghavy, A.; Fortner, J.; Lantagne, D.; Abriola, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Interdisciplinary Research to Elucidate Mechanisms Governing Silver Nanoparticle Fate and Transport in Porous Media Anjuliee M. Mittelman, Amir Taghavy, Yonggang Wang, John D. Fortner, Daniele S. Lantagne, Linda M. Abriola and Kurt D. Pennell* Detailed knowledge of the processes governing nanoparticle transport and reactivity in porous media is essential for accurate predictions of environmental fate, water and wastewater treatment system performance, and assessment of potential risks to ecosystems and water supplies. To address these issues, an interdisciplinary research team combined experimental and mathematical modeling studies to investigate the mobility, dissolution, and aging of silver nanoparticles (nAg) in representative aquifer materials and ceramic filters. Results of one-dimensional column studies, conducted with water-saturated sands maintained at pH 4 or 7 and three levels of dissolved oxygen (DO), revealed that fraction of silver mass eluted as Ag+ increased with increasing DO level, and that the dissolution of attached nAg decreased over time as a result of surface oxidation. A hybrid Eulerain-Lagragian nanoparticle transport model, which incorporates DO-dependent dissolution kinetics and particle aging, was able to accurately simulate nAg mobility and Ag+ release measured in the column experiments. Model sensitivity analysis indicated that as the flow velocity and particle size decrease, nAg dissolution and Ag+ transport processes increasingly govern silver mobility. Consistent results were obtained in studies of ceramic water filters treated with nAg, where silver elution was shown to be governed by nAg dissolution to form Ag+ and subsequent cation exchange reactions. Recent studies explored the effects of surface coating aging on nAg aggregation, mobility and dissolution. Following ultraviolet light, nAg retention in water saturated sand increased by 25-50%, while up to 50% of the applied mass eluted as Ag+ compared to less than 1% for un-aged n

  13. POROSITAS DAN PERMEABILITAS KOMPOSIT BERPORI DENGAN BAHAN DASAR LIMBAH KACA (CULT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MI Savitri

    2014-11-01

    at (0.3-25x10-15 m2. The potential of the porous composites as water filter has been tested by flowing the river wastewater into the composites.<0} {0>Hasil pengujian diperoleh air dengan sifat fisis air bening dan tidak berbau, sehingga komposit berpori dari limbah kaca dapat menyaring limbah air.<}0{>The results showed that the wastewater has changed to clear and odorless potable water, and therefore the glass porous composites of could filter the wastewater.<0}

  14. Protozoan Bacterivory and Escherichia coli Survival in Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, I.; Sime-Ngando, T.; Mathieu, L.; Block, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    The development of bacterial communities in drinking water distribution systems leads to a food chain which supports the growth of macroorganisms incompatible with water quality requirements and esthetics. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined the microbial communities in drinking water distribution systems and their trophic relationships. This study was done to quantify the microbial communities (especially bacteria and protozoa) and obtain direct and indirect proof of protozoan feeding on bacteria in two distribution networks, one of GAC water (i.e., water filtered on granular activated carbon) and the other of nanofiltered water. The nanofiltered water-supplied network contained no organisms larger than bacteria, either in the water phase (on average, 5 × 107 bacterial cells liter−1) or in the biofilm (on average, 7 × 106 bacterial cells cm−2). No protozoa were detected in the whole nanofiltered water-supplied network (water plus biofilm). In contrast, the GAC water-supplied network contained bacteria (on average, 3 × 108 cells liter−1 in water and 4 × 107 cells cm−2 in biofilm) and protozoa (on average, 105 cells liter−1 in water and 103 cells cm−2 in biofilm). The water contained mostly flagellates (93%), ciliates (1.8%), thecamoebae (1.6%), and naked amoebae (1.1%). The biofilm had only ciliates (52%) and thecamoebae (48%). Only the ciliates at the solid-liquid interface of the GAC water-supplied network had a measurable grazing activity in laboratory test (estimated at 2 bacteria per ciliate per h). Protozoan ingestion of bacteria was indirectly shown by adding Escherichia coli to the experimental distribution systems. Unexpectedly, E. coli was lost from the GAC water-supplied network more rapidly than from the nanofiltered water-supplied network, perhaps because of the grazing activity of protozoa in GAC water but not in nanofiltered water. Thus, the GAC water-supplied network contained a functional ecosystem with well-established and

  15. Antitumor effect of Ganoderma lucidum : Cytotoxicity and Tumor Growth Delay(1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyoung Cheol; Kim, Jung Soo [Chonbuk National University College of Medicine, Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Dong Seong [Chonju Woosuck Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chang Won [Univ. of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis (United States)

    1994-10-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum(G.I.) on the survival of tumor cells in vitro and on the growth of tumors in vivo. Materials and Methods: Dried G.I. was made into powder, extracted with distilled water, filtered and diluted from a maximum concentration of 100 mg/ml in sequence. The cytotoxicity of G.O. in vitro was evaluated from its ability to reduce the clonogenicity of SCK tumor cells. For the tumor growth delay study, about 2x10{sup 5} of SCK tumor cells were subcutaneously inoculated in the legs of A/J mice. The first experimental group of mice were injected i.p. with 0.2ml of 250 mg/kg of G/I. From the first day after tumor inoculation for 10 days. The second experimental group of mice were injected i.p. with 0.2ml of 250 mg/kg of G.I. either once a day for 10 days or twice a day for 5 days beginning from the 7th day after tumor inoculation. Results: 1. Cytotoxicity in vitro; survival fraction, as judged from the curve, at G.I. concentration of 0.5, 1,5,10,25,50 and 100 mg/ml were 1.0, 0.74{+-}0.03, 0.18{+-}0.03, 0.15{+-}0.02, 0.006{+-}0.002, 0.015 and 0.0015, respectively. 2. Tumor growth delay in vivo; a) the time required for the mean tumor volume to grow to 1,000mm{sup 3} was 11 days in the control group and 14 days in the experimental group. b) the time required for tumor volume to increase 4 times was 11 days in the control group while it was 10.5 and 12 days in the groups injected with G.I. once a day and twice a day from the 7th day after tumor inoculation respectively. Conclusion: Aqueous extracts of G.I. showed a marked cytotoxicity on the SCK mammary cells in vitro. Tumor growth delay was statistically significant when G.I. injection was started soon after tumor inoculation, but it was not significant when injection was started after the tumors were firmly established.

  16. Antitumor effect of Ganoderma lucidum : Cytotoxicity and Tumor Growth Delay(1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyoung Cheol; Kim, Jung Soo; Choi, Dong Seong; Song, Chang Won

    1994-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of aqueous extract of Ganoderma lucidum(G.I.) on the survival of tumor cells in vitro and on the growth of tumors in vivo. Materials and Methods: Dried G.I. was made into powder, extracted with distilled water, filtered and diluted from a maximum concentration of 100 mg/ml in sequence. The cytotoxicity of G.O. in vitro was evaluated from its ability to reduce the clonogenicity of SCK tumor cells. For the tumor growth delay study, about 2x10 5 of SCK tumor cells were subcutaneously inoculated in the legs of A/J mice. The first experimental group of mice were injected i.p. with 0.2ml of 250 mg/kg of G/I. From the first day after tumor inoculation for 10 days. The second experimental group of mice were injected i.p. with 0.2ml of 250 mg/kg of G.I. either once a day for 10 days or twice a day for 5 days beginning from the 7th day after tumor inoculation. Results: 1. Cytotoxicity in vitro; survival fraction, as judged from the curve, at G.I. concentration of 0.5, 1,5,10,25,50 and 100 mg/ml were 1.0, 0.74±0.03, 0.18±0.03, 0.15±0.02, 0.006±0.002, 0.015 and 0.0015, respectively. 2. Tumor growth delay in vivo; a) the time required for the mean tumor volume to grow to 1,000mm 3 was 11 days in the control group and 14 days in the experimental group. b) the time required for tumor volume to increase 4 times was 11 days in the control group while it was 10.5 and 12 days in the groups injected with G.I. once a day and twice a day from the 7th day after tumor inoculation respectively. Conclusion: Aqueous extracts of G.I. showed a marked cytotoxicity on the SCK mammary cells in vitro. Tumor growth delay was statistically significant when G.I. injection was started soon after tumor inoculation, but it was not significant when injection was started after the tumors were firmly established

  17. Supplementation with Folic Acid, but Not Creatine, Increases Plasma Betaine, Decreases Plasma Dimethylglycine, and Prevents a Decrease in Plasma Choline in Arsenic-Exposed Bangladeshi Adults123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Megan N; Liu, Xinhua; Caudill, Marie A; Malysheva, Olga; Ilievski, Vesna; Lomax-Luu, Angela M; Parvez, Faruque; Siddique, Abu B; Shahriar, Hasan; Uddin, Mohammad N; Islam, Tariqul; Graziano, Joseph H; Gamble, Mary V

    2016-01-01

    Background: Folic acid (FA) supplementation facilitates urinary excretion of arsenic, a human carcinogen. A better understanding of interactions between one-carbon metabolism intermediates may improve the ability to design nutrition interventions that further facilitate arsenic excretion. Objective: The objective was to determine if FA and/or creatine supplementation increase choline and betaine and decrease dimethylglycine (DMG). Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Folic Acid and Creatine Trial, a randomized trial in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults (n = 605, aged 24–55 y, 50.3% male) who received arsenic-removal water filters. We examined treatment effects of FA and/or creatine supplementation on plasma choline, betaine, and DMG concentrations, measured by LC–tandem mass spectrometry at baseline and at week 12. Group comparisons were between 1) 400 and 800 μg FA/d (FA400 and FA800, respectively) compared with placebo, 2) creatine (3 g/d) compared with placebo, and 3) creatine plus FA400 compared with FA400. Results: Choline decreased in the placebo group (−6.6%; 95% CI: −10.2%, −2.9%) but did not change in the FA groups (FA400: 2.5%; 95% CI: −0.9%, 6.1%; FA800: 1.4%; 95% CI: −2.5%, 5.5%; P DMG was greater in the FA groups (FA400: −26.7%; 95% CI: −30.9%, −22.2%; FA800: −27.8%; 95% CI: −31.8%, −23.4%) than in the placebo group (−12.3%; 95% CI: −18.1%, −6.2%; P DMG did not differ between creatine treatment arms and their respective reference groups. Conclusion: Supplementation for 12 wk with FA, but not creatine, increases plasma betaine, decreases plasma DMG, and prevents a decrease in plasma choline in arsenic-exposed Bangladeshi adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01050556. PMID:27052531

  18. Fatores associados à ocorrência de parasitoses intestinais em uma população de crianças e adolescentes Factores asociados a la ocurrencia de parasitosis intestinales en una población de niños y adolescentes Factors associated with intestinal parasitosis in a population of children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Silva Belo

    2012-06-01

    %, ranging from 7 to 83% between schools of lower and higher occurrence respectively. The presence of toilets in the home was associated with a lower prevalence of helminths; the increasing age of the students was associated with a higher rates of protozoon and parasites in general, while the presence of water filter and living in urban area were associated with a lower prevalence of the three outcomes. In all regions, the consumption of preventive medication against helminths was recorded. CONCLUSIONS: Inequalities in living conditions have changed the prevalence of parasitosis differently among the study regions. The study underscores the need to promote the use of water filters in endemic areas houses and to evaluate the preventive use of anti-helminthic drugs in the dynamic of individual health. Control measures that take into account the factors described should be a priority.

  19. Attempt at correlating Italian long lineaments from LANDSAT-1 satellite images with some geological phenomena. Possible use in geothermal energy research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, E.; Fanelli, M.

    1975-01-01

    By utilizing the images from the LANDSAT-1, in the spectral band 0.8-1.1 microns (near infrared), a photomosaic was obtained of Italian territory. From this mosaic the field of long lineaments was drawn, corresponding to fractures of the earth crust more than 100 km long. The relationship between lineaments, hot springs, volcanic areas, and earthquake epicenters is verified. There is a clear connection between long lineaments and hot springs: 78% of the springs are located on one or more lineaments, and the existence of hot lineaments was observed. A slightly weaker, but still significant, connection exists between the Pliocene-Quaternary volcanic areas and long lineaments. The relationship between earthquakes and long lineaments can only be verified in some cases. The lineaments which can be related to earthquakes have little or no connection with the other phenomena.

  20. A holomorphic anomaly in the elliptic genus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    We consider a class of gauged linear sigma models (GLSMs) in two dimensions that flow to non-compact (2,2) superconformal field theories in the infra-red, a prototype of which is the SL(2,ℝ)/U(1) (cigar) coset. We compute the elliptic genus of the GLSMs as a path-integral on the torus using supersymmetric localization. We find that the result is a Jacobi-like form that is non-holomorphic in the modular parameter τ of the torus, with mock modular behavior. This agrees with a previously-computed expression in the cigar coset. We show that the lack of holomorphicity of the elliptic genus arises from the contributions of a compact boson carrying momentum and winding excitations. This boson has an axionic shift symmetry and plays the role of a compensator field that is needed to cancel the chiral anomaly in the rest of the theory.

  1. Recent Accomplishments in Laser-Photovoltaic Wireless Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, John C.; Henley, Mark W.; Mankins, John C.; Howell, Joe T.; Fork, Richard L.; Cole, Spencer T.; Skinner, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Wireless power transmission can be accomplished over long distances using laser power sources and photovoltaic receivers. Recent research at AMOS has improved our understanding of the use of this technology for practical applications. Research by NASA, Boeing, the University of Alabama-Huntsville, the University of Colorado, Harvey Mudd College, and the Naval Postgraduate School has tested various commercial lasers and photovoltaic receiver configurations. Lasers used in testing have included gaseous argon and krypton, solid-state diodes, and fiber optic sources, at wavelengths ranging from the visible to the near infra-red. A variety of Silicon and Gallium Arsenide photovoltaic have been tested with these sources. Safe operating procedures have been established, and initial tests have been conducted in the open air at AMOS facilities. This research is progressing toward longer distance ground demonstrations of the technology and practical near-term space demonstrations.

  2. Naturalness from Runaways in Direct Mediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schafer-Nameki, Sakura; /UC, Santa Barbara /King' s Coll. London; Tamarit, Carlos; /UC, Santa Barbara; Torroba, Gonzalo; /SLAC

    2011-02-07

    Postulating that the NMSSM singlet is a meson of a microscopic confining theory opens up new model-building possibilities. Based on this, we construct calculable models of direct mediation that solve the {mu}/B{mu} problem and simultaneously lead to realistic phenomenology. The singlet that couples to the Higgs fields develops a runaway produced by soft interactions, then stabilized by a small superpotential perturbation. The mechanism is first realized in an O'Raifeartaigh model of direct gauge mediation with metastable supersymmetry breaking. Focusing then on the microscopic theory, we argue that super QCD with massless and massive flavors in the free magnetic phase gives rise to this dynamics in the infrared. A deformation of the SQCD superpotential leads to large spontaneous R-symmetry breaking, gaugino masses naturally at the scale of the Higgs mass parameters, and absence of CP violating phases.

  3. Analysis of WFCAM images of M33 galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najme Golabtooni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 1200 images and catalogues of M33 spiral galaxy taken by WFCAM camera at UKIRT telescope in J, H and K bands. Cross correlation methods were employed to identify stars in overlapping regions from among images taken in different dates. Careful astrometric and photometric analysis was made to calibrate stellar positions and magnitudes using their 2MASS near infra red survey. The final catalogue consisted of 445303 stars and covered more than 0.75 square degrees of sky centered on M33 core, which included the bulge and spiral arms. This is the biggest catalogue ever made from a nearby spiral galaxy in near infrared. A color magnitude diagram in near infrared was plotted, which shows a bunch of very red stars that extended to J-K = 4.

  4. The Chiral and Angular Momentum Content of the ρ-Meson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozman, L. Ya.; Lang, C. B.; Limmer, M.

    2010-01-01

    It is possible to define and calculate in a gauge-invariant manner the chiral as well as the partial wave content of the quark-antiquark Fock component of a meson in the infrared, where mass is generated. Using the variational method and a set of interpolators that span a complete chiral basis we extract in a lattice QCD Monte Carlo simulation with n f = 2 dynamical light quarks the orbital angular momentum and spin content of the ρ-meson. We obtain in the infrared a simple 3 S 1 component as a leading component of the ρ-meson with a small admixture of the 3 D 1 partial wave, in agreement with the SU(6) flavor-spin symmetry.

  5. Behavior of uranium under conditions of interaction of rocks and ores with subsurface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omel'Yanenko, B. I.; Petrov, V. A.; Poluektov, V. V.

    2007-10-01

    increases by orders of magnitude and subsurface water is commonly undersaturated with uranium. Uranium absorbed by secondary minerals, particularly by iron hydroxides and leucoxene, is its single stable species under oxidizing conditions. The impact of oxygen-bearing water leads to destruction of uranium ore. This process is realized simultaneously at different hypsometric levels even if the permeability of the medium is variable in both the lateral and vertical directions. As a result, intervals containing uranyl minerals and relics of primary uranium ore are combined in ore-bearing zones with intervals of completely dissolved uranium minerals. A wide halo of elevated uranium contents caused by sorption is always retained at the location of uranium ore entirely destroyed by weathering. Uranium ore commonly finds itself in the aeration zone due to technogenic subsidence of the groundwater table caused by open-pit mining or pumping out of water from underground mines. The capillary and film waters that interact with rocks and ores in this zone are supplemented by free water filtering along fractures when rain falls or snow is thawing. The interaction of uranium ore with capillary water results in oxidation of uraninite, accompanied by loosening of the mineral surface, formation of microfractures, and an increase in solubility with enrichment of capillary water in uranium up to 10-4 mol/l. Secondary U(VI) minerals, first of all, uranyl hydroxides and silicates, replace uraninite, and uranium undergoes local diffusion redistribution with its sorption by secondary minerals of host rocks. The influx of free water facilitates the complete dissolution of primary and secondary uranium minerals, the removal of uranium at the sites of groundwater discharge, and its redeposition under reducing conditions at a greater depth. It is evident that the conditions of the upper hydrodynamic zone and the aeration zone are unfit for long-term insulation of SNF and high-level wastes because

  6. Perfil de los usuarios de drogas por vía parenteral que mantienen conductas de riesgo relacionadas con la inyección en Cataluña Characteristics of intravenous drug users who share injection equipment in Catalonia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinta Folch

    2012-02-01

    between 2008 and 2009 in harm reduction centers. Behavioral data were collected using anonymous questionnaires administered by trained interviewers. Results: Of the 748 respondents, 31.5% had shared syringes at least once in the previous 6 months and 55.2% reported sharing injection paraphernalia (spoons, water, filters. A higher risk of syringe sharing was found among IDUs who injected daily (OR=1.5, injected cocaine (OR=1.6, had less than half their supply of syringes from a free source (OR=2.5, had an IDU sexual partner (OR=1.8 or who reported indirect sharing (OR=4.1. A higher risk of indirect sharing was found in respondents who had an illegal source of income (OR=1.5, injected daily (OR=1, 5, injected cocaine (OR=1.4, reported sharing syringes (OR=3.9, or who reported a previous overdose (OR=1.5. Conclusions: Despite the widespread use of harm reduction programs in Catalonia, a significant proportion of IDUs continue to practise injection-related risk behaviors. Further reductions in risk behaviors could be achieved by improving access to all sterile injecting equipment, especially among cocaine injectors and IDUs who inject frequently, and by including IDU sexual partners within the current network of harm reduction centers.

  7. Automatic controller to water plants Acionador automático para irrigar plantas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Oliveira Medici

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the massive demand of water for plant irrigation, there are few devices being used in the automation of this process in agriculture. This work evaluates a simple controller to water plants automatically that can be set up with low cost commercial materials, which are large-scale produced. This controller is composed by a ceramic capsule used in common domestic water filters; a plastic tube around 1.5 m long, and a pressostate used in domestic washing machines. The capsule and the pressostate are connected through the tube so that all parts are filled with water. The ceramic capsule is the sensor of the controller and has to be placed into the plant substrate. The pressostate has to be placed below the sensor and the lower it is, the higher is the water tension to start the irrigation, since the lower is the pressostate the higher is the water column above it and, therefore, the higher is the tension inside the ceramic cup to pull up the water column. The controller was evaluated in the control of drip irrigation for small containers filled with commercial organic substrate or soil. Linear regressions explained the relationship between the position of pressostate and the maximum water tension in the commercial substrate (p A despeito da enorme demanda por água na irrigação de plantas, existem poucos aparelhos para automação deste processo sendo usados na agricultura. Avaliou-se um acionador automático para irrigação, o qual pode ser confeccionado com materiais comerciais de baixo custo, pois são produzidos em larga escala. Este acionador é composto por uma cápsula cerâmica usada em filtros de água domésticos; um tubo plástico com cerca de um metro e meio de comprimento e um pressostato de máquinas de lavar roupas domésticas. A cápsula e o pressostato são conectados pelo tubo de forma que todo o espaço interno seja preenchido com água. A cápsula é o sensor do acionador e deve ser posicionada dentro do substrato das

  8. Toxicidade, deterrência e repelência de extratos aquosos de Cabralea canjerana ssp. polytricha (a. juss. penn. (Meliaceae sobre o curuquerê-da-couve ascia monuste orseis (godart (Lepidoptera: pieridae Toxicity, deterrence and repellence of aqueous extracts of Cabralea canjerana ssp. polytricha (Meliaceae on ascia monuste orseis (Lepidoptera, the cabbage caterpillar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosely F. F. Mata

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho avaliou, em laboratório, a toxicidade, a repelência e a deterrência de extratos aquosos de sementes, de folhas e de frutos de Cabralea canjerana ssp. polytricha (Meliaceae sobre o curuquerê-da-couve Ascia monuste orseis (Lepidoptera. Extratos aquosos a 3, 5 e 10% foram obtidos por infusão do material biológico seco triturado em água destilada e filtrado após 24 h. Dentro de 48 h após o preparo, folhas de couve foram mergulhadas nos extratos ou em água destilada e utilizadas para avaliar o efeito dos extratos na percentagem de sobrevivência e no tempo de vida das larvas. A repelência e a deterrência dos extratos foram avaliadas em testes com e sem chance de escolha de folhas tratadas ou não, avaliando-se, comparativamente, a área consumida e o número de larvas por porção foliar. Houve 100% de mortalidade das larvas nos tratamentos, em contraste com a sobrevivência de 87% delas no controle. Larvas alimentadas com folhas tratadas sobreviveram significativamente menos que larvas do controle. Ao contrário de extratos de folhas e frutos, extratos de sementes apresentaram efeito repelente, mas não intenso o suficiente para evitar o consumo foliar. Houve redução no consumo foliar pelas larvas submetidas ao extrato a 10% nos experimentos com chance de escolha. Quando larvas não tiveram opção de consumir folhas sem extratos, alimentavam-se de folhas tratadas, porém com menor consumo, principalmente nas concentrações de 10 e 5%.The toxicity, deterrence and repellence of aqueous extracts of seeds, leaves and fruits of Cabralea canjerana ssp. polytricha (Meliaceae on the cabbage caterpillar, Ascia monuste orseis (Lepidoptera, were evaluated in laboratory. Aqueous extract of 3, 5 and 10% were obtained by infusion of dried and pulverized biological material in distilled water, filtered after 24h. Within 48h after preparation, cabbage leaves were immersed in the extracts or in distilled water and used in tests to

  9. Irrigation-induced contamination of water, sediment, and biota in the western United States-synthesis of data from the National Irrigation Water Quality Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Ralph L.; Skorupa, Joseph P.; Naftz, David L.; Nolan, B. Thomas

    2003-01-01

    . Data collected by the NIWQP studies indicated that, in surface water, filtered and unfiltered samples had nearly the same concentrations of arsenic, boron, molybdenum, and selenium for concentrations greater than about 10 micrograms per liter. Therefore, in this concentration range, filtered concentrations can be directly compared to biological-effect levels developed for unfiltered samples. In the range of 1 to 10 micrograms per liter there may be a tendency for unfiltered arsenic concentrations to be greater than filtered concentrations. For selenium, however, the data suggest differences from equality in that range result from analytical imprecision and not a general tendency for unfiltered concentrations to be greater than filtered concentrations. This relation may not be true in lentic, nutrient-rich waters because in such settings algae can bioaccumulate large amounts of selenium and other trace elements. Selenium was the trace element in surface water that most commonly exceeded chronic criteria for the protection of freshwater aquatic life; more than 40 percent of the selenium concentrations in surface-water samples exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) aquatic-life chronic criterion (5 micrograms per liter). In 12 of the 26 areas at least 25 percent of the surface water-samples had selenium concentrations that either equaled or exceeded the chronic criterion (5 micrograms per liter). More than 28 percent of boron concentrations and almost 17 percent of the molybdenum concentrations exceeded the aquatic life criteria established by the State of California (550 and 19 micrograms per liter, respectively). In ground water, more than 22 percent of the arsenic concentrations and more than 35 percent of the selenium concentrations exceeded the MCL (10 and 50 micrograms per liter, respectively). Few samples of uranium in surface water exceeded a criterion for the protection of aquatic life (300 micrograms per liter), but 44 percent

  10. Estimating the global burden of thalassogenic diseases: human infectious diseases caused by wastewater pollution of the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuval, Hillel

    2003-06-01

    bathing in wastewater-polluted coastal waters. Filter-feeding shellfish/bivalves, which are often harvested from wastewater-polluted areas of the sea, can effectively filter out and concentrate the microbial pathogens in the seawater. It can be roughly estimated that annually there are some 4 million cases of infectious hepatitis A and E (HAV/HEV), with some 40 thousand deaths and 40 thousand cases of long-term disability, mainly chronic liver damage, from consuming raw or lightly steamed filter-feeding shellfish/molluscs harvested globally from polluted coastal waters. The total global health impact of the thalassogenic diseases--human infectious diseases associated with pathogenic microorganisms from land-based wastewater pollution of the seas--is estimated to be about 3 million 'disability-adjusted life years' (DALY)/year, with an estimated economic loss of some 12 billion dollars per year. Due to the preliminary nature of the estimates in this study it is appropriate to assume that all of the above figures are no more than first approximations and that the true figures may be 50% higher or lower. Nevertheless, it is the author's belief that this study indicates that wastewater pollution of the sea results in a multi-billion dollar per year health burden and that preventing wastewater pollution of the sea is worthy of inclusion on the global agenda of marine pollution prevention and control.

  11. Characterization of active members in C and N cycles in the subsurface environment of the Witwatersrand Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, M. R.; Lau, C. M.; Tetteh, G.; Snyder, L.; Kieft, T. L.; Lollar, B. S.; Li, L.; Maphanga, S.; van Heerden, E.; Onstott, T. C.

    2012-12-01

    methanotrophs were found three times more than Type I methanotrophs. A pmoA gene sequence represents 42% of the library matches only and is identical to a putative protein sequence annotated on Ca. D. audaxviator genome, but further analysis is required to validate its candidature of methanotrophy. The cluster of mcrA gene sequences is related to a novel group of anaerobic methanotrophs (ANME) defined by environmental sequences. 2011 July samples from the same borehole revealed an absence of Firmicutes. Two β-Proteobacterial sequences dominated the bacterial 16S rDNA clone library, accounting for 54% and 25%. The first 16S rRNA clone library for the region confirmed a complete lack of Firmicutes with active Proteobacteria (71% α-, 17% β- and 6% γ-Proteobacteria). Only 3% of the active community is confidently inferred as methylotrophs while 22% belongs to N2 fixer Rhizobium sp. which has been demonstrated to stimulate methanotrophic growth and 28% is related to Polymorphum gilvum, which is known for n-alkane degradation. Active members responsible for CH4 metabolism will be supported by presenting the results of archaeal 16S rRNA, pmoA, mcrA and nitrogenase gene diversities. The lack of Firmicutes in July samples could be attributed to collection methods: different filter membrane, faster flowrate but shorter sampling duration, and less total volume of water filtered.

  12. WFIRST: Astrometry with the Wide-Field Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Andrea; WFIRST Astrometry Working Group

    2018-01-01

    The wide field of view and stable, sharp images delivered by WFIRST's Wide-Field Imager make it an excellent instrument for astrometry, one of five major discovery areas identified in the 2010 Decadal Survey. Compared to the Hubble Space Telescope, WFIRST's wider field of view with similar image quality will provide hundreds more astrometric targets per image as well as background galaxies and stars with precise positions in the Gaia catalog. In addition, WFIRST will operate in the infrared, a wavelength regime where the most precise astrometry has so far been achieved with adaptive optics images from large ground-based telescopes. WFIRST will provide at least a factor of three improvement in astrometry over the current state of the art in this wavelength range, while spanning a field of view thousands of times larger. WFIRST is thus poised to make major contributions to multiple science topics in which astrometry plays an important role, without major alterations to the planned mission or instrument. We summarize a few of the most compelling science cases where WFIRST astrometry could prove transformational.

  13. [Prediction of the side-cut product yield of atmospheric/vacuum distillation unit by NIR crude oil rapid assay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Bin; Hu, Yu-Zhong; Li, Wen-Le; Zhang, Wei-Song; Zhou, Feng; Luo, Zhi

    2014-10-01

    In the present paper, based on the fast evaluation technique of near infrared, a method to predict the yield of atmos- pheric and vacuum line was developed, combined with H/CAMS software. Firstly, the near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy method for rapidly determining the true boiling point of crude oil was developed. With commercially available crude oil spectroscopy da- tabase and experiments test from Guangxi Petrochemical Company, calibration model was established and a topological method was used as the calibration. The model can be employed to predict the true boiling point of crude oil. Secondly, the true boiling point based on NIR rapid assay was converted to the side-cut product yield of atmospheric/vacuum distillation unit by H/CAMS software. The predicted yield and the actual yield of distillation product for naphtha, diesel, wax and residual oil were compared in a 7-month period. The result showed that the NIR rapid crude assay can predict the side-cut product yield accurately. The near infrared analytic method for predicting yield has the advantages of fast analysis, reliable results, and being easy to online operate, and it can provide elementary data for refinery planning optimization and crude oil blending.

  14. THz Spectroscopy and Spectroscopic Database for Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, John C.; Drouin, Brian J.

    2006-01-01

    Molecule specific astronomical observations rely on precisely determined laboratory molecular data for interpretation. The Herschel Heterodyne Instrument for Far Infrared, a suite of SOFIA instruments, and ALMA are each well placed to expose the limitations of available molecular physics data and spectral line catalogs. Herschel and SOFIA will observe in high spectral resolution over the entire far infrared range. Accurate data to previously unimagined frequencies including infrared ro-vibrational and ro-torsional bands will be required for interpretation of the observations. Planned ALMA observations with a very small beam will reveal weaker emission features requiring accurate knowledge of higher quantum numbers and additional vibrational states. Historically, laboratory spectroscopy has been at the front of submillimeter technology development, but now astronomical receivers have an enormous capability advantage. Additionally, rotational spectroscopy is a relatively mature field attracting little interest from students and funding agencies. Molecular data base maintenance is tedious and difficult to justify as research. This severely limits funding opportunities even though data bases require the same level of expertise as research. We report the application of some relatively new receiver technology into a simple solid state THz spectrometer that has the performance required to collect the laboratory data required by astronomical observations. Further detail on the lack of preparation for upcoming missions by the JPL spectral line catalog is given.

  15. Temperature and exchange field dependences of the magnetic and magnetooptical properties of Y3Fe5O12 under low and intense magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillot, M.; Le Gall, H.

    1976-01-01

    Faraday rotation (phi/sub F/) measurements are reported in YIG at 1.15 and 0.6328 microns wavelengths under low and very intense magnetic fields (up to 4 mega-Oersteds). These results are discussed from the applied field and temperature dependences of the magnetooptical (M.O.) coefficients induced by the light beam in both the octahedral (a) and tetrahedral (d) sites. It is shown that under very intense magnetic field and in the visible range the M.O. coefficients A/sub m/ and D/sub m/ induced by the magnetic dipole transitions are independent on the applied field and phi/sup m/ follows the usual evolution of the magnetic structure which shows a first-order transition (ferri → non colinear structure) near H/sub a/ = 1.7 mega-Oersteds. On the other hand in the near infrared A/sub m/ and D/sub m/ have a strong magnetic field dependence in the mega-Oersteds range with increasing the dc field. It is shown that the magnetic and electric parts of phi/sub F/ are increasing and decreasing respectively when increasing the dc field and the experimental data are in agreement with a molecular field model where the magnetic intra-sublattices interactions J/sub aa/ and J/sub dd/ are vanishing

  16. Effective chiral restoration in the ρ' meson in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glozman, L. Ya.; Lang, C. B.; Limmer, Markus

    2010-01-01

    In simulations with dynamical quarks it has been established that the ground state ρ in the infrared is a strong mixture of the two chiral representations (0,1)+(1,0) and (1/2,1/2) b . Its angular momentum content is approximately the 3 S 1 partial wave. Effective chiral restoration in an excited ρ-meson would require that in the infrared this meson couples predominantly to one of the two representations. The variational method allows one to study the mixing of interpolators with different chiral transformation properties in the nonperturbatively determined excited state at different resolution scales. We present results for the first excited state of the ρ-meson using simulations with n f =2 dynamical quarks. We point out, that in the infrared a leading contribution to ρ ' =ρ(1450) comes from (1/2,1/2) b , in contrast to the ρ. The ρ ' wave function contains a significant contribution of the 3 D 1 wave which is not consistent with the quark model prediction.

  17. Effective chiral restoration in the ρ' meson in lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glozman, L. Ya.; Lang, C. B.; Limmer, Markus

    2010-11-01

    In simulations with dynamical quarks it has been established that the ground state ρ in the infrared is a strong mixture of the two chiral representations (0,1)+(1,0) and (1/2,1/2)b. Its angular momentum content is approximately the S13 partial wave. Effective chiral restoration in an excited ρ-meson would require that in the infrared this meson couples predominantly to one of the two representations. The variational method allows one to study the mixing of interpolators with different chiral transformation properties in the nonperturbatively determined excited state at different resolution scales. We present results for the first excited state of the ρ-meson using simulations with nf=2 dynamical quarks. We point out, that in the infrared a leading contribution to ρ'=ρ(1450) comes from (1/2,1/2)b, in contrast to the ρ. The ρ' wave function contains a significant contribution of the D13 wave which is not consistent with the quark model prediction.

  18. Superimpose methods for uncooled infrared camera applied to the micro-scale thermal characterization of composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikawa, Junko

    2015-05-01

    The mobile type apparatus for a quantitative micro-scale thermography using a micro-bolometer was developed based on our original techniques such as an achromatic lens design to capture a micro-scale image in long-wave infrared, a video signal superimposing for the real time emissivity correction, and a pseudo acceleration of a timeframe. The total size of the instrument was designed as it was put in the 17 cm x 28 cm x 26 cm size carrying box. The video signal synthesizer enabled to record a direct digital signal of monitoring temperature or positioning data. The encoded digital signal data embedded in each image was decoded to read out. The protocol to encode/decode the measured data was originally defined. The mixed signals of IR camera and the imposed data were applied to the pixel by pixel emissivity corrections and the pseudo-acceleration of the periodical thermal phenomena. Because the emissivity of industrial materials and biological tissues were usually inhomogeneous, it has the different temperature dependence on each pixel. The time-scale resolution for the periodic thermal event was improved with the algorithm for "pseudoacceleration". It contributes to reduce the noise by integrating the multiple image data, keeping a time resolution. The anisotropic thermal properties of some composite materials such as thermal insulating materials of cellular plastics and the biometric composite materials were analyzed using these techniques.

  19. Antimony in the soil-water-plant system at the Su Suergiu abandoned mine (Sardinia, Italy): strategies to mitigate contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidu, Rosa; Biddau, Riccardo; Dore, Elisabetta; Vacca, Andrea; Marini, Luigi

    2014-11-01

    This study was aimed to implement the understanding of the Sb behavior in near-surface environments, as a contribution to address appropriate mitigation actions at contaminated sites. For this purpose, geochemical data of soil (8 sites), water (29 sites), and plant (12 sites) samples were collected. The study area is located at Su Suergiu and surroundings in Sardinia (Italy), an abandoned mine area heavily contaminated with Sb, with relevant impact on water bodies that supply water for agriculture and domestic uses. Antimony in the soil horizons ranged from 19 to 4400 mg kg(-1), with highest concentrations in soils located close to the mining-related wastes, and concentrations in the topsoil much higher than in the bedrock. The Sb readily available fraction was about 2% of the total Sb in the soil. Antimony in the pore water ranged from 23 to 1700 μg L(-1), with highest values in the Sb-rich soils. The waters showed neutral to slightly alkaline pH, redox potential values indicating oxidizing conditions, electrical conductivity in the range of 0.2 to 3.7 mS cm(-1), and dissolved organic carbon ≤2 mg L(-1). The waters collected upstream of the mine have Ca-bicarbonate dominant composition, and median concentration of Sb(tot) of 1.7 μg L(-1) (that is total antimony determined in waters filtered through 0.45 μm), a value relatively high as compared with the background value (≤0.5 μg L(-1) Sb) estimated for Sardinian waters, but below the limits established by the European Union and the World Health Organization for drinking water (5 μg L(-1) Sb and 20 μg L(-1) Sb, respectively). The waters flowing in the mine area are characterized by Ca-sulfate dominant composition, and median concentrations of 7000 μg L(-1) Sb(tot). Extreme concentrations, up to 30,000 μg L(-1) Sb(tot), were observed in waters flowing out of the slag materials derived from the processing of Sb-ore. The Sb(III) was in the range of 0.8 to 760 μg L(-1) and represented up to 6% of Sb

  20. Bens de consumo e insegurança alimentar: diferenças de gênero, cor de pele autorreferida e condição socioeconômica Household appliances and food insecurity: gender, referred skin color and socioeconomic differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Marin-Leon

    2011-09-01

    nos de mulheres negras. CONCLUSÃO: Em nível nacional e em domicílios com renda de até um salário mínimo, condições socioeconômicas mais precárias estão associadas à insegurança alimentar, sendo a situação agravada naqueles chefiados por mulheres e onde residem pessoas de cor autorreferida como negra. A ausência de bens identifica, entre os pobres, a população mais vulnerável à insegurança alimentar e pode se constituir em indicador complementar, sobretudo em estudos locais, onde há escassez de recursos técnicos para coleta de dados e análises mais sofisticadas.OBJECTIVE: Data from the National Household Survey 2004 was analyzed to compare differences in prevalence among moderate or severe food insecurity. Also, it was compared food security or mild food insecurity households in relation to the assets and other socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the household. METHOD: Private permanent households, with per capita monthly income of up to one minimum wage and with the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale answered by a household resident were studied (n=51,357. Association of variables with the dependent variable (food security was verified using Χ2 test, with 5% significance level. Crude prevalence ratio, respective 95% confidence interval and adjusted analyses were carried out using Poisson multiple regression Stata 8.0. It considers the weights of the complex sampling design of the survey. RESULTS: The per capita monthly household income was the variable with strongest association to food security. Both in urban and rural areas, there were higher risk of moderate or severe food insecurity prevalence ratio when the head of the household was a female, black color, presence of six or more members in the household, metropolitan area and with absence of some specific assets (stove, water filter, refrigerator, freezer, washing machine and cellular phone. In a model that, among assets, included just the refrigerator, it was observed the highest

  1. Naturally occurring radioactive elements, arsenic and other metals in drinking water from private wells; Naturligt radioaktiva aemnen, arsenik och andra metaller i dricksvatten fraan enskilda brunnar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ek, Britt-Marie; Thunholm, Bo (Geological Survey of Sweden (SGU), Uppsala (SE)); Oestergren, Inger; Falk, Rolf; Mjoenes, Lars (Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2008-04-15

    Gotland, where the bedrock is dominated by Silurian limestones, the majority of the water samples showed boron concentrations far exceeding the provisional guide line value 500 mug/l set by WHO. Metals like lead, cadmium, nickel and chromium are only rarely found in harmful concentrations in Swedish drinking-water. A conclusion of the results from this study is that ordinary analyses of physico-chemical and microbiological parameters as well as radon-222, should be complemented with analyses of metals including uranium and arsenic, especially in waters from drilled wells in bedrock. A direct finding from this study is that radium-226 accumulates in some types of common water filters, which are often used to decrease iron and manganese. With arsenic concentrations in the drinking water exceeding the guide line 10 mug/l, actions should be taken to reduce the concentrations below this limit.

  2. Challenges to Stakeholder Participation in Water Reuse for Irrigation in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Gemma; Potter, Rob; Nortcliff, Stephen

    2010-05-01

    incomes through this resource. Direct users also felt that communication with the managers of the wastewater treatment plant was more effective and this enabled them to influence the final quality of the water they received (for example, through requesting a reduction in the chlorine concentration in the wastewater effluent due to the negative effect that chlorine has on crop quality). The indirect reuse farmers had a lower level of satisfaction with the reclaimed water (69 per cent of those asked described the water quality as bad). The interviews revealed that few farmers felt included in water resource management decisions and felt unable to discuss water quality concerns with government officials responsible for water distribution. The indirect reuse farmers seemed to be more concerned with water quality management at the individual farm level, through the installation of water filters to reduce the organic load of the water rather than through processes of lobbying or participatory involvement in decision-making to raise the quality of the water through top-down measures such as the enforcement of water quality legislation. The interviews with 29 organisational representatives drew attention to the sensitivity surrounding indirect water reuse which seems to inhibit open discussion of the topic. This is likely to be due to the nature of agriculture at the sites of indirect reuse. Institutional representatives appeared to be concerned with the risk of consumer rejection of produce grown with reclaimed water and the associated negative effects of rejection on agricultural income and employment. A strategy of reduced discussion seemed to be adopted in the attempt to minimise the potential for consumer rejection. The present research proposes that this strategy (adopted with the aim of protecting agriculture) could have the reverse effect though inhibiting the participation of farmers in water reuse planning and management (they are unable to take part in a process in

  3. Assessing the potential toxicity of marine sediments found in petroleum industry areas: A new approach based on responses of postlarval shrimp; Evaluacion del potencial de toxicidad de sedimentos marinos en areas de la industria petrolera: Un nuevo metodo basado en respuestas de postlarvas de camarones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelista, A.J.A.; Nascimento, I.A.; Pereira, S.A.; Lopes, M.B.N.L.; Martins, L.K.P. [Laboratorio de Bio Marinha e Biomonitoramento IBIO-UFBA, Campus Universitario de Ondina, Salvador (Brazil); Fillmann, G [Plymouth Marine Laboratory, West Hoe, PL (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-15

    In this study we tested the toxicity of bulk sediment from the northeastern area of Todos os Santos Bay, Bahia, Brazil, to evaluate environmental impact induced by 50 years of exposure to the local petroleum industry (Petrobras). Sediment samples were collected during one year, at three-month intervals, from four sites in areas of oil extraction (Ilha das Fontes, station 4), transportation (Ilhas de Madre de Deus and Pati, stations 2 and 3) and refinement (RELAM, station1). Two reference stations (5 and 6) were located outside the petroleum influence area, to the south of the bay. Static bioassays were conducted for 96 h, using 7-8 day old Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae (PL). The assays were conducted in 2.5 L plastic jars containing 200 g of surface (1 cm deep) bulk sediment covered by 2 L of dilution water (filtered seawater, 28 ppt salinity, 27 + 2 degree centigrade and DO under saturation). Fifteen exposed PL in each jar were fed daily on 60 recently hatched Artemia salina nauplii. Physico-chemical parameters were monitored. Mortality and dry weight gain were taken as end-points. The PL mortality data obtained for sediment from the Petrobras stations in comparison to the data from the reference stations were not significantly different (P > 0.05); however, the dry weight gain showed significant differences among stations. A maximum value was reached at station 5 (reference area) and a minimum at station 1 (RELAM refinery). Stations 2 and 3 in petroleum transportation areas did not show significant differences (P > 0.05). To evaluate the sensitivity of this bulk-sediment test in detecting contaminant effects generated by the petroleum industry, the toxicity data were considered in terms of the hydrocarbon levels analyzed in sediments from the same Petrobras areas and in one of the control areas, located outside the bay. The results support the assumption that the bulk-sediment bioassay on penaeid PL is a suitable methodology not only to distinguish between

  4. Estimating the marine signal in the near infrared for atmospheric correction of satellite ocean-color imagery over turbid waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdet, Alice; Frouin, Robert J.

    2014-11-01

    The classic atmospheric correction algorithm, routinely applied to second-generation ocean-color sensors such as SeaWiFS, MODIS, and MERIS, consists of (i) estimating the aerosol reflectance in the red and near infrared (NIR) where the ocean is considered black (i.e., totally absorbing), and (ii) extrapolating the estimated aerosol reflectance to shorter wavelengths. The marine reflectance is then retrieved by subtraction. Variants and improvements have been made over the years to deal with non-null reflectance in the red and near infrared, a general situation in estuaries and the coastal zone, but the solutions proposed so far still suffer some limitations, due to uncertainties in marine reflectance modeling in the near infrared or difficulty to extrapolate the aerosol signal to the blue when using observations in the shortwave infrared (SWIR), a spectral range far from the ocean-color wavelengths. To estimate the marine signal (i.e., the product of marine reflectance and atmospheric transmittance) in the near infrared, the proposed approach is to decompose the aerosol reflectance in the near infrared to shortwave infrared into principal components. Since aerosol scattering is smooth spectrally, a few components are generally sufficient to represent the perturbing signal, i.e., the aerosol reflectance in the near infrared can be determined from measurements in the shortwave infrared where the ocean is black. This gives access to the marine signal in the near infrared, which can then be used in the classic atmospheric correction algorithm. The methodology is evaluated theoretically from simulations of the top-of-atmosphere reflectance for a wide range of geophysical conditions and angular geometries and applied to actual MODIS imagery acquired over the Gulf of Mexico. The number of discarded pixels is reduced by over 80% using the PC modeling to determine the marine signal in the near infrared prior to applying the classic atmospheric correction algorithm.

  5. The organic surface of 5145 Pholus: Constraints set by scattering theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Peter D.; Sagan, Carl; Thompson, W. Reid

    1994-01-01

    No known body in the Solar System has a spectrum redder than that of object 5145 Pholus. We use Hapke scattering theory and optical constants measured in this laboratory to examine the ability of mixtures of a number of organic solids and ices to reproduce the observed spectrum and phase variation. The primary materials considered are poly-HCN, kerogen, Murchison organic extract, Titan tholin, ice tholin, and water ice. In a computer grid search of over 10 million models, we find an intraparticle mixture of 15% Titan tholin, 10% poly-HCN, and 75% water ice with 10-micrometers particles to provide an excellent fit. Replacing water ice with ammonia ice improves the fits significantly while using a pure hydrocarbon tholin, Tholin alpha, instead of Titan tholin makes only modest improvements. All acceptable fits require Titan tholin or some comparable material to provide the steep slope in the visible, and poly-HCN or some comparable material to provide strong absorption in the near-infrared. A pure Titan tholin surface with 16-micrometers particles, as well as all acceptable Pholus models, fit the present spectrophotometric data for the transplutonian object 1992 QB(sub 1). The feasibility of gas-phase chemistry to generate material like Titan tholin on such small objects is examined. An irradiated transient atmosphere arising from sublimating ices may generate at most a few centimeters of tholin over the lifetime of the Solar System, but this is insignificant compared to the expected lag deposit of primordial contaminants left behind by the sublimating ice. Irradiation of subsurface N2/CH4 or NH3/CH4 ice by cosmic rays may generate approximately 20 cm of tholin in the upper 10 m of regolith in the same time scale but the identity of this tholin to its gas-phase equivalent has not been demonstrated.

  6. The afocal telescope of the ESA ARIEL mission: analysis of the layout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Deppo, Vania; Middleton, Kevin; Focardi, Mauro; Morgante, Gianluca; Corso, Alain Jody; Pace, Emanuele; Claudi, Riccardo; Micela, Giuseppina

    2017-09-01

    ARIEL (Atmospheric Remote-sensing Infrared Exoplanet Large-survey) is one of the three present candidates as an M4 ESA mission to be launched in 2026. During its foreseen 3.5 years operation, it will observe spectroscopically in the infrared a large population of known transiting planets in the neighborhood of the Solar System. The aim is to enable a deep understanding of the physics and chemistry of these exoplanets. ARIEL is based on a 1-m class telescope ahead of a suite of instruments: two spectrometer channels covering the band 1.95 to 7.8 μm and four photometric channels (two wide and two narrow band) in the range 0.5 to 1.9 μm. The ARIEL optical design is conceived as a fore-module common afocal telescope that will feed the spectrometer and photometric channels. The telescope optical design is based on an eccentric pupil two-mirror classic Cassegrain configuration coupled to a tertiary paraboloidal mirror. The temperature of the primary mirror (M1) will be monitored and finely tuned by means of an active thermal control system based on thermistors and heaters. They will be switched on and off to maintain the M1 temperature within ±1 K thanks to a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller implemented within the Telescope Control Unit (TCU), a Payload electronics subsystem mainly in charge of the active thermal control of the two detectors owning to the spectrometer. TCU will collect the housekeeping data of the controlled subsystems and will forward them to the spacecraft (S/C) by means of the Instrument Control Unit (ICU), the main Payload's electronic Unit linked to the S/C On Board Computer (OBC).

  7. Decoupling Solar Variability and Instrument Trends Using the Multiple Same-Irradiance-Level (MuSIL) Analysis Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Eparvier, Francis G.; Harder, Jerald; Snow, Martin

    2018-05-01

    The solar spectral irradiance (SSI) dataset is a key record for studying and understanding the energetics and radiation balance in Earth's environment. Understanding the long-term variations of the SSI over timescales of the 11-year solar activity cycle and longer is critical for many Sun-Earth research topics. Satellite measurements of the SSI have been made since the 1970s, most of them in the ultraviolet, but recently also in the visible and near-infrared. A limiting factor for the accuracy of previous solar variability results is the uncertainties for the instrument degradation corrections, which need fairly large corrections relative to the amount of solar cycle variability at some wavelengths. The primary objective of this investigation has been to separate out solar cycle variability and any residual uncorrected instrumental trends in the SSI measurements from the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) mission and the Thermosphere, Mesosphere, Ionosphere, Energetic, and Dynamics (TIMED) mission. A new technique called the Multiple Same-Irradiance-Level (MuSIL) analysis has been developed, which examines an SSI time series at different levels of solar activity to provide long-term trends in an SSI record, and the most common result is a downward trend that most likely stems from uncorrected instrument degradation. This technique has been applied to each wavelength in the SSI records from SORCE (2003 - present) and TIMED (2002 - present) to provide new solar cycle variability results between 27 nm and 1600 nm with a resolution of about 1 nm at most wavelengths. This technique, which was validated with the highly accurate total solar irradiance (TSI) record, has an estimated relative uncertainty of about 5% of the measured solar cycle variability. The MuSIL results are further validated with the comparison of the new solar cycle variability results from different solar cycles.

  8. Sol-gel synthesis and characterization of single-phase Ni ferrite nanoparticles dispersed in SiO2 matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, K.; Traussnig, T.; Letofsky-Papst, I.; Krenn, H.; Brossmann, U.; Wuerschum, R.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoparticles of NiFe 2 O 4 dispersed in SiO 2 (25 wt%) matrix were synthesized by sol-gel method using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), as a precursor for SiO 2 . The sol-gel method for nanocomposites normally provides multi-phase nanoparticles. We investigated by a synopsis of different analysis methods, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and SQUID-magnetometry, how the various chemical phases are transformed to a single-phase spinel structure during the various stages of annealing from 300 to 900 o C. We have developed a full phase diagram of chemical phases as a function of annealing temperature. The average particle size lies in the range 16-27 nm. The chemical phases formed below 900 o C are NiFe, NiO, γ-Fe 2 O 3 , α-Fe 2 O 3 , and NiFe 2 O 4 , respectively. The role of the TEOS prepared SiO 2 matrix is to restrict the particle size in a small range in order to rule out particle size effects. In the mid-infrared, a shift of the vibrational Fe-O bond is observed from 568 to 586 cm -1 for annealing between 500 and 700 o C which indicates an increasing NiFe 2 O 4 phase formation. A systematic study of coercivity field (ranging from 32 to 200 Oe) and saturation magnetic moment (ranging from 12.2 to 32.1 emu/g) for differently annealed samples supports our findings about the evolution of single-phase NiFe 2 O 4 at 900 o C. The opposite trend of saturation magnetic moment and coercivity with respect to annealing temperature clearly separates the different phases of metallic, antiferromagnetic, and finally single-phase spinel NiFe 2 O 4 .

  9. Can cathodoluminescence of feldspar be used as provenance indicator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholonek, Christiane; Augustsson, Carita

    2016-05-01

    We have studied feldspar from crystalline rocks for its textural and spectral cathodoluminescence (CL) characteristics with the aim to reveal their provenance potential. We analyzed ca. 60 rock samples of plutonic, volcanic, metamorphic, and pegmatitic origin from different continents and of 16 Ma to 2 Ga age for their feldspar CL textures and ca. 1200 feldspar crystals from these rocks for their CL color spectra. Among the analyzed rocks, igneous feldspar is most commonly zoned, whereby oscillatory zoning can be confirmed to be typical for volcanic plagioclase. The volcanic plagioclase also less commonly contains twin lamellae that are visible in CL light than crystals from other rock types. Alkali feldspar, particularly from igneous and pegmatitic rocks, was noted to be most affected by alteration features, visible as dark spots, lines and irregular areas. The size of all textural features of up to ca. 150 μm, in combination with possible alteration in both the source area and the sedimentary system, makes the CL textures of feldspar possible to use for qualitative provenance research only. We observed alkali feldspar mostly to luminesce in a bluish color and sometimes in red, and plagioclase in green to yellow. The corresponding CL spectra are dominated by three apparent intensity peaks at 440-520 nm (mainly blue), 540-620 nm (mainly green) and 680-740 nm (red to infrared). A dominance of the peak in the green wavelength interval over the blue one for plagioclase makes CL particularly useful for the differentiation of plagioclase from alkali feldspar. An apparent peak position in red to infrared at < 710 nm for plagioclase mainly is present in mafic rocks. Present-day coastal sand from Peru containing feldspar with the red to infrared peak position mainly exceeding 725 nm for northern Peruvian sand and a larger variety for sand from southern Peru illustrates a discriminative effect of different source areas. We conclude that the provenance application

  10. AKARI INFRARED CAMERA SURVEY OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD. II. THE NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimonishi, Takashi; Onaka, Takashi; Kato, Daisuke; Sakon, Itsuki; Ita, Yoshifusa; Kawamura, Akiko; Kaneda, Hidehiro

    2013-01-01

    We performed a near-infrared spectroscopic survey toward an area of ∼10 deg 2 of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) with the infrared satellite AKARI. Observations were carried out as part of the AKARI Large-area Survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LSLMC). The slitless multi-object spectroscopic capability of the AKARI/IRC enabled us to obtain low-resolution (R ∼ 20) spectra in 2-5 μm for a large number of point sources in the LMC. As a result of the survey, we extracted about 2000 infrared spectra of point sources. The data are organized as a near-infrared spectroscopic catalog. The catalog includes various infrared objects such as young stellar objects (YSOs), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, supergiants, and so on. It is shown that 97% of the catalog sources have corresponding photometric data in the wavelength range from 1.2 to 11 μm, and 67% of the sources also have photometric data up to 24 μm. The catalog allows us to investigate near-infrared spectral features of sources by comparison with their infrared spectral energy distributions. In addition, it is estimated that about 10% of the catalog sources are observed at more than two different epochs. This enables us to study a spectroscopic variability of sources by using the present catalog. Initial results of source classifications for the LSLMC samples are presented. We classified 659 LSLMC spectra based on their near-infrared spectral features by visual inspection. As a result, it is shown that the present catalog includes 7 YSOs, 160 C-rich AGBs, 8 C-rich AGB candidates, 85 O-rich AGBs, 122 blue and yellow supergiants, 150 red super giants, and 128 unclassified sources. Distributions of the classified sources on the color-color and color-magnitude diagrams are discussed in the text. Continuous wavelength coverage and high spectroscopic sensitivity in 2-5 μm can only be achieved by space observations. This is an unprecedented large-scale spectroscopic survey toward the LMC in the near-infrared

  11. Doença de peixes fluviaes do Brasil Disease of fishes in Brazilian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genesio Pacheco

    1935-12-01

    fish, or by the contamination of the water containing healthy fish by the virus; indirectly, buy placing healthy fish in contaminated water, or in this water filtered through a Chamberland F candle, verified bacteriologically to be free from cracks. The virus do not cause the disease or is destroyed by temperatures above 15° C., or is active on fishes at the temperature of about 12° C. It retains its virulence perfectly at 0° C. This particularity explains the coincidence of the disease always appearing in the winter and in the smaller rivers, in which sudden variations of temperature appeared. However, cold water alone did not produce the disease in healthy test animals, placed in aquaria by the side of the infected fish, in all of the experiments. Because of this characteristic, the disease has been designated as « cryoichthiozoose ». Further histologic investigations shows in sick fishes inflammatory process in the mouth, whose cells show acidophil inclusions. The name « Contagious estomatitis of fishes » was proposed giving a anatomical substrat to the disease, instead the first name. This lesions do permit a further and distant diagnosis of the disease. It was verified that all other known agents causing dying of fishes, such as bacteria, protozoa, physical agents, including low temperature, chemical agents, all causing well known lesions in fishes, could be excluded. Aside from this, they are easily verified by simple laboratory techniques or by the lesions produced in the fishes attacked. In the « discussion » of the subject, it was evident that analogies exist between this disease and certain fish mortalities observed in other countries, especially that studied by Huxley and observed during several years in the rivers of Southern Scotland. It is also possible that some of the fish diseases described as caused by bacteria or animal parasites, but without sure proof of the pathogenicity of these agents, have the same etiology as the disease of the S