WorldWideScience

Sample records for water wave theory

  1. Water Waves The Mathematical Theory with Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stoker, J J

    2011-01-01

    Offers an integrated account of the mathematical hypothesis of wave motion in liquids with a free surface, subjected to gravitational and other forces. Uses both potential and linear wave equation theories, together with applications such as the Laplace and Fourier transform methods, conformal mapping and complex variable techniques in general or integral equations, methods employing a Green's function. Coverage includes fundamental hydrodynamics, waves on sloping beaches, problems involving waves in shallow water, the motion of ships and much more.

  2. Attenuation of wave-induced groundwater pressure in shallow water. Part 2. Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław R. Massel

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this Part 2 of the paper (Part 1 was published by Massel et al. 2004 an exact close-form solution for the pore-water pressure component and velocity circulation pattern induced by surface waves is developed. This comprehensive theoretical model, based on Biot's theory, takes into account soil deformations, volume change and pore-water flow. The calculations indicate that for the stiffness ratio G/E'w ≥ 100, the vertical distribution of the pore pressure becomes very close to the Moshagen & Tørum (1975 approach, when the soil is rigid and the fluid is incompressible.     The theoretical results of the paper have been compared with the experimental data collected during the laboratory experiment in the Large Wave Channel in Hannover (see Massel et al. 2004 and showed very good agreement. The apparent bulk modulus of pore water was not determined in the experiment but was estimated from the best fit of the experimental pore-water pressure with the theoretical one. In the paper only a horizontal bottom is considered and the case of an undulating bottom will be dealt with in another paper.

  3. Water wave scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Birendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    The theory of water waves is most varied and is a fascinating topic. It includes a wide range of natural phenomena in oceans, rivers, and lakes. It is mostly concerned with elucidation of some general aspects of wave motion including the prediction of behaviour of waves in the presence of obstacles of some special configurations that are of interest to ocean engineers. Unfortunately, even the apparently simple problems appear to be difficult to tackle mathematically unless some simplified assumptions are made. Fortunately, one can assume water to be an incompressible, in viscid and homogeneous

  4. Theory of Gravitational Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Tiec, Alexandre Le

    2016-01-01

    The existence of gravitational radiation is a natural prediction of any relativistic description of the gravitational interaction. In this chapter, we focus on gravitational waves, as predicted by Einstein's general theory of relativity. First, we introduce those mathematical concepts that are necessary to properly formulate the physical theory, such as the notions of manifold, vector, tensor, metric, connection and curvature. Second, we motivate, formulate and then discuss Einstein's equation, which relates the geometry of spacetime to its matter content. Gravitational waves are later introduced as solutions of the linearized Einstein equation around flat spacetime. These waves are shown to propagate at the speed of light and to possess two polarization states. Gravitational waves can interact with matter, allowing for their direct detection by means of laser interferometers. Finally, Einstein's quadrupole formulas are derived and used to show that nonspherical compact objects moving at relativistic speeds a...

  5. Wave localization of linear gravity waves in shallow water: Global measurements and agreement between random matrix theory and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmessane, Andrea; Laboratory of matter out equilibrium Team

    2012-11-01

    Wave localization explains how a perturbation is trapped by the randomness present in a propagation medium. As it propagates, the localized wave amplitude decreases strongly by multiple internal reflections with randomly positioned scatterers, effectively trapping the perturbation inside the random region. The characteristic length where a localized wave is propagated before being extinguish by randomness is called localization length. We carried experiments in a quasi-onedimensional channel with random bottom in a shallow water regime for surface gravity water waves, using a Perfilometry Fourier Transform method, which enables us to obtain global surface measurements. We discuss keys aspects of the control of variables, the experimental setup and the implementation of the measurement method. Thus, we can control, measure and evaluate fundamental variables present in the localization phenomenon such as the type of randomness, scattering intensity and sample length, which allows us to characterize wave localization. We use the scattering matrix method to compare the experimental measurements with theoretical and numerical predictions, using the Lyapunov exponent of the scattering matrix, and discuss their agreement. Conicyt

  6. Carpet cloak for water waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenyu; Li, Chunyang; Zatianina, Razafizana; Zhang, Pei; Zhang, Yongqiang

    2017-11-01

    Cloaking is a challenging topic in the field of wave motion, and is of significant theoretical value. In this article, a type of carpet cloak has been theoretically designed for water waves by using the effective medium and transformation theory. This carpet cloak device, created by a three-dimensional printer, is composed of a periodic structure which realizes the equivalent anisotropic water depth. We demonstrate its excellent cloaking performance numerically and experimentally in a wide range of frequencies and angles of incidence, with low wave attenuation characteristics and simple device realization of this carpet cloak illustrating that water wave transformation is a powerful method with which to manipulate water waves.

  7. Nonlinear Water Waves

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume brings together four lecture courses on modern aspects of water waves. The intention, through the lectures, is to present quite a range of mathematical ideas, primarily to show what is possible and what, currently, is of particular interest. Water waves of large amplitude can only be fully understood in terms of nonlinear effects, linear theory being not adequate for their description. Taking advantage of insights from physical observation, experimental evidence and numerical simulations, classical and modern mathematical approaches can be used to gain insight into their dynamics. The book presents several avenues and offers a wide range of material of current interest. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of the subject, the book should be of interest to mathematicians (pure and applied), physicists and engineers. The lectures provide a useful source for those who want to begin to investigate how mathematics can be used to improve our understanding of water wave phenomena. In addition, some of the...

  8. An ADER-type scheme for a class of equations arising from the water-wave theory

    OpenAIRE

    Montecinos G.I.; López-Rios J.C.; Lecaros R.; Ortega J.H.; Toro E.F.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we propose a numerical strategy to solve a family of partial differential equations arising from the water-wave theory. These problems may contain four terms; a source which is an algebraic function of the solution, a convective part involving first order spatial derivatives of the solution, a diffusive part involving second order spatial derivatives and the transient part. Unlike partial differential equations of hyperbolic or parabolic type, where the transient part is the time...

  9. Wave propagation scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Birman, M Sh

    1993-01-01

    The papers in this collection were written primarily by members of the St. Petersburg seminar in mathematical physics. The seminar, now run by O. A. Ladyzhenskaya, was initiated in 1947 by V. I. Smirnov, to whose memory this volume is dedicated. The papers in the collection are devoted mainly to wave propagation processes, scattering theory, integrability of nonlinear equations, and related problems of spectral theory of differential and integral operators. The book is of interest to mathematicians working in mathematical physics and differential equations, as well as to physicists studying va

  10. Wave theory of information

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschetti, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    Understand the relationship between information theory and the physics of wave propagation with this expert guide. Balancing fundamental theory with engineering applications, it describes the mechanism and limits for the representation and communication of information using electromagnetic waves. Information-theoretic laws relating functional approximation and quantum uncertainty principles to entropy, capacity, mutual information, rate distortion, and degrees of freedom of band-limited radiation are derived and explained. Both stochastic and deterministic approaches are explored, and applications for sensing and signal reconstruction, wireless communication, and networks of multiple transmitters and receivers are reviewed. With end-of-chapter exercises and suggestions for further reading enabling in-depth understanding of key concepts, it is the ideal resource for researchers and graduate students in electrical engineering, physics and applied mathematics looking for a fresh perspective on classical informat...

  11. Wave Generation Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Høgedal, Michael; Christensen, Morten

    The intention of this manual is to provide some formulas and techniques which can be used for generating waves in hydraulic laboratories. Both long crested waves (2-D waves) and short crested waves (3-D waves) are considered....

  12. Review of water wave kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterndorff, M.J.

    1995-03-01

    The present report covers a comprehensive review of water wave kinematics carried out by Danish Hydraulic Institute (DHI) in connection with the EFP`93 project: Dynamics of Mono Tower Platforms (ref. EFP`93, 1313/93-0009). This project is carried out in cooperation with Ramboell, Hannemann and Hoejlund A/S. The main objectives of the project are to develop and verify a method for the determination of the non-linear wave load and the dynamic response of mono tower platforms. One of the characteristics of mono tower platforms is that due to the small water plane area the hydrodynamic loading will be very concentrated. Such platforms may therefore respond strongly and in a highly dynamic manner to short waves and high order components of extreme waves having periods corresponding to the first natural period of the platform. A key element in the hydrodynamic load process is the wave kinematics. The present report is a comprehensive review of recent literature concerning wave theories, wave-current interaction, laboratory experiments, and field measurements of water wave kinematics. The review has been concentrated on non-breaking waves on deep to intermediate water depths. Papers concerning shallow water waves have only been reviewed if they present methods which may be applied for deep to intermediate water waves. (au) EFP-93; 30 refs.

  13. Shallow Water Waves and Solitary Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Hereman, Willy

    2013-01-01

    Encyclopedic article covering shallow water wave models used in oceanography and atmospheric science. Sections: Definition of the Subject; Introduction and Historical Perspective; Completely Integrable Shallow Water Wave Equations; Shallow Water Wave Equations of Geophysical Fluid Dynamics; Computation of Solitary Wave Solutions; Numerical Methods; Water Wave Experiments and Observations; Future Directions, and Bibliography.

  14. Water waves generated by underwater explosion

    CERN Document Server

    Mehaute, Bernard Le

    1996-01-01

    This is the first book on explosion-generated water waves. It presents the theoretical foundations and experimental results of the generation and propagation of impulsively generated waves resulting from underwater explosions. Many of the theories and concepts presented herein are applicable to other types of water waves, in particular, tsunamis and waves generated by the fall of a meteorite. Linear and nonlinear theories, as well as experimental calibrations, are presented for cases of deep and shallow water explosions. Propagation of transient waves on dissipative, nonuniform bathymetries to

  15. Waves and Water Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Vance A.

    1971-01-01

    Capillary and gravity water waves are related to the position, wavelength, and velocity of an object in flowing water. Water patterns are presented for ships and the whirling beetle with an explanation of how the design affects the objects velocity and the observed water wavelengths. (DS)

  16. Theory of Detonation Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    1942-05-04

    following hYJ?oth- .. esis: The detonation wave ini tiatos the detonation in the neie ;hboring layer of the intact explosive by the discontinuity of...3-2) may be stated as ( 4-4) / ( -’« dJ:J. ~ = ~- {1.;. n)’A (n,’P, V) as a conversion formula U1 the abo’lre s~nso. i.e., / li This is the... formula ( 4-4) which expresses x in terms of n. If we have oontinui ty, i.e,., if n _,. 0 implies P ~p , V --+V , then ( 3-3) yields A (n 1 Pl. V

  17. Analysis of Stokes waves theory as a diffusion problem | Okeke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This mathematical model concerns the theory of Stokes waves. These wave types belong to the class of ocean surface waves found in deep and intermediate waters. In this consideration, the fifth order expansion was obtained using Korteweg de Vries equation with diffusion term. This study suggests that the phase velocity ...

  18. Shallow water sound propagation with surface waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindle, Chris T; Deane, Grant B

    2005-05-01

    The theory of wavefront modeling in underwater acoustics is extended to allow rapid range dependence of the boundaries such as occurs in shallow water with surface waves. The theory allows for multiple reflections at surface and bottom as well as focusing and defocusing due to reflection from surface waves. The phase and amplitude of the field are calculated directly and used to model pulse propagation in the time domain. Pulse waveforms are obtained directly for all wavefront arrivals including both insonified and shadow regions near caustics. Calculated waveforms agree well with a reference solution and data obtained in a near-shore shallow water experiment with surface waves over a sloping bottom.

  19. Turbulence beneath finite amplitude water waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beya, J.F. [Universidad de Valparaiso, Escuela de Ingenieria Civil Oceanica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Valparaiso (Chile); The University of New South Wales, Water Research Laboratory, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Peirson, W.L. [The University of New South Wales, Water Research Laboratory, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Banner, M.L. [The University of New South Wales, School of Mathematics and Statistics, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2012-05-15

    Babanin and Haus (J Phys Oceanogr 39:2675-2679, 2009) recently presented evidence of near-surface turbulence generated below steep non-breaking deep-water waves. They proposed a threshold wave parameter a {sup 2}{omega}/{nu} = 3,000 for the spontaneous occurrence of turbulence beneath surface waves. This is in contrast to conventional understanding that irrotational wave theories provide a good approximation of non-wind-forced wave behaviour as validated by classical experiments. Many laboratory wave experiments were carried out in the early 1960s (e.g. Wiegel 1964). In those experiments, no evidence of turbulence was reported, and steep waves behaved as predicted by the high-order irrotational wave theories within the accuracy of the theories and experimental techniques at the time. This contribution describes flow visualisation experiments for steep non-breaking waves using conventional dye techniques in the wave boundary layer extending above the wave trough level. The measurements showed no evidence of turbulent mixing up to a value of a {sup 2}{omega}/{nu} = 7,000 at which breaking commenced in these experiments. These present findings are in accord with the conventional understandings of wave behaviour. (orig.)

  20. Conditional Second Order Short-crested Water Waves Applied to Extreme Wave Episodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2005-01-01

    A derivation of the mean second order short-crested wave pattern and associated wave kinematics, conditional on a given magnitude of the wave crest, is presented. The analysis is based on the second order Sharma and Dean finite water wave theory. A comparison with a measured extreme wave profile...

  1. The accurate calculation of the band gap of liquid water by means of GW corrections applied to plane-wave density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Changming; Li, Wun-Fan; Koster, Rik S; Klimeš, Jiří; van Blaaderen, Alfons; van Huis, Marijn A

    2015-01-07

    Knowledge about the intrinsic electronic properties of water is imperative for understanding the behaviour of aqueous solutions that are used throughout biology, chemistry, physics, and industry. The calculation of the electronic band gap of liquids is challenging, because the most accurate ab initio approaches can be applied only to small numbers of atoms, while large numbers of atoms are required for having configurations that are representative of a liquid. Here we show that a high-accuracy value for the electronic band gap of water can be obtained by combining beyond-DFT methods and statistical time-averaging. Liquid water is simulated at 300 K using a plane-wave density functional theory molecular dynamics (PW-DFT-MD) simulation and a van der Waals density functional (optB88-vdW). After applying a self-consistent GW correction the band gap of liquid water at 300 K is calculated as 7.3 eV, in good agreement with recent experimental observations in the literature (6.9 eV). For simulations of phase transformations and chemical reactions in water or aqueous solutions whereby an accurate description of the electronic structure is required, we suggest to use these advanced GW corrections in combination with the statistical analysis of quantum mechanical MD simulations.

  2. Theory of inertial waves in rotating fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelash, Andrey; L'vov, Victor; Zakharov, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    The inertial waves emerge in the geophysical and astrophysical flows as a result of Earth rotation [1]. The linear theory of inertial waves is known well [2] while the influence of nonlinear effects of wave interactions are subject of many recent theoretical and experimental studies. The three-wave interactions which are allowed by inertial waves dispersion law (frequency is proportional to cosine of the angle between wave direction and axes of rotation) play an exceptional role. The recent studies on similar type of waves - internal waves, have demonstrated the possibility of formation of natural wave attractors in the ocean (see [3] and references herein). This wave focusing leads to the emergence of strong three-wave interactions and subsequent flows mixing. We believe that similar phenomena can take place for inertial waves in rotating flows. In this work we present theoretical study of three-wave and four-wave interactions for inertial waves. As the main theoretical tool we suggest the complete Hamiltonian formalism for inertial waves in rotating incompressible fluids [4]. We study three-wave decay instability and then present statistical description of inertial waves in the frame of Hamiltonian formalism. We obtain kinetic equation, anisotropic wave turbulence spectra and study the problem of parametric wave turbulence. These spectra were previously found in [5] by helicity decomposition method. Taking this into account we discuss the advantages of suggested Hamiltonian formalism and its future applications. Andrey Gelash thanks support of the RFBR (Grant No.16-31-60086 mol_a_dk) and Dr. E. Ermanyuk, Dr. I. Sibgatullin for the fruitful discussions. [1] Le Gal, P. Waves and instabilities in rotating and stratified flows, Fluid Dynamics in Physics, Engineering and Environmental Applications. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 25-40, 2013. [2] Greenspan, H. P. The theory of rotating fluids. CUP Archive, 1968. [3] Brouzet, C., Sibgatullin, I. N., Scolan, H., Ermanyuk, E

  3. Transition operators in electromagnetic-wave diffraction theory - General theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahne, G. E.

    1992-01-01

    A formal theory is developed for the scattering of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves from impenetrable immobile obstacles with given linear, homogeneous, and generally nonlocal boundary conditions of Leontovich (impedance) type for the wave of the obstacle's surface. The theory is modeled on the complete Green's function and the transition (T) operator in time-independent formal scattering theory of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. An expression for the differential scattering cross section for plane electromagnetic waves is derived in terms of certain matrix elements of the T operator for the obstacle.

  4. Spin waves theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stancil, Daniel D

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic materials can support propagating waves of magnetization; since these are oscillations in the magneto static properties of the material, they are called magneto static waves (sometimes 'magnons' or 'magnetic polarons'). This book discusses magnetic properties of materials, and magnetic moments of atoms and ions

  5. Leonhard Euler's Wave Theory of Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kurt Møller

    2008-01-01

    of achromatic lenses, the explanation of colors of thin plates and of the opaque bodies as proof of his theory. When it came to the fundamental issues, the correctness of his dispersion law and the prediction of frequencies of light he was not at all successful. His wave theory degenerated, and it was not until......Euler's wave theory of light developed from a mere description of this notion based on an analogy between sound and light to a more and more mathematical elaboration on that notion. He was very successful in predicting the shape of achromatic lenses based on a new dispersion law that we now know...... is wrong. Most of his mathematical arguments were, however, guesswork without any solid physical reasoning. Guesswork is not always a bad thing in physics if it leads to new experiments or makes the theory coherent with other theories. And Euler tried to find such experiments. He saw the construction...

  6. Shallow water cnoidal wave interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Osborne

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear dynamics of cnoidal waves, within the context of the general N-cnoidal wave solutions of the periodic Korteweg-de Vries (KdV and Kadomtsev-Petvishvilli (KP equations, are considered. These equations are important for describing the propagation of small-but-finite amplitude waves in shallow water; the solutions to KdV are unidirectional while those of KP are directionally spread. Herein solutions are constructed from the 0-function representation of their appropriate inverse scattering transform formulations. To this end a general theorem is employed in the construction process: All solutions to the KdV and KP equations can be written as the linear superposition of cnoidal waves plus their nonlinear interactions. The approach presented here is viewed as significant because it allows the exact construction of N degree-of-freedom cnoidal wave trains under rather general conditions.

  7. Scattering theory of stochastic electromagnetic light waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhao, Daomu

    2010-07-15

    We generalize scattering theory to stochastic electromagnetic light waves. It is shown that when a stochastic electromagnetic light wave is scattered from a medium, the properties of the scattered field can be characterized by a 3 x 3 cross-spectral density matrix. An example of scattering of a spatially coherent electromagnetic light wave from a deterministic medium is discussed. Some interesting phenomena emerge, including the changes of the spectral degree of coherence and of the spectral degree of polarization of the scattered field.

  8. The theory of elastic waves and waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Miklowitz, J

    1984-01-01

    The primary objective of this book is to give the reader a basic understanding of waves and their propagation in a linear elastic continuum. The studies of elastodynamic theory and its application to fundamental value problems should prepare the reader to tackle many physical problems of general interest in engineering and geophysics, and of particular interest in mechanics and seismology.

  9. Nonlinear water waves: introduction and overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, A.

    2017-12-01

    For more than two centuries progress in the study of water waves proved to be interdependent with innovative and deep developments in theoretical and experimental directions of investigation. In recent years, considerable progress has been achieved towards the understanding of waves of large amplitude. Within this setting one cannot rely on linear theory as nonlinearity becomes an essential feature. Various analytic methods have been developed and adapted to come to terms with the challenges encountered in settings where approximations (such as those provided by linear or weakly nonlinear theory) are ineffective. Without relying on simpler models, progress becomes contingent upon the discovery of structural properties, the exploitation of which requires a combination of creative ideas and state-of-the-art technical tools. The successful quest for structure often reveals unexpected patterns and confers aesthetic value on some of these studies. The topics covered in this issue are both multi-disciplinary and interdisciplinary: there is a strong interplay between mathematical analysis, numerical computation and experimental/field data, interacting with each other via mutual stimulation and feedback. This theme issue reflects some of the new important developments that were discussed during the programme `Nonlinear water waves' that took place at the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences (Cambridge, UK) from 31st July to 25th August 2017. A cross-section of the experts in the study of water waves who participated in the programme authored the collected papers. These papers illustrate the diversity, intensity and interconnectivity of the current research activity in this area. They offer new insight, present emerging theoretical methodologies and computational approaches, and describe sophisticated experimental results. This article is part of the theme issue 'Nonlinear water waves'.

  10. Nonlinear water waves: introduction and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, A

    2018-01-28

    For more than two centuries progress in the study of water waves proved to be interdependent with innovative and deep developments in theoretical and experimental directions of investigation. In recent years, considerable progress has been achieved towards the understanding of waves of large amplitude. Within this setting one cannot rely on linear theory as nonlinearity becomes an essential feature. Various analytic methods have been developed and adapted to come to terms with the challenges encountered in settings where approximations (such as those provided by linear or weakly nonlinear theory) are ineffective. Without relying on simpler models, progress becomes contingent upon the discovery of structural properties, the exploitation of which requires a combination of creative ideas and state-of-the-art technical tools. The successful quest for structure often reveals unexpected patterns and confers aesthetic value on some of these studies. The topics covered in this issue are both multi-disciplinary and interdisciplinary: there is a strong interplay between mathematical analysis, numerical computation and experimental/field data, interacting with each other via mutual stimulation and feedback. This theme issue reflects some of the new important developments that were discussed during the programme 'Nonlinear water waves' that took place at the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences (Cambridge, UK) from 31st July to 25th August 2017. A cross-section of the experts in the study of water waves who participated in the programme authored the collected papers. These papers illustrate the diversity, intensity and interconnectivity of the current research activity in this area. They offer new insight, present emerging theoretical methodologies and computational approaches, and describe sophisticated experimental results.This article is part of the theme issue 'Nonlinear water waves'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. On the structure of artificially generated water wave trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitrakis, Yiannis A.

    1986-01-01

    The structure of an artificially generated sinusoidal water wave train of fixed frequency under the influence of wind is analyzed. Artificially generated waves of 1 Hz are studied at seven wind speeds in the range of 140-400 cm/s. It is observed that the water wave train deformed by wind consists of two components at both the fundamental mode and the harmonics. The amplitude and phase of the wave components are derived, and the dispersion relation and component phase speeds are examined. The data reveal that the amplitude of the forced and free-traveling second harmonics correlate with previous theories, and that the deviation of the measured phase speed from the linear theory is caused by the nonlinearity of the primary wave, the interaction between short gravity waves and the primary wave, and the advection effects of wind drift.

  12. Partial Differential Equations and Solitary Waves Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid

    2009-01-01

    "Partial Differential Equations and Solitary Waves Theory" is a self-contained book divided into two parts: Part I is a coherent survey bringing together newly developed methods for solving PDEs. While some traditional techniques are presented, this part does not require thorough understanding of abstract theories or compact concepts. Well-selected worked examples and exercises shall guide the reader through the text. Part II provides an extensive exposition of the solitary waves theory. This part handles nonlinear evolution equations by methods such as Hirota’s bilinear method or the tanh-coth method. A self-contained treatment is presented to discuss complete integrability of a wide class of nonlinear equations. This part presents in an accessible manner a systematic presentation of solitons, multi-soliton solutions, kinks, peakons, cuspons, and compactons. While the whole book can be used as a text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in applied mathematics, physics and engineering, Part II w...

  13. On the theory of wave packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, D. V.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we discuss some aspects of the theory of wave packets. We consider a popular noncovariant Gaussian model used in various applications and show that it predicts too slow a longitudinal dispersion rate for relativistic particles. We revise this approach by considering a covariant model of Gaussian wave packets, and examine our results by inspecting a wave packet of arbitrary form. A general formula for the time dependence of the dispersion of a wave packet of arbitrary form is found. Finally, we give a transparent interpretation of the disappearance of the wave function over time due to the dispersion—a feature often considered undesirable, but which is unavoidable for wave packets. We find, starting from simple examples, proceeding with their generalizations and finally by considering the continuity equation, that the integral over time of both the flux and probability densities are asymptotically proportional to the factor 1/| x|2 in the rest frame of the wave packet, just as in the case of an ensemble of classical particles.

  14. Real time wave measurements and wave hindcasting in deep waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anand, N.M.; Mandal, S.; SanilKumar, V.; Nayak, B.U.

    Deep water waves off Karwar (lat. 14~'45.1'N, long. 73~'34.8'E) at 75 m water depth pertaining to peak monsoon period have been measured using a Datawell waverider buoy. Measured wave data show that the significant wave height (Hs) predominantly...

  15. Turbulent wind waves on a water current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Zavolgensky

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model of water waves generated by the wind over the water surface is presented. A simple modeling method of wind waves is described based on waves lengths diagram, azimuthal hodograph of waves velocities and others. Properties of the generated waves are described. The wave length and wave velocity are obtained as functions on azimuth of wave propagation and growth rate. Motionless waves dynamically trapped into the general picture of three dimensional waves are described. The gravitation force does not enter the three dimensional of turbulent wind waves. That is why these waves have turbulent and not gravitational nature. The Langmuir stripes are naturally modeled and existence of the rogue waves is theoretically proved.

  16. Symmetric waves are traveling waves for a shallow water equation for surface waves of moderate amplitude

    OpenAIRE

    Geyer, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Following a general principle introduced by Ehrnstr\\"{o}m et.al. we prove that for an equation modeling the free surface evolution of moderate amplitude waves in shallow water, all symmetric waves are traveling waves.

  17. Millimeter Wave Rheometry: Theory and Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Jaehun; McCloy, John S.; Crum, J. V.; Sundaram, S. K.

    2011-01-29

    A novel millimeter wave (MMW) rheometry is developed to determine the viscosity of fluid based on an unsteady film flow in an inclined plane. The method measures fringes due to MMW interference between the front and back surfaces of the fluid flowing across the field of view of a ceramic wave guide coupled to a MMW receiver. With knowledge of the dielectric constant, the interference fringe spacing is used to calculate the thickness of the fluid layer. This thickness is then transformed into the viscosity by means of a simple hydrodynamic theory. Our results show that the MMW rheometry can easily distinguish between the 30, 100, and 200 Pa•s silicone oils. The geometry of the method allows for potential industrial applications such as measuring viscosity of the flowing slag in slagging coal gasifiers. The MMW rheometry with simple modifications can be easily extended to measure important non-Newtonian fluid characteristics such as yield stress.

  18. A Stream Function Theory Based Calculation of Wave Kinematics for Very Steep Waves Using a Novel Non-linear Stretching Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroescu, Ionut Emanuel; Sørensen, Lasse; Frigaard, Peter Bak

    2016-01-01

    A non-linear stretching method was implemented for stream function theory to solve wave kinematics for physical conditions close to breaking waves in shallow waters, with wave heights limited by the water depth. The non-linear stretching method proves itself robust, efficient and fast, showing good...

  19. Metamaterials, from electromagnetic waves to water waves, bending waves and beyond

    KAUST Repository

    Dupont, G.

    2015-08-04

    We will review our recent work on metamaterials for different types of waves. Transposition of transform optics to water waves and bending waves on plates will be considered with potential applications of cloaking to water waves protection and anti-vibrating systems.

  20. Water waves interacting with a current of constant vorticity: estimating the vorticity of the wave field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Bruno; Seez, William; Abid, Malek; Kharif, Christian; Touboul, Julien

    2017-04-01

    During the last ten years, the topic of water waves interacting with sheared current has drawn a lot of attention, since the interaction of water waves with vorticity was recently found to be significant when modeling the propagation of water waves. In this framework, the configuration involving constantly sheared current (indeed a constant vorticity) is of special interst, since the equations remain tractable. In this framework, it is demonstrated that the flow related to water waves can be described by means of potential theory, since the source term in the vorticity equation is proportionnal to the curvature of the current profile (Nwogu, 2009). In the mean time, the community often wonders if this argument is valid, since the existence of a perfectly linearly sheared current is purely theoretical, and the presence of the vorticity within the wave field can be external (through wave generation mechanisms, for instance). Thus, this work is dedicated to investigate the magnitude of the vorticity related to the wave field, in conditions similar to this analytical case of constant vorticity. This approach is based on the comparison of experimental data, and three models. The first model is linear, supposing a constantly seared current and water waves described by potential theory. The second is fully nonlinear, but still supposing that water waves are potential, and finally, the third model is fully nonlinear, but solves the Euler equations, allowing the existence of vorticity related to the waves. The confrontation of these three approaches with the experimental data will allow to quantify the wave-related vorticity within the total flow, and analyze its importance as a function of nonlinearity and vorticity magnitude. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The DGA (Direction Générale de l'Armement, France) is acknowledged for its financial support through the ANR grant N°ANR-13-ASTR-0007.

  1. Mathematical problems in wave propagation theory

    CERN Document Server

    1970-01-01

    The papers comprising this collection are directly or indirectly related to an important branch of mathematical physics - the mathematical theory of wave propagation and diffraction. The paper by V. M. Babich is concerned with the application of the parabolic-equation method (of Academician V. A. Fok and M. A, Leontovich) to the problem of the asymptotic behavior of eigenfunc­ tions concentrated in a neighborhood of a closed geodesie in a Riemannian space. The techniques used in this paper have been föund useful in solving certain problems in the theory of open resonators. The topic of G. P. Astrakhantsev's paper is similar to that of the paper by V. M. Babich. Here also the parabolic-equation method is used to find the asymptotic solution of the elasticity equations which describes Love waves concentrated in a neighborhood of some surface ray. The paper of T. F. Pankratova is concerned with finding the asymptotic behavior of th~ eigenfunc­ tions of the Laplace operator from the exact solution for the surf...

  2. Wave Loads on Ships Sailing in Restricted Water Depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2003-01-01

    moment a ship may be subjected to during its operational lifetime. Whereas the influence of forward speed and ship heading with respect to the waves usually is accounted for, the effect of water depth is seldom considered, except in non-linear time domain formulations where a confined water domain must...... be specified anyhow. Usually, two-dimensional strip theories, either linear or non-linear, are applied for actual design cases and these theories are normally based on incident deep-water waves and furthermore apply added mass and damping calculations based on infinite water depth. Only a few papers have...... in the past addressed the influence of water depth on the ship response. In an early work Kim (1968) presented results for the variation of the added mass and hydrodynamic damping and for the heave and pitch motion for a Series 60 model using a relative motion strip theory formulation. A significant reduction...

  3. Kinetic theory of plasma waves: Part II homogeneous plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2000-01-01

    The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold

  4. KINETIC THEORY OF PLASMA WAVES: Part II: Homogeneous Plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2010-01-01

    The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold

  5. Kinetic theory of plasma waves - Part II: Homogeneous plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves axe discussed in the limit of the cold

  6. Nonlinear diffraction of water waves by offshore stuctures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matiur Rahman

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a variational formulation of a nonaxisymmetric water wave problem. The full set of equations of motion for the problem in cylindrical polar coordinates is derived. This is followed by a review of the current knowledge on analytical theories and numerical treatments of nonlinear diffraction of water waves by offshore cylindrical structures. A brief discussion is made on water waves incident on a circular harbor with a narrow gap. Special emphasis is given to the resonance phenomenon associated with this problem. A new theoretical analysis is also presented to estimate the wave forces on large conical structures. Second-order (nonlinear effects are included in the calculation of the wave forces on the conical structures. A list of important references is also given.

  7. Complex space source theory of spatially localized electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Seshadri, SR

    2013-01-01

    The author highlights that there is a need obtain exact full-wave solutions that reduce to the paraxial beams in the appropriate limit. Complex Space Source Theory of Spatially Localized Electromagnetic Waves treats the exact full-wave generalizations of all the basic types of paraxial beam solutions. These are developed by the use of Fourier and Bessel transform techniques and the complex space source theory of spatially localized electromagnetic waves is integrated as a branch of Fourier optics.

  8. Wavemaker theories for acoustic-gravity waves over a finite depth

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Miao

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic-gravity waves (hereafter AGWs) in ocean have received much interest recently, mainly with respect to early detection of tsunamis as they travel at near the speed of sound in water which makes them ideal candidates for early detection of tsunamis. While the generation mechanisms of AGWs have been studied from the perspective of vertical oscillations of seafloor and triad wave-wave interaction, in the current study we are interested in their generation by wave-structure interaction with possible implication to the energy sector. Here, we develop two wavemaker theories to analyze different wave modes generated by impermeable (the classic Havelock's theory) and porous (porous wavemaker theory) plates in weakly compressible fluids. Slight modification has been made to the porous theory so that, unlike the previous theory, the new solution depends on the geometry of the plate. The expressions for three different types of plates (piston, flap, delta-function) are introduced. Analytical solutions are also de...

  9. Six Decades of Spiral Density Wave Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Frank H.

    2016-09-01

    The theory of spiral density waves had its origin approximately six decades ago in an attempt to reconcile the winding dilemma of material spiral arms in flattened disk galaxies. We begin with the earliest calculations of linear and nonlinear spiral density waves in disk galaxies, in which the hypothesis of quasi-stationary spiral structure (QSSS) plays a central role. The earliest success was the prediction of the nonlinear compression of the interstellar medium and its embedded magnetic field; the earliest failure, seemingly, was not detecting color gradients associated with the migration of OB stars whose formation is triggered downstream from the spiral shock front. We give the reasons for this apparent failure with an update on the current status of the problem of OB star formation, including its relationship to the feathering substructure of galactic spiral arms. Infrared images can show two-armed, grand design spirals, even when the optical and UV images show flocculent structures. We suggest how the nonlinear response of the interstellar gas, coupled with overlapping subharmonic resonances, might introduce chaotic behavior in the dynamics of the interstellar medium and Population I objects, even though the underlying forces to which they are subject are regular. We then move to a discussion of resonantly forced spiral density waves in a planetary ring and their relationship to the ideas of disk truncation, and the shepherding of narrow rings by satellites orbiting nearby. The back reaction of the rings on the satellites led to the prediction of planet migration in protoplanetary disks, which has had widespread application in the exploding data sets concerning hot Jupiters and extrasolar planetary systems. We then return to the issue of global normal modes in the stellar disk of spiral galaxies and its relationship to the QSSS hypothesis, where the central theoretical concepts involve waves with negative and positive surface densities of energy and angular

  10. Capturing the flow beneath water waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbin, A; Ribeiro-Junior, R

    2018-01-28

    Recently, the authors presented two numerical studies for capturing the flow structure beneath water waves (Nachbin and Ribeiro-Junior 2014 Disc. Cont. Dyn. Syst. A 34 , 3135-3153 (doi:10.3934/dcds.2014.34.3135); Ribeiro-Junior et al. 2017 J. Fluid Mech. 812 , 792-814 (doi:10.1017/jfm.2016.820)). Closed orbits for irrotational waves with an opposing current and stagnation points for rotational waves were some of the issues addressed. This paper summarizes the numerical strategies adopted for capturing the flow beneath irrotational and rotational water waves. It also presents new preliminary results for particle trajectories, due to irrotational waves, in the presence of a bottom topography.This article is part of the theme issue 'Nonlinear water waves'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Nonlinear wave dynamics in self-consistent water channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelinovsky, Efim; Didenkulova, Ira; Shurgalina, Ekaterina; Aseeva, Nataly

    2017-12-01

    We study long-wave dynamics in a self-consistent water channel of variable cross-section, taking into account the effects of weak nonlinearity and dispersion. The self-consistency of the water channel is considered within the linear shallow water theory, which implies that the channel depth and width are interrelated, so the wave propagates in such a channel without inner reflection from the bottom even if the water depth changes significantly. In the case of small-amplitude weakly dispersive waves, the reflection from the bottom is also small, which allows the use of a unidirectional approximation. A modified equation for Riemann waves is derived for the nondispersive case. The wave-breaking criterion (gradient catastrophe) for self-consistent channels is defined. If both weak nonlinearity and dispersion are accounted for, the variable-coefficient Korteweg–de Vries (KdV) equation for waves in self-consistent channels is derived. Note that this is the first time that a KdV equation has been derived for waves in strongly inhomogeneous media. Soliton transformation in a channel with an abrupt change in depth is also studied.

  12. Hydrodynamic analysis of oscillating water column wave energy devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingham, Harry B.; Ducasse, Damien; Nielsen, Kim

    2015-01-01

    A 40-chamber I-Beam attenuator-type, oscillating water column, wave energy converter is analyzed numerically based on linearized potential flow theory, and experimentally via model test experiments. The high-order panel method WAMIT by Newman and Lee (WAMIT; a radiation–diffraction panel program...... for wave-body interactions, 2014, http://​www.​wamit.​com) is used for the basic wave-structure interaction analysis. The damping applied to each chamber by the power take off is modeled in the experiment by forcing the air through a hole with an area of about 1 % of the chamber water surface area....... In the numerical model, this damping is modeled by an equivalent linearized damping coefficient which extracts the same amount of energy over one cycle as the experimentally measured quadratic damping coefficient. The pressure in each chamber in regular waves of three different height-to-length ratios is measured...

  13. Mathematical aspects of extreme water waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karjanto, N.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we discuss mathematical aspects of extreme water wave generation in a hydrodynamic laboratory. The original problem comes from the Maritime Research Institute Netherlands (MARIN) to generate large amplitude and non-breaking waves to test ship and offshore construction. We choose the

  14. WAVE-E: The WAter Vapour European-Explorer Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-LLuva, David; Deiml, Michael; Pavesi, Sara

    2017-04-01

    In the last decade, stratosphere-troposphere coupling processes in the Upper Troposphere Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) have been increasingly recognized to severely impact surface climate and high-impact weather phenomena. Weakened stratospheric circumpolar jets have been linked to worldwide extreme temperature and high-precipitation events, while anomalously strong stratospheric jets can lead to an increase in surface winds and tropical cyclone intensity. Moreover, stratospheric water vapor has been identified as an important forcing for global decadal surface climate change. In the past years, operational weather forecast and climate models have adapted a high vertical resolution in the UTLS region in order to capture the dynamical processes occurring in this highly stratified region. However, there is an evident lack of available measurements in the UTLS region to consistently support these models and further improve process understanding. Consequently, both the IPCC fifth assessment report and the ESA-GEWEX report 'Earth Observation and Water Cycle Science Priorities' have identified an urgent need for long-term observations and improved process understanding in the UTLS region. To close this gap, the authors propose the 'WAter Vapour European - Explorer' (WAVE-E) space mission, whose primary goal is to monitor water vapor in the UTLS at 1 km vertical, 25 km horizontal and sub-daily temporal resolution. WAVE-E consists of three quasi-identical small ( 500 kg) satellites (WAVE-E 1-3) in a constellation of Sun-Synchronous Low Earth Orbits, each carrying a limb sounding and cross-track scanning mid-infrared passive spectrometer (824 cm-1 to 829 cm-1). The core of the instruments builds a monolithic, field-widened type of Michelson interferometer without any moving parts, rendering it rigid and fault tolerant. Synergistic use of WAVE-E and MetOp-NG operational satellites is identified, such that a data fusion algorithm could provide water vapour profiles from the

  15. Testing THEMIS wave measurements against the cold plasma theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubenschuss, Ulrich; Santolik, Ondrej; Le Contel, Olivier; Bonnell, John

    2016-04-01

    The THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) mission records a multitude of electromagnetic waves inside Earth's magnetosphere and provides data in the form of high-resolution electric and magnetic waveforms. We use multi-component measurements of whistler mode waves and test them against the theory of wave propagation in a cold plasma. The measured ratio cB/E (c is speed of light in vacuum, B is magnetic wave amplitude, E is electric wave amplitude) is compared to the same quantity calculated from cold plasma theory over linearized Faraday's law. The aim of this study is to get estimates for measurement uncertainties, especially with regard to the electric field and the cold plasma density, as well as evaluating the validity of cold plasma theory inside Earth's radiation belts.

  16. Theory of Spin Waves in Strongly Anisotropic Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker; Cooke, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    A new infinite-order perturbation approach to the theory of spin waves in strongly anisotropic magnets is introduced. The system is transformed into one with effective two-ion anisotropy and considerably reduced ground-state corrections. A general expression for the spin-wave energy, valid to any...

  17. Wave power potential in Malaysian territorial waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmida Mohd Nasir, Nor; Maulud, Khairul Nizam Abdul

    2016-06-01

    Up until today, Malaysia has used renewable energy technology such as biomass, solar and hydro energy for power generation and co-generation in palm oil industries and also for the generation of electricity, yet, we are still far behind other countries which have started to optimize waves for similar production. Wave power is a renewable energy (RE) transported by ocean waves. It is very eco-friendly and is easily reachable. This paper presents an assessment of wave power potential in Malaysian territorial waters including waters of Sabah and Sarawak. In this research, data from Malaysia Meteorology Department (MetMalaysia) is used and is supported by a satellite imaginary obtained from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Malaysia Remote Sensing Agency (ARSM) within the time range of the year 1992 until 2007. There were two types of analyses conducted which were mask analysis and comparative analysis. Mask analysis of a research area is the analysis conducted to filter restricted and sensitive areas. Meanwhile, comparative analysis is an analysis conducted to determine the most potential area for wave power generation. Four comparative analyses which have been carried out were wave power analysis, comparative analysis of wave energy power with the sea topography, hot-spot area analysis and comparative analysis of wave energy with the wind speed. These four analyses underwent clipping processes using Geographic Information System (GIS) to obtain the final result. At the end of this research, the most suitable area to develop a wave energy converter was found, which is in the waters of Terengganu and Sarawak. Besides that, it was concluded that the average potential energy that can be generated in Malaysian territorial waters is between 2.8kW/m to 8.6kW/m.

  18. Time scales and structures of wave interaction exemplified with water waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartashova, Elena

    2013-05-01

    Presently two models for computing energy spectra in weakly nonlinear dispersive media are known: kinetic wave turbulence theory, using a statistical description of an energy cascade over a continuous spectrum (K-cascade), and the D-model, describing resonant clusters and energy cascades (D-cascade) in a deterministic way as interaction of distinct modes. In this letter we give an overview of these structures and their properties and a list of criteria about which model of energy cascade should be used in the analysis of a given experiment, using water waves as an example. Applying the time scale analysis to weakly nonlinear wave systems modeled by the focusing nonlinear Schödinger equation, we demonstrate that K-cascade and D-cascade are not competing processes but rather two processes taking place at different time scales, at different characteristic levels of nonlinearity and based on different physical mechanisms. Applying those criteria to data known from experiments with surface water waves we find that the energy cascades observed occur at short characteristic times compatible only with a D-cascade. The only pre-requisite for a D-cascade being a focusing nonlinear Schödinger equation, the same analysis may be applied to existing experiments with wave systems appearing in hydrodynamics, nonlinear optics, electrodynamics, plasma, convection theory, etc.

  19. Breaking the Waves: How the Phenomenon of European Jihadism Militates Against the Wave Theory of Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proshyn Denys

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available David Rapoport’s Wave theory of terrorism is one of the most oftencited theories in the literature on terrorist violence. Rapoport is praised for having provided researchers with a universal instrument which allows them to explain the origin and transformation of various historical types of terrorism by applying to them the concept of global waves of terrorist violence driven by universal political impulses. This article, testing the Wave theory against the recent phenomenon of homegrown jihadism in Europe, uncovers this theory’s fundamental weaknesses and questions its real academic and practical value.

  20. Wave-turbulence theory of four-wave nonlinear interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibbaro, Sergio; Dematteis, Giovanni; Josserand, Christophe; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2017-08-01

    The Sagdeev-Zaslavski (SZ) equation for wave turbulence is analytically derived, both in terms of a generating function and of a multipoint probability density function (PDF), for weakly interacting waves with initial random phases. When the initial amplitudes are also random, a one-point PDF equation is derived. Such analytical calculations remarkably agree with results obtained in totally different fashions. Numerical investigations of the two-dimensional nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) and of a vibrating plate prove the following: (i) Generic Hamiltonian four-wave systems rapidly attain a random distribution of phases independently of the slower dynamics of the amplitudes, vindicating the hypothesis of initially random phases. (ii) Relaxation of the Fourier amplitudes to the predicted stationary distribution (exponential) happens on a faster time scale than relaxation of the spectrum (Rayleigh-Jeans distribution). (iii) The PDF equation correctly describes dynamics under different forcings: The NLSE has an exponential PDF corresponding to a quasi-Gaussian solution, as the vibrating plates, that also shows some intermittency at very strong forcings.

  1. Third-order theory for multi-directional irregular waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.

    2012-01-01

    A new third-order solution for multi-directional irregular water waves in finite water depth is presented. The solution includes explicit expressions for the surface elevation, the amplitude dispersion and the vertical variation of the velocity potential. Expressions for the velocity potential...... breaks down due to singularities in the transfer functions. We analyse harmonic resonance for the case of a monochromatic short-crested wave interacting with a plane wave having a different frequency, and make long-term simulations with a high-order Boussinesq formulation in order to study the evolution...... of wave trains exposed to harmonic resonance....

  2. Theories of radio emissions and plasma waves. [in Jupiter magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, M. L.; Goertz, C. K.

    1983-01-01

    The complex region of Jupiter's radio emissions at decameter wavelengths, the so-called DAM, is considered, taking into account the basic theoretical ideas which underly both the older and newer theories and models. Linear theories are examined, giving attention to direct emission mechanisms, parallel propagation, perpendicular propagation, and indirect emission mechanisms. An investigation of nonlinear theories is also conducted. Three-wave interactions are discussed along with decay instabilities, and three-wave up-conversio. Aspects of the Io and plasma torus interaction are studied, and a mechanism by which Io can accelerate electrons is reviewed.

  3. Lensing of Oceanic Gravity Waves: Theory and Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Mohammad-Reza; Elandt, Ryan Blake; Shakeri, Mostafa

    2014-11-01

    In this talk we show that small features embedded to the seafloor can result in a lensing effect for overpassing oceanic surface waves, similar to how glass lenses focus or defocus light. These seafloor features are typically in the shape of curved periodic sandbars, and the effect is a result of a nonlinear interaction between surface waves and seabed undulations which is known as ``Bragg Resonance.'' We further show that for a broadband incident wave spectrum (i.e. a wave group composed of multitude of different-frequency waves) a polychromatic topography (occupying no more than the area required for a monochromatic lens) can achieve a broadband lensing effect. Gravity wave lenses can be utilized to create localized high-energy wave zones (e.g. for wave energy harvesting or creating artificial surf zones) as well as to disperse waves in order to create protected areas (e.g. harbors or areas near important offshore facilities). In reverse, lensing of oceanic waves may be caused by natural seabed features and may explain the frequent appearance of very high amplitude waves at certain bodies of water.

  4. High-order Boussinesq-type modelling of nonlinear wave phenomena in deep and shallow water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we start with a review of the development of Boussinesq theory for water waves covering the period from 1872 to date. Previous reviews have been given by Dingemans,1 Kirby,2,3 and Madsen & Schäffer.4 Next, we present our most recent high-order Boussinesq-type formulation valid...... for fully nonlinear and highly dispersive waves traveling over a rapidly varying bathymetry. Finally, we cover applications of this Boussinesq model, and we study a number of nonlinear wave phenomena in deep and shallow water. These include (1) Kinematics in highly nonlinear progressive deep-water waves; (2...

  5. Theory of Guided Acoustic Waves in Piezoelectric Solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    LABORATORY LEYE * THEORY OF GUIDED ACOUSTIC 0 WAVES IN PIEZOELECTRIC SOLIDS SUPRIYO DATTA 1I 717 I APPROVED FOR PUBLIC NLEASE. DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITD...Waves Line Acnus tic Waves Transducers and Reflectors 20 az. ACT -der’u, or’’’rqsJ !r~o~a rAf.mt , !ck rn , A non-itarative varia -;..onal cechnique...following chapters deal with a variety of interesting acous; tic field problems. Most of these results have already been published and the puroose of this

  6. Finite Amplitude Ocean Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    (2). Hence, small amplitude waves are also called linear waves. Most of the aspects of the ocean waves can be explained by the small amplitude wave theory. Let us now see the water particle motion due to waves. While wave energy is carried by the wave as it progresses forward, the water particles oscillate up and down.

  7. Water waves generated by impulsively moving obstacle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, Nikolay; Kostikov, Vasily

    2017-04-01

    There are several mechanisms of tsunami-type wave formation such as piston displacement of the ocean floor due to a submarine earthquake, landslides, etc. We consider simplified mathematical formulation which involves non-stationary Euler equations of infinitely deep ideal fluid with submerged compact wave-maker. We apply semi-analytical method [1] based on the reduction of fully nonlinear water wave problem to the integral-differential system for the wave elevation together with normal and tangential fluid velocities at the free surface. Recently, small-time asymptotic solutions were constructed by this method for submerged piston modeled by thin elliptic cylinder which starts with constant acceleration from rest [2,3]. By that, the leading-order solution terms describe several regimes of non-stationary free surface flow such as formation of inertial fluid layer, splash jets and diverging waves over the obstacle. Now we construct asymptotic solution taking into account higher-order nonlinear terms in the case of submerged circular cylinder. The role of non-linearity in the formation mechanism of surface waves is clarified in comparison with linear approximations. This work was supported by RFBR (grant No 15-01-03942). References [1] Makarenko N.I. Nonlinear interaction of submerged cylinder with free surface, JOMAE Trans. ASME, 2003, 125(1), 75-78. [2] Makarenko N.I., Kostikov V.K. Unsteady motion of an elliptic cylinder under a free surface, J. Appl. Mech. Techn. Phys., 2013, 54(3), 367-376. [3] Makarenko N.I., Kostikov V.K. Non-linear water waves generated by impulsive motion of submerged obstacle, NHESS, 2014, 14(4), 751-756.

  8. Extending geometrical optics: A Lagrangian theory for vector waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, D. E.; Dodin, I. Y.

    2017-05-01

    Even when neglecting diffraction effects, the well-known equations of geometrical optics (GO) are not entirely accurate. Traditional GO treats wave rays as classical particles, which are completely described by their coordinates and momenta, but vector-wave rays have another degree of freedom, namely, their polarization. The polarization degree of freedom manifests itself as an effective (classical) "wave spin" that can be assigned to rays and can affect the wave dynamics accordingly. A well-known manifestation of polarization dynamics is mode conversion, which is the linear exchange of quanta between different wave modes and can be interpreted as a rotation of the wave spin. Another, less-known polarization effect is the polarization-driven bending of ray trajectories. This work presents an extension and reformulation of GO as a first-principle Lagrangian theory, whose effective Hamiltonian governs the aforementioned polarization phenomena simultaneously. As an example, the theory is applied to describe the polarization-driven divergence of right-hand and left-hand circularly polarized electromagnetic waves in weakly magnetized plasma.

  9. Spectral characteristics of high shallow water waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; AshokKumar, K.

    –Moskowitz and Kitaigordskii et al. (1975) for the south-west coast of India. Ochi and Hubble (1976) found that JONSWAP spectrum provided good approx- imation to the data for the uni-model spectra with mean JONSWAP parameters of g (peak enhancement para- meter) ¼ 2.2 and a.... 4.1–4.55. Young, I.R., 1992. The determination of spectral parameters from significant wave height and peak period. Ocean Engineering 19 (5), 497–508. Young, I.R., Verhagen, L.A., 1996. The growth of fetch limited waves in water of finite depth: Part...

  10. Scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave by a Luneburg lens. II. Wave theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, James A

    2008-12-01

    The partial wave scattering and interior amplitudes for the interaction of an electromagnetic plane wave with a modified Luneburg lens are derived in terms of the exterior and interior radial functions of the scalar radiation potentials evaluated at the lens surface. A Debye series decomposition of these amplitudes is also performed and discussed. The effective potential inside the lens for the transverse electric polarization is qualitatively examined, and the approximate lens size parameters of morphology-dependent resonances are determined. Finally, the physical optics model is used to calculate wave scattering in the vicinity of the ray theory orbiting condition in order to demonstrate the smoothing of ray theory discontinuities by the diffraction of scattered waves.

  11. An overview of gravitational waves theory, sources and detection

    CERN Document Server

    Auger, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    This book describes detection techniques used to search for and analyze gravitational waves (GW). It covers the whole domain of GW science, starting from the theory and ending with the experimental techniques (both present and future) used to detect them. The theoretical sections of the book address the theory of general relativity and of GW, followed by the theory of GW detection. The various sources of GW are described as well as the methods used to analyse them and to extract their physical parameters. It includes an analysis of the consequences of GW observations in terms of astrophysics as well as a description of the different detectors that exist and that are planned for the future. With the recent announcement of GW detection and the first results from LISA Pathfinder, this book will allow non-specialists to understand the present status of the field and the future of gravitational wave science

  12. Excitation of surface electromagnetic waves on water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A K; Goben, C A; Davarpanah, M; Boone, J L

    1978-11-01

    Excitation of surface electromagnetic waves (SEW) on water was studied using optical coupling techniques at microwave frequencies. Excitation of SEW was also achieved using direct horn antenna coupling. The transmitted SEW power was increased by adding acid and salt to water. The horn antenna gave the maximum excitation efficiency 70%. It was increased to 75% by collimating the electromagnetic beam in the vertical direction. Excitation efficiency for the prism (0 degrees pitch angle) and grating couplers were 15.2% and 10.5% respectively. By changing the prism coupler pitch angle to +36 degrees , its excitation efficiency was increased to 82%.

  13. Time-domain Hydroelasticity Theory of Ships Responding to Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui

    1997-01-01

    free surface flow. The general interface boundary condition is used in the mathematical formulation of the fluid motion around the flexible structure. The general time-domain theory is simplified to a slender-body theory for the analysis of wave-induced global responses of monohull ships. The structure...... is represented by a non-uniform beam, while the generalized hydrodynamic coefficients can be obtained from two-dimensional potential flow theory. The linear slender body theory is generalized to treat the non-linear loading effects of rigid motion and structural response of ships travelling in rough seas....... The non-linear hydrostatic restoring force and hydrodynamic momentum action are considered. A numerical solution is presented for the slender body theory. Numerical examples are given for two ship cases with different geometry features, a warship hull and the S175 containership with two different bow...

  14. Utilization of Double-Water-Chamber Seawall type for Wave Energy Extraction and Wave Dissipation

    OpenAIRE

    Husain, Firman

    2016-01-01

    Variation type and model of wave energy converter have been applied in many countries around the world in order to harvest the ocean wave power. A number of other devices were developing and testing by researchers in the experimental scale. In the present paper investigates double-water-chamber seawall performance for wave energy converter. The main body of water chamber seawall is like OWC structure. Savonius water turbine and guide vanes used to extract a wave power instead of air turbine a...

  15. Applicability of various wave movement theories for calculating hydrobiotechnical constructions in the conditions of relative shoal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilyaev Sergey Ivanovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Technological features of cultural reproduction of seafood presuppose the use of hydrobiotechnical constructions. Calculations of the loadings and impacts on sea hydrobiotechnical constructions demand a reasonable choice of a hydromechanical theory of wave movement. In the article the theories of two-dimensional regular linear and nonlinear waves are considered: the theory of small amplitude waves; Stokes' wave theory (the second order of approximation; the theory of final height waves of the first, second and third order of approximation. The dependences for determining speeds and accelerations of liquid particles are given. The comparison results of various theories of regular waves and fields of their application are stated. The authors offer the expressions for engineering calculations of kinematic characteristics of regular waves at a final depth. In recent years, cage culture fishery has received the predominant development in marine aquaculture, because its creation do not require large investments. Calculation of loads and impacts of waves on the shore hydraulic structures under extreme conditions require justified choice of hydro-mechanical theory of wave motions. This article gives a comparison of the various theories of regular waves, both linear and nonlinear and evaluates the applicability of them from the point of view of engineering use and actual conditions. However, the theory of small amplitude waves is widespread both in theoretical studies and engineering application, due to its sufficient simplicity and the fact that the linearity of the theory of small amplitude waves allows using the method of summing elementary solutions in the process of finding potential wave motion. The choice of one or another wave theory in marine facilities calculations of regular waves impact depends on the type of design, ease of using wave theory in calculations, type of the considered impact, applicability of the different wave theories in order

  16. Deep water periodic waves as Hamiltonian relative equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.; Lie She Liam, L.S.L.; Lakhturov, I.; Andonowati, A.; Biggs, N.

    2007-01-01

    We use a recently derived KdV-type of equation for waves on deep water to study Stokes waves as relative equilibria. Special attention is given to investigate the cornered Stokes-120 degree wave as a singular solution in the class of smooth steady wave profiles.

  17. Concrete wave dispersion interpretation through Mindlin's strain gradient elastic theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliopoulos, Sokratis N; Malm, Fabian; Grosse, Christian U; Aggelis, Dimitrios G; Polyzos, Demosthenes

    2017-07-01

    Classical elastic wave features like pulse velocity and attenuation have been used for decades for concrete condition characterization. Relatively recently the effect of frequency has been studied showing no doubt over the dispersive behavior of the material. Despite the experimental evidence, there is no unified theory to model the material and explain this phase velocity change at frequencies below 200 kHz. Herein, the Mindlin's strain gradient elastic theory including the additional micro-stiffness and micro-inertia parameters is considered as an alternative of multiple scattering theory. Experimental results are produced from material with dictated microstructure using a specific diameter of glass beads in cement paste. Results show that Mindlin's theory provides conclusions on the microstructure of the material and is suitable for describing the observed dispersion in different length scales (from millimeters in the case of mortar to several centimeters in the case of concrete).

  18. Estimation of freak wave occurrence in shallow water regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    In the last two decades, freak waves have become an important topic in engineering and science and are sometimes featured by a single and steep crest causing severe damage to offshore structures and vessels. An accurate estimation of maximum wave height and prediction of freak wave occurrence frequency is important for marine safety and ocean developments. According to several studies on freak waves, the deep-water third-order nonlinearity (quasi-resonant four-wave interactions) can lead to a significant enhancement of freak wave occurrence from normality. However, it is not clear the behavior of offshore generated freak waves shoaling to shallow water regions. In general, a numerical simulation based on Boussinesq model has been frequently and widely used to estimate wave transformation in shallow water regions and has high-level performance in the design of coast and harbor structures in Japan. However, it is difficult to describe the freak wave occurrence from deep to shallow water regions by the Boussinesq model because it can express only up to the second-order nonlinear interactions. There is a gap of governing equation between deep and shallow water regions from the extreme wave modeling point of view. It is necessary to investigate the aftereffects of generated freak waves by the third-order nonlinear interactions in deep water regions and their propagation to shallow water regions using the Boussinesq model. In this study, the model experiments in a wave tank and numerical simulations based on the Boussinesq model were conducted to estimate the freak wave occurrence from deep to shallow water regions. In the model experiments, the maximum wave height increases with an increase in kurtosis by the third-order nonlinear interactions in deep water regions. The dependence of kurtosis on freak wave occurrence weakens by the second-order nonlinear interactions associated with wave shoaling if dimensionless water depth kph becomes shallower than 1.363, which kp

  19. Seismic rotation waves: basic elements of theory and recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Palangio

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Returning to the old problem of observed rotation effects, we present the recording system and basic elements of the theory related to the rotation fi eld and its association with seismic waves. There can be many different causes leading to observed/recorded rotation effects; we can group them as follows: generation of micro-displacement motion due to asymmetry of source processes and/or due to interaction between seismic body/surface waves and medium structure; interaction between incident seismic waves and objects situated on the ground surface. New recording techniques and advanced theory of deformation in media with defects and internal (e.g., granular structure make it possible to focus our attention on the fi rst group, related to microdisplacement motion recording, which includes both rotation and twist motions. Surface rotations and twists caused directly by the action of emerging seismic waves on some objects situated on the ground surface are considered here only in the historical aspects of the problem. We present some examples of experimental results related to recording of rotation and twist components at the Ojcow Observatory, Poland, and L'Aquila Observatory, Italy, and we discuss some prospects for further research.

  20. Mathematical analogies in physics. Thin-layer wave theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Carcione

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Field theory applies to elastodynamics, electromagnetism, quantum mechanics, gravitation and other similar fields of physics, where the basic equations describing the phenomenon are based on constitutive relations and balance equations. For instance, in elastodynamics, these are the stress-strain relations and the equations of momentum conservation (Euler-Newton law. In these cases, the same mathematical theory can be used, by establishing appropriate mathematical equivalences (or analogies between material properties and field variables. For instance, the wave equation and the related mathematical developments can be used to describe anelastic and electromagnetic wave propagation, and are extensively used in quantum mechanics. In this work, we obtain the mathematical analogy for the reflection/refraction (transmission problem of a thin layer embedded between dissimilar media, considering the presence of anisotropy and attenuation/viscosity in the viscoelastic case, conductivity in the electromagnetic case and a potential barrier in quantum physics (the tunnel effect. The analogy is mainly illustrated with geophysical examples of propagation of S (shear, P (compressional, TM (transverse-magnetic and TE (transverse-electric waves. The tunnel effect is obtained as a special case of viscoelastic waves at normal incidence.

  1. How to test gravitation theories by means of gravitational-wave measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, K. S.

    1974-01-01

    Gravitational-wave experiments are a potentially powerful tool for testing gravitation theories. Most theories in the literature predict rather different polarization properties for gravitational waves than are predicted by general relativity; and many theories predict anomalies in the propagation speeds of gravitational waves.

  2. Rethinking wave-kinetic theory applied to zonal flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey

    2017-10-01

    Over the past two decades, a number of studies have employed a wave-kinetic theory to describe fluctuations interacting with zonal flows. Recent work has uncovered a defect in this wave-kinetic formulation: the system is dominated by the growth of (arbitrarily) small-scale zonal structures. Theoretical calculations of linear growth rates suggest, and nonlinear simulations confirm, that this system leads to the concentration of zonal flow energy in the smallest resolved scales, irrespective of the numerical resolution. This behavior results from the assumption that zonal flows are extremely long wavelength, leading to the neglect of key terms responsible for conservation of enstrophy. A corrected theory, CE2-GO, is presented; it is free of these errors yet preserves the intuitive phase-space mathematical structure. CE2-GO properly conserves enstrophy as well as energy, and yields accurate growth rates of zonal flow. Numerical simulations are shown to be well-behaved and not dependent on box size. The steady-state limit simplifies into an exact wave-kinetic form which offers the promise of deeper insight into the behavior of wavepackets. The CE2-GO theory takes its place in a hierarchy of models as the geometrical-optics reduction of the more complete cumulant-expansion statistical theory CE2. The new theory represents the minimal statistical description, enabling an intuitive phase-space formulation and an accurate description of turbulence-zonal flow dynamics. This work was supported by an NSF Graduate Research Fellowship, a US DOE Fusion Energy Sciences Fellowship, and US DOE Contract Nos. DE-AC52-07NA27344 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  3. Higher-Order Hamiltonian Model for Unidirectional Water Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bona, J. L.; Carvajal, X.; Panthee, M.; Scialom, M.

    2017-10-01

    Formally second-order correct, mathematical descriptions of long-crested water waves propagating mainly in one direction are derived. These equations are analogous to the first-order approximations of KdV- or BBM-type. The advantage of these more complex equations is that their solutions corresponding to physically relevant initial perturbations of the rest state may be accurate on a much longer timescale. The initial value problem for the class of equations that emerges from our derivation is then considered. A local well-posedness theory is straightforwardly established by a contraction mapping argument. A subclass of these equations possess a special Hamiltonian structure that implies the local theory can be continued indefinitely.

  4. BOOK REVIEW: Gravitational Waves, Volume 1: Theory and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisson, Eric

    2008-10-01

    discussion is helpful, as it clarifies some of the puzzling aspects of general covariance. Next the treatment becomes more sophisticated: the waves are allowed to propagate in an arbitrary background spacetime, and the energy momentum carried by the wave is identified by the second-order perturbation of the Einstein tensor. In chapter 2 the waves are given a field-theoretic foundation that is less familiar (but refreshing) to a relativist, but would appeal to a practitioner of effective field theories. In an interesting section of chapter 2, the author gives a mass to the (classical) graviton and explores the physical consequences of this proposal. In chapter 3 the author returns to the standard linearized theory and develops the multipolar expansion of the gravitational-wave field in the context of slowly-moving sources; at leading order he obtains the famous quadrupole formula. His treatment is very detailed, and it includes a complete account of symmetric-tracefree tensors and tensorial spherical harmonics. It is, however, necessarily limited to sources with negligible internal gravity. Unfortunately (and this is a familiar complaint of relativists) the author omits to warn the reader of this important limitation. In fact, the chapter opens with a statement of the virial theorem of Newtonian gravity, which may well mislead the reader to believe that the linearized theory can be applied to a system bound by gravitational forces. This misconception is confirmed when, in chapter 4, the author applies the quadrupole formula to gravitationally-bound systems such as an inspiraling compact binary, a rigidly rotating body, and a mass falling toward a black hole. This said, the presentation of these main sources of gravitational waves is otherwise irreproachable, and a wealth of useful information is presented in a clear and lucid manner. For example, the discussion of inspiraling compact binaries includes a derivation of the orbital evolution of circular and eccentric orbits

  5. Quantum Measurement Theory in Gravitational-Wave Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilishin, Stefan L; Khalili, Farid Ya

    2012-01-01

    The fast progress in improving the sensitivity of the gravitational-wave detectors, we all have witnessed in the recent years, has propelled the scientific community to the point at which quantum behavior of such immense measurement devices as kilometer-long interferometers starts to matter. The time when their sensitivity will be mainly limited by the quantum noise of light is around the corner, and finding ways to reduce it will become a necessity. Therefore, the primary goal we pursued in this review was to familiarize a broad spectrum of readers with the theory of quantum measurements in the very form it finds application in the area of gravitational-wave detection. We focus on how quantum noise arises in gravitational-wave interferometers and what limitations it imposes on the achievable sensitivity. We start from the very basic concepts and gradually advance to the general linear quantum measurement theory and its application to the calculation of quantum noise in the contemporary and planned interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation of the first and second generation. Special attention is paid to the concept of the Standard Quantum Limit and the methods of its surmounting.

  6. Quantum Measurement Theory in Gravitational-Wave Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan L. Danilishin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The fast progress in improving the sensitivity of the gravitational-wave detectors, we all have witnessed in the recent years, has propelled the scientific community to the point at which quantum behavior of such immense measurement devices as kilometer-long interferometers starts to matter. The time when their sensitivity will be mainly limited by the quantum noise of light is around the corner, and finding ways to reduce it will become a necessity. Therefore, the primary goal we pursued in this review was to familiarize a broad spectrum of readers with the theory of quantum measurements in the very form it finds application in the area of gravitational-wave detection. We focus on how quantum noise arises in gravitational-wave interferometers and what limitations it imposes on the achievable sensitivity. We start from the very basic concepts and gradually advance to the general linear quantum measurement theory and its application to the calculation of quantum noise in the contemporary and planned interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation of the first and second generation. Special attention is paid to the concept of the Standard Quantum Limit and the methods of its surmounting.

  7. Lecture Notes for the Course in Water Wave Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter

    The present notes are written for the course in water wave mechanics given on the 7th semester of the education in civil engineering at Aalborg University. The prerequisites for the course are the course in fluid dynamics also given on the 7th semester and some basic mathematical and physical...... knowledge. The course is at the same time an introduction to the course in coastal hydraulics on the 8th semester. The notes cover the following five lectures: 1. Definitions. Governing equations and boundary conditions. Derivation of velocity potential for linear waves. Dispersion relationship. 2. Particle...... paths, velocities, accelerations, pressure variation, deep and shallow water waves, wave energy and group velocity. 3. Shoaling, refraction, diffraction and wave breaking. 4. Irregular waves. Time domain analysis of waves. 5. Wave spectra. Frequency domain analysis of waves. The present notes are based...

  8. Linear theory on temporal instability of megahertz faraday waves for monodisperse microdroplet ejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shirley C; Tsai, Chen S

    2013-08-01

    A linear theory on temporal instability of megahertz Faraday waves for monodisperse microdroplet ejection based on mass conservation and linearized Navier-Stokes equations is presented using the most recently observed micrometer- sized droplet ejection from a millimeter-sized spherical water ball as a specific example. The theory is verified in the experiments utilizing silicon-based multiple-Fourier horn ultrasonic nozzles at megahertz frequency to facilitate temporal instability of the Faraday waves. Specifically, the linear theory not only correctly predicted the Faraday wave frequency and onset threshold of Faraday instability, the effect of viscosity, the dynamics of droplet ejection, but also established the first theoretical formula for the size of the ejected droplets, namely, the droplet diameter equals four-tenths of the Faraday wavelength involved. The high rate of increase in Faraday wave amplitude at megahertz drive frequency subsequent to onset threshold, together with enhanced excitation displacement on the nozzle end face, facilitated by the megahertz multiple Fourier horns in resonance, led to high-rate ejection of micrometer- sized monodisperse droplets (>10(7) droplets/s) at low electrical drive power (<;1 W) with short initiation time (<;0.05 s). This is in stark contrast to the Rayleigh-Plateau instability of a liquid jet, which ejects one droplet at a time. The measured diameters of the droplets ranging from 2.2 to 4.6 μm at 2 to 1 MHz drive frequency fall within the optimum particle size range for pulmonary drug delivery.

  9. Thermodynamic transport theory of spin waves in ferromagnetic insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Vittorio; Ferraro, Elena; Piazzi, Marco

    2016-10-01

    We use the Boltzmann transport theory in the relaxation time approximation to describe the thermal transport of spin waves in a ferromagnet. By treating spin waves as magnon excitations we are able to compute analytically and numerically the coefficients of the constitutive thermomagnetic transport equations. As a main result, we find that the absolute thermomagnetic power coefficient ɛM, relating the gradient of the potential of the magnetization current and the gradient of the temperature, in the limit of low temperature and low field, is a constant ɛM=-0.6419 kB/μB . The theory correctly describes the low-temperature and magnetic-field dependencies of spin Seebeck experiments. Furthermore, the theory predicts that in the limit of very low temperatures the spin Peltier coefficient ΠM, relating the heat and the magnetization currents, tends to a finite value which depends on the amplitude of the magnetic field. This indicates the possibility to exploit the spin Peltier effect as an efficient cooling mechanism in cryogenics.

  10. Manipulating Effective Gravity and Trapping Shallow Water Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareei, Ahmad; Alam, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-11-01

    A perfect manipulation of water waves in shallow water using transformation media methods usually requires changes in both water depth and gravitational acceleration as medium properties; however gravitational acceleration is always a physical constant. Reduced models and conformal transformations are used to keep the gravitational acceleration as a constant at the cost of performance and restriction of use. Here we present a novel method of changing effective gravitational acceleration using a visco-elastic bottom topography. This method of manipulating effective gravitational acceleration, beside changes in bottom topography, opens new applications toward controlling surface waves and enables perfect manipulation of water waves in a broad range of frequencies. Using the visco-elastic bottom topography, we present a GRIN-lens based wave-guide that traps water waves in a region along the axis of the lens. The presented method of manipulating effective gravitational acceleration can as well be applied to perfectly focus and rotate the waves for energy harvesting applications.

  11. A general theory of two-wave mixing in nonlinear media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Huignard, Jean-Pierre; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2009-01-01

    A general theory of two-wave mixing in nonlinear media is presented. Assuming a gain (or absorption) grating and a refractive index grating are generated because of the nonlinear process in a nonlinear medium, the coupled-wave equations of two-wave mixing are derived based on the Maxwell’s wave...... to the previous theory of two-wave mixing, the theory presented here is more general and the application of the theory to the photorefractive materials, Kerr media and semiconductor broad-area amplifiers are described....

  12. WAVE CHARACTERISTICS ANALYSIS OF PERAK WATERS SURABAYA

    OpenAIRE

    Zainul Hidayah

    2009-01-01

    This research was intended to understand the wave’s characteristics of the study area. Wave’s parameters that were observed in this research including wave period (T), wave length (L), wave height (H), wave velocity (C) and wave energy (E). Another objective of this study was also to produce a topographic map of the sea floor for the study area. Wave’s data of this study was gain from an electronic sensor called MAWS (Marine Automatic Wave Sensor). This sensor is located in a Naval Base of Su...

  13. Runup of Nonlinear Long Waves in Trapezoidal Bays: 1-D Analytical Theory and 2-D Numerical Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M. W.; Nicolsky, D. J.; Pelinovsky, E. N.; Rybkin, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    Long nonlinear wave runup on the coasts of trapezoidal bays is studied analytically in the framework of one-dimensional (1-D) nonlinear shallow-water theory with cross-section averaging, and is also studied numerically within a two-dimensional (2-D) nonlinear shallow water theory. In the 1-D theory, it is assumed that the trapezoidal cross-section channel is inclined linearly to the horizon, and that the wave flow is uniform in the cross-section. As a result, 1-D nonlinear shallow-water equations are reduced to a linear, semi-axis variable-coefficient 1-D wave equation by using the generalized Carrier-Greenspan transformation [ Carrier and Greenspan (J Fluid Mech 1:97-109, 1958)] recently developed for arbitrary cross-section channels [ Rybkin et al. (Ocean Model 43-44:36-51, 2014)], and all characteristics of the wave field can be expressed by implicit formulas. For detailed computations of the long wave runup process, a robust and effective finite difference scheme is applied. The numerical method is verified on a known analytical solution for wave runup on the coasts of an inclined parabolic bay. The predictions of the 1-D model are compared with results of direct numerical simulations of inundations caused by tsunamis in narrow bays with real bathymetries.

  14. Hydroacoustic ray theory-based modeling of T wave propagation in the deep ocean basin offshore eastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Wu; Huang, Chen-Fen; Lin, Chien-Wen; Kuo, Ban-Yuan

    2017-05-01

    T waves are conventionally defined as seismically generated acoustic energy propagating horizontally over long distances within the minimum sound speed layer in the ocean (SOFAR axis minimum). However, T waves have also been observed by ocean-bottom seismometers in ocean basins at depths greater than the SOFAR axis minimum. Previously, nongeometrical processes, such as local scattering at rough seafloor and water-sediment interface coupling, have been proposed as possible mechanisms for deep seafloor detection of T waves. Here we employ a new T wave modeling approach based on hydroacoustic ray theory to demonstrate that seismoacoustic energy can propagate to reach deep seafloor, previously considered as shadow zone of acoustic propagation. Our new hydroacoustic simulations explain well the observations of T waves on ocean-bottom seismometers at deep ocean basins east of Taiwan and shed new light on the mechanism for deep ocean T wave propagation.

  15. The Eigen Theory of Waves in Piezoelectric Solids

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Shaohua

    2010-01-01

    In the first place, we analyzed here the elastic waves and electromagnetic waves in anisotropic solids. The calculation shows that the propagation of elastic waves in anisotropic solids consist of the incomplete dilation type and the incomplete shear type except for the pure longitudinal or pure transverse waves in isotropic solids. Several novel results for elastic waves were obtained, for example, there are two elastic waves in isotropic solids, which are the P-wave and the S-wave. There ar...

  16. Lecture Notes for the Course in Water Wave Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter

    The present notes are written for the course in water wave mechanics given on the 7th semester of the education in civil engineering at Aalborg University.......The present notes are written for the course in water wave mechanics given on the 7th semester of the education in civil engineering at Aalborg University....

  17. Hydrodynamic coefficients for water-wave diffraction by spherical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The work presented here is the result of water-wave interaction with submerged spheres. Analytical expressions for various hydrodynamic coefficients and loads due to the diffraction of water waves by a submerged sphere are obtained. The exciting force components due to surge and heave motions are derived by solving ...

  18. Luneburg modified lens for surface water waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichard, Helene; Maurel, Agnes; Petitjeans, Phillipe; Martin, Paul; Pagneux, Vincent

    2015-11-01

    It is well known that when the waves pass across an elevated bathymetry, refraction often results in amplification of waves behind it. In this sense, focusing of liquid surface waves can be used to enhance the harvest efficiency of ocean power. An ocean wave focusing lens concentrates waves on a certain focal point by transforming straight crest lens of incident waves into circular ones just like an optical lens. These devices have attracted ocean engineers and are promising because they enable the effective utilization of wave energy, the remaining challenge being to increase the harvest efficiency of the lens. In this work, in order to improve well known focusing of surface liquid waves by lens, the propagation of liquid surface waves through a Luneburg modified lens is investigated. The traditional Luneburg lens is a rotationally symmetric lens with a spatially varying refractive-index profile that focuses an incident plane wave on the rim of the lens. The modified Luneburg lens allows to choose the position of the focal point, which can lie inside or outside the lens. This new degree of freedom leads to enhanced focusing and tunable focusing. The focusing of linear surface waves through this lens is investigated and is shown to be more efficient than classical profile lenses.

  19. CFD Analysis of Water Solitary Wave Reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Smida

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A new numerical wave generation method is used to investigate the head-on collision of two solitary waves. The reflection at vertical wall of a solitary wave is also presented. The originality of this model, based on the Navier-Stokes equations, is the specification of an internal inlet velocity, defined as a source line within the computational domain for the generation of these non linear waves. This model was successfully implemented in the PHOENICS (Parabolic Hyperbolic Or Elliptic Numerical Integration Code Series code. The collision of two counter-propagating solitary waves is similar to the interaction of a soliton with a vertical wall. This wave generation method allows the saving of considerable time for this collision process since the counter-propagating wave is generated directly without reflection at vertical wall. For the collision of two solitary waves, numerical results show that the run-up phenomenon can be well explained, the solution of the maximum wave run-up is almost equal to experimental measurement. The simulated wave profiles during the collision are in good agreement with experimental results. For the reflection at vertical wall, the spatial profiles of the wave at fixed instants show that this problem is equivalent to the collision process.

  20. A metasurface carpet cloak for electromagnetic, acoustic and water waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yihao; Wang, Huaping; Yu, Faxin; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Hongsheng

    2016-01-29

    We propose a single low-profile skin metasurface carpet cloak to hide objects with arbitrary shape and size under three different waves, i.e., electromagnetic (EM) waves, acoustic waves and water waves. We first present a metasurface which can control the local reflection phase of these three waves. By taking advantage of this metasurface, we then design a metasurface carpet cloak which provides an additional phase to compensate the phase distortion introduced by a bump, thus restoring the reflection waves as if the incident waves impinge onto a flat mirror. The finite element simulation results demonstrate that an object can be hidden under these three kinds of waves with a single metasurface cloak.

  1. Velocity flow field and water level measurements in shoaling and breaking water waves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mukaro, R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report on the laboratory investigations of breaking water waves. Measurements of the water levels and instantaneous fluid velocities were conducted in water waves breaking on a sloping beach within a glass flume. Instantaneous water...

  2. Shock wave focusing in water inside convergent structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on shock focusing in water-filled convergent structures have been performed. A shock wave in water is generated by means of a projectile, launched from a gas gun, which impacts a water-filled convergent structure. Two types of structures have been tested; a bulk material and a thin shell structure. The geometric shape of the convergent structures is given by a logarithmic spiral, and this particular shape is chosen because it maximizes the amount of energy reaching the focal region. High-speed schlieren photography is used to visualize the shock dynamics during the focusing event. Results show that the fluid-structure interaction between the thin shell structure and the shock wave in the water is different from that of a bulk structure; multiple reflections of the shock wave inside the thin shell are reflected back into the water, thus creating a wave train, which is not observed for shock focusing in a bulk material.

  3. Lecture Notes for the Course in Water Wave Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter; Burcharth, Hans F.

    The present notes are written for the course in water wave mechanics given on the 7th semester of the education in civil engineering at Aalborg University. The prerequisites for the course are the course in fluid dynamics also given on the 7th semester and some basic mathematical and physical...... knowledge. The course is at the same time an introduction to the course in coastal hydraulics on the 8th semester. The notes cover the first four lectures of the course: • Definitions. Governing equations and boundary conditions. • Derivation of velocity potential for linear waves. Dispersion relationship...... Particle velocities and accelerations. • Particle paths, pressure variation, deep and shallow water waves, wave energy and group velocity. • Shoaling, refraction, diffraction and wave breaking. The last part of the course is on analysis of irregular waves and was included in the first two editions...

  4. Game Theory in water resources management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanevaki, Styliani Maria; Varouchakis, Emmanouil; Karatzas, George

    2015-04-01

    Rural water management is a basic requirement for the development of the primary sector and involves the exploitation of surface/ground-water resources. Rational management requires the study of parameters that determine their exploitation mainly environmental, economic and social. These parameters reflect the influence of irrigation on the aquifer behaviour and on the level-streamflow of nearby rivers as well as on the profit from the farming activity for the farmers' welfare. The question of rural water management belongs to the socio-political problems, since the factors involved are closely related to user behaviour and state position. By applying Game Theory one seeks to simulate the behaviour of the system 'surface/ground-water resources to water-users' with a model based on a well-known game, "The Prisoner's Dilemma" for economic development of the farmers without overexploitation of the water resources. This is a game of two players that have been extensively studied in Game Theory, economy and politics because it can describe real-world cases. The present proposal aims to investigate the rural water management issue that is referred to two competitive small partnerships organised to manage their agricultural production and to achieve a better profit. For the farmers' activities water is required and ground-water is generally preferable because consists a more stable recourse than river-water which in most of the cases in Greece are of intermittent flow. If the two farmer groups cooperate and exploit the agreed water quantities they will gain equal profits and benefit from the sustainable availability of the water recourses (p). If both groups overexploitate the resource to maximize profit, then in the medium-term they will incur a loss (g), due to the water resources reduction and the increase of the pumping costs. If one overexploit the resource while the other use the necessary required, then the first will gain great benefit (P), and the second will

  5. Generalized vector wave theory for ultrahigh resolution confocal optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ken; Xie, Xiangsheng; Zhou, Jianying

    2017-01-01

    Polarization modulation of a tightly focused beam in a confocal imaging scheme is considered for incident and collected light fields. Rigorous vector wave theory of a confocal optical microscopy is developed, which provides clear physical pictures without the requirement for fragmentary calculations. Multiple spatial modulations on polarization, phase, or amplitude of the illuminating and the detected beams can be mathematically described by a uniform expression. Linear and nonlinear excitation schemes are derived with tailored excitation and detection fields within this generalized theory, whose results show that the ultimate resolution achieved with the linear excitation can reach one-fifth of the excitation wavelength (or λ/5), while the nonlinear excitation scheme gives rise to a resolution better than λ/12 for two-photon fluorescence excitation and λ/20 for three-photon fluorescence excitation. Hence the resolution of optical microscopy with a near-infrared excitation can routinely reach sub-60 nm. In addition, simulations for confocal laser scanning microscopy are carried out with the linear excitation scheme and the fluorescent one, respectively.

  6. Hydrodynamic analysis of oscillating water column wave energy devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingham, Harry B.; Ducasse, Damien; Nielsen, Kim

    2015-01-01

    for wave-body interactions, 2014, http://​www.​wamit.​com) is used for the basic wave-structure interaction analysis. The damping applied to each chamber by the power take off is modeled in the experiment by forcing the air through a hole with an area of about 1 % of the chamber water surface area...

  7. Gravitational Wave Polarizations in f (R) Gravity and Scalar-Tensor Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yungui; Hou, Shaoqi

    2018-01-01

    The detection of gravitational waves by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory opens a new era to use gravitational waves to test alternative theories of gravity. We investigate the polarizations of gravitational waves in f (R) gravity and Horndeski theory, both containing scalar modes. These theories predict that in addition to the familiar + and × polarizations, there are transverse breathing and longitudinal polarizations excited by the massive scalar mode and the new polarization is a single mixed state. It would be very difficult to detect the longitudinal polarization by interferometers, while pulsar timing array may be the better tool to detect the longitudinal polarization.

  8. Thermodynamic theory of the shock wave structure in a rarefied polyatomic gas: beyond the Bethe-Teller theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Shigeru; Arima, Takashi; Ruggeri, Tommaso; Sugiyama, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    The structure of a shock wave in a rarefied polyatomic gas is studied on the basis of the theory of extended thermodynamics. Three types of the shock wave structure observed in experiments, that is, the nearly symmetric shock wave structure (type A, small Mach number), the asymmetric structure (type B, moderate Mach number), and the structure composed of thin and thick layers (type C, large Mach number), are explained by the theory in a unified way. The theoretical prediction of the profile of the mass density agrees well with the experimental data. The well-known Bethe-Teller theory of the shock wave structure in a polyatomic gas is reexamined in the light of the present theory.

  9. Analytical approximation and numerical simulations for periodic travelling water waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalimeris, Konstantinos

    2017-12-01

    We present recent analytical and numerical results for two-dimensional periodic travelling water waves with constant vorticity. The analytical approach is based on novel asymptotic expansions. We obtain numerical results in two different ways: the first is based on the solution of a constrained optimization problem, and the second is realized as a numerical continuation algorithm. Both methods are applied on some examples of non-constant vorticity. This article is part of the theme issue 'Nonlinear water waves'.

  10. Resonant Interactions of Capillary-Gravity Water Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Calin Iulian

    2017-12-01

    We show here that capillary-gravity wave trains can propagate at the free surface of a rotational water flow of constant non-zero vorticity over a flat bed only if the flow is two-dimensional. Moreover, we also show that the vorticity must have only one non zero component which points in the horizontal direction orthogonal to the direction of wave propagation. This result is of relevance in the study of nonlinear resonances of wave trains. We perform such a study for three- and four wave interactions.

  11. Integrability: mathematical methods for studying solitary waves theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid

    2014-03-01

    In recent decades, substantial experimental research efforts have been devoted to linear and nonlinear physical phenomena. In particular, studies of integrable nonlinear equations in solitary waves theory have attracted intensive interest from mathematicians, with the principal goal of fostering the development of new methods, and physicists, who are seeking solutions that represent physical phenomena and to form a bridge between mathematical results and scientific structures. The aim for both groups is to build up our current understanding and facilitate future developments, develop more creative results and create new trends in the rapidly developing field of solitary waves. The notion of the integrability of certain partial differential equations occupies an important role in current and future trends, but a unified rigorous definition of the integrability of differential equations still does not exist. For example, an integrable model in the Painlevé sense may not be integrable in the Lax sense. The Painlevé sense indicates that the solution can be represented as a Laurent series in powers of some function that vanishes on an arbitrary surface with the possibility of truncating the Laurent series at finite powers of this function. The concept of Lax pairs introduces another meaning of the notion of integrability. The Lax pair formulates the integrability of nonlinear equation as the compatibility condition of two linear equations. However, it was shown by many researchers that the necessary integrability conditions are the existence of an infinite series of generalized symmetries or conservation laws for the given equation. The existence of multiple soliton solutions often indicates the integrability of the equation but other tests, such as the Painlevé test or the Lax pair, are necessary to confirm the integrability for any equation. In the context of completely integrable equations, studies are flourishing because these equations are able to describe the

  12. Electromagnetic wave theory for boundary-value problems an advanced course on analytical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Eom, Hyo J

    2004-01-01

    Electromagnetic wave theory is based on Maxwell's equations, and electromagnetic boundary-value problems must be solved to understand electromagnetic scattering, propagation, and radiation. Electromagnetic theory finds practical applications in wireless telecommunications and microwave engineering. This book is written as a text for a two-semester graduate course on electromagnetic wave theory. As such, Electromagnetic Wave Theory for Boundary-Value Problems is intended to help students enhance analytic skills by solving pertinent boundary-value problems. In particular, the techniques of Fourier transform, mode matching, and residue calculus are utilized to solve some canonical scattering and radiation problems.

  13. Time-domain theory of gyrotron traveling wave amplifiers operating at grazing incidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, N. S., E-mail: ginzburg@appl.sci-nnov.ru [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46, Ul' yanov St., Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Nizhny Novgorod State University, Gagarin Ave., 23, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Sergeev, A. S.; Zotova, I. V.; Zheleznov, I. V. [Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 46, Ul' yanov St., Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    Time-domain theory of the gyrotron traveling wave tube (gyro-TWT) operating at grazing incidence has been developed. The theory is based on a description of wave propagation by a parabolic equation. The results of the simulations are compared with experimental results of the observation of subnanosecond pulse amplification in a gyro-TWT consisting of three gain sections separated by severs. The theory developed can also be used successfully for a description of amplification of monochromatic signals.

  14. Standing Waves and Inquiry Using Water Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Dina; Vondracek, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Most high school and introductory college physics classes study simple harmonic motion and various wave phenomena. With the majority of states adopting the Next Generation Science Standards and pushing students to explore the scientific process for themselves, there is a growing demand for hands-on inquiry activities that involve and develop more…

  15. Linear theory of plasma filled backward wave oscillator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An analytical and numerical study of backward wave oscillator (BWO) in linear regime is presented to get an insight into the excitation of electromagnetic waves as a result of the interaction of the relativistic electron beam with a slow wave structure. The effect of background plasma on the BWO instability is also presented.

  16. Charged particle behavior in localized ultralow frequency waves: Theory and observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Zhou, Xu-Zhi; Zong, Qiu-Gang; Rankin, Robert; Zou, Hong; Liu, Ying; Chen, Xing-Ran; Hao, Yi-Xin

    2017-06-01

    The formation and variability of the Van Allen radiation belts are highly influenced by charged particles accelerated via drift-resonant interactions with ultralow frequency (ULF) waves. In the prevailing theory of drift resonance, the ULF wave amplitude is assumed independent of magnetic longitude. This assumption is not generally valid in Earth's magnetosphere, as supported by numerous observations that point to the localized nature of ULF waves. Here we introduce a longitude dependence of the ULF wave amplitude, achieved via a von Mises function, into the theoretical framework of ULF wave-particle drift resonance. To validate the revised theory, the predicted particle signatures are compared with observational data through a best fit procedure. It is demonstrated that incorporation of nonlocal effects in drift-resonance theory provides an improved understanding of charged particle behavior in the inner magnetosphere through the intermediary of ULF waves.

  17. Ocean swell within the kinetic equation for water waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Badulin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of extensive simulations of swell evolution within the duration-limited setup for the kinetic Hasselmann equation for long durations of up to 2  ×  106 s are presented. Basic solutions of the theory of weak turbulence, the so-called Kolmogorov–Zakharov solutions, are shown to be relevant to the results of the simulations. Features of self-similarity of wave spectra are detailed and their impact on methods of ocean swell monitoring is discussed. Essential drop in wave energy (wave height due to wave–wave interactions is found at the initial stages of swell evolution (on the order of 1000 km for typical parameters of the ocean swell. At longer times, wave–wave interactions are responsible for a universal angular distribution of wave spectra in a wide range of initial conditions. Weak power-law attenuation of swell within the Hasselmann equation is not consistent with results of ocean swell tracking from satellite altimetry and SAR (synthetic aperture radar data. At the same time, the relatively fast weakening of wave–wave interactions makes the swell evolution sensitive to other effects. In particular, as shown, coupling with locally generated wind waves can force the swell to grow in relatively light winds.

  18. Surface flute waves in plasmas theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Girka, Volodymyr; Thumm, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    The book presents results of a comprehensive study of various features of eigen electromagnetic waves propagating across the axis of plasma filled metal waveguides with cylindrical geometry. The authors collected in one book material on various features of surface flute waves, i. e. impact of waveguide design on wave dispersion, wave damping influenced by various reasons, impact of plasma density and external magnetic field inhomogeneity on the wave, and impact of waveguide corrugation and electric current on the wave. A variety of present surface waves applications and possible future applications is also included. Using the method of successive approximations it is shown how one can solve problems, which concern real experimental devices, starting from simple models. The book applies to both professionals dealing with problems of confined plasmas and to graduate and post-graduate students specializing in the field of plasma physics and related applications.

  19. Non-Linear Wave Loads and Ship responses by a time-domain Strip Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1998-01-01

    A non-linear time-domain strip theory for vertical wave loads and ship responses is presented. The theory is generalized from a rigorous linear time-domain strip theory representaton. The hydrodynamic memory effect due to the free surface is approximated by a higher order differential equation....... Based on this time-domain strip theory, an efficient non-linear hyroelastic method of wave- and slamming-induced vertical motions and structural responses of ships is developed, where the structure is represented by the Timoshenko beam theory. Numerical calculations are presented for the S175...

  20. Wave propagation in double walled carbon nanotubes by using doublet mechanics theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Ufuk; Aydogdu, Metin

    2017-09-01

    Flexural and axial wave propagation in double walled carbon nanotubes embedded in an elastic medium and axial wave propagation in single walled carbon nanotubes are investigated. A length scale dependent theory which is called doublet mechanics is used in the analysis. Governing equations are obtained by using Hamilton principle. Doublet mechanics results are compared with classical elasticity and other size dependent continuum theories such as strain gradient theory, nonlocal theory and lattice dynamics. In addition, experimental wave frequencies of graphite are compared with the doublet mechanics theory. It is obtained that doublet mechanics gives accurate results for flexural and axial wave propagation in nanotubes. Thus, doublet mechanics can be used for the design of electro-mechanical nano-devices such as nanomotors, nanosensors and oscillators.

  1. On a theory of surface waves in a smoothly inhomogeneous plasma in an external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzelev, M. V., E-mail: kuzelev@mail.ru; Orlikovskaya, N. G. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A theory of surface waves in a magnetoactive plasma with smooth boundaries has been developed. A dispersion equation for surface waves has been derived for a linear law of density change at the plasma boundary. The frequencies of surface waves and their collisionless damping rates have been determined. A generalization to an arbitrary density profile at the plasma boundary is given. The collisions have been taken into account, and the application of the Landau rule in the theory of surface wave damping in a spatially inhomogeneous magnetoactive collisional plasma has been clarified.

  2. Interfacial wave behavior in oil-water channel flows: Prospects for a general understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCready, M.J.; Uphold, D.D.; Gifford, K.A. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Oil-water pressure driven channel flow is examined as a model for general two-layer flows where interfacial disturbances are important. The goal is to develop sufficient understanding of this system so that the utility and limitations of linear and nonlinear theories can be known a priori. Experiments show that sometimes linear stability is useful at predicting the steady or dominant evolving waves. However in other situations there is no agreement between the linearly fastest growing wave and the spectral peak. An interesting preliminary result is that the bifurcation to interfacial waves is supercritical for all conditions that were studied for an oil-water channel flow, gas-liquid channel flow and two-liquid Couette flow. However, three different mechanisms are dominant for each of these three situations.

  3. Forcing of a bottom-mounted circular cylinder by steep regular water waves at finite depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Bo Terp; Bredmose, Henrik; Bingham, Harry B.

    2014-01-01

    with the experimental data was found. Time-domain computations of the normalized inline force history on the cylinder were analysed as a function of dimensionless wave height, water depth and wavelength. Here the dependence on depth was weak, while an increase in wavelength or wave height both lead to the formation......-harmonic force, a good agreement with the perturbation theories of Faltinsen, Newman & Vinje (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 289, 1995, pp. 179–198) and Malenica & Molin (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 302, 1995, pp. 203–229) was found. It was shown that the third-harmonic forces were estimated well by a Morison force formulation...

  4. A Variational Reduction and the Existence of a Fully Localised Solitary Wave for the Three-Dimensional Water-Wave Problem with Weak Surface Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffoni, Boris; Groves, Mark D.; Wahlén, Erik

    2017-12-01

    Fully localised solitary waves are travelling-wave solutions of the three- dimensional gravity-capillary water wave problem which decay to zero in every horizontal spatial direction. Their existence has been predicted on the basis of numerical simulations and model equations (in which context they are usually referred to as `lumps'), and a mathematically rigorous existence theory for strong surface tension (Bond number {β} greater than {1/3} ) has recently been given. In this article we present an existence theory for the physically more realistic case {0 < β < 1/3} . A classical variational principle for fully localised solitary waves is reduced to a locally equivalent variational principle featuring a perturbation of the functional associated with the Davey-Stewartson equation. A nontrivial critical point of the reduced functional is found by minimising it over its natural constraint set.

  5. Metamaterial Absorber for Electromagnetic Waves in Periodic Water Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young Joon; Ju, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Yoon; Ju Kim, Young; Bong, Jihye; Lim, Taekyung; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Lee, YoungPak

    2015-01-01

    Perfect metamaterial absorber (PMA) can intercept electromagnetic wave harmful for body in Wi-Fi, cell phones and home appliances that we are daily using and provide stealth function that military fighter, tank and warship can avoid radar detection. We reported new concept of water droplet-based PMA absorbing perfectly electromagnetic wave with water, an eco-friendly material which is very plentiful on the earth. If arranging water droplets with particular height and diameter on material surface through the wettability of material surface, meta-properties absorbing electromagnetic wave perfectly in GHz wide-band were shown. It was possible to control absorption ratio and absorption wavelength band of electromagnetic wave according to the shape of water droplet–height and diameter– and apply to various flexible and/or transparent substrates such as plastic, glass and paper. In addition, this research examined how electromagnetic wave can be well absorbed in water droplets with low electrical conductivity unlike metal-based metamaterials inquiring highly electrical conductivity. Those results are judged to lead broad applications to variously civilian and military products in the future by providing perfect absorber of broadband in all products including transparent and bendable materials. PMID:26354891

  6. Metamaterial Absorber for Electromagnetic Waves in Periodic Water Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young Joon; Ju, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Yoon; Ju Kim, Young; Bong, Jihye; Lim, Taekyung; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Lee, YoungPak

    2015-09-10

    Perfect metamaterial absorber (PMA) can intercept electromagnetic wave harmful for body in Wi-Fi, cell phones and home appliances that we are daily using and provide stealth function that military fighter, tank and warship can avoid radar detection. We reported new concept of water droplet-based PMA absorbing perfectly electromagnetic wave with water, an eco-friendly material which is very plentiful on the earth. If arranging water droplets with particular height and diameter on material surface through the wettability of material surface, meta-properties absorbing electromagnetic wave perfectly in GHz wide-band were shown. It was possible to control absorption ratio and absorption wavelength band of electromagnetic wave according to the shape of water droplet-height and diameter- and apply to various flexible and/or transparent substrates such as plastic, glass and paper. In addition, this research examined how electromagnetic wave can be well absorbed in water droplets with low electrical conductivity unlike metal-based metamaterials inquiring highly electrical conductivity. Those results are judged to lead broad applications to variously civilian and military products in the future by providing perfect absorber of broadband in all products including transparent and bendable materials.

  7. Metamaterial Absorber for Electromagnetic Waves in Periodic Water Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young Joon; Ju, Sanghyun; Park, Sang Yoon; Ju Kim, Young; Bong, Jihye; Lim, Taekyung; Kim, Ki Won; Rhee, Joo Yull; Lee, Youngpak

    2015-09-01

    Perfect metamaterial absorber (PMA) can intercept electromagnetic wave harmful for body in Wi-Fi, cell phones and home appliances that we are daily using and provide stealth function that military fighter, tank and warship can avoid radar detection. We reported new concept of water droplet-based PMA absorbing perfectly electromagnetic wave with water, an eco-friendly material which is very plentiful on the earth. If arranging water droplets with particular height and diameter on material surface through the wettability of material surface, meta-properties absorbing electromagnetic wave perfectly in GHz wide-band were shown. It was possible to control absorption ratio and absorption wavelength band of electromagnetic wave according to the shape of water droplet-height and diameter- and apply to various flexible and/or transparent substrates such as plastic, glass and paper. In addition, this research examined how electromagnetic wave can be well absorbed in water droplets with low electrical conductivity unlike metal-based metamaterials inquiring highly electrical conductivity. Those results are judged to lead broad applications to variously civilian and military products in the future by providing perfect absorber of broadband in all products including transparent and bendable materials.

  8. Multipeakedness and groupiness of shallow water waves along Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Anand, N.M.; AshokKumar, K.; Mandal, S.

    and amplitudes of sea waves. JDurnal of GeDphysical Re search, 80(18), 2688-2694. MASSON, D. and CHAro.lJLER, P., 1993. Wave groups, a closer look at spectral methods. CDastal Engineering, 20, 249-275. MATHEW, J.; BABA. M., and KURIAN, N.P., 1995. Mudbanks... Research 1052-1065 West Palm Beach, Florida Fall 2003 Multipeakedness a,nd Groupiness of Shallow Water Waves Along Indian Coast v. Sanil Kumar, N.M. Anand, K. Ashok Kumar, and S. MandaI Ocean Engineering Division National Institute of Oceanography Goa-403...

  9. Calming the Waters or Riding the Waves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rydén, Pernille; Kottika, Efthymia; Hossain, Muhammad Ismail

    that strengthens their brand. The consumers are empowered by ‘letting this anger out’, from which firms can gain huge attention. Companies can utilize such situations to inform people on their brands’ core values, and initiate discussions of larger societal relevance, which improves the brand awareness and value......Traditional consumer anger management tends to be compromising rather than empowering the brand. This paper conceptualizes and provides a case example on how consumer empowerment and negative emotions can in fact create opportunities for companies to ride the waves of consumer anger in a way...

  10. Theory and observations of horizontal and vertical structure of gravity wave perturbations in the middle atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Chris Alan

    Gravity wave models for the horizontal wave number spectra of atmospheric velocity and density fluctuations are derived by assuming that both saturated and unsaturated waves obey the polarization and dispersion relations and that the joint (m,w) spectrum is separable. The models show that the joint (k,l,m) and (k,l,w) spectra are not separable. The one-dimensional horizontal wave number spectra models are consistent with existing observations of horizontal wave number spectra in the lower stratosphere and upper mesosphere. The gravity wave models are used to analyze the effects of Doppler shifting caused by the mean wind field on the separability of gravity wave spectra. If the intrinsic joint (m,w) spectrum is separable, Doppler effects associated with even small mean winds will destroy separability of the observed joint (m,w(sub o)) spectrum, particularly at high vertical wave numbers. Vertical and horizontal wave number spectra of density perturbations in the upper stratosphere (25-40 km) and the upper mesosphere (approximately 80-105 km) measured during the ALOHA-90 campaign are presented. The spectra were inferred from approximately 45 h of airborne Na/Rayleigh lidar observations in the vicinity of Hawaii. Density variances, vertical shear variances, Richardson's numbers, characteristic vertical and horizontal wave numbers, and power law slopes of the vertical and horizontal wave number spectra are computed and discussed. The observed m-spectra contradict the predictions of the linear instability theory of Dewan and Good, and the scale-dependent diffusive filtering theory of Gardner, and appear to be compatible with the Doppler spreading theory of Hines, the scale-dependent diffusion theory of Weinstock, the scale-independent diffusive filtering theory of Gardner, and the similitude model of Dewan. In the stratosphere, the m-spectra exhibit significant energy at low wave numbers less than the values expected for m(sub *). The source of this energy is believed

  11. System for harvesting water wave energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong Lin; Su, Yanjie; Zhu, Guang; Chen, Jun

    2016-07-19

    A generator for harvesting energy from water in motion includes a sheet of a hydrophobic material, having a first side and an opposite second side, that is triboelectrically more negative than water. A first electrode sheet is disposed on the second side of the sheet of a hydrophobic material. A second electrode sheet is disposed on the second side of the sheet of a hydrophobic material and is spaced apart from the first electrode sheet. Movement of the water across the first side induces an electrical potential imbalance between the first electrode sheet and the second electrode sheet.

  12. Design Wave Load Prediction by Non-Linear Strip Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1998-01-01

    Some methods for predicting global stochastic wave load responses in ships are presented. The methods take into account the elastic behaviour of the ship and at least some of the non-linearities in the wave-induced loadings.Numerical rsults obtained for actual ships are reviewed with special...

  13. Non-linear wave loads and ship responses by a time-domain strip theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1998-01-01

    A non-linear time-domain strip theory for vertical wave loads and ship responses is presented. The theory is generalized from a rigorous linear time-domain strip theory representation. The hydrodynamic memory effect due to the free surface is approximated by a higher order differential equation....... Based on this time-domain strip theory, an efficient non-linear hydroelastic method of wave- and slamming-induced vertical motions and structural responses of ships is developed, where the structure is represented as a Timoshenko beam. Numerical calculations are presented for the S175 Containership...

  14. Conditionally invariant solutions of the rotating shallow water wave equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huard, Benoit, E-mail: huard@dms.umontreal.c [Departement de mathematiques et de statistique, CP 6128, Succc. Centre-ville, Montreal, (QC) H3C 3J7 (Canada)

    2010-06-11

    This paper is devoted to the extension of the recently proposed conditional symmetry method to first-order nonhomogeneous quasilinear systems which are equivalent to homogeneous systems through a locally invertible point transformation. We perform a systematic analysis of the rank-1 and rank-2 solutions admitted by the shallow water wave equations in (2 + 1) dimensions and construct the corresponding solutions of the rotating shallow water wave equations. These solutions involve in general arbitrary functions depending on Riemann invariants, which allow us to construct new interesting classes of solutions.

  15. Analytical approximation and numerical simulations for periodic travelling water waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalimeris, Konstantinos

    2018-01-28

    We present recent analytical and numerical results for two-dimensional periodic travelling water waves with constant vorticity. The analytical approach is based on novel asymptotic expansions. We obtain numerical results in two different ways: the first is based on the solution of a constrained optimization problem, and the second is realized as a numerical continuation algorithm. Both methods are applied on some examples of non-constant vorticity.This article is part of the theme issue 'Nonlinear water waves'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Comparison of classical and modern theories of longitudinal wave propagation in elastic rods

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, M

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available considered. The principles of construction of the multimode theories, corresponding equations and orthogonality conditions are considered. Dispersion curves, representing the eigenvalues versus real and imaginary values of the wave number, of these models...

  17. Waves in Plasma Sheaths and at Boundaries: Theory and Computer Experiments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Birdsall, Charles

    1997-01-01

    .... There is no applied magnetic field; the plasma and waves are unmagnetized. First, a linear theory and simulation are made, to include the sheath and the pre-sheath from first principles and self-consistently...

  18. Modeling of Beam Wave Pulse Propagation in Vegetation Using Transport Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitman, Gerald M; Schwering, Felix K; Yu-Chi Wu, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The scalar time-dependent equation of radiative transfer in cylindrical coordinates was used to develop several new theories- both rigorous and approximate- for propagation and scattering of beam wave...

  19. Wave propagation and shock formation in the most general scalar-tensor theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Norihiro; Ohashi, Seiju

    2017-11-01

    This work studies wave propagation in the most general covariant scalar-tensor theories with second-order field equations, particularly focusing on the causal structure realized in these theories and also the shock formation process induced by nonlinear effects. For these studies we use the Horndeski theory and its generalization to the two scalar field case. We show that propagation speeds of the gravitational wave and scalar field wave in these theories may differ from the light speed depending on background field configuration, and find that a Killing horizon becomes a boundary of causal domain if the scalar fields share the symmetry of the background spacetime. With regard to the shock formation, we focus on transport of discontinuity in second derivatives of the metric and scalar field in the shift-symmetric Horndeski theory. We find that amplitude of the discontinuity generically diverges within finite time, which corresponds to shock formation. It turns out that the canonical scalar field and the scalar DBI model, among other theories described by the Horndeski theory, are free from such shock formation even when the background geometry and scalar field configuration are nontrivial. We also observe that the gravitational wave is protected against shock formation when the background has some symmetries at least. This fact may indicate that the gravitational wave in this theory is more well-behaved compared to the scalar field, which typically suffers from shock formation.

  20. Generalized plane waves in Poincaré gauge theory of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagojević, Milutin; Cvetković, Branislav; Obukhov, Yuri N.

    2017-09-01

    A family of exact vacuum solutions, representing generalized plane waves propagating on the (anti-)de Sitter background, is constructed in the framework of Poincaré gauge theory. The wave dynamics is defined by the general Lagrangian that includes all parity even and parity odd invariants up to the second order in the gauge field strength. The structure of the solution shows that the wave metric significantly depends on the spacetime torsion.

  1. Water vapor estimation using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, S.; Ohta, H.; Hanado, H.; Yamamoto, M. K.; Shiga, N.; Kido, K.; Yasuda, S.; Goto, T.; Ichikawa, R.; Amagai, J.; Imamura, K.; Fujieda, M.; Iwai, H.; Sugitani, S.; Iguchi, T.

    2017-03-01

    A method of estimating water vapor (propagation delay due to water vapor) using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves is proposed. Our target is to improve the accuracy of numerical weather forecast for severe weather phenomena such as localized heavy rainstorms in urban areas through data assimilation. In this method, we estimate water vapor near a ground surface from the propagation delay of digital terrestrial broadcasting waves. A real-time delay measurement system with a software-defined radio technique is developed and tested. The data obtained using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves show good agreement with those obtained by ground-based meteorological observation. The main features of this observation are, no need for transmitters (receiving only), applicable wherever digital terrestrial broadcasting is available and its high time resolution. This study shows a possibility to estimate water vapor using digital terrestrial broadcasting waves. In the future, we will investigate the impact of these data toward numerical weather forecast through data assimilation. Developing a system that monitors water vapor near the ground surface with time and space resolutions of 30 s and several kilometers would improve the accuracy of the numerical weather forecast of localized severe weather phenomena.

  2. Einstein's coefficients and the wave-particle duality in the theory of thermal radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Prigara, Fedor V.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that the concept of elementary resonator in the theory of thermal radiation implies the indivisible connection between particles (photons) and electromagnetic waves. This wave-particle duality covers both the Wien and Rayleigh-Jeans regions of spectrum.

  3. Surface wave scattering theory : with applications to forward and inverse problems in seismology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snieder, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    Scattering of surface waves in a three dimensional layered elastic medium with embedded heterogeneities is described in this thesis with the Born approximation. The dyadic decomposition of the surface wave Green's function provides the crucial element for an efficient application of Born theory

  4. Surface wave scattering theory : with applications to forward and inverse problems in seismology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snieder, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    Scattering of surface waves in a three dimensional layered elastic medium with embedded heterogeneities is described in this thesis with the Born approximation. The dyadic decomposition of the surface wave Green's function provides the crucial element for an efficient application of Born theory to

  5. Application of virtual water trade theory in interregional grain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    China was partitioned into eight regions, and the virtual water flow due to regional grain allocation and transportation among these regions was calculated in 2008 based on virtual water and virtual water trade theories. Then, we analyzed the relations between virtual water trade structure and water resources utilization.

  6. Generation of Focused Shock Waves in Water for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukeš, Petr; Šunka, Pavel; Hoffer, Petr; Stelmashuk, Vitaliy; Beneš, Jiří; Poučková, Pavla; Zadinová, Marie; Zeman, Jan

    The physical characteristics of focused two-successive (tandem) shock waves (FTSW) in water and their biological effects are presented. FTSW were ­generated by underwater multichannel electrical discharges in a highly conductive saline solution using two porous ceramic-coated cylindrical electrodes of different diameter and surface area. The primary cylindrical pressure wave generated at each composite electrode was focused by a metallic parabolic reflector to a common focal point to form two strong shock waves with a variable time delay between the waves. The pressure field and interaction between the first and the second shock waves at the focus were investigated using schlieren photography and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) shock gauge sensors. The largest interaction was obtained for a time delay of 8-15 μs between the waves, producing an amplitude of the negative pressure phase of the second shock wave down to -80 MPa and a large number of cavitations at the focus. The biological effects of FTSW were demonstrated in vitro on damage to B16 melanoma cells, in vivo on targeted lesions in the thigh muscles of rabbits and on the growth delay of sarcoma tumors in Lewis rats treated in vivo by FTSW, compared to untreated controls.

  7. Numerical Simulation of a Dual-Chamber Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhi Ning

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a dual-chamber Oscillating Water Column (OWC Wave Energy Converter (WEC is considered in the present study. The device has two sub-chambers with a shared orifice. A two-dimensional (2D fully nonlinear numerical wave flume based on the potential-flow theory and the time-domain higher-order boundary element method (HOBEM is applied for the simulation. The incident waves are generated by using the immerged sources and the air-fluid coupling influence is considered with a simplified pneumatic model. In the present study, the variation of the surface elevation and the water column volume in the two sub-chambers are investigated. The effects of the chamber geometry (i.e., the draft and breadth of two chambers on the surface elevation and the air pressure in the chamber are investigated, respectively. It is demonstrated that the surface elevations in the two sub-chambers are strongly dependent on the wave conditions. The larger the wavelength, the more synchronous motion of the two water columns in the two sub-chambers, thus, the lager the variation of the water column volume.

  8. A theory for the impact of a wave breaking onto a permeable barrier with jet generation

    OpenAIRE

    Cooker, MJ

    2013-01-01

    We model a water wave impact onto a porous breakwater. The breakwater surface is modelled as a thin barrier composed of solid matter pierced by channels through which water can flow freely. The water in the wave is modelled as a finite-length volume of inviscid, incompressible fluid in quasi-one-dimensional flow during its impact and flow through a typical hole in the barrier. The fluid volume moves at normal incidence to the barrier. After the initial impact the wave water starts to slow dow...

  9. Unified Theory of Wave-Particle Duality and the Schr\\"odinger Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Gilson, Greyson

    2011-01-01

    Individual quantum objects display coexisting wave properties and particle properties. A wave is ordinarily associated with spatial extension while a particle is ordinarily associated with a point-like locality. Coexistence of spatial extension and a point-like locality as properties of a single entity seems paradoxical. The apparent paradox is resolved by the unified theory of wave-particle duality developed in this paper. Using this theory, a straightforward derivation of the Schr\\"odinger equations (time-independent and time-dependent) is presented where previously no such derivation was considered to be possible.

  10. Temperature effects on the pickup process of water group and hydrogen ions - Extensions of 'A theory for low-frequency waves observed at Comet Giacobini-Zinner' by M. L. Goldstein and H. K. Wong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinca, Armando L.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1988-01-01

    Cometary heavy ions can resonantly excite hydromagnetic wave activity with spacecraft frequency spectra strongly deviating from the ion cyclotron frequency. The influence of the newborn particle temperature on this effect is assessed, its relevance to the interpretation of the observations is discussed, and an alternative, more efficient mechanism to generate spacecraft frequencies of the order of the proton cyclotron frequency is suggested.

  11. A non-axisymmetric linearized supersonic wave drag analysis: Mathematical theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, Paul J.

    1996-01-01

    A Mathematical theory is developed to perform the calculations necessary to determine the wave drag for slender bodies of non-circular cross section. The derivations presented in this report are based on extensions to supersonic linearized small perturbation theory. A numerical scheme is presented utilizing Fourier decomposition to compute the pressure coefficient on and about a slender body of arbitrary cross section.

  12. Kinetic theory for distribution functions of wave-particle interactions in plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominis, Y; Ram, A K; Hizanidis, K

    2010-06-11

    The evolution of a charged particle distribution function under the influence of coherent electromagnetic waves in a plasma is determined from kinetic theory. For coherent waves, the dynamical phase space of particles is an inhomogeneous mix of chaotic and regular orbits. The persistence of long time correlations between the particle motion and the phase of the waves invalidates any simplifying Markovian or statistical assumptions--the basis for usual quasilinear theories. The generalized formalism in this Letter leads to a hierarchy of evolution equations for the reduced distribution function. The evolution operators, in contrast to the quasilinear theories, are time dependent and nonsingular and include the rich phase space dynamics of particles interacting with coherent waves.

  13. Waves and Structures in Nonlinear Nondispersive Media General Theory and Applications to Nonlinear Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Gurbatov, S N; Saichev, A I

    2012-01-01

    "Waves and Structures in Nonlinear Nondispersive Media: General Theory and Applications to Nonlinear Acoustics” is devoted completely to nonlinear structures. The general theory is given here in parallel with mathematical models. Many concrete examples illustrate the general analysis of Part I. Part II is devoted to applications to nonlinear acoustics, including specific nonlinear models and exact solutions, physical mechanisms of nonlinearity, sawtooth-shaped wave propagation, self-action phenomena, nonlinear resonances and engineering application (medicine, nondestructive testing, geophysics, etc.). This book is designed for graduate and postgraduate students studying the theory of nonlinear waves of various physical nature. It may also be useful as a handbook for engineers and researchers who encounter the necessity of taking nonlinear wave effects into account of their work. Dr. Gurbatov S.N. is the head of Department, and Vice Rector for Research of Nizhny Novgorod State University. Dr. Rudenko O.V. is...

  14. Theory of reflection reflection and transmission of electromagnetic, particle and acoustic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Lekner, John

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with the reflection of electromagnetic and particle waves by interfaces. The interfaces can be sharp or diffuse. The topics of the book contain absorption, inverse problems, anisotropy, pulses and finite beams, rough surfaces, matrix methods, numerical methods,  reflection of particle waves and neutron reflection. Exact general results are presented, followed by long wave reflection, variational theory, reflection amplitude equations of the Riccati type, and reflection of short waves. The Second Edition of the Theory of Reflection is an updated and much enlarged revision of the 1987 monograph. There are new chapters on periodically stratified media, ellipsometry, chiral media, neutron reflection and reflection of acoustic waves. The chapter on anisotropy is much extended, with a complete treatment of the reflection and transmission properties of arbitrarily oriented uniaxial crystals. The book gives a systematic and unified treatment reflection and transmission of electromagnetic and particle...

  15. On resonant interactions of ions with plasma waves in a reduced quasi-linear theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Marsch

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on quasi-linear theory (involving pitch angle scattering, the resonant interactions between ions and waves in an anisotropic multi-component plasma are discussed. In particular, electromagnetic Alfvén and ion-cyclotron waves propagating along or obliquely to the magnetic field are considered. A set of reduced (with respect to the perpendicular velocity component quasi-linear diffusion equations is derived, involving reduced 1-D velocity distribution functions (VDFs, as they occur in wave dispersion relations. A 2-D model VDF can be constructed when using the Gaussian approximation. Wave-particle heating and acceleration rates are calculated.

  16. Nonminimal couplings, gravitational waves, and torsion in Horndeski's theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, José; Cordonier-Tello, Fabrizio; Izaurieta, Fernando; Medina, Perla; Narbona, Daniela; Rodríguez, Eduardo; Valdivia, Omar

    2017-10-01

    The Horndeski Lagrangian brings together all possible interactions between gravity and a scalar field that yield second-order field equations in four-dimensional spacetime. As originally proposed, it only addresses phenomenology without torsion, which is a non-Riemannian feature of geometry. Since torsion can potentially affect interesting phenomena such as gravitational waves and early universe inflation, in this paper we allow torsion to exist and propagate within the Horndeski framework. To achieve this goal, we cast the Horndeski Lagrangian in Cartan's first-order formalism and introduce wave operators designed to act covariantly on p -form fields that carry Lorentz indices. We find that nonminimal couplings and second-order derivatives of the scalar field in the Lagrangian are indeed generic sources of torsion. Metric perturbations couple to the background torsion, and new torsional modes appear. These may be detected via gravitational waves but not through Yang-Mills gauge bosons.

  17. Molding acoustic, electromagnetic and water waves with a single cloak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Jiang, Xu; Fang, Nicholas; Georget, Elodie; Abdeddaim, Redha; Geffrin, Jean-Michel; Farhat, Mohamed; Sabouroux, Pierre; Enoch, Stefan; Guenneau, Sébastien

    2015-06-09

    We describe two experiments demonstrating that a cylindrical cloak formerly introduced for linear surface liquid waves works equally well for sound and electromagnetic waves. This structured cloak behaves like an acoustic cloak with an effective anisotropic density and an electromagnetic cloak with an effective anisotropic permittivity, respectively. Measured forward scattering for pressure and magnetic fields are in good agreement and provide first evidence of broadband cloaking. Microwave experiments and 3D electromagnetic wave simulations further confirm reduced forward and backscattering when a rectangular metallic obstacle is surrounded by the structured cloak for cloaking frequencies between 2.6 and 7.0 GHz. This suggests, as supported by 2D finite element simulations, sound waves are cloaked between 3 and 8 KHz and linear surface liquid waves between 5 and 16 Hz. Moreover, microwave experiments show the field is reduced by 10 to 30 dB inside the invisibility region, which suggests the multi-wave cloak could be used as a protection against water, sonic or microwaves.

  18. Molding acoustic, electromagnetic and water waves with a single cloak

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jun

    2015-06-09

    We describe two experiments demonstrating that a cylindrical cloak formerly introduced for linear surface liquid waves works equally well for sound and electromagnetic waves. This structured cloak behaves like an acoustic cloak with an effective anisotropic density and an electromagnetic cloak with an effective anisotropic permittivity, respectively. Measured forward scattering for pressure and magnetic fields are in good agreement and provide first evidence of broadband cloaking. Microwave experiments and 3D electromagnetic wave simulations further confirm reduced forward and backscattering when a rectangular metallic obstacle is surrounded by the structured cloak for cloaking frequencies between 2.6 and 7.0 GHz. This suggests, as supported by 2D finite element simulations, sound waves are cloaked between 3 and 8 KHz and linear surface liquid waves between 5 and 16 Hz. Moreover, microwave experiments show the field is reduced by 10 to 30 dB inside the invisibility region, which suggests the multi-wave cloak could be used as a protection against water, sonic or microwaves. © 2015, Nature Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

  19. Permeability recovery of damaged water sensitive core using ultrasonic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nasir; Pu, Chunsheng; Li, Xu; He, Yanlong; Zhang, Lei; Jing, Cheng

    2017-09-01

    It is imperative to recover the well productivity lose due to formation damage nearby wellbore during variant well operations. Some indispensable issues in conventional techniques make ultrasonic technology more attractive due to simple, reliable, favorable, cost-effective, and environment friendly nature. This study proposes the independent and combined use of ultrasonic waves and chemical agents for the treatment of already damaged core samples caused by exposure to distilled water. Results elucidate that ultrasonic waves with optimum (20kHz, 1000W) instead of maximum frequency and power worked well in the recovery owing to peristaltic transport caused by matching of natural frequency with acoustic waves frequency. In addition, hundred minutes was investigated as optimum irradiation time which provided ample time span to detach fine loosely suspended particles. However, further irradiation adversely affected the damaged permeability recovery. Moreover, permeability improvement attributes to cavitation due to ultrasonic waves propagation through fluid contained in porous medium and thermal energy generated by three different ways. Eventually, experimental outcomes indicated that maximum (25.3%) damaged permeability recovery was witnessed by applying ultrasonic waves with transducer #2 (20kHz and 1000W) and optimum irradiation timeframe (100min). This recovery was further increased to 45.8% by applying chemical agent and optimum ultrasonic waves simultaneously. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A wave optics approach to the theory of the Michelson-Morley experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    A consistent classical wave optics approach to the theory of the Michelson-Morley experiment shows that the original theory as applied by Michelson and Morley and others does not calculate the optical paths of the two beams correctly, primarily because of incorrectly assuming a right angle reflection in the instrument’s reference frame for the transverse beam, but also because of the incorrect assumption of aberration for the wave fronts. The theory presented in this work proves the expected variation of the phase difference when rotating the interferometer to be more than twice as large and also strongly asymmetrical around the zero line.

  1. Reliability assessment of different plate theories for elastic wave propagation analysis in functionally graded plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrkash, Milad; Azhari, Mojtaba; Mirdamadi, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The importance of elastic wave propagation problem in plates arises from the application of ultrasonic elastic waves in non-destructive evaluation of plate-like structures. However, precise study and analysis of acoustic guided waves especially in non-homogeneous waveguides such as functionally graded plates are so complicated that exact elastodynamic methods are rarely employed in practical applications. Thus, the simple approximate plate theories have attracted much interest for the calculation of wave fields in FGM plates. Therefore, in the current research, the classical plate theory (CPT), first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and third-order shear deformation theory (TSDT) are used to obtain the transient responses of flexural waves in FGM plates subjected to transverse impulsive loadings. Moreover, comparing the results with those based on a well recognized hybrid numerical method (HNM), we examine the accuracy of the plate theories for several plates of various thicknesses under excitations of different frequencies. The material properties of the plate are assumed to vary across the plate thickness according to a simple power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of constituents. In all analyses, spatial Fourier transform together with modal analysis are applied to compute displacement responses of the plates. A comparison of the results demonstrates the reliability ranges of the approximate plate theories for elastic wave propagation analysis in FGM plates. Furthermore, based on various examples, it is shown that whenever the plate theories are used within the appropriate ranges of plate thickness and frequency content, solution process in wave number-time domain based on modal analysis approach is not only sufficient but also efficient for finding the transient waveforms in FGM plates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Virtual Cathode Theory and Design of a Millimeter Wave Vircator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Power Electron and Ion Beam Research ana Technology, (Cornell University, 1977), p. 649. 76 REFERENCES (Continued) 24. J. M. Buzzi, H. J. Doucet, B... Freud , P. C. Efthimion, and A. K. Kinkead, "Study of Emission Spectrum in a Millimeter-Wave Free-Electron Laser Operating in the Collective Regime," Bull

  3. Assessing the performance of formulations for nonlinear feedback of surface gravity waves on ocean currents over coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengcheng; Sheng, Jinyu; Hannah, Charles

    2017-08-01

    This study presents applications of a two-way coupled wave-circulation modelling system over coastal waters, with a special emphasis of performance assessments of two different methods for nonlinear feedback of ocean surface gravity waves on three-dimensional (3D) ocean currents. These two methods are the vortex force (VF) formulation suggested by Bennis et al. (2011) and the latest version of radiation stress (RS) formulation suggested by Mellor (2015). The coupled modelling system is first applied to two idealized test cases of surf-zone scales to validate implementations of these two methods in the coupled wave-circulation system. Model results show that the latest version of RS has difficulties in producing the undertow over the surf zone. The coupled system is then applied to Lunenburg Bay (LB) of Nova Scotia during Hurricane Juan in 2003. The coupled system using both the VF and RS formulations generates much stronger and more realistic 3D circulation in the Bay during Hurricane Juan than the circulation-only model, demonstrating the importance of surface wave forces to the 3D ocean circulation over coastal waters. However, the RS formulation generates some weak unphysical currents outside the wave breaking zone due to a less reasonable representation for the vertical distribution of the RS gradients over a slopping bottom. These weak unphysical currents are significantly magnified in a two-way coupled system when interacting with large surface waves, degrading the model performance in simulating currents at one observation site. Our results demonstrate that the VF formulation with an appropriate parameterization of wave breaking effects is able to produce reasonable results for applications over coastal waters during extreme weather events. The RS formulation requires a complex wave theory rather than the linear wave theory for the approximation of a vertical RS term to improve its performance under both breaking and non-breaking wave conditions.

  4. Paraxial theory of electromagnetic waves in plane inhomogeneous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacyan, Shahen

    2010-09-01

    The problem of electromagnetic waves propagating in inhomogeneous media is formulated within the paraxial approximation. The analysis is restricted to a medium with a plane and smooth inhomogeneity. The general form of a Gaussian beam is obtained in terms of the permittivity and permeability of the medium. Particular attention is paid to the case of internal reflection, where a short-wavelength approximation breaks down; a possible treatment of the problem is proposed. A simple model is worked out to illustrate the formalism.

  5. Theory of a ring laser. [electromagnetic field and wave equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegozzi, L. N.; Lamb, W. E., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Development of a systematic formulation of the theory of a ring laser which is based on first principles and uses a well-known model for laser operation. A simple physical derivation of the electromagnetic field equations for a noninertial reference frame in uniform rotation is presented, and an attempt is made to clarify the nature of the Fox-Li modes for an open polygonal resonator. The polarization of the active medium is obtained by using a Fourier-series method which permits the formulation of a strong-signal theory, and solutions are given in terms of continued fractions. It is shown that when such a continued fraction is expanded to third order in the fields, the familiar small-signal ring-laser theory is obtained.

  6. Gravitation-Wave Emission in Shift-Symmetric Horndeski Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barausse, Enrico; Yagi, Kent

    2015-11-20

    Gravity theories beyond general relativity typically predict dipolar gravitational emission by compact-star binaries. This emission is sourced by "sensitivity" parameters depending on the stellar compactness. We introduce a general formalism to calculate these parameters, and show that in shift-symmetric Horndeski theories stellar sensitivities and dipolar radiation vanish, provided that the binary's dynamics is perturbative (i.e., the post-Newtonian formalism is applicable) and cosmological-expansion effects can be neglected. This allows one to reproduce the binary-pulsar-observed orbital decay.

  7. Influence of water waves on hyperspectral remote sensing of subsurface water features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostater, Charles R., Jr.; Bassetti, Luce

    2004-11-01

    Modeled hyperspectral reflectance signatures with water wave influences are simulated using an analytical-based, iterative radiative transport model applicable to shallow or deep waters. Light transport within the water body is simulated using a fast, accurate radiative transfer model that calculates the light distribution in any layered media and incorporates realistic water surfaces which are synthesized using empirically-based spectral models of the water surface to generate water surface wave facets. The model simulated synthetic images are displayed as 24 bit RGB images of the water surface using selected channels from the simulated synthetic hyperspectral image cube. We show selected channels centered at 490, 530 and 676 nm. We also demonstrate the use of the model to show the capability of the sensor and image modeling approach to detect or "recover" known features or targets submerged within or on the shallow water bottom in a tidal inlet area in Indian River Lagoon, Florida. Line targets are simulated in shallow water and indicate the influence of water waves in different water quality conditions. The technique demonstrates a methodology to help to develop remote sensing protocols for shallow water remote sensing as well as to develop information useful for future hyperspectral sensor system developments.

  8. Pulsar Timing Sensitivities to Gravitational Waves from Relativistic Metric Theories of Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Alves, Marcio Eduardo da Silva

    2011-01-01

    Pulsar timing experiments aimed at the detection of gravitational radiation have been performed for decades now. With the forthcoming construction of large arrays capable of tracking multiple millisecond pulsars, it is very likely we will be able to make the first detection of gravitational radiation in the nano-Hertz band, and test Einstein's theory of relativity by measuring the polarization components of the detected signals. Since a gravitational wave predicted by the most general relativistic metric theory of gravity accounts for {\\it six} polarization modes (the usual two Einstein's tensor polarizations as well as two vector and two scalar wave components), we have estimated the single-antenna sensitivities to these six polarizations. We find pulsar timing experiments to be significantly more sensitive, over their entire observational frequency band ($\\approx 10^{-9} - 10^{-6}$ Hz), to scalar-longitudinal and vector waves than to scalar-transverse and tensor waves. At $10^{-7}$ Hz and with pulsars at a ...

  9. Sixth-order wave aberration theory of ultrawide-angle optical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lijun; Cao, Yiqing

    2017-10-20

    In this paper, we develop sixth-order wave aberration theory of ultrawide-angle optical systems like fisheye lenses. Based on the concept and approach to develop wave aberration theory of plane-symmetric optical systems, we first derive the sixth-order intrinsic wave aberrations and the fifth-order ray aberrations; second, we present a method to calculate the pupil aberration of such kind of optical systems to develop the extrinsic aberrations; third, the relation of aperture-ray coordinates between adjacent optical surfaces is fitted with the second-order polynomial to improve the calculation accuracy of the wave aberrations of a fisheye lens with a large acceptance aperture. Finally, the resultant aberration expressions are applied to calculate the aberrations of two design examples of fisheye lenses; the calculation results are compared with the ray-tracing ones with Zemax software to validate the aberration expressions.

  10. Competing turbulent cascades and eddy-wave interactions in shallow water equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichman, Peter B.

    2017-03-01

    In recent work, Renaud, Venaille, and Bouchet (RVB) [Renaud et al., J. Stat. Phys. 163, 784 (2016), 10.1007/s10955-016-1496-x] revisit the equilibrium statistical mechanics theory of the shallow water equations, within a microcanonical approach, focusing on a more careful treatment of the energy partition between inertial gravity wave and eddy motions in the equilibrium state and deriving joint probability distributions for the corresponding dynamical degrees of freedom. The authors derive a Liouville theorem that determines the underlying phase space statistical measure, but then, through some physical arguments, actually compute the equilibrium statistics using a measure that violates this theorem, choosing equal volume vs equal area fluid parcels. Here, using a more convenient, but essentially equivalent, grand canonical approach, the full statistical theory consistent with the Liouville theorem is derived. The results reveal several significant differences from the previous results (1) The microscale wave motions lead to a strongly fluctuating thermodynamics, including long-range correlations, in contrast to the mean-field-like behavior found by RVB. The final effective model is equivalent to that of an elastic membrane with a nonlinear wave-renormalized surface tension. (2) Even when a mean-field approximation is made, a rather more complex joint probability distribution is revealed. Alternative physical arguments fully support the consistency of the results. Of course, the true fluid final steady state relies on dissipative processes not included in the shallow water equations, such as wave breaking and viscous effects, but it is argued that the current theory provides a more mathematically consistent starting point for future work aimed at assessing their impacts.

  11. Theoretical Model of Acoustic Wave Propagation in Shallow Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozaczka Eugeniusz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the propagation of low frequency waves in a shallow sea. As a source of acoustic waves, underwater disturbances generated by ships were adopted. A specific feature of the propagation of acoustic waves in shallow water is the proximity of boundaries of the limiting media characterised by different impedance properties, which affects the acoustic field coming from a source situated in the water layer “deformed” by different phenomena. The acoustic field distribution in the real shallow sea is affected not only by multiple reflections, but also by stochastic changes in the free surface shape, and statistical changes in the seabed shape and impedance. The paper discusses fundamental problems of modal sound propagation in the water layer over different types of bottom sediments. The basic task in this case was to determine the acoustic pressure level as a function of distance and depth. The results of the conducted investigation can be useful in indirect determination of the type of bottom.

  12. A boundary element model for diffraction of water waves on varying water depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulin, Sanne

    1997-12-31

    In this thesis a boundary element model for calculating diffraction of water waves on varying water depth is presented. The varying water depth is approximated with a perturbed constant depth in the mild-slope wave equation. By doing this, the domain integral which is a result of the varying depth is no longer a function of the unknown wave potential but only a function of position and the constant depth wave potential. The number of unknowns is the resulting system of equations is thus reduced significantly. The integration procedures in the model are tested very thoroughly and it is found that a combination of analytical integration in the singular region and standard numerical integration outside works very well. The gradient of the wave potential is evaluated successfully using a hypersingular integral equation. Deviations from the analytical solution are only found on the boundary or very close to, but these deviations have no significant influence on the accuracy of the solution. The domain integral is evaluated using the dual reciprocity method. The results are compared with a direct integration of the integral, and the accuracy is quite satisfactory. The problem with irregular frequencies is taken care of by the CBIEM (or CHIEF-method) together with a singular value decomposition technique. This method is simple to implement and works very well. The model is verified using Homma`s island as a test case. The test cases are limited to shallow water since the analytical solution is only valid in this region. Several depth ratios are examined, and it is found that the accuracy of the model increases with increasing wave period and decreasing depth ratio. Short waves, e.g. wind generated waves, can allow depth variations up to approximately 2 before the error exceeds 10%, while long waves can allow larger depth ratios. It is concluded that the perturbation idea is highly usable. A study of (partially) absorbing boundary conditions is also conducted. (EG)

  13. Stochastic regulator theory for a class of abstract wave equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, A. V.

    1991-01-01

    A class of steady-state stochastic regulator problems for abstract wave equations in a Hilbert space - of relevance to the problem of feedback control of large space structures using co-located controls/sensors - is studied. Both the control operator, as well as the observation operator, are finite-dimensional. As a result, the usual condition of exponential stabilizability invoked for existence of solutions to the steady-state Riccati equations is not valid. Fortunately, for the problems considered it turns out that strong stabilizability suffices. In particular, a closed form expression is obtained for the minimal (asymptotic) performance criterion as the control effort is allowed to grow without bound.

  14. Second-order theory for coupling 2D numerical and physical wave tanks: Derivation, evaluation and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiwen; Liu, Shuxue; Bingham, Harry B.

    2013-01-01

    nonlinear wave generation in the physical wave tank based on target numerical solutions. The performance and efficiency of the new model is first evaluated theoretically based on second order Stokes waves. Due to the complexity of the problem, the proposed method has been truncated at 2D and the treatment......A full second-order theory for coupling numerical and physical wave tanks is presented. The ad hoc unified wave generation approach developed by Zhang et al. [Zhang, H., Schäffer, H.A., Jakobsen, K.P., 2007. Deterministic combination of numerical and physical coastal wave models. Coast. Eng. 54...... of regular waves, and the re-reflection control on the wave paddle is also not included. In order to validate the solution methodology further, a series of nonlinear, periodic waves based on stream function theory are generated in a physical wave tank using a piston-type wavemaker. These experiments show...

  15. Optical analysis of human eye using electromagnetic wave theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Melih G; Oner, Bilgehan B; Kurt, Hamza

    2013-10-01

    We present a two-dimensional electromagnetic analysis of light propagation through the human eye to examine the eye's optical properties. The electromagnetic approach has intriguing advantages over the conventional and frequently implemented ray optics analysis. The chromatic, spherical, and coma aberrations and the intensity of the focused light at the retina are computed in this work via full-wave analysis. We also investigate the effects of the cornea's and lens's curved structures on the focusing mechanism. The focal length and chromatic and spherical aberrations are observed to change owing to age-related refractive index variation in the lens. In addition, the effects of the lens and curvatures of the human eye on focusing are analyzed. Consequently, for both young and old human eye lenses, the differences due to the aberration variations, curvature surfaces, and gradient index are explored by the wave approach. The intensity distributions on the retina for both on- and off-axis illumination are calculated. A strong correlation between the locations of the nerve fibers and the intensity distribution is confirmed. On the basis of the findings, we can conclude that visual impairment due to deterioration of the human eye structure is more dramatic than that due to aging.

  16. Analytical theory of wave propagation through stacked fishnet metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqués, R; Jelinek, L; Mesa, F; Medina, F

    2009-07-06

    This work analyzes the electromagnetic wave propagation through periodically stacked fishnets from zero frequency to the first Wood's anomaly. It is shown that, apart from Fabry-Perot resonances, these structures support two transmission bands that can be backward under the appropriate conditions. The first band starts at Wood's anomaly and is closely related to the well-known phenomena of extraordinary transmission through a single fishnet. The second band is related to the resonances of the fishnet holes. In both cases, the in-plane periodicity of the fishnet cannot be made electrically small, which prevents any attempt of homogenization of the structure along the fishnet planes. However, along the normal direction, even with very small periodicity transmission is still possible. An homogenization procedure can then be applied along this direction, thus making that the structure can behave as a backward-wave transmission line for such transmission bands. Closed-form design formulas will be provided by the analytical formulation here presented. These formulas have been carefully validated by intensive numerical computations.

  17. Heat wave Characteristics in the Eastern Mediterranean and Middle East using Extreme Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanarhte, Meryem; Hadjinicolaou, Panos; Lelieveld, Jos

    2015-04-01

    Heat waves in the eastern Mediterranean and Middle East can have large socioeconomic impacts. We apply a newly developed statistical framework, based on extreme value theory, to study the characteristics of heat waves in the region during the period 1973-2010 using data from fifteen measurement stations across the region. The analysis shows increasing trends in the highest daytime temperatures in the Persian Gulf region in summer. Increasing trends in the number of heat waves are found at all stations, whereas the maximum temperature during heat waves is found unchanged, implying no change in their intensity. Furthermore, no significant trends in the heat wave duration are also observed. Return levels are calculated for the individual hot days and found to be very high in the Persian Gulf region.

  18. Ginzburg-Landau theory of defects in {ital d}-wave superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, J.J.; Buscaglia, G.C.; Balseiro, C.A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche, and Instituto Balseiro, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    1996-12-01

    We study the influence of defects on the structure of the order parameter for a {ital d}{sub {ital x}{sup 2}{minus}{ital y}{sup 2}} superconductor. Using a Ginzburg-Landau theory which couples the {ital d}-wave and {ital s}-wave components of the order parameter, we show that in the vicinity of defects there is an induced {ital s}-wave pairing that extends up to a length scale given by the coherence length. We present results for columnar defects along different directions, twin boundaries, and point defects. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  19. Gravitational-wave physics and astronomy an introduction to theory, experiment and data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Creighton, Jolien D E

    2011-01-01

    This most up-to-date, one-stop reference combines coverage of both theory and observational techniques, with introductory sections to bring all readers up to the same level. Written by outstanding researchers directly involved with the scientific program of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO), the book begins with a brief review of general relativity before going on to describe the physics of gravitational waves and the astrophysical sources of gravitational radiation. Further sections cover gravitational wave detectors, data analysis, and the outlook of gravitation

  20. Superstring Theory In Ads(3) And Plane Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Son, J S

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of string theory in AdS 3 and its applications to recent developments in string theory. The difficulties associated with formulating a consistent string theory in AdS3 and its underlying SL(2, R) WZW model are explained. We describe how these difficulties can be overcome by assuming that the SL(2, R) WZW model contains spectral flow symmetry. The existence of spectral flow symmetry in the fully quantum treatment is proved by a calculation of the one-loop string partition function. We consider Euclidean AdS 3 with the time direction periodically identified, and compute the torus partition function in this background. The string spectrum can be reproduced by viewing the one-loop calculation as the free energy of a gas of strings, thus providing a rigorous proof of the results based on spectral flow arguments. Next, we turn to spacetimes that are quotients of AdS 3, which include the BTZ black hole and conical spaces. Strings propagating in the conical space are described by...

  1. Effects of internal waves on sound propagation in the shallow waters of the continental shelves

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Ming Yi

    2016-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Sound waves propagating through the oceans are refracted by internal waves. In the shallow waters of the continental shelves, an additional downward refraction of sound waves due to internal waves can cause them to interact more often with the seabed, resulting in additional energy from the sound waves being dissipated into the seabed. This study investigates how internal waves affect sound propagation on the continental shelves. It fi...

  2. High intensity surface plasma waves, theory and PIC simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, M.; Héron, A.; Adam, J.-C.

    2018-01-01

    With the development of intense (>1019 W cm‑2) short pulses (≤25 fs) laser with very high contrast, surface plasma wave (SPW) can be explored in the relativistic regime. As the SPW propagates with a phase velocity close to the speed of light it may results in a strong acceleration of electron bunches along the surface permitting them to reach relativistic energies. This may be important e.g. for applications in the field of plasma-based accelerators. We investigate in this work the excitation of SPWs on grating preformed over-dense plasmas for laser intensities ranging from 1019 up to 1021 W cm‑2. We discuss the nature of the interaction with respect to the solid case in which surface plasmon can be resonantly excited with weak laser intensity. In particular, we show the importance of the pulse duration and focalization of the laser beam on the amplitude of the SPW.

  3. Leadership in applied psychology: Three waves of theory and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Robert G; Day, David V; Zaccaro, Stephen J; Avolio, Bruce J; Eagly, Alice H

    2017-03-01

    Although in the early years of the Journal leadership research was rare and focused primarily on traits differentiating leaders from nonleaders, subsequent to World War II the research area developed in 3 major waves of conceptual, empirical, and methodological advances: (a) behavioral and attitude research; (b) behavioral, social-cognitive, and contingency research; and (c) transformational, social exchange, team, and gender-related research. Our review of this work shows dramatic increases in sophistication from early research focusing on personnel issues associated with World War I to contemporary multilevel models and meta-analyses on teams, shared leadership, leader-member exchange, gender, ethical, abusive, charismatic, and transformational leadership. Yet, many of the themes that characterize contemporary leadership research were also present in earlier research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Shallow Water Wave Models with and without Singular Kernel: Existence, Uniqueness, and Similarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Franc Doungmo Goufo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After the recent introduction of the Caputo-Fabrizio derivative by authors of the same names, the question was raised about an eventual comparison with the old version, namely, the Caputo derivative. Unlike Caputo derivative, the newly introduced Caputo-Fabrizio derivative has no singular kernel and the concern was about the real impact of this nonsingularity on real life nonlinear phenomena like those found in shallow water waves. In this paper, a nonlinear Sawada-Kotera equation, suitable in describing the behavior of shallow water waves, is comprehensively analyzed with both types of derivative. In the investigations, various fixed-point theories are exploited together with the concept of Piccard K-stability. We are then able to obtain the existence and uniqueness results for the models with both versions of derivatives. We conclude the analysis by performing some numerical approximations with both derivatives and graphical simulations being presented for some values of the derivative order γ. Similar behaviors are pointed out and they concur with the expected multisoliton solutions well known for the Sawada-Kotera equation. This great observation means either of both derivatives is suitable to describe the motion of shallow water waves.

  5. GIS AND GAME THEORY FOR WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ganjali

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, aspects of Game theory and its application on water resources management combined with GIS techniques are detailed. First, each term is explained and the advantages and limitations of its aspect is discussed. Then, the nature of combinations between each pair and literature on the previous studies are given. Several cases were investigated and results were magnified in order to conclude with the applicability and combination of GIS- Game Theory- Water Resources Management. It is concluded that the game theory is used relatively in limited studies of water management fields such as cost/benefit allocation among users, water allocation among trans-boundary users in water resources, water quality management, groundwater management, analysis of water policies, fair allocation of water resources development cost and some other narrow fields. Also, Decision-making in environmental projects requires consideration of trade-offs between socio-political, environmental, and economic impacts and is often complicated by various stakeholder views. Most of the literature on water allocation and conflict problems uses traditional optimization models to identify the most efficient scheme while the Game Theory, as an optimization method, combined GIS are beneficial platforms for agent based models to be used in solving Water Resources Management problems in the further studies.

  6. GIS and Game Theory for Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjali, N.; Guney, C.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, aspects of Game theory and its application on water resources management combined with GIS techniques are detailed. First, each term is explained and the advantages and limitations of its aspect is discussed. Then, the nature of combinations between each pair and literature on the previous studies are given. Several cases were investigated and results were magnified in order to conclude with the applicability and combination of GIS- Game Theory- Water Resources Management. It is concluded that the game theory is used relatively in limited studies of water management fields such as cost/benefit allocation among users, water allocation among trans-boundary users in water resources, water quality management, groundwater management, analysis of water policies, fair allocation of water resources development cost and some other narrow fields. Also, Decision-making in environmental projects requires consideration of trade-offs between socio-political, environmental, and economic impacts and is often complicated by various stakeholder views. Most of the literature on water allocation and conflict problems uses traditional optimization models to identify the most efficient scheme while the Game Theory, as an optimization method, combined GIS are beneficial platforms for agent based models to be used in solving Water Resources Management problems in the further studies.

  7. Linear spin-wave theory of incommensurably modulated magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziman, Timothy; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1986-01-01

    Calculations of linearized theories of spin dynamics encounter difficulties when applied to incommensurable magnetic phases: lack of translational invariance leads to an infinite coupled system of equations. The authors resolve this for the case of a `single-Q' structure by mapping onto the problem...... of diagonalizing a quasiperiodic Hamiltonian of tight-binding type in one dimension. This allows for calculation of the correlation functions relevant to neutron scattering or magnetic resonance experiments. With the application to the case of a longitudinally modulated magnet a number of new predictions are made...

  8. Paradigms and theories in water governance: the case of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper indicates the influence of paradigms and theories on the development of South Africa's National Water Resource Strategy, Second Edition. Five paradigms exist: positivism, postpositivism, interpretivism/constructivism, critical theories and the participatory paradigm. I use the PULSE3 framework for analysis that I ...

  9. Direct observation of nonlinear coupling in wave turbulence at the surface of water and relevance of approximate resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubourg, Quentin; Mordant, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    The theoretical framework of Weak Turbulence describes the statistical properties of a large collection of nonlinear waves. For a weakly nonlinear wave field, energy is assumed to be transferred only trough resonant interaction. This enables the computation of analytical solutions of the stationary statistical states (Zakhaorv spectrum). Some similarities with hydrodynamical turbulence appear : an energy cascade is present from the injection scale to the dissipation at small scales. The theory has been applied to numerous systems many of them being of geophysical or astrophysical nature (water surface waves, internal waves, inertial waves, solar winds) as well as superfluid turbulence, lasers, nonlinear optics in fibers or vibrated elastic plates. For water surface waves, experimental laboratory measurements often fail to reproduce quantitatively theoretical predictions. Gravity waves and capillary waves are often treated separately because of their different nature. For capillary waves, energy is supposed to be transferred trough 3-waves interactions, whereas for gravity waves the coupling involves 4 waves (because of the curvature of the dispersion relation which does not allow triadic solutions). In the laboratory, the range of exited wavelength are usually not strongly separated from the crossover between capillary and gravity waves (which occur near 13 Hz) due to size or measurement limitations. Near this crossover, the dispersion relation is significantly affected and this impacts most likely the theoretical predictions. To investigate how this special point may act on the phenomenology, we report laboratory experiments on gravity-capillary waves focused on the crossover (Aubourg,Mordant-PRL,2015). The setup consists in a 70 ∗ 40 cm2 vessel where waves are generated by horizontal vibration. A Fourier Transform Profilometry technique is used that is fully resolved in time and space and thus permits to compute the full space-time spectrum. The presence of an

  10. Nonlinear focusing of ultrasonic waves by an axisymmetric diffraction grating embedded in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiménez, N.; Picó, R. [Instituto de Investigación para la Gestión Integrada de zonas Costeras, Universitat Politècnica de València, Paranimf 1, 46730 Grao de Gandia, València (Spain); Romero-García, V. [LUNAM Université, Université du Maine, LAUM UMR CNRS 6613, Av. O. Messiaen, 72085 Le Mans (France); Garcia-Raffi, L. M. [Instituto Universitario de Matemática Pura y Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 València (Spain); Staliunas, K. [ICREA, Departament de Física i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Colom, 11, E-08222 Terrassa, Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-11-16

    We report the nonlinear focusing of ultrasonic waves by an axisymmetric diffraction grating immersed in water. In the linear regime, the system presents high focal gain (32 dB), with a narrow beam-width and intense side lobes as it is common in focusing by Fresnel-like lenses. Activating the nonlinearity of the host medium by using high amplitude incident waves, the focusing properties of the lens dramatically change. Theoretical predictions show that the focal gain of the system extraordinary increases in the strongly nonlinear regime (Mach number of 6.1 × 10{sup −4}). Particularly, the harmonic generation is locally activated at the focal spot, and the second harmonic beam is characterized by strongly reduced side-lobes and an excellent beam profile as experiments show in agreement with theory. The results can motivate applications in medical therapy or second harmonic imaging.

  11. A stabilised nodal spectral element method for fully nonlinear water waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Eskilsson, C.; Bigoni, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    the numerical implementation differs greatly. Features of the proposed spectral element method include: nodal Lagrange basis functions, a general quadrature-free approach and gradient recovery using global L2 projections. The quartic nonlinear terms present in the Zakharov form of the free surface conditions......We present an arbitrary-order spectral element method for general-purpose simulation of non-overturning water waves, described by fully nonlinear potential theory. The method can be viewed as a high-order extension of the classical finite element method proposed by Cai et al. (1998) [5], although...... can cause severe aliasing problems and consequently numerical instability for marginally resolved or very steep waves. We show how the scheme can be stabilised through a combination of over-integration of the Galerkin projections and a mild spectral filtering on a per element basis. This effectively...

  12. A Stabilised Nodal Spectral Element Method for Fully Nonlinear Water Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Bigoni, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    We present an arbitrary-order spectral element method for general-purpose simulation of non-overturning water waves, described by fully nonlinear potential theory. The method can be viewed as a high-order extension of the classical finite element method proposed by Cai et al (1998) \\cite{CaiEtAl1998}, although the numerical implementation differs greatly. Features of the proposed spectral element method include: nodal Lagrange basis functions, a general quadrature-free approach and gradient recovery using global $L^2$ projections. The quartic nonlinear terms present in the Zakharov form of the free surface conditions can cause severe aliasing problems and consequently numerical instability for marginally resolved or very steep waves. We show how the scheme can be stabilised through a combination of over-integration of the Galerkin projections and a mild spectral filtering on a per element basis. This effectively removes any aliasing driven instabilities while retaining the high-order accuracy of the numerical...

  13. Water wave communication in the genus Bombina (amphibia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, B.; Yamashita, M.; Choi, I.-H.; Dittami, J.

    2001-01-01

    Amphibians were phylogenetically the first vertebrates to leave the aquatic environment and cope with terrestrial conditions including effects of gravity and substrate on movement and communication. Studies of extant primitive amphibians, which have conserved ancestral morphology and behavior, may help us to understand how gravitational adaptation from aquatic to terrestrial environments occurred. The anuran genus Bombina is a candidate for this type of investigation. In particular, a member of this genus, B. orientalis, is known for its low reaction threshold to minor changes of angular acceleration. We hypothesize that a heightened sensitivity to angular and mechanical accelerations evolved with wave communication. Comparisons of such behavior among B. variegata, B. bombina and B. orientalis may shed light on the evolution of reproductive systems based on water wave communication and relevant vestibular sensitivity. This may represent a transition to derived vocalization modes, which is seen in B. bombina to a certain degree.

  14. A comparative study of diffraction of shallow-water waves by high-level IGN and GN equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, B.B. [College of Shipbuilding Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, 150001 Harbin (China); Ertekin, R.C. [Department of Ocean and Resources Engineering, University of Hawai' i, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); College of Shipbuilding Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, 150001 Harbin (China); Duan, W.Y., E-mail: duanwenyangheu@hotmail.com [College of Shipbuilding Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, 150001 Harbin (China)

    2015-02-15

    This work is on the nonlinear diffraction analysis of shallow-water waves, impinging on submerged obstacles, by two related theories, namely the classical Green–Naghdi (GN) equations and the Irrotational Green–Naghdi (IGN) equations, both sets of equations being at high levels and derived for incompressible and inviscid flows. Recently, the high-level Green–Naghdi equations have been applied to some wave transformation problems. The high-level IGN equations have also been used in the last decade to study certain wave propagation problems. However, past works on these theories used different numerical methods to solve these nonlinear and unsteady sets of differential equations and at different levels. Moreover, different physical problems have been solved in the past. Therefore, it has not been possible to understand the differences produced by these two sets of theories and their range of applicability so far. We are thus motivated to make a direct comparison of the results produced by these theories by use of the same numerical method to solve physically the same wave diffraction problems. We focus on comparing these two theories by using similar codes; only the equations used are different but other parts of the codes, such as the wave-maker, damping zone, discretion method, matrix solver, etc., are exactly the same. This way, we eliminate many potential sources of differences that could be produced by the solution of different equations. The physical problems include the presence of various submerged obstacles that can be used for example as breakwaters or to represent the continental shelf. A numerical wave tank is created by placing a wavemaker on one end and a wave absorbing beach on the other. The nonlinear and unsteady sets of differential equations are solved by the finite-difference method. The results are compared with different equations as well as with the available experimental data.

  15. Indoor propagation and assessment of blast waves from weapons using the alternative image theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, B.; Lee, K.; Lee, S.; Jung, S.; Song, K. H.

    2016-03-01

    Blast waves generated from the muzzles of various weapons might have significant effects on the human body, and these effects are recognized as being more severe when weapons are fired indoors. The risk can be assessed by various criteria, such as waveform, exposed energy, and model-based types. This study introduces a prediction model of blast wave propagation for estimating waveform parameters related to damage risk assessment. To simulate indoor multiple reflections in a simple way, the model is based on the alternative image theory and discrete wavefront method. The alternative theory is a kind of modified image theory, but it uses the image space concept from a receiver's perspective, so that it shows improved efficiency for indoor problems. Further, the discrete wavefront method interprets wave propagation as the forward movement of a finite number of wavefronts. Even though the predicted results show slight differences from the measured data, the locations of significant shock waves indicate a high degree of correlation between them. Since the disagreement results not from the proposed techniques but from the assumptions used, it is concluded that the model is appropriate for analysis of blast wave propagation in interior spaces.

  16. Computation of nonlinear water waves with a high-order Boussinesq model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.; Bingham, Harry

    2005-01-01

    -crested waves in shallow/deep water, resulting in hexagonal/rectangular surface patterns; crescent waves, resulting from unstable perturbations of plane progressive waves; and highly-nonlinear wave-structure interactions. The emphasis is on physically demanding problems, and in eachcase qualitative and (when...

  17. The "shallow-waterness" of the wave climate in European coastal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkon Christensen, Kai; Carrasco, Ana; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Breivik, Øyvind

    2017-07-01

    In contrast to deep water waves, shallow water waves are influenced by bottom topography, which has consequences for the propagation of wave energy as well as for the energy and momentum exchange between the waves and the mean flow. The ERA-Interim reanalysis is used to assess the fraction of wave energy associated with shallow water waves in coastal regions in Europe. We show maps of the distribution of this fraction as well as time series statistics from eight selected stations. There is a strong seasonal dependence and high values are typically associated with winter storms, indicating that shallow water wave effects can occasionally be important even in the deeper parts of the shelf seas otherwise dominated by deep water waves.

  18. Contested Waterlines: The Wave-Line Theory and Shipbuilding in the Nineteenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, Larrie D; Pollara, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Ship hydrodynamics in the nineteenth century was dominated by John Scott Russell's wave-line theory. Russell, a prominent British shipbuilder and scientist, argued that wavemaking was the primary source of resistance for ships, and that by designing ships according to trigonometric curves and proportions (the wave line) this resistance could effectively be eliminated. From the 1840s to the 1880s, shipbuilders such as John Willis Griffiths, Donald McKay and George Steers designed their clipper ships (like Sea Witch and Flying Cloud) and yachts (America) with wave-line hulls, while authors like Jules Verne referenced Russell's theory. The wave line slowly faded after William Froude developed his laws of ship resistance. The article examines how Russell's theory became accepted by technical experts and the wider public to become the most widely known ship hydrodynamic theory of the 1800s-a reminder of how a persuasive idea can take hold of an entire profession, and even the public, for a long time.

  19. Theory of nondegenerate four-wave mixing between pulses in a semiconductor waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Mecozzi, A.

    1997-01-01

    We develop a perturbation theory for calculating the effects of saturation on nondegenerate four-wave mixing between short optical pulses in a semiconductor optical amplifier. Saturation due to ultrafast intraband dynamics like carrier heating and spectral hole burning is found to be important...

  20. Theory of Anodic Stripping Square Wave Voltammetry on Spherical Mercury Electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Komorsky-Lovrić, Šebojka; Lovrić, Milivoj

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between dimensionless anodic stripping square-wave voltammetric net peak currents and the dimensionless inverse electrode radius are curves with two asymptotes that depend on the duration of accumulation. The theory applies to reversible reduction of amalgam forming ions on stationary mac-ro and micro spherical and hemispherical mercury electrodes.

  1. Coherence theory of electromagnetic wave propagation through stratified N-layer media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenders, B.J.; Bertolotti, M.

    The theory of second-order coherence in connection with wave propagation through a stratified N-layer (SNL) medium is developed. Especially, the influence of the SNL medium on the propagation of the coherence generated by a given state of coherence at the entrance plane of the medium is considered.

  2. Electromagnetically-induced phase grating: a coupled-wave theory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Silvânia A; de Araujo, Luis E E

    2011-01-31

    We use a coupled-wave theory analysis to describe an atomic phase grating based on the giant Kerr nonlinearity of an atomic medium under electromagnetically induced transparency. An analytical expression is found for the diffraction efficiency of the grating. Efficiencies greater than 70% are predicted for incidence at the Bragg angle.

  3. The dynamics of internal gravity waves in the ocean: theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Bulatov, Vitaly V

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we consider fundamental processes of the disturbance and propagation of internal gravity waves in the ocean modeled as a vertically stratified, horizontally non-uniform, and non-stationary medium. We develop asymptotic methods for describing the wave dynamics by generalizing the spatiotemporal ray-tracing method (a geometrical optics method). We present analytical and numerical algorithms for calculating the internal gravity wave fields using actual ocean parameters such as physical characteristics of the sea water, topography of its floor, etc. We demonstrate that our mathematical models can realistically describe the internal gravity wave dynamics in the ocean. Our numerical and analytical results show that the internal gravity waves have a significant impact on underwater objects in the ocean.

  4. Nonlocal wave propagation in an embedded DWBNNT conveying fluid via strain gradient theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorbanpour Arani, A., E-mail: aghorban@kashanu.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kolahchi, R.; Vossough, H. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-01

    Based on the strain gradient and Eringen's piezoelasticity theories, wave propagation of an embedded double-walled boron nitride nanotube (DWBNNT) conveying fluid is investigated using Euler-Bernoulli beam model. The elastic medium is simulated by the Pasternak foundation. The van der Waals (vdW) forces between the inner and outer nanotubes are taken into account. Since, considering electro-mechanical coupling made the nonlinear motion equations, a numerical procedure is proposed to evaluate the upstream and downstream phase velocities. The results indicate that the effect of nonlinear terms in motion equations on the phase velocity cannot be neglected at lower wave numbers. Furthermore, the effect of fluid-conveying on wave propagation of the DWBNNT is significant at lower wave numbers.

  5. Theory of energy and power flow of plasmonic waves on single-walled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Afshin

    2017-10-01

    The energy theorem of electrodynamics is extended so as to apply to the plasmonic waves on single-walled carbon nanotubes which propagate parallel to the axial direction of the system and are periodic waves in the azimuthal direction. Electronic excitations on the nanotube surface are modeled by an infinitesimally thin layer of free-electron gas which is described by means of the linearized hydrodynamic theory. General expressions of energy and power flow associated with surface waves are obtained by solving Maxwell and hydrodynamic equations with appropriate boundary conditions. Numerical results for the transverse magnetic mode show that energy, power flow, and energy transport velocity of the plasmonic waves strongly depend on the nanotube radius in the long-wavelength region.

  6. Diffusive Wave Approximation to the Shallow Water Equations: Computational Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Nathan

    2011-05-14

    We discuss the use of time adaptivity applied to the one dimensional diffusive wave approximation to the shallow water equations. A simple and computationally economical error estimator is discussed which enables time-step size adaptivity. This robust adaptive time discretization corrects the initial time step size to achieve a user specified bound on the discretization error and allows time step size variations of several orders of magnitude. In particular, in the one dimensional results presented in this work feature a change of four orders of magnitudes for the time step over the entire simulation.

  7. Water-wave scattering by vast fields of bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Peter, Malte A.; Meylan, Michael H.

    2009-01-01

    A very efficient solution method to the determination of the linear water-wave scattering by a large number of bodies is presented. Several bodies are assembled in modules, which are grouped in periodic infinite line arrays. Then, using an iterative method, a finite number of these infinite arrays are stacked together. The method to calculate the scattering by the infinite line array of modules of bodies is algebraicly exact while a far-field (or wide-spacing) approximation is used in the cal...

  8. Transduction of DNA information through water and electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnier, Luc; Del Giudice, Emilio; Aïssa, Jamal; Lavallee, Claude; Motschwiller, Steven; Capolupo, Antonio; Polcari, Albino; Romano, Paola; Tedeschi, Alberto; Vitiello, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The experimental conditions by which electromagnetic signals (EMS) of low frequency can be emitted by diluted aqueous solutions of some bacterial and viral DNAs are described. That the recorded EMS and nanostructures induced in water carry the DNA information (sequence) is shown by retrieval of that same DNA by classical PCR amplification using the TAQ polymerase, including both primers and nucleotides. Moreover, such a transduction process has also been observed in living human cells exposed to EMS irradiation. These experiments suggest that coherent long-range molecular interaction must be present in water to observe the above-mentioned features. The quantum field theory analysis of the phenomenon is presented in this article.

  9. Thin Perfect Absorbers for Electromagnetic Waves: Theory, Design, and Realizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra'di, Y.; Simovski, C. R.; Tretyakov, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    With recent advances in nanophotonics and nanofabrication, considerable progress has been achieved in realizations of thin composite layers designed for full absorption of incident electromagnetic radiation, from microwaves to the visible. If the layer is structured at a subwavelength scale, thin perfect absorbers are usually called "metamaterial absorbers," because these composite structures are designed to emulate some material responses not reachable with any natural material. On the other hand, many thin absorbing composite layers were designed and used already in the time of the introduction of radar technology, predominantly as a means to reduce radar visibility of targets. In view of a wide variety of classical and new topologies of optically thin metamaterial absorbers and plurality of applications, there is a need for a general, conceptual overview of the fundamental mechanisms of full absorption of light or microwave radiation in thin layers. Here, we present such an overview in the form of a general theory of thin perfectly absorbing layers. Possible topologies of perfect metamaterial absorbers are classified based on their fundamental operational principles. For each of the identified classes, we provide design equations and give examples of particular realizations. The concluding section provides a summary and gives an outlook on future developments in this field.

  10. Axial Wave Reflection and Transmission in Stepped Nanorods Using Doublet Mechanics Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydogdu Metin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation of the reflection and transmission of axial waves at stepped nanorods is presented. The scale dependent doublet mechanics theory is used in the analysis. The main difference of the doublet mechanics from other scale dependent models (stress gradient, strain gradient and couple stress theories is its direct dependence to the micro/nano structure of the solid. Scale parameter is directly related to atomic structure of the material in doublet mechanics theory and it is assumed as carbon-carbon bond length in the present study. However, identification of scale parameters in other scale dependent theories is difficult compared to doublet mechanics theory. Governing equations of stepped nanorods are derived in the framework of doublet mechanics using the Hamilton Principle. The numerical results predicted by doublet mechanics are shown and compared with the classical elasticity.

  11. A Method for Energy and Resource Assessment of Waves in Finite Water Depths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanan Sheng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for improving the assessment of energy and resources of waves in the cases of finite water depths in which the historical and some ongoing sea wave measurements are simply given in forms of scatter diagrams or the forms of (significant wave heights and the relevant statistical wave periods, whilst the detailed spectrum information has been discarded, thus no longer available for the purpose of analysis. As a result of such simplified wave data, the assessment for embracing the effects of water depths on wave energy and resources becomes either difficult or inaccurate. In many practical cases, the effects of water depths are simply ignored because the formulas for deep-water waves are frequently employed. This simplification may cause large energy under-estimations for the sea waves in finite water depths. To improve the wave energy assessment for such much-simplified wave data, an approximate method is proposed for approximating the effect of water depth in this research, for which the wave energy period or the calculated peak period can be taken as the reference period for implementing the approximation. The examples for both theoretical and measured spectra show that the proposed method can significantly reduce the errors on wave energy assessment due to the approximations and inclusions of the effects of finite water depths.

  12. Permittivity of water at millimeter wave-lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, M. D.

    1976-01-01

    Work performed on the permittivity of seawater and ice at 100 GHz was described. Measurements on water covered the temperature range from 0 to 50 C, while the measurements on ice were taken near - 10 C. In addition, a small number of measurements were made on the reflectivity of absorber materials used in a previous program on research in millimeter wave techniques. Normal incidence reflectivity was measured, and the result was used to obtain the index of refraction. For the case of normal incidence, reflectivity at a fixed temperature was reproducible to 1% for values near 40%. For reflectivity measurements on ice, the lack of attenuation leads to reflection from the back surface of the sample; this complication was circumvented by using a wedge shaped sample and freezing the water in a container lined with absorber material.

  13. Shallow water effects on wave energy converters with hydraulic power take-off system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashank Sinha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of water depth on the power absorption by a single heaving point absorber wave energy converter, attached to a hydraulic power take-off system, is simulated and analysed. The wave energy flux for changing water depths is presented and the study is carried out at a location in the north-west Portuguese coast, favourable for wave power generation. This analysis is based on a procedure to modify the wave spectrum as the water depth reduces, namely, the TMA spectrum (Transformation spectrum. The present study deals with the effect of water depth on the spectral shape and significant wave heights. The reactive control strategy, which includes an external damping coefficient and a negative spring term, is used to maximize power absorption by the wave energy converter. The presented work can be used for making decisions regarding the best water depth for the installation of point absorber wave energy converters in the Portuguese nearshore.

  14. Perturbation theory for water with an associating reference fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Bennett D.

    2017-11-01

    The theoretical description of the thermodynamics of water is challenged by the structural transition towards tetrahedral symmetry at ambient conditions. As perturbation theories typically assume a spherically symmetric reference fluid, they are incapable of accurately describing the liquid properties of water at ambient conditions. In this paper we address this problem by introducing the concept of an associated reference perturbation theory (APT). In APT we treat the reference fluid as an associating hard sphere fluid which transitions to tetrahedral symmetry in the fully hydrogen bonded limit. We calculate this transition in a theoretically self-consistent manner without appealing to molecular simulations. This associated reference provides the reference fluid for a second order Barker-Henderson perturbative treatment of the long-range attractions. We demonstrate that this approach gives a significantly improved description of water as compared to standard perturbation theories.

  15. Water nucleation: A comparison between some phenomenological theories and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Thomas P; Barrett, Jonathan C

    2012-09-28

    The predictions of several homogeneous nucleation theories are compared with experimental results for water for a range of temperatures and vapor supersaturations, S. The theoretical models considered are: classical theory (including the 1/S correction factor), the Gibbs p-form, mean-field kinetic nucleation theory (MKNT), the extended modified liquid drop model-dynamical nucleation theory, and two forms of density functional theory, one without and one with a contribution due to association. The theoretical expressions for the logarithm of the nucleation rate are expanded in a series in powers of the logarithm of S. The residual dependence (once the classical dependence has been factored out) of the experimental results shows a stronger decrease with increasing temperature than all the theories except MKNT. The residual S-dependence of the experimental results decreases with increasing supersaturation whereas all the theories except the Gibbs p-form predict an increase. The first correction term to classical theory involves both the liquid compressibility and curvature correction to the surface tension (Tolman length) so the experimental results suggest that the Tolman length is zero (as assumed in the Gibbs p-form) or positive whereas the other theories predict a negative Tolman length. The effect of including a term proportional to ln(lnS) in the series expansion is also discussed.

  16. Effects of Rotation and Gravity Field on Surface Waves in Fibre-Reinforced Thermoelastic Media under Four Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Abd-Alla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation is done to investigate the gravitational and rotational parameters effects on surface waves in fibre-reinforced thermoelastic media. The theory of generalized surface waves has been firstly developed and then it has been employed to investigate particular cases of waves, namely, Stoneley waves, Rayleigh waves, and Love waves. The analytical expressions for surface waves velocity and attenuation coefficient are obtained in the physical domain by using the harmonic vibrations and four thermoelastic theories. The wave velocity equations have been obtained in different cases. The numerical results are given for equation of coupled thermoelastic theory (C-T, Lord-Shulman theory (L-S, Green-Lindsay theory (G-L, and the linearized (G-N theory of type II. Comparison was made with the results obtained in the presence and absence of gravity, rotation, and parameters for fibre-reinforced of the material media. The results obtained are displayed by graphs to clear the phenomena physical meaning. The results indicate that the effect of gravity, rotation, relaxation times, and parameters of fibre-reinforced of the material medium is very pronounced.

  17. General Iib Pp-wave Backgrounds, D-branes And Massive Two-dimensional Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Tirziu, A

    2004-01-01

    This thesis consists of three parts. In the first part we analyze the spectrum of the N = (2, 2) supersymmetric Landau-Ginzburg theory in two dimensions with superpotential W = X n+2 − λX 2. We find the full BPS spectrum of this theory by exploiting the direct connection between the UV and IR limits of the theory. This computation requires utilizing results from the Picard-Lefschetz theory of singularities and its extension to boundary singularities. The additional fact that this theory is integrable requires that the BPS states do not close under scattering. This observation fixes the masses of non-BPS states as well. In the second part we consider superstring theories on pp-wave backgrounds which result in an integrable N = (2, 2) supersymmetric Landau-Ginzburg theory on the worldsheet. We obtain exact eigenvalues of the light-cone gauge superstring hamiltonian in the massive and interacting world-sheet theory with superpotential Z3–Z. We find the modes of the supergrav...

  18. Scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave by a Luneburg lens. I. Ray theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, James A

    2008-12-01

    For a plane wave incident on either a Luneburg lens or a modified Luneburg lens, the magnitude and phase of the transmitted electric field are calculated as a function of the scattering angle in the context of ray theory. It is found that the ray trajectory and the scattered intensity are not uniformly convergent in the vicinity of edge ray incidence on a Luneburg lens, which corresponds to the semiclassical phenomenon of orbiting. In addition, it is found that rays transmitted through a large-focal-length modified Luneburg lens participate in a far-zone rainbow, the details of which are exactly analytically soluble in ray theory. Using these results, the Airy theory of the modified Luneburg lens is derived and compared with the Airy theory of the rainbows of a homogeneous sphere.

  19. Wave spectral response to sudden changes in wind direction in finite depth waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-14

    Virtual Special Issue Ocean Surface Waves Wave spectral response to sudden changes in wind direction in finite -depth waters Saima Aijaz a , ∗, W...exact solutions of the nonlinear term n two-dimensional models, in particular for finite -depth waters. In ddition to the complexities of shallow water...vary in time. This study seeks to investigate the wave response in finite -depth aters due to sudden changes in wind by conducting numerical imulations

  20. A scattering theory for the wave equation on Kerr black hole exteriors

    CERN Document Server

    Dafermos, Mihalis; Shlapentokh-Rothman, Yakov

    2014-01-01

    We develop a definitive physical-space scattering theory for the scalar wave equation on Kerr exterior backgrounds in the general subextremal case |a|theory of superradiant reflection. The boundedness of the scattering matrix shows in particular that the maximal amplification of solutions associated to ingoing finite-energy wave packets on past null infinity is bounded. On the frequency side, this corresponds to the novel statement that the suitably normalised reflection and transmission coefficients are uniformly bounded independently of the frequency parameters. We further complement this with a demonstration that super...

  1. Rate theory on water exchange in aqueous uranyl ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, Liem X.; Vo, Quynh N.; Nilsson, Mikael; Nguyen, Hung D.

    2017-03-01

    We report one of the first simulations using a classical rate theory approach to predict the mechanism of the exchange process between water and aqueous uranyl ions. Using our water and ion-water polarizable force fields and molecular dynamics techniques, we computed the potentials of mean force for the uranyl ion-water pair as the function of pressures at ambient temperature. Subsequently, these simulated potentials of mean force were used to calculate rate constants using the transition rate theory; the time dependent transmission coefficients were also examined using the reactive flux method and Grote-Hynes treatments of the dynamic response of the solvent. The computed activation volumes using transition rate theory and the corrected rate constants are positive, thus the mechanism of this particular water-exchange is a dissociative process. We discuss our rate theory results and compare them with previously studies in which non-polarizable force fields were used. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  2. Hyperbolic partial differential equations populations, reactors, tides and waves theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Witten, Matthew

    1983-01-01

    Hyperbolic Partial Differential Equations, Volume 1: Population, Reactors, Tides and Waves: Theory and Applications covers three general areas of hyperbolic partial differential equation applications. These areas include problems related to the McKendrick/Von Foerster population equations, other hyperbolic form equations, and the numerical solution.This text is composed of 15 chapters and begins with surveys of age specific population interactions, populations models of diffusion, nonlinear age dependent population growth with harvesting, local and global stability for the nonlinear renewal eq

  3. Time-dependent density-functional theory in the projector augmented-wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Michael; Häkkinen, Hannu; Lehtovaara, Lauri

    2008-01-01

    We present the implementation of the time-dependent density-functional theory both in linear-response and in time-propagation formalisms using the projector augmented-wave method in real-space grids. The two technically very different methods are compared in the linear-response regime where we...... surfaces for a set of atoms and molecules with the linear-response method and by calculating nonlinear emission spectra using the time-propagation method....

  4. Pilot-Wave Quantum Theory in Discrete Space and Time and the Principle of Least Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluza, Janusz; Kosek, Jerzy

    2016-11-01

    The idea of obtaining a pilot-wave quantum theory on a lattice with discrete time is presented. The motion of quantum particles is described by a |Ψ |^2-distributed Markov chain. Stochastic matrices of the process are found by the discrete version of the least-action principle. Probability currents are the consequence of Hamilton's principle and the stochasticity of the Markov process is minimized. As an example, stochastic motion of single particles in a double-slit experiment is examined.

  5. Generalized theory of resonance scattering (GTRS) using the translational addition theorem for spherical wave functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, Farid

    2014-11-01

    The generalized theory of resonance scattering (GTRS) by an elastic spherical target in acoustics is extended to describe the arbitrary scattering of a finite beam using the addition theorem for the spherical wave functions of the first kind under a translation of the coordinate origin. The advantage of the proposed method over the standard discrete spherical harmonics transform previously used in the GTRS formalism is the computation of the off-axial beam-shape coefficients (BSCs) stemming from a closed-form partial-wave series expansion representing the axial BSCs in spherical coordinates. With this general method, the arbitrary acoustical scattering can be evaluated for any particle shape and size, whether the particle is partially or completely illuminated by the incident beam. Numerical examples for the axial and off-axial resonance scattering from an elastic sphere placed arbitrarily in the field of a finite circular piston transducer with uniform vibration are provided. Moreover, the 3-D resonance directivity patterns illustrate the theory and reveal some properties of the scattering. Numerous applications involving the scattering phenomenon in imaging, particle manipulation, and the characterization of multiphase flows can benefit from the present analysis because all physically realizable beams radiate acoustical waves from finite transducers as opposed to waves of infinite extent.

  6. Explaining the success of Kogelnik's coupled-wave theory by means of perturbation analysis: discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Heinz-Jürgen; Imlau, Mirco; Voit, Kay-Michael

    2014-06-01

    The problem of diffraction of an electromagnetic wave by a thick hologram grating can be solved by the famous Kogelnik's coupled-wave theory (CWT) to a very high degree of accuracy. We confirm this finding by comparing the CWT and the exact result for a typical example and propose an explanation in terms of perturbation theory. To this end we formulate the problem of diffraction as a matrix problem following similar well-known approaches, especially rigorous coupled-wave theory (RCWT). We allow for a complex permittivity modulation and a possible phase shift between refractive index and absorption grating and explicitly incorporate appropriate boundary conditions. The problem is solved numerically exact for the specific case of a planar unslanted grating and a set of realistic values of the material's parameters and experimental conditions. Analogously, the same problem is solved for a two-dimensional truncation of the underlying matrix that would correspond to a CWT approximation but without the usual further approximations. We verify a close coincidence of both results even in the off-Bragg region and explain this result by means of a perturbation analysis of the underlying matrix problem. Moreover, the CWT is found not only to coincide with the perturbational approximation in the in-Bragg and the extreme off-Bragg cases, but also to interpolate between these extremal regimes.

  7. A Three Dimensional Sea Facility for Deep and Shallow Water Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.; Nielsen, Søren R.K.; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    1986-01-01

    The paper describes a low-cost wave tank for the testing of structures in short crested seas and current. The paddle system is of the snake type and used for the generation of both deep and shallow water waves. The quality of the waves and scale problems related to small scale tests are discussed...

  8. Numerical comparison between deep water and intermediate water depth expressions applied to a wave energy converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Beirão

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The energy that can be captured from the sea waves and converted into electricity should be seen as a contribution to decrease the excessive dependency and growing demand of fossil fuels. Devices suitable to harness this kind of renewable energy source and convert it into electricity—wave energy converters (WECs—are not yet commercially competitive. There are several types of WECs, with different designs and working principles. One possible classification is their distance to the shoreline and thus their depth. Near-shore devices are one of them since they are typically deployed at intermediate water depth (IWD. The selection of the WEC deployment site should be a balance between several parameters; water depth is one of them. Another way of classifying WECs is grouping them by their geometry, size and orientation. Considering a near-shore WEC belonging to the floating point category, this paper is focused on the numerical study about the differences arising in the power captured from the sea waves when the typical deep water (DW assumption is compared with the more realistic IWD consideration. Actually, the production of electricity will depend, among other issues, on the depth of the deployment site. The development of a dynamic model including specific equations for the usual DW assumption as well as for IWD is also described. Derived equations were used to build a time domain simulator (TDS. Numerical results were obtained by means of simulations performed using the TDS. The objective is to simulate the dynamic behavior of the WEC due to the action of sea waves and to characterize the wave power variations according with the depth of the deployment site.

  9. Solitary and cnoidal wave scattering by a submerged horizontal plate in shallow water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Hayatdavoodi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Solitary and cnoidal wave transformation over a submerged, fixed, horizontal rigid plate is studied by use of the nonlinear, shallow-water Level I Green-Naghdi (GN equations. Reflection and transmission coefficients are defined for cnoidal and solitary waves to quantify the nonlinear wave scattering. Results of the GN equations are compared with the laboratory experiments and other theoretical solutions for linear and nonlinear waves in intermediate and deep waters. The GN equations are then used to study the nonlinear wave scattering by a plate in shallow water. It is shown that in deep and intermediate depths, the wave-scattering varies nonlinearly by both the wavelength over the plate length ratio, and the submergence depth. In shallow water, however, and for long-waves, only the submergence depth appear to play a significant role on wave scattering. It is possible to define the plate submergence depth and length such that certain wave conditions are optimized above, below, or downwave of the plate for different applications. A submerged plate in shallow water can be used as a means to attenuate energy, such as in wave breakers, or used for energy focusing, and in wave energy devices.

  10. Evolution of wave and tide over vegetation region in nearshore waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Zhang, Hongxing; Zhao, Kaibin; Tang, Jun; Qin, Huifa

    2017-08-01

    Coastal wetlands are an important ecosystem in nearshore regions, where complex flow characteristics occur because of the interactions among tides, waves, and plants, especially in the discontinuous flow of the intertidal zone. In order to simulate the wave and wave-induced current in coastal waters, in this study, an explicit depth-averaged hydrodynamic (HD) model has been dynamically coupled with a wave spectral model (CMS-Wave) by sharing the tide and wave data. The hydrodynamic model is based on the finite volume method; the intercell flux is computed using the Harten-Lax-van Leer (HLL) approximate Riemann solver for computing the dry-to-wet interface; the drag force of vegetation is modeled as the sink terms in the momentum equations. An empirical wave energy dissipation term with plant effect has been derived from the wave action balance equation to account for the resistance induced by aquatic vegetation in the CMS-Wave model. The results of the coupling model have been verified using the measured data for the case with wave-tide-vegetation interactions. The results show that the wave height decreases significantly along the wave propagation direction in the presence of vegetation. In the rip channel system, the oblique waves drive a meandering longshore current; it moves from left to right past the cusps with oscillations. In the vegetated region, the wave height is greatly attenuated due to the presence of vegetation, and the radiation stresses are noticeably changed as compared to the region without vegetation. Further, vegetation can affect the spatial distribution of mean velocity in a rip channel system. In the co-exiting environment of tides, waves, and vegetation, the locations of wave breaking and wave-induced radiation stress also vary with the water level of flooding or ebb tide in wetland water, which can also affect the development and evolution of wave-induced current.

  11. Solitary waves on Fermi Pasta Ulam lattices: III. Howland-type Floquet theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesecke, G.; Pego, R. L.

    2004-01-01

    Parts II, III and IV of this series are devoted to proving long time stability of solitary waves in one-dimensional nonintegrable lattices with Hamiltonian \\[ \\begin{equation*}H = \\sum_{j\\in{\\mathbb Z}} \\left(\\frac{1}{2} p_j^2 + V(q_{j+1}-q_j)\\right),\\end{equation*} \\] with a general nearest-neighbour potential V. Here in part III we analyse the evolution equation obtained by linearizing the dynamics at a solitary wave. This equation is nonautonomous, because discrete solitary waves are not time-independent modulo a spatial shift (like their continuous counterparts), but time-periodic modulo a spatial shift. We develop a Floquet theory modulo shifts on the lattice that naturally characterizes the time-t evolution on the lattice in terms of a strongly continuous group of operators on the real line, in a manner reminiscent of Howland's treatment of quantum scattering with time-periodic potentials. This allows us to reduce the main hypothesis of our nonlinear stability theorem in part II (namely, exponential decay in the linearized dynamics on the symplectic complement to the solitary-wave manifold) to an eigenvalue condition on the generator of the group, which is a differential-difference operator on the real line. Physically, the eigenvalue condition means that no spatially localized modes of constant shape exist which travel at the solitary wave speed and have exponentially growing or neutral amplitude.

  12. Anomalous heating of the polar E region by unstable plasma waves. II - Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.-Maurice, J. P.; Schlegel, K.; Banks, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    It is found that anomalous electron temperatures in the disturbed high-latitude E region can be quantitatively explained in terms of heating by unstable plasma waves. The electron temperatures at 110 km have been measured to be as high as 1500 K instead of the expected value of about 300 K. It is shown that by using quasi-linear theory there is an ample source of heat in the unstable waves and that the measured electron temperature profiles have a shape very similar to what is expected from plasma wave heating by the modified two-stream instability. It is found that there is even more heating going to the ion gas, but that the resulting effect on the ion temperature may be difficult to measure. The best estimate of the wave heating rates leads to the conclusion that wave heating can be as much as 50% of the Joule heating for dc electric field strengths of the order of 45 mV/m or greater.

  13. Testing the Predictions of Random Matrix Theory in Low Loss Wave Chaotic Scattering Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jen-Hao; Antonsen, Thomas; Ott, Edward; Anlage, Steven

    2013-03-01

    Wave chaos is a field where researchers apply random matrix theory (RMT) to predict the statistics of wave properties in complicated wave scattering systems. The RMT predictions have successfully demonstrated universality of the distributions of these wave properties, which only depend on the loss parameter of the system and the physical symmetry. Examination of these predictions in very low loss systems is interesting because extreme limits for the distribution functions and other predictions are encountered. Therefore, we use a wave-chaotic superconducting cavity to establish a low loss environment and test RMT predictions, including the statistics of the scattering (S) matrix and the impedance (Z) matrix, the universality (or lack thereof) of the Z- and S-variance ratios, and the statistics of the proper delay times of the Wigner-Smith time-delay matrix. We have applied an in-situ microwave calibration method (Thru-Reflection-Line method) to calibrate the cryostat system, and we also applied the random coupling model to remove the system-specific features. Our experimental results of different properties agree with the RMT predictions. This work is funded by the ONR/Maryland AppEl Center Task A2 (contract No. N000140911190), the AFOSR under grant FA95500710049, and Center for Nanophysics and Advanced Materials.

  14. Design guidelines of triboelectric nanogenerator for water wave energy harvesters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdelsalam; Hassan, Islam; Jiang, Tao; Youssef, Khalid; Liu, Lian; Hedaya, Mohammad; Abu Yazid, Taher; Zu, Jean; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-05-01

    Ocean waves are one of the cleanest and most abundant energy sources on earth, and wave energy has the potential for future power generation. Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) technology has recently been proposed as a promising technology to harvest wave energy. In this paper, a theoretical study is performed on a duck-shaped TENG wave harvester recently introduced in our work. To enhance the design of the duck-shaped TENG wave harvester, the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the harvester’s overall structure, as well as its inner configuration, are analyzed, respectively, under different wave conditions, to optimize parameters such as duck radius and mass. Furthermore, a comprehensive hybrid 3D model is introduced to quantify the performance of the TENG wave harvester. Finally, the influence of different TENG parameters is validated by comparing the performance of several existing TENG wave harvesters. This study can be applied as a guideline for enhancing the performance of TENG wave energy harvesters.

  15. Design guidelines of triboelectric nanogenerator for water wave energy harvesters

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Abdelsalam

    2017-04-11

    Ocean waves are one of the cleanest and most abundant energy sources on earth, and wave energy has the potential for future power generation. Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) technology has recently been proposed as a promising technology to harvest wave energy. In this paper, a theoretical study is performed on a duck-shaped TENG wave harvester recently introduced in our work. To enhance the design of the duck-shaped TENG wave harvester, the mechanical and electrical characteristics of the harvester\\'s overall structure, as well as its inner configuration, are analyzed, respectively, under different wave conditions, to optimize parameters such as duck radius and mass. Furthermore, a comprehensive hybrid 3D model is introduced to quantify the performance of the TENG wave harvester. Finally, the influence of different TENG parameters is validated by comparing the performance of several existing TENG wave harvesters. This study can be applied as a guideline for enhancing the performance of TENG wave energy harvesters.

  16. Wave energy conversion utilizing vertical motion of water in the array of water chambers aligned in the direction of wave propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesayoshi Hadano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As a new technical approach, wave energy converter by using vertical motion of water in the multiple water chambers were developed to realize actual wave power generation as eco-environmental renewable energy. And practical use of wave energy converter was actually to require the following conditions: (1 setting up of the relevant device and its application to wave power generation in case that severe wave loading is avoided; (2 workability in installation and maintenance operations; (3 high energy conversion potential; and (4 low cost. In this system, neither the wall(s of the chambers nor the energy conversion device(s are exposed to the impulsive load due to water wave. Also since this system is profitable when set along the jetty or along a long floating body, installation and maintenance are done without difficulty and the cost is reduced. In this paper, we describe the system which consists of a float, a shaft connected with another shaft, a rack and pinion arrangement, a ratchet mechanism, and rotary type generator(s. Then, we present the dynamics model for evaluating the output electric power, and the results of numerical calculation including the effect of the phase shift of up/down motion of the water in the array of water chambers aligned along the direction of wave propagation.

  17. WAVECALC: an Excel-VBA spreadsheet to model the characteristics of fully developed waves and their influence on bottom sediments in different water depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Jacobus P.; Demirbilek, Zeki; Brodalka, Marysia; Flemming, Burghard W.

    2010-10-01

    The generation and growth of waves in deep water is controlled by winds blowing over the sea surface. In fully developed sea states, where winds and waves are in equilibrium, wave parameters may be calculated directly from the wind velocity. We provide an Excel spreadsheet to compute the wave period, length, height and celerity, as well as horizontal and vertical particle velocities for any water depth, bottom slope, and distance below the reference water level. The wave profile and propagation can also be visualized for any water depth, modeling the sea surface change from sinusoidal to trochoidal and finally cnoidal profiles into shallow water. Bedload entrainment is estimated under both the wave crest and the trough, using the horizontal water particle velocity at the top of the boundary layer. The calculations are programmed in an Excel file called WAVECALC, which is available online to authorized users. Although many of the recently published formulas are based on theoretical arguments, the values agree well with several existing theories and limited field and laboratory observations. WAVECALC is a user-friendly program intended for sedimentologists, coastal engineers and oceanographers, as well as marine ecologists and biologists. It provides a rapid means to calculate many wave characteristics required in coastal and shallow marine studies, and can also serve as an educational tool.

  18. Abnormal Waves Modelled as Second-order Conditional Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents results for the expected second order short-crested wave conditional of a given wave crest at a specific point in time and space. The analysis is based on the second order Sharma and Dean shallow water wave theory. Numerical results showing the importance of the spectral density......, the water depth and the directional spreading on the conditional mean wave profile are presented. Application of conditional waves to model and explain abnormal waves, e.g. the well-known New Year Wave measured at the Draupner platform January 1st 1995, is discussed. Whereas the wave profile can be modelled...... quite well by the second order conditional wave including directional spreading and finite water depth the probability to encounter such a wave is still, however, extremely rare. The use of the second order conditional wave as initial condition to a fully non-linear three-dimensional analysis...

  19. Transition operators in electromagnetic-wave diffraction theory. II - Applications to optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahne, G. E.

    1993-01-01

    The theory developed by Hahne (1992) for the diffraction of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves from fixed obstacles is briefly summarized and extended. Applications of the theory are considered which comprise, first, a spherical harmonic expansion of the so-called radiation impedance operator in the theory, for a spherical surface, and second, a reconsideration of familiar short-wavelength approximation from the new standpoint, including a derivation of the so-called physical optics method on the basis of quasi-planar approximation to the radiation impedance operator, augmented by the method of stationary phase. The latter includes a rederivation of the geometrical optics approximation for the complete Green's function for the electromagnetic field in the presence of a smooth- and a convex-surfaced perfectly electrically conductive obstacle.

  20. Modeling of high‐frequency seismic‐wave scattering and propagation using radiative transfer theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yuehua

    2017-01-01

    This is a study of the nonisotropic scattering process based on radiative transfer theory and its application to the observation of the M 4.3 aftershock recording of the 2008 Wells earthquake sequence in Nevada. Given a wide range of recording distances from 29 to 320 km, the data provide a unique opportunity to discriminate scattering models based on their distance‐dependent behaviors. First, we develop a stable numerical procedure to simulate nonisotropic scattering waves based on the 3D nonisotropic scattering theory proposed by Sato (1995). By applying the simulation method to the inversion of M 4.3 Wells aftershock recordings, we find that a nonisotropic scattering model, dominated by forward scattering, provides the best fit to the observed high‐frequency direct S waves and S‐wave coda velocity envelopes. The scattering process is governed by a Gaussian autocorrelation function, suggesting a Gaussian random heterogeneous structure for the Nevada crust. The model successfully explains the common decay of seismic coda independent of source–station locations as a result of energy leaking from multiple strong forward scattering, instead of backscattering governed by the diffusion solution at large lapse times. The model also explains the pulse‐broadening effect in the high‐frequency direct and early arriving S waves, as other studies have found, and could be very important to applications of high‐frequency wave simulation in which scattering has a strong effect. We also find that regardless of its physical implications, the isotropic scattering model provides the same effective scattering coefficient and intrinsic attenuation estimates as the forward scattering model, suggesting that the isotropic scattering model is still a viable tool for the study of seismic scattering and intrinsic attenuation coefficients in the Earth.

  1. Step density waves on growing vicinal crystal surfaces - Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranguelov, Bogdan; Müller, Pierre; Metois, Jean-Jacques; Stoyanov, Stoyan

    2017-01-01

    The Burton, Cabrera and Frank (BCF) theory plays a key conceptual role in understanding and modeling the crystal growth of vicinal surfaces. In BCF theory the adatom concentration on a vicinal surface obeys to a diffusion equation, generally solved within quasi-static approximation where the adatom concentration at a given distance x from a step has a steady state value n (x) . Recently, we show that going beyond this approximation (Ranguelov and Stoyanov, 2007) [6], for fast surface diffusion and slow attachment/detachment kinetics of adatoms at the steps, a train of fast-moving steps is unstable against the formation of steps density waves. More precisely, the step density waves are generated if the step velocity exceeds a critical value related to the strength of the step-step repulsion. This theoretical treatment corresponds to the case when the time to reach a steady state concentration of adatoms on a given terrace is comparable to the time for a non-negligible change of the step configuration leading to a terrace adatom concentration n (x , t) that depends not only on the terrace width, but also on its "past width". This formation of step density waves originates from the high velocity of step motion and has nothing to do with usual kinetic instabilities of step bunching induced by Ehrlich-Schwoebel effect, surface electromigration and/or the impact of impurities on the step rate. The so-predicted formation of step density waves is illustrated by numerical integration of the equations for step motion. In order to complete our previous theoretical treatment of the non-stationary BCF problem, we perform an in-situ reflection electron microscopy experiment at specific temperature interval and direction of the heating current, in which, for the first time, the step density waves instability is evidenced on Si(111) surface during highest possible Si adatoms deposition rates.

  2. Topological helical edge states in water waves over a topographical bottom

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Shi qiao

    2017-11-27

    We present the discovery of topologically protected helical edge states in water wave systems, which are realized in water wave propagating over a topographical bottom whose height is modulated periodically in a two-dimensional triangular pattern. We develop an effective Hamiltonian to characterize the dispersion relation and use spin Chern numbers to classify the topology. Through full wave simulations we unambiguously demonstrate the robustness of the helical edge states which are immune to defects and disorders so that the backscattering loss is significantly reduced. A spin splitter is designed for water wave systems, where helical edge states with different spin orientations are spatially separated with each other, and potential applications are discussed.

  3. Traveling wave solutions of a highly nonlinear shallow water equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geyer, A.; Quirchmayr, Ronald

    2018-01-01

    Motivated by the question whether higher-order nonlinear model equations, which go beyond the Camassa-Holm regime of moderate amplitude waves, could point us to new types of waves profiles, we study the traveling wave solutions of a quasilinear evolution equation which models the propagation of

  4. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis...

  5. Capillary wave theory of adsorbed liquid films and the structure of the liquid-vapor interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDowell, Luis G.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper we try to work out in detail the implications of a microscopic theory for capillary waves under the assumption that the density is given along lines normal to the interface. Within this approximation, which may be justified in terms of symmetry arguments, the Fisk-Widom scaling of the density profile holds for frozen realizations of the interface profile. Upon thermal averaging of capillary wave fluctuations, the resulting density profile yields results consistent with renormalization group calculations in the one-loop approximation. The thermal average over capillary waves may be expressed in terms of a modified convolution approximation where normals to the interface are Gaussian distributed. In the absence of an external field we show that the phenomenological density profile applied to the square-gradient free energy functional recovers the capillary wave Hamiltonian exactly. We extend the theory to the case of liquid films adsorbed on a substrate. For systems with short-range forces, we recover an effective interface Hamiltonian with a film height dependent surface tension that stems from the distortion of the liquid-vapor interface by the substrate, in agreement with the Fisher-Jin theory of short-range wetting. In the presence of long-range interactions, the surface tension picks up an explicit dependence on the external field and recovers the wave vector dependent logarithmic contribution observed by Napiorkowski and Dietrich. Using an error function for the intrinsic density profile, we obtain closed expressions for the surface tension and the interface width. We show the external field contribution to the surface tension may be given in terms of the film's disjoining pressure. From literature values of the Hamaker constant, it is found that the fluid-substrate forces may be able to double the surface tension for films in the nanometer range. The film height dependence of the surface tension described here is in full agreement with results of

  6. Eigenfrequency detecting method with sawtooth wave modulation theory for navigation grade fiber optic gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaxiao; Wang, Xiang; Yu, Jia; Zheng, Yue

    2017-09-01

    Eigenfrequency is a key parameter for the fiber optic gyroscope (FOG). An eigenfrequency detecting method for FOGs, especially for high-grade FOGs, such as the navigation grade FOGs, is proposed. The eigenfrequency is detected with the sawtooth wave modulation theory. Adjusting the frequency of the sawtooth wave to an even integer of the eigenfrequency, the error signal caused by the sawtooth wave modulation will be zero, then the eigenfrequency can be calculated by the value of the sawtooth wave frequency exactly and the bias modulation frequency is at the eigenfrequency accurately. It is demonstrated experimentally with an FOG, the length of whose sensing coil is about 1200 m, that the accuracy of the eigenfrequency measurement is better than 1.2 ppm (0.1 Hz). With its high accuracy, not only can the frequency of the bias modulation be adjusted to the eigenfrequency precisely, but also this method can be used as an eigenfrequency detector for studying the characteristics of the sensing coil according to the eigenfrequency to study the mechanism of the errors generated in the FOGs.

  7. Shot- and angle-domain wave-equation traveltime inversion of reflection data: Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Sanzong

    2015-05-26

    The main difficulty with iterative waveform inversion is that it tends to get stuck in local minima associated with the waveform misfit function. To mitigate this problem and avoid the need to fit amplitudes in the data, we have developed a wave-equation method that inverts the traveltimes of reflection events, and so it is less prone to the local minima problem. Instead of a waveform misfit function, the penalty function was a crosscorrelation of the downgoing direct wave and the upgoing reflection wave at the trial image point. The time lag, which maximized the crosscorrelation amplitude, represented the reflection-traveltime residual (RTR) that was back projected along the reflection wavepath to update the velocity. Shot- and angle-domain crosscorrelation functions were introduced to estimate the RTR by semblance analysis and scanning. In theory, only the traveltime information was inverted and there was no need to precisely fit the amplitudes or assume a high-frequency approximation. Results with synthetic data and field records revealed the benefits and limitations of wave-equation reflection traveltime inversion.

  8. 1899-1909: Key Years for Shock Wave and Detonation Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuze, Olivier

    2009-06-01

    One century ago, in 1909, finished one of the most creative decade for the progress of shock wave and detonation understanding. Before these years, many experiments were undetaken and analyzed by Berthelot, Mallard, Vieille, Le Châtellier and Dixon, especially about reactive gaseous mixtures. In 1899, Chapman provided the basis of what is called now the Chapman- Jouguet theory. During the following years, an unusual high number papers were published by different authors (Jouguet, Hadamard, Crussard, Duhem, Dixon and the hungarish Zemplen...) who yielded important contributions to the understanding of shock wave and detonation propagation. They tried to precise the former knowledge and to extend it to real geometries and to real materials. These years finished in 1909 with Duhem's paper which gathered some properties concerning real materials. After these years, the number of papers about shock waves and detonation strongly decreased. The main questions were raised, some of them were solved and the others had to wait up to several decades to be answered, by Von Neumann, Bethe, Zel'dovitch and others. Then Jouguet focused on deflagration, others retired or moved to other topics. We have collected an exhaustive bibliography. If most of these papers are now historical, some formulae or ideas like the forgotten concept of ``quasi-wave,'' with finite thickness, has a renewed interest for numerical or modern studies.

  9. Intertidal water column meiofauna in relation to wave intensity on an exposed beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Germán Rodríguez

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970s, various studies have shown that some meiofaunal taxa frequently occur in the water column. Water currents or any process that disturbs the sediments are possible factors that can facilitate the passive entry of meiofauna in the water column. Wave action has been predicted as one of these factors (Armonies, 1994, suggesting a correlation between the number of eroded specimens and wave intensity should exist. As a test of this prediction, replicated samples were taken in the water column, swash sediment and back-swash water in an exposed beach (Island of Sylt, northern Wadden Sea. Wave height and period were measured to characterise the energy regime. Samplings were carried out over a nine day period in August 2000, at diurnal mid-tide time. Wave height and period varied significantly among collections. Densities of nematodes, harpacticoids, nauplii, platyhelminthes, ostracods and bivalve larvae in the water column, swash sediment and back-swash water varied significantly among collections. Nevertheless, no significant correlation was found between water column density and wave characteristics. Density of meiofauna in the water column was not correlated with density in the sediment or in back-swash water. Therefore wave intensity did not explain the variability of meiofaunal densities present in the water column.

  10. Linear-scaling density functional theory using the projector augmented wave method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hine, Nicholas D. M.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum mechanical simulation of realistic models of nanostructured systems, such as nanocrystals and crystalline interfaces, demands computational methods combining high-accuracy with low-order scaling with system size. Blöchl’s projector augmented wave (PAW) approach enables all-electron (AE) calculations with the efficiency and systematic accuracy of plane-wave pseudopotential calculations. Meanwhile, linear-scaling (LS) approaches to density functional theory (DFT) allow for simulation of thousands of atoms in feasible computational effort. This article describes an adaptation of PAW for use in the LS-DFT framework provided by the ONETEP LS-DFT package. ONETEP uses optimisation of the density matrix through in situ-optimised local orbitals rather than the direct calculation of eigenstates as in traditional PAW approaches. The method is shown to be comparably accurate to both PAW and AE approaches and to exhibit improved convergence properties compared to norm-conserving pseudopotential methods.

  11. General theory of wave propagation through graded interfaces between positive- and negative-refractive-index media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalarsson, Mariana

    2017-10-01

    The introduction of metamaterials and transformation optics has brought the possibilities for manipulating electromagnetic waves to an unprecedented level, suggesting applications like super-resolution imaging, cloaking, subwavelength focusing, and field localization. The refractive index of metamaterial structures in transformation optics typically has to be spatially graded. This paper presents a full analytical method for description of the field propagation through composites with gradient refractive index. The remarkable property of this approach is that it gives explicit general expressions for the field intensity and transmission and reflection coefficients, without reference to any boundary conditions. This opens a possibility for a novel fundamental theory of a number of important electromagnetic phenomena. The method enables calculation of wave propagation parameters within structures with arbitrary losses, arbitrary spectral dispersions, and arbitrary slopes of permittivity and permeability gradients, from mild to abrupt.

  12. A molecular density functional theory to study solvation in water

    CERN Document Server

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    A classical density functional theory is applied to study solvation of solutes in water. An approx- imate form of the excess functional is proposed for water. This functional requires the knowledge of pure solvent direct correlation functions. Those functions can be computed by using molecular simulations such as molecular dynamic or Monte Carlo. It is also possible to use functions that have been determined experimentally. The functional minimization gives access to the solvation free energy and to the equilibrium solvent density. Some correction to the functional are also proposed to get the proper tetrahedral order of solvent molecules around a charged solute and to reproduce the correct long range hydrophobic behavior of big apolar solutes. To proceed the numerical minimization of the functional, the theory has been discretized on two tridimensional grids, one for the space coordinates, the other for the angular coordinates, in a functional minimization code written in modern Fortran, mdft. This program i...

  13. Symmetry reductions and exact solutions of Shallow water wave equations

    CERN Document Server

    Clarkson, P A

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we study symmetry reductions and exact solutions of the shallow water wave (SWW) equation u_{xxxt} + \\alpha u_x u_{xt} + \\beta u_t u_{xx} - u_{xt} - u_{xx} = 0,\\eqno(1) where \\alpha and \\beta are arbitrary, nonzero, constants, which is derivable using the so-called Boussinesq approximation. Two special cases of this equation, or the equivalent nonlocal equation obtained by setting u_x=U, have been discussed in the literature. The case \\alpha=2\\beta was discussed by Ablowitz, Kaup, Newell and Segur [{\\it Stud.\\ Appl.\\ Math.}, {\\bf53} (1974) 249], who showed that this case was solvable by inverse scattering through a second order linear problem. This case and the case \\alpha=\\beta were studied by Hirota and Satsuma [{\\it J.\\ Phys.\\ Soc.\\ Japan}, {\\bf40} (1976) 611] using Hirota's bi-linear technique. Further the case \\alpha=\\beta is solvable by inverse scattering through a third order linear problem. In this paper a catalogue of symmetry reductions is obtained using the classical Lie method and th...

  14. Realising sustainable urban water management: can social theory help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, J J; Brown, R R

    2013-01-01

    It has been acknowledged, in Australia and beyond, that existing urban water systems and management lead to unsustainable outcomes. Therefore, our current socio-technical systems, consisting of institutions, structures and rules, which guide traditional urban water practices, need to change. If a change towards sustainable urban water management (SUWM) practices is to occur, a transformation of our established social-technical configuration that shapes the behaviour and decision making of actors is needed. While some constructive innovations that support this transformation have occurred, most innovations remain of a technical nature. These innovative projects do not manage to achieve the widespread social and institutional change needed for further diffusion and uptake of SUWM practices. Social theory, and its research, is increasingly being recognised as important in responding to the challenges associated with evolving to a more sustainable form of urban water management. This paper integrates three areas of social theories around change in order to provide a conceptual framework that can assist with socio-technical system change. This framework can be utilised by urban water practitioners in the design of interventions to stimulate transitions towards SUWM.

  15. Four-wave mixing in quantum dot SOAs: Theory of carrier heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flayyih, Ahmed H.; Al-Shatravi, Ali Gehad; Al-Khursan, Amin H.

    Carrier heating (CH) theory in a four-wave mixing quantum dot structure has been investigated. The impact of wetting layer (WL) carrier density, CH time constant, effective intraband relaxation time have been examined. The derived heat capacity for QD structure have (T-1) dependence. It is shown here that both WL carrier density and QD excited state (ES) occupation controls the overall nonlinear contributions. Then inclusion of WL and ES in the CH induces a new equilibrium reached at a faster recovery time. The proposed model yields results in a line with experiments at high carrier density reflecting the efficiency of our model.

  16. Coherence theory of electromagnetic wave propagation through stratified N-layer media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenders, B J; Bertolotti, M

    2005-06-01

    The theory of second-order coherence in connection with wave propagation through a stratified N-layer (SNL) medium is developed. Especially, the influence of the SNL medium on the propagation of the coherence generated by a given state of coherence at the entrance plane of the medium is considered. The generalization of the van Cittert-Zernike theorem is obtained, and the propagation of the second-order coherence from a quasi-homogeneous surface distribution or a rough surface is calculated. Furthermore, the influence of SNL media on the coherence properties of a pulse is calculated.

  17. LIGO GW150914 and GW151226 gravitational wave detection and generalized gravitation theory (MOG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.W. Moffat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The nature of gravitational waves in a generalized gravitation theory is investigated. The linearized field equations and the metric tensor quadrupole moment power and the decrease in radius of an inspiralling binary system of two compact objects are derived. The generalized Kerr metric describing a spinning black hole is determined by its mass M and the spin parameter a=cS/GM2. The LIGO-Virgo collaboration data is fitted with smaller binary black hole masses in agreement with the current electromagnetic, observed X-ray binary upper bound for a black hole mass, M≲10M⊙.

  18. Different Levels of the Meaning of Wave-Particle Duality and a Suspensive Perspective on the Interpretation of Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Yong Wook; Song, Jinwoong

    2014-01-01

    There is no consensus on the genuine meaning of wave-particle duality and the interpretation of quantum theory. How can we teach duality and quantum theory despite this lack of consensus? This study attempts to answer this question. This research argues that reality issues are at the core of both the endless debates concerning the interpretation…

  19. Generalized analytical model for benthic water flux forced by surface gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J.N.; Mehta, A.J.; Dean, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    A generalized analytical model for benthic water flux forced by linear surface gravity waves over a series of layered hydrogeologic units is developed by adapting a previous solution for a hydrogeologic unit with an infinite thickness (Case I) to a unit with a finite thickness (Case II) and to a dual-unit system (Case III). The model compares favorably with laboratory observations. The amplitude of wave-forced benthic water flux is shown to be directly proportional to the amplitude of the wave, the permeability of the hydrogeologic unit, and the wave number and inversely proportional to the kinematic viscosity of water. A dimensionless amplitude parameter is introduced and shown to reach a maximum where the product of water depth and the wave number is 1.2. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is a benthic water discharge flux to a marine water body. The Case I model estimates an 11.5-cm/d SGD forced by a wave with a 1 s period and 5-cm amplitude in water that is 0.5-m deep. As this wave propagates into a region with a 0.3-m-thick hydrogeologic unit, with a no-flow bottom boundary, the Case II model estimates a 9.7-cm/d wave-forced SGD. As this wave propagates into a region with a 0.2-m-thick hydrogeologic unit over an infinitely thick, more permeable unit, the Case III quasi-confined model estimates a 15.7-cm/d wave-forced SGD. The quasi-confined model has benthic constituent flux implications in coral reef, karst, and clastic regions. Waves may undermine tracer and seepage meter estimates of SGD at some locations. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Spatial Statistics of Deep-Water Ambient Noise; Dispersion Relations for Sound Waves and Shear Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Propeller noise from a light aircraft for low-frequency measurements of the speed of sound in a marine sediment,” J. Comp. Acoust., 10 (4), 445-464...Dispersion Relations for Sound Waves and Shear Waves Michael J. Buckingham Marine Physical Laboratory, Scripps Institution of Oceanography University...propagation in saturated, unconsolidated marine sediments. New focus is on: 1) the dispersion associated with a frequency power law attenuation; 2) wave

  1. Modified Spin-Wave Theory on Low-Dimensional Heisenberg Ferrimagnets: A New Robust Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriki, Yusaku; Yamamoto, Shoji

    2017-03-01

    We propose a new scheme for modifying conventional spin waves so as to precisely describe low-dimensional Heisenberg ferrimagnets at finite temperatures. What is called the modified spin-wave theory was initiated by Takahashi, who intended to calculate the low-temperature thermodynamics of low-dimensional Heisenberg ferromagnets, where Holstein-Primakoff bosons are constrained to keep the total uniform magnetization zero in a straightforward manner. If the concept of an ideal Bose gas with a fixed density is applied to antiferromagnets and ferrimagnets, the formulation is no longer trivial, having rich variety in the way how the conventional spin waves, especially those in ferrimagnets, are constrained and brought into interaction. Which magnetization should be kept zero, uniform, staggered, or both? One or more chemical potentials can be introduced so as to satisfy the relevant constraint condition either in diagonalizing the Hamiltonian or in minimizing the free energy, making the Bogoliubov transformation dependent on temperature or leaving it free from temperature dependence. We can bring the thus-modified spin waves into interaction on the basis of the Hartree-Fock approximation or through the use of Wick's theorem in an attempt to refine their descriptions. Comparing various modification schemes both numerically and analytically in one and two dimensions, we eventually find an excellent bosonic language capable of describing heterogeneous quantum magnets on a variety of lattices over the whole temperature range — Wick's-theorem-based interacting spin waves modified so as to keep every sublattice magnetization zero via the temperature-dependent Bogoliubov transformation.

  2. In situ wave phenomena in the upstream and downstream regions of interplanetary shocks: Implications for type 2 burst theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R. J.; Vinas, A. F.

    1997-01-01

    The results are presented of in situ waves observed by the Ulyssess unified radio and plasma wave experiment (URAP) in the upstream and downstream regions of a large number of interplanetary shocks. The Langmuir waves which are the most essential ingredients for the type 2 radio emission are observed only in the upstream regions of a limited number of shocks. On the other hand, the ion-acoustic-like waves (0.5 to 5 kHz) are observed near most of the interplanetary shocks. Implications of observations made for the electron acceleration mechanisms at the collisionless shocks and for type 2 burst theories are presented.

  3. Generalized poroviscoelastic model based on effective Biot theory and its application to borehole guided wave analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Greenhalgh, Stewart; Zhou, Bing; Heinson, Graham

    2016-12-01

    A method using modified attenuation factor function is suggested to determine the parameters of the generalized Zener model approximating the attenuation factor function. This method is applied to constitute the poroviscoelastic model based on the effective Biot theory which considers the attenuative solid frame of reservoir. In the poroviscoelastic model, frequency-dependent bulk modulus and shear modulus of solid frame are represented by generalized Zener models. As an application, the borehole logging dispersion equations from Biot theory are extended to include effects from the intrinsic body attenuation in formation media in full-frequency range. The velocity dispersions of borehole guided waves are calculated to investigate the influence from attenuative bore fluid, attenuative solid frame of the formation and impermeable bore wall.

  4. Detection of gravitational waves from black holes: Is there a window for alternative theories?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konoplya, Roman, E-mail: konoplya@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Zhidenko, Alexander, E-mail: zhidenko@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Rua Abolição, CEP: 09210-180, Santo André, SP (Brazil)

    2016-05-10

    Recently the LIGO and VIRGO Collaborations reported the observation of gravitational-wave signal corresponding to the inspiral and merger of two black holes, resulting into formation of the final black hole. It was shown that the observations are consistent with the Einstein theory of gravity with high accuracy, limited mainly by the statistical error. Angular momentum and mass of the final black hole were determined with rather large allowance of tens of percents. Here we shall show that this indeterminacy in the range of the black-hole parameters allows for some non-negligible deformations of the Kerr spacetime leading to the same frequencies of the black-hole ringing. This means that at the current precision of the experiment there remains some possibility for alternative theories of gravity.

  5. Ocean Wave Characteristics in Indonesian Waters for Sea Transportation Safety and Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Kurniawan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to learn about ocean wave characteristics and to identify times and areas with vulnerability to high waves in Indonesian waters. Significant wave height of Windwaves-05 model output was used to obtain such information, with surface level wind data for 11 years period (2000 to 2010 from NCEP-NOAA as the input. The model output data was then validated using multimission satellite altimeter data obtained from Aviso. Further, the data were used to identify areas of high waves based on the high wave’s classification by WMO. From all of the processing results, the wave characteristics in Indonesian waters were identified, especially on ALKI (Indonesian Archipelagic Sea Lanes. Along with it, which lanes that have high potential for dangerous waves and when it occurred were identified as well. The study concluded that throughout the years, Windwaves-05 model had a magnificent performance in providing of ocean wave characteristics information in Indonesian waters. The information of height wave vulnerability needed to make a decision on the safest lanes and the best time before crossing on ALKI when the wave and its vulnerability is likely low. Throughout the years, ALKI II is the safest lanes among others since it has been identified of having lower vulnerability than others. The knowledge of the wave characteristics for a specific location is very important to design, plan and vessels operability including types of ships and shipping lanes before their activities in the sea.

  6. Propagation Dynamics of Nonspreading Cosine-Gauss Water-Wave Pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shenhe; Tsur, Yuval; Zhou, Jianying; Shemer, Lev; Arie, Ady

    2015-12-18

    Linear gravity water waves are highly dispersive; therefore, the spreading of initially short wave trains characterizes water surface waves, and is a universal property of a dispersive medium. Only if there is sufficient nonlinearity does this envelope admit solitary solutions which do not spread and remain in fixed forms. Here, in contrast to the nonlinear localized wave packets, we present both theoretically and experimentally a new type of linearly nondispersive water wave, having a cosine-Gauss envelope, as well as its higher-order Hermite cosine-Gauss variations. We show that these waves preserve their width despite the inherent dispersion while propagating in an 18-m wave tank, accompanied by a slowly varying carrier-envelope phase. These wave packets exhibit self-healing; i.e., they are restored after bypassing an obstacle. We further demonstrate that these nondispersive waves are robust to weakly nonlinear perturbations. In the strong nonlinear regime, symmetry breaking of these waves is observed, but their cosine-Gauss shapes are still approximately preserved during propagation.

  7. Effect of focusing conditions on laser-induced shock waves at titanium-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Arpita; Khare, Alika

    2011-07-01

    The spatial and temporal evolution of laser-induced shock waves at a titanium-water interface was analyzed using a beam deflection setup. The focusing conditions of the source laser were varied, and its effect onto the dynamics of shock waves was elucidated. For a tightly focused condition, the speed of the shock wave was ~6.4 Km/s, whereas for a defocused condition the velocities reduced to laser is focused a few millimeters above the target, i.e., within the water, the emission of dual shock waves was observed toward the rear side of the focal volume. These shock waves originate from the titanium-water interface as well as from the pure water breakdown region, respectively. The shock wave pressure is estimated from the shock wave velocity using the Newton's second law across a shock wave discontinuity. The shock wave pressure for a tightly focused condition was 18 GPa, whereas under a defocused condition the pressure experienced was ≤1 GPa in the proximity of target.

  8. Hydromagnetic waves in weakly-ionized media - I. Basic theory, and application to interstellar molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouschovias, Telemachos Ch.; Ciolek, Glenn E.; Morton, Scott A.

    2011-08-01

    We present a comprehensive study of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves and instabilities in a weakly-ionized system, such as an interstellar molecular cloud. We determine all the critical wavelengths of perturbations across which the sustainable wave modes can change radically (and so can their decay rates), and various instabilities are present or absent. Hence, these critical wavelengths are essential for understanding the effects of MHD waves (or turbulence) on the structure and evolution of molecular clouds. Depending on the angle of propagation relative to the zeroth-order magnetic field and the physical parameters of a model cloud, there are wavelength ranges in which no wave can be sustained as such. Yet, for other directions of propagation or different properties of a model cloud, there may always exist some wave mode(s) at all wavelengths (smaller than the size of the model cloud). For a typical model cloud, magnetically-driven ambipolar diffusion leads to removal of any support against gravity that most short-wavelength waves (or turbulence) may have had, and gravitationally-driven ambipolar diffusion sets in and leads to cloud fragmentation into stellar-size masses, as first suggested by Mouschovias more than three decades ago - a single-stage fragmentation theory of star formation, distinct from the then prevailing hierarchical fragmentation picture. The phase velocities, decay times and eigenvectors (e.g. the densities and velocities of neutral particles and the plasma, and the three components of the magnetic field) are determined as functions of the wavelength of the disturbances in a mathematically transparent way and are explained physically. Comparison of the results with those of nonlinear analytical or numerical calculations is also presented where appropriate, excellent agreement is found, and confidence in the analytical, linear approach is gained to explore phenomena difficult to study through numerical simulations. Mode splitting (or

  9. Characterization of the Deep Water Surface Wave Variability in the California Current Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas Bôas, Ana B.; Gille, Sarah T.; Mazloff, Matthew R.; Cornuelle, Bruce D.

    2017-11-01

    Surface waves are crucial for the dynamics of the upper ocean not only because they mediate exchanges of momentum, heat, energy, and gases between the ocean and the atmosphere, but also because they determine the sea state. The surface wave field in a given region is set by the combination of local and remote forcing. The present work characterizes the seasonal variability of the deep water surface wave field in the California Current region, as retrieved from over two decades of satellite altimetry data combined with wave buoys and wave model hindcast (WaveWatch III). In particular, the extent to which the local wind modulates the variability of the significant wave height, peak period, and peak direction is assessed. During spring/summer, regional-scale wind events of up to 10 m/s are the dominant forcing for waves off the California coast, leading to relatively short-period waves (8-10 s) that come predominantly from the north-northwest. The wave climatology throughout the California Current region shows average significant wave heights exceeding 2 m during most of the year, which may have implications for the planning and retrieval methods of the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission.

  10. Stationary wave patterns in deep water | Doyle | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ship" or an obstacle in a stream, is revisited. The wave patterns are calculated using the results of the method of stationary phase. This allows for an elegant geometrical construction in which the reciprocal polar of the wave normal diagram ...

  11. Focusing of shock waves induced by optical breakdown in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankin, Georgy N; Zhou, Yufeng; Zhong, Pei

    2008-06-01

    The focusing of laser-generated shock waves by a truncated ellipsoidal reflector was experimentally and numerically investigated. Pressure waveform and distribution around the first (F(1)) and second foci (F(2)) of the ellipsoidal reflector were measured. A neodymium doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser of 1046 nm wavelength and 5 ns pulse duration was used to create an optical breakdown at F(1), which generates a spherically diverging shock wave with a peak pressure of 2.1-5.9 MPa at 1.1 mm stand-off distance and a pulse width at half maximum of 36-65 ns. Upon reflection, a converging shock wave is produced which, upon arriving at F(2), has a leading compressive wave with a peak pressure of 26 MPa and a zero-crossing pulse duration of 0.1 mus, followed by a trailing tensile wave of -3.3 MPa peak pressure and 0.2 mus pulse duration. The -6 dB beam size of the focused shock wave field is 1.6 x 0.2 mm(2) along and transverse to the shock wave propagation direction. Formation of elongated plasmas at high laser energy levels limits the increase in the peak pressure at F(2). General features in the waveform profile of the converging shock wave are in qualitative agreement with numerical simulations based on the Hamilton model.

  12. Theory of Josephson effect in d-wave superconductor/diffusive ferromagnet/d-wave superconductor junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokoyama, T.; Tanaka, Y.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch

    2007-01-01

    We study Josephson effect in d-wave superconductor/diffusive ferromagnet/d-wave superconductor junctions, changing the exchange field and the angles between the normal to the interfaces and the crystal axes of d-wave superconductors. We find a 0–π transition at a certain value of the exchange field.

  13. Potential Functional Embedding Theory at the Correlated Wave Function Level. 2. Error Sources and Performance Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin; Yu, Kuang; Libisch, Florian; Dieterich, Johannes M; Carter, Emily A

    2017-03-14

    Quantum mechanical embedding theories partition a complex system into multiple spatial regions that can use different electronic structure methods within each, to optimize trade-offs between accuracy and cost. The present work incorporates accurate but expensive correlated wave function (CW) methods for a subsystem containing the phenomenon or feature of greatest interest, while self-consistently capturing quantum effects of the surroundings using fast but less accurate density functional theory (DFT) approximations. We recently proposed two embedding methods [for a review, see: Acc. Chem. Res. 2014 , 47 , 2768 ]: density functional embedding theory (DFET) and potential functional embedding theory (PFET). DFET provides a fast but non-self-consistent density-based embedding scheme, whereas PFET offers a more rigorous theoretical framework to perform fully self-consistent, variational CW/DFT calculations [as defined in part 1, CW/DFT means subsystem 1(2) is treated with CW(DFT) methods]. When originally presented, PFET was only tested at the DFT/DFT level of theory as a proof of principle within a planewave (PW) basis. Part 1 of this two-part series demonstrated that PFET can be made to work well with mixed Gaussian type orbital (GTO)/PW bases, as long as optimized GTO bases and consistent electron-ion potentials are employed throughout. Here in part 2 we conduct the first PFET calculations at the CW/DFT level and compare them to DFET and full CW benchmarks. We test the performance of PFET at the CW/DFT level for a variety of types of interactions (hydrogen bonding, metallic, and ionic). By introducing an intermediate CW/DFT embedding scheme denoted DFET/PFET, we show how PFET remedies different types of errors in DFET, serving as a more robust type of embedding theory.

  14. Kinematics and Dynamics of a Tensegrity-Based Water Wave Energy Harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A tensegrity-based water wave energy harvester is proposed. The direct and inverse kinematic problems are investigated by using a geometric method. Afterwards, the singularities and workspaces are discussed. Then, the Lagrangian method was used to develop the dynamic model considering the interaction between the harvester and water waves. The results indicate that the proposed harvester allows harvesting 13.59% more energy than a conventional heaving system. Therefore, tensegrity systems can be viewed as one alternative solution to conventional water wave energy harvesting systems.

  15. Frequency-domain theory of laser infrared photothermal radiometric detection of thermal waves generated by diffuse-photon-density wave fields in turbid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelis, Andreas; Feng, Chris

    2002-02-01

    A three-dimensional theory of the frequency-domain thermal-wave field generated inside a turbid medium with optical and thermal properties of human tissue is presented. The optical source is treated as a three-dimensional harmonically modulated diffuse-photon-density wave (DPDW) field in the diffusion approximation of the radiative transfer theory. Unlike earlier Green-function-based theoretical models, exact boundary conditions are used based on the requirement that there should be no diffuse photon intensity entering the turbid medium from the outside. Explicit analytical expressions for the DPDW field and for the dependent thermal-wave field are obtained in the spatial Hankel-transform domain. The formalism is further extended to the calculation of the infrared photothermal radiometric signal arising from the nonradiatively generated thermal-wave distribution in turbid media with instantaneous nonradiative deexcitation as well as in media with nonzero fluorescence relaxation lifetimes. Numerical inversions have been performed and presented as examples of selected special cases of the theory. It is found that the present theory with exact DPDW-field boundary conditions is valid throughout the entire domain of the turbid medium, with the exception of the very near-surface ballistic photon "skin layer" (7-50 microm). Photothermal radiometric signals were found to be more reliably predicted than DPDW signals within this layer, due to the depth-integration nature of this detection methodology.

  16. Waves in the nearshore waters of northern Arabian Sea during the summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Singh, J.; Pednekar, P.S.; Gowthaman, R.

    =4.04; b=0.47 for Dubai a=6.96; b=0.28 for Israel Kumar et al. (2010) found that off Goa coast at 14 m water depth, a = 5.4 and b=0.25. The high waves (H m0 = 4 to 5 m) are associated with mean wave period of 6.5 to 7.5 s and the high wave period...

  17. Prediction of regular wave loads on a fixed offshore oscillating water column-wave energy converter using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elhanafi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, hydrodynamic wave loads on an offshore stationary–floating oscillating water column (OWC are investigated via a 2D and 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD modeling based on the RANS equations and the VOF surface capturing scheme. The CFD model is validated against previous experiments for nonlinear regular wave interactions with a surface-piercing stationary barge. Following the validation stage, the numerical model is modified to consider the pneumatic damping effect, and an extensive campaign of numerical tests is carried out to study the wave–OWC interactions for different wave periods, wave heights and pneumatic damping factors. It is found that the horizontal wave force is usually larger than the vertical one. Also, there a direct relationship between the pneumatic and hydrodynamic vertical forces with a maximum vertical force almost at the device natural frequency, whereas the pneumatic damping has a little effect on the horizontal force. Additionally, simulating the turbine damping with an orifice plate induces higher vertical loads than utilizing a slot opening. Furthermore, 3D modeling significantly escalates and declines the predicted hydrodynamic vertical and horizontal wave loads, respectively.

  18. Linearized potential flow analysis of a 40 chamber, oscillating water column wave energy device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingham, Harry B.; Read, Robert

    This abstract presents an analysis of an attenuator-type Wave Energy Converter (WEC) with 40 Os- cillating Water Column (OWC) chambers for the extraction of wave energy. Linearized potential flow calculations are made in the frequency-domain using WAMIT [8]. An equivalent linearized damping...

  19. On the statistical properties of the non-linear water waves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This incidentally concerns the mechanics of the water waves. In particular, the expressions of the probability density function are further investigated, using this bi-parameter. This analysis will enable the designer to choose wave parameters, within a limit, that will yield an acceptable level of risk. Secondly, such probabilistic ...

  20. Spatial and temporal variation of surface waves in shallow waters along the eastern Arabian Sea.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anoop, T.R.; SanilKumar, V.; Shanas, P.R.

    We studied the spatial and temporal variation of surface waves along the eastern Arabian Sea during 2011 and 2012. Measured directional wave data at two shallow water locations and re-analysis datasets (ERA-Interim) at 0.751 intervals at four...

  1. A numerical study of lowest-order short-crested water wave instabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.

    2005-01-01

    This work presents the first numerical simulations of the long-term evolution of doubly-periodic short-crested wave instabilities, which are the simplest cases involving the three-dimensional instability of genuinely three-dimensional progressive water waves. The simulated evolutions reveal...

  2. Model Based Predictive Control of AUVs for Station Keeping in a Shallow Water Wave Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riedel, Jeffery s; Healey, Anthony J

    2005-01-01

    .... In shallow water AUV operations, where large hydrodynamic forces are developed due to waves, knowledge of the sea is critical to allow for the design of a control system that will enable the vehicle...

  3. Flow Behaviour of Creosote-in-Water Emulsions through Straight and Square Wave Capillary Tubes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Podolsak, A.K; Tiu, C

    1994-01-01

    ...) and water-in-creosote (W/O) emulsions at moderate shear rates. This paper investigates the flow of O/Wemulsions in straight and square-wave capillaries at high shear rates, as a preludeto predicting timber treatability...

  4. Wave-induced extreme water levels in the Puerto Morelos fringing reef lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Torres-Freyermuth

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Wave-induced extreme water levels in the Puerto Morelos fringing reef lagoon are investigated by means of a phase-resolving non-hydrostatic wave model (SWASH. This model solves the nonlinear shallow water equations including non-hydrostatic pressure. The one-dimensional version of the model is implemented in order to investigate wave transformation in fringing reefs. Firstly, the numerical model is validated with (i laboratory experiments conducted on a physical model (Demirbilek et al., 2007and (ii field observations (Coronado et al., 2007. Numerical results show good agreement with both experimental and field data. The comparison against the physical model results, for energetic wave conditions, indicates that high- and low-frequency wave transformation is well reproduced. Moreover, extreme water-level conditions measured during the passage of Hurricane Ivan in Puerto Morelos are also estimated by the numerical tool. Subsequently, the model is implemented at different along-reef locations in Puerto Morelos. Extreme water levels, wave-induced setup, and infragravity wave energy are estimated inside the reef lagoon for different storm wave conditions (Hs >2 m. The numerical results revealed a strong correlation between the offshore sea-swell wave energy and the setup. In contrast, infragravity waves are shown to be the result of a more complex pattern which heavily relies on the reef geometry. Indeed, the southern end of the reef lagoon provides evidence of resonance excitation, suggesting that the reef barrier may act as either a natural flood protection morphological feature, or as an inundation hazard enhancer depending on the incident wave conditions.

  5. Kinetic theory of twisted waves: Application to space plasmas having superthermal population of species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Kashif; Poedts, Stefaan; Lazar, Marian

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays electromagnetic (EM) fields have various applications in fundamental research, communication, and home appliances. Even though, there are still some subtle features of electromagnetic field known to us a century ago, yet to be utilized. It is because of the technical complexities to sense three dimensional electromagnetic field. An important characteristic of electromagnetic field is its orbital angular momentum (OAM). The angular momentum consists of two distinct parts; intrinsic part associated with the wave polarization or spin, and the extrinsic part associated with the orbital angular momentum (OAM). The orbital angular momentum (OAM) is inherited by helically phased light or helical (twisted) electric field. The investigations of Allen on lasers carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM), has initiated a new scientific and technological advancement in various growing fields, such as microscopy and imaging, atomic and nano-particle manipulation, ultra-fast optical communications, quantum computing, ionospheric radar facility to observe 3D plasma dynamics in ionosphere, photonic crystal fibre, OAM entanglement of two photons, twisted gravitational waves, ultra-intense twisted laser pulses and astrophysics. Recently, the plasma modes are also investigated with orbital angular momentum. The production of electron vortex beams and its applications are indicated by Verbeeck et al. The magnetic tornadoes (rotating magnetic field structures) exhibit three types of morphology i.e., spiral, ring and split. Leyser pumped helical radio beam carrying OAM into the Ionospheric plasma under High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) and characteristic ring shaped morphology is obtained by the optical emission spectrum of pumped plasma turbulence. The scattering phenomenon like (stimulated Raman and Brillouin backscattering) is observed to be responsible for the interaction between electrostatic and electromagnetic waves through orbital angular momentum. The

  6. A solitary wave theory of the Great Red Spot and other observed features in the Jovian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxworthy, T.; Redekopp, L. G.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that solitary waves in a planetary zonal shear have a shape and flow field that are virtually identical to those observed around the Red Spot and numerous other features that have been seen in the Jovian atmosphere. It is suggested that the theoretically calculated interaction between solitary waves has many characteristics in common with the observed interactions between these same Jovian features, and available atmospheric models are shown to be consistent with the very restrictive requirements of the theory.

  7. Performance of ERA-Interim wave data in the nearshore waters around India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Naseef, T.M.

    1    Author version: J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., vol.32(6); 2015; 1257-1269 Performance of ERA-Interim wave data in the nearshore waters around India Sanil Kumar V*, Muhammed Naseef T Ocean Engineering, CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography... (Council of Scientific & Industrial Research), Dona Paula, Goa - 403 004 India *Corresponding author: Tel: 0091 832 2450 327 Fax: 0091 832 2450 602 Email: sanil@nio.org Abstract Bulk wave parameters such as wave height and wave period are required...

  8. On the Effect of Green Water on Deck on the Wave Bending Moment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Xia, Jinzhu

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate whether green water on deck in severe sea states have a notable effect on the maximum wave bending moments. The analysis is carried out for an S175 container ship for which results from model experiments are available. The static water head...... and a momentum term, using an effective relative motion calibrated with the model tests, model the green water load. The resulting loads are of the same magnitude as the slamming loads. The results show only a marginal influence of the green water load on the maximum wave bending moment, although the time signal...

  9. Analysis of efficient preconditioned defect correction methods for nonlinear water waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2014-01-01

    Robust computational procedures for the solution of non-hydrostatic, free surface, irrotational and inviscid free-surface water waves in three space dimensions can be based on iterative preconditioned defect correction (PDC) methods. Such methods can be made efficient and scalable to enable...... prediction of free-surface wave transformation and accurate wave kinematics in both deep and shallow waters in large marine areas or for predicting the outcome of experiments in large numerical wave tanks. We revisit the classical governing equations are fully nonlinear and dispersive potential flow...... equations. We present new detailed fundamental analysis using finite-amplitude wave solutions for iterative solvers. We demonstrate that the PDC method in combination with a high-order discretization method enables efficient and scalable solution of the linear system of equations arising in potential flow...

  10. On shallow water waves in a medium with time-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy I. Abdel-Gawad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we studied the progression of shallow water waves relevant to the variable coefficient Korteweg–de Vries (vcKdV equation. We investigated two kinds of cases: when the dispersion and nonlinearity coefficients are proportional, and when they are not linearly dependent. In the first case, it was shown that the progressive waves have some geometric structures as in the case of KdV equation with constant coefficients but the waves travel with time dependent speed. In the second case, the wave structure is maintained when the nonlinearity balances the dispersion. Otherwise, water waves collapse. The objectives of the study are to find a wide class of exact solutions by using the extended unified method and to present a new algorithm for treating the coupled nonlinear PDE’s.

  11. Numerical simulation of shock wave propagation in water droplet impact on a rough surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Kei

    2017-11-01

    In this work shock wave propagation in water droplet impact on a rough surface is numerically studied. The numerical simulation is carried out utilizing two phase full Eulerian approach based on high resolution finite volume method, which allows for shock wave propagation in multiphase flow. To study the shock wave propagation in water droplet impact on a rough surface, an immersed boundary method is used as wall boundary treatment. The maximum impact pressure is computed as a function of surface roughness, and show that the maximum impact pressure increases with increasing relative roughness.

  12. A new double-scaling limit of N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory and pp-wave strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristjansen, C.; Plefka, J.; Semenoff, G. W.

    2002-01-01

    The metric of a spacetime with a parallel plane (pp)-wave can be obtained in a certain limit of the space AdS5 × S5. According to the AdS/CFT correspondence, the holographic dual of superstring theory on that background should be the analogous limit of N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory...... scaling limit may be defined. We exactly compute two- and three-point functions of chiral primaries in this limit. We also carefully study certain operators conjectured to correspond to string excitations on the pp-wave background. We find non-planar linear mixing of these proposed operators, requiring...

  13. On the accuracy of density functional theory and wave function methods for calculating vertical ionization energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKechnie, Scott [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Booth, George H. [Theory and Simulation of Condensed Matter, King’s College London, The Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Cohen, Aron J. [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Cole, Jacqueline M., E-mail: jmc61@cam.ac.uk [Cavendish Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2015-05-21

    The best practice in computational methods for determining vertical ionization energies (VIEs) is assessed, via reference to experimentally determined VIEs that are corroborated by highly accurate coupled-cluster calculations. These reference values are used to benchmark the performance of density functional theory (DFT) and wave function methods: Hartree-Fock theory, second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, and Electron Propagator Theory (EPT). The core test set consists of 147 small molecules. An extended set of six larger molecules, from benzene to hexacene, is also considered to investigate the dependence of the results on molecule size. The closest agreement with experiment is found for ionization energies obtained from total energy difference calculations. In particular, DFT calculations using exchange-correlation functionals with either a large amount of exact exchange or long-range correction perform best. The results from these functionals are also the least sensitive to an increase in molecule size. In general, ionization energies calculated directly from the orbital energies of the neutral species are less accurate and more sensitive to an increase in molecule size. For the single-calculation approach, the EPT calculations are in closest agreement for both sets of molecules. For the orbital energies from DFT functionals, only those with long-range correction give quantitative agreement with dramatic failing for all other functionals considered. The results offer a practical hierarchy of approximations for the calculation of vertical ionization energies. In addition, the experimental and computational reference values can be used as a standardized set of benchmarks, against which other approximate methods can be compared.

  14. Conformal field theory construction for non-Abelian hierarchy wave functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournois, Yoran; Hermanns, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The fractional quantum Hall effect is the paradigmatic example of topologically ordered phases. One of its most fascinating aspects is the large variety of different topological orders that may be realized, in particular non-Abelian ones. Here we analyze a class of non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall model states which are generalizations of the Abelian Haldane-Halperin hierarchy. We derive their topological properties and show that the quasiparticles obey non-Abelian fusion rules of type su (q)k . For a subset of these states we are able to derive the conformal field theory description that makes the topological properties—in particular braiding—of the state manifest. The model states we study provide explicit wave functions for a large variety of interesting topological orders, which may be relevant for certain fractional quantum Hall states observed in the first excited Landau level.

  15. Magnetism in atomically thin quasi two-dimensional materials: Renormalized spin wave theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenglu; Cao, Ting; Louie, Steven G.

    In this work, we apply renormalized spin wave theory to the magnetic behavior of atomically thin two-dimensional crystals. We find that magnon-magnon interaction plays an important role in renormalizing the magnetic transition temperature, and the magnetic behavior is largely dependent on the magnetic anisotropy and the thickness of the crystal in the two-dimensional limit. Our method is applicable to general magnetic crystals with input spin interaction parameters mapped out from either ab initio calculations or extracted from experiments. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, and by the National Science Foundation. Computational resources have been provided by NERSC and XSEDE.

  16. Realization of low-scattering metamaterial shell based on cylindrical wave expanding theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoyu; Hu, Chenggang; Wang, Min; Pu, Mingbo; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-04-20

    In this paper, we demonstrate the design of a low-scattering metamaterial shell with strong backward scattering reduction and a wide bandwidth at microwave frequencies. Low echo is achieved through cylindrical wave expanding theory, and such shell only contains one metamaterial layer with simultaneous low permittivity and permeability. Cut-wire structure is selected to realize the low electromagnetic (EM) parameters and low loss on the resonance brim region. The full-model simulations show good agreement with theoretical calculations, and illustrate that near -20dB reduction is achieved and the -10 dB bandwidth can reach up to 0.6 GHz. Compared with the cloak based on transformation electromagnetics, the design possesses advantage of simpler requirement of EM parameters and is much easier to be implemented when only backward scattering field is cared.

  17. One-dimensional nonlinear theory for rectangular helix traveling-wave tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Chengfang, E-mail: fchffchf@126.com; Zhao, Bo; Yang, Yudong; Ju, Yongfeng [Faculty of Electronic Information Engineering, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huai' an 223003 (China); Wei, Yanyu [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)

    2016-08-15

    A 1-D nonlinear theory of a rectangular helix traveling-wave tube (TWT) interacting with a ribbon beam is presented in this paper. The RF field is modeled by a transmission line equivalent circuit, the ribbon beam is divided into a sequence of thin rectangular electron discs with the same cross section as the beam, and the charges are assumed to be uniformly distributed over these discs. Then a method of computing the space-charge field by solving Green's Function in the Cartesian Coordinate-system is fully described. Nonlinear partial differential equations for field amplitudes and Lorentz force equations for particles are solved numerically using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta technique. The tube's gain, output power, and efficiency of the above TWT are computed. The results show that increasing the cross section of the ribbon beam will improve a rectangular helix TWT's efficiency and reduce the saturated length.

  18. Stationary waves on nonlinear quantum graphs. II. Application of canonical perturbation theory in basic graph structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnutzmann, Sven; Waltner, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    We consider exact and asymptotic solutions of the stationary cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation on metric graphs. We focus on some basic example graphs. The asymptotic solutions are obtained using the canonical perturbation formalism developed in our earlier paper [S. Gnutzmann and D. Waltner, Phys. Rev. E 93, 032204 (2016)2470-004510.1103/PhysRevE.93.032204]. For closed example graphs (interval, ring, star graph, tadpole graph), we calculate spectral curves and show how the description of spectra reduces to known characteristic functions of linear quantum graphs in the low-intensity limit. Analogously for open examples, we show how nonlinear scattering of stationary waves arises and how it reduces to known linear scattering amplitudes at low intensities. In the short-wavelength asymptotics we discuss how genuine nonlinear effects may be described using the leading order of canonical perturbation theory: bifurcation of spectral curves (and the corresponding solutions) in closed graphs and multistability in open graphs.

  19. Interfacial wave theory of pattern formation in solidification dendrites, fingers, cells and free boundaries

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jian-Jun

    2017-01-01

    This comprehensive work explores interfacial instability and pattern formation in dynamic systems away from the equilibrium state in solidification and crystal growth. Further, this significantly expanded 2nd edition introduces and reviews the progress made during the last two decades. In particular, it describes the most prominent pattern formation phenomena commonly observed in material processing and crystal growth in the framework of the previously established interfacial wave theory, including free dendritic growth from undercooled melt, cellular growth and eutectic growth in directional solidification, as well as viscous fingering in Hele-Shaw flow. It elucidates the key problems, systematically derives their mathematical solutions by pursuing a unified, asymptotic approach, and finally carefully examines these results by comparing them with the available experimental results. The asymptotic approach described here will be useful for the investigation of pattern formation phenomena occurring in a much b...

  20. Self-similar propagation of Hermite-Gauss water-wave pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shenhe; Tsur, Yuval; Zhou, Jianying; Shemer, Lev; Arie, Ady

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally propagation dynamics of surface gravity water-wave pulses, having Hermite-Gauss envelopes. We show that these waves propagate self-similarly along an 18-m wave tank, preserving their general Hermite-Gauss envelopes in both the linear and the nonlinear regimes. The measured surface elevation wave groups enable observing the envelope phase evolution of both nonchirped and linearly frequency chirped Hermite-Gauss pulses, hence allowing us to measure Gouy phase shifts of high-order Hermite-Gauss pulses for the first time. Finally, when increasing pulse amplitude, nonlinearity becomes essential and the second harmonic of Hermite-Gauss waves was observed. We further show that these generated second harmonic bound waves still exhibit self-similar Hermite-Gauss shapes along the tank.

  1. Extreme water level and wave estimation for nearshore of Ningde City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y. D.; Wang, E. K.; Xu, G. Q.

    2017-08-01

    The high and low design water levels are calculated by observation tidal data in sea areas of Ningde offshore wind power project from September 2010 to August 2011, with the value 318 cm and -246 cm, respectively. The extreme high and low levels are also calculated using synchronous difference ratio method based on station data from 1973 to 2005 at Sansha station. The value is 431 cm and -378 cm respectively. The design wave elements are estimated using the wave data from Beishuang Station and Pingtan station. On this basis, the SWAN wave model is applied to calculating the design wave elements in the engineering sea areas. The results show that the southern sea area is mainly affected by the wave effect on ESE, and the northern is mainly affected by the E waves. This paper is helpful and useful for design and construction of offshore and coastal engineering.

  2. Shallow water wave spectral characteristics along the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Shanas, P.R.; Dubhashi, K.K.

    pools’’ in the tropics where the probability of swell was more than 95%. The highest wave conditions occur in the Southern Ocean with average Hm0 more than 4 m (Hanley et al. 2010). Wolf et al. (2011) found that waves in Liverpool Bay were mainly... for wind-sea (Wolf et al. 2011). Significant steepness [=2π Hm0/(g Tm02 Tm02)] varied from 1:18 to 1:283 with higher steepness values (mean steepness 1:48) at Ratnagiri and lower values (mean steepness 1:65) at Honnavar. The higher steepness values...

  3. Water accounting and vulnerability evaluation (WAVE): considering atmospheric evaporation recycling and the risk of freshwater depletion in water footprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Markus; van der Ent, Ruud; Eisner, Stephanie; Bach, Vanessa; Finkbeiner, Matthias

    2014-04-15

    Aiming to enhance the analysis of water consumption and resulting consequences along the supply chain of products, the water accounting and vulnerability evaluation (WAVE) model is introduced. On the accounting level, atmospheric evaporation recycling within drainage basins is considered for the first time, which can reduce water consumption volumes by up to 32%. Rather than predicting impacts, WAVE analyzes the vulnerability of basins to freshwater depletion. Based on local blue water scarcity, the water depletion index (WDI) denotes the risk that water consumption can lead to depletion of freshwater resources. Water scarcity is determined by relating annual water consumption to availability in more than 11,000 basins. Additionally, WDI accounts for the presence of lakes and aquifers which have been neglected in water scarcity assessments so far. By setting WDI to the highest value in (semi)arid basins, absolute freshwater shortage is taken into account in addition to relative scarcity. This avoids mathematical artifacts of previous indicators which turn zero in deserts if consumption is zero. As illustrated in a case study of biofuels, WAVE can help to interpret volumetric water footprint figures and, thus, promotes a sustainable use of global freshwater resources.

  4. Effects of Internal Waves on Sound Propagation in the Shallow Waters of the Continental Shelves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    changes are small in the experiment area as there was no introduction of fresh water into the region. An average salinity of 34.44 psu was used for the...14  E.  INTERNAL WAVE FRONTS IN THE EXPERIMENT AREA ........15  F.  TRANSLATING WATER ...For this study, a constant salinity throughout the water column was assumed, as there was no introduction of fresh water into the region. Hence

  5. Field observations of wave-driven water-level gradients across a coral reef flat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, O. K.; Kench, P. S.; Brander, R. W.

    2007-06-01

    Field measurements of still water surface elevations were obtained across a narrow leeward reef flat on Lady Elliot Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia in June 2003. Stilling wells were deployed from the reef crest landward to the island beach, and waves and mean water levels were monitored over both rising and falling tides during low to moderate wave energy conditions. Wave setup of up to 13.8 cm above still water level occurred in the presence of incident waves of 0.4 m yielding maximum water surface slopes greater than 6°. Results show that the magnitude of wave setup varies both temporally and spatially across the reef with changing water depth. Setup is dominant on the reef edge at low tide, evolving into a dual setup system at both the reef edge and shoreline at midtide and finally a dominant shoreline setup at high tide. On Lady Elliot Island the dual setup system is considered to result from spatial differences in transformation and breaking of swell and wind waves at midtide stages. The presence of a dual setup system across a reef flat has not been previously identified in field or modeling studies and has potentially significant implications for reefal current development, sediment transport, and the stability of reef island shorelines.

  6. An implicit discontinuous Galerkin finite element model for water waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vegt, Jacobus J.W.; Ambati, V.R.; Bokhove, Onno

    2005-01-01

    We discuss a new higher order accurate discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for non-linear free surface gravity waves. The algorithm is based on an arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian description of the flow field using deforming elements and a moving mesh, which makes it possible to represent

  7. Further on stokes expansions for the finite amplitude water waves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An analytic method is applied to study the higher order approximate solution of Stokes waves. For comparison and effective analysis, solutions of first to fifth order approximations are studied. From the various expressions derived, the numerical computations and the graphical solutions, there is a gradual increase in the ...

  8. Run-up of long ocean waves in shallow water on the flat and non-reflecting bottom profiles taking into account wave breaking effects, hypothetical cases and the possible consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, Artem; Pelinovsky, Efim; Rodina, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    The analysis and comparison of the results of numerical experiments on the long waves run-up on a coast with a variety of bottom profiles in the framework of the nonlinear theory of shallow water have been performed in this work. Two types of one-dimensional problems are solved: in the first case the bottom profile is represented as a flat slope; in the second - the so-called non-reflecting profile. In both cases the run-up area in deep water is conjugated with a flat bottom, and on the beach - with a vertical wall. It is shown that for small amplitude waves the amplification of the incident wave's amplitude is higher on non-reflecting bottom profile, rather than on a flat bottom profile. With the increasing of the incident wave's amplitude, wave breaking near the coast occurs earlier on non-reflecting bottom profile, and therefore the amplitude decreases faster than on a plane beach. The behavior of breaking waves approaching and running-up the wall on non-reflecting and flat bottom profiles is demonstrated. The research was supported within the framework of the grant of the President of Russian Federation for state support of young Russian scientists (MK-1127.2017.5).

  9. Bloch Waves in Minimal Landau Gauge and the Infinite-Volume Limit of Lattice Gauge Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchieri, Attilio; Mendes, Tereza

    2017-05-12

    By exploiting the similarity between Bloch's theorem for electrons in crystalline solids and the problem of Landau gauge fixing in Yang-Mills theory on a "replicated" lattice, we show that large-volume results can be reproduced by simulations performed on much smaller lattices. This approach, proposed by Zwanziger [Nucl. Phys. B412, 657 (1994)NUPBBO0550-321310.1016/0550-3213(94)90396-4], corresponds to taking the infinite-volume limit for Landau-gauge field configurations in two steps: first for the gauge transformation alone, while keeping the lattice volume finite, and second for the gauge-field configuration itself. The solutions to the gauge-fixing condition are then given in terms of Bloch waves. Applying the method to data from Monte Carlo simulations of pure SU(2) gauge theory in two and three space-time dimensions, we are able to evaluate the Landau-gauge gluon propagator for lattices of linear extent up to 16 times larger than that of the simulated lattice. This approach is reminiscent of the Fisher-Ruelle construction of the thermodynamic limit in classical statistical mechanics.

  10. A Hybrid Statistics/Amplitude Approach to the Theory of Interacting Drift Waves and Zonal Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey; Krommes, John

    2012-10-01

    An approach to the theory of drift-wave--zonal-flow systems is adopted in which only the DW statistics but the full ZF amplitude are kept. Any statistical description of turbulence must inevitably face the closure problem. A particular closure, the Stochastic Structural Stability Theory (SSST), has been recently studied in plasmafootnotetextB. F. Farrell and P. J. Ioannou, Phys. Plasmas 16, 112903 (2009). as well as atmospheric-science contexts. First, the predictions of the SSST are examined in the weakly inhomogeneous limit, using the generalized Hasegawa--Mima model as a simple example. It is found that the equations do not admit a complete solution, as the characteristic ZF scale cannot be calculated. To address that deficiency, an analysis is performed of a bifurcation from a DW-only state to a DW--ZF state in the Hasegawa--Wakatani model in order to gain analytical insight into a nonlinear DW--ZF equilibrium, including prediction of the charactistic scale. The calculation permits discussion of the relative importance of eddy shearing and coupling to damped eigenmodes for the saturation of the self-consistently regulated turbulence level.

  11. Bloch Waves in Minimal Landau Gauge and the Infinite-Volume Limit of Lattice Gauge Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucchieri, Attilio; Mendes, Tereza

    2017-05-01

    By exploiting the similarity between Bloch's theorem for electrons in crystalline solids and the problem of Landau gauge fixing in Yang-Mills theory on a "replicated" lattice, we show that large-volume results can be reproduced by simulations performed on much smaller lattices. This approach, proposed by Zwanziger [Nucl. Phys. B412, 657 (1994), 10.1016/0550-3213(94)90396-4], corresponds to taking the infinite-volume limit for Landau-gauge field configurations in two steps: first for the gauge transformation alone, while keeping the lattice volume finite, and second for the gauge-field configuration itself. The solutions to the gauge-fixing condition are then given in terms of Bloch waves. Applying the method to data from Monte Carlo simulations of pure SU(2) gauge theory in two and three space-time dimensions, we are able to evaluate the Landau-gauge gluon propagator for lattices of linear extent up to 16 times larger than that of the simulated lattice. This approach is reminiscent of the Fisher-Ruelle construction of the thermodynamic limit in classical statistical mechanics.

  12. Unified field theory from the classical wave equation: Preliminary application to atomic and nuclear structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Múnera, Héctor A., E-mail: hmunera@hotmail.com [Centro Internacional de Física (CIF), Apartado Aéreo 4948, Bogotá, Colombia, South America (Colombia); Retired professor, Department of Physics, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia, South America (Colombia)

    2016-07-07

    It is postulated that there exists a fundamental energy-like fluid, which occupies the flat three-dimensional Euclidean space that contains our universe, and obeys the two basic laws of classical physics: conservation of linear momentum, and conservation of total energy; the fluid is described by the classical wave equation (CWE), which was Schrödinger’s first candidate to develop his quantum theory. Novel solutions for the CWE discovered twenty years ago are nonharmonic, inherently quantized, and universal in the sense of scale invariance, thus leading to quantization at all scales of the universe, from galactic clusters to the sub-quark world, and yielding a unified Lorentz-invariant quantum theory ab initio. Quingal solutions are isomorphic under both neo-Galilean and Lorentz transformations, and exhibit nother remarkable property: intrinsic unstability for large values of ℓ (a quantum number), thus limiting the size of each system at a given scale. Unstability and scale-invariance together lead to nested structures observed in our solar system; unstability may explain the small number of rows in the chemical periodic table, and nuclear unstability of nuclides beyond lead and bismuth. Quingal functions lend mathematical basis for Boscovich’s unified force (which is compatible with many pieces of evidence collected over the past century), and also yield a simple geometrical solution for the classical three-body problem, which is a useful model for electronic orbits in simple diatomic molecules. A testable prediction for the helicoidal-type force is suggested.

  13. Nonlinear theory of magnetohydrodynamic flows of a compressible fluid in the shallow water approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimachkov, D. A., E-mail: klimchakovdmitry@gmail.com; Petrosyan, A. S., E-mail: apetrosy@iki.rssi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Shallow water magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory describing incompressible flows of plasma is generalized to the case of compressible flows. A system of MHD equations is obtained that describes the flow of a thin layer of compressible rotating plasma in a gravitational field in the shallow water approximation. The system of quasilinear hyperbolic equations obtained admits a complete simple wave analysis and a solution to the initial discontinuity decay problem in the simplest version of nonrotating flows. In the new equations, sound waves are filtered out, and the dependence of density on pressure on large scales is taken into account that describes static compressibility phenomena. In the equations obtained, the mass conservation law is formulated for a variable that nontrivially depends on the shape of the lower boundary, the characteristic vertical scale of the flow, and the scale of heights at which the variation of density becomes significant. A simple wave theory is developed for the system of equations obtained. All self-similar discontinuous solutions and all continuous centered self-similar solutions of the system are obtained. The initial discontinuity decay problem is solved explicitly for compressible MHD equations in the shallow water approximation. It is shown that there exist five different configurations that provide a solution to the initial discontinuity decay problem. For each configuration, conditions are found that are necessary and sufficient for its implementation. Differences between incompressible and compressible cases are analyzed. In spite of the formal similarity between the solutions in the classical case of MHD flows of an incompressible and compressible fluids, the nonlinear dynamics described by the solutions are essentially different due to the difference in the expressions for the squared propagation velocity of weak perturbations. In addition, the solutions obtained describe new physical phenomena related to the dependence of the

  14. SU(2 Yang–Mills Theory: Waves, Particles, and Quantum Thermodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Hofmann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We elucidate how Quantum Thermodynamics at temperature T emerges from pure and classical S U ( 2 Yang–Mills theory on a four-dimensional Euclidean spacetime slice S 1 × R 3 . The concept of a (deconfining thermal ground state, composed of certain solutions to the fundamental, classical Yang–Mills equation, allows for a unified addressation of both (classical wave- and (quantum particle-like excitations thereof. More definitely, the thermal ground state represents the interplay between nonpropagating, periodic configurations which are electric-magnetically (antiselfdual in a non-trivial way and possess topological charge modulus unity. Their trivial-holonomy versions—Harrington–Shepard (HS (anticalorons—yield an accurate a priori estimate of the thermal ground state in terms of spatially coarse-grained centers, each containing one quantum of action ℏ localized at its inmost spacetime point, which induce an inert adjoint scalar field ϕ ( | ϕ | spatio-temporally constant. The field ϕ , in turn, implies an effective pure-gauge configuration, a μ gs , accurately describing HS (anticaloron overlap. Spatial homogeneity of the thermal ground-state estimate ϕ , a μ gs demands that (anticaloron centers are densely packed, thus representing a collective departure from (antiselfduality. Effectively, such a “nervous” microscopic situation gives rise to two static phenomena: finite ground-state energy density ρ gs and pressure P gs with ρ gs = − P gs as well as the (adjoint Higgs mechanism. The peripheries of HS (anticalorons are static and resemble (antiselfdual dipole fields whose apparent dipole moments are determined by | ϕ | and T, protecting them against deformation potentially caused by overlap. Such a protection extends to the spatial density of HS (anticaloron centers. Thus the vacuum electric permittivity ϵ 0 and magnetic permeability μ 0 , supporting the propagation of wave-like disturbances in the U ( 1 Cartan

  15. Evaluation method for regional water cycle health based on nature-society water cycle theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanghong; Fan, Weiwei; Yi, Yujun; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Jiahong

    2017-08-01

    Regional water cycles increasingly reflect the dual influences of natural and social processes, and are affected by global climate change and expanding human activities. Understanding how to maintain a healthy state of the water cycle has become an important proposition for sustainable development of human society. In this paper, natural-social attributes of the water cycle are synthesized and 19 evaluation indices are selected from four dimensions, i.e., water-based ecosystem integrity, water quality, water resource abundance and water resource use. A hierarchical water-cycle health evaluation system is established. An analytic hierarchy process is used to set the weight of the criteria layer and index layer, and the health threshold for each index is defined. Finally, a water-cycle health composite-index assessment model and fuzzy recognition model are constructed based on the comprehensive index method and fuzzy mathematics theory. The model is used to evaluate the state of health of the water cycle in Beijing during 2010-2014 and in the planning year (late 2014), considering the transfer of 1 billion m3 of water by the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP). The results show health scores for Beijing of 2.87, 3.10, 3.38, 3.11 and 3.02 during 2010-2014. The results of fuzzy recognition show that the sub-healthy grade accounted for 54%, 49%, 61% and 49% of the total score, and all years had a sub-healthy state. Results of the criteria layer analysis show that water ecosystem function, water quality and water use were all at the sub-healthy level and that water abundance was at the lowest, or sick, level. With the water transfer from the SNWDP, the health score of the water cycle in Beijing reached 4.04. The healthy grade accounted for 60% of the total score, and the water cycle system was generally in a healthy state. Beijing's water cycle health level is expected to further improve with increasing water diversion from the SNWDP and industrial

  16. Wind wave analysis in depth limited water using OCEANLYZ, A MATLAB toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimpour, Arash; Chen, Qin

    2017-09-01

    There are a number of well established methods in the literature describing how to assess and analyze measured wind wave data. However, obtaining reliable results from these methods requires adequate knowledge on their behavior, strengths and weaknesses. A proper implementation of these methods requires a series of procedures including a pretreatment of the raw measurements, and adjustment and refinement of the processed data to provide quality assurance of the outcomes, otherwise it can lead to untrustworthy results. This paper discusses potential issues in these procedures, explains what parameters are influential for the outcomes and suggests practical solutions to avoid and minimize the errors in the wave results. The procedure of converting the water pressure data into the water surface elevation data, treating the high frequency data with a low signal-to-noise ratio, partitioning swell energy from wind sea, and estimating the peak wave frequency from the weighted integral of the wave power spectrum are described. Conversion and recovery of the data acquired by a pressure transducer, particularly in depth-limited water like estuaries and lakes, are explained in detail. To provide researchers with tools for a reliable estimation of wind wave parameters, the Ocean Wave Analyzing toolbox, OCEANLYZ, is introduced. The toolbox contains a number of MATLAB functions for estimation of the wave properties in time and frequency domains. The toolbox has been developed and examined during a number of the field study projects in Louisiana's estuaries.

  17. Field investigations on port non-tranquility caused by infra-gravity water waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Najafi-Jilani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Field investigations have been carried out in two 60-day stages on the surf beat low frequency waves in Anzali port, one of the main commercial ports in Iran, located in southwest coast of the Caspian Sea. The characteristics of significant water waves were measured at three metering stations in the sea, one at the entrance of the port and three in the basin. The measured data were inspected to investigate the surf beat negative effects on the tranquility of the port. Using field measurements and complementary numerical modeling, the response of the basin to the infra-gravity long waves was inspected for a range of wave frequencies. It was concluded that the water surface fluctuations in the port is strongly related to the incident wave period. The long waves with periods of about 45s were recognized as the worst cases for water surfaceperturbation in the port. For wave periods higher than the mentioned range, the order of fluctuation was generally low.

  18. Theory of in situ measurement of wave-vector-dependent dynamic susceptibility and ESR spectroscopy using the ac Josephson effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, S.E.; Mehran, F.

    1986-10-01

    The elementary theory of in situ measurements of the wave-vector-dependent dynamic susceptibility chi(q,..omega..) in superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) and superconductor--normal-metal--superconductor (SNS) Josephson junctions is presented in some detail. The theory for more complicated SISN and SINS junctions is also described. In addition, the theory of point-contact and superconducting quantum interference device geometries, relevant to the recent experiments of Baberschke, Bures, and Barnes is developed. Involved is a detailed application of the Maxwell and London equations along with the distributed Josephson effect. In a measurement of chi(q,..omega..), the frequency ..omega.. is determined by the relation 2eV/sub 0/ = h-dash-bar..omega.. where V/sub 0/ is the voltage applied across the junction, and the wave vector q is determined by the relation 2edB/sub 0/ = h-dash-barq where d is the effective width of the junction and B/sub 0/ is the magnetic field applied perpendicular to the direction of the current. The relative merits of the different types of junctions are discussed and the expected signal strengths are estimated. The limitations for the maximum measurable frequency and wave vector are also given. It seems probable that the proposed technique can be used to measure spin-wave branches from zero wave vector up to about 10% of the way to the Brillouin zone edge.

  19. On the time varying horizontal water velocity of single, multiple, and random gravity wave trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, D.R.

    1964-01-01

    In this dissertation some characteristics of the horizontal water velocity for single, multiple, and random gravity wave trains are studied. This work consists of two parts, an analogue study and hydraulic measurements. An important aspect in this work is to suggest the horizontal water velocity

  20. High-Resolution Wave Energy Assessment in Shallow Water Accounting for Tides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The wave energy in a shallow water location is evaluated considering the influence of the local tide and wind on the wave propagation. The target is the coastal area just north of the Portuguese city of Peniche, where a wave energy converter operates on the sea bottom. A wave modelling system based on SWAN has been implemented and focused on this coastal environment in a multilevel computational scheme. The first three SWAN computational belonging to this wave prediction system were defined using the spherical coordinates. In the highest resolution computational domain, Cartesian coordinates have been considered, with a resolution of 25 m in both directions. An in-depth analysis of the main characteristics of the environmental matrix has been performed. This is based on the results of eight-year model system simulations (2005–2012. New simulations have been carried out in the last two computational domains with the most relevant wave and wind patterns, considering also the tide effect. The results show that the tide level, together with the wind intensity and direction, may influence to a significant degree the wave characteristics. This especially concerns the wave power in the location where the wave converter operates.

  1. Theory of dispersive wave frequency shift via trapping by a soliton in an axially nonuniform optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Judge, Alexander C.; Bang, Ole; de Sterke, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We extend the analytical theory explaining the trapping of normally dispersive waves by a Raman soliton in an axially uniform optical fiber to include axially nonuniform fibers. It is shown how a changing group velocity in such a fiber leads to the same trapping mechanism as for a decelerating...

  2. Oil slicks on water surface: Breakup, coalescence, and droplet formation under breaking waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissanka, Indrajith D; Yapa, Poojitha D

    2017-01-15

    The ability to calculate the oil droplet size distribution (DSD) and its dynamic behavior in the water column is important in oil spill modeling. Breaking waves disperse oil from a surface slick into the water column as droplets of varying sizes. Oil droplets undergo further breakup and coalescence in the water column due to the turbulence. Available models simulate oil DSD based on empirical/equilibrium equations. However, the oil DSD evolution due to subsequent droplet breakup and coalescence in the water column can be best represented by a dynamic population model. This paper develops a phenomenological model to calculate the oil DSD in wave breaking conditions and ocean turbulence and is based on droplet breakup and coalescence. Its results are compared with data from laboratory experiments that include different oil types, different weathering times, and different breaking wave heights. The model comparisons showed a good agreement with experimental data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transformation of Monochromatic Waves from Deep to Shallow Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    BISHOP Colonel, Corps of Engineers Commander and Director 3 CONTENTS Page CONVERSION FACTORS, U.S. CUSTOMARY TO METRIC (SI) .... ....... 6 SYMBOLS AND...readings, use formula: K = (5/9) (F -32) + 273.15. 6 SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS A elliptic function B elliptic function C wave phase speed E complete...1974. DUBREUIL-JACOTIN, L., "Sur la Determination Rigoureuse des Ondes Permanentes Periodiques d’Ampleur Finie," Journal de Mathematiques , Paris, France

  4. Finite-difference theory for sound propagation in a lined duct with uniform flow using the wave envelope concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1977-01-01

    Finite difference equations are derived for sound propagation in a two dimensional, straight, soft wall duct with a uniform flow by using the wave envelope concept. This concept reduces the required number of finite difference grid points by one to two orders of magnitude depending on the length of the duct and the frequency of the sound. The governing acoustic difference equations in complex notation are derived. An exit condition is developed that allows a duct of finite length to simulate the wave propagation in an infinitely long duct. Sample calculations presented for a plane wave incident upon the acoustic liner show the numerical theory to be in good agreement with closed form analytical theory. Complete pressure and velocity printouts are given to some sample problems and can be used to debug and check future computer programs.

  5. Lake St. Clair: Storm Wave and Water Level Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    levels at St. Clair Shores and Windmill Point. The ADCIRC model was tightly coupled with four near-shore Full-Plane STWAVE model grids using CSTORM...levels at St. Clair Shores. ............... 71  Figure 4-6. Comparison of Storm 002 observed and modeled water levels at Windmill Point...observed and modeled water levels at Windmill Point. ................. 74  Figure 4-9. Comparison of Storm 004 observed and modeled water levels at St

  6. Wave Synchronizing Crane Control during Water Entry in Offshore Moonpool Operations - Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor A. Johansen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A new strategy for active control in heavy-lift offshore crane operations is suggested, by introducing a new concept referred to as wave synchronization. Wave synchronization reduces the hydrodynamic forces by minimization of variations in the relative vertical velocity between payload and water using a wave amplitude measurement. Wave synchronization is combined with conventional active heave compensation to obtain accurate control. Experimental results using a scale model of a semi-submerged vessel with a moonpool shows that wave synchronization leads to significant improvements in performance. Depending on the sea state and payload, the results indicate that the reduction in the standard deviation of the wire tension may be up to 50

  7. Fourth-order wave equation in Bhabha-Madhavarao spin-3 2 theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Yu. A.; Markova, M. A.; Bondarenko, A. I.

    2017-09-01

    Within the framework of the Bhabha-Madhavarao formalism, a consistent approach to the derivation of a system of the fourth-order wave equations for the description of a spin-3 2 particle is suggested. For this purpose an additional algebraic object, the so-called q-commutator (q is a primitive fourth root of unity) and a new set of matrices ημ, instead of the original matrices βμ of the Bhabha-Madhavarao algebra, are introduced. It is shown that in terms of the ημ matrices we have succeeded in reducing a procedure of the construction of fourth root of the fourth-order wave operator to a few simple algebraic transformations and to some operation of the passage to the limit z → q, where z is some (complex) deformation parameter entering into the definition of the η-matrices. In addition, a set of the matrices 𝒫1/2 and 𝒫3/2(±)(q) possessing the properties of projectors is introduced. These operators project the matrices ημ onto the spins 1/2- and 3/2-sectors in the theory under consideration. A corresponding generalization of the obtained results to the case of the interaction with an external electromagnetic field introduced through the minimal coupling scheme is carried out. The application to the problem of construction of the path integral representation in para-superspace for the propagator of a massive spin-3 2 particle in a background gauge field within the Bhabha-Madhavarao approach is discussed.

  8. Theory of magnetic surface anisotropy and exchange effects in the Brillouin scattering of light by magnetostatic spin waves (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado, G. T.; Hicken, R. J.

    1988-04-01

    A new theory of the Brillouin shift in the inelastic scattering of light by magnetostatic spin waves is presented. Contrary to previous work, the present calculations do include exchange effects and treat the magnetic surface anisotropy constants Ks and Kss directly rather than via the stratagem of effective volume anisotropies. The experimental data for {110} Fe on W are explained about as well by the present theory as by previous work. A detailed analysis reveals the previously unnoticed fact that the signs of Ks and Kss for (1¯10) Fe on W are opposite to those for (1¯10) Fe on GaAs. Some new spin-wave modes arising from exchange are predicted and shown to occur outside the frequency range which has been investigated experimentally. A quantitative explanation is proposed for the occasional applicability of a theory based on effective volume anisotropies and zero exchange.

  9. Directional characteristics of shallow water waves along southwestern Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Johnson, G.; SanilKumar, V.; Anoop, T.R.; Joseph, J.

    . Effect of directional spreading and spectral bandwidth on the nonlinearity of the irregular waves, Proceedings of the Eighth International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference, Montréal, Canada, May24-29, 1998. Sanil Kumar, V., 2006. Variation...: Ocean Eng., vol.121; 2016; 546-558 Directional characteristics of shallow water waves along southwestern Bay of Bengal Johnson Glejin, V. Sanil Kumar*, T.R.Anoop, Jofia Joseph Ocean Engineering Division, CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography...

  10. Validity of the Taylor-Sedov Theory for Studying Laser-Induced Phase Explosion and Shock Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendijanifard, Mohammad; Willis, David A

    2015-04-01

    Phase explosion is a phase change process that occurs during short pulse laser ablation. Phase explosion is a result of homogeneous nucleation of vapor in the superheated melt and results in a rapid transition from a superheated melt to a mixture of vapor and liquid droplets that expand from the surface. The sudden phase transition results in rapid material removal, and if occurring in an ambient gas, causes a shock wave to propagate away from the surface. Measurements of this shock wave are commonly used with the Taylor-Sedov blast wave theory to estimate shock wave pressure and temperature. At low laser fluences the Mach number of the shock wave can be small, resulting in significant errors in pressure and temperature. The paper will demonstrate conditions for which the more general form of the Rankine-Hugoniot relations for thermo-fluid parameters simplifies to the Taylor-Sedov similarity solutions and when the Taylor-Sedov solutions are applicable. The results are compared to experimental shock wave data from the literature to explain why using the Taylor-Sedov blast wave solutions can result in large errors at low Mach numbers.

  11. A Fast GPU-accelerated Mixed-precision Strategy for Fully NonlinearWater Wave Computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glimberg, Stefan Lemvig; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Madsen, Morten G.

    2011-01-01

    We present performance results of a mixed-precision strategy developed to improve a recently developed massively parallel GPU-accelerated tool for fast and scalable simulation of unsteady fully nonlinear free surface water waves over uneven depths (Engsig-Karup et.al. 2011). The underlying wave......-preconditioned defect correction method. The improved strategy improves the performance by exploiting architectural features of modern GPUs for mixed precision computations and is tested in a recently developed generic library for fast prototyping of PDE solvers. The new wave tool is applicable to solve and analyze...

  12. Secondary current properties generated by wind-induced water waves in experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Sanjou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Secondary currents such as the Langmuir circulation are of high interest in natural rivers and the ocean because they have striking impacts on scour, sedimentation, and mass transport. Basic characteristics have been well-studied in straight open-channel flows. However, little is known regarding secondary circulation induced by wind waves. The presented study describes the generation properties of wind waves observed in the laboratory tank. Wind-induced water waves are known to produce large scale circulations. The phenomenon is observed together with high-speed and low-speed streaks, convergence and divergence zones, respectively. Therefore, it is important to determine the hydrodynamic properties of secondary currents for wind-induced water waves within rivers and lakes. In this study, using two high-speed CMOS cameras, stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV measurements were conducted in order to reveal the distribution of all three components of velocity vectors. The experiments allowed us to investigate the three-dimensional turbulent structure under water waves and the generation mechanism of large-scale circulations. Additionally, a third CMOS camera was used to measure the spanwise profile of thefree-surface elevation. The time-series of velocity components and the free-surface were obtained simultaneously. From our experiments, free-surface variations were found to influence the instantaneous velocity distributions of the cross-sectional plane. We also considered thegeneration process by the phase analysis related to gravity waves and compared the contribution of the apparent stress.

  13. Analytic Theory of Titans Schumann Resonance: Constraints on Ionospheric Conductivity and Buried Water Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beghin, Christian; Randriamboarison, Orelien; Hamelin, Michel; Karkoschka, Erich; Sotin, Christophe; Whitten, Robert C.; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Grard, Rejean; Simoes, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    This study presents an approximate model for the atypical Schumann resonance in Titan's atmosphere that accounts for the observations of electromagnetic waves and the measurements of atmospheric conductivity performed with the Huygens Atmospheric Structure and Permittivity, Wave and Altimetry (HASI-PWA) instrumentation during the descent of the Huygens Probe through Titan's atmosphere in January 2005. After many years of thorough analyses of the collected data, several arguments enable us to claim that the Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) wave observed at around 36 Hz displays all the characteristics of the second harmonic of a Schumann resonance. On Earth, this phenomenon is well known to be triggered by lightning activity. Given the lack of evidence of any thunderstorm activity on Titan, we proposed in early works a model based on an alternative powering mechanism involving the electric current sheets induced in Titan's ionosphere by the Saturn's magnetospheric plasma flow. The present study is a further step in improving the initial model and corroborating our preliminary assessments. We first develop an analytic theory of the guided modes that appear to be the most suitable for sustaining Schumann resonances in Titan's atmosphere. We then introduce the characteristics of the Huygens electric field measurements in the equations, in order to constrain the physical parameters of the resonating cavity. The latter is assumed to be made of different structures distributed between an upper boundary, presumably made of a succession of thin ionized layers of stratospheric aerosols spread up to 150 km and a lower quasi-perfect conductive surface hidden beneath the non-conductive ground. The inner reflecting boundary is proposed to be a buried water-ammonia ocean lying at a likely depth of 55-80 km below a dielectric icy crust. Such estimate is found to comply with models suggesting that the internal heat could be transferred upwards by thermal conduction of the crust, while

  14. Propagation characteristics of shock waves from a plane carbon-nanotube-coated optoacoustic transducer in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaofeng; Baek, Yonggeun; Ha, Kanglyeol; Kim, Moojoon; Kim, Jungsoon; Kim, Duckjong; Kang, Hyun Wook; Oh, Junghwan

    2017-07-01

    An optoacoustic transducer made of light-absorbing and elastomeric materials can generate high-pressure wide-band ultrasound waves in water when it is illuminated by a pulse laser. To generate such waves with high efficiency, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) are widely used as the light-absorbing and elastomeric materials, respectively. It was previously reported that an optoacoustic concave transducer made of these materials can produce strong shock waves, namely, blast waves, within its focal zone. In this study, we have shown that these waves can also be generated by a plane optoacoustic transducer fabricated by coating CNTs-PDMS on a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plate. Some propagation characteristics of the blast wave generated were measured and compared with the calculated results. It was found that the propagation speed and attenuation of the wave are different from those of usual sounds. From the comparison of the measured and the calculated acoustic fields, it is assumed that every point on the transducer surface produces almost the same blast wave.

  15. Experimental particle acceleration by water evaporation induced by shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolamacchia, T.; Alatorre Ibarguengoitia, M.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.; Cimarelli, C.

    2010-12-01

    Shock waves are commonly generated during volcanic eruptions. They induce sudden changes in pressure and temperature causing phase changes. Nevertheless, their effects on flowfield properties are not well understood. Here we investigate the role of gas expansion generated by shock wave propagation in the acceleration of ash particles. We used a shock tube facility consisting of a high-pressure (HP) steel autoclave (450 mm long, 28 mm in internal diameter), pressurized with Ar gas, and a low-pressure tank at atmospheric conditions (LP). A copper diaphragm separated the HP autoclave from a 180 mm tube (PVC or acrylic glass) at ambient P, with the same internal diameter of the HP reservoir. Around the tube, a 30 cm-high acrylic glass cylinder, with the same section of the LP tank (40 cm), allowed the observation of the processes occurring downstream from the nozzle throat, and was large enough to act as an unconfined volume in which the initial diffracting shock and gas jet expand. All experiments were performed at Pres/Pamb ratios of 150:1. Two ambient conditions were used: dry air and air saturated with steam. Carbon fibers and glass spheres in a size range between 150 and 210 μm, were placed on a metal wire at the exit of the PVC tube. The sudden decompression of the Ar gas, due to the failure of the diaphragm, generated an initial air shock wave. A high-speed camera recorded the processes between the first 100 μsec and several ms after the diaphragm failure at frame rates ranging between 30,000 and 50,000 fps. In the experiments with ambient air saturated with steam, the high-speed camera allowed to visualize the condensation front associated with the initial air shock; a maximum velocity of 788 m/s was recorded, which decreases to 524 m/s at distance of 0.5 ±0.2 cm, 1.1 ms after the diaphragm rupture. The condensation front preceded the Ar jet front exhausting from the reservoir, by 0.2-0.5 ms. In all experiments particles velocities following the initial

  16. Arch-Shaped triboelectric nanogenerator as a facile device for water-wave vibrational energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Young Joon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Jung, Jong Hoon

    2017-11-01

    We report an arch-shaped triboelectric nanogenerator (A-TENG) as for a simple and effective water-wave energy harvesting device. The A-TENG consists of arch-shaped polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polymer film and flat Al metal electrode. Especially, the arch-shape of PET provides an inherent restoring force after the contact with Al; which significantly reduces the weight and volume of the TENG. For a mild mechanical impact of water waves with an amplitude of 5 cm and frequency of 1 Hz, the single A-TENG unit generates an open-circuit voltage of 8 V and closedcircuit current of 200 nA. In addition, two A-TENG units connected in parallel generate almost double the voltage and current. These results imply that the scaled-up A-TENG units could be used at water-breakers in coastal areas for effective harvesting of ocean wave mechanical energy.

  17. Solvability of the Initial Value Problem to the Isobe-Kakinuma Model for Water Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Ryo; Iguchi, Tatsuo

    2017-09-01

    We consider the initial value problem to the Isobe-Kakinuma model for water waves and the structure of the model. The Isobe-Kakinuma model is the Euler-Lagrange equations for an approximate Lagrangian which is derived from Luke's Lagrangian for water waves by approximating the velocity potential in the Lagrangian. The Isobe-Kakinuma model is a system of second order partial differential equations and is classified into a system of nonlinear dispersive equations. Since the hypersurface t=0 is characteristic for the Isobe-Kakinuma model, the initial data have to be restricted in an infinite dimensional manifold for the existence of the solution. Under this necessary condition and a sign condition, which corresponds to a generalized Rayleigh-Taylor sign condition for water waves, on the initial data, we show that the initial value problem is solvable locally in time in Sobolev spaces. We also discuss the linear dispersion relation to the model.

  18. Dynamics of controlled release systems based on water-in-water emulsions: a general theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagis, Leonard M C

    2008-10-06

    Phase-separated biopolymer solutions, and aqueous dispersions of hydrogel beads, liposomes, polymersomes, aqueous polymer microcapsules, and colloidosomes are all examples of water-in-water emulsions. These systems can be used for encapsulation and controlled release purposes, in for example food or pharmaceutical applications. The stress-deformation behavior of the droplets in these systems is very complex, and affected by mass transfer across the interface. The relaxation time of a deformation of a droplet may depend on interfacial properties such as surface tension, bending rigidity, spontaneous curvature, permeability, and interfacial viscoelasticity. It also depends on bulk viscoelasticity and composition. A non-equilibrium thermodynamic model is developed for the dynamic behavior of these systems, which incorporates all these parameters, and is based on the interfacial transport phenomena (ITP) formalism. The ITP formalism allows us to describe all water-in-water emulsions with one general theory. Phase-separated biopolymer solutions, and dispersions of hydrogel beads, liposomes, polymersomes, polymer microcapsules, and colloidosomes are basically limiting cases of this general theory with respect to bulk and interfacial rheological behavior.

  19. Orbital-free density functional theory implementation with the projector augmented-wave method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtomäki, Jouko; Makkonen, Ilja; Harju, Ari; Lopez-Acevedo, Olga, E-mail: olga.lopez.acevedo@aalto.fi [COMP Centre of Excellence, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, P.O. Box 11100, 00076 Aalto (Finland); Caro, Miguel A. [COMP Centre of Excellence, Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, P.O. Box 11100, 00076 Aalto (Finland); Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland)

    2014-12-21

    We present a computational scheme for orbital-free density functional theory (OFDFT) that simultaneously provides access to all-electron values and preserves the OFDFT linear scaling as a function of the system size. Using the projector augmented-wave method (PAW) in combination with real-space methods, we overcome some obstacles faced by other available implementation schemes. Specifically, the advantages of using the PAW method are twofold. First, PAW reproduces all-electron values offering freedom in adjusting the convergence parameters and the atomic setups allow tuning the numerical accuracy per element. Second, PAW can provide a solution to some of the convergence problems exhibited in other OFDFT implementations based on Kohn-Sham (KS) codes. Using PAW and real-space methods, our orbital-free results agree with the reference all-electron values with a mean absolute error of 10 meV and the number of iterations required by the self-consistent cycle is comparable to the KS method. The comparison of all-electron and pseudopotential bulk modulus and lattice constant reveal an enormous difference, demonstrating that in order to assess the performance of OFDFT functionals it is necessary to use implementations that obtain all-electron values. The proposed combination of methods is the most promising route currently available. We finally show that a parametrized kinetic energy functional can give lattice constants and bulk moduli comparable in accuracy to those obtained by the KS PBE method, exemplified with the case of diamond.

  20. Physics Colloquium: Theory of the spin wave Seebeck effect in magnetic insulators

    CERN Multimedia

    Université de Genève

    2011-01-01

    Geneva University Physics Department 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet CH-1211 Geneva 4 Lundi 28 février 2011 17h00 - École de Physique, Auditoire Stückelberg Theory of the spin wave Seebeck effect in magnetic insulators Prof. Gerrit Bauer Delft University of Technology The subfield of spin caloritronics addresses the coupling of heat, charge and spin currents in nanostructures. In the center of interest is here the spin Seebeck effect, which was discovered in an iron-nickel alloy. Uchida et al. recently observed the effect also in an electrically insulating Yttrium Iron Garnett (YIG) thin magnetic film. To our knowledge this is the first observation of a Seebeck effect generated by an insulator, implying that the physics is fundamentally different from the conventional Seebeck effect in metals. We explain the experiments by the pumping of a spin current into the detecting contacts by the thermally excited magnetization dynamics. In this talk I will give a brief overview over the state o...

  1. Aurophilic Interactions from Wave Function, Symmetry-Adapted Perturbation Theory, and Rangehybrid Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ru-Fen; Franzese, Christina A; Malek, Ryan; Żuchowski, Piotr S; Ángyán, János G; Szczȩśniak, Małgorzata M; Chałasiński, Grzegorz

    2011-08-09

    The aurophilic interaction is examined in three model systems Au2((3)Σg(+)), (AuH)2, and (HAuPH3)2 which contain interactions of pairs of the Au centers in the oxidation state (I). Several methods are employed ranging from wave function theory-based (WFT) approaches to symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) and range-separated hybrid (RSH) density functional theory (DFT) methods. The most promising and accurate approach consists of a combination of the DFT and WFT approaches in the RSH framework. In this combination the short-range DFT handles the slow convergence of the correlation cusp, whereas the long-range WFT is best suited for the long-range correlation. Of the three tested RSH DFT methods, the one which uses a short-range exchange functional based on the Ernzerhof-Perdew exchange hole model with a range-separation parameter of 0.4 bohr(-1) seems to be the best candidate for treatment of gold. In combination with the long-range coupled cluster singles, doubles, and noniterative triples [CCSD(T)] treatment it places the strength of aurophilic bonding in (HAuPH3)2 at 5.7 kcal/mol at R = 3.09 Å. This value is somewhat larger than our best purely WFT result based on CCSD(T), 4.95 kcal/mol (R = 3.1 Å), and considerably smaller than the Hartree-Fock+dispersion value of 7.4 kcal/mol (R = 2.9 Å). The 5.7 kcal/mol estimate fits reasonably well within the prediction of the empirical relationship proposed by Schwerdtfeger et al. (J. Am. Chem. Soc.1998, 120, 6587). A direct computation of dispersion energy, including exchange corrections, results in values of ca. -9 kcal/mol for Au2((3)Σg(+)) and (AuH)2 and -13 kcal/mol for (HAuPH3)2 at the distance of a typical aurophilic bond, R = 3.0 Å.

  2. Plane-Wave Density Functional Theory Meets Molecular Crystals: Thermal Ellipsoids and Intermolecular Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deringer, Volker L; George, Janine; Dronskowski, Richard; Englert, Ulli

    2017-05-16

    Molecular compounds, organic and inorganic, crystallize in diverse and complex structures. They continue to inspire synthetic efforts and "crystal engineering", with implications ranging from fundamental questions to pharmaceutical research. The structural complexity of molecular solids is linked with diverse intermolecular interactions: hydrogen bonding with all its facets, halogen bonding, and other secondary bonding mechanisms of recent interest (and debate). Today, high-resolution diffraction experiments allow unprecedented insight into the structures of molecular crystals. Despite their usefulness, however, these experiments also face problems: hydrogen atoms are challenging to locate, and thermal effects may complicate matters. Moreover, even if the structure of a crystal is precisely known, this does not yet reveal the nature and strength of the intermolecular forces that hold it together. In this Account, we show that periodic plane-wave-based density functional theory (DFT) can be a useful, and sometimes unexpected, complement to molecular crystallography. Initially developed in the solid-state physics communities to treat inorganic solids, periodic DFT can be applied to molecular crystals just as well: theoretical structural optimizations "help out" by accurately localizing the elusive hydrogen atoms, reaching neutron-diffraction quality with much less expensive measurement equipment. In addition, phonon computations, again developed by physicists, can quantify the thermal motion of atoms and thus predict anisotropic displacement parameters and ORTEP ellipsoids "from scratch". But the synergy between experiment and theory goes much further than that. Once a structure has been accurately determined, computations give new and detailed insights into the aforementioned intermolecular interactions. For example, it has been debated whether short hydrogen bonds in solids have covalent character, and we have added a new twist to this discussion using an orbital

  3. Wave breaking in the surf zone and deep-water in a non-hydrostatic RANS model. Part 1: Organized wave motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derakhti, Morteza; Kirby, James T.; Shi, Fengyan; Ma, Gangfeng

    2016-11-01

    We examine wave-breaking predictions ranging from shallow- to deep-water conditions using a non-hydrostatic σ-coordinate RANS model NHWAVE as described in Derakhti et al. (2016a), comparing results both with corresponding experiments and with the results of a volume-of-fluid (VOF)/Navier-Stokes solver (Ma et al., 2011; Derakhti and Kirby, 2014a,b). Our study includes regular and irregular depth-limited breaking waves on planar and barred beaches as well as steepness-limited unsteady breaking focused wave packets in intermediate and deep water. In Part 1 of this paper, it is shown that the model resolves organized wave motions in terms of free-surface evolution, spectral evolution, organized wave velocity evolution and wave statistics, using a few vertical σ-levels. In addition, the relative contribution of modeled physical dissipation and numerical dissipation to the integral breaking-induced wave energy loss is discussed. In steepness-limited unsteady breaking focused wave packets, the turbulence model has not been triggered, and all the dissipation is imposed indirectly by the numerical scheme. Although the total wave-breaking-induced energy dissipation is underestimated in the unsteady wave packets, the model is capable of predicting the dispersive and nonlinear properties of different wave packet components before and after the break point, as well as the overall wave height decay and the evolution of organized wave velocity field and power spectrum density over the breaking region. In Part 2 (Derakhti et al., 2016b), model reproduction of wave-breaking-induced turbulence and mean circulation is examined in detail. The same equations and numerical methods are used for the various depth regimes, and no ad-hoc treatment, such as imposing hydrostatic conditions, is involved in triggering breaking. Vertical grid resolution in all simulated cases is at least an order of magnitude coarser than that of typical VOF-based simulations.

  4. Viscothermal wave propagation including acousto-elastic interaction, part I: theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beltman, W.M.

    1999-01-01

    This research deals with pressure waves in a gas trapped in thin layers or narrow tubes. In these cases viscous and thermal effects can have a significant effect on the propagation of waves. This so-called viscothermal wave propagation is governed by a number of dimensionless parameters. The two

  5. Experimental Study on Peak Pressure of Shock Waves in Quasi-Shallow Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxiong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the similarity laws of the explosion, this research develops similarity requirements of the small-scale experiments of underwater explosions and establishes a regression model for peak pressure of underwater shock waves under experimental condition. Small-scale experiments are carried out with two types of media at the bottom of the water and for different water depths. The peak pressure of underwater shock waves at different measuring points is acquired. A formula consistent with the similarity law of explosions is obtained and an analysis of the regression precision of the formula confirms its accuracy. Significance experiment indicates that the influence of distance between measuring points and charge on peak pressure of underwater shock wave is the greatest and that of water depth is the least within the range of geometric parameters. An analysis of data from experiments with different media at the bottom of the water reveals an influence on the peak pressure, as the peak pressure of a shock wave in a body of water with a bottom soft mud and rocks is about 1.33 times that of the case where the bottom material is only soft mud.

  6. Pressure induced by the interaction of water waves with nearly equal frequencies and nearly opposite directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pellet

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We present second-order expressions for the free-surface elevation, velocity potential and pressure resulting from the interaction of surface waves in water of arbitrary depth. When the surface waves have nearly equal frequencies and nearly opposite directions, a second-order pressure can be felt all the way to the sea bottom. There are at least two areas of applications: reflective structures and microseisms. Microseisms generated by water waves in the ocean are small vibrations of the ground resulting from pressure oscillations associated with the coupling of ocean surface gravity waves and the sea floor. They are recorded on land-based seismic stations throughout the world and they are divided into primary and secondary types, as a function of spectral content. Secondary microseisms are generated by the interaction of surface waves with nearly equal frequencies and nearly opposite directions. The efficiency of microseism generation thus depends in part on ocean wave frequency and direction. Based on the second-order expressions for the dynamic pressure, a simple theoretical analysis that quantifies the degree of nearness in amplitude, frequency, and incidence angle, which must be reached to observe the phenomenon, is presented.

  7. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....

  8. Periodic Density Functional Theory Study of Water Adsorption on the a-Quartz (101) Surface.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, Andrei V. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia; Kubicki, James D. [Pennsylvania State University; Sofo, Jorge O. [Pennsylvania State University

    2011-01-01

    Plane wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to study the atomic structure, preferred H2O adsorption sites, adsorption energies, and vibrational frequencies for water adsorption on the R-quartz (101) surface. Surface energies and atomic displacements on the vacuum-reconstructed, hydrolyzed, and solvated surfaces have been calculated and compared with available experimental and theoretical data. By considering different initial positions of H2O molecules, the most stable structures of water adsorption at different coverages have been determined. Calculated H2O adsorption energies are in the range -55 to -65 kJ/mol, consistent with experimental data. The lowest and the highest O-H stretching vibrational bands may be attributed to different states of silanol groups on the watercovered surface. The dissociation energy of the silanol group on the surface covered by the adsorption monolayer is estimated to be 80 kJ/mol. The metastable states for the protonated surface bridging O atoms (Obr), which may lead to hydrolysis of siloxane bonds, have been investigated. The calculated formation energy of a Q2 center from a Q3 center on the (101) surface with 2/3 dense monolayer coverage is equal to 70 kJ/mol which is in the range of experimental activation energies for quartz dissolution.

  9. Influence of water conductivity on shock waves generated by underwater electrical wire explosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ben; Wang, Deguo; Guo, Yanbao

    2018-01-01

    The new application of electrical explosion of wire (EEW) used in petroleum industry is to enhance oil recovery (EOR). Because of the complex environment underground, the effect of underground water conductivity on EEW should be considered. This work describes the effect of water conductivities on discharge current, voltage and shock waves. It was found that the effect of water conductivity contains two parts. One is the shunt effect of saline water, which can be considered as a parallel load with the copper wire between the electrodes connected to the discharge circuit. The peak pressure of shock waves are gradually decrease with the increase of water conductivity. The other is the current loss through saline water directly to the ground ends without flowing through the electrodes. The shunt effect is the main factor affecting the wire discharge process. As the charging voltage increased, the energy loss caused by these two parts are all reduced. These indicate that increasing the charging voltage to a certain value will increase the energy efficiency to generate a more powerful shock waves in conductive water.

  10. Effects of Deep Water Source-Sink Terms in 3rd generation Wave Model SWAN using different wind data in Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirezci, Cagil; Ozyurt Tarakcioglu, Gulizar

    2016-04-01

    coefficient (WAM Cycle 3).The second method follows the quassi linear wind-wave theory by Janssen(1989,1991) which also considers the atmospheric boundary layer effects and the roughness length of the sea surface (WAM Cycle 4).(SWAN Technical Documentation,2015) The dissipation caused by whitecapping depends on the steepness of the waves. There are two different steepness dependent coefficient configurations in SWAN model corresponding to the selected wind-wave interaction formulations which are mentioned above (Komen and Janssen approaches). Lastly ,there are 3 options for defining deep water non-linear wave-wave interaction, which are DIA(Discrete Interaction Approximation)by Hasselman (quadruplets), XNL(which is based on the original six-dimensional Boltzmann integral formulation of Hasselmann), and multiple DIA which considers up to 6 wave number configurations by Hashimoto et al. (2002).(SWAN Technical Documentation,2015) In this study, 540 test cases are modelled using all possible selections of deep water source and sinks approaches available in SWAN model. The computed results are compared with buoy measurements. The uncertainty due to different source sink selections are quantified using different statistical analysis. Preliminary results show that some of the term configurations predict the significant wave height (Hs) less than actual values measured at the buoy locations. One of the reasons of the underestimation of the wave parameters could be the lower wind speed estimated in closed basins and the other one is the uncertainties in the wind-sea interaction. All of the results, comparisons and discussions will highlight the best source sink approach to be used to model extreme wave events in Black Sea. References Kirezci C., Ozyurt G., (2015), "Comparison of Wave Models in Black Sea", UK YCSEC 2015, 21-23 March 2015, Manchester Özhan, E. and Abdalla, S.,(1999)"Wind and Wave Climotology of the Turkish Coast and the Black Sea:An Overview of the NATO TU-WAVES

  11. Wave-induced bottom shear stress estimation in shallow water exemplified by using deep water wind statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dag Myrhaug

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a simple and analytical method which can be used to give estimates of the wave-induced bottom shear stress for very rough beds and mud beds in shallow water based on wind statistics in deep water. This is exemplified by using long-term wind statistics from the northern North Sea, and by providing examples representing realistic field conditions. Based on, for example, global wind statistics, the present results can be used to make estimates of the bottom shear stress in shallow water.

  12. Change in Water-Holding Capacity in Mushroom with Temperature Analyzed by Flory-Rehner Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paudel, Ekaraj; Boom, R.M.; Sman, van der R.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    The change in water-holding capacity of mushroom with the temperature was interpreted using the Flory-Rehner theory for swelling of polymeric networks, extended with the Debye-Hückel theory for electrolytic interactions. The validity of these theories has been verified with independent sorption

  13. WAVE DIRECTION and Other Data from FIXED STATIONS From Coastal Waters of California from 19750313 to 19750525 (NODC Accession 9400044)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The accession contains Wave Surface Data collected in Coastal Waters of California between March 13, 1975 and May 25, 1975. Water surface elevation data was...

  14. Effects of water saturation on P-wave propagation in fractured coals: An experimental perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Dameng; Cai, Yidong; Gan, Quan; Yao, Yanbin

    2017-09-01

    Internal structure of coalbed methane (CBM) reservoirs can be evaluated through ultrasonic measurements. The compressional wave that propagates in a fractured coal reservoir may indicate the internal coal structure and fluid characteristics. The P-wave propagation was proposed to study the relations between petrophysical parameters (including water saturation, fractures, porosity and permeability) of coals and the P-wave velocity (Vp), using a KON-NM-4A ultrasonic velocity meter. In this study, the relations between Vps and water saturations were established: Type I is mainly controlled by capillary of developed seepage pores. The controlling factors on Type II and Type III are internal homogeneity of pores/fractures and developed micro-fractures, respectively. Micro-fractures density linearly correlates with the Vp due to the fracture volume and dispersion of P-wave; and micro-fractures of types C and D have a priority in Vp. For dry coals, no clear relation exists between porosity, permeability and the Vp. However, as for water-saturated coals, the correlation coefficients of porosity, permeability and Vp are slightly improved. The Vp of saturated coals could be predicted with the equation of Vp-saturated = 1.4952Vp-dry-26.742 m/s. The relation between petrophysical parameters of coals and Vp under various water saturations can be used to evaluate the internal structure in fractured coals. Therefore, these relations have significant implications for coalbed methane (CBM) exploration.

  15. GRACE-derived terrestrial water storage depletion associated with the 2003 European heat wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Seneviratne, S.I.; Hinderer, J.

    2005-01-01

    water storage depletion observed from GRACE can be related to the record-breaking heat wave that occurred in central Europe in 2003. We validate the measurements from GRACE using two independent hydrological estimates and direct gravity observations from superconducting gravimeters in Europe. All...

  16. Water waves, fixed cylinders and floating spheres: fully nonlinear diffraction calculations compared to detailed experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballast, A.

    2004-01-01

    To increase the capabilities of the computer calculations a computer code for fully nonlinear potential calculations with water waves and floating bodies had been developed earlier. It uses a boundary integral equation formulation, which is discretized to give a higher order panel method. In the

  17. An Improved Time Domain Procedure For Separating Incident And Reflected Water Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans Falk; Matsumoto, A.; Tayasu, M.

    2002-01-01

    Impulse responses of digital filters for use in separating incident and reflected water waves in a time domain are improved by using a nonlinear least square formulation. The applicability and limitations of the method are discussed. Trial computations using a set of analytical examples with known...

  18. The Inter Facility Testing of a Standard Oscillating Water Column (OWC) Type Wave Energy Converter (WEC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Morten Thøtt; Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg

    This report describes the behavior and preliminary performance of a simplified standard oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converter (WEC). The same tests will be conducted at different scales at 6 different test facilities and the results obtained will be used for comparison. This project...

  19. An efficient flexible-order model for 3D nonlinear water waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Bingham, Harry B.; Lindberg, Ole

    2009-01-01

    The flexible-order, finite difference based fully nonlinear potential flow model described in [H.B. Bingham, H. Zhang, On the accuracy of finite difference solutions for nonlinear water waves, J. Eng. Math. 58 (2007) 211-228] is extended to three dimensions (3D). In order to obtain an optimal...

  20. Monitoring Water Status of Grapevine by Means of THz Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Víctor; Palacios, Inés; Iriarte, Juan Carlos; Liberal, Iñigo; Santesteban, Luis G.; Miranda, Carlos; Royo, José B.; Gonzalo, Ramón

    2016-05-01

    Monitoring grapevine water status by means of measuring the reflectivity at the trunk in the terahertz band is presented. A grapevine is located inside a growth chamber to simulate diverse outdoor conditions and correlate them with variations produced in the reflected signal of the trunk. Modifications of light conditions, temperature, and irrigation of the grapevine are recorded either in time domain broadband measurements as well as in the magnitude and phase of narrowband measurements in the frequency domain. The results are compared with traditional techniques using a dendrometer and a humidity probe with excellent agreement.

  1. Empirical assessment of the validity limits of the surface wave full ray theory using realistic 3-D Earth models

    KAUST Repository

    Parisi, Laura

    2016-02-10

    The surface wave full ray theory (FRT) is an efficient tool to calculate synthetic waveforms of surface waves. It combines the concept of local modes with exact ray tracing as a function of frequency, providing a more complete description of surface wave propagation than the widely used great circle approximation (GCA). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of the FRT approach to model teleseismic long-period surface waveforms (T ∼ 45–150 s) in the context of current 3-D Earth models to empirically assess its validity domain and its scope for future studies in seismic tomography. To achieve this goal, we compute vertical and horizontal component fundamental mode synthetic Rayleigh waveforms using the FRT, which are compared with calculations using the highly accurate spectral element method. We use 13 global earth models including 3-D crustal and mantle structure, which are derived by successively varying the strength and lengthscale of heterogeneity in current tomographic models. For completeness, GCA waveforms are also compared with the spectral element method. We find that the FRT accurately predicts the phase and amplitude of long-period Rayleigh waves (T ∼ 45–150 s) for almost all the models considered, with errors in the modelling of the phase (amplitude) of Rayleigh waves being smaller than 5 per cent (10 per cent) in most cases. The largest errors in phase and amplitude are observed for T ∼ 45 s and for the three roughest earth models considered that exhibit shear wave anomalies of up to ∼20 per cent, which is much larger than in current global tomographic models. In addition, we find that overall the GCA does not predict Rayleigh wave amplitudes well, except for the longest wave periods (T ∼ 150 s) and the smoothest models considered. Although the GCA accurately predicts Rayleigh wave phase for current earth models such as S20RTS and S40RTS, FRT\\'s phase errors are smaller, notably for the shortest wave periods considered (T

  2. Wave propagation analysis of embedded nanoplates based on a nonlocal strain gradient-based surface piezoelectricity theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Dabbagh, Ali

    2017-11-01

    The present paper deals with the smart characteristics of waves propagating in a piezoelectric nanosize plate rested on an elastic medium whenever surface effects are included. A more realistic simulation about the elastic medium is presented by utilizing a three-parameter medium containing Winkler, Pasternak and damping coefficients. Furthermore, both of the decreasing and increasing impacts of small scale influences are covered in the framework of a nonlocal strain gradient theory (NSGT). The electric potential is approximated by a function possessing linear and trigonometric parts. Also, by developing the surface elasticity theory of Gurtin-Murdoch for piezoelectric solids, influences of surface layers are considered. Kinematic relations are derived employing the Kirchhoff plate theory. Afterwards, Hamilton's principle is introduced in order to achieve Euler-Lagrange equations of piezoelectric nanoplates. The final part consists of an analytical approach to obtain the wave frequency value. The accuracy of the presented model is verified by organizing a comparison of the presented results with previous ones. Finally, some parametric case studies are rendered to clarify the influence of different parameters such as wave number, nonlocal and length scale parameters, foundation parameters and applied voltage.

  3. Invariant imbedding theory of wave propagation in arbitrarily inhomogeneous stratified bi-isotropic media

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Seulong

    2016-01-01

    Bi-isotropic media, which include isotropic chiral media and Tellegen media as special cases, are the most general form of linear isotropic media where the electric displacement and the magnetic induction are related to both the electric field and the magnetic intensity. In inhomogeneous bi-isotropic media, electromagnetic waves of two different polarizations are coupled to each other. In this paper, we develop a generalized version of the invariant imbedding method for the study of wave propagation in arbitrarily-inhomogeneous stratified bi-isotropic media, which can be used to solve the coupled wave propagation problem accurately and efficiently. We verify the validity and usefulness of the method by applying it to several examples, including the wave propagation in a uniform chiral slab, the surface wave excitation in a bilayer system made of a layer of Tellegen medium and a metal layer, and the mode conversion of transverse electromagnetic waves into longitudinal plasma oscillations in inhomogeneous Telle...

  4. Generation of spherical and cylindrical shock acoustic waves from optical breakdown in water, stimulated with femtosecond pulse

    OpenAIRE

    Potemkin, F. V.; Mareev, E. I.; Podshivalov, A. A.; Gordienko, V. M.

    2014-01-01

    Using shadow photography technique we have observed shock acoustic wave from optical breakdown, excited in water by tightly focused Cr:Forsterite femtosecond laser beam, and have found two different regimes of shock wave generation by varying only the energy of laser pulse. At low energies a single spherical shock wave is generated from laser beam waist, and its radius tends to saturation with energy increasing. At higher energies long laser filament in water is fired, that leads to the cylin...

  5. Observations of wave transformation over a fringing coral reef and the importance of low-frequency waves and offshore water levels to runup, overwash, and coastal flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriton, Olivia; Storlazzi, Curt; Rosenberger, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Many low-lying tropical islands are susceptible to sea level rise and often subjected to overwash and flooding during large wave events. To quantify wave dynamics and wave-driven water levels on fringing coral reefs, a 5 month deployment of wave gauges and a current meter was conducted across two shore-normal transects on Roi-Namur Island in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. These observations captured two large wave events that had waves with maximum heights greater than 6 m with peak periods of 16 s over the fore reef. The larger event coincided with a peak spring tide, leading to energetic, highly skewed infragravity (0.04–0.004 Hz) and very low frequency (0.004–0.001 Hz) waves at the shoreline, which reached heights of 1.0 and 0.7 m, respectively. Water surface elevations, combined with wave runup, reached 3.7 m above the reef bed at the innermost reef flat adjacent to the toe of the beach, resulting in flooding of inland areas. This overwash occurred during a 3 h time window that coincided with high tide and maximum low-frequency reef flat wave heights. The relatively low-relief characteristics of this narrow reef flat may further drive shoreline amplification of low-frequency waves due to resonance modes. These results (1) demonstrate how the coupling of high offshore water levels with low-frequency reef flat wave energetics can lead to large impacts along fringing reef-lined shorelines, such as island overwash, and (2) lend support to the hypothesis that predicted higher sea levels will lead to more frequent occurrences of these extreme events, negatively impacting coastal resources and infrastructure.

  6. Electromagnetic aquametry electromagnetic wave interaction with water and moist substances

    CERN Document Server

    Kupfer, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of Electromagnetic Aquametry. It summarizes the wide area of metrology and its applications in electromagnetic sensing of moist materials. The physical properties of water in various degrees of binding interacting with electromagnetic fields is presented by model systems. The book describes measurement methods and sensors in the frequency domain, TDR-techniques for environmental problems, methods and sensors for quality assessment of biological substances, and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. Environmental sciences, as well as civil and geoengineering, fossil fuels, food and pharmaceutical science are the main fields of application. A very wide frequency sprectrum is used for dielectric measurement methods, but the microwave range is clearly dominant. Multiparameter methods as well as methods of principal components and artificial neural networks for density independent measurements are described.

  7. Electromagnetic Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Blok, H.; van den Berg, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc.

  8. Flow, waves and water exchange in the Suur Strait, Gulf of Riga, in 2008:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmo Kõuts

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind, flow and wave measurements were performed in November-December in 2008 in the relatively narrowand shallow Suur Strait connecting the waters of the Väinameri and the Gulf of Riga.During the measurement period wind conditions were extremely variable, including a severe storm on 23 November. The flow speedalong the strait varied between ±0.2 m s-1, except for the 0.4 m s-1 that occurred after the storm as a result of the sealevel gradient. The mean and maximum significant wave heights were 0.53 m and 1.6 m respectively. Because of their longer fetch, southerlywinds generated higher waves in the strait than winds from the north. All wave events caused by the stronger southerly windsinduced sediment resuspension, whereas the current-induced shear velocity slightly exceeded the critical value for resuspensiononly when the current speed was 0.4 m s-1. A triple-nested two-dimensional high resolution (100 m in the Suur Strait circulation model and the SWANwave model were used to simulate water exchange in 2008 and the wave-induced shear velocity field in the Suur Strait respectively. Circulation model simulations demonstrated that water exchange was highly variable, that cumulative transport followed an evident seasonal cycle, and that there was an grossannual outflow of 23 km3 from the Gulf of Riga. The horizontal distribution of wave-induced shear velocityduring the strong southerly wind event indicated large shear velocities and substantial horizontal variability. The shearvelocities were less than the critical value for resuspension in the deep area of the Suur Strait.

  9. Dual Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Kallosh, Renata

    1994-01-01

    We study the gravitational waves in the 10-dimensional target space of the superstring theory. Some of these waves have unbroken supersymmetries. They consist of Brinkmann metric and of a 2-form field. Sigma-model duality is applied to such waves. The corresponding solutions we call dual partners of gravitational waves, or dual waves. Some of these dual waves upon Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction to 4 dimensions become equivalent to the conformo-stationary solutions of axion-dilaton gravity...

  10. Networks of triboelectric nanogenerators for harvesting water wave energy: a potential approach toward blue energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Yang, Jin; Li, Zhaoling; Fan, Xing; Zi, Yunlong; Jing, Qingshen; Guo, Hengyu; Wen, Zhen; Pradel, Ken C; Niu, Simiao; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-03-24

    With 70% of the earth's surface covered with water, wave energy is abundant and has the potential to be one of the most environmentally benign forms of electric energy. However, owing to lack of effective technology, water wave energy harvesting is almost unexplored as an energy source. Here, we report a network design made of triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) for large-scale harvesting of kinetic water energy. Relying on surface charging effect between the conventional polymers and very thin layer of metal as electrodes for each TENG, the TENG networks (TENG-NW) that naturally float on the water surface convert the slow, random, and high-force oscillatory wave energy into electricity. On the basis of the measured output of a single TENG, the TENG-NW is expected to give an average power output of 1.15 MW from 1 km(2) surface area. Given the compelling features, such as being lightweight, extremely cost-effective, environmentally friendly, easily implemented, and capable of floating on the water surface, the TENG-NW renders an innovative and effective approach toward large-scale blue energy harvesting from the ocean.

  11. Shock-induced wave propagation over porous and fractured borehole zones : Theory and experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, H.; Smeulders, D.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Borehole waves are strongly affected by adjacent porous zones or by fractures intersecting the borehole. A theoretical description for both porous and fracture zones is possible based on the introduction of an effective borehole fluid bulk modulus, characterizing the wave attenuation via borehole

  12. Realization of mutually unbiased bases for a qubit with only one wave plate: theory and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhibo; Xiang, Guoyong; Dong, Daoyi; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-04-20

    We consider the problem of implementing mutually unbiased bases (MUB) for a polarization qubit with only one wave plate, the minimum number of wave plates. We show that one wave plate is sufficient to realize two MUB as long as its phase shift (modulo 360°) ranges between 45° and 315°. It can realize three MUB (a complete set of MUB for a qubit) if the phase shift of the wave plate is within [111.5°, 141.7°] or its symmetric range with respect to 180°. The systematic error of the realized MUB using a third-wave plate (TWP) with 120° phase is calculated to be a half of that using the combination of a quarter-wave plate (QWP) and a half-wave plate (HWP). As experimental applications, TWPs are used in single-qubit and two-qubit quantum state tomography experiments and the results show a systematic error reduction by 50%. This technique not only saves one wave plate but also reduces the systematic error, which can be applied to quantum state tomography and other applications involving MUB. The proposed TWP may become a useful instrument in optical experiments, replacing multiple elements like QWP and HWP.

  13. The finite product method in the theory of linear wave propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey; Chapman, John

    2012-01-01

    of the method are presented for several non-trivial examples, that of symmetric/anti-symmetric elastic waves in a layer and in a thin plate. In each case, the method gives a sequence of polynomial approximations to the dispersion relation of remarkable accuracy over a broad range of frequencies and wave numbers...

  14. Experimental and numerical study of shock wave propagation in water generated by pulsed arc electrohydraulic discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Maurel, Olivier; La Borderie, Christian; Reess, Thierry; De Ferron, Antoine; Matallah, Mohammed; Pijaudier-Cabot, Gilles; Jacques, Antoine; Rey-Bethbeder, Frank

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study is to simulate the propagation of the shock wave in water due to an explosion. The study is part of a global research program on the development of an alternative stimulation technique to conventional hydraulic fracturing in tight gas reservoirs aimed at inducing a distributed state of microcracking of rocks instead of localized fracture. We consider the possibility of increasing the permeability of rocks with dynamic blasts. The blast is a shock wave generated in water by pulsed arc electrohydraulic discharges. The amplitude of these shock waves is prescribed by the electrohydraulic discharges which generate high pressures of several kilobars within microseconds. A simplified method has been used to simulate the injected electrical energy as augmentation of enthalpy in water locally. The finite element code EUROPLEXUS is used to perform fluid fast dynamic computation. The predicted pressure is consistent with the experimental results. In addition, shock wave propagation characteristics predicted with simulation can be valuable reference for design of underwater structural elements and engineering of underwater explosion.

  15. A nanowire based triboelectric nanogenerator for harvesting water wave energy and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyi; Tao, Juan; Zhu, Jing; Pan, Caofeng

    2017-07-01

    The ocean wave energy is one of the most promising renewable and clean energy sources for human life, which is the so-called "Blue energy." In this work, a nanowire based triboelectric nanogenerator was designed for harvesting wave energy. The nanowires on the surface of FEP largely raise the contacting area with water and also make the polymer film hydrophobic. The output can reach 10 μ A and 200 V. When combined with a capacitor, an infrared emitter, and a receiver, a self-powered wireless infrared system is fabricated, which can be used in the fields of communication and detecting.

  16. Stohastic Model for Loads on Offshore Structures from Wave, Wind, Current and Water Elevation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Sterndorff, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    For code-based LRFD and for reliability-based assessment of offshore structures such as steel platforms it is essential that consistent stochastic models for the main metocean parameters are available. The most important metocean parameters are the significant wave height, maximum individual wave...... height, maximum crest height, wind speed, current speed and water elevation. In this paper a consistent stochastic model for these parameters is formulated, where the relevant directional dependence is included. For code-based LRFD assessment it is shown how the stochastic models can be used to determine...... characteristic values, partial safety factors, directional factors and load combination factors relevant for Central North Sea conditions....

  17. Short-crested waves in deep water: a numerical investigation of recent laboratory experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.

    2006-01-01

    A numerical study of quasi-steady, doubly-periodic monochromatic short-crested wave patterns in deep water is conducted using a high-order Boussinesq-type model. Simulations using linear wavemaker conditions in the nonlinear model are initially used to approximate conditions from recent laboratory...... inclusion of steady third-order components in the wave generation is shown to significantly reduce the modulations (and other unsteady features), further confirming the explanation. This numerical work makes apparent some previously unknown difficulties associated with the physical generation of even...

  18. Development of an Efficient GPU-Accelerated Model for Fully Nonlinear Water Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of an optimized sequential single-CPU algorithm based on a flexible-order Finite Difference Method. High performance is pursued by utilizing many-core processing in the model focusing on GPUs for acceleration of code execution. This involves combining analytical methods with an algorithm redesign of the current......This work is concerned with the development of an efficient high-throughput scalable model for simulation of fully nonlinear water waves (OceanWave3D) applicable to solve and analyze large-scale problems in coastal engineering. The goal can be achieved through algorithm redesign and parallelization...... numerical model....

  19. An efficient flexible-order model for coastal and ocean water waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Bingham, Harry B.; Lindberg, Ole

    Current work are directed toward the development of an improved numerical 3D model for fully nonlinear potential water waves over arbitrary depths. The model is high-order accurate, robust and efficient for large-scale problems, and support will be included for flexibility in the description...... of structures. The mathemathical equations for potential waves in the physical domain is transformed through $\\sigma$-mapping(s) to a time-invariant boundary-fitted domain which then becomes a basis for an efficient solution strategy. The improved 3D numerical model is based on a finite difference method...

  20. A nanowire based triboelectric nanogenerator for harvesting water wave energy and its applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ocean wave energy is one of the most promising renewable and clean energy sources for human life, which is the so-called “Blue energy.” In this work, a nanowire based triboelectric nanogenerator was designed for harvesting wave energy. The nanowires on the surface of FEP largely raise the contacting area with water and also make the polymer film hydrophobic. The output can reach 10 μ A and 200 V. When combined with a capacitor, an infrared emitter, and a receiver, a self-powered wireless infrared system is fabricated, which can be used in the fields of communication and detecting.

  1. Field investigations on port non-tranquility caused by infra-gravity water waves

    OpenAIRE

    Najafi-Jilani, A.; Rahimi-Maleki, D.

    2010-01-01

    Field investigations have been carried out in two 60-day stages on the surf beat low frequency waves in Anzali port, one of the main commercial ports in Iran, located in southwest coast of the Caspian Sea. The characteristics of significant water waves were measured at three metering stations in the sea, one at the entrance of the port and three in the basin. The measured data were inspected to investigate the surf beat negative effects on the tranquility of the port. Using field measurements...

  2. Deep water velocities and particle displacements induced by acoustic-gravity waves from submarine earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, T. C. A.; Kadri, U.

    2016-02-01

    An uplift of the ocean bottom caused by a submarine earthquake can generate Acoustic-Gravity Waves (AGW), progressive compression-type waves that travel at near the speed of sound in water. The role of AGW for oceans hydrodynamics has recently became a topic of increasing scientific interest. Kadri [Deep ocean water transport by acoustic-gravity waves, J.Geo. Res. Oceans, 119, (2014)] showed theoretically that AGW can contribute to deep ocean currents and circulation. We analyze and simulate the fundamental AGW modes generated by a submarine earthquake. We consider the first five AGW modes and show that they may all induce comparable temporal variations in water particle velocities at different depths in regions far from the epicenter. Results of temporal variations of horizontal and vertical fluid parcel velocities induced by AGW confirm chaotic flow trajectories at different water depths. A realistic example based on the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake shows that vertical water particle displacements of O(10-2 ) m can be generated at 1 Km depth in a 4 km water depth ocean. We show that the velocity field depends on the presence of the leading AGW modes. Each AGW mode becomes evanescent at a critical time, at which energy is transferred to the next higher modes. Consequently, the main pattern of the velocity field changes as the leading mode change. As an example, for a reference point located at 1000 Km from the epicenter, the first five AGW become evanescent after 1.6, 4.6, 7.7, 10.8 and 13.8 hours, respectively. Our analysis and simulations shed light on the spatio-temporal evolution of the deep water velocities and particle displacements induced by AGW that radiate during submarine earthquakes. Thus, this work is a contribution to understand the role of high moment magnitude submarine earthquakes in deep water mixing mechanism.

  3. Theory of Optical Leaky-Wave Antenna Integrated in a Ring Resonator for Radiation Control

    CERN Document Server

    Guclu, Caner; Capolino, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    The integration of a leaky-wave antenna with a ring resonator is presented using analytical guided wave models. The device consists of a ring resonator fed by a directional coupler, where the ring resonator path includes a leaky-wave antenna segment. The resonator integration provides two main advantages: the high-quality factor ensures effective control of radiation intensity by controlling the resonance conditions and the efficient radiation from a leaky-wave antenna even when its length is much smaller than the propagation length of the leaky wave. We devise an analytical model of the guided wave propagation along a directional coupler and the ring resonator path including the antenna and non-radiating segments. The trade-offs regarding the quality factor of resonance and the antenna efficiency of such a design is reported in terms of the coupler parameters, leaky-wave constant and radiation length. Finally a CMOS-compatible OLWA design suitable for the ring resonator integration is designed where Silicon ...

  4. Optodynamic characterization of shock waves after laser-induced breakdown in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkovsek, Rok; Mozina, Janez; Mocnik, Grisa

    2005-05-30

    Plasma and a cavitation bubble develop at the site of laser-induced breakdown in water. Their formation and the propagation of the shock wave were monitored by a beam-deflection probe and an arm-compensated interferometer. The interferometer part of the setup was used to determine the relative position of the laser-induced breakdown. The time-of-flight data from the breakdown site to the probe beam yielded the velocity, and from the velocity the shock-wave pressure amplitudes were calculated. Two regions were found where the pressure decays with different exponents, pointing to a strong attenuation mechanism in the initial phase of the shock-wave propagation.

  5. Internal waves and surf zone water quality at Huntington Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H.; Santoro, A.; Nidzieko, N. J.; Hench, J. L.; Boehm, A. B.

    2011-12-01

    This study characterized diurnal, semi-diurnal, and high-frequency internal wave field at Huntington Beach, California, USA and the connection between internal waves and surf zone water quality. An array of oceanographic moorings was deployed in the summer of 2005 and 2006 at 10-20 meter depths offshore of the beach to observe internal waves and cross-shore exchange. Concurrently, surf zone water quality was assessed twice daily at an adjacent station (Huntington State Beach) with measurements of phosphate, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, silicate, chlorophyll a, fecal indicator bacteria, and the human-specific fecal DNA marker in Bacteroidales. Spectral analysis of water temperature shows well-defined spectral peaks at diurnal and semi-diurnal frequencies. Complex Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis of observed currents reveals that the baroclinic component (summation of second to fifth principal components) accounted for 30% of the total variance in the currents in both years, indicating the importance of density-driven flow during the summer when the water column was stratified. The major axis of the first principal component was oriented alongshore, whereas that of the second and third principal components made an angle of 25 to 55 degree with the cross-shore direction. Arrival of cold subthermocline water in the very near shore (within 1 km of the surf zone) was characterized by strong onshore flow near the bottom of the water column. The near bottom, baroclinic, cross-shore current was significantly lag-correlated with the near bottom temperature data along a cross-shore transect towards shore, indicative of shoreward transport of cold subthermocline water. Wavelet analysis of temperature data showed that non-stationary temperature fluctuations were correlated with buoyancy frequency and the near bottom cross-shore baroclinic current. During periods of large temperature fluctuations, the majority of the variance was within the semi-diurnal band; however, the

  6. Theory of Nonlinear Guided Electromagnetic Waves in a Plane Two-Layered Dielectric Waveguide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Yu. Kurseeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Propagation of transverse electric electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plane two-layered dielectric waveguide filled with a nonlinear medium is considered. The original wave propagation problem is reduced to a nonlinear eigenvalue problem for an equation with discontinuous coefficients. The eigenvalues are propagation constants (PCs of the guided waves that the waveguide supports. The existence of PCs that do not have linear counterparts and therefore cannot be found with any perturbation method is proven. PCs without linear counterparts correspond to a novel propagation regime that arises due to the nonlinearity. Numerical results are also presented; the comparison between linear and nonlinear cases is made.

  7. Density waves in Saturn's rings probed by radio and optical occultation - Observational tests of theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Thomas G.; Rosen, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    A parallel examination is conducted of Voyager radio and photopolarimeter occultation observations of the Saturn A ring's density waves. The radio instrument waves exhibit an average -90 deg offset from the dynamical phase. A warping height of about 100-m amplitude can qualtitatively reproduce this phase shift, while preserving the overall model wave shape. These results may be profoundly relevant for satellite-ring torque calculations in Saturn's rings, given the deposition of all of the net torque of the standard model in the first wavelength.

  8. Covariant spectator theory of $np$ scattering:\\\\ Effective range expansions and relativistic deuteron wave functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz Gross, Alfred Stadler

    2010-09-01

    We present the effective range expansions for the 1S0 and 3S1 scattering phase shifts, and the relativistic deuteron wave functions that accompany our recent high precision fits (with \\chi^2/N{data} \\simeq 1) to the 2007 world np data below 350 MeV. The wave functions are expanded in a series of analytical functions (with the correct asymptotic behavior at both large and small arguments) that can be Fourier-transformed from momentum to coordinate space and are convenient to use in any application. A fortran subroutine to compute these wave functions can be obtained from the authors.

  9. Theory and experiment on electromagnetic-wave-propagation velocities in stacked superconducting tunnel structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, S.; Ustinov, A. V.; Kohlstedt, H.

    1994-01-01

    focused on. Furthermore, under the assumption that all parameters of the layers are equal, analytic solutions for a generic N-fold stack are presented. The velocities of the waves in two- and three-junction stacks by Nb-Al-AlOx-Nb systems are experimentally obtained by measuring the cavity resonance......Characteristic velocities of the electromagnetic waves propagating in vertically stacked Josephson transmission are theoretically discussed. An equation for solving n velocities of the waves in an n Josephson-junction stack is derived. The solutions of two- and threefold stacks are especially...

  10. Polarization properties of Gendrin mode waves observed in the Earth's magnetosphere: observations and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Verkhoglyadova

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We show a case of an outer zone magnetospheric electromagnetic wave propagating at the Gendrin angle, within uncertainty of the measurements. The chorus event occurred in a "minimum B pocket". For the illustrated example, the measured angle of wave propagation relative to the ambient magnetic field θkB was 58°±4°. For this event the theoretical Gendrin angle was 62°. Cold plasma model is used to demonstrate that Gendrin mode waves are right-hand circularly polarized, in excellent agreement with the observations.

  11. Phenotypic responses to water flow and wave exposure in aquatic plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Gałka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic responses of 10 aquatic plant species from 5 rivers and 5 lakes in NW Poland were examined. Chara fragilis, C. delicatula, Potamogeton pectinatus, P. perfoliatus, P. natans, Spirodela polyrhiza, Hydrocharis morsus-ranae, Salvinia natans, Nymphoides peltata and Juncus bulbosus were the subject of research. In the running water of rivers, rhizophytes were generally bigger and they allocated from 0.6% to 58.6% more biomass for anchoring in the substrate than in stagnant water (ox bow lakes. In both flow variants rhizophytes allocated a similar biomass fraction for generative reproduction. On the other hand, under the influence of water flow pleustophytes reduced the mass of an individual (Spirodela by 25%, Hydrocharis 67%, Salvinia 77% and emergent structures (p<0.001, and the number of sporangia (p<0.001. In both flow variants the input of biomass to generative reproduction was the same (Salvinia, or it was greater in running water (Hydrocharis; an increase from 4.9±1.3% to 15.1±3.6%. Under the conditions of strong wave action, in comparison with the lack of this environmental factor, Chara delicatula was several times shorter (p<0.001. However, it was also stouter, and as a result it had similar mass. In the areas of wave action the plant allocated 88.8% of its mass for anchoring in the substrate, whereas when there were no waves, only 22.7%.

  12. Negative Pressures and Spallation in Water Drops Subjected to Nanosecond Shock Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Claudiu A; Willmott, Philip R; Stone, Howard A; Koglin, Jason E; Liang, Mengning; Aquila, Andrew L; Robinson, Joseph S; Gumerlock, Karl L; Blaj, Gabriel; Sierra, Raymond G; Boutet, Sébastien; Guillet, Serge A H; Curtis, Robin H; Vetter, Sharon L; Loos, Henrik; Turner, James L; Decker, Franz-Josef

    2016-06-02

    Most experimental studies of cavitation in liquid water at negative pressures reported cavitation at tensions significantly smaller than those expected for homogeneous nucleation, suggesting that achievable tensions are limited by heterogeneous cavitation. We generated tension pulses with nanosecond rise times in water by reflecting cylindrical shock waves, produced by X-ray laser pulses, at the internal surface of drops of water. Depending on the X-ray pulse energy, a range of cavitation phenomena occurred, including the rupture and detachment, or spallation, of thin liquid layers at the surface of the drop. When spallation occurred, we evaluated that negative pressures below -100 MPa were reached in the drops. We model the negative pressures from shock reflection experiments using a nucleation-and-growth model that explains how rapid decompression could outrun heterogeneous cavitation in water, and enable the study of stretched water close to homogeneous cavitation pressures.

  13. Origin and Structure of Nearshore Internal Tides and Waves: Data Analysis and Linear Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hendershott, Myrl

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the data set obtained during the 1996-97 summer and autumn deployments of ADCP and T-logger internal wave antennas of Mission Beach, CA, was the principle activity during the reporting period...

  14. An improved IST approach for detection of deep-water solitary wave groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slunyaev, Alexey

    2017-04-01

    When the Inverse Scattering Technique (IST) is applied with the purpose of detection of solitary deep-water wave groups hidden in the field of irregular waves, then the determination of the carrier wavenumber, k0, is one of the most important steps. It is because the dominant wave length introduces a characteristic scale in the system. The similarity parameter of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (equivalent of the Benjamin - Feir Index), which characterizes the role of nonlinear effects in comparison to the wave dispersion, is dimensional as [m2]. In fact, an error in the value of the carrier wavenumber results in an error in evaluation of the solitary group amplitude with factor 2. When waves are not very small, and their spectrum is not very narrow, the problem how to calculate the carrier wavenumber becomes crucial. In this study we consider a number of approaches to calculate k0 on the basis of given examples of momentary snapshots of the surface displacement, looking for the most robust methods. Finally, we suggest a different approach, of a two-step IST procedure, when the carrier wavenumber at the second step is corrected according to the result of analysis at the first step. We show that this approach possesses improved robustness and is much less dependent on the way how the primary value of k0 is evaluated.

  15. Mathematical Modeling of Oscillating Water Columns Wave-Structure Interaction in Ocean Energy Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor J. Garrido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oscillating Water Column (OWC-based power take-off systems are one of the potential solutions to the current energy problems arising from the use of nuclear fission and the consumption of fossil fuels. This kind of energy converter turns wave energy into electric power by means of three different stages: firstly wave energy is transformed into pneumatic energy in the OWC chamber, and then a turbine turns it into mechanical energy and finally the turbogenerator module attached to the turbine creates electric power from the rotational mechanical energy. To date, capture chambers have been the least studied part. In this context, this paper presents an analytical model describing the dynamic behavior of the capture chamber, encompassing the wave motion and its interaction with the OWC structure and turbogenerator module. The model is tested for the case of the Mutriku wave power plant by means of experimental results. For this purpose, representative case studies are selected from wave and pressure drop input-output data. The results show an excellent matching rate between the values predicted by the model and the experimental measured data with a small bounded error in all cases, so that the validity of the proposed model is proven.

  16. Numerical analysis of regular waves over an onshore oscillating water column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davyt, D.P.; Teixeira, P.R.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)], E-mail: pauloteixeira@furg.br; Ramalhais, R. [Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Caparica (Portugal). Fac. de Ciencias e Tecnologia; Didier, E. [Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia Civil, Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail: edidier@lnec.pt

    2010-07-01

    The potential of wave energy along coastal areas is a particularly attractive option in regions of high latitude, such as the coasts of northern Europe, North America, New Zealand, Chile and Argentina where high densities of annual average wave energy are found (typically between 40 and 100 kW/m of wave front). Power estimated in the south of Brazil is 30kW/m, creating a possible alternative of source energy in the region. There are many types and designs of equipment to capture energy from waves under analysis, such as the oscillating water column type (OWC) which has been one of the first to be developed and installed at sea. Despite being one of the most analyzed wave energy converter devices, there are few case studies using numerical simulation. In this context, the numerical analysis of regular waves over an onshore OWC is the main objective of this paper. The numerical models FLUINCO and FLUENT are used for achieving this goal. The FLUINCO model is based on RANS equations which are discretized using the two-step semi-implicit Taylor-Galerkin method. An arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian formulation is used to enable the solution of problems involving free surface movements. The FLUENT code (version 6.3.26) is based on the finite volume method to solve RANS equations. Volume of Fluid method (VOF) is used for modeling free surface flows. Time integration is achieved by a second order implicit scheme, momentum equations are discretized using MUSCL scheme and HRIC (High Resolution Interface Capturing) scheme is used for convective term of VOF transport equation. The case study consists of a 10.m deep channel with a 10 m wide chamber at its end. One meter high waves with different periods are simulated. Comparisons between FLUINCO and FLUENT results are presented. Free surface elevation inside the chamber; velocity distribution and streamlines; amplification factor (relation between wave height inside the chamber and incident wave height); phase angle (angular

  17. Effect of Upstream ULF Waves on the Energetic Ion Diffusion at the Earth's Foreshock. I. Theory and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Fumiko; Matsukiyo, Shuichi; Kis, Arpad; Nakanishi, Kento; Hada, Tohru

    2018-02-01

    Field-aligned diffusion of energetic ions in the Earth’s foreshock is investigated by using the quasi-linear theory (QLT) and test particle simulation. Non-propagating MHD turbulence in the solar wind rest frame is assumed to be purely transverse with respect to the background field. We use a turbulence model based on a multi-power-law spectrum including an intense peak that corresponds to upstream ULF waves resonantly generated by the field-aligned beam (FAB). The presence of the ULF peak produces a concave shape of the diffusion coefficient when it is plotted versus the ion energy. The QLT including the effect of the ULF wave explains the simulation result well, when the energy density of the turbulent magnetic field is 1% of that of the background magnetic field and the power-law index of the wave spectrum is less than 2. The numerically obtained e-folding distances from 10 to 32 keV ions match with the observational values in the event discussed in the companion paper, which contains an intense ULF peak in the spectra generated by the FAB. Evolution of the power spectrum of the ULF waves when approaching the shock significantly affects the energy dependence of the e-folding distance.

  18. The kinetic theory to problem of attenuation transversal sound waves in metal

    OpenAIRE

    Latyshev, A. V.; Yushkanov, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Earlier electron influence on sound absorption in metal on basis of the assumption of deformation of Fermi-surfaces under the influence of a sound wave was considered. In the present work other approach to this problem will be considered. Our approach based on the account of dynamic (kinetic) interaction of electronic gas with lattice fluctuations. The analysis of influence of electric field on process of attenuation of sound fluctuations is carried out. It is shown that in the long-wave limi...

  19. Spatial and temporal variations of wave energy in the nearshore waters of the central west coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Amrutha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of wave power potential at different water depths and time is required for identifying a wave power plant location. This study examines the variation in wave power off the central west coast of India at water depths of 30, 9 and 5 m based on waverider buoy measured wave data. The study shows a significant reduction ( ∼  10 to 27 % in wave power at 9 m water depth compared to 30 m and the wave power available at 5 m water depth is 20 to 23 % less than that at 9 m. At 9 m depth, the seasonal mean value of the wave power varied from 1.6 kW m−1 in the post-monsoon period (ONDJ to 15.2 kW m−1 in the Indian summer monsoon (JJAS period. During the Indian summer monsoon period, the variation of wave power in a day is up to 32 kW m−1. At 9 m water depth, the mean annual wave power is 6 kW m−1 and interannual variations up to 19.3 % are observed during 2009–2014. High wave energy ( >  20 kW m−1 at the study area is essentially from the directional sector 245–270° and also 75 % of the total annual wave energy is from this narrow directional sector, which is advantageous while aligning the wave energy converter.

  20. The relationship between tropospheric wave forcing and tropical lower stratospheric water vapor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dhomse

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Using water vapor data from HALOE and SAGE II, an anti-correlation between planetary wave driving (here expressed by the mid-latitude eddy heat flux at 50 hPa added from both hemispheres and tropical lower stratospheric (TLS water vapor has been obtained. This appears to be a manifestation of the inter-annual variability of the Brewer-Dobson (BD circulation strength (the driving of which is generally measured in terms of the mid-latitude eddy heat flux, and hence amount of water vapor entering the stratosphere. Some years such as 1991 and 1997 show, however, a clear departure from the anti-correlation which suggests that the water vapor changes in TLS can not be attributed solely to changes in extratropical planetary wave activity (and its effect on the BD circulation. After 2000 a sudden decrease in lower stratospheric water vapor has been reported in earlier studies based upon satellite data from HALOE, SAGE II and POAM III indicating that the lower stratosphere has become drier since then. This is consistent with a sudden rise in the combined mid-latitude eddy heat flux with nearly equal contribution from both hemispheres as shown here and with the increase in tropical upwelling and decrease in cold point temperatures found by Randel et al. (2006. The low water vapor and enhanced planetary wave activity (in turn strength of the BD circulation has persisted until the end of the satellite data records. From a multi-variate regression analysis applied to 27 years of NCEP and HadAT2 (radiosonde temperatures (up to 2005 with contributions from solar cycle, stratospheric aerosols and QBO removed, the enhancement wave driving after 2000 is estimated to contribute up to 0.7 K cooling to the overall TLS temperature change during the period 2001–2005 when compared to the period 1996–2000. NCEP cold point temperature show an average decrease of nearly 0.4 K from changes in the wave driving, which is consistent with observed mean TLS water vapor

  1. Theory and observations of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves in Saturn's inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, D. D.

    1993-01-01

    High-resolution Voyager 1 magnetic field observations of Saturn's inner magnetosphere are examined for the presence of ULF waves. Quasi-circular left-hand polarized transverse oscillations are found in the near-equatorial region of 5-7 Rs with a wave period about 10 s and peak amplitude of about 2 nT. The wave is identified as the electromagnetic oxygen cyclotron mode occurring at a frequency just below the O(+) ion cyclotron frequency. A theoretical model of wave excitation based on gyroresonant coupling through a temperature anisotropy of O(+) pickup ions is developed which accounts for the principal features of the wave spectrum. It is hypothesized that wave-particle interactions provide a level of scattering commensurate with the weak pitch angle diffusion regime but nonetheless one that regulates and maintains a constant thermal anisotropy of ions along the magnetic field. Arguments are also presented that O(+) was the dominant thermal ion of the Dione-Tethys plasma torus at the time of the Pioneer 11 encounter the year previous to the Voyager 1 measurements.

  2. Simulating the Effects of Lake Wind Waves on Water and Solute Exchange across the Lakeshore Using Hydrus-2D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wind waves, which frequently occur on large surface water bodies such as lakes, may temporarily alter flow patterns in a subsurface zone and the corresponding water and nutrient interactions between surface waters and shallow groundwaters. To better understand these processes, soil flume experiments were carried out to investigate wind wave-driven water and chloride interactions across the lake–groundwater interface, and the Hydrus-2D model was used to analyze and evaluate the observed experimental results. Two interaction cases between the lake and groundwater systems were considered: groundwater discharging into a lake (the GDL case, and lake water recharging groundwater (the LRG case. For comparison, no-wave conditions for both the GDL and LRG cases were also analyzed. The results revealed that, similarly to no-wave conditions, water and chloride exchange fluxes between the lake and groundwater systems under wave conditions occurred mainly within narrow bands near the intersection of the water level in the lake and the interface in both the GDL and LRG cases, and then exponentially decreased along the interface. Most water and chloride that infiltrated into the subsurface zone through the upper part of the interface during a wave crest returned to the lake through the lower part during a wave trough in both the GDL and LRG cases, creating local recirculation zones in the subsurface near the interface. Such recirculation produced a more frequent exchange of water and solute across the interface compared with those under no-wave conditions. During a one-day period after wind waves started, the total exchange fluxes of water and chloride to the lake decreased by 36.2% and 71.9%, respectively, compared to the no-wave conditions in the GDL case. In the LRG case, the total exchange water fluxes to the subsurface increased by 89.7%, while the total exchange chloride fluxes increased only slightly (4.5% compared to the no-wave conditions due to the

  3. Application of Chaos Theory and Artificial Neural Networks to Evaluate Evaporation from Lake's Water Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Farzin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dynamic nature of hydrological phenomena and the limited availability of appropriate mathematical tools caused the most previous studies in this field led to the random and the probabilistic approach. So selection the best model for evaluation of these phenomena is essential and complex. Nowadays different models are used for evaluation and prediction of hydrological phenomena. Damle and Yalcin (2007 estimated river runoff by chaos theory. khatibi et al (2012 used artificial neural network and gene expression programming to predict relative humidity. Zounemat and Kisi (2015 evaluated chaotic behavior of marine wind-wave system of Caspian sea. One of the important hydrological phenomena is evaporation, especially in lakes. The investigation of deterministic and stochastic behavior of water evaporation values in the lakes in order to select the best simulation approach and capable of prediction is an important and controversial issue that has been studied in this research. Materials and Methods: In the present paper, monthly values of evaporation are evaluated by two different models. Chaos theory and artificial neural network are used for the analysis of stochastic behavior and capability of prediction of water evaporation values in the Urmia Lake in northwestern of Iran. In recent years, Urmia Lake has unpleasant changes and drop in water level due to inappropriate management and climate change. One of the important factors related to climate change, is evaporation. Urmia Lake is a salt lake, and because of existence valuable ecology, environmental issues and maintenance of ecosystems of this lake are very important. So evaporation can have an essential role in the salinity, environmental and the hydrological cycle of the lake. In this regard, according to the ability of chaos theory and artificial neural network to analysis nonlinear dynamic systems; monthly values of evaporation, during a 40-year period, are investigated and then

  4. The Phenomenology of Iron Pnictides Superconductors Explained in the Framework of -Wave Three-Band Eliashberg Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Ummarino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The s-wave three-band Eliashberg theory can simultaneously reproduce the experimental critical temperatures and the gap values of the superconducting materials LaFeAsO0.9F0.1, Ba0.6K0.4Fe2As2 and SmFeAsO0.8F0.2 as exponent of the more important families of iron pnictides. In this model the dominant role is played by interband interactions and the order parameter undergoes a sign reversal between hole and electron bands (±-wave symmetry. The values of all the gaps (with the exact experimental critical temperature can be obtained by using high values of the electron-boson coupling constants and small typical boson energies (in agreement with experiments.

  5. Analyzing Intersectorial Water Relationships by means of Graph Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Velazquez Alonso

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate the relationships between an economy’s productive sectors and the water consumption generated during productive processes. We shall study the andalusian reality, a region of southern Spain characterized by water scarcity, and we will examine whether excessive dependence on water resources which, may occur in some productive sectors, might affect not only the conservation and quality of this resource, but also have negative effects upon the solidity of th...

  6. Modeling Source Water Threshold Exceedances with Extreme Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, B.; Samson, C.; Summers, R. S.

    2016-12-01

    Variability in surface water quality, influenced by seasonal and long-term climate changes, can impact drinking water quality and treatment. In particular, temperature and precipitation can impact surface water quality directly or through their influence on streamflow and dilution capacity. Furthermore, they also impact land surface factors, such as soil moisture and vegetation, which can in turn affect surface water quality, in particular, levels of organic matter in surface waters which are of concern. All of these will be exacerbated by anthropogenic climate change. While some source water quality parameters, particularly Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and bromide concentrations, are not directly regulated for drinking water, these parameters are precursors to the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), which are regulated in drinking water distribution systems. These DBPs form when a disinfectant, added to the water to protect public health against microbial pathogens, most commonly chlorine, reacts with dissolved organic matter (DOM), measured as TOC or dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and inorganic precursor materials, such as bromide. Therefore, understanding and modeling the extremes of TOC and Bromide concentrations is of critical interest for drinking water utilities. In this study we develop nonstationary extreme value analysis models for threshold exceedances of source water quality parameters, specifically TOC and bromide concentrations. In this, the threshold exceedances are modeled as Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) whose parameters vary as a function of climate and land surface variables - thus, enabling to capture the temporal nonstationarity. We apply these to model threshold exceedance of source water TOC and bromide concentrations at two locations with different climate and find very good performance.

  7. Impulse waves generated by snow avalanches: Momentum and energy transfer to a water body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitti, Gianluca; Ancey, Christophe; Postacchini, Matteo; Brocchini, Maurizio

    2016-12-01

    When a snow avalanche enters a body of water, it creates an impulse wave whose effects may be catastrophic. Assessing the risk posed by such events requires estimates of the wave's features. Empirical equations have been developed for this purpose in the context of landslides and rock avalanches. Despite the density difference between snow and rock, these equations are also used in avalanche protection engineering. We developed a theoretical model which describes the momentum transfers between the particle and water phases of such events. Scaling analysis showed that these momentum transfers were controlled by a number of dimensionless parameters. Approximate solutions could be worked out by aggregating the dimensionless numbers into a single dimensionless group, which then made it possible to reduce the system's degree of freedom. We carried out experiments that mimicked a snow avalanche striking a reservoir. A lightweight granular material was used as a substitute for snow. The setup was devised so as to satisfy the Froude similarity criterion between the real-world and laboratory scenarios. Our experiments in a water channel showed that the numerical solutions underestimated wave amplitude by a factor of 2 on average. We also compared our experimental data with those obtained by Heller and Hager (2010), who used the same relative particle density as in our runs, but at higher slide Froude numbers.

  8. The quality of our drinking water: aluminium determination with an acoustic wave sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veríssimo, Marta I S; Gomes, M Teresa S R

    2008-06-09

    A new methodology based on an inexpensive aluminium acoustic wave sensor is presented. Although the aluminium sensor has already been reported, and the composition of the selective membrane is known, the low detection limits required for the analysis of drinking water, demanded the inclusion of a preconcentration stage, as well as an optimization of the sensor. The necessary coating amount was established, as well as the best preconcentration protocol, in terms of oxidation of organic matter and aluminium elution from the Chelex-100. The methodology developed with the acoustic wave sensor allowed aluminium quantitation above 0.07 mg L(-1). Several water samples from Portugal were analysed using the acoustic wave sensor, as well as by UV-vis spectrophotometry. Results obtained with both methodologies were not statistically different (alpha=0.05), both in terms of accuracy and precision. This new methodology proved to be adequate for aluminium quantitation in drinking water and showed to be faster and less reagent consuming than the UV spectrophotometric methodology.

  9. Prolongation of the deployment and monitoring of a multiple oscillating water column wave energy converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Chudley, J.; Dai, Y.M.

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project to prolong the sea trials of a multiple oscillating water column wave energy converter (MOWC) device for another 12 months to obtain further data. The objectives of the project include the evaluation of the ability of the MOWC to generate reliable energy to produce electricity, the estimation of the conversion efficiency, and the identification of improvements to increase the conversion efficiency, Details are given of the analysis of the sea trials data, and the performance of the broadband oscillating water column prototype.

  10. Wave propagation against current : a study of the effects of vertical shears of the mean current on the geometrical focusing of water waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charland, Jenna; Touboul, Julien; Rey, Vincent

    2013-04-01

    Wave propagation against current : a study of the effects of vertical shears of the mean current on the geometrical focusing of water waves J. Charland * **, J. Touboul **, V. Rey ** jenna.charland@univ-tln.fr * Direction Générale de l'Armement, CNRS Délégation Normandie ** Université de Toulon, 83957 La Garde, France Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO) Aix Marseille Université, 13288 Marseille, France CNRS/INSU, IRD, MIO, UM 110 In the nearshore area, both wave propagation and currents are influenced by the bathymetry. For a better understanding of wave - current interactions in the presence of a 3D bathymetry, a large scale experiment was carried out in the Ocean Basin FIRST, Toulon, France. The 3D bathymetry consisted of two symmetric underwater mounds on both sides in the mean wave direction. The water depth at the top the mounds was hm=1,5m, the slopes of the mounds were of about 1:3, the water depth was h=3 m elsewhere. For opposite current conditions (U of order 0.30m/s), a huge focusing of the wave up to twice its incident amplitude was observed in the central part of the basin for T=1.4s. Since deep water conditions are verified, the wave amplification is ascribed to the current field. The mean velocity fields at a water depth hC=0.25m was measured by the use of an electromagnetic current meter. The results have been published in Rey et al [4]. The elliptic form of the "mild slope" equation including a uniform current on the water column (Chen et al [1]) was then used for the calculations. The calculated wave amplification of factor 1.2 is significantly smaller than observed experimentally (factor 2). So, the purpose of this study is to understand the physical processes which explain this gap. As demonstrated by Kharif & Pelinovsky [2], geometrical focusing of waves is able to modify significantly the local wave amplitude. We consider this process here. Since vertical velocity profiles measured at some locations have shown significant

  11. Modified spin-wave theory and spin-liquid behavior of cold bosons on an inhomogeneous triangular lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celi, Alessio; Grass, Tobias; Ferris, Andrew J.; Padhi, Bikash; Raventós, David; Simonet, Juliette; Sengstock, Klaus; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2016-08-01

    Ultracold bosons in a triangular lattice are a promising candidate for observing quantum spin liquid behavior. Here we investigate, for such system, the role of a harmonic trap giving rise to an inhomogeneous density. We construct a modified spin-wave theory for arbitrary filling and predict the breakdown of order for certain values of the lattice anisotropy. These regimes, identified with the spin liquid phases, are found to be quite robust upon changes in the filling factor. This result is backed by an exact diagonalization study on a small lattice.

  12. Health belief model and reasoned action theory in predicting water saving behaviors in yazd, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Momayyezi, Mahdieh; Ghaneian, Mohammad Taghi

    2012-01-01

    People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter¬mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha¬viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. The cross-sectional study used random cluster sampling to recruit 200 heads of households to collect the data. The survey questionnaire was tested for its content validity and reliability. Analysis of data included descriptive statistics, simple correlation, hierarchical multiple regression. Simple correlations between water saving behaviors and Reasoned Action Theory and Health Belief Model constructs were statistically significant. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory constructs explained 20.80% and 8.40% of the variances in water saving beha-viors, respectively. Perceived barriers were the strongest Predictor. Additionally, there was a sta¬tistically positive correlation between water saving behaviors and intention. In designing interventions aimed at water waste prevention, barriers of water saving behaviors should be addressed first, followed by people's attitude towards water saving. Health Belief Model constructs, with the exception of perceived severity and benefits, is more powerful than is Reasoned Action Theory in predicting water saving behavior and may be used as a framework for educational interventions aimed at improving water saving behaviors.

  13. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory in Predicting Water Saving Behaviors in Yazd, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: People's behaviors and intentions about healthy behaviors depend on their beliefs, values, and knowledge about the issue. Various models of health education are used in deter-mining predictors of different healthy behaviors but their efficacy in cultural behaviors, such as water saving behaviors, are not studied. The study was conducted to explain water saving beha-viors in Yazd, Iran on the basis of Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory. Methods: The cross-sectional study used random cluster sampling to recruit 200 heads of households to collect the data. The survey questionnaire was tested for its content validity and reliability. Analysis of data included descriptive statistics, simple correlation, hierarchical multiple regression. Results: Simple correlations between water saving behaviors and Reasoned Action Theory and Health Belief Model constructs were statistically significant. Health Belief Model and Reasoned Action Theory constructs explained 20.80% and 8.40% of the variances in water saving beha-viors, respectively. Perceived barriers were the strongest Predictor. Additionally, there was a sta-tistically positive correlation between water saving behaviors and intention. Conclusion: In designing interventions aimed at water waste prevention, barriers of water saving behaviors should be addressed first, followed by people's attitude towards water saving. Health Belief Model constructs, with the exception of perceived severity and benefits, is more powerful than is Reasoned Action Theory in predicting water saving behavior and may be used as a framework for educational interventions aimed at improving water saving behaviors.

  14. Multisensor Data Fusion for Water Quality Evaluation Using Dempster-Shafer Evidence Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Zhou; Linfeng Liu; Jian Guo; Lijuan Sun

    2013-01-01

    A multisensor data fusion approach for water quality evaluation using Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is presented. To evaluate water quality, each sensor measurement is considered as a piece of evidence. Based on the water quality parameters measured by sensor node, the mass function of water quality class is calculated. Evidence from each sensor is given a reliability discounting and then combined with the others by D-S rule. According to the decision rule which uses the fusion mass functio...

  15. Paradigms and theories in water governance: the case of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... Interpretivism/constructivism. Critical theories. Participatory paradigm. Action is structured, linear and has a cause and effect man- ner (Eisner, 1990). There is an objective, apprehensible reality. (Ponterotto, 2005). .... They are not innocent bystanders in the research process, often playing an active part in ...

  16. New theory of the Great Red Spot from solitary waves in the Jovian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxworthy, T.; Redekopp, L. G.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that many characteristics of the Great Red Spot (GRS) and numerous other features that have been observed on Jupiter can be explained by solitary waves on a horizontally sheared zonal flow in a rotating, stratified atmosphere. Streamline patterns for waves corresponding to combined depression-elevation solitary waves (D-E solitrons) show a strong resemblence to the flow around the GRS. The morphology and flow pattern of the South Tropical Disturbance indicate that it was a D solitron. Numerous spot-like features situated in regions between cloud bands where horizontal shear forces might be expected have the morphology of E solitrons. Restrictions placed on the atmospheric parameters by the model are consistent with available models and observations.

  17. Identifying the Optimal Offshore Areas for Wave Energy Converter Deployments in Taiwanese Waters Based on 12-Year Model Hindcasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Ju Shih

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year sea-state hindcast for Taiwanese waters, covering the period from 2005 to 2016, was conducted using a fully coupled tide-surge-wave model. The hindcasts of significant wave height and peak period were employed to estimate the wave power resources in the waters surrounding Taiwan. Numerical simulations based on unstructured grids were converted to structured grids with a resolution of 25 × 25 km. The spatial distribution maps of offshore annual mean wave power were created for each year and for the 12-year period. Waters with higher wave power density were observed off the northern, northeastern, southeastern (south of Green Island and southeast of Lanyu and southern coasts of Taiwan. Five energetic sea areas with spatial average annual total wave energy density of 60–90 MWh/m were selected for further analysis. The 25 × 25 km square grids were then downscaled to resolutions of 5 × 5 km, and five 5 × 5 km optimal areas were identified for wave energy converter deployments. The spatial average annual total wave energy yields at the five optimal areas (S1–(S5 were estimated to be 64.3, 84.1, 84.5, 111.0 and 99.3 MWh/m, respectively. The prevailing wave directions for these five areas lie between east and northeast.

  18. Perturbation waves in proteins and protein networks: Applications of percolation and game theories in signaling and drug design

    CERN Document Server

    Antal, Miklos A; Csermely, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The network paradigm is increasingly used to describe the dynamics of complex systems. Here we review the current results and propose future development areas in the assessment of perturbation waves, i.e. propagating structural changes in amino acid networks building individual protein molecules and in protein-protein interaction networks (interactomes). We assess the possibilities and critically review the initial attempts for the application of game theory to the often rather complicated process, when two protein molecules approach each other, mutually adjust their conformations via multiple communication steps and finally, bind to each other. We also summarize available data on the application of percolation theory for the prediction of amino acid network- and interactome-dynamics. Furthermore, we give an overview of the dissection of signals and noise in the cellular context of various perturbations. Finally, we propose possible applications of the reviewed methodologies in drug design.

  19. Distorted wave theories for dressed-ion-atom collisions with GSZ projectile potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, J M; Rivarola, R D [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-UNR) and Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, IngenierIa y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Avenida Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Fainstein, P D, E-mail: monti@ifir-conicet.gov.ar [Comision Nacional de EnergIa Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2011-10-14

    The continuum distorted wave and the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state approximations for electron emission in ion-atom collisions are generalized to the case of dressed projectiles. The interaction between the dressed projectile and the active electron is represented by the analytic Green-Sellin-Zachor (GSZ) potential. Doubly differential cross sections as a function of the emitted electron energy and angle are computed. The region of the binary encounter peak is analysed in detail. Interference structures appear in agreement with the experimental data and are interpreted as arising from the coherent interference between short- and long-range scattering amplitudes.

  20. Theory of electromagnetic cyclotron wave growth in a time-varying magnetoplasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gail, William B.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of a time-dependent perturbation in the magnetoplasma on the wave and particle populations is investigated using the Kennel-Petchek (1966) approach. Perturbations in the cold plasma density, energetic particle distribution, and resonance condition are calculated on the basis of the ideal MHD assumption given an arbitrary compressional magnetic field perturbation. An equation is derived describing the time-dependent growth rate for parallel propagating electromagnetic cyclotron waves in a time-varying magnetoplasma with perturbations superimposed on an equilibrium configuration.

  1. Wave scattering theory a series approach based on the Fourier transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Eom, Hyo J

    2001-01-01

    The book provides a unified technique of Fourier transform to solve the wave scattering, diffraction, penetration, and radiation problems where the technique of separation of variables is applicable. The book discusses wave scattering from waveguide discontinuities, various apertures, and coupling structures, often encountered in electromagnetic, electrostatic, magnetostatic, and acoustic problems. A system of simultaneous equations for the modal coefficients is formulated and the rapidly-convergent series solutions amenable to numerical computation are presented. The series solutions find practical applications in the design of microwave/acoustic transmission lines, waveguide filters, antennas, and electromagnetic interference/compatibilty-related problems.

  2. Precipitation of radiation belt electrons by man-made waves A comparison between theory and measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, U. S.; Chang, H. C.; Helliwell, R. A.; Imhof, W. L.; Reagan, J. B.; Walt, M.

    1985-01-01

    The temporal and spectral shape and the absolute flux level of particle pulses precipitated by a VLF transmitter are examined from a theoretical point of view. A test-particle model of the gyroresonant wave-particle interaction is applied to the parameters of the observed cases for calculating the precipitation characteristics. The temporal shapes of the precipitation pulses are found to be controlled (1) by the pitch angle dependence of the particle distribution near the edge of the loss cone and (2) by the multiple interaction of the particles with the waves due to significant atmospheric backscatter.

  3. Theory of Square-Wave Voltammetry of Two-Electron Reduction with the Adsorption of Intermediate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milivoj Lovric

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamically unstable intermediate of fast and reversible two-electron electrode reaction can be stabilized by the adsorption to the electrode surface. In square-wave voltammetry of this reaction mechanism, the split response may appear if the electrode surface is not completely covered by the adsorbed intermediate. The dependence of the difference between the net peak potentials of the prepeak and postpeak on the square-wave frequency is analyzed theoretically. This relationship can be used for the estimation of adsorption constant.

  4. Landslide Spreading, Impulse Water Waves and Modelling of the Vajont Rockslide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni B.; Imposimato, Silvia; Roddeman, Dennis

    2016-06-01

    Landslides can occur in different environments and can interact with or fall into water reservoirs or open sea with different characteristics. The subaerial evolution and the transition from subaerial to subaqueous conditions can strongly control the landslide evolution and the generated impulse waves, and consequently the final hazard zonation. We intend to model the landslide spreading, the impact with the water surface and the generation of the impulse wave under different 2D and 3D conditions and settings. We verify the capabilities of a fully 2D and 3D FEM ALE approach to model and analyse near-field evolution. To this aim we validate the code against 2D laboratory experiments for different Froude number conditions (Fr = 1.4, 3.2). Then the Vajont rockslide (Fr = 0.26-0.75) and the consequent impulse wave are simulated in 2D and 3D. The sliding mass is simulated as an elasto-plastic Mohr-Coulomb material and the lake water as a fully inviscid low compressibility fluid. The rockslide model is validated against field observations, including the total duration, the profile and internal geometry of the final deposit, the maximum water run-up on the opposite valley flank and on the rockslide mass. 2D models are presented for both the case of a dry valley and that of the impounded lake. The set of fully 3D simulations are the first ones available and considering the rockslide evolution, propagation and interaction with the water reservoir. Advantages and disadvantages of the modelling approach are discussed.

  5. Teaching time-series analysis. II. Wave height and water surface elevation probability distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Dennis J.; Waters, Jennifer K.; Vieira, Mario E. C.

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes the second of a two-part series of pedagogical exercises to introduce students to methods of time-series analysis. While these exercises are focused on the analysis of wind generated surface gravity waves, they are cross-disciplinary in nature and can be applied to other fields dealing with random signal analysis. Two computer laboratory exercises are presented which enable students to understand many of the facets of random signal analysis with less difficulty and more understanding than standard classroom instruction alone. The first pedagogical exercise, described in the previous article, uses mathematical software on which the students execute the manual arithmetic operations of a finite Fourier analysis on a complex wave record. The results are then compared to those obtained by a fast Fourier transform. This article, the second of this two-part pedagogical series, addresses analysis of a complex sea using observed and theoretical wave height and water surface elevation probability distributions and wave spectra. These results are compared to a fast Fourier transform analysis, thus providing a link back to the first exercise.

  6. Adaptive wave filtering for dynamic positioning of marine vessels using maximum likelihood identification: Theory and experiments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hassani, V.; Sorensen, A.J.; Pascoal, A.M.

    This paper addresses a filtering problem that arises in the design of dynamic positioning systems for ships and offshore rigs subjected to the influence of sea waves. The dynamic model of the vessel captures explicitly the sea state as an uncertain...

  7. A novel methodology for adaptive wave filtering of marine vessels: Theory and experiments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hassani, V.; Pascoal, A.M.; Sorensen, A.J.

    This paper addresses a filtering problem that arises in the design of dynamic positioning systems for ships and offshore rigs subjected to the influence of sea waves. The vessel`s dynamic model adopted captures the sea state as an uncertain...

  8. Charge imbalance waves and time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Octavio, M.; Skocpol, W. J.

    1981-08-01

    We have numerically solved the generalized time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation of Kramer and Watts-Tobin, modified to include the capacitive term of Kadin, Smith, and Skocpol. We obtain oscillatory phase-slip solutions which generate damped waves of charge imbalance that propagate along the one-dimensional superconducting filament.

  9. Coupled poroelastic waves and electromagnetic fields in layered media : Theory, Modeling, and Interferometric Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grobbe, N.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, I study coupled poroelastic waves and electromagnetic fields in layered media. The focus is two-fold:
    1. Increase the theoretical and physical understanding of the seismo-electromagnetic phenomenon by analytically-based numerical modeling.
    2. Investigate the potential of

  10. Locating weak chanes with diffuse waves and ambient noise: theory and numerical validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planes, Thomas; Larose, Eric; Rossetto, Vincent; Margerin, Ludovic; Sens-Schoenfelder, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Coda waves are the random waveforms that constitute the late part of the seismograms after an earthquake. These signals have long been considered as devoid of any practical information on the geological materials through which they propagate. In the 1980's, the idea of using these late arrivals to track small relative velocity changes in the earth emerged, a technique later named Coda Wave Interferometry. A more recent procedure named Locadiff proposes to locate structural changes by processing the decorrelation of the coda waveforms. This contribution will cover recent theoretical and numerical developments aiming at modeling the direct problem: knowing the medium and the change occurring within it, what is the expected decorrelation and/or apparent relative velocity change that we will observe at the sensors? Bibliography : Thomas Planès, Eric Larose, Ludovic Margerin, Vincent Rossetto, Christoph Sens-Schoenfelder, Decorrelation and phase-shift of coda waves induced by local changes : Multiple scattering approach and numerical validation, Waves in Random and Complex Media (accepted 2013) E. Larose, T. Planes, V. Rossetto and L. Margerin : Locating a small change in a multiple scattering environment, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96 (20), 204101 (2010).

  11. Surface wave effects on water temperature in the Baltic Sea: simulations with the coupled NEMO-WAM model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alari, Victor; Staneva, Joanna; Breivik, Øyvind; Bidlot, Jean-Raymond; Mogensen, Kristian; Janssen, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Coupled circulation (NEMO) and wave model (WAM) system was used to study the effects of surface ocean waves on water temperature distribution and heat exchange at regional scale (the Baltic Sea). Four scenarios—including Stokes-Coriolis force, sea-state dependent energy flux (additional turbulent kinetic energy due to breaking waves), sea-state dependent momentum flux and the combination these forcings—were simulated to test the impact of different terms on simulated temperature distribution. The scenario simulations were compared to a control simulation, which included a constant wave-breaking coefficient, but otherwise was without any wave effects. The results indicate a pronounced effect of waves on surface temperature, on the distribution of vertical temperature and on upwelling's. Overall, when all three wave effects were accounted for, did the estimates of temperature improve compared to control simulation. During the summer, the wave-induced water temperature changes were up to 1 °C. In northern parts of the Baltic Sea, a warming of the surface layer occurs in the wave included simulations in summer months. This in turn reduces the cold bias between simulated and measured data, e.g. the control simulation was too cold compared to measurements. The warming is related to sea-state dependent energy flux. This implies that a spatio-temporally varying wave-breaking coefficient is necessary, because it depends on actual sea state. Wave-induced cooling is mostly observed in near-coastal areas and is the result of intensified upwelling in the scenario, when Stokes-Coriolis forcing is accounted for. Accounting for sea-state dependent momentum flux results in modified heat exchange at the water-air boundary which consequently leads to warming of surface water compared to control simulation.

  12. Projector Augmented-Wave formulation of response to strain and electric field perturbation within the density-functional perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Alexandre; Torrent, Marc; Caracas, Razvan

    2015-03-01

    A formulation of the response of a system to strain and electric field perturbations in the pseudopotential-based density functional perturbation theory (DFPT) has been proposed by D.R Hamman and co-workers. It uses an elegant formalism based on the expression of DFT total energy in reduced coordinates, the key quantity being the metric tensor and its first and second derivatives. We propose to extend this formulation to the Projector Augmented-Wave approach (PAW). In this context, we express the full elastic tensor including the clamped-atom tensor, the atomic-relaxation contributions (internal stresses) and the response to electric field change (piezoelectric tensor and effective charges). With this we are able to compute the elastic tensor for all materials (metals and insulators) within a fully analytical formulation. The comparison with finite differences calculations on simple systems shows an excellent agreement. This formalism has been implemented in the plane-wave based DFT ABINIT code. We apply it to the computation of elastic properties and seismic-wave velocities of iron with impurity elements. By analogy with the materials contained in meteorites, tested impurities are light elements (H, O, C, S, Si).

  13. Comparison of classical and modern theories of longitudinal wave propagation in elastic rods

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, M

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available are constructed for the classical, Rayleigh, Bishop, and Mindlin-Herrmann models in which the general solutions of the problem are obtained. The principles of construction of the multimode theories, corresponding equations and orthogonality conditions...

  14. Sound Wave Energy Resulting from the Impact of Water Drops on the Soil Surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Ryżak

    Full Text Available The splashing of water drops on a soil surface is the first step of water erosion. There have been many investigations into splashing-most are based on recording and analysing images taken with high-speed cameras, or measuring the mass of the soil moved by splashing. Here, we present a new aspect of the splash phenomenon's characterization the measurement of the sound pressure level and the sound energy of the wave that propagates in the air. The measurements were carried out for 10 consecutive water drop impacts on the soil surface. Three soils were tested (Endogleyic Umbrisol, Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol and Haplic Chernozem with four initial moisture levels (pressure heads: 0.1 kPa, 1 kPa, 3.16 kPa and 16 kPa. We found that the values of the sound pressure and sound wave energy were dependent on the particle size distribution of the soil, less dependent on the initial pressure head, and practically the same for subsequent water drops (from the first to the tenth drop. The highest sound pressure level (and the greatest variability was for Endogleyic Umbrisol, which had the highest sand fraction content. The sound pressure for this soil increased from 29 dB to 42 dB with the next incidence of drops falling on the sample The smallest (and the lowest variability was for Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol which had the highest clay fraction. For all experiments the sound pressure level ranged from ~27 to ~42 dB and the energy emitted in the form of sound waves was within the range of 0.14 μJ to 5.26 μJ. This was from 0.03 to 1.07% of the energy of the incident drops.

  15. Sound Wave Energy Resulting from the Impact of Water Drops on the Soil Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryżak, Magdalena; Bieganowski, Andrzej; Korbiel, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The splashing of water drops on a soil surface is the first step of water erosion. There have been many investigations into splashing-most are based on recording and analysing images taken with high-speed cameras, or measuring the mass of the soil moved by splashing. Here, we present a new aspect of the splash phenomenon's characterization the measurement of the sound pressure level and the sound energy of the wave that propagates in the air. The measurements were carried out for 10 consecutive water drop impacts on the soil surface. Three soils were tested (Endogleyic Umbrisol, Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol and Haplic Chernozem) with four initial moisture levels (pressure heads: 0.1 kPa, 1 kPa, 3.16 kPa and 16 kPa). We found that the values of the sound pressure and sound wave energy were dependent on the particle size distribution of the soil, less dependent on the initial pressure head, and practically the same for subsequent water drops (from the first to the tenth drop). The highest sound pressure level (and the greatest variability) was for Endogleyic Umbrisol, which had the highest sand fraction content. The sound pressure for this soil increased from 29 dB to 42 dB with the next incidence of drops falling on the sample The smallest (and the lowest variability) was for Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol which had the highest clay fraction. For all experiments the sound pressure level ranged from ~27 to ~42 dB and the energy emitted in the form of sound waves was within the range of 0.14 μJ to 5.26 μJ. This was from 0.03 to 1.07% of the energy of the incident drops.

  16. Theory of pH changes in water desalination by capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dykstra, J.E.; Keesman, K.J.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Wal, van der A.

    2017-01-01

    In electrochemical water desalination, a large difference in pH can develop between feed and effluent water. These pH changes can affect the long-term stability of membranes and electrodes. Often Faradaic reactions are implicated to explain these pH changes. However, quantitative theory has not

  17. Variations in Magnetic Fields Arising from Electric Currents Induced by Teleseismic Waves: Comparison between Theories and Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, K.

    2011-12-01

    magnetic field following the 11 March 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake are investigated. One-second resolution geomagnetic data at three stations in Japan provided by the Japan Meteorological Agency are used for the investigation. In vector components of the geomagnetic field (i.e. X, Y, and Z), clear variations as large as 5 nT are recorded simultaneous to the seismic wave propagations. However, they are likely apparent variations due to the ground motions, and to extract only the actual signals is quite difficult. A way to avoid this difficulty is to focus only the total intensity of the geomagnetic field because total intensities measured by the proton or Overhauser magnetometers are expected to be robust against sensor vibrations. Variations in the total intensities are smaller than 0.1 nT, meaning that variations in vector components are mainly arising from sensor vibrations. The observed magnitudes of variations in the magnetic field are not larger than those predicted by theory; thus, we are unable to find an evidence of unknown mechanisms converting seismic waves to electromagnetic phenomena.

  18. Efficient uncertainty quantification of a fully nonlinear and dispersive water wave model with random inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigoni, Daniele; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter; Eskilsson, Claes

    2016-01-01

    A major challenge in next-generation industrial applications is to improve numerical analysis by quantifying uncertainties in predictions. In this work we present a formulation of a fully nonlinear and dispersive potential flow water wave model with random inputs for the probabilistic description...... at different points in the parameter space, allowing for the reuse of existing simulation software. The choice of the applied methods is driven by the number of uncertain input parameters and by the fact that finding the solution of the considered model is computationally intensive. We revisit experimental...... by the variability in the model input. Finally, we present a synthetic experiment studying the variance-based sensitivity of the wave load on an offshore structure to a number of input uncertainties. In the numerical examples presented the PC methods exhibit fast convergence, suggesting that the problem is amenable...

  19. An Analysis of Mine Water Inrush Based on Fractal and Non-Darcy Seepage Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinsui; Cai, Jianchao; Zhao, Dongyun; Chen, Xuexi

    2014-09-01

    Mining rock mechanics is a new cross subject of mechanics and mining engineering, the seepage theory is one of the important research directions. This paper combines Wu-fractal/Ergun high-speed flow theory and dynamic system instability, reveals the influence factors of mine water inrush. Research shows that: Mine water inrush related to rock porosity, particle size, shape, fractal dimension, ratio of pore and throat, and other factors. Compared the critical Reynolds number which are got from Wu-fractal model and Ergun equation, Wu-fractal model can reveal more influence factors of mine water inrush than Ergun equation.

  20. Generation of spherical and cylindrical shock acoustic waves from optical breakdown in water, stimulated with femtosecond pulse

    CERN Document Server

    Potemkin, F V; Podshivalov, A A; Gordienko, V M

    2014-01-01

    Using shadow photography technique we have observed shock acoustic wave from optical breakdown, excited in water by tightly focused Cr:Forsterite femtosecond laser beam, and have found two different regimes of shock wave generation by varying only the energy of laser pulse. At low energies a single spherical shock wave is generated from laser beam waist, and its radius tends to saturation with energy increasing. At higher energies long laser filament in water is fired, that leads to the cylindrical shock wave generation, which longitude increases logarithmically with laser pulse energy. From shadow pictures we estimated maximal velocity in front or shock wave of 2300+/-150m/s and pressure of 1.0+/-0.1 GPa

  1. Semiquantal molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen-bond dynamics in liquid water using multi-dimensional Gaussian wave packets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Junichi; Ando, Koji

    2012-11-07

    A semiquantal (SQ) molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method based on an extended Hamiltonian formulation has been developed using multi-dimensional thawed gaussian wave packets (WPs), and applied to an analysis of hydrogen-bond (H-bond) dynamics in liquid water. A set of Hamilton's equations of motion in an extended phase space, which includes variance-covariance matrix elements as auxiliary coordinates representing anisotropic delocalization of the WPs, is derived from the time-dependent variational principle. The present theory allows us to perform real-time and real-space SQMD simulations and analyze nuclear quantum effects on dynamics in large molecular systems in terms of anisotropic fluctuations of the WPs. Introducing the Liouville operator formalism in the extended phase space, we have also developed an explicit symplectic algorithm for the numerical integration, which can provide greater stability in the long-time SQMD simulations. The application of the present theory to H-bond dynamics in liquid water is carried out under a single-particle approximation in which the variance-covariance matrix and the corresponding canonically conjugate matrix are reduced to block-diagonal structures by neglecting the interparticle correlations. As a result, it is found that the anisotropy of the WPs is indispensable for reproducing the disordered H-bond network compared to the classical counterpart with the use of the potential model providing competing quantum effects between intra- and intermolecular zero-point fluctuations. In addition, the significant WP delocalization along the out-of-plane direction of the jumping hydrogen atom associated with the concerted breaking and forming of H-bonds has been detected in the H-bond exchange mechanism. The relevance of the dynamical WP broadening to the relaxation of H-bond number fluctuations has also been discussed. The present SQ method provides the novel framework for investigating nuclear quantum dynamics in the many

  2. Measurement of dispersion curves of circumferential guided waves radiating from curved shells: Theory and numerical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekroun, Mathieu; Minonzio, Jean-Gabriel; Prada, Claire; Laugier, Pascal; Grimal, Quentin

    2016-02-01

    A method is proposed to evaluate in a non-contact way the phase velocity dispersion curves of circumferential waves around a shell of arbitrary shape immersed in a fluid. No assumptions are made about the thickness or the material of the shell. A geometrical model is derived to describe the shape of the radiated wavefronts in the surrounding fluid, and predict the positions of its centers of curvature. Then the time-reversal principle is applied to recover these positions and to calculate the phase velocity of the circumferential waves. Numerical finite-difference simulations are performed to evaluate the method on a circular and on an elliptic thin shell. Different dispersion curves can be recovered with an error of less than 10%.

  3. Application of perturbation theory to a P-wave eikonal equation in orthorhombic media

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, Alexey

    2016-10-12

    The P-wave eikonal equation for orthorhombic (ORT) anisotropic media is a highly nonlinear partial differential equation requiring the solution of a sixth-order polynomial to obtain traveltimes, resulting in complex and time-consuming numerical solutions. To alleviate this complexity, we approximate the solution of this equation by applying a multiparametric perturbation approach. We also investigated the sensitivity of traveltime surfaces inORT mediawith respect to three anelliptic parameters. As a result, a simple and accurate P-wave traveltime approximation valid for ORT media was derived. Two different possible anelliptic parameterizations were compared. One of the parameterizations includes anelliptic parameters defined at zero offset: η1, η2, and ηxy. Another parameterization includes anelliptic parameters defined for all symmetry planes: η1, η2, and η3. The azimuthal behavior of sensitivity coefficients with different parameterizations was used to analyze the crosstalk between anelliptic parameters. © 2016 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  4. Theory of a Traveling Wave Feed for a Planar Slot Array Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengarajan, Sembiam

    2012-01-01

    Planar arrays of waveguide-fed slots have been employed in many radar and remote sensing applications. Such arrays are designed in the standing wave configuration because of high efficiency. Traveling wave arrays can produce greater bandwidth at the expense of efficiency due to power loss in the load or loads. Traveling wave planar slot arrays may be designed with a long feed waveguide consisting of centered-inclined coupling slots. The feed waveguide is terminated in a matched load, and the element spacing in the feed waveguide is chosen to produce a beam squinted from the broadside. The traveling wave planar slot array consists of a long feed waveguide containing resonant-centered inclined coupling slots in the broad wall, coupling power into an array of stacked radiating waveguides orthogonal to it. The radiating waveguides consist of longitudinal offset radiating slots in a standing wave configuration. For the traveling wave feed of a planar slot array, one has to design the tilt angle and length of each coupling slot such that the amplitude and phase of excitation of each radiating waveguide are close to the desired values. The coupling slot spacing is chosen for an appropriate beam squint. Scattering matrix parameters of resonant coupling slots are used in the design process to produce appropriate excitations of radiating waveguides with constraints placed only on amplitudes. Since the radiating slots in each radiating waveguide are designed to produce a certain total admittance, the scattering (S) matrix of each coupling slot is reduced to a 2x2 matrix. Elements of each 2x2 S-matrix and the amount of coupling into the corresponding radiating waveguide are expressed in terms of the element S11. S matrices are converted into transmission (T) matrices, and the T matrices are multiplied to cascade the coupling slots and waveguide sections, starting from the load end and proceeding towards the source. While the use of non-resonant coupling slots may provide an

  5. A new approach to the theory of heat conduction with finite wave speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Antonio Cimmelli

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available Relations between the physical models describing the heat conduction in solids and a phenomenological model leading to quasi-linear hyperbolic equations and systems of conservation laws are presented. A new semi-empirical temperature scale is introduced in terms of which a modified Fourier law is formulated. The hyperbolicity of the heat conduction equation is discussed together with some wave propagation problems.

  6. Theory of Square-wave Voltammetry of Kinetically Controlled Two-step Electrode Reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Lovrić, Milivoj; Komorsky-Lovrić, Šebojka

    2012-01-01

    An influence of electron transfer kinetics on square-wave voltammograms of two-step electrode reaction is investigated theoretically. A phenomenon of “kinetic burden” of potential inversion is described for the case of equal kinetic parameters. A linear relationship between standard rate constant and the difference between standard potentials of the second and the first charge transfers is demonstrated for the reactions with thermodynamically unstable intermediate. (doi: 10.5562/cca2126)

  7. An experimental evaluation of two effective medium theories for ultrasonic wave propagation in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaix, Jean-François; Rossat, Mathieu; Garnier, Vincent; Corneloup, Gilles

    2012-06-01

    This study compares ultrasonic wave propagation modeling and experimental data in concrete. As a consequence of its composition and manufacturing process, this material has a high elastic scattering (sand and aggregates) and air (microcracks and porosities) content. The behavior of the "Waterman-Truell" and "Generalized Self Consistent Method" dynamic homogenization models are analyzed in the context of an application for strong heterogeneous solid materials, in which the scatterers are of various concentrations and types. The experimental validations of results predicted by the models are carried out by making use of the phase velocity and the attenuation of longitudinal waves, as measured by an immersed transmission setup. The test specimen material has a cement-like matrix containing spherical inclusions of air or glass, with radius close to the ultrasonic wavelength. The models are adapted to the case of materials presenting several types of scattering particle, and allow the propagation of longitudinal waves to be described at the scale of materials such as concrete. The validity limits for frequency and for particle volume ratio can be approached through a comparison with experimental data. The potential of these homogenization models for the prediction of phase velocity and attenuation in strongly heterogeneous solids is demonstrated.

  8. Hybrid Theory of P-Wave Electron-Hydrogen Elastic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Anand

    2012-01-01

    We report on a study of electron-hydrogen scattering, using a combination of a modified method of polarized orbitals and the optical potential formalism. The calculation is restricted to P waves in the elastic region, where the correlation functions are of Hylleraas type. It is found that the phase shifts are not significantly affected by the modification of the target function by a method similar to the method of polarized orbitals and they are close to the phase shifts calculated earlier by Bhatia. This indicates that the correlation function is general enough to include the target distortion (polarization) in the presence of the incident electron. The important fact is that in the present calculation, to obtain similar results only 35-term correlation function is needed in the wave function compared to the 220-term wave function required in the above-mentioned previous calculation. Results for the phase shifts, obtained in the present hybrid formalism, are rigorous lower bounds to the exact phase shifts.

  9. Effective Gravitational Wave Stress-energy Tensor in Alternative Theories of Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Leo C; Hughes, Scott A

    2010-01-01

    The inspiral of binary systems in vacuum is controlled by the rate of change of the system's energy, angular momentum and Carter constant. In alternative theories, such a change is induced by the effective stress-energy carried away by gravitational radiation and any other propagating degrees of freedom. We employ perturbation theory and the short-wavelength approximation to compute this stress-energy tensor in a wide class of alternative theories. We find that this tensor is generally a modification of that first computed by Isaacson, where the corrections can dominate over the general relativistic term. In a wide class of theories, however, these corrections identically vanish at asymptotically flat, future, null infinity, reducing the stress-energy tensor to Isaacson's. We exemplify this phenomenon by first considering dynamical Chern-Simons modified gravity, which corrects the action via a scalar field and the contraction of the Riemann tensor and its dual. We then consider a wide class of theories with d...

  10. Wave propagation in fluid-conveying viscoelastic carbon nanotubes under longitudinal magnetic field with thermal and surface effect via nonlocal strain gradient theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Yaxin; Zhou, Lin

    2017-03-01

    Based on nonlocal strain gradient theory, wave propagation in fluid-conveying viscoelastic single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is studied in this paper. With consideration of thermal effect and surface effect, wave equation is derived for fluid-conveying viscoelastic SWCNTs under longitudinal magnetic field utilizing Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The closed-form expressions are derived for the frequency and phase velocity of the wave motion. The influences of fluid flow velocity, structural damping coefficient, temperature change, magnetic flux and surface effect are discussed in detail. SWCNTs’ viscoelasticity reduces the wave frequency of the system and the influence gets remarkable with the increase of wave number. The fluid in SWCNTs decreases the frequency of wave propagation to a certain extent. The frequency (phase velocity) gets larger due to the existence of surface effect, especially when the diameters of SWCNTs and the wave number decrease. The wave frequency increases with the increase of the longitudinal magnetic field, while decreases with the increase of the temperature change. The results may be helpful for better understanding the potential applications of SWCNTs in nanotechnology.

  11. Mechanical balance laws for fully nonlinear and weakly dispersive water waves

    CERN Document Server

    Kalisch, Henrik; Mitsotakis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    The Serre-Green-Naghdi system is a coupled, fully nonlinear system of dispersive evolution equations which approximates the full water wave problem. The system is an extension of the well known shallow-water system to the situation where the waves are long, but not so long that dispersive effects can be neglected. In the current work, the focus is on deriving mass, momentum and energy densities and fluxes associated with the Serre-Green-Naghdi system. These quantities arise from imposing balance equations of the same asymptotic order as the evolution equations. In the case of an even bed, the conservation equations are satisfied exactly by the solutions of the Serre-Green-Naghdi system. The case of variable bathymetry is more complicated, with mass and momentum conservation satisfied exactly, and energy conservation satisfied only in a global sense. In all cases, the quantities found here reduce correctly to the corresponding counterparts in both the Boussinesq and the shallow-water scaling. One consequence o...

  12. Generation and Active Absorption of 2- and 3-Dimensional Linear Water Waves in Physical Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Morten

    by different directional wave spectra. The wave generator displacement signals applied in the tests are generated by means of linear digital filtering of Gaussian white noise in the time domain. An absorbing wave generator for 2-D wave facilities (wave channels) is developed. The absorbing wave generator...... in the wave channel in front of the wave generator. The results of physical model tests performed with an absorbing wave maker based on this principle show that the problem of rereflection is reduced significantly when active absorption is performed. Finally, an absorbing directional wave generator for 3-D...

  13. Video measurements of fluid velocities and water levels in breaking waves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available of macroscopic particles, that un-expanded polystyrene beads, which were heated in water at a temperature of around 86‡C for approximately 30 s, were most suitable. These partially expanded beads, which are approximately 0.8 mm in diameter, function well... of a pair captured 1 ms apart, shows a scene containing both bubbles resulting from the wave breaking, and polystyrene seed particles. It was found that the structure of corresponding portions of the two images persists for the duration...

  14. Surface water waves due to an oscillatory wavemaker in the presence of surface tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Mandal

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The initial value problem of generation of surface water waves by a harmonically oscillating plane vertical wavemaker in an infinite incompressible fluid under the action of gravity and surface tension is investigated. In the asymptotic evaluation of the free surface depression for large time and distance, the contribution to the integral by stationary phase method gives rise to transient component of the free surface depression while the contribution from the poles give rise to steady state component. It is observed that the presence of surface tension sometimes changes the qualitative nature of the transient component of free surface depression.

  15. Time adaptivity in the diffusive wave approximation to the shallow water equations

    KAUST Repository

    Collier, Nathan

    2013-05-01

    We discuss the use of time adaptivity applied to the one dimensional diffusive wave approximation to the shallow water equations. A simple and computationally economical error estimator is discussed which enables time-step size adaptivity. This robust adaptive time discretization corrects the initial time step size to achieve a user specified bound on the discretization error and allows time step size variations of several orders of magnitude. In particular, the one dimensional results presented in this work feature a change of four orders of magnitudes for the time step over the entire simulation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Transboundary water conflict resolution mechanisms: toward convergence between theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayia, Ahmed; Madani, Kaveh

    2016-04-01

    Transboundary waters are expected be one of the biggest challenges for human development over the next decades. The growing global water scarcity and interdependence among water-sharing countries have created tensions over shared water resources around the world. Therefore, interest in studying transboundary water conflict resolution has grown over the last decades. This research focuses on transboundary water resources conflict resolution mechanisms. A more a specific concern is to explore the mechanisms of allocating of transboundary water resources among riparian states. The literature of transboundary water resources conflict has brought various approaches for allocating of transboundary water resources among riparian countries. Some of these approaches have focused on the negotiation process, such the Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR). Other approaches have analysed the economic dimension of transboundary water disputes, in an attempt to identify optimal economic criteria for water allocation, such as the "social planner" approach and the "water market" approach. A more comprehensive approach has been provided by game theory that has brought together the economic and political dimensions of the water dispute management. The study attempts to provide a map for the relation between theory and practice in the field of transboundary water conflict resolution. Therefore, it explores the approaches that have been used to analyse real transboundary water disputes management. Moreover, it examines the approaches that have been suggested in literature as mechanisms of transboundary water conflict resolution. Finally, it identifies the techniques that have been used in practice to solve transboundary water conflicts and attempts to evaluate the sustainability of the resulting regulatory institutional arrangements.

  17. Third order wave equation in Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau theory: Massive case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Yu. A.; Markova, M. A.; Bondarenko, A. I.

    2015-11-01

    Within the framework of the Duffin-Kemmer-Petiau (DKP) formalism a more consistent approach to the derivation of the third order wave equation obtained earlier by M. Nowakowski [1] on the basis of heuristic considerations is suggested. For this purpose an additional algebraic object, the so-called q -commutator (q is a primitive cubic root of unity) and a new set of matrices ημ instead of the original matrices βμ of the DKP algebra are introduced. It is shown that in terms of these ημ matrices we have succeeded in reducing a procedure of the construction of cubic root of the third order wave operator to a few simple algebraic transformations and to a certain operation of the passage to the limit z →q , where z is some complex deformation parameter entering into the definition of the η -matrices. A corresponding generalization of the result obtained to the case of the interaction with an external electromagnetic field introduced through the minimal coupling scheme is carried out and a comparison with M. Nowakowski's result is performed. A detailed analysis of the general structure for a solution of the first order differential equation for the wave function ψ (x ;z ) is performed and it is shown that the solution is singular in the z →q limit. The application to the problem of construction within the DKP approach of the path integral representation in parasuperspace for the propagator of a massive vector particle in a background gauge field is discussed.

  18. Imaging and Spectroscopy of Tissue-Like Phantoms Using Photon Density Waves: Theory and Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishkin, Joshua Ben

    The determination of the optical properties of turbid biological media is of primary importance in several areas of medicine and biotechnology. In particular, the quantitative determination and spatial localization of the optical scattering and absorbing properties of biological tissue would allow for the non-invasive and non-ionizing imaging of tissue structure and the monitoring of physiology. Until recently, such characterization of thick, highly scattering biological tissues using visible and near infrared light has been thwarted because of the inability to determine the absolute optical properties of thick tissues. This thesis presents the development of the concept, physical model, and experimental study of diffuse photon density waves in thick turbid media. The goal of this work is to determine the applicability of photon density waves to the optical tomography and spectroscopy of thick, multiply scattering media. Toward this end, analytic expressions based on the diffusion approximation to the Boltzmann transport equation are derived for the case of an isotropically emitting, sinusoidally intensity-modulated point source of light immersed in an infinite, macroscopically uniform, multiply scattering medium. These frequency-domain expressions are given in terms of the optical properties of the medium, and they predict that the photon density propagates outward from the light source as a spherical wave of constant phase velocity. Experiments are performed which support the validity of these frequency-domain expressions, and provide a basis for the understanding of photon transport in turbid media containing absorbing and/or reflecting objects. Further experiments demonstrate the feasibility of using frequency -domain data in conjunction with a frequency-domain diffusion model to determine the absolute optical parameters of thick, multiply scattering media.

  19. Kinetic theory of geomagnetic pulsations 2. Ion flux modulations by transverse waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Chen (Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States)); Hasegawa, Akira (Osaka Univ. (Japan))

    1993-07-01

    Ion flux modulations by ultra-low-frequency radially polarized geomagnetic pulsations are examined theoretically based on the gyrokinetic analysis of Chen and Hasegawa. The theoretical results thus contain important effects such as plasma anisotropy and inhomogeneities, finite Larmor radii, realistic magnetic field, magnetic trapping, and wave mode structures. The predicted properties are consistent with the satellite observations [Takahashi et al.] and further support the drift-Alfven ballooning mode as a primary instability candidate. The analysis, furthermore, demonstrates that, in the case of highly energetic ions, it is crucial to include the finite-Larmor-radius effects self-consistently in order to properly analyze and compare with the satellite observations.

  20. Trapped Electron Instability of Electron Plasma Waves: Vlasov simulations and theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Richard; Chapman, Thomas; Brunner, Stephan

    2013-10-01

    The growth of sidebands of a large-amplitude electron plasma wave is studied with Vlasov simulations for a range of amplitudes (. 001 vph = +/-ωbe , where vph =ω0 /k0 and ωbe is the bounce frequency of a deeply trapped electron. In 2D simulations, we find that the instability persists and co-exists with the filamentation instability. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and funded by the Laboratory Research and Development Program at LLNL under project tracking code 12-ERD.

  1. A Model Predictive Control-Based Power Converter System for Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimara Rajapakse

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the predictability and availability at large scale, wave energy conversion (WEC has still not become a mainstream renewable energy technology. One of the main reasons is the large variations in the extracted power which could lead to instabilities in the power grid. In addition, maintaining the speed of the turbine within optimal range under changing wave conditions is another control challenge, especially in oscillating water column (OWC type WEC systems. As a solution to the first issue, this paper proposes the direct connection of a battery bank into the dc-link of the back-to-back power converter system, thereby smoothening the power delivered to the grid. For the second issue, model predictive controllers (MPCs are developed for the rectifier and the inverter of the back-to-back converter system aiming to maintain the turbine speed within its optimum range. In addition, MPC controllers are designed to control the battery current as well, in both charging and discharging conditions. Operations of the proposed battery direct integration scheme and control solutions are verified through computer simulations. Simulation results show that the proposed integrated energy storage and control solutions are capable of delivering smooth power to the grid while maintaining the turbine speed within its optimum range under varying wave conditions.

  2. An Inventory-Theory-Based Inexact Multistage Stochastic Programming Model for Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Q. Suo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An inventory-theory-based inexact multistage stochastic programming (IB-IMSP method is developed for planning water resources systems under uncertainty. The IB-IMSP is based on inexact multistage stochastic programming and inventory theory. The IB-IMSP cannot only effectively handle system uncertainties represented as probability density functions and discrete intervals but also efficiently reflect dynamic features of system conditions under different flow levels within a multistage context. Moreover, it can provide reasonable transferring schemes (i.e., the amount and batch of transferring as well as the corresponding transferring period associated with various flow scenarios for solving water shortage problems. The applicability of the proposed IB-IMSP is demonstrated by a case study of planning water resources management. The solutions obtained are helpful for decision makers in not only identifying different transferring schemes when the promised water is not met, but also making decisions of water allocation associated with different economic objectives.

  3. Solitary waves in fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Grimshaw, RHJ

    2007-01-01

    After the initial observation by John Scott Russell of a solitary wave in a canal, his insightful laboratory experiments and the subsequent theoretical work of Boussinesq, Rayleigh and Korteweg and de Vries, interest in solitary waves in fluids lapsed until the mid 1960's with the seminal paper of Zabusky and Kruskal describing the discovery of the soliton. This was followed by the rapid development of the theory of solitons and integrable systems. At the same time came the realization that solitary waves occur naturally in many physical systems, and play a fundamental role in many circumstances. The aim of this text is to describe the role that soliton theory plays in fluids in several contexts. After an historical introduction, the book is divided five chapters covering the basic theory of the Korteweg-de Vries equation, and the subsequent application to free-surface solitary waves in water to internal solitary waves in the coastal ocean and the atmospheric boundary layer, solitary waves in rotating flows, ...

  4. Numerical study of the air-flow in an oscillating water column wave energy converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paixao Conde, J.M. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, New University of Lisbon, Monte de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Gato, L.M.C. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2008-12-15

    The paper presents a numerical study of the air-flow in a typical pneumatic chamber geometry of an oscillating water column (OWC)-type wave energy converter (WEC), equipped with two vertical-axis air turbines, asymmetrically placed on the top of the chamber. Outwards and inwards, steady and periodic, air-flow calculations were performed to investigate the flow distribution at the turbines' inlet sections, as well as the properties of the air-jet impinging on the water free-surface. The original design of the OWC chamber is likely to be harmful for the operation of the turbines due to the possible air-jet-produced water-spray at the water free-surface subsequently ingested by the turbine. A geometry modification of the air chamber, using a horizontal baffle-plate to deflect the air from the turbines, is proposed and proved to be very effective in reducing the risk of water-spray production from the inwards flow. The flow distribution at the turbines' inlet sections for the outwards flow was found to be fairly uniform for the geometries considered, providing good inlet flow conditions for the turbines. Steady flow was found to be an acceptable model to study the air-flow inside the pneumatic chamber of an OWC-WEC. (author)

  5. Analisa Kinerja Pneumatic Wave Energy Converter (WEC Dengan Menggunakan Oscillating Water Column(OWC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico Ary Sona

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sistem konversi energi gelombang laut merupakan sistem yang menangkap energi gelombang laut untuk dikonversi menjadi energi lain seperti energi listrik. Salah satu jenis wave energy converter (WEC yang banyak digunakan diantaranya yaitu Oscillating Water Columnatau OWC. Prinsip kerja sistem WEC ini ialah mengubah pergerakan naik turunnya gelombang pada silinder kolom udara untuk menghasilkan udara bertekanan yang selanjutnya digunakan untuk menggerakkan turbin dan generator listrik. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk dapat mengetahui kinerja dari Oscillating Water Column (OWC dalam menangkap energi gelombang laut. Untuk dapat melakukan penelitian ini diperlukan beberapa perlatan yaitu pembuatan konfigurasi peralatan pembuat dan penangkapan gelombang yang terdiri dari pelampung dan silinder Oscillating Water Column (OWC. Percobaan ini dilakukan dengan cara memvariasikan panjang dan tinggi gelombang pada flow water channel dengan mengatur bukaan pada pneumatic speed control. Dari hasil percobaan diperoleh bahwa kinerja paling efektif diperoleh pada panjang gelombang 0.9 m dan tinggi gelombang 0.23m. Pada karakteristik gelombang tersebut diperoleh tekanan, kecepatan dan volume pada silinder Oscillating Water Column (OWC sebesar  1.11 bar, 39.39 m/s dan 0.0057 m3. Dari hasil percobaan juga diperoleh waktu pengisian Pressure Vessel selama 100 menit dengan tekanan 3 Psi.

  6. Numerical calculation of a converging vector electromagnetic wave diffracted by an aperture by using Borgnis potentials. I. General theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueen; Fan, Zhaozhong; Tang, Tiantong

    2006-04-01

    A method is proposed, on the basis of the vector electromagnetic theory, for the numerical calculation of the diffraction of a converging electromagnetic wave by a circular aperture by using Borgnis potentials as auxiliary functions. The diffraction problem of vector electromagnetic fields is simplified greatly by solving the scalar Borgnis potentials. The diffractive field is calculated on the basis of the boundary integral equation, taking into consideration the contribution of the field variables on the diffraction screen surface, which is ignored in the Kirchhoff assumption. An example is given to show the effectiveness and suitability of this method and the distinctiveness of the diffractive fields caused by the vector characteristics of the electromagnetic fields.

  7. Computation of antenna pattern correlation and MIMO performance by means of surface current distribution and spherical wave theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Klemp

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to satisfy the stringent demand for an accurate prediction of MIMO channel capacity and diversity performance in wireless communications, more effective and suitable models that account for real antenna radiation behavior have to be taken into account. One of the main challenges is the accurate modeling of antenna correlation that is directly related to the amount of channel capacity or diversity gain which might be achieved in multi element antenna configurations. Therefore spherical wave theory in electromagnetics is a well known technique to express antenna far fields by means of a compact field expansion with a reduced number of unknowns that was recently applied to derive an analytical approach in the computation of antenna pattern correlation. In this paper we present a novel and efficient computational technique to determine antenna pattern correlation based on the evaluation of the surface current distribution by means of a spherical mode expansion.

  8. Detection of Hot Halo Gets Theory Out of Hot Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    Scientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have detected an extensive halo of hot gas around a quiescent spiral galaxy. This discovery is evidence that galaxies like our Milky Way are still accumulating matter from the gradual inflow of intergalactic gas. "What we are likely witnessing here is the ongoing galaxy formation process," said Kristian Pedersen of the University of Copenhagen, Denmark, and lead author of a report on the discovery. Chandra observations show that the hot halo extends more than 60,000 light years on either side of the disk of the galaxy known as NGC 5746. The detection of such a large halo alleviates a long-standing problem for the theory of galaxy formation. Spiral galaxies are thought to form from enormous clouds of intergalactic gas that collapse to form giant, spinning disks of stars and gas. Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 5746 Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 5746 One prediction of this theory is that large spiral galaxies should be immersed in halos of hot gas left over from the galaxy formation process. Hot gas has been detected around spiral galaxies in which vigorous star formation is ejecting matter from the galaxy, but until now hot halos due to infall of intergalactic matter have not been detected. "Our observations solve the mystery of the missing hot halos around spiral galaxies," said Pedersen. "The halos exist, but are so faint that an extremely sensitive telescope such as Chandra is needed to detect them." DSS Optical Image of NGC 5746 DSS Optical Image of NGC 5746 NGC 5746 is a massive spiral galaxy about a 100 million light years from Earth. Its disk of stars and gas is viewed almost edge-on. The galaxy shows no signs of unusual star formation, or energetic activity from its nuclear region, making it unlikely that the hot halo is produced by gas flowing out of the galaxy. "We targeted NGC 5746 because we thought its distance and orientation would give us the best chance to detect a hot halo caused by the infall of

  9. Sound wave energy emitted by water drop during the splash on the soil surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieganowski, Andrzej; Ryżak, Magdalena; Korbiel, Tomasz

    2017-04-01

    A drop of rain falling on the surface of bare soil not only moisturizes but also can cause splash or compaction, depending on the energy of incident drops and the condition of the surface on which it falls. The splash phenomenon can be characterized by the weight of detached soil material (using splash cups) as well as the number and trajectory of splashed particles (using high-speed cameras). The study presents a new aspect of the analysis of the splash phenomenon by measurement of the sound pressure level and the sound energy of the wave that propagates in the air. The measurements were carried out in an anechoic chamber. Three soils (Endogleyic Umbrisol, Fluvic Endogleyic Cambisol, and Haplic Chernozem) with four initial moisture levels (pressure heads: 0.1 kPa, 1 kPa, 3.16 kPa, and 16 kPa) were tested. Drops of 4.2 mm diameter were falling from a height of 1.5m. The sound pressure level was recorded after 10 consecutive water drop impacts using a special set of microphones. In all measuring conditions with 1m distance, the sound pressure level ranged from 27 to 42dB. The impact of water drops on the ground created sound pulses, which were recalculated to the energy emitted in the form of sound waves. For all soil samples, the sound wave energy was within the range of 0.14 μJ to 5.26 μJ, which corresponds to 0.03-1.07% of the energy of the incident drops (Ryżak et al., 2016). This work was partly financed from the National Science Centre, Poland; project no. 2014/14/E/ST10/00851. References Ryżak M., Bieganowski A., Korbiel T.: Sound wave Energy resulting from the impact of water drops on the soil surface. PLoS One 11(7):e0158472. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0158472, 2016

  10. Subspace accelerated inexact Newton method for large scale wave functions calculations in Density Functional Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fattebert, J

    2008-07-29

    We describe an iterative algorithm to solve electronic structure problems in Density Functional Theory. The approach is presented as a Subspace Accelerated Inexact Newton (SAIN) solver for the non-linear Kohn-Sham equations. It is related to a class of iterative algorithms known as RMM-DIIS in the electronic structure community. The method is illustrated with examples of real applications using a finite difference discretization and multigrid preconditioning.

  11. Ab Initio Density Functional Theory Investigation of the Interaction between Carbon Nanotubes and Water Molecules during Water Desalination Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loay A. Elalfy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Density functional theory calculations using B3LYP/3-21G level of theory have been implemented on 6 carbon nanotubes (CNTs structures (3 zigzag and 3 armchair CNTs to study the energetics of the reverse osmosis during water desalination process. Calculations of the band gap, interaction energy, highest occupied molecular orbital, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, electronegativity, hardness, and pressure of the system are discussed. The calculations showed that the water molecule that exists inside the CNT is about 2-3 Å away from its wall. The calculations have proven that the zigzag CNTs are more efficient for reverse osmosis water desalination process than armchair CNTs as the reverse osmosis process requires pressure of approximately 200 MPa for armchair CNTs, which is consistent with the values used in molecular dynamics simulations, while that needed when using zigzag CNTs was in the order of 60 MPa.

  12. Analysis of the Effect of Water Activity on Ice Formation Using a New Theory of Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, Donifan

    2013-01-01

    In this work a new theory of nucleation is developed and used to investigate the effect of water activity on the formation of ice within super-cooled droplets. The new theory is based on a novel concept where the interface is assumed to be made of liquid molecules trapped by the solid matrix. Using this concept new expressions are developed for the critical ice germ size and the nucleation work, with explicit dependencies on temperature and water activity. However unlike previous approaches, the new theory does not depend on the interfacial tension between liquid and ice. Comparison against experimental results shows that the new theory is able to reproduce the observed effect of water activity on nucleation rate and freezing temperature. It allows for the first time a theoretical derivation of the constant shift in water activity between melting and nucleation. The new theory offers a consistent thermodynamic view of ice nucleation, simple enough to be applied in atmospheric models of cloud formation.

  13. The Emergence of Gravitational Wave Science: 100 Years of Development of Mathematical Theory, Detectors, Numerical Algorithms, and Data Analysis Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Holst, Michael; Tiglio, Manuel; Vallisneri, Michele

    2016-01-01

    On September 14, 2015, the newly upgraded Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) recorded a loud gravitational-wave (GW) signal, emitted a billion light-years away by a coalescing binary of two stellar-mass black holes. The detection was announced in February 2016, in time for the hundredth anniversary of Einstein's prediction of GWs within the theory of general relativity (GR). The signal represents the first direct detection of GWs, the first observation of a black-hole binary, and the first test of GR in its strong-field, high-velocity, nonlinear regime. In the remainder of its first observing run, LIGO observed two more signals from black-hole binaries, one moderately loud, another at the boundary of statistical significance. The detections mark the end of a decades-long quest, and the beginning of GW astronomy: finally, we are able to probe the unseen, electromagnetically dark Universe by listening to it. In this article, we present a short historical overview of GW science: this youn...

  14. Theory and application of calibration techniques for an NDBC directional wave measurements buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, K. E.; Lau, J. C.-K.; Hsu, Y.-H. L.

    1985-01-01

    The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) deployed a 10-m-diameter discus-type hull in the Pacific Ocean some 185 km southwest of Los Angeles, CA, in April 1984. Aboard this hull was an electronic system capable of acquiring, processing, and transmitting to shore directional wave measurements. For this system to produce accurate data, a number of factors had to be taken into account. These factors included noise, amplitude and phase alterations due to mechanical and electrical components, and magnetic fields arising from the hull. Comprehensive calibration and verification techniques were developed and applied to ensure data quality. The system configuration is described with emphasis on the methods used in the data processing to correct for the various factors. Examples of the resulting corrected data are given.

  15. Theory of the corrugation instability of a piston-driven shock wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J W

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the two-dimensional stability of a shock wave driven by a steadily moving corrugated piston in an inviscid fluid with an arbitrary equation of state. For h≤-1 or h>h(c), where h is the D'yakov parameter and h(c) is the Kontorovich limit, we find that small perturbations on the shock front are unstable and grow--at first quadratically and later linearly--with time. Such instabilities are associated with nonequilibrium fluid states and imply a nonunique solution to the hydrodynamic equations. The above criteria are consistent with instability limits observed in shock-tube experiments involving ionizing and dissociating gases and may have important implications for driven shocks in laser-fusion, astrophysical, and/or detonation studies.

  16. Investigation on bragg reflection of surface water waves induced by a train of fixed floating pontoon breakwaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Tau Ouyang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The water wave characteristics of Bragg reflections from a train of fixed floating pontoon breakwaters was studied numerically. A numerical model of boundary discretization type was developed to calculate the wave field. The model was verified by comparing to analytical data in literature and good agreements were achieved. Series of parametric studies were conducted systematically to investigate the dependence of the reflected coefficients by the Bragg scattering on the design variables, including the spacing between the breakwaters, the total number of installed breakwaters, the draft and width do the breakwater, and wave length. Certain wave characteristics of the Bragg reflections were observed and discussed in details which might be of help for practical engineering applications in shoreline protection from incident waves.

  17. Water-waves frequency upshift of the spectral mean due to wind forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeltink, Debbie; Chabchoub, Amin; Brunetti, Maura; Kasparian, Jerome; Kimmoun, Olivier; Branger, Hubert

    2017-04-01

    The effect of wind forcing on monochromatic modulated water waves was investigated both numerically and experimentally in the context of the Modified Non-Linear Schrödinger (MNLS) equation framework. While wind is usually associated with a frequency downshift of the dominant spectral peak, we show that it may induce an upshift of the spectral mean due to an asymmetric amplification of the spectrum. Here the weighted average spectral mean is equal to the ratio of the momentum of the envelope to its norm and it detects any asymmetries in the spectrum (Segur et al. 2005). Wind can however indirectly induce frequency downshifts, by promoting dissipative effects like wave breaking. We highlight that the definition of the up- and downshift in terms of peak frequency or average frequency is critical for a relevant discussion. In our model, the wind input consists of a leading order forcing term that amplifies all frequencies equally and induces a broadening of the spectrum, and a higher order asymmetric term (Brunetti et al. 2014; Brunetti & Kasparian 2014) that amplifies higher frequencies more than lower ones and induces a permanent upshift of the spectral mean. The effect of MNLS + wind is exactly opposite to MNLS + viscosity, where the lower order viscosity terms damp the whole spectrum, while the higher order viscosity terms damp higher frequencies more than lower ones and thus causes a permanent downshift, as evidenced by Carter & Govan (2016). We corroborated the model with wave tank experiments conducted in the IRPHE/Pytheas large wind-wave facility located in Marseille, France. Wave data analysis show the temporary downshift in the spectral peak sense caused by the wind, and the temporary upshift in the spectral mean sense characteristic of the MNLS. As the tank-length was limited, we used long-range simulations to obtain upshift in the spectral mean sense caused by the wind. The limit of the model is reached when breaking events occur. We acknowledge financial

  18. Wave groups in unidirectional surface wave models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.

    1998-01-01

    Uni-directional wave models are used to study wave groups that appear in wave tanks of hydrodynamic laboratories; characteristic for waves in such tanks is that the wave length is rather small, comparable to the depth of the layer. In second-order theory, the resulting Nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS)

  19. Estimation of added-mass and damping coefficients of a tethered spherical float using potential flow theory

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vethamony, P.; Chandramohan, P.; Sastry, J.S.; Narasimhan, S.

    flow theory. Variations of added-mass and damping coefficients with respect to water depth, wave period and float size have been obtained. Variations of added-mass and damping coefficients with wave period show that these hydrodynamic coefficients...

  20. Analytic theory of curvature effects for wave problems with general boundary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willatzen, Morten; Gravesen, Jens; Voon, L. C. Lew Yan

    2010-01-01

    A formalism based on a combination of differential geometry and perturbation theory is used to obtain analytic expressions for confined eigenmode changes due to general curvature effects. In cases of circular-shaped and helix-shaped structures, where alternative analytic solutions can be found......, the perturbative solution is shown to yield the same result. The present technique allows the generalization of earlier results to arbitrary boundary conditions. The power of the method is illustrated using examples based on Maxwell’s and Schrödinger’s equations for applications in photonics and nanoelectronics....

  1. Observations of the properties of the water surface roughness structure under the action of wind and waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Steven R.; Huang, Norden E.

    1988-01-01

    The statistical properties of a water surface roughness structure subjected to wind and waves are analyzed in a laboratory wind wave channel. The surface slope is derived using elevation measurements and the pitot tube is employed to measure wind speed. The transient responses of the surface slope to a calm condition and low, medium, and high wind conditions are studied. Two methods for determining a critical wind speed range are described.

  2. Numerical hydrodynamic analysis of an offshore stationary–floating oscillating water column–wave energy converter using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elhanafi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Offshore oscillating water columns (OWC represent one of the most promising forms of wave energy converters. The hydrodynamic performance of such converters heavily depends on their interactions with ocean waves; therefore, understanding these interactions is essential. In this paper, a fully nonlinear 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD model based on RANS equations and VOF surface capturing scheme is implemented to carry out wave energy balance analyses for an offshore OWC. The numerical model is well validated against published physical measurements including; chamber differential air pressure, chamber water level oscillation and vertical velocity, overall wave energy extraction efficiency, reflected and transmitted waves, velocity and vorticity fields (PIV measurements. Following the successful validation work, an extensive campaign of numerical tests is performed to quantify the relevance of three design parameters, namely incoming wavelength, wave height and turbine damping to the device hydrodynamic performance and wave energy conversion process. All of the three investigated parameters show important effects on the wave–pneumatic energy conversion chain. In addition, the flow field around the chamber's front wall indicates areas of energy losses by stronger vortices generation than the rear wall.

  3. A second order thermodynamic perturbation theory for hydrogen bond cooperativity in water

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Bennett D.

    2017-01-01

    It has been extensively demonstrated through first principles quantum mechanics calculations that water exhibits strong hydrogen bond cooperativity. Classical molecular simulation and statistical mechanics methods typically assume pairwise additivity, meaning they cannot account for these 3-body and higher cooperative effects. In this document, we extend second order thermodynamic perturbation theory to correct for hydrogen bond cooperativity in 4 site water. We show that the association theo...

  4. A Model for the Propagation of Nonlinear Surface Waves over Viscous Muds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-05

    here that the linear long wave theory ( Dean and Dalrymple , 1991) the length of the domain, the water depth and the extent of the mud expected...herein. From Similar to the previous test, our next test involves the linear long wave theory ( Dean and Dalrymple , 1991) the transformation of waves of...diffraction on the dissertation, Delft University of Technology. lee side. Further downwave, the discontinuity in the wave crest Dean , R.G., Dalrymple , R.A

  5. Wave propagation speeds and source term influences in single and integral porosity shallow water equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhan Özgen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In urban flood modeling, so-called porosity shallow water equations (PSWEs, which conceptually account for unresolved structures, e.g., buildings, are a promising approach to addressing high CPU times associated with state-of-the-art explicit numerical methods. The PSWE can be formulated with a single porosity term, referred to as the single porosity shallow water model (SP model, which accounts for both the reduced storage in the cell and the reduced conveyance, or with two porosity terms: one accounting for the reduced storage in the cell and another accounting for the reduced conveyance. The latter form is referred to as an integral or anisotropic porosity shallow water model (AP model. The aim of this study was to analyze the differences in wave propagation speeds of the SP model and the AP model and the implications of numerical model results. First, augmented Roe-type solutions were used to assess the influence of the source terms appearing in both models. It is shown that different source terms have different influences on the stability of the models. Second, four computational test cases were presented and the numerical models were compared. It is observed in the eigenvalue-based analysis as well as in the computational test cases that the models converge if the conveyance porosity in the AP model is close to the storage porosity. If the porosity values differ significantly, the AP model yields different wave propagation speeds and numerical fluxes from those of the BP model. In this study, the ratio between the conveyance and storage porosities was determined to be the most significant parameter.

  6. The nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the propagation of weakly nonlinear waves in optical fibers and on the water surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabchoub, A., E-mail: achabchoub@swin.edu.au [Centre for Ocean Engineering Science and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Kibler, B.; Finot, C.; Millot, G. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS, Université de Bourgogne, 21078 Dijon (France); Onorato, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino 10125 (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino 10125 (Italy); Dudley, J.M. [Institut FEMTO-ST, UMR 6174 CNRS- Université de Franche-Comté, 25030 Besançon (France); Babanin, A.V. [Centre for Ocean Engineering Science and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    The dynamics of waves in weakly nonlinear dispersive media can be described by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). An important feature of the equation is that it can be derived in a number of different physical contexts; therefore, analogies between different fields, such as for example fiber optics, water waves, plasma waves and Bose–Einstein condensates, can be established. Here, we investigate the similarities between wave propagation in optical Kerr media and water waves. In particular, we discuss the modulation instability (MI) in both media. In analogy to the water wave problem, we derive for Kerr-media the Benjamin–Feir index, i.e. a nondimensional parameter related to the probability of formation of rogue waves in incoherent wave trains.

  7. An analysis of molecular packing and chemical association in liquid water using quasichemical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, A; Asthagiri, D; Pratt, L R; Ashbaugh, H S; Paulaitis, M E

    2006-06-14

    We calculate the hydration free energy of liquid TIP3P water at 298 K and 1 bar using a quasi-chemical theory framework in which interactions between a distinguished water molecule and the surrounding water molecules are partitioned into chemical associations with proximal (inner-shell) waters and classical electrostatic-dispersion interactions with the remaining (outer-shell) waters. The calculated free energy is found to be independent of this partitioning, as expected, and in excellent agreement with values derived from the literature. An analysis of the spatial distribution of inner-shell water molecules as a function of the inner-shell volume reveals that water molecules are preferentially excluded from the interior of large volumes as the occupancy number decreases. The driving force for water exclusion is formulated in terms of a free energy for rearranging inner-shell water molecules under the influence of the field exerted by outer-shell waters in order to accommodate one water molecule at the center. The results indicate a balance between chemical association and molecular packing in liquid water that becomes increasingly important as the inner-shell volume grows in size.

  8. Medium energy nucleon-nucleus scattering theory by semi-classical distorted wave approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, Kazuyuki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    The semiclassical distorted wave model (SCDW) is one of the quantum mechanical models for nucleon inelastic and charge exchange scattering at intermediate energies. SCDW can reproduce the double differential inclusive cross sections for multi-step direct processes quite well in the angular and outgoing energy regions where the model is expected to work. But the model hitherto assumed on-the-energy-shell (on-shell) nucleon-nucleon scattering in the nucleus, neglecting the difference in the distorting potentials for the incoming and the outgoing particles and also the Q-value in the case of (p,n) reactions. There had also been a problem in the treatment of the exchange of colliding nucleons. Now we modify the model to overcome those problems and put SCDW on sounder theoretical foundations. The modification results in slight reduction (increase) of double differential cross sections at forward (backward) angles. We also examine the effect of the in-medium modification of N-N cross sections in SCDW and find it small. A remedy of the disagreement at very small and large angles in terms of the Wigner transform of the single particle density matrix is also discussed. This improvement gives very promising results. (author)

  9. Bifurcation to square-wave switching in orthogonally delay-coupled semiconductor lasers: Theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masoller, C. [Departament de Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Colom 11, ES-08222 Terrassa, Barcelona (Spain); Sukow, D. [Institute for Cross-Disciplinary Physics and Complex Systems, Campus Universitat de les Illes Balears, ES-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Gavrielides, A. [Air Force Research Laboratory, AFRL/EOARD, 86 Blenheim Crescent, Ruislip Middlesex HA4 7HB (United Kingdom); Sciamanna, M. [Optics and Electronics (OPTEL) Research Group, Laboratoire Materiaux Optiques, Photonique et Systemes (LMOPS), Supelec, 2 Rue Edouard Belin, FR-57070 Metz (France)

    2011-08-15

    We analyze the dynamics of two semiconductor lasers with so-called orthogonal time-delayed mutual coupling: the dominant TE (x) modes of each laser are rotated by 90 deg. (therefore, TM polarization or y) before being coupled to the other laser. Although this laser system allows for steady-state emission in either one or in both polarization modes, it may also exhibit stable time-periodic dynamics including square waveforms. A theoretical mapping of the switching dynamics unveils the region in parameter space where one expects to observe long-term time-periodic mode switching. Detailed numerical simulations illustrate the role played by the coupling strength, the mode frequency detuning, or the mode gain to loss difference. We complement our theoretical study with several experiments and measurements. We present time series and intensity spectra associated with the characteristics of the square waves and other waveforms observed as a function of the strength of the delay coupling. The experimental observations are in very good agreement with the analysis and the numerical results.

  10. Monolithic millimeter-wave diode array beam controllers: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, L. B.; Liu, H.-X. L.; Wang, F.; Liu, T.; Wu, W.; Qin, X.-H.; Chung, E.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Maserjian, J.

    1992-01-01

    In the current work, multi-function beam control arrays have been fabricated and have successfully demonstrated amplitude control of transmitted beams in the W and D bands (75-170 GHz). While these arrays are designed to provide beam control under DC bias operation, new designs for high-speed electronic and optical control are under development. These arrays will fill a need for high-speed watt-level beam switches in pulsed reflectometer systems under development for magnetic fusion plasma diagnostics. A second experimental accomplishment of the current work is the demonstration in the 100-170 GHz (D band) frequency range of a new technique for the measurement of the transmission phase as well as amplitude. Transmission data can serve as a means to extract ('de-embed') the grid parameters; phase information provides more complete data to assist in this process. Additional functions of the array beam controller yet to be tested include electronically controlled steering and focusing of a reflected beam. These have application in the areas of millimeter-wave electronic scanning radar and reflectometry, respectively.

  11. Hydraulic continuity and biological effects of low strength very low frequency electromagnetic waves: Case of microbial biofilm growth in water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard, Merlin; Noamen, Omri; Evelyne, Gonze; Eric, Valette; Gilles, Cauffet; Marc, Henry

    2015-10-15

    This study aims to elucidate the interactions between water, subjected to electromagnetic waves of very low frequency (VLF) (kHz) with low strength electromagnetic fields (3.5 mT inside the coils), and the development of microbial biofilms in this exposed water. Experimental results demonstrate that in water exposed to VLF electromagnetic waves, the biomass of biofilm is limited if hydraulic continuity is achieved between the electromagnetic generator and the biofilm media. The measured amount of the biofilm's biomass is approximately a factor two lower for exposed biofilm than the non-exposed biofilm. Measurements of electromagnetic fields in the air and simulations exhibit very low intensities of fields (electromagnetic generator. Exposure to electric and magnetic fields of the quoted intensities cannot explain thermal and ionizing effects on the biofilm. A variable electrical potential with a magnitude close to 20 mV was detected in the tank in hydraulic continuity with the electromagnetic generator. The application of quantum field theory may help to explain the observed effects in this case. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A density functional theory study of the benzene-water complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shen; Cooper, Valentino R; Thonhauser, T; Puzder, Aaron; Langreth, David C

    2008-09-25

    The intermolecular interaction of the benzene-water complex is calculated using real-space pseudopotential density functional theory utilizing a van der Waals density functional. Our results for the intermolecular potential energy surface clearly show a stable configuration with the water molecule standing above or below the benzene with one or both of the H atoms pointing toward the benzene plane, as predicted by previous studies. However, when the water molecule is pulled outside the perimeter of the ring, the configuration of the complex becomes unstable, with the water molecule attaching in a saddle point configuration to the rim of the benzene with its O atom adjacent to a benzene H. We find that this structural change is connected to a change in interaction from H (water)/pi cloud (benzene) to O (water)/H (benzene). We compare our results for the ground-state structure with results from experiments and quantum-chemical calculations.

  13. New theory on the reverberation of rooms. [considering sound wave travel time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujolle, J.

    1974-01-01

    The inadequacy of the various theories which have been proposed for finding the reverberation time of rooms can be explained by an attempt to examine what might occur at a listening point when image sources of determined acoustic power are added to the actual source. The number and locations of the image sources are stipulated. The intensity of sound at the listening point can be calculated by means of approximations whose conditions for validity are given. This leads to the proposal of a new expression for the reverberation time, yielding results which fall between those obtained through use of the Eyring and Millington formulae; these results are made to depend on the shape of the room by means of a new definition of the mean free path.

  14. The exact theory for scattering of waves by thick holes in a slab and other objects with non-separable geometries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenders, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    The theory for scattering of electromagnetic waves is developed for scattering objects for which the natural modes of the field inside the object do not couple one-to-one with those outside the scatterer. Key feature of the calculation of the scattered fields is the introduction of a new set of

  15. Multi-Wave Prospective Examination of the Stress-Reactivity Extension of Response Styles Theory of Depression in High-Risk Children and Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abela, John R. Z.; Hankin, Benjamin L.; Sheshko, Dana M.; Fishman, Michael B.; Stolow, Darren

    2012-01-01

    The current study tested the stress-reactivity extension of response styles theory of depression (Nolen-Hoeksema "Journal of Abnormal Psychology" 100:569-582, 1991) in a sample of high-risk children and early adolescents from a vulnerability-stress perspective using a multi-wave longitudinal design. In addition, we examined whether obtained…

  16. Spectra of PP-wave limits of M-/superstring theory on AdS sub p xS sup q spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Fernando, S; Günaydin, M

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we show how one can obtain very simply the spectra of the PP-wave limits of M-theory over AdS sub 7 sub ( sub 4 sub ) xS sup 4 sup ( sup 7 sup ) spaces and IIB superstring theory over AdS sub 5 xS sup 5 from the oscillator construction of the Kaluza-Klein spectra of these theories over the corresponding spaces. The PP-wave symmetry superalgebras are obtained by taking the number P of 'colors' of oscillators to be large (infinite). In this large P limit, the symmetry superalgebra OS sup p (8*|4) of AdS sub 7 xS sup 4 and the symmetry superalgebra OS sup p (8|4,R) of AdS sub 4 xS sup 7 lead to isomorphic PP-wave algebras, which is SU (4|2)Sh sub 1 sub 8 sub , sub 1 sub 6 , while the symmetry superalgebra SU(2,2 vertical bar 4) of AdS sub 5 xS sup 5 leads to [PSU(2|2)centre dot PSU(2|2)centre dot U(1)]SH sup 1 sup 6 sup , sup 1 sup 6 as its PP-wave algebra [hm,n denoting a super-Heisenberg algebra with m bosonic and n fermionic generators]. The zero mode spectra of M-theory or IIB superstring theor...

  17. you can take a horse to water ... environmental education theory and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    YOU CAN TAKE A HORSE TO WATER ... ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION THEORY AND .... lenses were used for identifying animals in our samples. By means of the identification aids provided by Everett. (1980) .... became problematic for them in that they made attempts to understand why environmental degradation was.

  18. Conditional Short-crested second order waves in shallow water and with superimposed current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2004-01-01

    For bottom-supported offshore structures like oil drilling rigs and oil production platforms, a deterministic design wave approach is often applied using a regular non-linear Stokes' wave. Thereby, the procedure accounts for non-linear effects in the wave loading but the randomness of the ocean...... approach as design waves is given....

  19. Water monomer interaction with gold nanoclusters from van der Waals density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yongqiang

    2012-01-14

    We investigate the interaction between water molecules and gold nanoclusters Au(n) through a systematic density functional theory study within both the generalized gradient approximation and the nonlocal van der Waals (vdW) density functional theory. Both planar (n = 6-12) and three-dimensional (3D) clusters (n = 17-20) are studied. We find that applying vdW density functional theory leads to an increase in the Au-Au bond length and a decrease in the cohesive energy for all clusters studied. We classify water adsorption on nanoclusters according to the corner, edge, and surface adsorption geometries. In both corner and edge adsorptions, water molecule approaches the cluster through the O atom. For planar clusters, surface adsorption occurs in a O-up/H-down geometry with water plane oriented nearly perpendicular to the cluster. For 3D clusters, water instead favors a near-flat surface adsorption geometry with the water O atom sitting nearly atop a surface Au atom, in agreement with previous study on bulk surfaces. Including vdW interaction increases the adsorption energy for the weak surface adsorption but reduces the adsorption energy for the strong corner adsorption due to increased water-cluster bond length. By analyzing the adsorption induced charge rearrangement through Bader's charge partitioning and electron density difference and the orbital interaction through the projected density of states, we conclude that the bonding between water and gold nanocluster is determined by an interplay between electrostatic interaction and covalent interaction involving both the water lone-pair and in-plane orbitals and the gold 5d and 6s orbitals. Including vdW interaction does not change qualitatively the physical picture but does change quantitatively the adsorption structure due to the fluxionality of gold nanoclusters.

  20. Gigahertz photon density waves in a turbid medium: Theory and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishkin, Joshua B.; Fantini, Sergio; Vandeven, Martin J.; Gratton, Enrico

    1996-03-01

    The predictions of the frequency-domain standard diffusion equation (SDE) model for light propagation in an infinite turbid medium diverge from the more complete P1 approximation to the linear Boltzmann transport equation at intensity modulation frequencies greater than several hundred MHz. The P1 approximation is based on keeping only the terms l=0 and l=1 in the expansion of the angular photon density in spherical harmonics, and the nomenclature P1 approximation is used since the spherical harmonics of order l=1 can be written in terms of the first order Legendre polynomial, which is traditionally represented by the symbol P1. Frequency-domain data acquired in a quasi-infinite turbid medium at modulation frequencies ranging from 0.38 to 3.2 GHz using a superheterodyning microwave detection system were analyzed using expressions derived from both the P1 aproximation equation and the SDE. This analysis shows that the P1 approximation provides a more accurate description of the data over this range of modulation frequencies. Some researchers have claimed that the P1 approximation predicts that a light pulse should propagate with an average speed of c/ √3 in a thick turbid medium. However, an examination of the Green's function that we obtained from the frequency-domain P1 approximation model indicates that a photon density wave phase velocity of c/ √3 is only asymptotically approached in a regime where the light intensity modulation frequency aproaches infinity. The Fourier transform of this frequency-domain result shows that in the time domain, the P1 approximation predicts that only the leading edge of the pulse (i.e., the photons arriving at the detector at the earliest time) approaches a speed of c/√3.