WorldWideScience

Sample records for water supply sector

  1. Perceived Impact of Private Sector Involvement In Water Supply on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived Impact of Private Sector Involvement In Water Supply on the Urban Poor in Dar es Salaam. ... Tanzania Journal of Development Studies ... Dar es Salaam is not perceived to be a panacea to the water problems facing the urban poor.

  2. The Ambiguity of Community: Debating Alternatives to Private-Sector Provision of Urban Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Bakker

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of community has become increasingly important in debates over alternatives to privatisation, and is invoked by both proponents and opponents of private sector provision of water supply. This paper presents a critique of the concept of community water supply when it is invoked as an alternative to privatisation. The analysis presents a typology of proposals for community ownership and governance of water supply, and proceeds to critique some of the flawed assumptions in the concepts of community deployed in these proposals, together with references to more general debates about the viability of the 'commons' as enacted through community-controlled water supply systems. The paper closes with a brief discussion of the future evolution of the debate over 'community' alternatives to privatisation, focusing on water supply.

  3. Private sector embedded water risk: Merging the corn supply chain network and regional watershed depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.; Brauman, K. A.; Schmitt, J.; Goodkind, A. L.; Smith, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity in US corn farming regions is a significant risk consideration for the ethanol and meat production sectors, which comprise 80% of all US corn demand. Water supply risk can lead to effects across the supply chain, affecting annual corn yields. The purpose of our study is to assess the water risk to the US's most corn-intensive sectors and companies by linking watershed depletion estimates with corn production, linked to downstream companies through a corn transport model. We use a water depletion index as an improved metric for seasonal water scarcity and a corn sourcing supply chain model based on economic cost minimization. Water depletion was calculated as the fraction of renewable (ground and surface) water consumption, with estimates of more than 75% depletion on an annual average basis indicating a significant water risk. We estimated company water risk as the amount of embedded corn coming from three categories of water stressed counties. The ethanol sector had 3.1% of sourced corn grown from counties that were more than 75% depleted while the beef sector had 14.0%. From a firm perspective, Tyson, JBS, Cargill, the top three US corn demanding companies, had 4.5%, 9.6%, 12.8% of their sourced corn respectively, coming from watersheds that are more than 75% depleted. These numbers are significantly higher than the global average of 2.2% of watersheds being classified as more than 75% depleted. Our model enables corn using industries to evaluate their supply chain risk of water scarcity through modeling corn sourcing and watershed depletion, providing the private sector a new method for risk estimation. Our results suggest corn dependent industries are already linked to water scarcity risk in disproportionate amounts due to the spatial heterogeneity of corn sourcing and water scarcity.

  4. Applying the Msharpp Method in Risk Assessment for the Water Supply Critical Infrastructure Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badea Dorel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights a manner to assess risks for an important sector of critical infrastructure, that of water supply, frequently regulated in international legal systems. We took into consideration the fact that risk is a problem related to the processes of decision making under conditions of uncertainty in most cases, so that by this approach we bring to the attention of critical infrastructure managers, drawing on their experience, a simple method that can be considered in a preliminary stage of risk assessment specific to water supply.

  5. A Novel Water Supply Network Sectorization Methodology Based on a Complete Economic Analysis, Including Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Campbell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The core idea behind sectorization of Water Supply Networks (WSNs is to establish areas partially isolated from the rest of the network to improve operational control. Besides the benefits associated with sectorization, some drawbacks must be taken into consideration by water operators: the economic investment associated with both boundary valves and flowmeters and the reduction of both pressure and system resilience. The target of sectorization is to properly balance these negative and positive aspects. Sectorization methodologies addressing the economic aspects mainly consider costs of valves and flowmeters and of energy, and the benefits in terms of water saving linked to pressure reduction. However, sectorization entails other benefits, such as the reduction of domestic consumption, the reduction of burst frequency and the enhanced capacity to detect and intervene over future leakage events. We implement a development proposed by the International Water Association (IWA to estimate the aforementioned benefits. Such a development is integrated in a novel sectorization methodology based on a social network community detection algorithm, combined with a genetic algorithm optimization method and Monte Carlo simulation. The methodology is implemented over a fraction of the WSN of Managua city, capital of Nicaragua, generating a net benefit of 25,572 $/year.

  6. Conceptual model for concessioning in the Water Supply and Sanitation sector in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Raychev

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to create a new conceptual model for sustainable development of the water sector in Bulgaria on the basis of concessions by statistical regions according to the NUTS-2 classification of the European Union. The essence of the proposed model includes an approach for consolidating the existing 66 WSS operators in three WSS operators – concessionaires. The approach is applied to provide WSS services for drinking and household needs of the population. WSS services for the sectors – Industry, Services, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries remain outside the scope of the study. The proposed model is based on statistical analyses of the effectiveness of the WSS operators working by statistical regions and the state of the technical infrastructure they use. Such concessioning by combining one region from the North and South Bulgaria should help to overcome the existing disproportions in the social and economical development and its harmonization in the regions of Northern and Southern Bulgaria. Its implementation should create new opportunities for introducing foreign direct investment which will contribute to the sustainable development of the water sector in the country. The practical significance of the proposed model for overall concessioning of the WSS sector is for Bulgaria as well as for other countries with low and middle incomes. The model is a part of a comprehensive study of a scientific project, according to the Ordinance No.9 of the Ministry of Education and Science of 08.08.2013, with No.NPI-130/2014, on the topic: „The concession as a factor for development of the Water Supply and Sanitation sector in the Republic of Bulgaria“.

  7. Water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    Options and methodologies for the development of fresh water supplies on Bikini Atoll are much the same as those practiced in the rest of the Marshall Islands and for that matter, most atolls in the central Pacific Ocean Basin. That is, rainfall distribution on Bikini produces a distinct wet season, lasting from about May through November, with the remaining months being generally dry. As a result, fresh water from surface catchments tends to be plentiful during the wet season? but is usually scarce during the dry months, and alternative sources such as groundwater must be utilized during this time. On Bikini the problems of fresh water supply are somewhat more difficult than for most Marshall Island atolls because rainfall is only about half the Marshall Island's average. Tus water supply is a critical factor limiting the carrying capacity of Bikini Atoll. To address this problem BARC has undertaken a study of the Bikini Atoll water supply. Te primary objectives of this work are to determine: (1) alternatives available for fresh water supply, 2 the amounts, location and quality of available supplies and 3 optimal development methods. The study planned for one's year duration, has been underway only since the summer of 1985 and is thus not yet fully completed. However, work done to date, which is presented in this report of preliminary findings, provides a reasonably accurate picture of Bikini's fresh water supplies and the various options available for their development. The work remaining to be completed will mainly add refinements to the water supply picture presented in the sections to follow

  8. [Public water supply fluoridation in Brazil according to health sector leaders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Regina Glaucia Lucena Aguiar; Bógus, Cláudia Maria; Marques, Regina Auxiliadora de Amorim; Menezes, Léa Maria Bezerra de; Narvai, Paulo Capel

    2014-09-01

    Various groups have opposed water supply fluoridation in Brazil, while others have supported the measure based on scientific evidence. This article describes the perceptions of delegates to the 13th National Health Conference on mandatory fluoridation of the country's public water supply. Interviews were processed using collective subject discourse analysis. A certain degree of misinformation persists regarding basic characteristics of water fluoridation, which is frequently confused with chlorination. The delegates' discourses showed a continuing need for public awareness-raising regarding fluoridation and the delegates' desire that the National Congress not take measures impacting public health without consulting society's stakeholders. However, most of the interviewees agreed that to repeal mandatory water fluoridation or loosen the control of its implementation could increase the incidence of tooth decay in the population.

  9. Conceptual model for concessioning in the Water Supply and Sanitation sector in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Todor Raychev

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to create a new conceptual model for sustainable development of the water sector in Bulgaria on the basis of concessions by statistical regions according to the NUTS-2 classification of the European Union. The essence of the proposed model includes an approach for consolidating the existing 66 WSS operators in three WSS operators – concessionaires. The approach is applied to provide WSS services for drinking and household needs of the population. WSS services fo...

  10. Comparative Analysis of the Efficiency of the Water Supply and Sanitation Sector in the Period 2000-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todor Raychev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the comparative multiparametric analysis of the efficiency of the economic activity of the water and sewerage operators in Bulgaria in the period 2000-2015. It is part of a comprehensive study of a scientific project, according to the Ordinance No.9 of the Ministry of Education and Science of 08.08.2013, with No.НПИ-130/2014, on the topic: „The concession as a factor for development of the Water Supply and Sanitation sector in the Republic of Bulgaria“. Conclusions and recommendations concerning the efficiency of revenues, financial results and management of the WSS operators in the statistical regions of the country are made. The possibilities for restructuring the water sector have been examined in order to improve its economic activity and the quality of the WSS services provided to the population.

  11. Tanzania - Water Supply & Expansion

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Social Impact (SI) has been contracted by MCC to carry out an impact evaluation (IE) of the Tanzania Water Sector Project. This IE examines the effect of the WSP...

  12. WATER SUPPLY ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    This analysis defines and evaluates the surface water supply system from the existing J-13 well to the North Portal. This system includes the pipe running from J-13 to a proposed Booster Pump Station at the intersection of H Road and the North Portal access road. Contained herein is an analysis of the proposed Booster Pump Station with a brief description of the system that could be installed to the South Portal and the optional shaft. The tanks that supply the water to the North Portal are sized, and the supply system to the North Portal facilities and up to Topopah Spring North Ramp is defined

  13. Climate Change Adaptation in the Water Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.; Kabat, P.; Schaik, van H.; Valk, van der M.

    2009-01-01

    Today’s climate variability already has a large impact on water supply and protection. Millions of people are affected every year by droughts and floods. Future climate change is likely to make things worse. Many people within the water sector are aware that climate change is affecting water

  14. Optimal allocation of bulk water supplies to competing use sectors based on economic criterion - An application to the Chao Phraya River Basin, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divakar, L.; Babel, M. S.; Perret, S. R.; Gupta, A. Das

    2011-04-01

    SummaryThe study develops a model for optimal bulk allocations of limited available water based on an economic criterion to competing use sectors such as agriculture, domestic, industry and hydropower. The model comprises a reservoir operation module (ROM) and a water allocation module (WAM). ROM determines the amount of water available for allocation, which is used as an input to WAM with an objective function to maximize the net economic benefits of bulk allocations to different use sectors. The total net benefit functions for agriculture and hydropower sectors and the marginal net benefit from domestic and industrial sectors are established and are categorically taken as fixed in the present study. The developed model is applied to the Chao Phraya basin in Thailand. The case study results indicate that the WAM can improve net economic returns compared to the current water allocation practices.

  15. Food and water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, I. G.

    1975-01-01

    Supplying astronauts with adequate food and water on short and long-term space flights is discussed based on experiences gained in space flight. Food consumption, energy requirements, and suitability of the foodstuffs for space flight are among the factors considered. Physicochemical and biological methods of food production and regeneration of water from astronaut metabolic wastes, as well as wastes produced in a closed ecological system, or as a result of technical processes taking place in various spacecraft systems are suggested for long-term space flights.

  16. Public Water Supply Systems (PWS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset includes boundaries for most public water supply systems (PWS) in Kansas (525 municipalities, 289 rural water districts and 13 public wholesale water...

  17. Leading professions bank on new standards in the sector of power-, gas- and water supply engineering; Einschlaegige Leitberufe setzen neue Standards in der Strom-, Gas- und Wasserversorgungstechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassnacht, Axel [Univ. Hannover (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    With the emergence of new professions and training subjects in power and water supply engineering, new standards have been set for vocational qualifications. Experts of public utilities and industrial associations have cooperated in setting a new frame of standards for the new professions. (orig.)

  18. LCA of Drinking Water Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit; Meron, Noa; Rygaard, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Water supplies around the globe are growing complex and include more intense treatment methods than just decades ago. Now, desalination of seawater and wastewater reuse for both non-potable and potable water supply have become common practice in many places. LCA has been used to assess...... the potentials and reveal hotspots among the possible technologies and scenarios for water supplies of the future. LCA studies have been used to support decisions in the planning of urban water systems and some important findings include documentation of reduced environmental impact from desalination of brackish...... water over sea water, the significant impacts from changed drinking water quality and reduced environmental burden from wastewater reuse instead of desalination. Some of the main challenges in conducting LCAs of water supply systems are their complexity and diversity, requiring very large data...

  19. Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauchenschwandtner, H.; Pachel, M.

    2012-04-01

    Institutional and socioeconomic aspects of water supply Within the project CC-WaterS the participating researchers of the Vienna University of Economics and B.A. have been responsible for the analysis of the socioeconomic aspects related to water supply and climate change, the assessment of future water demands in the City of Vienna, as well as an estimation of economic consequences of possible water shortages and possible scope for the introduction of new legal guidelines. The institutional and socioeconomic dimensions of drinking water and sanitation systems are being examined by utilisation of different prognostic scenarios in order to assess future costs of water provisioning and future demands of main water users, thus providing an information basis and recommendations for policy and decision makers in the water sector. These dimensions, for example, include EU legislation - especially the Water Framework Directive -, national legislations and strategies targeted at achieving sustainability in water usage, best practices and different forms of regulating water markets, and an analysis of the implications of demographic change. As a basis this task encompasses research of given institutional, social, and legal-political structures in the area of water supply. In this course we provide an analysis of the structural characteristics of water markets, the role of water prices, the increasing perception of water as an economic good as well as implications thereof, the public awareness in regard to climate change and water resources, as well as related legal aspects and involved actors from regional to international level; and show how water resources and the different systems of water provisioning are affected by (ideological) conflicts on various levels. Furthermore, and in order to provide a solid basis for management recommendations related to climate change and water supply, an analytical risk-assessment framework based on the concepts of new institutional

  20. Security management of water supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchórzewska-Cieślak Barbara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this work is to present operational problems concerning the safety of the water supply and the procedures for risk management systems functioning public water supply (CWSS and including methods of hazard identification and risk assessment. Developed a problem analysis and risk assessment, including procedures called. WSP, which is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO as a tool for comprehensive security management of water supply from source to consumer. Water safety plan is a key element of the strategy for prevention of adverse events in CWSS.

  1. Potable water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, R. L.; Calley, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    The history and evolution of the Apollo potable water system is reviewed. Its operation in the space environment and in the spacecraft is described. Its performance is evaluated. The Apollo potable water system satisfied the dual purpose of providing metabolic water for the crewmen and water for spacecraft cooling.

  2. Mozambique - Rural Water Supply

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report provides the results from (1) an impact evaluation of the MCA's Rural Water Point Implementation Program ('RWPIP') in Nampula and (2) an evaluation of...

  3. Managing Water supply in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, P. P.

    2001-05-01

    If the estimates are correct that, in the large urban areas of the developing world 30 percent of the population lack access to safe water supply and 50 percent lack access to adequate sanitation, then we are currently faced with 510 million urban residents without access to domestic water and 850 million without access to sanitation. Looking to the year 2020, we will face an additional 1,900 million in need of water and sanitation services. The provision of water services to these billions of people over the next two decades is one of the greatest challenges facing the nations of the world. In addition to future supplies, major problems exist with the management of existing systems where water losses can account for a significant fraction of the water supplied. The entire governance of the water sector and the management of particular systems raise serious questions about the application of the best technologies and the appropriate economic incentive systems. The paper outlines a few feasible technical and economic solutions.

  4. Natural radioactivity in water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horner, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    This book outlines the scientific aspects of the control of natural radioactivity in water supplies, as well as the labyrinthine uncertainties in water quality regulation concerning natural radiocontamination of water. The author provides an introduction to the theory of natural radioactivity; addresses risk assessment, sources of natural radiocontamination of water, radiobiology of natural radioactivity in water, and federal water law concerning natural radiocontamination. It presents an account of how one city dealt with the perplexes that mark the rapidly evolving area of water quality regulation. The contents include: radioactivity and risk; an introduction to the atomic theory; an introduction to natural radioactivity; risk assessment; uranium and radium contamination of water; radiobiology of uranium and radium in water. Determination of risk from exposure to uranium and radium in water; the legal milieu; one city's experience; and summary: the determinants of evolving regulation

  5. Metering in the gas supply sector; Metering in der Gasversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernekinck, U. [RWE Westfalen-Weser-Ems, Recklinghausen (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    The new conditions of competition in the gas supply sector have strongly increased the requirements on gas grid operators. Mainly an exact gas metering and -accouting will become more and more important. The systems and procedures are presented in detail in this contribution. (GL)

  6. Growing ethanol sector drives corn supply chain shift for the last decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T.; Schmitt, J.; Brauman, K. A.; Smith, T. M.; Suh, K.

    2017-12-01

    The US is the largest producer in the world, 89% of corn production uses in domestic demands in 2012. Carbon emission and irrigated water usage in the corn farming stage are hot-spot in the meat production sectors, comprise 37% of all US corn demand. The annual capacity of the ethanol sector increases from 6.5 billion gallons to 15.3 billion gallons for the last decade. The growth of corn demand in ethanol sector makes corn supply chain shift. Most of the ethanol plants located in the Mid-west where is the top 12 corn producing states. Therefore animal feeds take more supply from the other states. The purpose of this study is to estimate environmental impacts and water scarcity associated embedded corn by the temporal and spatial corn supply chain model based on a cost minimization. We use publicly available county-level data on corn production, feed demands, aggregative carbon emission and irrigated water usage in farming state, and a water depletion index as a metric for determining water scarcity. The water stressed counties produce 23.3% of US total corn production in 2012, and the irrigated corn is 14.2%. We simulated the corn supply chain using linear programming and developed the web-based visualization tools called FoodS3 (Food Systems Supply-chain Sustainability tool, http://foods3.org).

  7. Marine renewable energy sector early-stage supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Marine renewable energy is an emergent sector in Canada. Although supply chain studies have been performed on the United Kingdom and the United States markets, no study has been conducted yet in Canada. The aim of this study was therefore to perform a supply chain analysis in Canada to assess the maturity, strengths, and weaknesses of the sector and determine where the opportunities lie. The study emphasises that the sector is still at the prototype stage in Canada and that the industry must learn to improve its technology and begin to take on large scale projects. Canada has several strengths in the marine renewable energy sector, mainly in terms of resources and facilities, but there are also weaknesses pertaining to technology development and experience. The study concluded that the development of the sector must be centered on a solid vision; in the near term, technological innovation is needed to reach pre-commercialization while in the long term, the sector should aim for commercial application.

  8. Water supply network district metering theory and case study

    CERN Document Server

    Di Nardo, Armando; Di Mauro, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The management of a water supply network can be substantially improved defining permanent sectors or districts that enhances simpler water loss detection and pressure management. However, the water network partitioning may compromise water system performance, since some pipes are usually closed to delimit districts in order not to have too many metering stations, to decrease costs and simplify water balance. This may reduce the reliability of the whole system and not guarantee the delivery of water at the different network nodes. In practical applications, the design of districts or sectors is generally based on empirical approaches or on limited field experiences. The book proposes a design support methodology, based on graph theory principles and tested on real case study. The described methodology can help water utilities, professionals and researchers to define the optimal districts or sectors of a water supply network.

  9. 46 CFR 108.467 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water supply. 108.467 Section 108.467 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.467 Water supply. The water supply of a foam extinguishing system must not be the water supply of the fire main system on the unit unless when...

  10. 18 CFR 801.6 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 801.6... POLICIES § 801.6 Water supply. (a) The Susquehanna River Basin is rich in water resources. With proper... forth in the comprehensive plan. (c) The Commission shall study the basin's water supply needs, the...

  11. WATER SUPPLY OF TRANSPORT OBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Badyuk, N. S.

    2009-01-01

    Badyuk N. S. WATER SUPPLY OF TRANSPORT OBJECTS. АКТУАЛЬНЫЕ ПРОБЛЕМЫ ТРАНСПОРТНОЙ МЕДИЦИНЫ № 3 (17), 2009 г. P. 96-104 DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1020024 http://dspace.nbuv.gov.ua/bitstream/handle/123456789/23091/13-Badyuk.pdf?sequence=1 WATER SUPPLY OF TRANSPORT OBJECTS Badyuk N. S. Ukrainian Research Institute for Medicine of Transport, Odessa, Ukraine Summary In the work presented they discuss several peculiarities of wa...

  12. Water Utility Planning for an Emergency Drinking Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reviews roles and responsibilities among various levels of government regarding emergency water supplies and seeks to encourage collaboration and partnership regarding emergency water supply planning.

  13. Analysis of risks and investments’ opportunities in water sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fjona Zeneli

    2016-01-01

    These opportunities result from the difference between water supply and water demand; an increasingly difference that requires capital investments in production and water treatment technologies. Investments need to be combined with the knowledge on the legislation, regulatory framework and technological developments. This article may serve to clarify type of investments in drinking water sector, known by literature, to identify opportunities of investment in this sector, indicating the theoretical framework of beta and alpha risk ratio coefficient calculation and to suggest how these types of investments can be allocated to the investment portfolios.

  14. 9 CFR 354.224 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water supply. 354.224 Section 354.224....224 Water supply. The water supply shall be ample, clean, and potable with adequate facilities for its distribution in the plant and its protection against contamination and pollution. (a) Hot water at a...

  15. 24 CFR 3285.603 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 3285.603 Section 3285... § 3285.603 Water supply. (a) Crossover. Multi-section homes with plumbing in both sections require water... pressure and reduction. When the local water supply pressure exceeds 80 psi to the manufactured home, a...

  16. Water supply and management concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1965-01-01

    If I had to cite one fact about water in the United States which would be not only the most important but also the most informative, the one I would choose would k this: Over 50 percent of all the water presently being used in the United States is used by industry, and nearly all of that is used for cooling.The large amount of attention recently being given to water shortage and the expected rapid increase in demand for water is probably to some extent clouded because there are certain simple facts about water availability and water use which, though readily available, are not generally either known or understood.Probably most people react to information in the public press about present and possible future water shortages with the thought that it is going to be more difficult in the future to supply the ordinary household with water for drinking, washing, and tbe culinary arts. As a matter of fact that may be true to some extent, but it is not the salient aspect.

  17. Malaysian water sector reform : policy and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, C.T.

    2012-01-01

    One of the measures that can help developing countries in meeting Target 10 of the Millennium Development Goals – halving the number of people without access to water and adequate sanitation by 2015 – is through a water sector reform. In this research the Malaysian water sector reform is

  18. 25 CFR 137.1 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 137.1 Section 137.1 Indians BUREAU OF... CARLOS INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECT, ARIZONA § 137.1 Water supply. The engineering report dealt with in... capacity of the San Carlos reservoir created by the Coolidge Dam and the water supply therefor over a...

  19. 20 CFR 654.405 - Water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply. 654.405 Section 654.405... THE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE SYSTEM Housing for Agricultural Workers Housing Standards § 654.405 Water supply. (a) An adequate and convenient supply of water that meets the standards of the State health...

  20. Water Supply and Sanitation in Mauritania : Turning Finance into Services for 2015 and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    The situation within the water supply and sanitation (WSS) sector in Mauritania is somewhat contradictory: in spite of the weakness of the institutions in charge of the sector and the lack of financing for sanitation and, more recently, for the rural water supply (RWS) subsector, significant improvements have been made in the access rates since 1990. The institutional reform of the RWS sub...

  1. Nevada test site water-supply wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, D.; Donithan, D.; Seaber, P.

    1996-05-01

    A total of 15 water-supply wells are currently being used at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The purpose of this report is to bring together the information gleaned from investigations of these water-supply wells. This report should serve as a reference on well construction and completion, static water levels, lithologic and hydrologic characteristics of aquifers penetrated, and general water quality of water-supply wells at the NTS. Possible sources for contamination of the water-supply wells are also evaluated. Existing wells and underground nuclear tests conducted near (within 25 meters (m)) or below the water table within 2 kilometers (km) of a water-supply were located and their hydrogeologic relationship to the water-supply well determined

  2. The single European energy market: the electricity supply sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliwell, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    The completion of the Internal Market in the Community by the end of 1992 has become a key objective and the focal point of the revival of the European Community. Within this overall objective, the development of the Single European Energy Market, the Internal Energy market, is a major element. The energy objectives for the Community, adopted in 1986 by the Council of Ministers and relating to targets in the energy sector to be achieved by 1995, contain what are effectively the aims of the Internal Energy Market. This is in a reference to the need for greater integration, free from barriers to trade, of the Internal Energy Market with a view to improving security of supply, reducing costs and improving economic competitiveness. In the light of these aims, the Commission drew up, in 1988, an inventory of potential obstacles to the achievement of the Internal Energy Market. This was accepted by the Council, together with a list of suggested priority areas of work, and has formed the basis of the Commission's efforts to move forward as quickly as possible in the development of the Internal Energy Market, in all branches of the energy sector. The impact on the electricity sector, in particular, is considered here. (author)

  3. Technologies for climate change adaptation. The water sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, T De [ed.; UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark); Elliott, M; Armstrong, A; Lobuglio, J; Bartram, J [The Water Institute at the Univ. of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2011-04-15

    following chapter. Adaptation should not be understood as simply implementing the correct technology or practice. It should be part of a coherent, inter-sectoral strategy to ensure sustainable water resources and safe water supply. Therefore, tools for planning and decision-making for climate change adaptation in the water sector are also considered. Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) is proposed here as an overall decision- making framework for climate change adaptation in water resources. Likewise, Water Safety Plans (WSPs) are suggested to provide an approach for climate change adaptation in water quality and water supply. (LN)

  4. Electricity, Gas and Water Supply. Industry Training Monograph No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's electricity, gas, and water supply industry employs only 0.8% of the nation's workers and employment in the industry has declined by nearly 39% in the last decade. This industry is substantially more dependent on the vocational education and training (VET) sector for skilled graduates than is the total Australian labor market. Despite…

  5. Introduction of water footprint assessment approach to enhance water supply management in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moni, Syazwan N.; Aziz, Edriyana A.; Malek, M. A.

    2017-10-01

    Presently, Water Footprint (WF) Approach has been used to assess the sustainability of a product's chain globally but is lacking in the services sector. Thus, this paper aims to introduce WF assessment as a technical approach to determine the sustainability of water supply management for the typical water supply treatment process (WSTP) used in Malaysia. Water supply is one of the pertinent services and most of WF accounting begins with data obtained from the water supply treatment plant. Therefore, the amount of WF will be accounted for each process of WSTP in order to determine the water utilization for the whole process according to blue, green and grey WF. Hence, the exact amount of water used in the process can be measured by applying this accounting method to assess the sustainability of water supply management in Malaysia. Therefore, the WF approach in assessing sustainability of WSTP could be implemented.

  6. Uranium removal from the water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranzadeh, Mohammad Bagher.

    1996-01-01

    Uranium can be naturally occurring radionuclides that contaminate some potable water supplies. Uranium is found both in surface water and ground water supplies. The United States Environmental Protection Agency recently proposed a maximum contaminant of 20 micro gram/liter for uranium because of concerns about its association with kidney disease and cancer. uranium can be removed from the supply by strong base anion-resin. Exhausted resin is regenerated by sodium chloride solution. (Author)

  7. Reuse of waste water: impact on water supply planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangan, G.F. Jr.

    1978-06-01

    As the urban population of the world increases and demands on easily developable water supplies are exceeded, cities have recourse to a range of management alternatives to balance municipal water supply and demand. These alternatives range from doing nothing to modifying either the supply or the demand variable in the supply-demand relationship. The reuse or recycling of urban waste water in many circumstances may be an economically attractive and effective management strategy for extending existing supplies of developed water, for providing additional water where no developable supplies exist and for meeting water quality effluent discharge standards. The relationship among municipal, industrial and agricultural water use and the treatment links which may be required to modify the quality of a municipal waste effluent for either recycling or reuse purposes is described. A procedure is described for analyzing water reuse alternatives within a framework of regional water supply and waste water disposal planning and management.

  8. Organization and scaling in water supply networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Likwan; Karney, Bryan W.

    2017-12-01

    Public water supply is one of the society's most vital resources and most costly infrastructures. Traditional concepts of these networks capture their engineering identity as isolated, deterministic hydraulic units, but overlook their physics identity as related entities in a probabilistic, geographic ensemble, characterized by size organization and property scaling. Although discoveries of allometric scaling in natural supply networks (organisms and rivers) raised the prospect for similar findings in anthropogenic supplies, so far such a finding has not been reported in public water or related civic resource supplies. Examining an empirical ensemble of large number and wide size range, we show that water supply networks possess self-organized size abundance and theory-explained allometric scaling in spatial, infrastructural, and resource- and emission-flow properties. These discoveries establish scaling physics for water supply networks and may lead to novel applications in resource- and jurisdiction-scale water governance.

  9. Sustainability evaluation of water supply technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godskesen, Berit

    Sustainability evaluation of water supply systems is important to include in the decision making process when planning new technologies or resources for water supply. In Denmark the motivations may be many and different for changing technology, but since water supply is based on groundwater...... the main driver is the limitations of the available resource from the groundwater bodies. The environmental impact of products and systems can be evaluated by life-cycle assessment (LCA) which is a comprehensive and dominant decision support tool capable of evaluating a water system from the cradle......-criteria decision analysis method was used to develop a decision support system and applied to the study. In this thesis a standard LCA of the drinking water supply technology of today (base case) and 4 alternative cases for water supply technologies is conducted. The standard LCA points at the case rain...

  10. Information in the Water and Sanitation Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodda, John C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes 17 articles on aspects of collecting, managing, and disseminating data about the world's water supply and use. Topics addressed include United Nations agencies involved with water resources; management information systems; providing information needed by water resources professionals; and the role of regional organizations in providing…

  11. Potential Evaluation of Energy Supply System in Grid Power System, Commercial, and Residential Sectors by Minimizing Energy Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Takuya; Akisawa, Atushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    If the economic activity in the commercial and residential sector continues to grow, improvement in energy conversion efficiencies of energy supply systems is necessary for CO2 mitigation. In recent years, the electricity driven hot water heat pump (EDHP) and the solar photo voltaic (PV) are commercialized. The fuel cell (FC) of co-generation system (CGS) for the commercial and residential sector will be commercialized in the future. The aim is to indicate the ideal energy supply system of the users sector, which both manages the economical cost and CO2 mitigation, considering the grid power system. In the paper, cooperative Japanese energy supply systems are modeled by linear-programming. It includes the grid power system and energy systems of five commercial sectors and a residential sector. The demands of sectors are given by the objective term for 2005 to 2025. 24 hours load for each 3 annual seasons are considered. The energy systems are simulated to be minimize the total cost of energy supply, and to be mitigate the CO2 discharge. As result, the ideal energy system at 2025 is shown. The CGS capacity grows to 30% (62GW) of total power system, and the EDHP capacity is 26GW, in commercial and residential sectors.

  12. Contribution of components of Green Supply Chain Execution-Supply Loops in Green Supply Chain Performance measurement-A Pilot Empirical Study of the Indian Automobile Manufacturing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd. Asif Gandhi

    2017-01-01

    This paper is one of the several extensions of the research works done by [5]. Green Supply Chain Practices have been known to have an impact on Green Supply Chain Performance [5].This paper tests empirically through a pilot study of the Indian Automobile Manufacturing Sector, the contribution of the three variables constituting the construct Green Supply Chain Execution-Supply Loops in Green Supply Chain Performance measurement. Also the paper establishes the reliability of the questionnaire...

  13. Water consumption in the energy sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Andreas Dahl; Drews, Martin; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    or biofuels. Hydropower is based on water in rivers or reservoirs. Feedstock production for biofuels may depend on water for irrigation. On the other hand, energy is necessary for pumping of ground- and surface water, for water treatment as well as for transport and distribution of water to end......-users. The waste water is often returned to the environment after energy requiring waste water management.......Energy, water, and food systems are closely interlinked in the Energy-Water-Food Nexus. Water is of paramount importance for the energy sector. Fossil fuels require water for extraction, trans-port and processing. Thermal power plants require water for cooling, whether they use nuclear, fossil...

  14. Energy costs and Portland water supply system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, W.M.; Hawley, R.P.

    1981-10-01

    The changing role of electrical energy on the Portland, Oregon, municipal-water-supply system is presented. Portland's actions in energy conservation include improved operating procedures, pump modifications, and modifications to the water system to eliminate pumping. Portland is implementing a small hydroelectric project at existing water-supply dams to produce an additional source of power for the area. Special precautions in construction and operation are necessary to protect the high quality of the water supply. 2 references, 7 figures.

  15. Uruguay Energy Supply Options Study: a Detailed Multi-Sector Integrated Energy Supply and Demand Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conzelmann, G.; Veselka, T.

    1997-01-01

    Uruguay is in the middle of making critical decisions affecting the design of its future energy supply system.Momentum for change is expected to come from several directions including recent and foreseeable upgrades and modifications to energy conversion facilities, the importation of natural gas from Argentina, the possibility for a stronger interconnection of regional electricity systems, the country s membership in MERCOSUR, and the potential for energy sector reforms by the Government of Uruguay.The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of several fuel diversification strategies on Uruguay s energy supply system.The analysis pays special attention to fuel substitution trends due to potential imports of natural gas via a gas pipeline from Argentina and increasing electricity ties with neighboring countries.The Government of Uruguay contracted Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to study several energy development scenario ns with the support of several Uruguayan Institutions.Specifically, ANL was asked to conduct a detailed energy supply and demand analysis, develop energy demand projections based on an analysis of past energy demand patterns with support from local institutions, evaluate the effects of potential natural gas imports and electricity exchanges, and determine the market penetration of natural gas under various scenarios

  16. Water Supply Treatment Sustainability of Panching Water Supply Treatment Process - Water Footprint Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Edriyana A.; Malek, Marlinda Abdul; Moni, Syazwan N.; Zulkifli, Nabil F.; Hadi, Iqmal H.

    2018-03-01

    In many parts of the world, freshwater is scarce and overexploited. The purpose of this study is to determine the water footprint of Water Supply Treatment Process (WSTP) at Panching Water Treatment Plant (WTP) as well as to identify the sustainability of the Sg. Kuantan as an intake resource due to the effect of land use development. The total water footprint (WF) will be calculated by using WF accounting manual. The results obtained shows that the water intake resource is still available but it is believed that it will not be able to cope with the increasing WF. The increment of water demand percentage by 1.8% from 2015 to 2016 has increased 11 times higher of the water footprint percentage, 19.9%. This result shows that the water consumption during the water supply treatment process is two times higher than the demand thus it shows the inefficient of the water management

  17. Facilitators and Inhibitors of Supply Chain Innovation-prospects for Supply Chain Managment in the Irish Grocery Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Keegan, Joan; O'Callaghan, Edmund; Wilcox, Mary

    2001-01-01

    Supply chain management is one of the most significant strategic challenges currently facing the Irish grocery sector. The UK grocery market with its emphasis on composite deliveries via regional distribution centres is extremely sophisticated; the Irish grocery sector, however, is in the embryonic stage of implementing central distribution. The potential to develop innovative supply chain systems is mediated by both national logistic-related variables and company characteristics. In additio...

  18. Water supply at Los Alamos during 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purtymun, W.D.

    1978-08-01

    The Los Alamos water supply for 1977 consisted of 1474 x 10 6 gal from wells in three fields and 57 x 10 6 gal from the gallery in Water Canyon. The production from the well fields was at its lowest volume since 1970. Water-level trends were as anticipated under current production practices. Well rehabilitation should be continued to ensure an adequate and reliable supply from wells that are 10 to over 25 yr old

  19. Measuring the influence of industry sector membership on supply chain disruption reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The global Supply Chain Resilience Survey by the Business Continuity Institute and Zurich Insurance is a comprehensive study on the state of supply chains in different organisations worldwide. As a benchmarking tool, it also contains data about business continuity arrangements in place to ensure supply chain resilience. Given this study's historically qualitative approach to reporting, this paper aims to introduce quantitative analysis. In this paper, responses that report membership in Standard Industrial Classification 2007 industry sectors from the 2013 Supply Chain Resilience Survey were disaggregated and related to supply chain disruption reporting. A chi-square test of independence reveals that membership in a particular industry sector influences reporting of supply chain disruption. Nonetheless, the relationship between these variables is weak. This study demonstrates interesting differences between industry sectors in terms of supply chain resilience. Further research is required in terms of other variables in order to provide granularity and relevant findings to supply chain planners.

  20. Implementation of DMAs in Intermittent Water Supply Networks Based on Equity Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilkar E. Ilaya-Ayza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent supply is a common way of delivering water in many developing countries. Limitations on water and economic resources, in addition to poor management and population growth, limit the possibilities of delivering water 24 h a day. Intermittent water supply networks are usually designed and managed in an empirical manner, or using tools and criteria devised for continuous supply systems, and this approach can produce supply inequity. In this paper, an approach based on the hydraulic capacity concept, which uses soft computing tools of graph theory and cluster analysis, is developed to define sectors, also called district metered areas (DMAs, to produce an equitable water supply. Moreover, this approach helps determine the supply time for each sector, which depends on each sector’s hydraulic characteristics. This process also includes the opinions of water company experts, the individuals who are best acquainted with the intricacies of the network.

  1. A Water Demand Management Strategy For The Namibian Tourism Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachtschneider, K.; Winter, K.

    The arid conditions of Namibia are forcing its decision-makers to resort to new wa- ter resource management approaches, including Water Demand Management (WDM). When Namibia achieved its independence from South Africa 1990, a new opportunity arose to rewrite certain restrictive laws and policies in order to bring about redress, development and transformation. The new Water Policy is one example in which the mindset is changed from a supply to a demand oriented water management ap- proach. Legal support for WDM within the new Water Act is a critical component that will support the implementation of WDM in all economic sectors, such as agri- culture, mining and tourism. It is argued that an appropriate WDM strategy should be designed specifically for each sector, once the typical water use patterns in a sec- tor are understood and key water resource managers at all levels are identified. The Namibian tourism sector is geographically dispersed and control over its operations is compounded by the fact that it is frequently located in extremely remote areas that are arid and ecologically sensitive. In general, WDM is rarely practised, because it is not yet supported by law and there are currently no institutional arrangements to con- trol water use in this geographically dispersed industrial sector through which WDM could be enforced either through metering and/or payments. Managers of tourist en- terprises undertake most of the water management themselves, and have been identi- fied as being crucial to the implementation of WDM strategies. A study of six tourist facilities determined the willingness and motivation of these managers to undertake various WDM initiatives. The study identified three factors which appear to influence the actions of managers, namely external controls, economics and company ethics. It is recommended that a tourism sector WDM strategy should focus on these three factors in order to transform the WDM aims and objectives on the policy level into

  2. Sectoral contributions to surface water stress in the coterminous United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averyt, K; Meldrum, J; Caldwell, P; Sun, G; McNulty, S; Huber-Lee, A; Madden, N

    2013-01-01

    Here, we assess current stress in the freshwater system based on the best available data in order to understand possible risks and vulnerabilities to regional water resources and the sectors dependent on freshwater. We present watershed-scale measures of surface water supply stress for the coterminous United States (US) using the water supply stress index (WaSSI) model which considers regional trends in both water supply and demand. A snapshot of contemporary annual water demand is compared against different water supply regimes, including current average supplies, current extreme-year supplies, and projected future average surface water flows under a changing climate. In addition, we investigate the contributions of different water demand sectors to current water stress. On average, water supplies are stressed, meaning that demands for water outstrip natural supplies in over 9% of the 2103 watersheds examined. These watersheds rely on reservoir storage, conveyance systems, and groundwater to meet current water demands. Overall, agriculture is the major demand-side driver of water stress in the US, whereas municipal stress is isolated to southern California. Water stress introduced by cooling water demands for power plants is punctuated across the US, indicating that a single power plant has the potential to stress water supplies at the watershed scale. On the supply side, watersheds in the western US are particularly sensitive to low flow events and projected long-term shifts in flow driven by climate change. The WaSSI results imply that not only are water resources in the southwest in particular at risk, but that there are also potential vulnerabilities to specific sectors, even in the ‘water-rich’ southeast. (letter)

  3. Modelling a sector undergoing structural change: The case of Danish energy supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2000-01-01

    for the demand of the produced goods. Environmental priorities and targets for emission reductions are important for defining energy policy in Denmark. As the energy supply sector at present is a major contributor to emissions of CO2 and SO2, knowledge of this sector is vital for reducing these emissions......This paper examines structural change in the power and heat producing sector (energy supply) and its implications for the economy. An integrated approach is used to describe the interactions between this sector and the rest of the economy. Thus, a very detailed model of the sector for Denmark has...... been linked to a macroeconometric model of the Danish economy. It is argued that analysing sectors that undergo radical changes, for example, the energy supply sector should be undertaken by using a model that describes the technological and organisational changes in production along with implications...

  4. Importance of pressure reducing valves (PRVs) in water supply networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signoreti, R. O. S.; Camargo, R. Z.; Canno, L. M.; Pires, M. S. G.; Ribeiro, L. C. L. J.

    2016-08-01

    Challenged with the high rate of leakage from water supply systems, these managers are committed to identify control mechanisms. In order to standardize and control the pressure Pressure Reducing Valves (VRP) are installed in the supply network, shown to be more effective and provide a faster return for the actual loss control measures. It is known that the control pressure is while controlling the occurrence of leakage. Usually the network is sectored in areas defined by pressure levels according to its topography, once inserted the VRP in the same system will limit the downstream pressure. This work aims to show the importance of VRP as loss reduction for tool.

  5. Policies, Programmes and Institutions of Water Sector in Sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krhoda, G.O

    2001-01-01

    Meaningful investment in the water sector can easily increase food production and productivity of human resources and thus stimulate economic growth, human and environmental health. The author indicates that, the Mar del Plata Action Plan (1977), the New Delhi Statement (1990), Dublin Statement (1991)and the Agenda 21 Chapter 18 of UNCED (1992) emphasise the urgent need for integrated, sustainable water resources management. The publication looks at the policy development in the water sector, the disparities in the allocation of water supplies in the urban and the rural areas, the importance of water in the development of the industrial sector and how to manage the demand for water in sub-Saharan Africa

  6. POTABLE WATER SUPPLY IN OWERRI METROPOLIS: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    address the problems of water supply and management. These include: ..... total replacement of under-laid water pipes has not been done, and there is no modern way .... If the present trend continues, the vast majority of these people will be living ... maintenance and management of water facilities and other logistics.

  7. Mechanisms affecting water quality in an intermittent piped water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2014-01-01

    Drinking water distribution systems throughout the world supply water intermittently, leaving pipes without pressure between supply cycles. Understanding the multiple mechanisms that affect contamination in these intermittent water supplies (IWS) can be used to develop strategies to improve water quality. To study these effects, we tested water quality in an IWS system with infrequent and short water delivery periods in Hubli-Dharwad, India. We continuously measured pressure and physicochemical parameters and periodically collected grab samples to test for total coliform and E. coli throughout supply cycles at 11 sites. When the supply was first turned on, water with elevated turbidity and high concentrations of indicator bacteria was flushed out of pipes. At low pressures (water was delivered with a chlorine residual and at pressures >17 psi.

  8. Optimal Allocation of Water Resources Based on Water Supply Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Under the combined impacts of climate change and human activities, a series of water issues, such as water shortages, have arisen all over the world. According to current studies in Science and Nature, water security has become a frontier critical topic. Water supply security (WSS, which is the state of water resources and their capacity and their capacity to meet the demand of water users by water supply systems, is an important part of water security. Currently, WSS is affected by the amount of water resources, water supply projects, water quality and water management. Water shortages have also led to water supply insecurity. WSS is now evaluated based on the balance of the supply and demand under a single water resources condition without considering the dynamics of the varying conditions of water resources each year. This paper developed an optimal allocation model for water resources that can realize the optimal allocation of regional water resources and comprehensively evaluate WSS. The objective of this model is to minimize the duration of water shortages in the long term, as characterized by the Water Supply Security Index (WSSI, which is the assessment value of WSS, a larger WSSI value indicates better results. In addition, the simulation results of the model can determine the change process and dynamic evolution of the WSS. Quanzhou, a city in China with serious water shortage problems, was selected as a case study. The allocation results of the current year and target year of planning demonstrated that the level of regional comprehensive WSS was significantly influenced by the capacity of water supply projects and the conditions of the natural water resources. The varying conditions of the water resources allocation results in the same year demonstrated that the allocation results and WSSI were significantly affected by reductions in precipitation, decreases in the water yield coefficient, and changes in the underlying surface.

  9. Burned forests impact water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis W. Hallema; Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell; Steven P. Norman; Erika C. Cohen; Yongqiang Liu; Kevin D. Bladon; Steven G. McNulty

    2018-01-01

    Wildland fire impacts on surface freshwater resources have not previously been measured, nor factored into regional water management strategies. But, large wildland fires are increasing and raise concerns about fire impacts on potable water. Here we synthesize longterm records of wildland fire, climate, and river flow for 168 locations across the United States. We show...

  10. Using Water Transfers to Manage Supply Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characklis, G. W.

    2007-12-01

    Most cities currently rely on water supplies with sufficient capacity to meet demand under almost all conditions. However, the rising costs of water supply development make the maintenance of infrequently used excess capacity increasingly expensive, and more utilities are considering the use of water transfers as a means of more cost effectively meeting demand under drought conditions. Transfers can take place between utilities, as well as different user groups (e.g., municipal and agricultural), and can involve both treated and untreated water. In cases where both the "buyer" and "seller" draw water from the same supply, contractual agreements alone can facilitate a transfer, but in other cases new infrastructure (e.g., pipelines) will be required. Developing and valuing transfer agreements and/or infrastructure investments requires probabilistic supply/demand analyses that incorporate elements of both hydrology and economics. The complexity of these analyses increases as more sophisticated types of agreements (e. g., options) are considered, and as utilities begin to consider how to integrate transfers into long-term planning efforts involving a more diversified portfolio of supply assets. This discussion will revolve around the methods used to develop minimum (expected) cost portfolios of supply assets that meet specified reliability goals. Two different case studies, one in both the eastern and western U.S., will be described with attention to: the role that transfers can play in reducing average supply costs; tradeoffs between costs and supply reliability, and; the effects of different transfer agreement types on the infrastructure capacity required to complete the transfers. Results will provide insights into the cost savings potential of more flexible water supply strategies.

  11. Emergency water supply facility for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, Toru

    1998-01-01

    Water is stored previously in an equipment storage pit disposed on an operator floor of a reactor building instead of a condensate storage vessel. Upon occurrence of an emergency, water is supplied from the equipment storage pit by way of a sucking pipeline to a pump of a high pressure reactor core water injection circuit and a pump of a reactor-isolation cooling circuit to supply water to a reactor. The equipment storage pit is arranged in a building so that the depth thereof is determined to keep the required amount of water by storing water at a level lower than the lower end of a pool gate during normal operation. Water is also supplied from the equipment storage pit by way of a supply pipeline to a spent fuel storage pool on the operation floor of the reactor building. Namely, water is supplied to the spent fuel storage pool by a pump of a fuel pool cooling and cleaning circuit. This can eliminate a suppression pool cleaning circuit. (I.N.)

  12. Public water supply sources - the practical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, E.G.W.

    1990-01-01

    A complex system of reservoirs, streams, treatment works and pipe networks is used to provide the public water supply to consumers in Strathclyde. The manner in which a nuclear event would affect the quality of water available from this supply would depend on a wide variety of factors. The extent to which the quality from each source could be maintained or improved if found to be unsatisfactory would depend on the extent of contamination and the particular characteristics of each source. Development of contingency plans will incorporate monitoring of supplies and development of effective communications both internally and externally. (author)

  13. Optimal Dynamics of Intermittent Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Anna; Wilkening, Jon; Rycroft, Chris

    2014-11-01

    In many urban areas of the developing world, piped water is supplied only intermittently, as valves direct water to different parts of the water distribution system at different times. The flow is transient, and may transition between free-surface and pressurized, resulting in complex dynamical features with important consequences for water suppliers and users. These consequences include degradation of distribution system components, compromised water quality, and inequitable water availability. The goal of this work is to model the important dynamics and identify operating conditions that mitigate certain negative effects of intermittent water supply. Specifically, we will look at valve parameters occurring as boundary conditions in a network model of transient, transition flow through closed pipes. Optimization will be used to find boundary values to minimize pressure gradients and ensure equitable water availability.

  14. Corporate Social Responsibility in the Water Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Linne Marie

    . Instead a simulated market and state regulation has been introduces with annual, national benchmarking to set a price cap as an upper limit for the consumer-price of water. Similar systems are seen in fully privatised water companies in the United Kingdom, the United States, and partially in South Africa......This PhD thesis is the outcome of three-year doctoral study of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and stakeholder engagement in the water sector. This study contributes to new knowledge about water companies formed as hybrid organisations in the aftermath of the new public management (NPM) era...... worldwide. Today we see different hybrid organisations of water companies around the world that have either been fully privatised or quasi-privatised. Quasi-privatisation in Denmark means that water utilities are still perceived as natural monopolies, which has not made them into for-profit driven companies...

  15. Water supply and needs for West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation focused on the water supplies and needs of West Texas, Texas High Plains. Groundwater is the most commonly used water resources on the Texas High Plains, with withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer dominating. The saturation thickness of the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas is such that t...

  16. The Canadian heavy water supply program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlinger, A.; McNally, P.J.

    1976-06-01

    The performance to date of individual Canadian heavy water plants is described in detail as are the current plant construction plans. These data, when related to the long-term electricity demand indicate that heavy water supply and demand are in reasonable balance and that the CANDU program will not be inhibited because of shortages of the commodity. (author)

  17. Measuring supply chain performance in the agri-food sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aramyan, L.H.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords : PMS,agri-food, supply chain, efficiency, flexibility, responsiveness, food quality

    The main objective of this research is to contribute to the development of a Performance Measurement System (PMS) foragri-food supply chains that involves the entire chain (i.e. all

  18. Modelling the water energy nexus: should variability in water supply impact on decision making for future energy supply options?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. S. Cullis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many countries, like South Africa, Australia, India, China and the United States, are highly dependent on coal fired power stations for energy generation. These power stations require significant amounts of water, particularly when fitted with technology to reduce pollution and climate change impacts. As water resources come under stress it is important that spatial variability in water availability is taken into consideration for future energy planning particularly with regards to motivating for a switch from coal fired power stations to renewable technologies. This is particularly true in developing countries where there is a need for increased power production and associated increasing water demands for energy. Typically future energy supply options are modelled using a least cost optimization model such as TIMES that considers water supply as an input cost, but is generally constant for all technologies. Different energy technologies are located in different regions of the country with different levels of water availability and associated infrastructure development and supply costs. In this study we develop marginal cost curves for future water supply options in different regions of a country where different energy technologies are planned for development. These water supply cost curves are then used in an expanded version of the South Africa TIMES model called SATIM-W that explicitly models the water-energy nexus by taking into account the regional nature of water supply availability associated with different energy supply technologies. The results show a significant difference in the optimal future energy mix and in particular an increase in renewables and a demand for dry-cooling technologies that would not have been the case if the regional variability of water availability had not been taken into account. Choices in energy policy, such as the introduction of a carbon tax, will also significantly impact on future water resources, placing

  19. Modelling the water energy nexus: should variability in water supply impact on decision making for future energy supply options?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullis, James D. S.; Walker, Nicholas J.; Ahjum, Fadiel; Juan Rodriguez, Diego

    2018-02-01

    Many countries, like South Africa, Australia, India, China and the United States, are highly dependent on coal fired power stations for energy generation. These power stations require significant amounts of water, particularly when fitted with technology to reduce pollution and climate change impacts. As water resources come under stress it is important that spatial variability in water availability is taken into consideration for future energy planning particularly with regards to motivating for a switch from coal fired power stations to renewable technologies. This is particularly true in developing countries where there is a need for increased power production and associated increasing water demands for energy. Typically future energy supply options are modelled using a least cost optimization model such as TIMES that considers water supply as an input cost, but is generally constant for all technologies. Different energy technologies are located in different regions of the country with different levels of water availability and associated infrastructure development and supply costs. In this study we develop marginal cost curves for future water supply options in different regions of a country where different energy technologies are planned for development. These water supply cost curves are then used in an expanded version of the South Africa TIMES model called SATIM-W that explicitly models the water-energy nexus by taking into account the regional nature of water supply availability associated with different energy supply technologies. The results show a significant difference in the optimal future energy mix and in particular an increase in renewables and a demand for dry-cooling technologies that would not have been the case if the regional variability of water availability had not been taken into account. Choices in energy policy, such as the introduction of a carbon tax, will also significantly impact on future water resources, placing additional water

  20. Supply chain performance within agri-food sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu Daniela Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By setting the goals of this scientific paper has been outlined the research methodology. Thus were developed conclusion, and by using the methods, procedures, techniques, rules and tools and know-how has been demonstrated the central hypothesis: 'Inside the agri-food supply chain is created value through operations and logistics activities.' The value created leads to competitive advantages in order to identify companies within market, gaining loyal consumers. The article presents the components of agri-food supply chain, the main Key Performance Indicators measuring its performance, the difference between a traditional supply chain and sustainable supply chain by analyzing the waste management component. In order to get professional expertise referring to Key Performance Indicators a quantitative research has been organized. In closing the article present the development strategies of agri-food supply chain.

  1. Water crisis: the metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, regional water supply conflict

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-07-01

    Many large population centres are currently facing considerable difficulties with planning issues to secure future water supplies, as a result of water allocation and environmental issues, litigation, and political dogma. A classic case occurs in the metropolitan Atlanta area, which is a rapidly growing, large population centre that relies solely on surface water for supply. Lake Lanier currently supplies about 70% of the water demand and has been involved in a protracted legal dispute for more than two decades. Drought and environmental management of the reservoir combined to create a water shortage which nearly caused a disaster to the region in 2007 (only about 35 days of water supply was in reserve). While the region has made progress in controlling water demand by implementing a conservation plan, per capita use projections are still very high (at 511 L/day in 2035). Both non-potable reuse and indirect reuse of treated wastewater are contained in the most current water supply plan with up to 380,000 m3/day of wastewater treated using advanced wastewater treatment (nutrient removal) to be discharged into Lake Lanier. The water supply plan, however, includes no additional or new supply sources and has deleted any reference to the use of seawater desalination or other potential water sources which would provide diversification, thereby relying solely on the Coosa and Chattahoochee river reservoirs for the future. © 2014 IWA Publishing.

  2. Public-supply water use and self-supplied industrial water use in Tennessee, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John A.

    2018-04-26

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation, Division of Water Resources, prepared this report and displayed and analyzed water use by self-supplied industrial and public-supply water systems in Tennessee for 2010. Public-supply water systems in Tennessee provide water for domestic, industrial, and commercial uses and for municipal services. In 2010, 474 public-supply water systems distributed 917 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of surface water (67 percent, 617 Mgal/d) and groundwater (33 percent, 300 Mgal/d) to a population of 5.7 million in Tennessee. Gross per capita water use in Tennessee during 2010 was 162 gallons per day.Since 1950, water withdrawals by public-supply water systems in Tennessee have increased from 160 Mgal/d to 917 Mgal/d in 2010. Each of the 95 counties in Tennessee was served by at least 1 public-supply water system in 2010. Tennessee public-supply water systems withdraw less groundwater than surface water, and surface-water use has increased at a faster rate than groundwater use. Since 2005, surface-water withdrawals have increased by 26 Mgal/d, and groundwater withdrawals have decreased by 29 Mgal/d, which is the first decrease in groundwater withdrawals since 1950; however, 29 systems reported increased groundwater withdrawals during 2010, and 12 of these 29 systems reported increases of 1 Mgal/d or more. Davidson County had the largest surface-water withdrawal rate (136 Mgal/d) in 2010. The largest groundwater withdrawal rate (151 Mgal/d) by a single public-supply water system was reported by Memphis Light, Gas and Water, which served more than 669,000 people in Shelby County in 2010.Self-supplied industrial water use includes water for such purposes as fabrication, processing, washing, diluting, cooling, or transporting a product; incorporating water into a product; or for sanitation needs in facilities that manufacture various products. Water withdrawals for self-supplied

  3. Indirect economic impacts in water supplies augmented with desalinated water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Arvin, Erik; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    Several goals can be considered when optimizing blends from multiple water resources for urban water supplies. Concentration-response relationships from the literature indicate that a changed water quality can cause impacts on health, lifetime of consumer goods and use of water additives like...... going from fresh water based to desalinated water supply. Large uncertainties prevent the current results from being used for or against desalination as an option for Copenhagen's water supply. In the future, more impacts and an uncertainty analysis will be added to the assessment....... softeners. This paper describes potential economic consequences of diluting Copenhagen's drinking water with desalinated water. With a mineral content at 50% of current levels, dental caries and cardiovascular diseases are expected to increase by 51 and 23% respectively. Meanwhile, the number of dish...

  4. Scenarios for the South African Water Sector in 2025; Presentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Funke, Nicola S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Water Sector by 2025: Results Water Sector by 2025: Stories Methodical approach Harmonisation of legislation Shared vision Institutional maturity Strong citizens’ voice Happy & prosperous people Noble intentions Out of touch with reality Can...

  5. Demand and supply of labour in the housing sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dol, C.P.; Doling, J.; Elsinga, M.; Horsewood, N.; Meijer, F.M.; Visscher, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The housing sector is large and significant in all aspects of human life, making the task of the policy-maker especially complex. Homes constitute the largest single land use in the ‘built environment’, they are generally the largest single item of expenditure in household budgets and the largest

  6. Water supply impacts of nuclear fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, B.F.; Luo, Y.; Maciejowski, M.E.; Chester, C.V.

    1989-01-01

    “Nuclear winter,” more properly called “nuclear fall,” could be caused by injection of large amounts of dust into the atmosphere. Besides causing a decrease in temperature, it could be accompanied by “nuclear drought,” a catastrophic decrease in precipitation. Dry land agriculture would then be impossible, and municipal, industrial, and irrigation water supplies would be diminished. It has been argued that nuclear winter/fall poses a much greater threat to human survival than do fall out or the direct impacts of a conflict. However, this does not appear to be true, at least for the U.S. Even under the unprecedented drought that could result from nuclear fall, water supplies would be available for many essential activities. For the most part, ground water supplies would be relatively invulnerable to nuclear drought, and adequate surface supplies would be available for potable uses. This assumes that conveyance facilities and power supplies survive a conflict largely intact or can be repaired

  7. Water constraints on European power supply under climate change: impacts on electricity prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Vögele, S.; Rübbelke, D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent warm, dry summers showed the vulnerability of the European power sector to low water availability and high river temperatures. Climate change is likely to impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power

  8. MPC control of water supply networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baunsgaard, Kenneth Marx Hoe; Ravn, Ole; Kallesoe, Carsten Skovmose

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the modelling and predictive control of a drinking water supply network with the aim of minimising the energy and economic cost. A model predictive controller, MPC, is applied to a nonlinear model of a drinking water network that follows certain constraints to maintain......, controlling the drinking water supply network with the MPC showed reduction of the energy and the economic cost of running the system. This has been achieved by minimising actuator control effort and by shifting the actuator use towards the night time, where energy prices are lower. Along with energy cost...... consumer pressure desire. A model predictive controller, MPC, is based on a simple model that models the main characteristics of a water distribution network, optimizes a desired cost minimisation, and keeps the system inside specified constraints. In comparison to a logic (on/off) control design...

  9. Energy supply options for Lithuania: A detailed multi-sector integrated energy demand, supply and environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    The Technical Co-operation (TC) project Energy Supply Options for Lithuania: A Detailed Multi-Sector Integrated Energy Demand, Supply and Environmental Analysis (LIT/0/004) was implemented 2001-2002 by a national team with support from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The principal objective of the project was to conduct a comprehensive assessment of Lithuania's future energy supply options taking into consideration the early closure of the Ignalina nuclear power plant (Ignalina NPP). Lithuania, a country in transition to full membership of the European Union, has to comply with the energy acquis (Chapter 14). The 'acquis communautaire' (the body of common rights and obligations which bind all the Member States together) must be adopted by all applicant countries. Implementing the acquis requires not only adequate legislation, well functioning institutions (e.g. a regulatory body as required in the electricity and gas directives) or schedules for restructuring the energy sector but also measures to enhance energy supply security, improvement of energy networks, efficiency improvements throughout the energy system and compliance with European environmental standards. Within the overall context of the transition to EU membership, this study focuses on the future development of the electricity sector and the impacts on energy supply security and environmental performance of a closure of Ignalina NPP by 2009, a pre-condition for accession stipulated by the European Union. The project coincided with the preparation of the new National Energy Strategy for Lithuania and therefore was set up to support the strategy formulation process

  10. How can nuclear phaseout and climate protection be combined? Sustainable power supply in the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallentin, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear phaseout and the resulting energy turnaround will bring about changes in the power supply systems, especially if climate protection goals are to be reached. The author presents the example of a housing development in Germany which mirrors the private households sector. It is shown that the only way to achieve sustainable power supply is by consequently enhancing efficiency and by decarbonizing heat and power supply. The next two decades will be decisive.

  11. Betweenness-Based Method to Identify Critical Transmission Sectors for Supply Chain Environmental Pressure Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Qu, Shen; Xu, Ming

    2016-02-02

    To develop industry-specific policies for mitigating environmental pressures, previous studies primarily focus on identifying sectors that directly generate large amounts of environmental pressures (a.k.a. production-based method) or indirectly drive large amounts of environmental pressures through supply chains (e.g., consumption-based method). In addition to those sectors as important environmental pressure producers or drivers, there exist sectors that are also important to environmental pressure mitigation as transmission centers. Economy-wide environmental pressure mitigation might be achieved by improving production efficiency of these key transmission sectors, that is, using less upstream inputs to produce unitary output. We develop a betweenness-based method to measure the importance of transmission sectors, borrowing the betweenness concept from network analysis. We quantify the betweenness of sectors by examining supply chain paths extracted from structural path analysis that pass through a particular sector. We take China as an example and find that those critical transmission sectors identified by betweenness-based method are not always identifiable by existing methods. This indicates that betweenness-based method can provide additional insights that cannot be obtained with existing methods on the roles individual sectors play in generating economy-wide environmental pressures. Betweenness-based method proposed here can therefore complement existing methods for guiding sector-level environmental pressure mitigation strategies.

  12. Norwegian supply of goods and services to the British offshore sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heide, M.; Noedland, S.I.

    1991-02-01

    Representatives from ten Norwegian companies in the offshore supplies industry were interviewed to explore the opportunities and barriers they had experienced in their effort to enter the British offshore sector. The interviews revealed that there are mainly four reasons why British sector is regarded as a favorable market: British sector is a natural homemarket, buyers operate both on the British and the Norwegian sector, the British sector can be a ''door-opener'' to the rest of the English speaking world, and finally the British sector is a market of considerable size. The companies had mainly encountered three types of barriers: British culture/communication problems, heavy competition from British suppliers, and protectionism. The report is concluded by summarizing what we believe are the critical success factors for entering the British sector. Directions for further research are also given

  13. Wildland Fire Research: Water Supply and Ecosystem Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research is critical to better understand how fires affect water quality and supply and the overall health of an ecosystem. This information can be used to protect the safety of drinking water and assess the vulnerability of water supplies.

  14. 30 CFR 874.14 - Water supply restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water supply restoration. 874.14 Section 874.14... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.14 Water supply restoration. (a) Any... supply restoration projects. For purposes of this section, “water supply restoration projects” are those...

  15. Reduction of radon from household water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, P.S.; Sorg, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Groundwater can be a major source of indoor radon in homes that use individual wells or are served by very small community water supply systems. In the United States, several wells have been found to contain more than 37,000,000 Bq.m -3 of radon dissolved in the water. This radon can be released in the indoor air in the course of using water for normal household activities. A measurement of the radon in the drinking water can be made when an indoor radon problem is suspected. While ventilation may reduce indoor radon levels that result from household water usage, the most common control technique presently applied is removing the radon from the water using a granular activated carbon (GAC) treatment system. Aeration methods are also effective and have been proven to be economical for small community water supplies. Some of the issues faced in using GAC are sizing and maintaining the unit and shielding and disposing of the GAC to prevent exposure from gamma radiation. (author)

  16. Rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland: Toward achieving millennium development goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwendera, E. J.

    An assessment of rural water supply and sanitation (RWSS) coverage in Swaziland was conducted in 2004/2005 as part of the Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Initiative (RWSSI). The initiative was developed by the African Development Bank with the aim of implementing it in the Regional Member Countries (RMCs), including Swaziland. Information on the RWSS sector programmes, costs, financial requirements and other related activities was obtained from a wide range of national documents, including sector papers and project files and progress reports. Interviews were held with staff from the central offices and field stations of Government of Swaziland (GOS) ministries and departments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), bilateral and multilateral external support agencies, and private sector individuals and firms with some connection to the sector and/or its programmes. The assessment also involved field visits to various regions in order to obtain first hand information about the various technologies and institutional structures used in the provision of water supplies and sanitation services in the rural areas of the country. The results showed that the RWSS sector has made significant progress towards meeting the national targets of providing water and sanitation to the entire rural population by the year 2022. The assessment indicated that rural water supply coverage was 56% in 2004 while sanitation coverage was 63% in the same year. The results showed that there is some decline in the incidence of water-related diseases, such as diarrhoeal diseases, probably due to improved water supply and sanitation coverage. The study also showed that, with adequate financial resources, Swaziland is likely to achieve 100% coverage of both water supply and sanitation by the year 2022. It was concluded that in achieving its own national goals Swaziland will exceed the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). However, such achievement is subject to adequate financial resources being

  17. Uncertainty Categorization, Modeling, and Management for Regional Water Supply Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, S.; Strzepek, K. M.; AlSaati, A.; Alhassan, A.

    2016-12-01

    Many water planners face increased pressure on water supply systems from growing demands, variability in supply and a changing climate. Short-term variation in water availability and demand; long-term uncertainty in climate, groundwater storage, and sectoral competition for water; and varying stakeholder perspectives on the impacts of water shortages make it difficult to assess the necessity of expensive infrastructure investments. We categorize these uncertainties on two dimensions: whether they are the result of stochastic variation or epistemic uncertainty, and whether the uncertainties can be described probabilistically or are deep uncertainties whose likelihood is unknown. We develop a decision framework that combines simulation for probabilistic uncertainty, sensitivity analysis for deep uncertainty and Bayesian decision analysis for uncertainties that are reduced over time with additional information. We apply this framework to two contrasting case studies - drought preparedness in Melbourne, Australia and fossil groundwater depletion in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia - to assess the impacts of different types of uncertainty on infrastructure decisions. Melbourne's water supply system relies on surface water, which is impacted by natural variation in rainfall, and a market-based system for managing water rights. Our results show that small, flexible investment increases can mitigate shortage risk considerably at reduced cost. Riyadh, by contrast, relies primarily on desalination for municipal use and fossil groundwater for agriculture, and a centralized planner makes allocation decisions. Poor regional groundwater measurement makes it difficult to know when groundwater pumping will become uneconomical, resulting in epistemic uncertainty. However, collecting more data can reduce the uncertainty, suggesting the need for different uncertainty modeling and management strategies in Riyadh than in Melbourne. We will categorize the two systems and propose appropriate

  18. Performance Assessment of Water Sectors : Methods and considerations for application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieriks, M.

    2011-01-01

    With the rise of principles for water management in the 1990’s such as concepts as Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM), many countries have come to review their water policy and sectors. But how does one start in the assessment of a water sector

  19. The need for a standard approach to assessing the functionality of rural community water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsor, Helen; MacDonald, Alan; Casey, Vincent; Carter, Richard; Wilson, Paul

    2018-03-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals have set an agenda for transformational change in water access, aiming for secure household connections globally. Despite this goal, communal groundwater supplies are likely to remain the main source of improved water supplies for many rural areas in Africa and South Asia for decades to come. Understanding the poor functionality of existing communal supplies remains, therefore, a priority. A critical first step is to establish a sector-wide definition of borehole supply functionality and a standard method of its assessment.

  20. Water Supply Treatment Sustainability of Semambu Water Supply Treatment Process - Water Footprint Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Edriyana A.; Malek, Marlinda Abdul; Moni, Syazwan N.; Hadi, Iqmal H.; Zulkifli, Nabil F.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, the assessment by using Water Footprint (WF) approach was conducted to assess water consumption within the water supply treatment process (WSTP) services of Semambu Water Treatment Plant (WTP). Identification of the type of WF at each stage of WSTP was carried out and later the WF accounting for the period 2010 – 2016 was calculated. Several factors that might influence the accounting such as population, and land use. The increasing value of total WF per year was due to the increasing water demand from population and land use activities. However, the pattern of rainfall intensity from the monsoonal changes was not majorly affected the total amount of WF per year. As a conclusion, if the value of WF per year keeps increasing due to unregulated development in addition to the occurrences of climate changing, the intake river water will be insufficient and may lead to water scarcity. The findings in this study suggest actions to reduce the WF will likely have a great impact on freshwater resources availability and sustainability.

  1. Water crisis: the metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia, regional water supply conflict

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.; Danser, Philip Alexander; Amy, Gary L.; Pankratz, Tom M.

    2014-01-01

    decades. Drought and environmental management of the reservoir combined to create a water shortage which nearly caused a disaster to the region in 2007 (only about 35 days of water supply was in reserve). While the region has made progress in controlling

  2. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A... CONTACT: Alicia Waters, Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area...

  3. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A... CONTACT: Alicia Waters, Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area...

  4. The New Supply Chain: Implications to the Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Sector in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Fatimah Mohamed Arshad

    2013-01-01

    This paper traces the growth of the new retail formats such as hypermarkets, departmental stores and supermarkets and its implications to the fruits and vegetables sector in Malaysia in particular to the small producers. The structural differences between the new supply chain and conventional marketing are compared. Some measures of concentration are provided to indicate the degree of competition in the retail sector. Within less than a decade, the new super retailers were able to capture...

  5. Security of supply and investments in the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouttes, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Today, security of supply in electricity can be expressed in new terms, given the development of competition beyond national borders, particularly after the blackouts that occurred in Italy and New-York in 2003. Three causes are put forward to explain the difficulties encountered: the excessive market power of generators; market design that failed to acknowledge the electricity's specific attributes and incoherent government policy at national levels or between neighboring countries. Revisiting these debates, we try to develop the following conjectures: - If there are no regulatory or political barriers to siting, and if the market includes industrial players integrated from generation to marketing, market power is limited and controllable; - It is crucial to take into account the specific attributes of electricity in the design of power markets; - analysis of recent crises reveals them to be related to incoherent, unstable government policy and market design. Herein lies what are no doubt the most important and difficult questions to which economists and experts should devote further structured analyses. (author)

  6. Energy Requirements by the Water Sector in the Southwestern US: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averyt, K.; Yates, D. N.; Meldrum, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate, energy, and water are fundamentally linked such that shifts in one sector have cascading impacts on the others. Consideration of the integrated system is necessary to fully understand the individual risk profile of each sector. In defining vulnerabilities and potential adaptations, the policy and regulatory environment must be considered alongside the biological and physical systems. Take, for example, the Southwestern U.S., a naturally arid system, where water availability is declining as a consequence of climate change and population growth. Adaptations by the water sector to convey, store, and develop new water sources (e.g. desalination, groundwater pumping, water-reuse) are strategies designed to enhance sustainability of the sector. But, the energy requirements embedded in these management techniques pose challenges to electric utilities. West wide, approximately 20% of total electricity generation goes toward supplying and heating water. If future investments made by the water sector to deal with changing supply and demand regimes continue to follow current trends, the dependence of water on energy availability will grow, meaning that the water supply will be increasingly reliant on the electricity system. Here, we use the example of long-term aridity and the recent drought in the Western US to illustrate the tradeoffs and challenges inherent at the nexus between energy and water. We present long-term trends in the energy intensity of water supplies in the Southwestern US, with a specific focus on groundwater systems. Projected energy requirements for proposed and future conveyance systems are discussed. The potential impacts of reduced flows on the Colorado River on the energy demands for groundwater pumping in the Lower Colorado River Basin are highlighted.

  7. Latin America: market mechanisms and supply adequacy in power sector reforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammons, T.J. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Barroso, L.A. [PSR, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Rudnick, H. [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2011-03-15

    The process of transformation in government and operations in the power sector leads to interaction between increasing integrated markets and public agencies in charge of policy making, regulation and control. This is examined for Latin America where state and marketing power sector planning, contract auctions to assure supply adequacy in an uncertain market environment, cross-border contracts, financing challenges for generation investments, and auctions of contracts to secure supply adequacy in the second stage of power sector reform are discussed. First, the state and market in power sector planning reform and state policies in Latin America are considered. Here, present concerns; the state-market relationship (the position of regulation, globalisation, internationalisation), and state market in the energy sector (correction and adjustments) are reviewed. Case studies for Argentina and Brazil are briefly outlined. The paper then examines contract auctions to assure supply adequacy in an uncertain energy environment that are being explored to face supply problems over recent years in the Chilean electricity market, taking into account the unexpected restrictions in natural gas transfers from Argentina. Also discussed are supply adequacy mechanisms and cross-border contracts in the Central American regional electricity market including firm transmission rights and financing challenges for generation investments. The final part of the paper discusses auctions of contracts and energy call options to ensure supply adequacy in the Brazilian power sector reform. Here, first stage of power sector reform, what went wrong, the second stage of reform and the move towards energy supply auctions, energy supply auctions so far and what's next in the challenges of environmental constraints and electricity-gas integration are reviewed. The reform being proposed to the electric regulatory framework for wholesale transactions in Peru is also reviewed. Considered are bids for

  8. Logistics and supply chain management for the informal business and humanitarian sectors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Viljoen, N

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available centres End-users $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ Retail outlets What are we talking about? ? CSIR 2012 Slide 3 $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ Logistics What are we talking about? ? CSIR 2012 Slide 4 $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ $$ Supply chain... Create a platform where consultants can donate ?services? What will it take: Time for legwork, humility, sacrificing your agenda Logistics and supply chain management for the informal business and humanitarian sectors CSIR 4th Biennial Conference...

  9. Impact of Hybrid Water Supply on the Centralised Water System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sitzenfrei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional (technical concepts to ensure a reliable water supply, a safe handling of wastewater and flood protection are increasingly criticised as outdated and unsustainable. These so-called centralised urban water systems are further maladapted to upcoming challenges because of their long lifespan in combination with their short-sighted planning and design. A combination of (existing centralised and decentralised infrastructure is expected to be more reliable and sustainable. However, the impact of increasing implementation of decentralised technologies on the local technical performance in sewer or water supply networks and the interaction with the urban form has rarely been addressed in the literature. In this work, an approach which couples the UrbanBEATS model for the planning of decentralised strategies together with a water supply modelling approach is developed and applied to a demonstration case. With this novel approach, critical but also favourable areas for such implementations can be identified. For example, low density areas, which have high potential for rainwater harvesting, can result in local water quality problems in the supply network when further reducing usually low pipe velocities in these areas. On the contrary, in high demand areas (e.g., high density urban forms there is less effect of rainwater harvesting due to the limited available space. In these high density areas, water efficiency measures result in the highest savings in water volume, but do not cause significant problems in the technical performance of the potable water supply network. For a more generalised and case-independent conclusion, further analyses are performed for semi-virtual benchmark networks to answer the question of an appropriate representation of the water distribution system in a computational model for such an analysis. Inappropriate hydraulic model assumptions and characteristics were identified for the stated problem, which have more

  10. Water demand and supply co-adaptation to mitigate climate change impacts in agricultural water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Mainardi, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Agriculture is the main land use in the world and represents also the sector characterised by the highest water demand. To meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades. Moreover, water availability is nowadays a limiting factor for agricultural production, and is expected to decrease over the next century due to climate change impacts. To effectively face a changing climate, agricultural systems have therefore to adapt their strategies (e.g., changing crops, shifting sowing and harvesting dates, adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques). Yet, farmer adaptation is only one part of the equation because changes in water supply management strategies, as a response to climate change, might impact on farmers' decisions as well. Despite the strong connections between water demand and supply, being the former dependent on agricultural practices, which are affected by the water available that depends on the water supply strategies designed according to a forecasted demand, an analysis of their reciprocal feedbacks is still missing. Most of the recent studies has indeed considered the two problems separately, either analysing the impact of climate change on farmers' decisions for a given water supply scenario or optimising water supply for different water demand scenarios. In this work, we explicitly connect the two systems (demand and supply) by activating an information loop between farmers and water managers, to integrate the two problems and study the co-evolution and co-adaptation of water demand and water supply systems under climate change. The proposed approach is tested on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como serving the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district (Italy). In particular, given an expectation of water availability, the farmers are able to solve a yearly planning problem to decide the most profitable crop to plant. Knowing the farmers

  11. Summary of Climate Services for the Water Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change has a significant impact on the water sector. Global warming can potentially change the amount, distribution and intensity of precipitation. These changes can have large impacts on water availability and flood risks. The water sector is increasingly concerned about climate change and

  12. Market potential for solar thermal energy supply systems in the United States industrial and commercial sectors: 1990--2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    This report revises and extends previous work sponsored by the US DOE on the potential industrial market in the United States for solar thermal energy systems and presents a new analysis of the commercial sector market potential. Current and future industrial process heat demand and commercial water heating, space heating and space cooling end-use demands are estimated. The PC Industrial Model (PCIM) and the commercial modules of the Building Energy End-Use Model (BEEM) used by the DOE's Energy Information Administration (EIA) to support the recent National Energy Strategy (NES) analysis are used to forecast industrial and commercial end-use energy demand respectively. Energy demand is disaggregated by US Census region to account for geographic variation in solar insolation and regional variation in cost of alternative natural gas-fired energy sources. The industrial sector analysis also disaggregates demand by heat medium and temperature range to facilitate process end-use matching with appropriate solar thermal energy supply technologies. The commercial sector analysis disaggregates energy demand by three end uses: water heating, space heating, and space cooling. Generic conceptual designs are created for both industrial and commercial applications. Levelized energy costs (LEC) are calculated for industrial sector applications employing low temperature flat plate collectors for process water preheat; parabolic troughs for intermediate temperature process steam and direct heat industrial application; and parabolic dish technologies for high temperature, direct heat industrial applications. LEC are calculated for commercial sector applications employing parabolic trough technologies for low temperature water and space heating. Cost comparisons are made with natural gas-fired sources for both the industrial market and the commercial market assuming fuel price escalation consistent with NES reference case scenarios for industrial and commercial sector gas markets

  13. The IBNET Water Supply and Sanitation Blue Book 2014 : The International Benchmarking Network for Water and Sanitation Utilities Databook

    OpenAIRE

    Danilenko, Alexander; van den Berg, Caroline; Macheve, Berta; Moffitt, L. Joe

    2014-01-01

    Well-run water utilities play an important role in ending poverty and boosting shared prosperity. Consumers need reliable access to high quality and affordable water and sanitation services. To deliver these basic services efficiently and effectively requires high-performing utilities that are able to respond to urban growth, to connect with the poor, and to improve wastewater disposal practices. The IBNET Water Supply and Sanitation Blue Book 2014 summarizes the water sector status from 2006...

  14. Partial costs of global climate change adaptation for the supply of raw industrial and municipal water: a methodology and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward, P.J.; Strzepek, K.; Pauw, W.P.; Brander, L.M.; Hughes, G.; Aerts, J.C.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite growing recognition of the importance of climate change adaptation, few global estimates of the costs involved are available for the water supply sector. We present a methodology for estimating partial global and regional adaptation costs for raw industrial and domestic water supply, for a

  15. How to control water supply costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornby, D M

    1965-05-17

    Exploring for water can be as expensive as exploring for oil, a factor which is likely to become increasingly clear. Basic essentials of any water-supply study require an understanding and knowledge of the limiting conditions of quality, quantity, cost, and reliability. A logical 10-step program is outlined. The initial steps are as follows: (1) analyze the acutal water demand for flood requirements; (2) select the logical and apparent sources of supply; (3) collect and assess all availabe pertinent information; and (4) formulate a plan of analysis and attack for the study. The intermediate steps are as follows: (5) use this plan in making field and office investigations: (6) having determined the alternatives and preliminary costs, prepare a written assessment; and (7) using the brain-storming technique within the company or unit, utilize the assessment to devise a master action plan and budget for anticipated expenditures. The final steps are as follows: (8) complete other required investigations based upon the master plan and budget; (9) prepare detailed design, specifications and estimates; and (10) call tenders or negotiate the most favorable arrangements with respect to construction time and price.

  16. The quality assessment to drinking water supplied to Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, D.; Hussain, F.; Ashraf, H.; Hussain, S.; Rana, N.N.; Anwar, K.; Sami, Z.; Dil, S.

    1997-01-01

    Drinking water supply system of Islamabad draws major quantities of water from sources such as Simli dam, Rawal dam and the underground aquifer through an integrated system of tube wells sunk in different parts of the city. For an extensive assessment of drinking water quality samples were collected at source from 80 CDA tube wells. Samples were also collected from 3 to 5 predetermined consumer points in sectors 1-8, 1-9, 1-10, G-9, G-10, F-9 and F-10. All these samples apart form coliform organisms, cationic and anionic species present, were analyzed for different parameters required to delineate the drinking water quality using the most reliable techniques like ICP-AES, AAS, HPLC, TIMS and Electro-chemistry. The tube well water samples, generally, contained higher amounts of the TDS and hence higher Ca++ and Mg++ concentration as compared with those of dam water samples. Further all these samples contained reasonable concentration of Sr, an element usually associated with calcite deposits. Samples were also checked for the total radioactivity and were found to be free of such contamination. The results have been discussed with a view to assess the quality of drinking water during the stipulated period. (author)

  17. Sustainability of Drinking Water Supply Projects in Rural of North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Safe water supply coverage in the rural areas of Ethiopia is very marginal. The coverage still remains very low because of limited progress in water supply activities in these areas. Factors affecting the continued use of the outcome of water supply projects in the background of limited resources are not well ...

  18. Maximising water supply system yield subject to multiple reliability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maximising water supply system yield subject to multiple reliability constraints via simulation-optimisation. ... Water supply systems have to satisfy different demands that each require various levels of reliability ... and monthly operating rules that maximise the yield of a water supply system subject to ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  19. 40 CFR 230.50 - Municipal and private water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a municipal or private water supply system. (b) Possible loss of values: Discharges can affect the... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Municipal and private water supplies... Potential Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.50 Municipal and private water supplies. (a) Municipal...

  20. Coordination in the upstream supply chain of the Dutch railway sector : a research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlicher, L.P.J.; Slikker, M.; van Houtum, G.J.J.A.N.; Pombo, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a research agenda which identifies three research directions for the upstream supply chain of the Dutch railway sector. The first research direction focusses on coordination of spare parts with criticality differences and related allocations of potential cost savings

  1. Spatial distribution of water supply reliability and critical links of water supply to crucial water consumers under an earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yu; Au, S.-K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a process to characterize spatial distribution of water supply reliability among various consumers in a water system and proposes methods to identify critical links of water supply to crucial water consumers under an earthquake. Probabilistic performance of water supply is reflected by the probability of satisfying consumers' water demand, Damage Consequence Index (DCI) and Upgrade Benefit Index (UBI). The process is illustrated using a hypothetical water supply system, where direct Monte Carlo simulation is used for estimating the performance indices. The reliability of water supply to consumers varies spatially, depending on their respective locations in the system and system configuration. The UBI is adopted as a primary index in the identification of critical links for crucial water consumers. A pipe with a relatively large damage probability is likely to have a relatively large UBI, and hence, to be a critical link. The concept of efficient frontier is employed to identify critical links of water supply to crucial water consumers. It is found that a group of links that have the largest UBI individually do not necessarily have the largest group UBI, or be the group of critical links

  2. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Encyclopedic data on world geography strikingly illustrate the drastic inequity in the distribution of the world's water supply. About 97 percent of the total volume of water is in the world's oceans. The area of continents and islands not under icecaps, glaciers, lakes, and inland seas is about 57.5 million square miles, of which 18 million (36 percent) is arid to semiarid. The total world supply of water is about 326.5 million cubic miles, of which about 317 million is in the oceans and about 9.4 million is in the land areas. Atmospheric moisture is equivalent to only about 3,100 cubic miles of water. The available and accessible supply of ground water in the United States is somewhat more than 53,000 cubic miles (about 180 billion acre ft). The amount of fresh water on the land areas of the world at any one time is roughly 30,300 cubic miles and more than a fourth of this is in large fresh-water lakes on the North American Continent. Annual recharge of ground water in the United States may average somewhat more than 1 billion acre-feet yearly, but the total volume of ground water in storage is equivalent to all the recharge in about the last 160 years. This accumulation of ground water is the nation's only reserve water resource, but already it is being withdrawn or mined on a large scale in a few areas. The principal withdrawals of water in the United States are for agriculture and industry. Only 7.4 percent of agricultural land is irrigated, however; so natural soil moisture is the principal source of agricultural water, and on that basis agriculture is incomparably the largest water user. In view of current forecasts of population and industrial expansion, new commitments of water for agriculture should be scrutinized very closely, and thorough justification should be required. The 17 Western States no longer contain all the large irrigation developments. Nearly 10 percent of the irrigated area is in States east of the western bloc, chiefly in several

  3. Drinking Water Supply without Use of a Disinfectant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajnochova, Marketa; Tuhovcak, Ladislav; Rucka, Jan

    2018-02-01

    The paper focuses on the issue of drinking water supply without use of any disinfectants. Before the public water supply network operator begins to consider switching to operation without use of chemical disinfection, initial assessment should be made, whether or not the water supply system in question is suitable for this type of operation. The assessment is performed by applying the decision algorithm. The initial assessment is followed by another decision algorithm which serves for managing and controlling the process of switching to drinking water supply without use of a disinfectant. The paper also summarizes previous experience and knowledge of this way operated public water supply systems in the Czech Republic.

  4. Sectoral electricity elasticities in South Africa: Before and after the supply crisis of 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Blignaut

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we estimate the price elasticity of electricity for various industrial sectors of the South African economy from 2002 to 2011. The data used include sectoral electricity consumption data and electricity tariff data, both courtesy of Eskom as well as output data based on national statistics. The most important contribution this paper makes is that it includes the period after the sharp rises in electricity tariffs in 2007/2008 following a period of load-shedding and insecurity in electricity supply. Previous studies have included data only until 2007 and, for the most part, have found statistically insignificant, positive elasticities. However, for the period post-2007, we found statistically significant and negative elasticities for 9 of the 11 sectors considered. Our results show that the majority of industrial sectors have become much more sensitive to changes in the price of electricity following 2007/2008, indicating to policymakers that tariff restructuring might influence consumer behaviour significantly.

  5. “Crossing over”: appropriate private sector principles, to operate more reliable public sector water services

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Wall

    2008-01-01

    Private sector institutions utilise many different business methods, some of which can selectively be adapted for use by organisations outside the private sector, to the benefit of their service delivery responsibilities. But the best of the appropriate practices from the private sector have often “not crossed over”. The Water Research Commission (WRC) of South Africa, working in collaboration with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), finds that the concept of franch...

  6. 46 CFR 76.25-15 - Pumps and water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pumps and water supply. 76.25-15 Section 76.25-15... EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkling System, Details § 76.25-15 Pumps and water supply. (a) An automatically controlled pump shall be provided to supply the sprinkling system and shall be used for no other purpose. The...

  7. Oahu, Hawaii's Water Supply: 1848-2020 A.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, John Henry

    Demand projections indicate that Oahu's natural ground water supply will be fully developed by the year 2000. Supplementary water resources will need to be developed in keeping with the growth of the economy and population. The author, chairman of the Honolulu Board of Water Supply, authoritatively discusses types of ground water in Hawaii, and…

  8. Analytical Bibliography for Water Supply and Conservation Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    American Water Works Association 67:331-35. This article describes the activities of the COMASP (water authority for Sao Paulo , Brazil ) during a...the Water Supply Act of 1958, as amiended. Flood Control Act of 1944. The Secretary of the Army was authorized to sell surplus impounded water in...each category. The issues discussed are: climate and water supply, floods and droughts, groundwater, water conservation in irrigation, water quality

  9. Sustainable Water Supplies in Uppsala, Sweden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Bert

    2014-05-01

    This is a description of a transdisciplinary three-day project with upper secondary school students around ecosystem services and sustainability. Uppsala (200 000 inhabitants) gets its municipal water from wells in the esker that dominates the landscape in and around the town. This esker was formed by glacial melt water around 11 000 BP, at the end of the latest glaciation and was lifted above sea level by post-glacial land rise from 6000 BP. To keep up the water table in the esker, water from river Fyris is pumped up and infiltrated in the esker. The river is also the recipient of wastewater downstream of the town, and the river runs out into Lake Mälaren that in its turn spills out into the Baltic Sea through Stockholm. The esker and river can thus be a central topic to work around, in Biology and Geography in upper secondary school, concerning recent and future water supplies, quaternary geology, limnology and landscape history. The fieldwork is carried out during three days in a period of three subsequent weeks. 1. One day is used to examine the water quality in the river above the town, organisms, pH, levels of nitrogen and phosphorous, conductivity and turbidity. Then the direction of the water is followed, first up to the infiltration dams on the esker, and then along the esker to the wells in the town. The formation of the esker and other traces in the landscape from the latest glaciation is also studied, as well as the historical use of the esker as a road and as a source of gravel and sand. The tap water that comes from the wells is finally tested in school in the same way as in the river. 2. The second day is used to follow the wastewater from households to the sewage plant, where the staff presents the plant. The water quality is tested in the same way as above in the outlet from the plant to the river. 3. The third day consists of a limnological excursion on the lake outside the mouth of the river where plankton and other organisms are studied, as

  10. Water supply infrastructure planning under multiple uncertainties: A differentiated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, S.; Strzepek, K.

    2017-12-01

    Many water planners face increased pressure on water supply systems from increasing demands from population and economic growth in combination with uncertain water supply. Supply uncertainty arises from short-term climate variability and long-term climate change as well as uncertainty in groundwater availability. Social and economic uncertainties - such as sectoral competition for water, food and energy security, urbanization, and environmental protection - compound physical uncertainty. Further, the varying risk aversion of stakeholders and water managers makes it difficult to assess the necessity of expensive infrastructure investments to reduce risk. We categorize these uncertainties on two dimensions: whether they can be updated over time by collecting additional information, and whether the uncertainties can be described probabilistically or are "deep" uncertainties whose likelihood is unknown. Based on this, we apply a decision framework that combines simulation for probabilistic uncertainty, scenario analysis for deep uncertainty, and multi-stage decision analysis for uncertainties that are reduced over time with additional information. In light of these uncertainties and the investment costs of large infrastructure, we propose the assessment of staged, modular infrastructure and information updating as a hedge against risk. We apply this framework to cases in Melbourne, Australia and Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Melbourne is a surface water system facing uncertain population growth and variable rainfall and runoff. A severe drought from 1997 to 2009 prompted investment in a 150 MCM/y reverse osmosis desalination plan with a capital cost of 3.5 billion. Our analysis shows that flexible design in which a smaller portion of capacity is developed initially with the option to add modular capacity in the future can mitigate uncertainty and reduce the expected lifetime costs by up to 1 billion. In Riyadh, urban water use relies on fossil groundwater aquifers and

  11. Agricultural implications of reduced water supplies in the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansford, R. R.; Roach, F.; Gollehon, N. R.; Creel, B. J.

    1982-02-01

    The growth of the energy sector in the energy-rich but water-restricted Western US has presented a potential conflict with the irrigated agricultural sector. This study measures the direct impacts on farm income and employment resulting from the transfer of water from agriculture to energy in two specific geographical areas - the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins. We used a linear programming model to evaluate the impacts of reduced water supplies. Through the use of regional multipliers, we expanded our analysis to include regional impacts. Volume I provides the major analysis of these impacts. Volume II provides further technical data.

  12. Organising Environmental Supply Chain Management. Experience from a Sector with Frequent Product Shifts and Complex Product Chains: The Case of the Danish Textile Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forman, Marianne; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    2005-01-01

    The paper analyses the shaping of environmental supply chain management practice in the Danish textile sector. It is based on a qualitative study involving eight companies and their interaction with suppliers....

  13. Approaches to Conducting Political Economy Analysis in the Urban Water Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Manghee, Seema; Poole, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Progress in urban water supply and sanitation has been slow over the past few decades. The sector suffers from issues of equity and efficiency. Today, more than 780 million people are still without access to improved sources of water, and 2.5 billion lack improved sanitation. Those average figures mask huge disparities between the rich and the poor, the poor consistently have less access t...

  14. Urban community perception towards intermittent water supply system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, M W; Talkhande, A V; Andey, S P; Kelkar, P S

    2002-04-01

    While evaluating intermittent and continuous water supply systems, consumers opinion survey was undertaken for critical appraisal of both modes of operation. With the help of a pre-designed set of questions relating to various aspects of water supply and the opinion of consumers regarding degree of service, a house to house survey was conducted in the study area of Ghaziabad and Jaipur. The consumer opinion survey clearly indicated a satisfactory degree of service wherever adequate quantity of water was made available irrespective of the mode of water supply. Number of complaints regarding quality of water supplied, timings of supply, low pressures and breakdowns in supply were reported during intermittent water supply. Every family stored water for drinking and other uses. Most of the families discard drinking water once the fresh water supply is resumed next day. Discarded drinking water is usually used in kitchen for washing and gardening. Storage for other purposes depends on economic status and availability of other sources like open dug well in the house. While most of the respondents had no complaints on water tariff, all of them were in favour of continuous water supply.

  15. The impact of privatisation on the water sector in England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnell, D.; Boschi, J.; Dall'Orso, M.; Thompson, G.

    2000-01-01

    The work presents the story of the British Government privatisation of water supply and sewerage services, carrying out the largest and most comprehensive transfer of these public sector services seen anywhere in the world. Privatisation has given rise to major changes in the water sector driven by very large expenditure programs. The newly found freedom gave rise to a process of diversification and acquisition. The effect of the new pricing policy were that the companies were given incentives to be efficient and lower their costs which would benefit customers in the long term [it

  16. Water Supply and Sanitation Facility Accessibility in Off-Campus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water Supply and Sanitation Facility Accessibility in Off-Campus Houses ... on drinking water source, rate of illness, type and usage of sanitation facilities. ... wells, unprotected dug wells; while others during the wet season harvest rain water.

  17. Water Quality of Hills Water, Supply Water and RO Water Machine at Ulu Yam Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadiman, N.; ‘I Bahari, N.; Kaamin, M.; Hamid, N. B.; Mokhtar, M.; Sahat, S.

    2016-07-01

    The rapid development resulted in the deterioration of the quality of drinking water in Malaysia. Recognizing the importance of water quality, new alternatives for drinking water such as mineral water processing from reverse osmosis (RO) machine become more popular. Hence, the demand for mineral water, natural spring water or water from the hills or mountains rose lately. More consumers believed the quality of these spring water better than other source of drinking water. However, the quality of all the drinking water sources is to meet the required quality standard. Therefore, this paper aims to measure the quality of the waters from hills, from RO machine and the water supply in Ulu Yam, Selangor Batang Kali, Malaysia. The water quality was determined based on following parameters: ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3), iron (Fe), turbidity (NTU) and pH. The results show that the water from hills has better quality compared to water supply and water from RO machine. The value of NH3 ranged from 0.03 mg/L- 0.67 mg/L; Fe was from 0.03mg/L - 0.12 mg/L, turbidity at 0.42 NTU - 0.88 NTU and pH is at 6.60 - 0.71. Based on the studied parameters, all three types of water are fit for drinking and have met the required national drinking water quality standard.

  18. Benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation on the supply, management, and use of water resources in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Strzepek, Kenneth; Neumann, J.; SMith, J.; Martinich, J.; Boehlert, B.; Hejazi, M.; Henderson, J.; Wobus, C.; Jones, R.; Calvin, K.; Johnson, D.; Monier, Erwan; Strzepek, J.; Yoon, J.-H.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change impacts on water resources in the United States are likely to be far-reaching and substantial because the water is integral to climate, and the water sector spans many parts of the economy. This paper estimates impacts and damages from five water resource-related models addressing runoff, drought risk, economics of water supply/demand, water stress, and flooding damages. The models differ in the water system assessed, spatial scale, and unit of assessment, but together provide ...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1107-7 - Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water spray devices; capacity; water supply... Water spray devices; capacity; water supply; minimum requirements. (a) Where water spray devices are... square foot over the top surface area of the equipment and the supply of water shall be adequate to...

  20. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (5) Loss of water supply is not a basis for assistance under this authority. (6) Water will not be... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency water supplies due to... PROCEDURES Emergency Water Supplies: Contaminated Water Sources and Drought Assistance § 203.61 Emergency...

  1. Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Copeland, Claudia; Cody, Betsy

    2005-01-01

    Damage to or destruction of the nation's water supply and water quality infrastructure by terrorist attack could disrupt the delivery of vital human services in this country, threatening public health...

  2. Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Copeland, Claudia; Cody, Betsy A

    2006-01-01

    Damage to or destruction of the nation's water supply and water quality infrastructure by a terrorist attack could disrupt the delivery of vital human services in this country, threaten public health...

  3. Managing hydroclimatological risk to water supply with option contracts and reservoir index insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Casey; Carriquiry, Miguel

    2007-11-01

    This paper explores the performance of a system of economic instruments designed to facilitate the reduction of hydroclimatologic variability-induced impacts on stakeholders of shared water supply. The system is composed of bulk water option contracts between urban water suppliers and agricultural users and insurance indexed on reservoir inflows. The insurance is designed to cover the financial needs of the water supplier in situations where the option is likely to be exercised. Insurance provides the irregularly needed funds for exercising the water options. The combined option contract - reservoir index insurance system creates risk sharing between sectors that is currently lacking in many shared water situations. Contracts are designed for a shared agriculture - urban water system in Metro Manila, Philippines, using optimization and Monte Carlo analysis. Observed reservoir inflows are used to simulate contract performance. Results indicate the option - insurance design effectively smooths water supply costs of hydrologic variability for both agriculture and urban water.

  4. In the way of clean and safe drinking water : exploring limitations to improvement of the water supply in Bagamoyo District, Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Bemspång, Josefina; Segerström, Rebecka

    2009-01-01

    Bagamoyo District, in the Pwani region in Tanzania, supplies a large part of Tanzania'sbiggest city, Dar es Salaam, with water. At the same time many people in rural villages in thedistrict do not have access to clean and safe water. This thesis aims to explore what limitationsthere are to improvement of the rural water supply in Bagamoyo District. Specific attention ispaid to the organizational structure of the water sector and how roles and responsibilities aredivided, defined and communica...

  5. Economic analysis of the water demand in the hotels and restaurants sector: Shadow prices and elasticities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Ana; Atwi, Majed; Barberán, Ramón; Mur, Jesús

    2014-08-01

    Despite the growing economic importance of tourism, and its impact on relative water shortage, little is known about the role that water plays in the productive process of hotels and restaurants and, therefore, the possible implications of water demand management policy for this sector. This study aims to fill this gap. It is based on the microdata of 676 firms in the sector, operating in the city of Zaragoza (Spain) for a 12 year period. Based on the Translog cost function, we estimate the shadow price of water in the short run and, from a long-run perspective, its direct price elasticity, its cross elasticities relative to labor, capital, and supplies, and its elasticity with respect to the level of output. The results obtained show that water provides sector firms returns that are on average higher than its price, although in the case of hotels the margin is really narrow. This situation provides policy makers with a margin for applying price increases without affecting the sector's viability, with some caution in the case of hotels. Water demand elasticity equals -0.38 in the case of hotels, but it is not significant in the case of restaurants and bar-cafes; hence, only in hotels is there potential for influencing water use patterns, encouraging the resource's conservation through pricing policy. Moreover, capital is a substitutive factor of water, and the elasticity of water with respect to output is 0.40, all of which should also be considered by policy makers in water resource management.

  6. The Challenges of Supply Chain in the Gold Mining Sector of Obuasi Municipality of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Kwaku Agyei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gold mining industry represents an important source of socio-economic development in most economies. Ghana has had its fair share of the benefits the mining sector brings by way of direct revenue generation and job creation. In spite of this significant contribution from gold mining, the sector appears to be facing various forms of challenges. This study aims at assessing the supply chain challenges facing the gold mining operations in Obuasi and its environs in the Ashanti region of Ghana. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods with case study strategy was used in the study. Primary data was collected from field survey through questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and observation. The data was analysed using quantitative and qualitative approaches. The major supply chain challenges found to be facing the mining sector in Obuasi include supply of low quality products, unreliable or variable lead times, non-availability of local firms of international standard, fluctuation in Gold prices on the international market, high transportation cost and violence and sporadic attack from the communities. It is recommended that the mining firms should involve their key and strategic suppliers in product designs and development of specifications. Also, improving upon information sharing and building trust and transparency and developing the capacities of their key suppliers to improve the performances of the entire supply chain could also deal with delays and quality related supplies. Finally the Ministry of Energy, the Environmental Protection Agency and other institutions should collaborate with the mining firms to deal with issues of environmental pollution and matters of perceived inadequate compensation to community members whose farm lands get destroyed by the mining activities to address any unhealthy conflicts between the mining firms and the communities.

  7. Specific features of auxiliary water supply at underground NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pergamenshchik, B.K.; Pavlov, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    Specific features of auxiliary water supply systems for underground NPPs related to peculiarities of NPP basis equipment arrangement, are considered. Circulation water supply scheme, in which water cooling storage basin (cooling towers) with operational area corresponding to NPP power is on the surface and has traditional design, is proposed. Sufficiently high efficiency of the arrangement proposed is proved

  8. Regional water coefficients for U.S. industrial sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardo Boero; Donatella Pasqualini

    2017-01-01

    Designing policies for water systems management requires the capability to assess the economic impacts of water availability and to effectively couple water withdrawals by human activities with natural hydrologic dynamics. At the core of any scientific approach to these issues there is the estimation of water withdrawals by industrial sectors in the form of water coefficients, which are measurements of the quantity of water withdrawn per dollar of GDP or output. In this work we focus on the c...

  9. The New Supply Chain: Implications to the Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Sector in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Mohamed Arshad

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the growth of the new retail formats such as hypermarkets, departmental stores and supermarkets and its implications to the fruits and vegetables sector in Malaysia in particular to the small producers. The structural differences between the new supply chain and conventional marketing are compared. Some measures of concentration are provided to indicate the degree of competition in the retail sector. Within less than a decade, the new super retailers were able to capture a significant market share of the local fruits and vegetables at the expense of the small time local retailers. Their procurement system which emphasizes on consistent supply and rigid quality standards indirectly cuts off the small farmers from the supply chain. New type of intermediaries, packing houses emerge replacing the traditional middlemen role usually performed by small time wholesalers or traders at the farm level. To integrate the small farmers into the new supply entails a reformation programme that enhances productivity, product quality and institutional restructuring towards cooperative movement.

  10. Radon in private water supplies in SW England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowring, C.S.; Banks, D.

    1995-01-01

    It has been known since at least the early 1960s that high levels of radon gas can be found dissolved in some water supplies in South West England and, as a result of this, degassing plant was installed in some mains water supplies at this time in order to remove the radon from the water. More recently the result of a survey of just over 500 drinking water supplies throughout the UK has been published. This concluded that the radon level in UK water supplies in general do not constitute a health hazard. In this note we present results from 22 private water supplies in South West England and conclude that for certain individuals levels of radon in water may well present a radiological hazard which is not negligible and that this problem needs to be investigated more fully. (author)

  11. Domestic Water Consumption under Intermittent and Continuous Modes of Water Supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, L.; Liu, G.; Wang, F.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2014-01-01

    Although an extensive literature emphasizes the disadvantages of intermittent water supply, it remains prevalent in rural areas of developing countries. Understanding the effects of water supply time restrictions on domestic water use activities and patterns, especially for hygienic purposes, is

  12. Incentivising social science perspectives in the SADC water sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs-Mata, Inga M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the governance challenges facing the water sector necessitates expertise from a diverse set of interdisciplinary backgrounds. Creating a balance between technical, natural and social science is critical to developing relevant and impact...

  13. Conceptualizations of water security in the agricultural sector: Perceptions, practices, and paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekian, Atefe; Hayati, Dariush; Aarts, Noelle

    2017-01-01

    Conceptions of agricultural water security are conditioned by larger understandings of being and reality. It is still unclear what such understandings mean for perspectives on water security in general and on causes and solutions related to perceived water security risks and problems in agricultural sector in particular. Based on a systematic literature review, three conceptualizations of water security, related to different paradigms, are presented. Also the consequences of such conceptualizations for determining research objectives, research activities, and research outcomes on agricultural water security are discussed. The results showed that agricultural water security from a positivist paradigm referred to tangible and measurable water-related hazards and threats, such as floods and droughts, pollution, and so forth. A constructivist approach to agricultural water security, constituted by a process of interaction and negotiation, pointed at perceptions of water security of farmers and other stakeholders involved in agricultural sector. A critical approach to agricultural water security focused on the processes of securing vulnerable farmers and others from wider political, social, and natural impediments to sufficient water supplies. The conclusions of the study suggest that paradigms, underlying approaches should be expressed, clarified, and related to one another in order to find optimal and complementary ways to study water security issues in agricultural sector.

  14. Water stress, water salience, and the implications for water supply planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M. E.; Islam, S.

    2017-12-01

    Effectively addressing the water supply challenges posed by urbanization and climate change requires a holistic understanding of the water supply system, including the impact of human behavior on system dynamics. Decision makers have limits to available information and information processing capacity, and their attention is not equally distributed among risks. The salience of a given risk is higher when increased attention is directed to it and though perceived risk may increase, real risk does not change. Relevant to water supply planning is how and when water stress results in an increased salience of water risks. This work takes a socio-hydrological approach to develop a water supply planning model that includes water consumption as an endogenous variable, in the context of Las Vegas, NV. To understand the benefits and limitations of this approach, this model is compared to a traditional planning model that uses water consumption scenarios. Both models are applied to project system reliability and water stress under four streamflow and demographic scenarios, and to assess supply side responses to changing conditions. The endogenous demand model enables the identification of feedback between both supply and demand management decisions on future water consumption and system performance. This model, while specific to the Las Vegas case, demonstrates a prototypical modeling framework capable of examining water-supply demand interactions by incorporating water stress driven conservation.

  15. Water conservation implications for decarbonizing non-electric energy supply: A hybrid life-cycle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyuan; Wang, Can; Shi, Lei; Cai, Wenjia; Zhang, Lixiao

    2018-08-01

    Low-carbon transition in the non-electric energy sector, which includes transport and heating energy, is necessary for achieving the 2 °C target. Meanwhile, as non-electric energy accounts for over 60% of total water consumption in the energy supply sector, it is vital to understand future water trends in the context of decarbonization. However, few studies have focused on life-cycle water impacts for non-electric energy; besides, applying conventional LCA methodology to assess non-electric energy has limitations. In this paper, a Multi-Regional Hybrid Life-Cycle Assessment (MRHLCA) model is built to assess total CO 2 emissions and water consumption of 6 non-electric energy technologies - transport energy from biofuel and gasoline, heat supply from natural gas, biogas, coal, and residual biomass, within 7 major emitting economies. We find that a shift to natural gas and residual biomass heating can help economies reduce 14-65% CO 2 and save more than 21% water. However, developed and developing economies should take differentiated technical strategies. Then we apply scenarios from IMAGE model to demonstrate that if economies take cost-effective 2 °C pathways, the water conservation synergy for the whole energy supply sector, including electricity, can also be achieved. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Metabolic modelling to support long term strategic decisions on water supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciriello, Valentina; Felisa, Giada; Lauriola, Ilaria; Pomanti, Flavio; Di Federico, Vittorio

    2017-04-01

    Water resources are essential for the economic development and sustenance of anthropic activities belonging to the civil, agricultural and industrial sectors. Nevertheless, availability of water resources is not uniformly distributed in space and time. Moreover, the increasing water demand, mainly due to population growth and expansion of agricultural crops, may cause increasing water stress conditions, if combined with the effects of climate change. Under these circumstances, it is necessary to improve the resilience of water supply systems both in terms of infrastructures and environmental compliance. Metabolic modelling approaches represent a flexible tool able to provide support to decision making in the long term, based on sustainability criteria. These approaches mimic the water supply network through a set of material and energy fluxes that interact and influence each other. By analyzing these fluxes, a suite of key performance indicators is evaluated in order to identify which kind of interventions may be applied to increase the sustainability of the system. Here, we adopt these concepts to analyze the water supply network of Reggio-Emilia (Italy) which is supported by water withdrawals from both surface water and groundwater bodies. We analyze different scenarios, including possible reduction of water withdrawals from one of the different sources as a consequence of a decrease in water availability under present and future scenarios. On these basis, we identify preventive strategies for a dynamic management of the water supply system.

  17. 10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. 431.102 Section 431.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... Water Heaters, Hot Water Supply Boilers and Unfired Hot Water Storage Tanks § 431.102 Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water storage tanks. The...

  18. Condensing and water supplying systems in an atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinmura, Akira.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To reduce heat loss and eliminate accumulation of drain in water supplying and heating units in an atomic power plant by providing a direct contact type drain cooler between a gland-exhauster vapor condenser and a condensing and de-salting means, the drain from each water supplying and heating unit being collected in said cooler for heating the condensed water. Structure: Condensed water from a condenser is fed by a low pressure condensing pump through an air ejector and gland-exhauster vapor condenser to the direct-contact type drain cooler and is condensed in each water supply heater. Next, it is heated by drain fed through a drain level adjuster valve and an orifice and then forced by a medium pressure condenser pump into the condensing and de-salting means. It is then supplied by a high pressure condensing pump into the successive water supply heater. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. A multi-criteria decision making approach to balance water supply-demand strategies in water supply systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géssica Maria Cambrainha

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Paper aims this paper proposes a model to aid a group of decision makers to establish a portfolio of feasible actions (alternatives that are able to balance water supply-demand strategies. Originality Long periods of water shortages cause problems in semi-arid region of northeast Brazil, which affects different sectors such as food, public health, among others. This problem situation is intensified by population growth. Therefore, this type of decision making is complex, and it needs to be solving by a structured model. Research method The model is based on a problem structuring method (PSM and a multi-criteria decision making (MCDM method. Main findings Due to society and government influences, the proposed model showed appropriate to conduct a robust and well-structured decision making. Implications for theory and practice The main contributions were the study in regions suffering from drought and water scarcity, as well as the combination of PSM and MCDM methods to aid in this problem.

  20. Technological Implications of Supply Chain Practices in Agri-Food Sector: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Mor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, the global business environment compels enterprises to consider rest of the world in their competitive strategy analysis where firms ignore external factors such as economic trends, competitive positions or technology advancement in other countries. While going truly global with supply chain management, a company develops product in the United States, produce in India and trade in Europe, and they have changed the traditional operation management & logistical activities. This change in trade and the modernization of transport infrastructures have elevated the importance of flow management to new levels. Manufacturers and researchers have noticed many problems concerning supply chain activities, and usually either a system or subcomponent in supply chains is discussed in the literature, but they fails to answer the rational (why, what, how behind them. This paper addresses a review of the principles, bottlenecks and strategies of supply chain practices for organizations with an emphasis on the implications of Indian agri-food sector. Findings of this review reveal that the human & environmental issues, improved product visibility, food safety/quality and the associated economic benefits in sustainable agri-food supply chains can be achieved through innovation, collaboration, elimination of uncertainties and introducing global SCM practices into green & lean initiatives.

  1. Device for controlling water supply to nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Toshio.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To smoothly control automatic water supply for realizing stable operation of a nuclear reactor by providing a flow rate limiting signal selection circuit and a preferential circuit in a water supply control device for a nuclear reactor wherein the speed of a recirculation pump may be changed in two-steps. Structure: Opening angle signals for a water supply regulating valve are controlled by a nuclear reactor water level signal, a vapor flow rate signal and a supplied water flow rate signal through an adder and an adjuster in response to a predetermined water level setting signal. When the water in the reactor is maintained at a predetermined level, a selection circuit receives a water pump condition signal for selecting one of the signals from a supplied water rate limiting signal generator generating signals for indicating whether one or two water supply pumps are operated. A low value preferential circuit passes the lower of the values generated from the selection circuit and the adder. The selection circuit receives a recirculation pump condition signal and selects either one of the signals from the supplied water flow rate limiting signal generator operated at high speed or low speed. A high value preferential circuit passes the higher value

  2. Water supply studies. [management and planning of water supplies in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgy, R. H.; Algazi, V. R.; Draeger, W. C.; Churchman, C. W.; Thomas, R. W.; Lauer, D. T.; Hoos, I.; Krumpe, P. F.; Nichols, J. D.; Gialdini, M. J.

    1973-01-01

    The primary test site for water supply investigations continues to be the Feather River watershed in northeastern California. This test site includes all of the area draining into and including the Oroville Reservoir. The principal effort is to determine the extent to which remote sensing techniques, when properly employed, can provide information useful to those persons concerned with the management and planning of lands and facilities for the production of water, using the Oroville Reservoir and the California Water Project as the focus for the study. In particular, emphasis is being placed on determining the cost effectiveness of information derived through remote sensing as compared with that currently being derived through more conventional means.

  3. Groundwater potential for water supply during droughts in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Y.; Cha, E.; Moon, H. J.

    2016-12-01

    Droughts have been receiving much attention in Korea because severe droughts occurred in recent years, causing significant social, economic and environmental damages in some regions. Residents in agricultural area, most of all, were most damaged by droughts with lack of available water supplies to meet crop water demands. In order to mitigate drought damages, we present a strategy to keep from agricultural droughts by using groundwater to meet water supply as a potential water resource in agricultural areas. In this study, we analyze drought severity and the groundwater potential to mitigate social and environmental damages caused by droughts in Korea. We evaluate drought severity by analyzing spatial and temporal meteorological and hydrological data such as rainfall, water supply and demand. For drought severity, we use effective drought index along with the standardized precipitation index (SPI) and standardized runoff index(SRI). Water deficit during the drought period is also quantified to consider social and environmental impact of droughts. Then we assess the feasibility of using groundwater as a potential source for groundwater impact mitigation. Results show that the agricultural areas are more vulnerable to droughts and use of groundwater as an emergency water resource is feasible in some regions. For a case study, we select Jeong-Sun area located in Kangwon providence having well-developed Karst aquifers and surrounded by mountains. For Jeong-Sun area, we quantify groundwater potential use, design the method of water supply by using groundwater, and assess its economic benefit. Results show that water supply system with groundwater abstraction can be a good strategy when droughts are severe for an emergency water supply in Jeong-Sun area, and groundwater can also be used not only for a dry season water supply resource, but for everyday water supply system. This case study results can further be applicable to some regions with no sufficient water

  4. STATE OF WATER SUPPLY INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE SUBCARPATHIAN CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna PIETRUCHA-URBANIK

    Full Text Available The characteristics of equipping the Subcarpathian province cities with water supply infrastructure was made on the basis of data collected from the Provincial Office, Statistical Office, reports submitted by water companies regarding the functioning of water supply infrastructure and literature data. The indicators characterizing water supply infrastructure were determined for the years 1995-2014. In the paper the indicators of equipping cities with water supply systems were presented. Also water consumption and changes in the length of the water supply network in the cities of the Subcarpathian Province were examined. The analysis shows that the water consumption for the years 1995-2014 decreased by almost 6 m3∙year-1 per capita. The reason for such situation was the increasing price of water and the ecological awareness of the inhabitants of the Subcarpathian region. In the last year of the analysis the water supply system in urban areas of the Subcarpathian province was used by 95% of the population and, for comparison, in rural areas by 77% of the population. In the paper also changes in prices for water in the Subcarpathian region were shown, on the basis of data from the water tariffs in individual water companies. The important element of urban development is the technical infrastructure which reduces the investment costs. The determined indicators of equipping cities with water supply systems show an upward trend in the development of technical infrastructure. Based on the operational data from the water companies the failure rates in selected water supply networks were determined.

  5. Bacterial indicators of faecal pollution of water supplies and public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial indicators of faecal pollution of water supplies and their significance to public health are reviewed in this paper, to highlight their levels of general acceptability and suitability as safeguards against health hazards associated with water supplies. Regular bacteriological analysis with the sole aim of detecting faecal ...

  6. Economic Impacts of Surface Mining on Household Drinking Water Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides information on the economic and social impacts of contaminated surface and ground water supplies on residents and households near surface mining operations. The focus is on coal slurry contamination of water supplies in Mingo County, West Virginia, and descr...

  7. Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Water Supply Systems. Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976

    This workbook is utilized in connection with a 40-hour course on sanitary surveys of water supply systems for biologists, chemists, and engineers with experience as a water supply evaluator. Practical training is provided in each of the 21 self-contained modules. Each module outlines the purpose, objectives and content for that section. The course…

  8. Community-based management of water supply services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mogane-Ramahotswa, B

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important aspects of suitability of water supply is the ability of the community to manage its own scheme. Unlike in urban settlement institutional arrangements for rural water supply are rudimentary. Over the past decade...

  9. Development of datamining software for the city water supply company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlinskaya, O. G.; Boiko, E. V.

    2018-05-01

    The article considers issues of datamining software development for city water supply enterprises. Main stages of OLAP and datamining systems development are proposed. The system will allow water supply companies analyse accumulated data. Accordingly, improving the quality of data analysis would improve the manageability of the company and help to make the right managerial decisions by executives of various levels.

  10. China's rising hydropower demand challenges water sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junguo; Zhao, Dandan; Gerbens-Leenes, P W; Guan, Dabo

    2015-07-09

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China based on data from 875 representative reservoirs (209 with power plants). In 2010, the reservoir WF totaled 27.9 × 10(9) m(3) (Gm(3)), or 22% of China's total water consumption. Ignoring the reservoir WF seriously underestimates human water appropriation. The reservoir WF associated with industrial, domestic and agricultural WFs caused water scarcity in 6 of the 10 major Chinese river basins from 2 to 12 months annually. The hydropower WF was 6.6 Gm(3) yr(-1) or 3.6 m(3) of water to produce a GJ (10(9) J) of electricity. Hydropower is a water intensive energy carrier. As a response to global climate change, the Chinese government has promoted a further increase in hydropower energy by 70% by 2020 compared to 2012. This energy policy imposes pressure on available freshwater resources and increases water scarcity. The water-energy nexus requires strategic and coordinated implementations of hydropower development among geographical regions, as well as trade-off analysis between rising energy demand and water use sustainability.

  11. Water and Sewage Utilities Sector (NAICS 2213)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental regulation information for water utilities, including drinking and wastewater treatment facilities. Includes links to NESHAP for POTW, compliance information, and information about pretreatment programs.

  12. Sharing the burden of water supply protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn A. Dehring; Craig A. Depken

    2010-01-01

    A sufficient supply of freshwater is critical to human survivability and biodiversity. Much of the recent decline in freshwater biodiversity and overall freshwater ecosystem health is attributable to land use change.

  13. Hydropower recovery in water supply systems: Models and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilanova, Mateus Ricardo Nogueira; Balestieri, José Antônio Perrella

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present hydropower recovery models for water supply systems. • Hydropower recovery potential in water supply systems is highly variable. • The case studied could make the supply systems self-sufficient in terms of energy. • Hydropower recovery can reduce GHGs emissions and generate carbon credits. - Abstract: The energy efficiency of water supply systems can be increased through the recovery of hydraulic energy implicit to the volumes of water transported in various stages of the supply process, which can be converted into electricity through hydroelectric recovery systems. Such a process allows the use of a clean energy source that is usually neglected in water supplies, reducing its dependence on energy from the local network and the system’s operation costs. This article evaluates the possibilities and benefits of the use of water supply facilities, structures and equipment for hydraulic energy recovery, addressing several applicable hydroelectric models. A real case study was developed in Brazil to illustrate the technical, economic and environmental aspects of hydropower recovery in water supply systems

  14. China's rising hydropower demand challenges water sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Junguo; Zhao, Dandan; Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; Guan, Dabo

    2015-01-01

    Demand for hydropower is increasing, yet the water footprints (WFs) of reservoirs and hydropower, and their contributions to water scarcity, are poorly understood. Here, we calculate reservoir WFs (freshwater that evaporates from reservoirs) and hydropower WFs (the WF of hydroelectricity) in China

  15. Assistive technologies along supply chains in health care and in the social services sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Peter; Hauer, Katharina; Schloffer, Evelyn; Leyrer, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Health care systems in Austria and Slovenia are currently facing challenges due to scarce resources and demographic change which can be seen especially along the supply chains. The main objective of this paper is to present an option to improve the use of assistive technologies. An extensive literature research for the theoretic part as well as a qualitative survey for the empiric part focusing on short-term care were carried out. Results show that there is a lack of information and training on assistive technologies. As a consequence, their full potential cannot be exploited. Therefore a guideline for nursing consultations was developed. To conclude, both the literature research and the qualitative survey show that assistive technologies have high potentials to improve the supply chains in the health care and social services sector, but there is a lot of information and training on them needed.

  16. Water Use in the US Electric Power Sector: Energy Systems ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation reviews the water demands of long-range electricity scenarios. It addresses questions such as: What are the aggregate water requirements of the U.S. electric power sector? How could water requirements evolve under different long-range regional generation mixes? It also looks at research addressing the electricity generation water demand from a life cycle perspective, such as water use for the fuel cycle (natural gas, coal, uranium, etc.) and water use for the materials/equipment/manufacturing of new power plants. The presentation is part of panel session on the Water-Energy Nexus at the World Energy Engineering Congress

  17. Water Quality and Quantity in Intermittent and Continuous Piped Water Supplies in Hubli-Dharwad, India

    OpenAIRE

    Kumpel, Emily Katherine

    2013-01-01

    In at least 45 low- and middle-income countries, piped water systems deliver water for limited durations. Few data are available of the impact of intermittent water supply (IWS) on the water quality and quantity delivered to households. This thesis examines the impact of intermittently supplied piped water on the quality and quantity of water delivered to residential taps in Hubli-Dharwad, India, when compared to continuous piped water supply. A framework for understanding the pathways throug...

  18. PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIPS AS MECHANISMS FOR RISK MANAGEMENT IN THE WATER SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona FRONE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Some forms of Public Private Partnership (PPP have been long since used in the procurement and operation of water infrastructure, as shown in the first part of the paper. The main object of the paper is to highlight the mechanisms of PPP in the water sector and to suggest that in times of economic and financial distress, when both the public sector and the private sector face additional risks and challenges, various models of PPP may be used to manage and mitigate the risks and to improve performance in providing the public services of Water Supply and Sanitation (WSS. The economic and financial risks of the WSS sector are commonly classified in two broad categories but within these broad categories there are many more specific risks. Therefore, we shall analyse some of these main risks and their potential interrelations, by employing several methodologies: literature review, case studies, performance indicators, risk matrix, analysis and synthesis. The mechanisms, features and experiences of PPP in this branch of the water sector are summarized and comparatively analysed, from the viewpoint of risk sharing, leading to some conclusions and recommendations on the opportunity and effectiveness of implementing such arrangements especially in Romania.

  19. Public-supply water use in Kansas, 1990-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Joan F.

    2014-01-01

    This fact sheet describes water-use data collection and quantities of surface water and groundwater diverted for public supply in Kansas for the years 1990 through 2012. Data used in this fact sheet are from the Kansas Department of Agriculture’s Division of Water Resources and the Kansas Water Office. Water used for public supply represents about 10 percent of all reported water withdrawals in Kansas. Between 1990 and 2012, annual withdrawals for public supply ranged from a low of 121 billion gallons in 1993 to a high of 159 billion gallons in 2012. Differences in annual withdrawals were associated primarily with climatic fluctuations. Six suppliers distributed about one-half of the total water withdrawn for public supply, and nearly three-quarters of the surface water. Surface water represented between 52 and 61 percent of total annual withdrawals for public supply. The proportion of surface water obtained through contracts from Federal reservoirs increased from less than 5 percent in the 1990s to 8 percent in 2011 and 2012. More than 99 percent of the reported water withdrawn for public supply in Kansas in 2012 was metered, which was an increase from 92 percent in 1990. State population increased steadily from 2.5 million people in 1990 to 2.9 million in 2012. Recent estimates indicate that about 95 percent of the total population was served by public water supply; the remainder obtained water from other sources such as private wells. Average per capita water use as calculated for State conservation planning purposes varied by region of the State. The smallest regional average water use for the years 1990–2012 was 98 gallons per person per day in easternmost Kansas, and the largest regional average water use was 274 gallons per person per day in westernmost Kansas.

  20. Integrating Water Supply Constraints into Irrigated Agricultural Simulations of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jonathan M.; Young, Charles A.; Mehta, Vishal K.; Ruane, Alex C.; Azarderakhsh, Marzieh; Davitt, Aaron; McDonald, Kyle; Haden, Van R.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.

    2017-01-01

    Simulations of irrigated croplands generally lack key interactions between water demand from plants and water supply from irrigation systems. We coupled the Water Evaluation and Planning system (WEAP) and Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) to link regional water supplies and management with field-level water demand and crop growth. WEAP-DSSAT was deployed and evaluated over Yolo County in California for corn, rice, and wheat. WEAP-DSSAT is able to reproduce the results of DSSAT under well-watered conditions and reasonably simulate observed mean yields, but has difficulty capturing yield interannual variability. Constraining irrigation supply to surface water alone reduces yields for all three crops during the 1987-1992 drought. Corn yields are reduced proportionally with water allocation, rice yield reductions are more binary based on sufficient water for flooding, and wheat yields are least sensitive to irrigation constraints as winter wheat is grown during the wet season.

  1. STANDARDIZED COSTS FOR WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presented within the report are cost data for construction and operation/maintenance of domestic water distribution and transmission pipelines, domestic water pumping stations, and domestic water storage reservoirs. To allow comparison of new construction with rehabilitation of e...

  2. Public-private partnerships in China's urban water sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, L.; Mol, A.P.J.; Fu, T.

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management

  3. European scale climate information services for water use sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Donnelly, Chantal; Strömbäck, Lena; Capell, René; Ludwig, Fulco

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates a climate information service for pan-European water use sectors that are vulnerable to climate change induced hydrological changes, including risk and safety (disaster preparedness), agriculture, energy (hydropower and cooling water use for thermoelectric power) and

  4. Knowledge and practice review in water sector financing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There is global acknowledgement that the financing of water projects is not easy. Preparation of water sector projects is understood to take long and still when they are finally financed, cost-recovery is comparatively difficult. The challenges...

  5. Multistakeholder Partnerships in the Water and Sanitation Sector ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Multistakeholder Partnerships in the Water and Sanitation Sector within Urban Policies in Latin America and the Caribbean. According to the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), an estimated 7% of urban Latin Americans lack access to clean water and another 13%, to sanitation services. This project aims to ...

  6. A review of formal institutions affecting water supply and access in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogomotsi, Patricia K.; Mogomotsi, Goemeone E. J.; Matlhola, Dimpho M.

    2018-06-01

    Over the years, many countries across the world have increasingly experienced the collapse of their ecosystems, leading to an elevated increase on the demand for freshwater resources. Botswana is not an exception. The problem of disrupted potable water supply is widespread across the country. However, the physical shortage of water in the country is arguably coupled by lack of effective and efficient water supply and management institutions and water infrastructure. Most of the research on water scarcity in Botswana is mostly inclined towards physical water scarcity, while little is investigated on how the design of institutions for water management in developing countries leads to water scarcity. Furthermore, the premises of most research is neoclassical economics ideas, thereby offering solutions as developing and/or reforming water markets and water pricing mechanisms, among other findings. This paper analyses potable water supply and access in Botswana within a new institutional economics paradigm. The study examines key features of water institutions in Botswana on how they affect water supply and access, applying new institutional economics fundamentals. The study extensively uses various secondary data sources including weather and climate reports, policy documents, maps and charts and survey data, among others. The paper argues that to achieve effective water allocation in Botswana, there is a need to balance social and environmental water resource needs through water policies and other statutory enactments, as well as the crafting of practical management strategies. The country, therefore, requires not only a swift institutional transformation in the water sector, but also needs practical governance structure necessary for implementing integrated water resources management and driving water resources towards sustainability.

  7. Evaluation of Virtual Water Trade by the Industrial Sector of Zanjan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Tahami Pourzarandi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Water crisis is of utmost importance due to the growing demand and consumption of water, especially in developing countries where its production and food security are facing serious challenges. Virtual water trade has been proposed as one strategy to combat the water scarcity crisis in arid and semi-arid regions. The strategy is based on the import of food and water-intensive supplies from neighboring regions that enjoy adequate supplies of water. Given the fact that the industrial sector has been proposed to serve as the basis of development in Zanjan Province, the present study was conducted to investigate the virtual water trade by the industrial sector in this province. For the purposes of this study, data from the statistical period 2010-2011 were obtained from the Statistical Center of Iran on enterprises employing ten member staffs or above. The data were used to categorize the industries surveyed, their water demands, and products to estimate the quantities of water needed for their continued operation. It was found that the highest quantities of virtual water in Zanjan are allocated to coking and petroleum plants, paper and cellulosic industries, and food and beverage processing factories with average values of 32.70, 26.14, and 11.63 cubic meters per million Rials, respectively. In addition, the total amount of virtual water exported from the industrial units operating in Zanjan Province is estimated at about 3.10 MCM, 50% of which belongs to base metal production. Conclusion: Our findings show that the industrial sector in Zanjan Province is a net exporter of virtual water.

  8. Environmental life cycle assessment of water supply in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase of LCAs evaluates the ... considered where water is used in the manufacturing sector of South Africa, and to identify ... The boosting requirements attribute most to the electricity dependency of the ...

  9. Mitigating Corporate Water Risk: Financial Market Tools and Supply Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy M. Larson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A decision framework for business water-risk response is proposed that considers financial instruments and supply management strategies. Based on available and emergent programmes, companies in the agricultural, commodities, and energy sectors may choose to hedge against financial risks by purchasing futures contracts or insurance products. These strategies address financial impacts such as revenue protection due to scarcity and disruption of direct operations or in the supply chain, but they do not directly serve to maintain available supplies to continue production. In contrast, companies can undertake actions in the watershed to enhance supply reliability and/or they can reduce demand to mitigate risk. Intermediate strategies such as purchasing of water rights or water trading involving financial transactions change the allocation of water but do not reduce overall watershed demand or increase water supply. The financial services industry is playing an increasingly important role, by considering how water risks impact decision making on corporate growth and market valuation, corporate creditworthiness, and bond rating. Risk assessment informed by Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR measures is described, and the role of the financial services industry is characterised. A corporate decision framework is discussed in the context of water resources management strategies under complex uncertainties.

  10. Assessment of domestic water supply situation in rural communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is needed by man for the sustenance of life and it is the second most important natural resource used by man after the air were breathe. Man survives longer without food than without water. The socio-economic development of man is determined partly by the availability of water. The supply of safe pipe-borne water in ...

  11. Assessment of Water Supply Quality in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patronage of water of questionable qualities in the study area due to the failure of the Anambra State Water Corporation to provide potable water supply in Awka and environs prompted this research work. Various water sources patronized in the study area were collected and subjected to physical, chemical and ...

  12. Adaptation strategies for water supply management in a drought prone Mediterranean river basin: Application of outranking method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vikas; Del Vasto-Terrientes, Luis; Valls, Aida; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The regional water allocation planning is one of those complex decision problems where holistic approach to water supply management considering different criteria would be valuable. However, multi-criteria decision making with diverse indicators measured on different scales and uncertainty levels is difficult to solve. Objective of this paper is to develop scenarios for the future imbalances in water supply and demand for a water stressed Mediterranean area of Northern Spain (Tarragona) and to test the applicability and suitability of an outranking method ELECTRE-III-H for evaluating sectoral water allocation policies. This study is focused on the use of alternative water supply scenarios to fulfil the demand of water from three major sectors: domestic, industrial and agricultural. A detail scenario planning for regional water demand and supply has been discussed. For each future scenario of climate change, the goal is to obtain a ranking of a set of possible actions with regards to different types of indicators (costs, water stress and environmental impact). The analytical method used is based on outranking models for decision aid with hierarchical structures of criteria and ranking alternatives using partial preorders based on pairwise preference relations. We compare several adaptation measures including alternative water sources (reclaimed water and desalination); inter basin water transfer and sectoral demand management coming from industry, agriculture and domestic sectors and tested the sustainability of management actions for different climate change scenarios. Results have shown use of alternative water resources as the most reliable alternative with medium reclaimed water reuse in industry and agriculture and low to medium use of desalination water in domestic and industrial sectors as the best alternative. The proposed method has several advantages such as the management of heterogeneous scales of measurement without requiring any artificial

  13. Effects of rainwater harvesting on centralized urban water supply systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandet, C.; Binning, Philip John; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2010-01-01

    depths but very different temporal distributions. Supply reliability and the extent of reliance on the public distribution system are identified as suitable performance indicators for mains water infrastructure. A uniform temporal distribution of rainfall in an oceanic climate like that of Dinard......, Northern France, yielded supply reliabilities close to 100% for reasonable tank sizes (0.065 m3/m2 of roof area in Dinard compared with 0.262 m3/m2 in Nice with a RWSO of 30% for a detached house). However, the collection and use of rainfall results in a permanent decrease in mains water demand leading...... to an increase in water age in the distribution network. Investigations carried on a real network showed that water age is greatly affected when rainwater supplies more than 30% of the overall water demand. In urban water utilities planning, rainwater supply systems may however be profitable for the community...

  14. Urban sprawl and water supply in the Colombian coffee region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Juan Leonardo; Galeano Moreno, Julian; Canon Barriga, Julio

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the current situation of water supply systems in the context of urban sprawl in the Colombian coffee region. The authors suggest three factors to understand local and regional water supply systems: land use within areas of urban sprawl; land use in the ecosystems that sustain the water supply; and operation and technical efficiency of the utilities. Accordingly, the work provides an estimate of the degree of urbanization and the spatial extent of urban sprawl in the cities of Manizales, Pereira y Armenia. The ecological land use in Andean and sub Andean ecosystems that supply the aqueducts of these cities is characterized, as well as the operative and technical conditions of water supply providers involved in urban sprawl, highlighting their strengths and their increasing weaknesses.

  15. The Spanish Food Industry on Global Supply Chains and Its Impact on Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Duarte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the impact of economic activities on natural resources through global supply chains is increasingly demanded in the context of the growing globalization of economies and product fragmentation. Taking Spain as a case study and a sector with significant economic and environmental impacts, the agri-food industry, the objective of this work is two-fold. First, we estimate the associated water impact, both from the production and consumption perspectives, paying special attention to the water embodied in production exchanges among countries and sectors. To that aim, we use an environmentally-extended multiregional input-output model (MRIO. Second, we assess the main driving factors behind changes in direct and embodied water consumption between the years 1995 and 2009 by means of a structural decomposition analysis. The MRIO model provides a comprehensive estimate of the economic linkages among regions and economic sectors and, therefore, allows calculating the environmental impacts over international value chains. The results indicate that the food industry exerts large impacts on global water resources, particularly given the remarkable interactions with the domestic and foreign agricultural sectors, These growing linkages show how consumption patterns, and, therefore, lifestyles, involve large environmental impacts through the whole and global supply chains.

  16. [Public sector participation in the supply of dyslipidemia medication in a population-based study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petris, Airton José; Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno de; Bortoletto, Maira Sayuri Sakay

    2016-12-01

    The use of medications for the treatment of dyslipidemia is relevant in the control of cardiovascular disease. This article aims to analyze the prevalence, the use and the participation of the public sector in the supply of medication for adults aged 40 years and above using pharmacotherapy for dyslipidemia control living in a city in the southern region of Brazil. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted. Household interviews were staged with 1180 individuals aged over 40 living in Cambé, State of Paraná, of which 967 took laboratory examinations. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was 69.2%, of which 16.1% were taking medication. Among individuals undergoing treatment for dyslipidemia, 22.2% had adequate test results. Lipid-lowering medication used were simvastatin (81.5%) and bezafibrate (6.5%), mainly obtained by direct payment to private pharmacies and drug stores (52.2%) and NHS services (33.6%). A high prevalence of dyslipidemias was observed in population terms, together with a low level of dyslipidemia control and low participation of the public sector regarding the supply of medication compared to acquisition through direct payment for medication in private pharmacies. These results suggest a limited range of public policy for control of dyslipidemia.

  17. Water quality problems associated with intermittent water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokajian, S; Hashwa, F

    2003-01-01

    A controlled study was conducted in Lebanon over a period of 12 months to determine bacterial regrowth in a small network supplying the Beirut suburb of Naccache that had a population of about 3,000. The residential area, which is fed by gravity, is supplied twice a week with chlorinated water from two artesian wells of a confined aquifer. A significant correlation was detected between the turbidity and the levels of heterotrophic plate count bacteria (HPC) in the samples from the distribution network as well as from the artesian wells. However, a negative significant correlation was found between the temperature and the HPC count in the samples collected from the source. A statistically significant increase in counts, possibly due to regrowth, was repeatedly established between two sampling points lying on a straight distribution line but 1 km apart. Faecal coliforms were detected in the source water but none in the network except during a pipe breakage incident with confirmed Escherichia coli reaching 40 CFU/100 mL. However, coliforms such as Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter agglomerans, E. cloacae and E. skazakii were repeatedly isolated from the network, mainly due to inadequate chlorination. A second controlled study was conducted to determine the effect of storage on the microbial quality of household storage tanks (500 L), which were of two main types - galvanized cast iron and black polyethylene. The mean bacterial count increased significantly after 7 d storage in both tank types. A significant difference was found in the mean HPC/mL between the winter and the summer. Highest counts were found April-June although the maximum temperature was reported later in the summer. A positive correlation was established between the HPC/mL and pH, temperature and storage time.

  18. Regional water coefficients for U.S. industrial sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Boero

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Designing policies for water systems management requires the capability to assess the economic impacts of water availability and to effectively couple water withdrawals by human activities with natural hydrologic dynamics. At the core of any scientific approach to these issues there is the estimation of water withdrawals by industrial sectors in the form of water coefficients, which are measurements of the quantity of water withdrawn per dollar of GDP or output. In this work we focus on the contiguous United States and on the estimation of water coefficients for regional scale analyses. We first compare an established methodology for the estimation of national water coefficients with a parametric one we propose. Second, we introduce a method to estimate water coefficients at the level of ecological regions and we discuss how they reduce possible biases in regional analyses of water systems. We conclude discussing advantages and limits of regional water coefficients.

  19. Analysis of residual chlorine in simple drinking water distribution system with intermittent water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Roopali V.; Patel, H. M.

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge of residual chlorine concentration at various locations in drinking water distribution system is essential final check to the quality of water supplied to the consumers. This paper presents a methodology to find out the residual chlorine concentration at various locations in simple branch network by integrating the hydraulic and water quality model using first-order chlorine decay equation with booster chlorination nodes for intermittent water supply. The explicit equations are developed to compute the residual chlorine in network with a long distribution pipe line at critical nodes. These equations are applicable to Indian conditions where intermittent water supply is the most common system of water supply. It is observed that in intermittent water supply, the residual chlorine at farthest node is sensitive to water supply hours and travelling time of chlorine. Thus, the travelling time of chlorine can be considered to justify the requirement of booster chlorination for intermittent water supply.

  20. Global costs and benefits of reaching universal coverage of sanitation and drinking-water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Guy

    2013-03-01

    Economic evidence on the cost and benefits of sanitation and drinking-water supply supports higher allocation of resources and selection of efficient and affordable interventions. The study aim is to estimate global and regional costs and benefits of sanitation and drinking-water supply interventions to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target in 2015, as well as to attain universal coverage. Input data on costs and benefits from reviewed literature were combined in an economic model to estimate the costs and benefits, and benefit-cost ratios (BCRs). Benefits included health and access time savings. Global BCRs (Dollar return per Dollar invested) were 5.5 for sanitation, 2.0 for water supply and 4.3 for combined sanitation and water supply. Globally, the costs of universal access amount to US$ 35 billion per year for sanitation and US$ 17.5 billion for drinking-water, over the 5-year period 2010-2015 (billion defined as 10(9) here and throughout). The regions accounting for the major share of costs and benefits are South Asia, East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Improved sanitation and drinking-water supply deliver significant economic returns to society, especially sanitation. Economic evidence should further feed into advocacy efforts to raise funding from governments, households and the private sector.

  1. Radon in private water supplies: the unknown risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clapham, D.; Horan, N.J.

    1996-01-01

    Radon gas, which is the main contributor to human radiation exposure, is easily dissolved in, and dissipated from, water. Problems with radon occur because, in addition to being ingested, it (a) becomes attached to particles which lodge in the lungs and (b) emits alpha radiation. Concentration has been found to increase inversely with the size of a water supply. Although of little problem in mains water, private water supplies in the UK have been found to contain more than ten times the recommended US levels. Despite this, very little monitoring is carried out for radon in private supplies. Local authorities, situated in areas where the geological conditions are such that high levels of radon would be expected, should carry out a suitable sampling and monitoring programme of their private water supplies. (Author)

  2. A global water supply reservoir yield model with uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuria, Faith W; Vogel, Richard M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the reliability and uncertainty associated with water supply yields derived from surface water reservoirs is central for planning purposes. Using a global dataset of monthly river discharge, we introduce a generalized model for estimating the mean and variance of water supply yield, Y, expected from a reservoir for a prespecified reliability, R, and storage capacity, S assuming a flow record of length n. The generalized storage–reliability–yield (SRY) relationships reported here have numerous water resource applications ranging from preliminary water supply investigations, to economic and climate change impact assessments. An example indicates how our generalized SRY relationship can be combined with a hydroclimatic model to determine the impact of climate change on surface reservoir water supply yields. We also document that the variability of estimates of water supply yield are invariant to characteristics of the reservoir system, including its storage capacity and reliability. Standardized metrics of the variability of water supply yields are shown to depend only on the sample size of the inflows and the statistical characteristics of the inflow series. (paper)

  3. Electrolytic silver ion cell sterilizes water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, C. F.; Gillerman, J. B.

    1968-01-01

    Electrolytic water sterilizer controls microbial contamination in manned spacecraft. Individual sterilizer cells are self-contained and require no external power or control. The sterilizer generates silver ions which do not impart an unpleasant taste to water.

  4. Water supply method to the fuel cell cooling water system; Nenryo denchi reikyakusuikei eno kyusui hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, T. [Tokyo (Japan); Nishida, S. [Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-17

    The conventional fuel cell has long cooling water piping ranging from the fuel cell exit to the steam separator; in addition, the supply water is cooler than the cooling water. When the amount of supply water increases, the temperature of the cooling water is lowered, and the pressure fluctuation in the steam separator becomes larger. This invention relates to the water supply method of opening the supply water valve and supplying water from the supply water system to the cooling water system in accordance with the signal of the level sensor of the steam separator, wherein opening and closing of the supply valve are repeated during water supply. According to the method the pressure drop in every water supply becomes negligibly small; therefore, the pressure fluctuation of the cooling water system can be made small. The interval of the supply water valve from opening to closing is preferably from 3 seconds to 2 minutes. The method is effective when equipment for recovering heat from the cooling water is installed in the downstream pipeline of the fuel cell. 2 figs.

  5. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemencia Rodriguez

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed.

  6. Modeling Integrated Water-User Decisions with Intermittent Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, J. R.; Rosenberg, D.

    2006-12-01

    We present an economic-engineering method to estimate urban water use demands with intermittent water supplies. A two-stage, probabilistic optimization formulation includes a wide variety of water supply enhancement and conservation actions that individual households can adopt to meet multiple water quality uses with uncertain water availability. We embed the optimization in Monte-Carlo simulations to show aggregate effects at a utility (citywide) scale for a population of user conditions and decisions. Parametric analysis provides derivations of supply curves to subsidize conservation, demand responses to alternative pricing, and customer willingness-to-pay to avoid shortages. Results show a good empirical fit for the average and distribution of billed residential water use in Amman, Jordan. Additional outputs give likely market penetration rates for household conservation actions, associated water savings, and subsidies required to entice further adoption. We discuss new insights to size, target, market, and finance conservation programs and interpret a demand curve with block pricing.

  7. Indirect Potable Reuse: A Sustainable Water Supply Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Clemencia; Van Buynder, Paul; Lugg, Richard; Blair, Palenque; Devine, Brian; Cook, Angus; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The growing scarcity of potable water supplies is among the most important issues facing many cities, in particular those using single sources of water that are climate dependent. Consequently, urban centers are looking to alternative sources of water supply that can supplement variable rainfall and meet the demands of population growth. A diversified portfolio of water sources is required to ensure public health, as well as social, economical and environmental sustainability. One of the options considered is the augmentation of drinking water supplies with advanced treated recycled water. This paper aims to provide a state of the art review of water recycling for drinking purposes with emphasis on membrane treatment processes. An overview of significant indirect potable reuse projects is presented followed by a description of the epidemiological and toxicological studies evaluating any potential human health impacts. Finally, a summary of key operational measures to protect human health and the areas that require further research are discussed. PMID:19440440

  8. Leaks in the internal water supply piping systems

    OpenAIRE

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich; Komarov Anatoliy Sergeevich; Mel’nikov Fedor Alekseevich; Serov Aleksandr Evgen’evich

    2015-01-01

    Great water losses in the internal plumbing of a building lead to the waste of money for a fence, purification and supply of water volumes in excess. This does not support the concept of water conservation and resource saving lying today in the basis of any building’s construction having plumbing. Leakage means unplanned of water losses systems in domestic water supply systems (hot or cold) as a result of impaired integrity, complicating the operation of a system and leading to high costs of ...

  9. Long term assurance of supply of heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The answer of Switzerland and Great Britain to a number of questions concerning the long-term assurance of the supply of heavy water are presented. The original problems are seen in the wider context of raw materials supply and its assurance in general. Non-proliferation aspects are touched

  10. Natural radioactivity in private water supplies in Devon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, D.; Davis, J.; Rainey, M.

    2000-01-01

    This report details a study of the occurrence of natural radioactivity in private water Supplies in West Devon. Supplies sourced from wells, springs boreholes and a small number surface supplies were sampled. The findings of a laboratory simulation of the radon content in drinks such as tea, coffee and squash are also presented. Of supplies sampled in phase one of the work approximately 8% of tap water and 9% of samples directly from the supply contained radon at concentrations exceeding the draft European Union Commission Recommendation action level of 1000 Bq/I for individual and public water supplies. In a small number of supplies 238 U is present at levels exceeding 2 μg/I, the World Health Organisation (WHO) provisional guideline value for uranium in drinking water. The final aspect of the study looked at seasonal variation in the radon content of selected supplies. This showed considerable variability in radon concentration over the course of a week and between studies carried out several months apart. (author)

  11. Assessing water quality of rural water supply schemes as a measure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing water quality of rural water supply schemes as a measure of service ... drinking water quality parameters were within the World Health Organization ... Besides, disinfection of water at the household level can be an added advantage.

  12. Evaluating the water footprint of the energy supply of Liaoning Province, China: A regional input–output analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okadera, Tomohiro; Geng, Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Dong, Huijuan; Liu, Zhu; Yoshida, Noboru; Kanazawa, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    Water and energy are important resources for regional economies and are inextricably and reciprocally linked. Global water and energy demand will increase significantly by 2030 while climate change will worsen water availability. Thus, it is important to ensure a sustainable energy supply despite the increasing severity of water resource constraints. Numerous studies have analyzed water requirements to produce energy from production perspectives. However, energy is generally supplied by both internal and external producers. Thus, it is necessary to consider the availability of water to produce energy from consumption perspectives also. We evaluate the water footprint of the energy supply of Liaoning Province, China. We apply the standard top-down approach using an input–output framework. We estimate the water footprint of the energy supply of Liaoning Province at 854 million m 3 in 2002, with 47% of water used for electricity and heating. Our results reveal that energy supply could depend on water resources in neighboring provinces; external producers met 80% of the water footprint of energy supply, although only 35% of energy supply was imported. If Liaoning Province decreased its external dependency, withdrawal of available water resources within the province would increase from 86% to 91%. To guarantee future regional energy security, it is important to manage water resources effectively through water-efficient electricity generation and by allocating water resources among sectors. - Highlights: • We assess the water footprint of energy supply (WFES) for Liaoning Province, China. • The WFES for 2002 was 854 million m 3 , with 47% used for electricity and heating. • External sources accounted for 80% of the WFES and 47% of the energy supply. • Without energy imports, water resource withdrawal would increase from 86% to 91%. • Effective water resource management is important for regional energy security

  13. Global analysis of urban surface water supply vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padowski, Julie C; Gorelick, Steven M

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a global analysis of urban water supply vulnerability in 71 surface-water supplied cities, with populations exceeding 750 000 and lacking source water diversity. Vulnerability represents the failure of an urban supply-basin to simultaneously meet demands from human, environmental and agricultural users. We assess a baseline (2010) condition and a future scenario (2040) that considers increased demand from urban population growth and projected agricultural demand. We do not account for climate change, which can potentially exacerbate or reduce urban supply vulnerability. In 2010, 35% of large cities are vulnerable as they compete with agricultural users. By 2040, without additional measures 45% of cities are vulnerable due to increased agricultural and urban demands. Of the vulnerable cities in 2040, the majority are river-supplied with mean flows so low (1200 liters per person per day, l/p/d) that the cities experience ‘chronic water scarcity’ (1370 l/p/d). Reservoirs supply the majority of cities facing individual future threats, revealing that constructed storage potentially provides tenuous water security. In 2040, of the 32 vulnerable cities, 14 would reduce their vulnerability via reallocating water by reducing environmental flows, and 16 would similarly benefit by transferring water from irrigated agriculture. Approximately half remain vulnerable under either potential remedy. (letter)

  14. The Geographical Distribution of Water Supply in Ekiti

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Indexed African Journals Online: www.ajol.info. An International ... time spent for water collection, the rating of water supply, and problems associated ... The people were asked to indicate how long it would take them to get good quality water ...

  15. Application for Planning and Improvement of Public Water Supply in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    The study applied the tool of GIS in the planning and improvement of water ... proffer an acceptable solution to the problems of water supply in the study area. Primary data generated ..... Tropical Hydrology and Water. Resources. Iloeje, N.P. ...

  16. Potable water supply in owerri metropolis: a challenge to mdgs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the analysis were related directly to the affected MDG targets to reveal that the Otamiri Water Scheme that supplies water to Owerri urban is not functioning effectively. Also, the water distribution facilities are inadequate, overused and worn-out. They generally wear a poor state as evidenced from blockages, ...

  17. Sources Of Incidental Events In Collective Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpak Dawid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The publication presents the main types of incidental events in collective water supply system. The special attention was addressed to the incidental events associated with a decrease in water quality, posing a threat to the health and life of inhabitants. The security method against incidental contamination in the water source was described.

  18. Remediation System Evaluation, Savage Municipal Water Supply Superfund Site (PDF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Savage Municipal Water Supply Superfund Site, located on the western edge of Milford, New Hampshire, consists of a source area and an extended plume that is approximately 6,000 feet long and 2,500 feet wide.

  19. Establishing an environmental profile of water supply in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brent, AC

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available -losses in the supply system must receive attention, especially in the municipal-controlled part. Water quality impacts are also important, although through supporting processes, and specifically electricity generation. The boosting requirements attribute most...

  20. Considerations of the Skilled Manpower Needs for Water Supply Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Gregor

    1981-01-01

    General methods for determining skilled labor needs for water supply and wastewater treatment plant operation as applied in Turkey are outlined along with a model program for training personnel to meet these needs. (DC)

  1. “Crossing over”: appropriate private sector principles, to operate more reliable public sector water services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Wall

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Private sector institutions utilise many different business methods, some of which can selectively be adapted for use by organisations outside the private sector, to the benefit of their service delivery responsibilities. But the best of the appropriate practices from the private sector have often “not crossed over”. The Water Research Commission (WRC of South Africa, working in collaboration with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR, finds that the concept of franchising, so successfully used by the private sector to deliver many goods and services, if applied to water services operation and maintenance, could alleviate and address many challenges in the management of water services. At the same time, franchising could provide an ideal stimulus to support the development of local enterprises, all within the municipal service delivery environment. Franchisee water service providers, dependent for their livelihood on the success of their business, would have a strong incentive to perform, and would also enjoy the benefit of the franchisor’s expert guidance and quality assurance. Some areas for potential franchising include meter management, billing, plumbing, pressure management, sewer maintenance, and wastewater treatment processes. The help from the franchisor would be of particular value to water services authorities at a distance from the major urban centres. Few of these authorities can afford to employ competent qualified staff, and often non-compliance with the laid down performance standards is a direct consequence of this lack. Significant improvements would soon be seen if the generally under-qualified and under-resourced water services staff could have this ongoing support, mentoring and quality control — or if the authority could enter into partnerships with small local enterprises or NGOs which would, through franchising, enjoy the necessary ongoing support, mentoring and quality control, and would have

  2. Intrusion problematic during water supply systems’ operation

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus Mora-Rodriguez, P. Amparo López-Jimenez, Helena M. Ramos

    2011-01-01

    Intrusion through leaks occurrence is a phenomenon when external fluid comes into water pipe systems. This phenomenon can cause contamination problems in drinking pipe systems. Hence, this paper focuses on the entry of external fluids across small leaks during normal operation conditions. This situation is especially important in elevated points of the pipe profile. Pressure variations can origin water volume losses and intrusion of contaminants into the drinking water pipes. This work focuse...

  3. Effective planning and management as critical factors in urban water supply and management in Umuahia and Aba, Abia State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchegbu, Smart N.

    Plan and policy development usually define the course, goal, execution, success or failure of any public utilities initiative. Urban water supply is not an exception. Planning and management in public water supply systems often determine the quality of service the water supply authorities can render. This paper, therefore, addresses the issue of effective planning and management as critical determinants of urban water supply and management with respect to two Nigerian cities Umuahia and Aba both in Abia State. Appropriate sampling methods systematic sampling and cluster techniques were employed in order to collect data for the study. The collected data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. The findings of the study indicate that planning and management indices such as funding, manpower, water storage tank capacity greatly influence the volume of water supplied in the study areas. Funding was identified as a major determinant of the efficiency of the water supply system. Therefore, the study advocates the need for sector reforms that would usher in private participants in the water sector both for improved funding and enhanced productivity.

  4. Drinking Water Quality and Occurrence of Giardia in Finnish Small Groundwater Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Pitkänen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological and chemical drinking water quality of 20 vulnerable Finnish small groundwater supplies was studied in relation to environmental risk factors associated with potential sources of contamination. The microbiological parameters analyzed included the following enteric pathogens: Giardia and Cryptosporidium, Campylobacter species, noroviruses, as well as indicator microbes (Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, coliform bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, Aeromonas spp. and heterotrophic bacteria. Chemical analyses included the determination of pH, conductivity, TOC, color, turbidity, and phosphorus, nitrate and nitrite nitrogen, iron, and manganese concentrations. Giardia intestinalis was detected from four of the water supplies, all of which had wastewater treatment activities in the neighborhood. Mesophilic Aeromonas salmonicida, coliform bacteria and E. coli were also detected. None of the samples were positive for both coliforms and Giardia. Low pH and high iron and manganese concentrations in some samples compromised the water quality. Giardia intestinalis was isolated for the first time in Finland in groundwater wells of public water works. In Europe, small water supplies are of great importance since they serve a significant sector of the population. In our study, the presence of fecal indicator bacteria, Aeromonas and Giardia revealed surface water access to the wells and health risks associated with small water supplies.

  5. Blue Water Footprint Management in a UK Poultry Supply Chain under Environmental Regulatory Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoum Tsolakis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chicken is the most consumed meat in the UK, accounting for 40% of meat consumption, while national production sufficiency reaches about 80%. As a farmed animal product, chicken meat is responsible for significant freshwater appropriation volumes during its production cycle. In this context, this research aims at exploring freshwater dynamics in the UK processed poultry industry. Specifically, we develop a System Dynamics model to capture the blue water footprint, as a key sustainability performance indicator of a poultry supply chain, in the case that relevant environmental and regulatory constraints are applied. The model contributes towards investigating the impact of two potential policy-making scenarios, namely, the “water penalty” and the “water tax”, on the nexus between profitability and water usage across the poultry supply chain. Responding to the regulatory constraints, the food processor either reconfigures the supply chain through rethinking desired inventory levels or implements a water management intervention. The results indicate that investing in water-friendly production technologies could offer a greater advantage to sustainable supply chains in terms of blue water efficiency and profitability, compared to employing inventory management strategies. Overall, our analysis highlights that effective policy-making and technology-driven interventions could provide potential towards ensuring economic growth and environmental sustainability of the UK poultry sector.

  6. Investigating an effective supply chain for a refinery in a regulated petroleum sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Adendorf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, refined petroleum products are manufactured by six refineries in South Africa. The supply of refined petroleum products is supplemented by imports of refined petroleum products. These refined petroleum products are transported by pipeline, rail, road, sea and a combination thereof to depots across the country. These products are then distributed directly to commercial customers through points of resale in the form of retail service stations. The challenge is that the storage facilities and distribution networks in South Africa are currently utilised to its full capacity. There is a need to expand current storage infrastructure or to erect new storage facilities to facilitate imports. Durban Port that currently handles 70% of the country’s crude oil and 40% of refined products is also utilised to its full capacity. The investigated problem pertains to the limited storage and transport capacity available for the distribution of petroleum products in the country. The interview protocol, which was based on the literature reviewed, was used for compiling the primary data for the case study. Selected findings revealed that the respondents perceived that storage capacity is the most significant constraint militating against adequate supply by the supply chain. The findings also indicated that the respondents were of the opinion that transport rates and routes (cost of logistics are the greatest contributor to the prices of products. As a result, there appears to be a major scope for improvement in terms of the usage of pipelines and rails for the movement of petroleum products. Keywords: Petroleum products, storage facilities, supply chain, transportation, South African energy sector. Disciplines: civil engineering, architecture, business studies, energy studies

  7. Energy-Cost Optimisation in Water-Supply System

    OpenAIRE

    Farrukh Mahmood; Haider Ali

    2013-01-01

    Households as well as community water-supply systems for utilisation of underground aquifers are massive consumers of energy. Prevailing energy crisis and focus of the government on demand-side energy policies (i.e., energy conservation) in Pakistan raises need of using energy efficient techniques in almost every aspect of life. This paper analyses performance of community relative to household water-supply system in connection with efficient energy utilisation. Results suggest that total ope...

  8. Margins of the law pertaining to water supplies and waterways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickel, C.

    1981-01-01

    The author examines legal questions coming from points of contact of the law pertaining to water supplies and waterways on the one hand with the Waste Management Law, the Atomic Energy Law and Criminal Law on the other hand. He tries to find ways for solving the practical problems which arise with the execution of the law pertaining to water supplies and waterways. (HSCH) [de

  9. Food, Fracking, and Freshwater: The Potential for Markets and Cross-Sectoral Investments to Enable Water Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Cook

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing—the injection of pressurized fluid, often water, to increase recovery of oil or gas—has become increasingly popular in combination with horizontal drilling. Hydraulic fracturing improves production from a well, but requires a significant amount of water to do so and could put pressure on existing water resources, especially in water-stressed areas. To supply water needs, some water rights holders sell or lease their water resources to oil and gas producers in an informal water market. These transactions enable the opportunity for cross-sectoral investments, by which the energy sector either directly or indirectly provides the capital for water efficiency improvements in the agricultural sector as a mechanism to increase water availability for other purposes, including oil and gas production. In this analysis, we employ an original water and cost model to evaluate the water market in Texas and the potential for cross-sectoral collaboration on water efficiency improvements through a case study of the Lower Rio Grande Valley in Texas. We find that, if irrigation efficiency management practices were fully implemented, between 420 and 800 million m3 of water could be spared per year over a ten year period, potentially enabling freshwater use in oil and gas production for up to 26,000 wells, while maintaining agricultural productivity and possibly improving water flows to the ecosystem.

  10. Accounting aspects of contracts for the operation of public water supply assets in WSS operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedyalka Alexandrova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates and analyses the nature of the Contracts for exploitation of WSS assets concluded between the Water Supply and Sewerage Associations and operators under the Water Act in order to outline the opportunities for accounting of the assets and liabilities resulting from these contracts. The contracts, as well as the WSS Associations, are new and unique for Bulgarian practice phenomena, affecting the entire water supply sector and their reporting poses considerable difficulties in practice. The article is based on an analysis of the normative requirements of the Water Act, a study of the clauses of the contracts, as well as their comparison with the concession contracts. Based on the analysis of their economic nature and under the requirements of the International Accounting Standards, a model of accounting for the assets and liabilities arising from these contracts is proposed, including their presentation and valuation in the financial statements of the operators.

  11. Restructuring the Water Supply at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Nonis, M

    1999-01-01

    The CERN water network is the result of continuous extensions made to meet the different needs of the experiments and accelerators. Several studies concerning the current water consumption and the foreseen needs for the running of the new accelerators show a need to optimize the network and, where possible, reduce the consumption. Site construction works will begin in February 1999 and will continue until 2003; important modification works on the water network will only be possible during the shutdown for the dismantling of LEP. This paper will present the technical outlines and will report the status of the project. ST Division is involved in reorganizing the demineralized and primary cooling water circuits for the accelerators while Services Industriels de Genève (SIG) will be responsible for the works on pumping stations and on water networks.

  12. Dealing with uncertainty in modeling intermittent water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, A. M.; Rycroft, C.; Wilkening, J.

    2015-12-01

    Intermittency in urban water supply affects hundreds of millions of people in cities around the world, impacting water quality and infrastructure. Building on previous work to dynamically model the transient flows in water distribution networks undergoing frequent filling and emptying, we now consider the hydraulic implications of uncertain input data. Water distribution networks undergoing intermittent supply are often poorly mapped, and household metering frequently ranges from patchy to nonexistent. In the face of uncertain pipe material, pipe slope, network connectivity, and outflow, we investigate how uncertainty affects dynamical modeling results. We furthermore identify which parameters exert the greatest influence on uncertainty, helping to prioritize data collection.

  13. Introducing Commercial Finance into the Water Sector in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    This guidance note provides an introduction to the role of commercial finance in the water and sanitation sector. Its aim is to help readers (development specialists) explore applications in their own countries. The note focuses primarily on commercial bank loans, and throughout the document the term commercial finance refers to commercial loans from domestic banks. However, much of the gu...

  14. Humic Substances in waters for supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo Valero, Miller; Cruz Torres, Luis Eduardo

    1999-01-01

    The humic substances make part of the degradation products of the organic matter of the soil and they are incorporate to the superficial waters for the action of laundry that they carry out by the superficial waters. These substances have been recognized as precursors in the formation of the disinfections sub-products, with free chlorine in treatment of drinkable water plants. The disinfections sub-product and the compound organic halogens, they have been classified potentially in human as cancerigenic substances, and therefore the interest in knowing more about the precursors substances, mechanisms of formation of disinfections sub-products, national situation and methods to diminish their formation

  15. Developing a monitor for the characterisation of supply chain collaboration and the measurement of its effectiveness in the Dutch social housing sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijhoef, R.; Koolwijk, J.S.J.; Van der Kuij, R.S.; Van Oel, C.J.; Wamelink, J.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    In the Dutch building sector, and in the social housing sector in particular, supply chain collaboration between housing associations and their supply chain have been quite popular since last five years or so. Many associations and their supply chain partners have tested, and in many cases continued

  16. Effect of type of water supply on water quality in a developing community in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to provide water to developing communities in South Africa have resulted in various types of water supplies being used. This study examined the relationship between the type of water supply and the quality of water used. Source (communal...

  17. Modeling and Optimization for Management of Intermittent Water Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, A. M.; Wilkening, J.; Rycroft, C.

    2014-12-01

    In many urban areas, piped water is supplied only intermittently, as valves direct water to different parts of the water distribution system at different times. The flow is transient, and may transition between free-surface and pressurized, resulting in complex dynamical features with important consequences for water suppliers and users. These consequences include degradation of distribution system components, compromised water quality, and inequitable water availability. The goal of this work is to model the important dynamics and identify operating conditions that mitigate certain negative effects of intermittent water supply. Specifically, we will look at controlling valve parameters occurring as boundary conditions in a network model of transient, transition flow through closed pipes. Gradient-based optimization will be used to find boundary values to minimize pressure gradients and ensure equitable water availability at system endpoints.

  18. Economies of scale and firm size optimum in rural water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Johannes

    2005-11-01

    This article is focused on modeling and analyzing the cost structure of water-supplying companies. A cross-sectional data set was collected with respect to water firms in rural areas of former East and West Germany. The empirical data are analyzed by applying a symmetric generalized McFadden (SGM) functional form. This flexible functional form allows for testing the concavity required by microeconomic theory as well as the global imposition of such curvature restrictions without any loss of flexibility. The original specification of the SGM cost function is modified to incorporate fixed factors of water production and supply as, for example, groundwater intake or the number of connections supplied. The estimated flexible and global curvature correct cost function is then used to derive scale elasticities as well as the optimal firm size. The results show that no water supplier in the sample produces at constant returns to scale. The optimal firm size was found to be on average about three times larger than the existing one. These findings deliver evidence for the hypothesis that the legally set supplying areas, oriented at public administrative criteria as well as local characteristics of water resources, are economically inefficient. Hence structural inefficiency in the rural water sector is confirmed to be policy induced.

  19. 76 FR 49787 - Rural Water Supply Program Approved Appraisal Reports; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program Approved Appraisal...: Reclamation provides assistance for appraisal investigations and feasibility studies for rural water supply... the findings and conclusions of the appraisal investigations that identified the water supply problems...

  20. The financing of hydropower, irrigation and water supply infrastructure in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briscoe, J.

    1999-01-01

    A companion paper in the previous issue of this journal (Briscoe, 1999) describes the changing face of infrastructure financing in developing countries. This paper deals with the financing of major infrastructure in the water-related sectors - hydropower, water supply, and sanitation, irrigation, and overall water resources management (including the environment). The overall level of investment in water-related infrastructure in developing countries is estimated to be of the order of $65 billion annually, with the respective shares about $15 billion for hydro, $25 billion for water and sanitation and $25 billion for irrigation and drainage. About 90% of this investment comes from domestic sources, primarily from the public sector. Water-related infrastructure accounts for a large chunk - about 15% - of all government spending. This heavy dependence on the public sector means that the 'winds of change' in the respective roles of government and the private sector have major implications for the financing and structure of the water economy. The paper describes how each of the 'subsectors' is adapting to these winds of change. First, in recent years, competition and private sector provision have emerged as the characteristics of the new electricity industry. This change poses a fundamental challenge to hydro which, to a much greater degree than thermal, has risks (hydrological, geological, social and environmental) which are better assumed by the public than the private sector. The future of private hydro, and thus of hydo itself, depends heavily on the ability of the public sector to both share risks with the private sector, and to provide predictable social and environmental rules of the game. Second, the urban water supply sector is in the early stages of equally profound change. In recent years, there has been a dramatic shift towards the private sector, in developed and developing countries alike. An outline of the future shape of the a competitive urban water

  1. Geographic information systems - tool for evaluation of the hydro-energy performance of water supply systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Christian Pimentel Almeida Santos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The most relevant challenges in the water supply system (WSS are high water losses and the waste of electric energy. This paper aimed to assess the capacity of the Geographic Information System (GIS in the analysis of the hydro-energy performance of WSSs. The Stage 1 comprises the selection of data and the respective hydro-energy indexes are defined; cartographic data are defined in Stage 2 and a geo-referenced database is constructed in Stage 3. In the stage 4, the data of the Central Water Supply Zone administered by the Water Works Company of the state of Pará in Belém, Brazil were employed to assess its applicability, in which the sectors with the worst hydro-energy performance were identified, such as Sector 9, with the highest water loss rates (59.11% and electric energy consumption per m3 of water produced (1.57 kwh m-³. The results shows that geo-referential assessment of the hydro-energy performance of WSSs provided accurate information for decision-taking related to the rational use of water and electricity in the systems.

  2. Analytical optimization of demand management strategies across all urban water use sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Kenneth; Heaney, James P.; Morales, Miguel; Palenchar, John

    2014-07-01

    An effective urban water demand management program can greatly influence both peak and average demand and therefore long-term water supply and infrastructure planning. Although a theoretical framework for evaluating residential indoor demand management has been well established, little has been done to evaluate other water use sectors such as residential irrigation in a compatible manner for integrating these results into an overall solution. This paper presents a systematic procedure to evaluate the optimal blend of single family residential irrigation demand management strategies to achieve a specified goal based on performance functions derived from parcel level tax assessor's data linked to customer level monthly water billing data. This framework is then generalized to apply to any urban water sector, as exponential functions can be fit to all resulting cumulative water savings functions. Two alternative formulations are presented: maximize net benefits, or minimize total costs subject to satisfying a target water savings. Explicit analytical solutions are presented for both formulations based on appropriate exponential best fits of performance functions. A direct result of this solution is the dual variable which represents the marginal cost of water saved at a specified target water savings goal. A case study of 16,303 single family irrigators in Gainesville Regional Utilities utilizing high quality tax assessor and monthly billing data along with parcel level GIS data provide an illustrative example of these techniques. Spatial clustering of targeted homes can be easily performed in GIS to identify priority demand management areas.

  3. Intermittent Water Supplies: Challenges and Opportunities for Residential Water Users in Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, David E.; Talozi, Samer; Lund, Jay

    2008-01-01

    Intermittent access to improved urban water supplies is a large and expanding global problem. This paper describes 16 supply enhancement and 23 demand management actions available to urban residential water users in Jordan to cope with intermittent supplies. We characterize actions by implementation, costs, and water quantities and qualities acquired or conserved. This effort systematically identifies potential options prior to detailed study and shows that water users have significant capaci...

  4. 7 CFR 612.5 - Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data... SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.5 Dissemination of water supply forecasts and basic data. Water supply outlook reports prepared by NRCS and its cooperators containing water supply forecasts and basic data are usually...

  5. Comparing microbial water quality in an intermittent and continuous piped water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2013-09-15

    Supplying piped water intermittently is a common practice throughout the world that increases the risk of microbial contamination through multiple mechanisms. Converting an intermittent supply to a continuous supply has the potential to improve the quality of water delivered to consumers. To understand the effects of this upgrade on water quality, we tested samples from reservoirs, consumer taps, and drinking water provided by households (e.g. from storage containers) from an intermittent and continuous supply in Hubli-Dharwad, India, over one year. Water samples were tested for total coliform, Escherichia coli, turbidity, free chlorine, and combined chlorine. While water quality was similar at service reservoirs supplying the continuous and intermittent sections of the network, indicator bacteria were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in samples from taps supplied intermittently compared to those supplied continuously (p supply, with 0.7% of tap samples positive compared to 31.7% of intermittent water supply tap samples positive for E. coli. In samples from both continuously and intermittently supplied taps, higher concentrations of total coliform were measured after rainfall events. While source water quality declined slightly during the rainy season, only tap water from intermittent supply had significantly more indicator bacteria throughout the rainy season compared to the dry season. Drinking water samples provided by households in both continuous and intermittent supplies had higher concentrations of indicator bacteria than samples collected directly from taps. Most households with continuous supply continued to store water for drinking, resulting in re-contamination, which may reduce the benefits to water quality of converting to continuous supply. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Water supply sustainability and adaptation strategies under anthropogenic and climatic changes of a meso-scale Mediterranean catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Lila; Ruelland, Denis; Estupina, Valérie Borrell; Dezetter, Alain; Servat, Eric

    2015-12-01

    Assessing water supply sustainability is crucial to meet stakeholders' needs, notably in the Mediterranean. This region has been identified as a climate change hot spot, and as a region where water demand is continuously increasing due to population growth and the expansion of irrigated areas. The Hérault River catchment (2500 km2, France) is a typical example and a negative trend in discharge has been observed since the 1960s. In this context, local stakeholders need to evaluate possible future changes in water allocation capacity in the catchment, using climate change, dam management and water use scenarios. A modelling framework that was already calibrated and validated on this catchment over the last 50 years was used to assess whether water resources could meet water demands at the 2030 horizon for the domestic, agricultural and environmental sectors. Water supply sustainability was evaluated at the sub-basin scale according to priority allocations using a water supply capacity index, frequency of unsatisfactory years as well as the reliability, resilience and sustainability metrics. Water use projections were based on the evolution of population, per-unit water demand, irrigated areas, water supply network efficiency, as well as on the evaluation of a biological flow. Climate projections were based on an increase in temperature up to 2°C and a decrease in daily precipitation by 20%. Adaptation strategies considered reducing per-unit water demand for the domestic sector and the importation of water volume for the agricultural sector. The dissociated effects of water use and climatic constraints on water supply sustainability were evaluated. Results showed that the downstream portions would be the more impacted as they are the most exploited ones. In the domestic sector, sustainability indicators would be more degraded by climate change scenarios than water use constraints. In the agricultural sector the negative impact of water use scenarios would be

  7. Vulnerability of drinking water supplies to engineered nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troester, Martin; Brauch, Heinz-Juergen; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-06-01

    The production and use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) inevitably leads to their release into aquatic environments, with the quantities involved expected to increase significantly in the future. Concerns therefore arise over the possibility that ENPs might pose a threat to drinking water supplies. Investigations into the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs are hampered by the absence of suitable analytical methods that are capable of detecting and quantifiying ENPs in complex aqueous matrices. Analytical data concerning the presence of ENPs in drinking water supplies is therefore scarce. The eventual fate of ENPs in the natural environment and in processes that are important for drinking water production are currently being investigated through laboratory based-experiments and modelling. Although the information obtained from these studies may not, as yet, be sufficient to allow comprehensive assessment of the complete life-cycle of ENPs, it does provide a valuable starting point for predicting the significance of ENPs to drinking water supplies. This review therefore addresses the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs. The risk of ENPs entering drinking water is discussed and predicted for drinking water produced from groundwater and from surface water. Our evaluation is based on reviewing published data concerning ENP production amounts and release patterns, the occurrence and behavior of ENPs in aquatic systems relevant for drinking water supply and ENP removability in drinking water purification processes. Quantitative predictions are made based on realistic high-input case scenarios. The results of our synthesis of current knowledge suggest that the risk probability of ENPs being present in surface water resources is generally limited, but that particular local conditions may increase the probability of raw water contamination by ENPs. Drinking water extracted from porous media aquifers are not generally considered to be prone to ENP

  8. Bulawayo water supplies: Sustainable alternatives for the next decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkandla, Noel; Van der Zaag, Pieter; Sibanda, Peter

    Bulawayo is the second largest city in Zimbabwe with a population of nearly one million people. It is located on the watershed of Umzingwane and Gwayi catchments. The former is part of the Limpopo basin, while the latter drains into the Zambezi basin. Bulawayo has a good potential of economic development but has been stymied by lack of sufficient water. The city currently relies on five surface sources in the Umzingwane catchment where it has to compete with evaporation. The well field from the Nyamandlovu aquifer in the Gwayi catchment, which was constructed as an emergency measure during the 1992 drought, is currently not operational. Alternative water supply sources are far and expensive. A multilinear regression model was developed to analyse and quantify the factors affecting water consumption. It was found that per capita water consumption is very low, indicating suppressed demand. Water rationing, tariffs, rainfall, population growth and gross domestic product are the main factors influencing water consumption in Bulawayo. Assuming that these factors will continue to be influential, future water consumption was projected for intensive, regular and slack water demand management. Future water consumption was then compared with the current water supply capacity in order to determine the date by which the next water supply source is required. With slack demand management, the Nyamandlovu well field should have been operational by 2003, while by the year 2007 an additional source of water is required. With intensive demand management and assuming low population growth, current capacities may suffice to satisfy the suppressed demand until the year 2015, by which time Nyamandlovu wells should be operational again. The additional water supply sources that are currently being considered for Bulawayo (namely the Zambezi water pipeline; Gwayi Shangani dam; Mtshabezi dam; Lower Tuli dam; and Glass block dam) were then compared with an alternative water source not yet

  9. Water supply in households and conditions for tourism development in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjenović Kosovka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The global structural change, together with "the green revolution", caused the economic growth to be based on the service sector today, instead on the traditional economic sectors. The main focus of this paper is on the factors that affect the decisions of households in Serbia to participate in the tourism industry in the context of the sustainable development. In particular, a significant portion of the analysis is devoted to the constraints that can be induced by inadequate drinking water supply and its quality in households. These factors can be considered the main limitations to those households that decide to provide accommodation and food services to the tourists in their local touristreceiver communities. The empirical analysis is based on survey data that describe conditions in the households, whereas the econometric framework is employed in order to determine structural relationships. The null hypothesis that drinking water supply and quality do not affect the likelihood of the household participating in the tourism industry is tested and accepted based on the probit model estimates. The difference between the public urban and local water supply systems that provide drinking water to the households is statistically confirmed, but it does not affect the likelihood of the household participating in the tourism industry. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III-47009 i br. OI- 179015

  10. The Water-Use Implications of a Changing Power Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peer, R.; Sanders, K.

    2016-12-01

    Changing policies, declining natural gas prices due to shale production and, growing pressure for cleaner energy sources are causing significant shifts in the fuels and technologies utilized for US electricity generation. These shifts have already impacted the volumes of water required for cooling thermal power plants, imposing consequences for watersheds that have yet to be quantified. This research investigates how these regulatory, economic, and socially-driven changes in the power sector have impacted cooling water usage across the US, which currently represents nearly half of US water withdrawals. This study uses plant-specific fuel consumption, generation, and cooling water data to assess water usage trends in the power sector from 2008 to 2014 across HUC-8 hydrologic units. Over this period, transitions from steam-cycle coal and nuclear units towards combined-cycle natural gas units and renewables, as well as transitions from once-through cooling towards wet recirculating tower and dry cooling systems resulted in large shifts in water usage. Trends towards non-traditional cooling water sources such as recycled water reduced freshwater consumption in some watersheds. Although US cooling water withdrawals and consumption increased from 2008 to 2014 largely due to electricity demand growth, the average water withdrawn and consumed per unit of electricity generated decreased and remained similar in magnitude, respectively. Changes at the watershed scale were not uniform, with some experiencing significant water use reductions and environmental benefits, especially due to coal-fired power plant retirements. Results highlight the importance of evaluating both water withdrawals and consumption at local spatial scales, as these shifts have varying consequences on water availability and quality for downstream users and ecosystems. This analysis underscores the importance of prioritizing local water security in global climate change adaptation and mitigation efforts.

  11. Mean Residence Time and Emergency Drinking Water Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Martin; Humer, Franko

    2013-04-01

    Immediately after securing an endangered population, the first priority of aid workers following a disaster is the distribution of drinking water. Such emergency situations are reported from many parts of the world following regional chemical or nuclear pollution accidents, floods, droughts, rain-induced landslides, tsunami, and other extreme events. It is often difficult to organise a replacement water supply when regular water systems with short residence times are polluted, infiltrated or even flooded by natural or man-made disasters. They are either unusable or their restoration may take months or even years. Groundwater resources, proven safe and protected by the geological environment, with long residence times and the necessary infrastructure for their exploitation, would provide populations with timeous replacement of vulnerable water supply systems and make rescue activities more rapid and effective. Such resources have to be identified and investigated, as a substitute for affected drinking water supplies thereby eliminating or reducing the impact of their failure following catastrophic events. Even in many areas such water resources with long residence times in years or decades are difficult to find it should be known which water supply facilities in the region are matching these requirements to allow in emergency situation the transport of water in tankers to the affected regions to prevent epidemics, importing large quantities of bottled water. One should know the residence time of the water supply to have sufficient time to plan and install new safe water supply facilities. Development of such policy and strategy for human security - both long term and short term - is therefore needed to decrease the vulnerability of populations threatened by extreme events and water supplies with short residence times. Generally: The longer the residence time of groundwater in the aquifer, the lower its vulnerability. The most common and economic methods to estimate

  12. The Economics of Groundwater Replenishment for Reliable Urban Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential economic benefits of water banking in aquifers to meet drought and emergency supplies for cities where the population is growing and changing climate has reduced the availability of water. A simplified case study based on the city of Perth, Australia was used to estimate the savings that could be achieved by water banking. Scenarios for investment in seawater desalination plants and groundwater replenishment were considered over a 20 year period of growing demand, using a Monte Carlo analysis that embedded the Markov model. An optimisation algorithm identified the minimum cost solutions that met specified criteria for supply reliability. The impact of depreciation of recharge credits was explored. The results revealed savings of more than A$1B (~US$1B or 37% to 33% of supply augmentation costs by including water banking in aquifers for 95% and 99.5% reliability of supply respectively. When the hypothetically assumed recharge credit depreciation rate was increased from 1% p.a. to 10% p.a. savings were still 33% to 31% for the same reliabilities. These preliminary results show that water banking in aquifers has potential to offer a highly attractive solution for efficiently increasing the security of urban water supplies where aquifers are suitable.

  13. Green supply chain management and environmental performance of firms in the bioenergy sector in Brazil: An exploratory survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanelli, Nelson Oliveira; Jabbour, Charbel José Chiappetta; Jabbour, Ana Beatriz Lopes de Sousa

    2014-01-01

    To achieve sustainable development, supply chains must become greener. In this context, the importance of green supply chain management (GSCM) increases because it can contribute to improving firms’ environmental performance (EP). However, little is known about these subjects in the context of firms in the bioenergy sector (sugarcane and ethanol production in Brazil). Thus, the objective of this work is to present the results of a survey conducted on 80 micro-, small-, and medium-sized firms that are suppliers in the Brazilian bioenergy sector (sugarcane and ethanol production). These results indicate that GSCM practices strengthen the EP of firms in the sector. Therefore, this article contributes to the existing literature because it addresses the relationship between GSCM and EP in an understudied sector (sugarcane and ethanol production). - Highlights: • To achieve sustainable development, supply chains must become greener. • Little is known about these subjects in the context of firms in the bioenergy sector. • This research is based on an exploratory survey. • GSCM practices strengthen the EP of firms in the sector

  14. Best Practices for Water Conservation and Efficiency as an Alternative for Water Supply Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA released a document that provides water conservation and efficiency best practices for evaluating water supply projects. The document can help water utilities and federal and state governments carry out assessments of the potential for future

  15. Managed groundwater development for water-supply security in Sub ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What is the scope for promoting much increased groundwater use for irrigated agriculture, and how might the investment risks be reduced and sustainable outcomes ensured? • How can the demand to expand urban groundwater use, for both further supplementing municipal water-supply systems and for direct in situ water ...

  16. Advanced control of a water supply system : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2014-01-01

    Conventional automatic production flow control and pump pressure control of water supply systems are robust and simple: production flow is controlled based on the level in the clear water reservoir and pump pressure is controlled on a static set-point. Recently, more advanced computer-based control

  17. Localizing the strategy for achieving rural water supply and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water is essential for sustenance of life and determines the overall socio- economic development of any nation. In Nigeria, so many programmes to improve water supply and sanitation situation had been put in place by different administrations. Despite this, the hope of meeting the UN Millennium Development Goals ...

  18. The Geographical Distribution of Water Supply in Ekiti State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The provision of potable water to every nock and crannies of the state must be pursed vigorously. To achieve this task in Ekiti State, the problems militating against the supply of clean water need to be tackled effectively. For this reason, the rehabilitation of existing dams provision of funds, completion of the 132 KVA ...

  19. Fragmented landscapes of water supply in suburban Hanoi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright-Contreras, Lucia; March, Hug; Schramm, S.

    2017-01-01

    Facing the challenges of city planning in the frame of rapid urbanization in the Global South, this study addresses the relationship between the urban development of Hanoi, Vietnam, and water supply including users’ perception of water accessibility and satisfaction of coverage, quality, and cost.

  20. Public Perception of Potable Water Supply in Abeokuta South west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Well-structured interviewer administered questionnaire were distributed across the city through the stratified random sampling method using the network distribution map obtained from the Ogun State Water Corporation as guide. Sixty – eight per cent of the respondents attested that the quality of the water supplied was ...

  1. The Effects of Extended Water Supply Disruptions on the Operations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    or extended water supply disruptions on the operations of small and medium enterprises ... negatively affected. The results of this study give a better perspective ... water scarcity, which has a detrimental impact on livelihoods and business. 2The incidence of ...... to make contingency plans for their production. Planning for ...

  2. Developing the Water Supply System for Travel to Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Fisher, John W.; Delzeit, Lance D.; Flynn, Michael T.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2016-01-01

    What water supply method should be used on a trip to Mars? Two alternate approaches are using fuel cell and stored water, as was done for short missions such as Apollo and the Space Shuttle, or recycling most of the water, as on long missions including the International Space Station (ISS). Stored water is inexpensive for brief missions but its launch mass and cost become very large for long missions. Recycling systems have much lower total mass and cost for long missions, but they have high development cost and are more expensive to operate than storage. A Mars transit mission would have an intermediate duration of about 450 days out and back. Since Mars transit is about ten times longer than a brief mission but probably less than one-tenth as long as ISS, it is not clear if stored or recycled water would be best. Recycling system design is complicated because water is used for different purposes, drinking, food preparation, washing, and flushing the urinal, and because wastewater has different forms, humidity condensate, dirty wash water, and urine and flush water. The uses have different requirements and the wastewater resources have different contaminants and processing requirements. The most cost-effective water supply system may recycle some wastewater sources and also provide safety reserve water from storage. Different water supply technologies are compared using mass, cost, reliability, and other factors.

  3. Occupational radiation exposure in upper Austrian water supplies and Spas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringer, W.; Simader, M.; Bernreiter, M.; Aspek, W.; Kaineder, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Council Directive 96/29/EURATOM lays down the basic safety standards for the protection of the workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionising radiation, including natural radiation. Based on the directive and on the corresponding Austrian legislation a comprehensive study was conducted to determine the occupational radiation exposure in Upper Austrian water supplies and spas. The study comprises 45 water supplies and 3 spas, one of them being a radon spa. Most measurements taken were to determine the radon concentration in air at different workplaces (n = 184), but also measurements of the dose rate at dehumidifiers (n = 7) and gamma spectrometric measurements of back washing water (n = 4) were conducted. To determine the maximum occupational radon exposure in a water supply measurements were carried out in all water purification buildings and in at least half o f the drinking water reservoirs of the water supply. The results were combined with the respective working times in these locations (these data having been collected by means of a questionnaire). Where the calculated exposure was greater than 1 MBq h/m then all drinking water reservoirs of the concerned water suppl y were measured for their radon concentration to ensure a reliable assessment of the exposure. The results show that the radon concentrations in the water supplies were lower as expected, being in 55% of all measurement sites below 1000 Bq/m in 91% below 5000 Bq/m and with a maximum value of 38700 Bq/m.This leads to exposures that are below 2 MBq h/m (corresponding to approx. 6 mSv/a) in 42 water supplies. However, for the remaining three water supplies maximal occupational exposures due to radon of 2.8 MBq h/m (∼ 10 mSv/a), 15 MBq h/m (∼ 50 mSv/a), and 17 MBq h/m ( ∼ 56 mSv/a), respectively, were determined. In these water supplies remediation measures were proposed, based mainly on improved ventilation of and/or reduction of working time in the building

  4. UV disinfection in drinking water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, O

    2000-01-01

    UV disinfection has become a practical and safely validatable disinfection procedure by specifying the requirements for testing and monitoring in DVGW standard W 294. A standardized biodosimetric testing procedure and monitoring with standardized UV sensors is introduced and successfully applied. On-line monitoring of irradiance can be counterchecked with handheld reference sensors and makes it possible that UV systems can be used for drinking water disinfection with the same level of confidence and safety as is conventional chemical disinfection.

  5. Literature Study on Community Participation in Community Based Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurbaiti, Siti Robiah; Bambang, Azis Nur

    2018-02-01

    Clean water and proper sanitation are basic human needs, existing procurement in the Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 7 of 2004 on Water Resources and Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia Number 16 of 2005 on Development of Water Supply System, which the state guarantees the right of everyone water for basic daily minimum needs to meet the needs of a healthy, productive, and clean life. Norms every society has the right to get clean air to meet basic daily needs. One of the points in the goal of sustainable development goals (SDGs) in the environment sector is the guarantee of the community to achieve universal access to clean water and sanitation. The SDG High Level Panel held in 2012 calls on countries around the world to do so in 2030. Fulfillment of clean air and sanitation in Indonesia is conducted through two sectoral approaches, the first through agencies, or related agencies and the second through a Society. In accordance with its community-based principles, the role itself is a key factor in the success of the program. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to find out the forms of community participation and the factors that influence participation in community-based water supply and sanitation programs in the field of literature studies of previous research such as research journals, theses, theses, dissertations and related books This literature study topic.

  6. Literature Study on Community Participation in Community Based Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robiah Nurbaiti Siti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Clean water and proper sanitation are basic human needs, existing procurement in the Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 7 of 2004 on Water Resources and Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia Number 16 of 2005 on Development of Water Supply System, which the state guarantees the right of everyone water for basic daily minimum needs to meet the needs of a healthy, productive, and clean life. Norms every society has the right to get clean air to meet basic daily needs. One of the points in the goal of sustainable development goals (SDGs in the environment sector is the guarantee of the community to achieve universal access to clean water and sanitation. The SDG High Level Panel held in 2012 calls on countries around the world to do so in 2030. Fulfillment of clean air and sanitation in Indonesia is conducted through two sectoral approaches, the first through agencies, or related agencies and the second through a Society. In accordance with its community-based principles, the role itself is a key factor in the success of the program. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to find out the forms of community participation and the factors that influence participation in community-based water supply and sanitation programs in the field of literature studies of previous research such as research journals, theses, theses, dissertations and related books This literature study topic.

  7. Brookhaven National Laboratory source water assessment for drinking water supply wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.B.; Paquette, D.E.; Klaus, K.; Dorsch, W.R.

    2000-01-01

    The BNL water supply system meets all water quality standards and has sufficient pumping and storage capacity to meet current and anticipated future operational demands. Because BNL's water supply is drawn from the shallow Upper Glacial aquifer, BNL's source water is susceptible to contamination. The quality of the water supply is being protected through (1) a comprehensive program of engineered and operational controls of existing aquifer contamination and potential sources of new contamination, (2) groundwater monitoring, and (3) potable water treatment. The BNL Source Water Assessment found that the source water for BNL's Western Well Field (comprised of Supply Wells 4, 6, and 7) has relatively few threats of contamination and identified potential sources are already being carefully managed. The source water for BNL's Eastern Well Field (comprised of Supply Wells 10, 11, and 12) has a moderate number of threats to water quality, primarily from several existing volatile organic compound and tritium plumes. The g-2 Tritium Plume and portions of the Operable Unit III VOC plume fall within the delineated source water area for the Eastern Well Field. In addition, portions of the much slower migrating strontium-90 plumes associated with the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor, Waste Concentration Facility and Building 650 lie within the Eastern source water area. However, the rate of travel in the aquifer for strontium-90 is about one-twentieth of that for tritium and volatile organic compounds. The Laboratory has been carefully monitoring plume migration, and has made adjustments to water supply operations. Although a number of BNL's water supply wells were impacted by VOC contamination in the late 1980s, recent routine analysis of water samples from BNL's supply wells indicate that no drinking water standards have been reached or exceeded. The high quality of the water supply strongly indicates that the operational and engineered controls implemented over the past

  8. Efficient dynamic scarcity pricing in urban water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Nicolas, Antonio; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Rougé, Charles; Harou, Julien J.; Escriva-Bou, Alvar

    2017-04-01

    Water pricing is a key instrument for water demand management. Despite the variety of existing strategies for urban water pricing, urban water rates are often far from reflecting the real value of the resource, which increases with water scarcity. Current water rates do not bring any incentive to reduce water use in water scarcity periods, since they do not send any signal to the users of water scarcity. In California, the recent drought has spurred the implementation of drought surcharges and penalties to reduce residential water use, although it is not a common practice yet. In Europe, the EU Water Framework Directive calls for the implementation of new pricing policies that assure the contribution of water users to the recovery of the cost of water services (financial instrument) while providing adequate incentives for an efficient use of water (economic instrument). Not only financial costs should be recovered but also environmental and resource (opportunity) costs. A dynamic pricing policy is efficient if the prices charged correspond to the marginal economic value of water, which increases with water scarcity and is determined by the value of water for all alternative uses in the basin. Therefore, in the absence of efficient water markets, measuring the opportunity costs of scarce water can only be achieved through an integrated basin-wide hydroeconomic simulation approach. The objective of this work is to design a dynamic water rate for urban water supply accounting for the seasonal marginal value of water in the basin, related to water scarcity. The dynamic pricing policy would send to the users a signal of the economic value of the resource when water is scarce, therefore promoting more efficient water use. The water rate is also designed to simultaneously meet the expected basic requirements for water tariffs: revenue sufficiency (cost recovery) and neutrality, equity and affordability, simplicity and efficiency. A dynamic increasing block rate (IBR

  9. Rapid evaluation of water supply project feasibility in Kolkata, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Dutta Roy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mega cities in developing countries are mostly dependent on external funding for improving the civic infrastructures like water supply. International and sometimes national agencies stipulate financial justifications for infrastructure funding. Expansion of drinking water network with external funding therefore requires explicit economic estimates. A methodology suitable for local condition has been developed in this study. Relevant field data were collected for estimating the cost of supply. The artificial neural network technique has been used for cost estimate. The willingness to pay survey has been used for estimating the benefits. Cost and benefit have been compared with consideration of time value of money. The risk and uncertainty have been investigated by Monte Carlo's simulation and sensitivity analysis. The results in this case indicated that consumers were willing to pay for supply of drinking water. It has been also found that supply up to 20 km from the treatment plant is economical after which new plants should be considered. The study would help to plan for economically optimal improvement of water supply. It could be also used for estimating the water tariff structure for the city.

  10. Pressure: the politechnics of water supply in Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Nikhil

    2011-01-01

    In Mumbai, most all residents are delivered their daily supply of water for a few hours every day, on a water supply schedule. Subject to a more precarious supply than the city's upper-class residents, the city's settlers have to consistently demand that their water come on “time” and with “pressure.” Taking pressure seriously as both a social and natural force, in this article I focus on the ways in which settlers mobilize the pressures of politics, pumps, and pipes to get water. I show how these practices not only allow settlers to live in the city, but also produce what I call hydraulic citizenship—a form of belonging to the city made by effective political and technical connections to the city's infrastructure. Yet, not all settlers are able to get water from the city water department. The outcomes of settlers' efforts to access water depend on a complex matrix of socionatural relations that settlers make with city engineers and their hydraulic infrastructure. I show how these arrangements describe and produce the cultural politics of water in Mumbai. By focusing on the ways in which residents in a predominantly Muslim settlement draw water despite the state's neglect, I conclude by pointing to the indeterminacy of water, and the ways in which its seepage and leakage make different kinds of politics and publics possible in the city.

  11. ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER SUPPLY WELLS: A MULTI ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies have indicated that arsenic concentrations greater than the new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) concentration of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) occur in numerous aquifers around the United States. One such aquifer is the Central Oklahoma aquifer, which supplies drinking water to numerous communities in central Oklahoma. Concentrations as high as 230 µg/L have been reported in some drinking water supply wells from this aquifer. The city of Norman, like most other affected cities, is actively seeking a cost-effective solution to the arsenic problem. Only six of the city’s 32 wells exceeded the old MCL of 50 µg/L. With implementation of the new MCL this year, 18 of the 32 wells exceed the allowable concentration of arsenic. Arsenic-bearing shaly sandstones appear to be the source of the arsenic. It may be possible to isolate these arsenic-bearing zones from water supply wells, enabling production of water that complies with drinking water standards. It is hypothesized that geologic mapping together with detailed hydrogeochemical investigations will yield correlations which predict high arsenic occurrence for the siting of new drinking water production wells. More data and methods to assess the specific distribution, speciation, and mode of transport of arsenic in aquifers are needed to improve our predictions for arsenic occurrence in water supply wells. Research is also needed to assess whether we can ret

  12. Treatment technology for removing radon from small community water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinner, N.E.; Quern, P.A.; Schell, G.S.; Lessard, C.E.; Clement, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Radon contamination of drinking water primarily affects individual homeowners and small communities using ground-water supplies. Presently, three types of treatment processes have been used to remove radon: granular activated carbon adsorption (GAC), diffused-bubble aeration, and packed-tower aeration. In order to obtain data on these treatment alternatives for small communities water supplies, a field evaluation study was conducted on these three processes as well as on several modifications to aeration of water in storage tanks considered to be low cost/low technology alternatives. The paper presents the results of these field studies conducted at a small mobile home park in rural New Hampshire. The conclusion of the study was that the selection of the appropriate treatment system to remove radon from drinking water depends primarily upon: (1) precent removal of process; (2) capital operating and maintenance costs; (3) safety (radiation); and (4) raw water quality (Fe, Mn, bacteria and organics)

  13. Water resources planning in a strategic context: Linking the water sector to the national economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Peter; Hurst, Christopher; Harshadeep, Nagaraja

    1993-07-01

    In many parts of the developing world investment in water resources takes a large proportion of the available public investment funds. As the conflicts for funds between the water and other sectors become more severe, the traditional ways of analyzing and planning water investments has to move away from project-by-project (or even a river basin-by-river basin) approaches to include the relationships of water investments to other sectors and to overall national development policies. Current approaches to water resources investments are too narrow. There is a need for ways to expand the strategic thinking of water sector managers. This paper develops a water resources planning methodology with the primary objective of giving insights into the linking of water sector investments and macroeconomic policies. The model optimizes the present value of investments for water resources development, while embedding a macroeconomic model into the framework to allow for an examination of the interactions between water investments, the growth in the agricultural sector, and the performance of the overall economy. A case study of Bangladesh is presented which shows how strategic thinking could lead to widely differing implications for water investments than would conventional water resources systems planning models.

  14. Co-Adapting Water Demand and Supply to Changing Climate in Agricultural Water Systems, A Case Study in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Li, Y.; Mainardi, M.; Arias Munoz, C.; Castelletti, A.; Gandolfi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Exponentially growing water demands and increasing uncertainties in the hydrologic cycle due to changes in climate and land use will challenge water resources planning and management in the next decade. Improving agricultural productivity is particularly critical, being this sector the one characterized by the highest water demand. Moreover, to meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades, even though water availability is expected to decrease due to climate change impacts. Agricultural systems are called to adapt their strategies (e.g., changing crop patterns and the corresponding water demand, or maximizing the efficiency in the water supply modifying irrigation scheduling and adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques) in order to re-optimize the use of limited water resources. Although many studies have assessed climate change impacts on agricultural practices and water management, most of them assume few scenarios of water demand or water supply separately, while an analysis of their reciprocal feedbacks is still missing. Moreover, current practices are generally established according to historical agreements and normative constraints and, in the absence of dramatic failures, the shift toward more efficient water management is not easily achievable. In this work, we propose to activate an information loop between farmers and water managers to improve the effectiveness of agricultural water management practices by matching the needs of the farmers with the design of water supply strategies. The proposed approach is tested on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como serving the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district (Italy). A distributed-parameter, dynamic model of the system allows to simulate crop growth and the final yield over a range of hydro-climatic conditions, irrigation strategies and water-related stresses. The spatial component of the

  15. Electricity and gas market design to supply the German transport sector with hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinius, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The German government has set targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 40% by 2020, 55% by 2030, 70% by 2040 and 80-95% by 2050 compared to 1990 as reference year. As well as meeting other requirements, these targets can be achieved by raising the contribution of renewably-generated power to Germany's gross electricity consumption to 80% by 2050. Based on Germany's potential, intermittent energy sources (IES) such as on- and offshore wind, as well as photovoltaics, are necessary sources that must be utilized in order to achieve these ambitious targets. Because of the intermittency of these sources, there will be times in which surplus power generated could be used for example for the transport sector. During these periods of surplus power, the storage capacity of hydrogen allows for a socalled ''power-to-gas'' concept whereby the surplus power can be used to produce hydrogen and oxygen by means of electrolyzers. The aim of this thesis is to identify and develop a market design that is characterized by high penetration levels of IES, supplemented by the use of hydrogen in the transport sector. Furthermore, the aim was to develop a model in which the electricity and gas sector, including a hydrogen pipeline grid, is represented so as to analyze and validate selected market designs. Therefore, potential electricity and gas markets, as well as the most important potential share and stakeholders of a hydrogen infrastructure, are analyzed. With the model developed in this thesis, an existing energy concept has been developed, analyzed and evaluated. In addition, the distribution of the hydrogen production costs was calculated by employing a Monte Carlo Simulation analysis. The developed energy concept relies on 170 GW onshore and 60 GW offshore wind capacity and these dominate the model. This leads to surplus power, especially in the federal states of Lower Saxony, Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. To supply the

  16. Renewable energy water supply - Mexico program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, R. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes a program directed by the US Agency for International Development and Sandia National Laboratory which installed sustainable energy sources in the form of photovoltaic modules and wind energy systems in rural Mexico to pump water and provide solar distillation services. The paper describes the guidelines which appeared most responsible for success as: promote an integrated development program; install quality systems that develop confidence; instill local project ownership; train local industry and project developers; develop a local maintenance infrastructure; provide users training and operations guide; develop clear lines of responsibilities for system upkeep. The paper emphasizes the importance of training. It also presents much collected data as to the characteristics and performance of the installed systems.

  17. A methodology for the design of photovoltaic water supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilela, O.C.; Fraidenraich, N.

    2001-01-01

    Photovoltaic pumping systems are used nowadays as a valuable alternative to supply water to communities living in remote rural areas. Owing to the seasonal variation and the stochastic behavior of solar radiation, at certain times the supply of water may not be able to meet demand. A study has been made of the relationship between water pumping capacity, reservoir size and water demand, for a given water deficit. As a result, curves of equal water deficit (iso-deficit lines) can be obtained for various combinations of PV pumping capacity and reservoir size. A methodology to generate those curves is described, using as its main tool the characteristic curve of the system, that is, the relationship between water flow and collected solar radiation. The characteristic curve represents the combined behavior of the water pumping system and the well. The influence of the minimum collected solar radiation level, necessary to start the system's operation (the critical radiation level I C ). is also analyzed. Results show that PV pumping systems with different characteristic curves, but with the same critical levels, yield the same set of iso-deficit lines. This drastically reduces the number of necessary solutions to those corresponding to a few values of I C . Iso-deficit lines, calculated for the locality of Recife (PE), Brazil, are used to illustrate the sizing procedure PV water supply systems. (author)

  18. Radiological assessment of private water supplies in Dolgellau, North Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.; McReddie, R.; Holland, B.

    1993-01-01

    Water samples from 100 private water supplies in the Meirionnydd District Council area of Dolgellau, North Wales have been analysed for natural and artificial radionuclides and the elements Calcium and Strontium. In addition 20 of the 100 supplies were specifically sampled for the measurement of radon-222. Of the 100 supplies tested all total alpha and beta values were within the WHO guideline values. An assessment of the radiological significance of the analytical data has been carried out by calculating the committed effective dose equivalent to a hypothetical critical group which would arise from the consumption of water during a single year. The maximum adult annual committed effective dose equivalent for artificial and total radionuclides measured during this programme of monitoring was found to be 3.2 and 560 μSv, respectively. (author)

  19. Optimization of urban water supply portfolios combining infrastructure capacity expansion and water use decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellin-Azuara, J.; Fraga, C. C. S.; Marques, G.; Mendes, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    The expansion and operation of urban water supply systems under rapidly growing demands, hydrologic uncertainty, and scarce water supplies requires a strategic combination of various supply sources for added reliability, reduced costs and improved operational flexibility. The design and operation of such portfolio of water supply sources merits decisions of what and when to expand, and how much to use of each available sources accounting for interest rates, economies of scale and hydrologic variability. The present research provides a framework and an integrated methodology that optimizes the expansion of various water supply alternatives using dynamic programming and combining both short term and long term optimization of water use and simulation of water allocation. A case study in Bahia Do Rio Dos Sinos in Southern Brazil is presented. The framework couples an optimization model with quadratic programming model in GAMS with WEAP, a rain runoff simulation models that hosts the water supply infrastructure features and hydrologic conditions. Results allow (a) identification of trade offs between cost and reliability of different expansion paths and water use decisions and (b) evaluation of potential gains by reducing water system losses as a portfolio component. The latter is critical in several developing countries where water supply system losses are high and often neglected in favor of more system expansion. Results also highlight the potential of various water supply alternatives including, conservation, groundwater, and infrastructural enhancements over time. The framework proves its usefulness for planning its transferability to similarly urbanized systems.

  20. CSR Maturity and Motivation in the Water Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauesen, Linne Marie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: - This paper aims to examine the literature of CSR motivation and presents research results from a case study of the water sector (water companies from Denmark, the UK, the USA and South Africa) and its motivation for and maturity in its CSR work. Design/methodology/approach - The method......Purpose: - This paper aims to examine the literature of CSR motivation and presents research results from a case study of the water sector (water companies from Denmark, the UK, the USA and South Africa) and its motivation for and maturity in its CSR work. Design...... in four regions - Denmark, the UK, the USA and South Africa - which means that such companies in other regions may differ from the findings in this paper. However, these companies are especially chosen according to their similarities, which means that it is not the point of the paper to cover all water....../methodology/approach - The methodology used in this paper is first a literature review followed by research done with ethnographic methods such as participant observations, interviews and document analysis. Findings: - Based on a literature review and research in water companies motivation and maturity based on Crowther (2006...

  1. Fluorine level in some city water supplies of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoque, A.K.M.F.; Abedin, M.J.; Rahman, M.M.; Mia, M. Y.; Tarafder, M.S.A.; Khaliquzzaman, M.; Hossain, M.D.; Khan, A.H.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear reaction based Proton Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE) analytical method was employed for the quantitative measurement of fluorine in the city water supplies of the major cities of Bangladesh. 102 water samples collected from 14 city supplies were analyzed and these samples contain fluorine in the range of 0.03 to 1.10 mg/L with a mean of 0.33 ± 0.21 mg/L. It was also observed that except the samples of Barisal, Dinajpur and Rajshahi, all other water samples analyzed contain a much lower amount of fluorine than the maximum permissible value for Bangladesh in drinking water, which is 1 mg/L. The mean concentration of fluorine in the samples of Barisal, Dinajpur and Rajshahi are respectively 0.79±0.01, 0.71±0.13 and 0.92±0.18 mg/L. For the 55 samples of Dhaka city supply the mean fluorine concentration is 0.31±0.17 mg/L and that of 9 samples from Chittagong city supply is 0.19±0.10 mg/L, which is the lowest among the 14 city supply samples analyzed in this study

  2. Seed producer cooperatives in the Ethiopian seed sector and their role in seed supply improvement: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sisay, D.T.; Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2017-01-01

    The role of seed producer cooperatives (SPCs) in the Ethiopian seed sector and their contribution to seed supply improvement have received attention from researchers, policymakers, and development partners. However, limited work has been done in reviewing and documenting their involvement in the

  3. Assessing gaps and poverty-related inequalities in the public and private sector family planning supply environment of urban Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Jessica K; Curtis, Sian; Zimmer, Catherine; Speizer, Ilene S

    2014-02-01

    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa, and its population is expected to double in urban area, and by 2050, that proportion will increase to three quarters (United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division 2012; Measurement Learning & Evaluation Project, Nigerian Urban Reproductive Health Initiative, National Population Commission 2012). Reducing unwanted and unplanned pregnancies through reliable access to high-quality modern contraceptives, especially among the urban poor, could make a major contribution to moderating population growth and improving the livelihood of urban residents. This study uses facility census data to create and assign aggregate-level family planning (FP) supply index scores to 19 local government areas (LGAs) across six selected cities of Nigeria. It then explores the relationships between public and private sector FP services and determines whether contraceptive access and availability in either sector is correlated with community-level wealth. Data show pronounced variability in contraceptive access and availability across LGAs in both sectors, with a positive correlation between public sector and private sector supply environments and only localized associations between the FP supply environments and poverty. These results will be useful for program planners and policy makers to improve equal access to contraception through the expansion or redistribution of services in focused urban areas.

  4. A climate risk assessment of clean water supply in an urban area: A case study of South Tangerang city, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastiti, S. I. W.; Kusnoputranto, H.; Boer, R.; Utomo, S. W.

    2018-03-01

    The demand for clean water in South Tangerang, Indonesia, is very high. At present, this demand is mostly met by groundwater that is much influenced by climate variability, land cover change, and human activities. The local company on water services (PDAM) provides clean water services for only about 9% of the population. The climate risk assessment conducted by South Tangerang Government in 2016 indicates that several areas are potentially exposed to a high risk of climate change. Survey and in-depth interview with communities and sectoral officers suggest that a risk to clean water supply in this city is increasing. This study aims to assess climate potential risks on clean water supply based on the 2016 study. We adopted the method of that study by modifying some of the vulnerability indicators that can represent clean water access and supply. The results of the study demonstrate that many wards in South Tangerang would be exposed to high climate risks of clean water supply. By 2021, about 54% of wards would be exposed from high to the very very high risk of clean water supply. These results signify the tangible need of adaptation actions, to prevent the worsening impacts of climate on clean water supply.

  5. Radon exposed workplaces in Bavarian public water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, T.; Huebel, K.; Schindlmeier, W.

    1998-01-01

    From April 1996 to July 1996 a radon-screening in 112 Bavarian water supplies was carried out to determine the radon concentration in workplaces. In some regions with granit or gneiss stones as underground a considerable radiation exposure to the employees in public water supplies can be expected. The median of the measured radon concentration in relevant workplaces is found to be 4000 Bq/m 3 in the areas with granite or gneiss. This is approximately the fourfold of the median measured in a reference area with sandstone as underground. In some workplaces radon concentrations of more than 100000 Bq/m 3 can be found. (orig.) [de

  6. Potable water supply in U.S. manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Straub, John E., II

    1992-01-01

    A historical review of potable water supply systems used in the U.S. manned flight program is presented. This review provides a general understanding of the unusual challenges these systems have presented to the designers and operators of the related flight hardware. The presentation concludes with the projection of how water supply should be provided in future space missions - extended duration earth-orbital and interplanetary missions and lunar and Mars habitation bases - and the challenges to the biomedical community that providing these systems can present.

  7. Integrated Supply Network Maturity Model: Water Scarcity Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Yatskovskaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Today’s supply chains (SCs are more than ever prone to disruptions caused by natural and man-made events with water scarcity identified as one of the highest impact events among these. Leading businesses, understanding that natural resource scarcity (NRS has become a critical supply chain risk factor, extensively incorporate sustainable water management programmes into their corporate social responsibility and environmental management agenda. The question of how industries can efficiently evaluate the progress of these water scarcity mitigation practices, however, remains open. In order to address this question, the present study proposes a conceptual maturity model. The model is rooted in strategies for water scarcity mitigation using a framework developed by Yatskovskaya and Srai and develops an extensive literature review of recent publications on maturity frameworks in the fields of sustainability and operations management. In order to test the proposed proposed, model an exploratory case study with a leading pharmaceutical company was conducted. The proposed maturity model presents an evaluation tool that allows systematic assessment and visualisation of organisational routines and practices relevant to sustainable manufacturing in the context of water scarcity. This model was designed to help illustrate mitigation capabilities evolution over time, where future state desired capabilities were considered through alternative supply network (SN configurations, network structure, process flow, product architecture, and supply partnerships.

  8. Water-Sectoral Disorders in Puerperas with Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Galushka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the profile of water sectors in puerperas with preeclampsia and to determine whether it is expedient to include colloidal solutions into an infusion therapy program for this category of patients.Subjects and methods. Forty-two puerperas with moderate and severe preeclampsia, whose delivery was made by cesarean section, were examined. All the study puerperas were divided into 2 groups: 1 22 puerperas who received heta-hydroethylized starch (HES solutions as part of infusion therapy; 2 20 puerperas who did not.Results. At the beginning of the study, both groups had increased systemic water and higher extracellular and interstitial fluid volumes as compared with the normal values. With infusion therapy, Group 1 exhibited a decrease in systemic water from 123.8% on day 1 of the study to 106.7% by day 5 and reductions in interstitial hyperhydration from 141.5 to 110.1% and in extracellular fluid from 139.7 to 108.6% as compared with Group 2. By the end of the study, significant impairments in the balance of water sectors preserved in Group 2.Conclusion. Inclusion of heta-HES (Stabisole into infusion therapy in patients with preeclampsia on days 1—2 after delivery leads to a rapider normalization of impaired water balance.  

  9. Geolocation Support for Water Supply and Sewerage Projects in Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qocamanov, M. H.; Gurbanov, Ch. Z.

    2016-10-01

    Drinking water supply and sewerage system designing and reconstruction projects are being extensively conducted in Azerbaijan Republic. During implementation of such projects, collecting large amount of information about the area and detailed investigations are crucial. Joint use of the aerospace monitoring and GIS play an essential role for the studies of the impact of environmental factors, development of the analytical information systems and others, while achieving the reliable performance of the existing and designed major water supply pipelines, as well as construction and exploitation of the technical installations. With our participation the GIS has been created in "Azersu" OJSC that includes systematic database of the drinking water supply and sewerage system, and rain water networks to carry out necessary geo information analysis. GIScreated based on "Microstation" platform and aerospace data. Should be mentioned that, in the country, specifically in large cities (i.e. Baku, Ganja, Sumqait, etc.,) drinking water supply pipelines cross regions with different physico-geographical conditions, geo-morphological compositions and seismotectonics.Mains water supply lines in many accidents occur during the operation, it also creates problems with drinking water consumers. In some cases the damage is caused by large-scale accidents. Long-term experience gives reason to say that the elimination of the consequences of accidents is a major cost. Therefore, to avoid such events and to prevent their exploitation and geodetic monitoring system to improve the rules on key issues. Therefore, constant control of the plan-height positioning, geodetic measurements for the detailed examination of the dynamics, repetition of the geodetic measurements for certain time intervals, or in other words regular monitoring is very important. During geodetic monitoring using the GIS has special significance. Given that, collecting geodetic monitoring measurements of the main pipelines

  10. The Challenge of Providing Safe Water with an Intermittently Supplied Piped Water Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, E.; Nelson, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    An increasing number of urban residents in low- and middle-income countries have access to piped water; however, this water is often not available continuously. 84% of reporting utilities in low-income countries provide piped water for fewer than 24 hours per day (van den Berg and Danilenko, 2010), while no major city in India has continuous piped water supply. Intermittent water supply leaves pipes vulnerable to contamination and forces households to store water or rely on alternative unsafe sources, posing a health threat to consumers. In these systems, pipes are empty for long periods of time and experience low or negative pressure even when water is being supplied, leaving them susceptible to intrusion from sewage, soil, or groundwater. Households with a non-continuous supply must collect and store water, presenting more opportunities for recontamination. Upgrading to a continuous water supply, while an obvious solution to these challenges, is currently out of reach for many resource-constrained utilities. Despite its widespread prevalence, there are few data on the mechanisms causing contamination in an intermittent supply and the frequency with which it occurs. Understanding the impact of intermittent operation on water quality can lead to strategies to improve access to safe piped water for the millions of people currently served by these systems. We collected over 100 hours of continuous measurements of pressure and physico-chemical water quality indicators and tested over 1,000 grab samples for indicator bacteria over 14 months throughout the distribution system in Hubli-Dharwad, India. This data set is used to explore and explain the mechanisms influencing water quality when piped water is provided for a few hours every 3-5 days. These data indicate that contamination occurs along the distribution system as water travels from the treatment plant to reservoirs and through intermittently supplied pipes to household storage containers, while real

  11. Carbon accounting in the United Kingdom water sector: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, C

    2009-01-01

    The UK is committed to greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction targets and has introduced a number of initiatives to achieve these. Until recently, these targeted energy-intensive industries and, thus, the water sector was not significantly affected. However, from 2010, UK water companies will need to report their emissions under the Carbon Reduction Commitment (CRC). Both Ofwat (the economic regulator for water companies in England and Wales) and the Northern Ireland Authority for Utility Regulation (NIAUR) now require annual reporting of GHG emissions in accordance with both Defra Guidelines and the CRC. Also, carbon impacts must now be factored into all water industry investment planning in England and Wales. Building on existing approaches, the industry has developed standardised carbon accounting methodologies to meet both of these requirements. This process has highlighted gaps in knowledge where further research is needed.

  12. [Waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis transmitted through the public water supply].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, P; Borrull, C; Palà, M; Caubet, I; Bach, P; Nuín, C; Espinet, L; Torres, J; Mirada, G

    2003-01-01

    The chlorination of public water supplies has led researchers to largely discard drinking water as a potential source of gastroenteritis outbreaks. The aim of this study was to investigate an outbreak of waterborne disease associated with drinking water from public supplies. A historical cohort study was carried out following notification of a gastroenteritis outbreak in Baqueira (Valle de Arán, Spain). We used systematic sampling to select 87 individuals staying at hotels and 67 staying in apartments in the target area. Information was gathered on four factors (consumption of water from the public water supply, sandwiches, water and food in the ski resorts) as well as on symptoms. We assessed residual chlorine in drinking water, analyzed samples of drinking water, and studied stool cultures from 4 patients. The risk associated with each water source and food type was assessed by means of relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The overall attack rate was 51.0% (76/149). The main symptoms were diarrhea 87.5%, abdominal pain 80.0%, nausea 50.7%, vomiting 30.3%, and fever 27.0%. The only factor associated with a statistically significant risk of disease was consumption of drinking water (RR = 11.0; 95% CI, 1.6-74.7). No residual chlorine was detected in the drinking water, which was judged acceptable. A problem associated with the location of the chlorinator was observed and corrected. We also recommended an increase in chlorine levels, which was followed by a reduction in the number of cases. The results of stool cultures of the four patients were negative for enterobacteria. This study highlights the potential importance of waterborne outbreaks of gastroenteritis transmitted through drinking water considered acceptable and suggests the need to improve microbiological research into these outbreaks (viruses and protozoa detection).

  13. 46 CFR 63.25-3 - Electric hot water supply boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric hot water supply boilers. 63.25-3 Section 63.25... water supply boilers. (a) Electric hot water supply boilers that have a capacity not greater than 454... section except the periodic testing required by paragraph (j) of this section. Electric hot water supply...

  14. 7 CFR 612.6 - Application for water supply forecast service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application for water supply forecast service. 612.6... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS SNOW SURVEYS AND WATER SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.6 Application for water supply forecast service. Requests for obtaining water supply forecasts or...

  15. Between Public - Private Partnerships and public finance in the public infrastructure sector: The water and sanitation sector in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fjona Zeneli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It’s known in the literature that public-private partnerships (PPPs are one the main instruments that permit private collaboration in projects that are public otherwise. It’s also clear that their implementation is different depending on the rules of the countries, their market level of acceptance etc. The first objective of this paper is to revise PPPs projects in the water sector in Albania, seen in the context of alternative financing ways for joint-stock companies of Albanian water sector, due to the nature of the market (a developing emerging market, in the context of bad financial times after 2008 (the start of the international financial crisis. The second objective is to describe the development of the Albanian legislation for management contracts introduced for the first time in the waters and sanitation sector in 2004 and privatization practices in public sector. The main conclusion is that in the developing markets creating possibilities for private sector participation in the infrastructure public services (especially in the drinking water and sanitation sector will be seen with skepticism because of failed previous privatization practices or the sensitivity degree of the water sector related to the penetration level of private factor in the sector. Public finance will be explored as a convenient alternative.

  16. Condensation induced water hammer in steam supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, P.B.; Antaki, G.A.; Rawls, G.B.; Gutierrez, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    The accidental mixing of steam and water usually leads to condensation induced water hammer. This phenomenon is not uncommon in the power and process industries, and is of particular concern due to the high energies which accompany steam transients. The paper discusses the conditions which lead to a recent condensation induced water hammer in a 150 psig steam supply header. The ensuing structural damage, inspection and repairs are described. Finally, a list of design, maintenance and operational cautions are presented to help minimize the potential for condensation induced water hammer in steam lines

  17. Condensation induced water hammer in steam supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, P.B.; Antaki, G.A.; Rawls, G.B.; Gutierrez, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    The accidental mixing of steam and water usually leads to condensation induced water hammer. THis phenomenon is not uncommon in the power and process industries, and is of particular concern due to the high energies which accompany steam transients. The paper discusses the conditions which lead to a recent condensation induced water hammer in a 150 psig steam supply header. The insuing structural damage, inspection and repairs are described. Finally, a list of design cautions are presented to help minimize the potential for condensation induced water hammer in steam lines

  18. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgino, M.J.; Rasmussen, R.B.; Pfeifle, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area's water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2007 through September 2008. Major findings for this period include:

  19. Barcelona's water supply, 1867–1967 : the transition to a modern system

    OpenAIRE

    Guàrdia Bassols, Manuel; Rosselló i Nicolau, Maribel; Garriga Bosch, Sergi

    2013-01-01

    Barcelona's water supply since 14th century to 1867, the Eixample's water supply problem the development of modern water supply since 1867 to 1967 the new sanitation system impact on water consumption water's slow entry into the domestic sphere from post-war restrictions to widespread water consumption. Peer Reviewed

  20. Rehabilitation actions in water supply systems: effects on biofilm susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    RAMOS MARTINEZ, EVA; Herrera Fernández, Antonio Manuel; Gutiérrez-Pérez, Joanna A.; Izquierdo Sebastián, Joaquín; Pérez García, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm development in water supply systems (WSSs) depends on infrastructure and operational factors, apart from water quality. We have developed a methodology that considers WSSs hydraulic (operation) and physical (design) characteristics to identify areas with different biofilm development trends within a WSS. To achieve this aim we have used meta-analysis and multi-agent system label propagation via discriminant analysis. As a result, we recognise areas with different susceptibility to bio...

  1. Monitoring water supply systems for anomaly detection and response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Lapikas, T.; Tangena, B.H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.

    2012-01-01

    Water supply systems are vulnerable to damage caused by unintended or intended human actions, or due to aging of the system. In order to minimize the damages and the inconvenience for the customers, a software tool was developed to detect anomalies at an early stage, and to support the responsible

  2. The church: asset and agent in achieving sustainable water supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Religion and Human Relations ... argues that the church as both asset and agent is most useful in conscientizing and transforming people to adopt a new mindset- a behavioral attitude required to halt the progression of environmental degradation in general and specifically improve urban water supply in Nigeria.

  3. Development and utilization of spring water in small scale supply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development and utilization of spring water in small scale supply scheme for the Kogi State Polytechnic, Lokoja, central Nigeria. Joseph Omada. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology 2005, Vol. 41(1): 131-135. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  4. Advanced control of a water supply system : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Rajewicz, T.; Kien, H.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2013-01-01

    WTP Gruszczyn supplies drinking water to a part of the city of Pozna?, in the Midwest of Poland. The conventional production flow control and pressure control of the facility was replaced by the advanced control software called OPIR. To assess the differences between conventional and advanced

  5. Spatial distribution of water supply in the coterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Michael T. Hobbins; Jorge A. Ramirez

    2008-01-01

    Available water supply across the contiguous 48 states was estimated as precipitation minus evapotranspiration using data for the period 1953-1994. Precipitation estimates were taken from the Parameter- Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM). Evapotranspiration was estimated using two models, the Advection-Aridity model and the Zhang model. The...

  6. Alfalfa response to irrigation from limited water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A five-year field study (2007-2011) of irrigated alfalfa production with a limited water supply was conducted in southwest Kansas with two years of above-average precipitation, one year of average precipitation, and two years of below-average precipitation. The irrigation treatments were designed to...

  7. Automated Water Supply System and Water Theft Identification Using PLC and SCADA

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Anubha Panchal,; Ketakee Dagade

    2014-01-01

    In today’s world rapid growing urban residential areas, to avoid scarcity of water problems and requirements of consumers, therefore it is supposed to supply adequate water distribution networks are managed automatically. Along with this another problem in the water supply system is that public is using suction pumps to suck the water directly from the home street pipeline. The best way to improve the automation and monitoring architectures which contain a supervision and contr...

  8. Ground water for public water supply at Windigo, Isle Royale National Park, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grannemann, N.G.; Twenter, F.R.

    1982-01-01

    Three test holes drilled at Windigo in Isle Royale National Park in 1981 indicate that the ophitic basaltic lava flows underlying the area contain little water and cannot be considered a source for public water supply. The holes were 135, 175, and 71 feet deep. One hole yielded about 1 gallon of water perminute; the other two yielded less. Glacial deposits seem to offer the best opportunity for developing a ground-water supply of 5 to 10 gallons per minute.

  9. Vulnerability Assessment of Water Supply Systems: Status, Gaps and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheater, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Conventional frameworks for assessing the impacts of climate change on water resource systems use cascades of climate and hydrological models to provide 'top-down' projections of future water availability, but these are subject to high uncertainty and are model and scenario-specific. Hence there has been recent interest in 'bottom-up' frameworks, which aim to evaluate system vulnerability to change in the context of possible future climate and/or hydrological conditions. Such vulnerability assessments are generic, and can be combined with updated information from top-down assessments as they become available. While some vulnerability methods use hydrological models to estimate water availability, fully bottom-up schemes have recently been proposed that directly map system vulnerability as a function of feasible changes in water supply characteristics. These use stochastic algorithms, based on reconstruction or reshuffling methods, by which multiple water supply realizations can be generated under feasible ranges of change in water supply conditions. The paper reports recent successes, and points to areas of future improvement. Advances in stochastic modeling and optimization can address some technical limitations in flow reconstruction, while various data mining and system identification techniques can provide possibilities to better condition realizations for consistency with top-down scenarios. Finally, we show that probabilistic and Bayesian frameworks together can provide a potential basis to combine information obtained from fully bottom-up analyses with projections available from climate and/or hydrological models in a fully integrated risk assessment framework for deep uncertainty.

  10. Calibration of Water Supply Systems Based on Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Faghfoor Maghrebi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Leakage is one of the main problems in the water supply systems and due to the limitations in water supply and its costly process, reduction of leak in water distribution networks can be considered as one of the main goals of the water supply authorities. One of the leak detection techniques in water distribution system is the usage of the recorded node pressures at some locations to calibrate the whole system node pressures. Calibration process is accomplished by the optimization of a constrained objective function. Therefore, in addition to performing a hydraulic analysis of the network, application of an optimization technique is needed. In the current paper, a comparsion between the ant colony and genetic algorithm methodes, in calibration of the node pressures and leak detections was investigated. To examine the workability and the way of leak detection, analysis of the network with an assumed leak was carried out. The results showed that the effectiveness of the ant colony optimization in the detection of the position and magnitude of leak in a water network.

  11. Scotland's Water Map: Understanding water sector links to support decision making for the Hydro Nation Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Ruth E.; Gilmour, Daniel; Duffy, Alison; Isaacs, John; Stojanovic, Vladeta; O'Keeffe, Juliette; Blackwood, David

    2015-04-01

    The value of Scotland's water and sewerage market is projected to grow to £1.24bn by 2016/17. Developing future opportunities must take place alongside maintaining current service provision; however the demand on water and waste water services is constantly evolving. An integrated approach to water management requires an understanding of complex interactions that exist between key actors in the sector to allow water management strategies to exploit inter-sectorial links. Successful integrated analysis of the water sector in Scotland will support management activities key to responding to the Hydro Nation themes of 1) Governance and international development 2) Environmental protection 3) Economic opportunities 4) Research development. In order to deliver on these objectives an approach is required to capture and communicate the scope and scale of the water sector and its interconnectedness. The methodology required to determine scope, scale and interconnectedness of water sector involved the identification and application of an appropriate range of techniques from the Information and Knowledge Management disciplines combined with the Information Visualisation field. Scope and scale of the water sector was identified by a desk based study and this data was visualized using a geographic map. Sector interconnectedness was determined by interviewing key actors. The interviews identified the stakeholders associated with information flows, and the purpose of the information transfer through Reporting/Managing (R/M), Influence and Information sharing (I) or Control (C) activities. Primary information flows were also scored with respect to importance against the 4 key Hydro Nation agenda themes. Many organisations were identified who interact within Scotland's water sector including the Scottish Government and Ministers, the Regulators (WICS, DWQR, SEPA), Scottish Water (core and non-core functions), plus many other stakeholders ranging from research institutions to

  12. Sustainable development of water resources, water supply and environmental sanitation.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Austin, LM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available and be capable of destroying or isolating pathogens. A need exists for documentary evidence to support various claims about different storage periods for ensuring pathogen die-off and safe handling of biosolids (Peasy 2000). Handling of faecal material... in Water and Environmental Health, Task no. 324. [Online] http://www/lboro.ac.uk/well/resources/well-studies/full-reports-pdf/task0324.pdf WHO (2001). Water quality, guidelines, standards and health: Assessment of risk and risk management for water...

  13. Water-centric nexus for response to climate change on agriculture and forest sector: The case of the Korean Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, C. H.; Choi, Y.; Jeon, S. W.; Lee, W. K.

    2017-12-01

    Given their complexity and the number of stakeholders involved, it is difficult to solve social issues or problems based on an analysis that focuses on a single dimension. In particular, research surrounding climate change is inherently multidisciplinary and there is a need for highly pluralistic nexuses that can be used as a framework for policy decisions. Here, we suggest to water-centric nexus on agriculture and forest sector to improve response to climate change. The nexus is composed agricultural water demand and forest water supply to enhancing water-related adaptation to climate change in the Korean Peninsula. Agricultural productivity and water use related variables was estimating by EPIC crop model, and InVEST model applied for estimation of forest water supply. Results under two climate change scenarios (RCP4.5 and 8.5) and time period (2050s and 2070s), the forest water supply for the all future climate scenarios will increase significantly. In case of agriculture, irrigated crops experienced only the benefits of climate change, but rainfed crops were negatively impacted. It was also found that crop irrigation demand in the future is expected to be around twice as high as baseline levels, thus making irrigation more difficult to successfully implement. These hydrological threats have the potential to greatly reduce food security. In the nexus perspectives, the drop in the productivity of rainfed crops and the increase in irrigation demand in the agriculture sector can be resolved through interconnections with the forest sector. Appropriate management of the water supply in future climatic conditions characterized by increasing precipitation can maintain and expand agricultural areas through irrigation. To achieve this, a time-series water supply versus demand analysis must be performed so that an accurate balance between supply and demand can be established. Water-centric interactions of the agriculture and forest are the basis of nexus-based adaptation

  14. Water Constraints in an Electric Sector Capacity Expansion Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cohen, Stuart [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newmark, Robin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Martinez, Andrew [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sullivan, Patrick [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tidwell, Vince [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-17

    This analysis provides a description of the first U.S. national electricity capacity expansion model to incorporate water resource availability and costs as a constraint for the future development of the electricity sector. The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model was modified to incorporate water resource availability constraints and costs in each of its 134 Balancing Area (BA) regions along with differences in costs and efficiencies of cooling systems. Water resource availability and cost data are from recently completed research at Sandia National Laboratories (Tidwell et al. 2013b). Scenarios analyzed include a business-as-usual 3 This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at www.nrel.gov/publications. scenario without water constraints as well as four scenarios that include water constraints and allow for different cooling systems and types of water resources to be utilized. This analysis provides insight into where water resource constraints could affect the choice, configuration, or location of new electricity technologies.

  15. Factors affecting the adoption of supply chain management practices: Evidence from the Brazilian electro-electronic sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Lopes de Sousa Jabbour

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study on the factors affecting the adoption of supply chain management (SCM practices develops four hypotheses based on a literature review, and tests them using survey data of Brazilian electro-electronic firms. The results reveal the big picture of the SCM practices in the sector and suggest that contextual factors such as size, position and bargaining power affect the adoption of SCM practices, which are also more customer oriented. Sector characteristics are very important in analysing SCM practices. Contrary to the findings of literature, the relationship between competitive priorities and SCM practices was not supported statistically.

  16. Optimal design of water supply networks for enhancing seismic reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Do Guen; Kang, Doosun; Kim, Joong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to construct a reliability evaluation model of a water supply system taking seismic hazards and present techniques to enhance hydraulic reliability of the design into consideration. To maximize seismic reliability with limited budgets, an optimal design model is developed using an optimization technique called harmony search (HS). The model is applied to actual water supply systems to determine pipe diameters that can maximize seismic reliability. The reliabilities between the optimal design and existing designs were compared and analyzed. The optimal design would both enhance reliability by approximately 8.9% and have a construction cost of approximately 1.3% less than current pipe construction cost. In addition, the reinforcement of the durability of individual pipes without considering the system produced ineffective results in terms of both cost and reliability. Therefore, to increase the supply ability of the entire system, optimized pipe diameter combinations should be derived. Systems in which normal status hydraulic stability and abnormal status available demand could be maximally secured if configured through the optimal design. - Highlights: • We construct a seismic reliability evaluation model of water supply system. • We present technique to enhance hydraulic reliability in the aspect of design. • Harmony search algorithm is applied in optimal designs process. • The effects of the proposed optimal design are improved reliability about by 9%. • Optimized pipe diameter combinations should be derived indispensably.

  17. Energy supply waste water treatment plant West Brabant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poldervaart, A; Schouten, G J

    1983-09-01

    For the energy supply for the waste water treatment plant (rwzi-Bath) of the Hoogheemraadschap West-Brabant three energy sources are used: biogas of the digesters, natural gas and electricity delivered by the PZEM. For a good balance between heat/power demand and production a heat/power plant is installed. By using this system a high efficiency for the use of energy will be obtained. To save energy the oxygen concentration in the aerationtanks is automatically controlled by means of regulating the position of the air supply control valves and the capacity and number of the turbocompressors. For the oxygen controlsystem a Siemens PLC is used.

  18. Disease will limit future food supply from the global crustacean fishery and aquaculture sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentiford, G D; Neil, D M; Peeler, E J; Shields, J D; Small, H J; Flegel, T W; Vlak, J M; Jones, B; Morado, F; Moss, S; Lotz, J; Bartholomay, L; Behringer, D C; Hauton, C; Lightner, D V

    2012-06-01

    Seafood is a highly traded food commodity. Farmed and captured crustaceans contribute a significant proportion with annual production exceeding 10 M metric tonnes with first sale value of $40bn. The sector is dominated by farmed tropical marine shrimp, the fastest growing sector of the global aquaculture industry. It is significant in supporting rural livelihoods and alleviating poverty in producing nations within Asia and Latin America while forming an increasing contribution to aquatic food supply in more developed countries. Nations with marine borders often also support important marine fisheries for crustaceans that are regionally traded as live animals and commodity products. A general separation of net producing and net consuming nations for crustacean seafood has created a truly globalised food industry. Projections for increasing global demand for seafood in the face of level or declining fisheries requires continued expansion and intensification of aquaculture while ensuring best utilisation of captured stocks. Furthermore, continued pressure from consuming nations to ensure safe products for human consumption are being augmented by additional legislative requirements for animals (and their products) to be of low disease status. As a consequence, increasing emphasis is being placed on enforcement of regulations and better governance of the sector; currently this is a challenge in light of a fragmented industry and less stringent regulations associated with animal disease within producer nations. Current estimates predict that up to 40% of tropical shrimp production (>$3bn) is lost annually, mainly due to viral pathogens for which standard preventative measures (e.g. such as vaccination) are not feasible. In light of this problem, new approaches are urgently required to enhance yield by improving broodstock and larval sourcing, promoting best management practices by farmer outreach and supporting cutting-edge research that aims to harness the natural

  19. Modeling integrated water user decisions in intermittent supply systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, David E.; Tarawneh, Tarek; Abdel-Khaleq, Rania; Lund, Jay R.

    2007-07-01

    We apply systems analysis to estimate household water use in an intermittent supply system considering numerous interdependent water user behaviors. Some 39 household actions include conservation; improving local storage or water quality; and accessing sources having variable costs, availabilities, reliabilities, and qualities. A stochastic optimization program with recourse decisions identifies the infrastructure investments and short-term coping actions a customer can adopt to cost-effectively respond to a probability distribution of piped water availability. Monte Carlo simulations show effects for a population of customers. Model calibration reproduces the distribution of billed residential water use in Amman, Jordan. Parametric analyses suggest economic and demand responses to increased availability and alternative pricing. It also suggests potential market penetration for conservation actions, associated water savings, and subsidies to entice further adoption. We discuss new insights to size, target, and finance conservation.

  20. Public-Private Partnerships in China’s Urban Water Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Arthur P. J.; Fu, Tao

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, the traditional state monopoly in urban water management has been debated heavily, resulting in different forms and degrees of private sector involvement across the globe. Since the 1990s, China has also started experiments with new modes of urban water service management and governance in which the private sector is involved. It is premature to conclude whether the various forms of private sector involvement will successfully overcome the major problems (capital shortage, inefficient operation, and service quality) in China’s water sector. But at the same time, private sector involvement in water provisioning and waste water treatments seems to have become mainstream in transitional China. PMID:18256780

  1. Sector-wise midpoint characterization factors for impact assessment of regional consumptive and degradative water use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Chun; Lin, Jia-Yu; Lee, Mengshan; Chiueh, Pei-Te

    2017-12-31

    Water availability, resulting from either a lack of water or poor water quality is a key factor contributing to regional water stress. This study proposes a set of sector-wise characterization factors (CFs), namely consumptive and degradative water stresses, to assess the impact of water withdrawals with a life cycle assessment approach. These CFs consider water availability, water quality, and competition for water between domestic, agricultural and industrial sectors and ecosystem at the watershed level. CFs were applied to a case study of regional water management of industrial water withdrawals in Taiwan to show that both regional or seasonal decrease in water availability contributes to a high consumptive water stress, whereas water scarcity due to degraded water quality not meeting sector standards has little influence on increased degradative water stress. Degradative water stress was observed more in the agricultural sector than in the industrial sector, which implies that the agriculture sector may have water quality concerns. Reducing water intensity and alleviating regional scale water stresses of watersheds are suggested as approaches to decrease the impact of both consumptive and degradative water use. The results from this study may enable a more detailed sector-wise analysis of water stress and influence water resource management policies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 77 FR 33456 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9682-4] Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program... State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Washington has adopted regulations analogous to... of Health--Office of Drinking Water, [[Page 33457

  3. 7 CFR 612.2 - Snow survey and water supply forecast activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. 612... SUPPLY FORECASTS § 612.2 Snow survey and water supply forecast activities. To carry out the cooperative snow survey and water supply forecast program, NRCS: (a) Establishes, maintains, and operates manual...

  4. Defining regulatory requirements for water supply systems in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deryushev Leonid Georgiyevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the authors offer their suggestions for improving the reliability of the standardization requirements for water supply facilities in Vietnam, as an analog of building regulations of Russia 31.13330.2012. In Russia and other advanced countries the reliability of the designed water supply systems is usual to assess quantitatively. Guidelines on the reliability assessment of water supply systems and facilities have been offered by many researchers, but these proposals are not officially approved. Some methods for assessing the reliability of water supply facilities are informally used in practice when describing their quality. These evaluation methods are simple and useful. However, the given estimations defy common sense and regulatory requirements used by all the organizations, ministries and departments, for example, of Russia, in the process of allowances for restoration and repair of water supply facilities. Inadequacy of the water supply facilities assessment is shown on the example of assessing the reliability of pipeline system. If we take MTBF of specific length of the pipeline as reliability index for a pipeline system, for example, 5 km, a pipeline of the similar gauge, material and working conditions with the length of 5 m, according to the estimation on the basis of non-official approach, must have a value of MTBF 1000 times greater than with the length of 5 km. This conclusion runs counter to common sense, for the reason that all the pipes in the area of 5 km are identical, have the same load and rate of wear (corrosion, fouling, deformation, etc.. It was theoretically and practically proved that products of the same type in the same operating conditions (excluding determined impact of a person, work as an entity, which MTBF is equal to the average lifetime. It is proposed to take the average service life as a reliability indicator of a pipeline. Durability, but not failsafety of the pipe guarantees pipeline functioning

  5. Water quality effects of intermittent water supply in Arraiján, Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, John J; Smith, Charlotte D; Goodridge, Amador; Nelson, Kara L

    2017-05-01

    Intermittent drinking water supply is common in low- and middle-income countries throughout the world and can cause water quality to degrade in the distribution system. In this study, we characterized water quality in one study zone with continuous supply and three zones with intermittent supply in the drinking water distribution network in Arraiján, Panama. Low or zero pressures occurred in all zones, and negative pressures occurred in the continuous zone and two of the intermittent zones. Despite hydraulic conditions that created risks for backflow and contaminant intrusion, only four of 423 (0.9%) grab samples collected at random times were positive for total coliform bacteria and only one was positive for E. coli. Only nine of 496 (1.8%) samples had turbidity >1.0 NTU and all samples had ≥0.2 mg/L free chlorine residual. In contrast, water quality was often degraded during the first-flush period (when supply first returned after an outage). Still, routine and first-flush water quality under intermittent supply was much better in Arraiján than that reported in a previous study conducted in India. Better water quality in Arraiján could be due to better water quality leaving the treatment plant, shorter supply outages, higher supply pressures, a more consistent and higher chlorine residual, and fewer contaminant sources near pipes. The results illustrate that intermittent supply and its effects on water quality can vary greatly between and within distribution networks. The study also demonstrated that monitoring techniques designed specifically for intermittent supply, such as continuous pressure monitoring and sampling the first flush, can detect water quality threats and degradation that would not likely be detected with conventional monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Just How Big is the Schism Between the Health Sector and the Water and Sanitation Sector in Developing Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Cronin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Water, sanitation and hygiene are all key aspects to a healthy environment but often they suffer from a lack of coherence within the sector itself and also a lack of synergy with the health sector. This is not acceptable given one quarter of all child deaths are directly attributable to water-borne disease. This lack of synergy is evident at many different layers including planning, resource allocation and donor commitment. Developing countries must, in consultation with their communities, examine their biggest health risks and allocate resources accordingly. Sustained dialogue and increased in-depth analysis are needed to find consensus and an improved synergy across these vital sectors.

  7. Effects of inequality of supply hours on consumers' coping strategies and perceptions of intermittent water supply in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guragai, B; Takizawa, S; Hashimoto, T; Oguma, K

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effects of unequal supply hours on consumers' coping strategies and perceptions of the intermittent water supply (IWS) in the Kathmandu Valley (KV), Nepal we conducted a randomized household survey (n=369) and on-site water quality tests. Half of the households received piped water for 6 or fewer hours per week. To augment or cope with the inadequate supply, 28% of the households used highly contaminated and expensive tanker-delivered water. Half of the piped water samples (n=13) were contaminated with Escherichia coli. Free chlorine concentration in all piped water samples was below the national standards (0.1-0.2mg/L), but combined chlorine was detected at an average of 0.24mg/L, indicating ingression of contaminants in the network. Point-of-use devices could increase access to safe water in the KV from 42% to 80%. The use of Lorenz curves and Gini coefficients revealed inequality of piped water supply hours per week both between and within service areas in the KV, due mainly to a small percentage of households who receive longer supply hours. To cope with reduced supply hours, home owners pay more to get water from alternative sources, while tenants compromise their water consumption. Under IWS, expectations for improvements in piped water quality and supply regularity are higher than those for supply volume. Consumers' perceptions of the piped water services worsen with the reduction in supply hours, but perceptions of piped water tariff are independent of supply hours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Threat to the New York City water supply - plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, D.C.; Krey, P.W.; Volchok, H.L.; Feldstein, J.; Calderon, G.

    1988-01-01

    The mayor of the City of New York received an anonymous letter on April 1st 1985 threatening to contaminate the water supply with plutonium unless all criminal charges against Mr Bernhard Goetz, the suspect in a dramatic subway shooting incident, were dismissed by April 11th 1985. The Environmental Measurements Laboratory, EML, was requested to analyse a composite, large volume (∼ 175 litres) drinking water sample collected on April 16th 1985. The concentration measured was 21 fCi/l which was a factor of 100 greater than previously observed results in the EML data base, and the mass isotopic content of the plutonium was very unusual. Additional samples were collected one to three months later at various distribution points in the water supply system. The plutonium concentrations were much lower and comparable to EML's earlier data. Mass isotopic analysis of these samples provided more reasonable compositions but with high uncertainties due to very low plutonium concentration. Due to the inability to confirm the elevated plutonium concentration value for the composite sample, it is impossible to conclude whether the threat to contaminate the New York City water supply was actually carried out or whether the sample was contaminated prior to receipt at EML. 5 refs.; 1 figure; 5 tabs

  9. Karst aquifer in Galichica and possibilities for water supply to Ohrid with ground -water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirchovski, Vojo; Kekich, Aleksandar; Spasovski, Orce; Mirchovski, Vlado

    2009-01-01

    In this paper are presented some hydrogeological features of the karst aquifer in Mt Galichica, which contains important quantities of ground-water that can to used for the water supply of the town Ohrid. Based on the hydrogeological data are given three solutions that be can to used for water supply of Ohrid, the first one is to drill of deep wells, combination of deep and shallow wells, as well as construction of horizontal galleries.

  10. Assessment of water supply system and water quality of Lighvan village using water safety plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Pourakbar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Continuous expansion of potable water pollution sources is one of the main concerns of water suppliers, therefore measures such as water safety plan (WSP, have been taken into account to control these sources of pollution. The aim of this study was to identify probable risks and threatening hazards to drinking water quality in Lighvan village along with assessment of bank filtration of the village. Methods: In the present study all risks and probable hazards were identified and ranked. For each of these cases, practical suggestions for removing or controlling them were given. To assess potable water quality in Lighvan village, sampling was done from different parts of the village and physicochemical parameters were measured. To assess the efficiency of bank filtration system of the village, independent t test was used to compare average values of parameters in river and treated water. Results: One of the probable sources of pollution in this study was domestic wastewater which threatens water quality. The results of this study show that bank filtration efficiency in water supply of the village is acceptable. Conclusion: Although Bank filtration imposes fewer expenses on governments, it provides suitable water for drinking and other uses. However, it should be noted that application of these systems should be done after a thorough study of water pollution level, types of water pollutants, soil properties of the area, soil percolation and system distance from pollutant sources.

  11. Challenges of information technology and supply chain management in logistic sector: with an overview of Quehenberger logistics in Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Temjanovski, Riste

    2014-01-01

    Abstract— The Logistics and freight transport industries are ones of the most dynamic and important sectors of each economy. Logistics provides a vital “backbone” function in supporting macroeconomic processes and the operation of markets, critical infrastructures and distribution to both business and consumers, which extended much more with process of globalization. Every contemporary logistic company is conducted by the quality and precious with IT technologies in supply chain manage...

  12. Illness associated with contamination of drinking water supplies with phenol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, S.N.; Straube, R.C.; Williams, A.L.; Bartlett, C.L.

    1985-06-15

    In January 1984 the River Dee in north Wales was contaminated with phenol, with subsequent contamination of the tap water received by about two million consumers. A retrospective postal survey of 594 households was undertaken to determine whether consumption of this contaminated water was associated with illness. Subjects in areas that received contaminated water reported significantly more gastrointestinal illness than those in a nearby unexposed area (32.6% v 8.7%, p less than 0.00001) as well as reporting a higher incidence of any symptoms (43.6% v 18.4%, p less than 0.00001). Symptoms were consistent with phenol poisoning and bore a strong temporal relation to the pollution of the supply, but they developed at concentrations of phenols previously considered to be safe by the water authorities concerned. Chlorophenols produced during the treatment of water may have aggravated the problem.

  13. Decomposition of toxicity emission changes on the demand and supply sides: empirical study of the US industrial sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hidemichi; Okamoto, Shunsuke; Kagawa, Shigemi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the changes in the toxicity of chemical emissions from the US industrial sector over the 1998-2009 period. Specifically, we employed a multiregional input-output analysis framework and integrated a supply-side index decomposition analysis (IDA) with a demand-side structural decomposition analysis (SDA) to clarify the main drivers of changes in the toxicity of production- and consumption-based chemical emissions. The results showed that toxic emissions from the US industrial sector decreased by 83% over the studied period because of pollution abatement efforts adopted by US industries. A variety of pollution abatement efforts were used by different industries, and cleaner production in the mining sector and the use of alternative materials in the manufacture of transportation equipment represented the most important efforts.

  14. 75 FR 50884 - Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Sector...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... 3 and 165 to reflect changes in Coast Guard internal organizational structure. Sector Portland and... 1625-ZA25 Navigation and Navigable Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Sector... Waters; Technical, Organizational, and Conforming Amendments, Sector Columbia River.'' 2. On page 48564...

  15. Water supply at Los Alamos during 1996. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLin, S.G.; Purtymun, W.D.; Maes, M.N.; Longmire, P.A.

    1997-12-01

    Production of potable municipal water supplies during 1996 totaled about 1,368.1 million gallons from wells in the Guaje, Pajarito, and Otowi well fields. There was no water used from either the spring gallery in Water Canyon or from Guaje Reservoir during 1996. About 2.6 million gallons of water from Los Alamos Reservoir was used for lawn irrigation. The total water usage in 1996 was about 1,370.7 million gallons, or about 131 gallons per day per person living in Los Alamos County. Groundwater pumpage was up about 12.0 million gallons in 1996 compared with the pumpage in 1995. This report fulfills requirements specified in US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 (Groundwater Protection Management Program), which requires the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to monitor and document groundwater conditions below Pajarito Plateau and to protect the regional aquifer from contamination associated with Laboratory operations. Furthermore, this report also fulfills special conditions by providing information on hydrologic characteristics of the regional aquifer, including operating conditions of the municipal water supply system

  16. Water Use of Fossil Energy Production and Supply in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fossil energy and water resources are both important for economic and social development in China, and they are tightly interlinked. Fossil energy production consumes large amounts of water, and it is essential to investigate the water footprint of fossil energy production (WFEP in China. In addition, fossil energy is supplied to consumers in China by both domestic and foreign producers, and understanding the water footprint of fossil energy supply (WFES is also highly significant for water and energy development programs in the long-term. The objectives of this paper were to provide an estimation of the blue component of WFEP and WFES in China for the period from 2001 to 2014, and to evaluate the impact on water resources from energy production, the contribution of internal and external WFES, and water-energy related issues of the international energy trade by applying water footprint analysis based on the bottom-up approach. The results indicate that generally, the WFEP and WFES in China both maintained steady growth before 2013, with the WFEP increasing from approximately 3900 million m3/year to 10,400 million m3/year, while the WFES grew from 3900 million m3/year to 11,600 million m3/year. The fossil energy production caps of the 13th Five Year Plan can bring the water consumed for fossil energy production back to a sustainable level. Over the long-term, China’s energy trade plan should also consider the water and energy resources of the countries from which fossil energy is imported.

  17. Work Floor Experiences of Supply Chain Partnering in the Dutch Housing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Venselaar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and research approach The construction industry is known for its waste of money and materials, low innovative capacities, and low productivity (Cox and Thompson, 1997; Vrijhoef, 2011. One reason is that the relationships between client and contractors is often perceived as a problematic one (Tazelaar en Snijder, 2010; Vrijhoef, 2011. Since decades, attention has been paid to supply chain partnering (SCP in the construction industry, as a promising strategy to decrease waste of time and money and increase quality and address the problematic relationships (Boukendour and Hughus, 2014; Bygballe et al., 2010; Eriksson, 2015; Hong et al., 2012; Vrijhoef, 2011. Despite the attention, it is hard to exactly pinpoint the concept of SCP. Many definitions, synonyms and related concepts circulate and it seems that SCP has increasingly become a buzz-word that represents ‘good practices’ in the construction sector. Nevertheless, applying SCP may involve ‘hard’ factors, such as early involvement of the contractor in the project, open book accounting, re-allocation of risks, and working with preferred partners. SCP may also involve ‘soft’ factors, such as increasing mutual trust between partners, increasing competences of conflict resolution or trying to establish more effective communication between partners. Some scholars argue that SCP should be considered as an emergent practice which can take on many different shapes (e.g. Bresnen, 2009; Hartmann and Bresnen, 2011; Marshall and Bresnen, 2013a; Marshall and Bresnen, 2013b. This study focuses on SCP as an emergent strategy. An emergent strategy, contrary to a deliberated strategy, is a strategy that arises in ongoing daily complex responsive processes between individuals. While a deliberated strategy looks forward and prescribes what people should do, an emergent strategy looks back and describes what people already do. Studies that dig deeper in those work floor practices and truly

  18. Exploring the water-energy nexus in Brazil: The electricity use for water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira Vilanova, Mateus Ricardo; Perrella Balestieri, José Antônio

    2015-01-01

    The present work evaluates the electricity use for the water production and supply in Brazil. Five categories of indicators were proposed, that is, per capita, water losses, energy, greenhouse gases (GHGs) and financial/economic, which were used in the definition of municipal average values. It takes an average 0.862 ± 0.046 kWh m −3 for production and water supply in the country. The results demonstrate that the water supply systems accounted for, at least, 1.9% of total electricity consumption in Brazil in 2012, and the water loss wastes 27% of water and energy in the water supply systems from Brazil. The production and distribution of 1 m 3 of water in Brazilian cities represents the emission of 0.050 ± 0.004 kgCO2e, being 0.014 ± 0.001 kgCO2e.m −3 associated with the water loss volumes. Furthermore, the average Brazilian cities' expenditure with electricity for the water supply is US$ 0.14 ± US$ 0.01, which corresponds to 16.8% ± 0.7% of operating expenditures and 12.9% ± 0.5% of total expenditure of the WSSs. The NE Region is the one that presents the greatest potential for the application of hydraulic and energy efficiency measures in water supply systems (WSSs). - Highlights: • We analyze the electricity use in Brazilian water supply systems. • Five categories of indicators were analyzed statistically. • Brazilian water supply systems uses 0.862 ± 0.046 kWh m −3 to supply water. • At least 1.9% of Brazilian electricity consumption is used in water supply systems. • The Northeast Region of Brazil presents the higher energy/water saving potential

  19. Ground water share in supplying domestic water in Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, M. E. A.

    2010-10-01

    In this research study of the sources of groundwater from wells and stations that rely on the national authority for urban water in the state of Khartoum, this study includes three areas, namely the Khartoum area, North Khartoum and Omdurman area. This research evaluate and identify the sources of groundwater from wells and stations and find out the productivity of wells and underground stations. The study period were identified from 2004 to 2008 during this commoners were Alabaralgeoffip Knowledge Production and stations from the water. The methods used in this study was to determine the sources of groundwater from wells and stations in the three areas with the knowledge of the percentage in each year and the total amount of water produced from wells and stations in Khartoum, North Khartoum and Omdurman it is clear from this study that the percentage of productivity in the annual increase to varying degrees in floater from 2004 to 2008 and also clear that the Omdurman area depends on groundwater wells over a maritime area of stations based on stations with more and more consumption of Khartoum and the sea. Also been identified on the tank top and bottom of the tank where the chemical properties and physical properties after the identification of these qualities and characteristics have been identified the quantity and quality of water produced from wells and stations. (Author)

  20. Water data in US: a spatial, temporal and sectoral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, L.; Allaire, M.; Rising, J. A.; Thomas, C.; Lall, U.

    2017-12-01

    Water data plays a crucial role in the development and implementation of sustainable water management strategies. Both effective design and assessment hinge on accurate information. This requires environmental, climatic, hydrologic, hydrogeologic, industrial, agricultural, energetic and socio-economic data to accurately characterize and project future supply and demand. In 2001, Vorosmarty et al. painted a stark future for water data, which was qualified as ``a new endangered species". Sixteen years after this publication, we propose a review of the current state of water data in the United States. While considerable progress has been made in data science and model development in the recent years, models are only as good as the data that populate them. After a brief overview of water data aggregated at the national level, we compare datasets from federal agencies with water information collected by individual states. We note in particular the potential gaps in the collected information that would support research beyond water balance accounts to informing regulations, investments, and economic decisions. In addition, we assess the information structures that host and disseminate data as well as data availability and usability (i.e. whether tools are proposed such as metrics, visualization, projections). We conclude our paper with a review of the current technological developments, policies and initiatives that may be transformative and redefine the future of water data. We follow two angles: the progress made in data collection (e.g. remote sensing, datascience, reporting policies) and in data dissemination (frameworks, cyber-infrastructures and standards). We review in particular the current initiatives taking place in US and around the world that promote water data freely available to all.

  1. Scale Issues in Modeling the Water Resources Sector in National Economic Models: A Case study of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzepek, K. M.; Kirshen, P.; Yohe, G.

    2001-05-01

    The fundamental theme of this research was to investigate tradeoffs in model resolution for modeling water resources in the context of national economic development and capital investment decisions.. Based on a case study of China, the research team has developed water resource models at relatively fine scales, then investigated how they can be aggregated to regional or national scales and for use in national level planning decisions or global scale integrated assessment models of food and/or environmental change issues. The team has developed regional water supply and water demand functions.. Simplifying and aggregating the supply and demand functions will allow reduced form functions of the water sector for inclusion in large scale national economic models. Water Supply Cost functions were developed looking at both surface and groundwater supplies. Surface Water: Long time series of flows at the mouths of the 36 major river sub-basins in China are used in conjunction with different basin reservoir storage quantities to obtain storage-yield curves. These are then combined with reservoir and transmission cost data to obtain yield-cost or surface water demand curves. The methodology to obtain the long time series of flows for each basin is to fit a simple abcd water balance model to each basin. The costs of reservoir storage have been estimated by using a methodology developed in the USA that relates marginal storage costs to existing storage, slope and geological conditions. USA costs functions have then been adjusted to Chinese costs. The costs of some actual dams in China were used to "ground-truth" the methodology. Groundwater: The purpose of the groundwater work is to estimate the recharge in each basin, and the depths and quality of water of aquifers. A byproduct of the application of the abcd water balance model is the recharge. Depths and quality of aquifers are being taken from many separate reports on groundwater in different parts of China; we have been

  2. A Study on Rational Pricing System for Water Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, H.J. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    are important for systematizing pricing mechanism and reasonable use of water resource. The study recommends the institutional structure for efficient water management/use include an integrated river basin management system and establishment of an independent agency for executive function (separation of policy making function and executive function). A corporatized organization for actual water supply function is also recommended (separation of regulation function and supply function). (author). 46 refs., 18 figs., 59 tabs.

  3. Disease will limit future food supply from the global crustacean fishery and aquaculture sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stentiford, G.D.; Neil, D.M.; Peeler, E.J.; Shields, J.D.; Small, H.J.; Flegel, T.W.; Vlak, J.M.; Jones, B.; Morado, F.; Moss, S.; Lotz, J.; Bartholomay, L.; Behringer, D.C.; Hauton, C.; Lightner, D.V.

    2012-01-01

    Seafood is a highly traded food commodity. Farmed and captured crustaceans contribute a significant proportion with annual production exceeding 10 M metric tonnes with first sale value of $40bn. The sector is dominated by farmed tropical marine shrimp, the fastest growing sector of the global

  4. Public - private interdependence: An effective tool in water supply services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elena Iosif

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to study the impact of certain determinants on the choice of local authorities to use public - private interdependence for the provision of water supply services, based on the Spanish and Romanian local experiences. Being aware of their impact, the authorities could place a particular focus on the determinants that lead to local development. Several studies reveal that public – private interdependence is a powerful tool for building local development (Melo & do Carmo, 2008; Dessi & Floris, 2009 and states are interested in finding out ways to obtain it. The complex methodology of the paper was designed in accordance with the particularities of each country studied. Gathering the data for Romania implied conducting several interviews, and for Spain survey, exploratory analysis and semi-structured interviews were applied. The determinants’ influence was tested through logit or linear probability model. The analysis validates that population, density of population, indirect taxes, affiliation of the city representative to a certain political party is influencing the option of local public authorities. The paper brings recommendations on promoting public - private interdependence in water supply services. The paper is mainly valuable for the parallel that is made between Spain and Romania in water supply services and it brings progress in comparative country cases.

  5. The Financing of Water Supply and Sewerage Services in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Florentina CUCOS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Water supply and sewerage services represent utilities that must be provided to all users, both the urban and the rural. The responsibility to ensure these services in terms of non-discrimination and affordability belongs to the local authorities, which in the spirit of decentralization have exclusive jurisdiction on their establishment, organization and operation. Regardless of the chosen management, the funding of water supply and sewerage services, is accomplished by means of the prices and tariffs paid by the users. Their quantum, specific to some social services, covers the costs without allowing the accumulation of consistent profit margins, which would ensure the development of the specific infrastructure from the operators' own funds. It is therefore necessary that funding for the creation and rehabilitation of water supply and sewerage systems to be provided from other sources than the budgets of operators, such as: budgetary allocations of local public authorities, government or European funding programs. This paper is of interest because it captures just how the prices and tariffs for these services are composed, and the entire procedure for foundation, adjustment and modification that follows different rules from those of pricing in the market economy, and it provides a review of the types of programs through which the development of the specific technical-urban infrastructure and the significant increase in the number of users in the past 25 years.

  6. Water and Fisheries: The Sensitivity of Water Supply in the Tana River Basin to Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inima, A.K.

    1998-01-01

    Wether climatic change would cause water supply in the dry areas of the earth to diminish or not is a major question. The main objective of this study was to determine wether the water supply in the Tana river Basin of Kenya would diminish in quality as a result of climate change. The Tana River Basin is the immense economic importance to Kenya and is the lifeline of Kenya's electricity supply, accounting for about 70% of the country's electricity supply. The basin houses about 30% of the country's population and 38% of the total irrigable land. A diminished water supply in this content would, therefore, hamper the economic development of the country.Kenya receives, on average, an annual rainfall of 600 mm, and hence classified as arid to semi-arid. This makes it vulnerable to adverse effects of climate change

  7. Leaks in the internal water supply piping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Great water losses in the internal plumbing of a building lead to the waste of money for a fence, purification and supply of water volumes in excess. This does not support the concept of water conservation and resource saving lying today in the basis of any building’s construction having plumbing. Leakage means unplanned of water losses systems in domestic water supply systems (hot or cold as a result of impaired integrity, complicating the operation of a system and leading to high costs of repair and equipment restoration. A large number of leaks occur in old buildings, where the regulatory service life of pipelines has come to an end, and the scheduled repair for some reason has not been conducted. Steel pipelines are used in the systems without any protection from corrosion and they get out of order. Leakages in new houses are also not uncommon. They usually occur as a result of low-quality adjustment of the system by workers. It also important to note the absence of certain skills of plumbers, who don’t conduct the inspections of in-house systems in time. Sometimes also the residents themselves forget to keep their pipeline systems and water fittings in their apartment in good condition. Plumbers are not systematically invited for preventive examinations to detect possible leaks in the domestic plumbing. The amount of unproductive losses increases while simultaneous use of valve tenants, and at the increase of the number of residents in the building. Water leaks in the system depend on the amount of water system piping damages, and damages of other elements, for example, water valves, connections, etc. The pressure in the leak area also plays an important role.

  8. The drinking water supply in the periphery of AMBA, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caceres, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes the problem of drinking water supply in areas with little home network coverage in the main urban area of Argentina called Metropolitan Area of Buenos Aires. It is recover contributions of exploratory research which appealed to the case and analysis of primary and secondary sources. It focuses on the characterization of the emerging commercial circuits that emerge in the absence of networks, included by the presence of formal and informal firms that perform drilling and install equipment that allows individual exploitation of the aquifers by households that have no access to water networks. It also examines the meager state control regulation and supervision.

  9. 43 CFR 404.3 - What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.3 What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program? This program addresses domestic, municipal, and industrial water...

  10. Forecasting operational demand for an urban water supply zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S. L.; McMahon, T. A.; Walton, A.; Lewis, J.

    2002-03-01

    A time series forecasting model of hourly water consumption 24 h in advance for an urban zone within the Melbourne (Australia) water supply system is developed. The model comprises two modules—daily and hourly. The daily module is formulated as a set of equations representing the effects of three factors on water use namely seasonality, climatic correlation, and autocorrelation. The hourly module is developed to disaggregate the estimated daily consumption into hourly consumption. The models were calibrated using hourly and daily data for a 6 year period, and independently validated over an additional seven month period. Over this latter period, the hourly forecast model accounted for 66% of the variance in the peak hourly water consumption with a standard error of 162 l/p/d.

  11. [Medical and environmental aspects of the drinking water supply crisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Él'piner, L I

    2013-01-01

    Modern data determining drinking water supply crisis in Russia have been considered. The probability of influence of drinking water quality used by population on current negative demographic indices was shown. The necessity of taking into account interests of public health care in the process of formation of water management decisions was grounded. To achieve this goal the application of medical ecological interdisciplinary approach was proposed Its use is mostly effective in construction of goal-directed medical ecological sections for territorial schemes of the rational use and protection of water resources. Stages of the elaboration of these sections, providing the basing of evaluation and prognostic medical and environmental constructions on similar engineering studies of related disciplinary areas (hydrological, hydrogeological, hydrobiological, hydrochemical, environmental, socio-economic, technical and technological) were determined.

  12. GENDER MAIN STREAMING IN WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona FRONE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As we have stated in the previous year conference paper, the human right to water and sanitation entitles everyoneto water and sanitation services which are available, accessible, affordable, acceptable and safe. Developmentprograms for water and sanitation services, as many other socio-economic development programs have often beenassumed to be neutral in terms of gender. However, sometimes there can be failures in the implementation andharnessing of such projects because of errors arising from lack of adequate integration of gender equality. In thispaper are highlighted some aspects and issues of gender mainstreaming in water supply and sanitation developmentprojects, including conclusions from a case study conducted by an NGO in a commune of Romania and ownrecommendations.

  13. 40 CFR 125.62 - Attainment or maintenance of water quality which assures protection of public water supplies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality which assures protection of public water supplies; assures the protection and propagation of a... maintenance of water quality which assures protection of public water supplies; assures the protection and... § 125.61. (b) Impact of discharge on public water supplies. (1) The applicant's modified discharge must...

  14. Assessing the risk posed by high-turbidity water to water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Ling; Liao, Chung-Sheng

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the risk of insufficient water supply posed by high-turbidity water. Several phenomena can pose risks to the sufficiency of a water supply; this study concerns risks to water treatment plants from particular properties of rainfall and raw water turbidity. High-turbidity water can impede water treatment plant operations; rainfall properties can influence the degree of soil erosion. Thus, water turbidity relates to rainfall characteristics. Exceedance probabilities are presented for different rainfall intensities and turbidities of water. When the turbidity of raw water is higher than 5,000 NTU, it can cause operational problems for a water treatment plant. Calculations show that the turbidity of raw water at the Ban-Sin water treatment plant will be higher than 5,000 NTU if the rainfall intensity is larger than 165 mm/day. The exceedance probability of high turbidity (turbidity >5,000 NTU) in the Ban-Sin water treatment plant is larger than 10%. When any water treatment plant cannot work regularly, its ability to supply water to its customers is at risk.

  15. Managing urban water supplies in developing countries Climate change and water scarcity scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairavamoorthy, Kala; Gorantiwar, Sunil D.; Pathirana, Assela

    Urban areas of developing countries are facing increasing water scarcity and it is possible that this problem may be further aggravated due to rapid changes in the hydro-environment at different scales, like those of climate and land-cover. Due to water scarcity and limitations to the development of new water resources, it is prudent to shift from the traditional 'supply based management' to a 'demand management' paradigm. Demand management focuses on measures that make better and more efficient use of limited supplies, often at a level significantly below standard service levels. This paper particularly focuses on the intermittent water supplies in the cities of developing countries. Intermittent water supplies need to be adopted due to water scarcity and if not planned properly, results in inequities in water deliveries to consumers and poor levels of service. It is therefore important to recognise these realities when designing and operating such networks. The standard tools available for design of water supply systems often assume a continuous, unlimited supply and the supplied water amount is limited only be the demand, making them unsuitable for designing intermittent supplies that are governed by severely limited water availability. This paper presents details of new guidelines developed for the design and control of intermittent water distribution systems in developing countries. These include a modified network analysis simulation coupled with an optimal design tool. The guidelines are driven by a modified set of design objectives to be met at least cost. These objectives are equity in supply and people driven levels of service (PDLS) expressed in terms of four design parameters namely, duration of the supply; timings of the supply; pressure at the outlet (or flow-rate at outlet); and others such as the type of connection required and the locations of connections (in particular for standpipes). All the four parameters are calculated using methods and

  16. Energy and air emission effects of water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2009-04-15

    Life-cycle air emission effects of supplying water are explored using a hybrid life-cycle assessment For the typically sized U.S. utility analyzed, recycled water is preferable to desalination and comparable to importation. Seawater desalination has an energy and air emission footprint that is 1.5-2.4 times larger than that of imported water. However, some desalination modes fare better; brackish groundwater is 53-66% as environmentally intensive as seawater desalination. The annual water needs (326 m3) of a typical Californian that is met with imported water requires 5.8 GJ of energy and creates 360 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. With seawater desalination, energy use would increase to 14 GJ and 800 kg of CO2 equivalent emissions. Meeting the water demand of California with desalination would consume 52% of the state's electricity. Supply options were reassessed using alternative electricity mixes, including the average mix of the United States and several renewable sources. Desalination using solar thermal energy has lower greenhouse gas emissions than that of imported and recycled water (using California's electricity mix), but using the U.S. mix increases the environmental footprint by 1.5 times. A comparison with a more energy-intensive international scenario shows that CO2 equivalent emissions for desalination in Dubai are 1.6 times larger than in California. The methods, decision support tool (WEST), and results of this study should persuade decision makers to make informed water policy choices by including energy consumption and material use effects in the decision-making process.

  17. Supply risk analysis: applying system dynamics to the Colombian healthcare sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Zamora Aguas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses supply risk in the oncological medicine supply chain (SC in Colombia. A system dynamics model was developed for assessing supply risk impact on SC operation and performance. The costs of risk and logis-tics operation were evaluated in current conditions and in a risk mitigation scenario. The model was based on a systematic analysis of supply networks, mainly concerning the reduction of overall SC costs and improving service, quality and opportunity performance index. This article has resulted from research into SC risk management (SCRM carried out by the Universidad Nacional de Colombia’s SEPRO research group.

  18. Status of small water supplies in the Nordic countries: Characteristics, water quality and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Maria J; Persson, Kenneth M; Andradottir, Hrund O; Gardarsson, Sigurdur M

    2017-11-01

    Access to safe water is essential for public health and is one of the most important prerequisites for good living and safe food production. Many studies have shown that non-compliance with drinking water quality standards in small water supply systems is much higher than in large systems. Nevertheless, people served by small water supply systems have the right to the same level of health protection. Actions are therefore needed to improve the situation. The objective of the present study was to carry out a baseline analysis of the situation in the Nordic region and provide recommendations for governmental policy and actions. Data were gathered on number of water supplies, population served, compliance with regulations and waterborne disease outbreaks from various sources in the Nordic countries. The collected data showed that there are about 12500 regulated water supplies, 9400 of which serve fewer than 500 persons. The number of unregulated and poorly regulated supplies is unknown, but it can be roughly estimated that these serve 10% of the Nordic population on a permanent basis or 2.6 million people. However, this does not tell the whole story as many of the very small water supplies serve transient populations, summerhouse dwellers and tourist sites, with many more users. Non-compliance regarding microbes is much higher in the small supplies. The population weighted average fecal contamination incidence rate in the Nordic region is eleven times higher in the smaller supplies than in the large ones, 0.76% and 0.07%, respectively. Registered waterborne disease outbreaks were also more frequent in the small supplies than in the large ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Using underground mine Karst water to solve water supply problem in underground mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W. [Wanbei Mining Administration (China). Liuqiao No. 2 Mine

    1995-05-01

    There is a very rich karst water resource under the Liuqiao No. 2 underground mine. Under normal mining conditions the drainage is 546 m{sup 3}/h while the maximum drainage is up to 819 m{sup 3}/h. If water inrush occurred from a broken zone of a fault or a sinkhole of the karst, the flow could be up to 3269 m{sup 3}/h. The karst water is of good quality and high in pressure. The water head pressure at -400 m level is about 3.5 MPa. To save mine construction cost, it was decided that the water supply for coal production equipment, mining operation and mine fire control was to be changed from the surface to the underground by drilling a water well to tap the karst water resource. A water well with a depth of 63.3 m was drilled in the -400 m transportation roadway. The diameter of the well is 127 mm and it has a casing pipe with a diameter of 108 mm which is connected to the water supply pipeline. The pressure of the water supply is measured at 23.5 MPa and the water flow rate is 252 m{sup 3}/h. The establishment of the water supply system has achieved great cost saving for Liuqiao No. 2 Mine. 2 figs.

  20. Does Clean Water Make You Dirty? Water Supply and Sanitation in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Water supply investments in developing countries may inadvertently worsen sanitation if clean water and sanitation are substitutes. This paper examines the negative correlation between the provision of piped water and household sanitary behavior in Cebu, the Philippines. In a model of household sanitation, a local externality leads to a sanitation…

  1. Adoption of irrigation water policies to guarantee water supply: A choice experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcon, F.; Tapsuwan, S.; Brouwer, R.; de Miguel, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    More efficient and sustainable use of water is increasingly becoming an urgency in drought prone parts of the world. In particular, in water scarce regions such as the Mediterranean, water supply is expected to become more uncertain because of climate change. Consequently, pro-active policy

  2. Climate Informed Economic Instruments to Enhance Urban Water Supply Resilience to Hydroclimatological Variability and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.; Carriquiry, M.; Souza Filho, F. A.

    2006-12-01

    Hydroclimatological variability presents acute challenges to urban water supply providers. The impact is often most severe in developing nations where hydrologic and climate variability can be very high, water demand is unmet and increasing, and the financial resources to mitigate the social effects of that variability are limited. Furthermore, existing urban water systems face a reduced solution space, constrained by competing and conflicting interests, such as irrigation demand, recreation and hydropower production, and new (relative to system design) demands to satisfy environmental flow requirements. These constraints magnify the impacts of hydroclimatic variability and increase the vulnerability of urban areas to climate change. The high economic and social costs of structural responses to hydrologic variability, such as groundwater utilization and the construction or expansion of dams, create a need for innovative alternatives. Advances in hydrologic and climate forecasting, and the increasing sophistication and acceptance of incentive-based mechanisms for achieving economically efficient water allocation offer potential for improving the resilience of existing water systems to the challenge of variable supply. This presentation will explore the performance of a system of climate informed economic instruments designed to facilitate the reduction of hydroclimatologic variability-induced impacts on water-sensitive stakeholders. The system is comprised of bulk water option contracts between urban water suppliers and agricultural users and insurance indexed on reservoir inflows designed to cover the financial needs of the water supplier in situations where the option is likely to be exercised. Contract and insurance parameters are linked to forecasts and the evolution of seasonal precipitation and streamflow and designed for financial and political viability. A simulation of system performance is presented based on ongoing work in Metro Manila, Philippines. The

  3. Typhoon and elevated radon level in a municipal water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Cheng-Hsin; Weng, Pao-Shan

    2000-01-01

    The Municipal Water Supply at Hsinchu City is a water treatment plant using poly- aluminum chloride (PAC) for coagulation and then followed by precipitation and filtration. Its capacity is 70,000 m 3 /day. The raw water is drawn from the nearby river. Since the subject of interest is the radon level during typhoon season, the sampling period was from March to December 1999. Commercially available electret was used for water samples taken from the five ponds in the plant. This technique relies on the measurement of radon in air above a water sample enclosed in a sealed vessel. The concentration of airbone radon released from water was determined by means of the electret ion chamber. During the first sampling period there came two typhoons. One is called Magie during June 10-17, and the other called Sam during August 20-26. The first typhoon led to the radon level measured from the water samples as high as 705 Bq/m 3 , while the second caused even higher radon level as high as 772 Bq/m 3 . Similar results were obtained for the second sampling period after August till December 1999. For those measured without typhoon influence, the average radon was lower from the coagulation pond yet without coagulation process during March through August 1999. However, water samples taken from the pond after precipitation did not show similar results in radon level. (author)

  4. Climate change and water supply and demand in western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawford, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    There is reason to be concerned that water resources on the Canadian Prairies could be at considerable risk due to climatic change. The Canadian Prairies frequently experience variations in the climate, which can reduce crop production by 25-50% and annual volumetric river flows by 70-90%. The potential impacts of climatic change on the Prairies are discussed. Consumptive water uses on the Prairies are dominated by irrigation and the water demands arising from thermal power generation. The overall effect of climatic change on water supplies will depend on the ways in which the various components of the hydrological cycle are affected. At the present time it is unsure whether complementary equations are more realistic in estimating evaporation than mass balance techniques. There is a need to obtain good baseline data which will allow the unequivocal resolution of the most accurate technique for estimating evaporation on the Prairies. Climate change could lead to a decrease in spring runoff, and would also lead to earlier snowmelt and peak flows. This could lead to a longer period of low flows during the summer and fall and a further drawdown of moisture reserves. Some appropriate strategies for adapting to climate change would be: encouraging water conservation; reductions in agricultural water use by developing/utilizing strains of plants with lower water demand; controlling new water developments; and enhancing on-farm retention. 10 refs

  5. Sanitary hot water consumption patterns in commercial and industrial sectors in South Africa: Impact on heating system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, R.; Rousseau, P.G.

    2006-01-01

    A large amount of individual sanitary hot water consumers are present in the South African residential sector. This led to several studies being done on hot water consumption patterns in this sector. Large amounts of sanitary hot water are also consumed in the commercial sector in buildings such as hotels and in large residences such as those found in the mining industry. The daily profiles of sanitary hot water consumption are not related to any technical process but rather to human behavior and varying ambient conditions. The consumption of sanitary hot water, therefore, represents a challenge to the electrical utility because it is an energy demand that remains one of the biggest contributors to the undesirable high morning and afternoon peaks imposed on the national electricity supply grid. It also represents a challenge to sanitary hot water system designers because the amount of hot water as well as the daily profile in which it is consumed impacts significantly on system design. This paper deals with hot water consumption in the commercial and industrial sectors. In the commercial sector, we look at hotels and in the industrial sector at large mining residences. Both of them are served by centralized hot water systems. Measured results from the systems are compared to data obtained from previous publications. A comparison is also made to illustrate the impact that these differences will have on sanitary hot water system design. Simulations are conducted for these systems using a simulation program developed in previous studies. The results clearly show significant differences in the required heating and storage capacity for the new profiles. A twin peak profile obtained from previous studies in the residential sector was used up to now in studies of heating demand and system design in commercial buildings. The results shown here illustrate the sanitary hot water consumption profile differs significantly from the twin peaks profile with a very high morning

  6. On site power generation protects water supply for Ajax, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsy, Mohamed

    2011-01-15

    The Ajax water supply plant treats and distribute water for the town of Ajax and the nearby City of Pickering and the operations staff manages two other treatment plants supplying the City of Oshawa and the Town of Whitby, and a dozen pumping stations, reservoirs and elevated tanks. The plant requires around 2 MW of continuous power to supply its 150,000 customers. Although local utility power is reliable, standby generators are mandated by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment. When power goes out problems can result in the plant and system. To avoid these, the Ajax plant staff selected Cummins Power Generation who delivered one 350 kW and two 1500 kW generator sets with automatic transfer switches and paralleling switchgear. These digital systems parallel and synchronize the generator sets with each other and with the utility, which allows the plant to provide continuous service. The plant is designed for twice its current capacity and is ready to handle future requirements.

  7. Environmental management plan (EMP) for Melamchi water supply project, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Ram B; Khanal, Anil B

    2008-11-01

    More than 1.5 million people live in the Kathmandu valley. The valley is facing an extreme shortage of water supply. At the same time the demand is escalating rapidly. To address this issue of scarcity of water, the government of Nepal has proposed a project of inter-basin transfer of water from Melamchi River located 40 km north-east of the Kathmandu valley. The project will cover two districts and three municipalities and will potentially have significant impacts on the environment. In accordance with the Environmental Protection Regulation of Nepal (1997), the Melamchi Water Supply Project (MWSP) has undergone an EIA during the feasibility study stage of the proposed project. The recommendations contained in the EIA were integrated into the project design for implementation in 2006. This paper summarizes the background of MWSP, the environmental concerns described in the EIA and the status of Environmental Management Plan (EMP) developed to address environmental compliance and other issues involving participation and support of the local people. This paper also provides some lessons to learn on the modalities of addressing the demands and grievances of the local people concerning environmental management.

  8. Climate change, water rights, and water supply: The case of irrigated agriculture in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenchao; Lowe, Scott E.; Adams, Richard M.

    2014-12-01

    We conduct a hedonic analysis to estimate the response of agricultural land use to water supply information under the Prior Appropriation Doctrine by using Idaho as a case study. Our analysis includes long-term climate (weather) trends and water supply conditions as well as seasonal water supply forecasts. A farm-level panel data set, which accounts for the priority effects of water rights and controls for diversified crop mixes and rotation practices, is used. Our results indicate that farmers respond to the long-term surface and ground water conditions as well as to the seasonal water supply variations. Climate change-induced variations in climate and water supply conditions could lead to substantial damages to irrigated agriculture. We project substantial losses (up to 32%) of the average crop revenue for major agricultural areas under future climate scenarios in Idaho. Finally, farmers demonstrate significantly varied responses given their water rights priorities, which imply that the distributional impact of climate change is sensitive to institutions such as the Prior Appropriation Doctrine.

  9. WATER SUPPLY AND ITS RELATION TO DIARRHOEAL DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kishore

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: As per WHO estimates, 80% of all the diseases in developing countries including India are related to unsafe drinking water and poor sanitation. Water pollution is invariably high in community wells. As such, incidence of diarrhoeal diseases is more in the rural set up and can be partly attributed to this. About 40% of the population does not have access to safe drinking water. Objective: To establish a relationship between water supply and incidence of diarrhoeal diseases. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Sawli village, District Samudrapur (Maharashtra. The study group comprised of 75 under five children, selected by simple random sampling. Data was collected on a pre-designed questionnaire by interviewing the mothers and was analyzed using an appropriate statistical package. Results: Prevalence ofdiarrhoea was found out to be 71 %. only 8% ofthe children who were exclusively breast-fed had any episode of diarrhea. Incidence of diarrhea was high in cases that were drawing water from open wells i.e. 65.3%. Only 28.5% cases reported diarrhea and were drawing water from sanitaiy wells as against 80.32% who took water from insanitary welts. About 45.33% mothers had wrong beliefs about thecauses of diarrhea. ORSwas used in only 30.66% of the cases as a treatment modality. Conclusions: Diarrhoeal incidence was significantly high in children below 3 years of age, prevalence was least in exclusively breast fed

  10. Well Head Protection Areas For Public Non-Community Water Supply Wells In New Jersey

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A Well Head Protection Area for a Public Non-Community Water Supply Well (PNCWS) in New Jersey is a map area calculated around a Public Non-Community Water Supply...

  11. Effect of Rainfall Variability on Water Supply in Ikeduru L.G.A. of Imo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    alternatives, which are that there is a strong relationship between rural water supply in ... Rainfall is a renewable resource, highly variable in space and time and ..... Due to the total dependence on the immediate environment for water supply,.

  12. Small distributed generation versus centralised supply: a social cost-benefit analysis in the residential and service sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulli, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims at measuring the social benefits of small CHP distributed generation (DG) in the residential and service sectors. We do this by comparing the social costs of decentralised and centralised supplies, simulating 'ideal' situations in which any source of allocative inefficiencies is eliminated. This comparison focuses on assessing internal and external costs. The internal costs are calculated by simulating the optimal prices of the electricity and gas inputs. The external costs are estimated by using and elaborating the results of the dissemination process of the ExternE project, one of the most recent and accurate methodologies in this field. The analysis takes into account the main sources of uncertainty about the parameter values, including uncertainty about external cost estimations. Despite these sources of uncertainty, the paper concludes that centralised supply is still preferable to small DG. In fact, the overall range of DG social competitiveness is restricted, even considering further remarkable improvements in DG electrical efficiency and investment costs. The results are particularly unfavourable for the residential sector, whereas, in the service sector, the performance of DG technologies is slightly better

  13. A new concept for the water supply at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Inigo-Golfin, J

    1998-01-01

    The present state of the station Le Vengeron (the main pumping station supplying CERN with drinking water), and also to comply with the new Swiss standards impose a thorough consolidation and upgrade of this station which is shared with the Services Industriels de Genève (SIG). The total cost of the works (around 62 MCHF) would be shared proportionally to the nominal flow-rate demand which, at present, is of 2/3 for CERN and 1/3 for SIG. An alternative to the above is a complete review of CERN's water consumption, reducing our needs by half, thus allowing savings in both investment and operation. This reduction in investment cost would be diverted towards much needed consolidation works for the existing facilities within CERN. This paper also reviews the planning and possible ways for the execution of the works and the future responsibilities of operation of the water distribution systems (drinking and machine) inside CERN's sites.

  14. Dual-purpose light water reactor supplying heat for desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waplington, G.; Fichtner, H.

    1978-01-01

    The technical as well as the economic aspects of using a large commercial light water reactor for the production of both electricity and potable water have been examined. For the basis of the study, the multistage flash distillation process was selected, in conjunction with a reactor rated at not less than 2100 MW (thermal). Combined use of a condensing and a back-pressure turbine (the latter matched to distillation plant steam requirements) represents a convenient method for supplying process heat. Overall costs can be fairly allocated to the two products using the ''power credit'' method. A sample economic evaluation indicates highly favorable water costs as compared with more conventional distillation schemes based on fossil fuel

  15. Water supply pipe dimensioning using hydraulic power dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreemathy, J. R.; Rashmi, G.; Suribabu, C. R.

    2017-07-01

    Proper sizing of the pipe component of water distribution networks play an important role in the overall design of the any water supply system. Several approaches have been applied for the design of networks from an economical point of view. Traditional optimization techniques and population based stochastic algorithms are widely used to optimize the networks. But the use of these approaches is mostly found to be limited to the research level due to difficulties in understanding by the practicing engineers, design engineers and consulting firms. More over due to non-availability of commercial software related to the optimal design of water distribution system,it forces the practicing engineers to adopt either trial and error or experience-based design. This paper presents a simple approach based on power dissipation in each pipeline as a parameter to design the network economically, but not to the level of global minimum cost.

  16. Soft computing techniques toward modeling the water supplies of Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadis, L; Maris, F; Tachos, S

    2011-10-01

    This research effort aims in the application of soft computing techniques toward water resources management. More specifically, the target is the development of reliable soft computing models capable of estimating the water supply for the case of "Germasogeia" mountainous watersheds in Cyprus. Initially, ε-Regression Support Vector Machines (ε-RSVM) and fuzzy weighted ε-RSVMR models have been developed that accept five input parameters. At the same time, reliable artificial neural networks have been developed to perform the same job. The 5-fold cross validation approach has been employed in order to eliminate bad local behaviors and to produce a more representative training data set. Thus, the fuzzy weighted Support Vector Regression (SVR) combined with the fuzzy partition has been employed in an effort to enhance the quality of the results. Several rational and reliable models have been produced that can enhance the efficiency of water policy designers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Stalagmite water content as a proxy for drip water supply in tropical and subtropical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vogel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this pilot study water was extracted from samples of two Holocene stalagmites from Socotra Island, Yemen, and one Eemian stalagmite from southern continental Yemen. The amount of water extracted per unit mass of stalagmite rock, termed "water yield" hereafter, serves as a measure of its total water content. Based on direct correlation plots of water yields and δ18Ocalcite and on regime shift analyses, we demonstrate that for the studied stalagmites the water yield records vary systematically with the corresponding oxygen isotopic compositions of the calcite (δ18Ocalcite. Within each stalagmite lower δ18Ocalcite values are accompanied by lower water yields and vice versa. The δ18Ocalcite records of the studied stalagmites have previously been interpreted to predominantly reflect the amount of rainfall in the area; thus, water yields can be linked to drip water supply. Higher, and therefore more continuous drip water supply caused by higher rainfall rates, supports homogeneous deposition of calcite with low porosity and therefore a small fraction of water-filled inclusions, resulting in low water yields of the respective samples. A reduction of drip water supply fosters irregular growth of calcite with higher porosity, leading to an increase of the fraction of water-filled inclusions and thus higher water yields. The results are consistent with the literature on stalagmite growth and supported by optical inspection of thin sections of our samples. We propose that for a stalagmite from a dry tropical or subtropical area, its water yield record represents a novel paleo-climate proxy recording changes in drip water supply, which can in turn be interpreted in terms of associated rainfall rates.

  18. Integration of carbon capture and sequestration and renewable resource technologies for sustainable energy supply in the transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minsoo; Won, Wangyun; Kim, Jiyong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of carbon capture and sequestration and renewable resource technologies. • A new superstructure-based optimization model to identify the energy supply system. • Model validation via application study of the future transportation sector in Korea. - Abstract: In this study, a new design for a sustainable energy system was developed by integrating two technology frameworks: the renewable resource-based energy supply and the conventional (fossil fuel) resource-based energy production coupled with carbon capture and sequestration. To achieve this goal, a new superstructure-based optimization model was proposed using mixed-integer linear programming to identify the optimal combination of these technologies that minimizes the total daily cost, subject to various practical and logical constraints. The performance of the proposed model was validated via an application study of the future transportation sector in Korea. By considering six different scenarios that combined varying crude oil/natural gas prices and environmental regulation options, the optimal configuration of the energy supply system was identified, and the major cost drivers and their sensitivities were analyzed. It was shown that conventional resource-based energy production was preferred if crude oil and natural gas prices were low, even though environmental regulation was considered. Environmental regulation caused an increase in the total daily cost by an average of 26.4%, mainly due to CO_2 capture cost.

  19. Implementation of DMAs in Intermittent Water Supply Networks Based on Equity Criteria

    OpenAIRE

    Amilkar E. Ilaya-Ayza; Carlos Martins; Enrique Campbell; Joaquín Izquierdo

    2017-01-01

    Intermittent supply is a common way of delivering water in many developing countries. Limitations on water and economic resources, in addition to poor management and population growth, limit the possibilities of delivering water 24 h a day. Intermittent water supply networks are usually designed and managed in an empirical manner, or using tools and criteria devised for continuous supply systems, and this approach can produce supply inequity. In this paper, an approach based on the hydraulic ...

  20. Water supply at Los Alamos: Current status of wells and future water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Stoker, A.K.

    1988-08-01

    The municipal and industrial use of groundwater at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and Los Alamos County was about 1.5 billion gallons during 1986. From a total of 19 wells that range in age from 5 to 41 years, the water was pumped from 3 well fields. The life expectancy of a well in the area ranges from 30 to 50 years, dependent on the well construction and rate of corrosion of the casing and screen. Twelve of the wells are more than 30-years old and, of these, four cannot be used for production, three because of well damage and one because the quality of water is not suitable for use. Eight of the twelve oldest wells are likely to be unsuitable for use in the next 10 years because of well deterioration and failure. The remaining 7 wells include 2 that are likely to fail in the next 20 years. Five of the younger wells in the Pajarito well field are in good condition and should serve for another two or three decades. The program of maintenance and rehabilitation of pumps and wells has extended production capabilities for short periods of time. Pumps may be effectively repaired or replaced; however, rehabilitation of the well is only a short-term correction to increase the yield before it starts to decline again. The two main factors that prevent successful well rehabilitation are: (1) chemicals precipitated in the gravel pack and screen restrict or reduce the entrance of water to the well, which reduces the yield of the well, and (2) the screen and casing become corroded to a point of losing structural strength and subsequent failure allows the gravel pack and formation sand to enter the well. Both factors are due to long-term use and result in extensive damage to the pump and reduce the depth of the well, which in turn causes the yield to decline. Once such well damage occurs, rehabilitation is unlikely to be successful and the ultimate result is loss of the well. Two wells were lost in 1987 because of such damage. 29 refs., 15 figs., 15 tabs

  1. Supply chain partnership within housing renovation : Approaches and expectations in the Dutch housing association sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruis, V.H.; Roders, M.J.; Straub, A.

    2011-01-01

    Supply chain partnerships within housing refurbishment have not been given much specific attention which may be found surprising because the refurbishment market is becoming of increasing importance compared to new construction and has specific characteristics that require adapted approaches to

  2. Supply chain partnerships within housing renovation- approaches and expectations in the Dutch housing association sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ad Straub; Martin Roders; Vincent Gruis

    2011-01-01

    Supply chain partnerships within housing refurbishment have not been given much specific attention which may be found surprising because the refurbishment market is becoming of increasing importance compared to new construction and has specific characteristics that require adapted approaches to

  3. Supply chain performance measurement: the case of the traditional food sector in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gellynck, X.; Molnar, A.; Aramyan, L.H.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a sound measurement instrument of traditional food supply chain performance integrating the perspectives of different stakeholders. Therefore first, stakeholders’ goals are generalized via focus groups and individual interviews. Second, stakeholders’ goals

  4. Auxiliary water supply device for BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Hiroshi.

    1994-01-01

    In the device of the present invention, a cooling condensation means is disposed to a steam discharge channel of a turbine for driving pumps to directly return condensates to the reactor, so that the temperature of the suppression pool water is not elevated. Namely, the cooling condensation means for discharged steams is disposed to the discharge channel of the turbine. The condensate channel from the cooling condensation means is connected to a sucking side of the turbine driving pump. With such a constitution, when the reactor is isolated from a main steam system, reactor scram is conducted. Although the reactor water level is lowered by the reactor scram, the lowering of the reactor water level is prevented by supplementing cooling water by the turbine driving pump using steams generated in the reactor as a power source. The discharged steams after driving the turbine are cooled and condensated by the cooling condensation means by way of the discharge channel and returned to the reactor again by way of the condensate channel. With such procedures, since the temperature of suppression pool water is not elevated, there is no need to operate other cooling systems. In addition, auxiliary water can be supplied for a long period of time. (I.S.)

  5. Ribeira do Iguape basin water quality assessment for drinking water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotrim, Marycel Elena Barboza

    2006-01-01

    Ribeira do Iguape Basin, located in the Southeast region of Sao Paulo state, is the largest remaining area of Mata Atlantica which biodiversity as rich as Amazon forest , where the readiness of water versus demand is extremely positive. With sparse population density and economy almost dependent on banana agriculture, the region is still well preserved. To water supply SABESP (Sao Paulo State Basic Sanitation Company). Ribeira do Iguape Businesses Unit - RR, uses different types of water supplies. In the present work, in order to ascertain water quality for human consumption, major and minor elements were evaluated in various types of water supply (surface and groundwater's as well as the drinking water supplied). Forty three producing systems were monitored: 18 points of surface waters and treated distributed water, 10 points of groundwater and 15 points of surface water in preserved areas, analyzing 30 elements. Bottom sediments (fraction -1 and 172 μg.g -1 , respectively. Data revealed that trace elements concentration in the sediment were below PEL (Probable Effect Level - probable level of adverse effect to the biological community), exception for Pb in Sete Barras and Eldorado. (author)

  6. 77 FR 42486 - Intent To Prepare an Integrated Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report; Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report; Environmental Impact Statement for Missouri River Municipal... Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended and the 1958 Water Supply Act, as amended, the U.S. Army Corps of... purpose of the study is to determine if changes to the current allocation of storage for M&I water supply...

  7. Some features of an economical central heating water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the necessary savings of energy and fuel as well as reduction of pollutant emission in the field of central district heat supply. Results of studies on solving these problems are presented. To provide thermal power based on heating water essential features of the district heating system in the GDR are outlined and advantages, resources and limits of specific solutions quantified. Finally, selected systems are evaluated as to energy and cost expenses, and some conclusions are drawn for future concepts. (author)

  8. Nuclear applications for steam and hot water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    An increase in the heat energy needs underlined by the potential increase in fossil fuel prices, particularly in oil supplies, and by the necessity for an improvement of the environment worldwide, as signalized by the IAEA Member States, prompted the decision to start a programme leading to this report. This document is intended to help to identify the experience of Member States where nuclear power plants or specialized nuclear heat plants are employed or envisaged to be used for distribution of steam or hot water to industrial or residential consumers, covering low and medium temperature ranges. 25 refs, 33 figs, 15 tabs

  9. Forests, Water and People: Drinking water supply and forest lands in the Northeast and Midwest United States, June 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina Barnes; Albert Todd; Rebecca Whitney Lilja; Paul Barten

    2009-01-01

    Forests are critically important to the supply of clean drinking water in the Northeast and Midwest portion of the United States. In this part of the country more than 52 million people depend on surface water supplies that are protected in large part by forested lands. The public is generally unaware of the threats to their water supplies or the connection between...

  10. Water Loss Reduction as the Basis of Good Water Supply Companies’ Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ociepa-Kubicka Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Companies using water distribution systems to reduce the operating costs and increase the reliability of water supply systems, as well as to protect disposable water resources, must search for ways to reduce water losses. The article points out the economic and environmental aspects of water losses. The possibilities of using international water loss assessment standards have been analysed. The reflections presented in the paper refer to the current trends and world standards in the field of water distribution systems management. The article presents the results and analysis of water losses for the water supply network operated by the Water Supply and Sewerage Company in Gliwice (Przedsiębiorstwo Wodociągów i Kanalizacji w Gliwicach, PWiK. The losses were determined on the basis of numerous indicators and compared with other distribution systems. At present, most indicators of water loss are at a very good or good level. The Infrastructure Leakage Index (ILI, as one of the most reliable loss indicators for the surveyed distribution system, assumed values from 3.33 in 2012 to 2.06 in 2015. The recent drop in ILI values indicates the effectiveness of the Company's strategy for water leakage reduction. The success comprises a number of undertakings, such as ongoing monitoring, pressure reduction and stabilisation, repairs and replacement of the most emergency wires.

  11. Water Loss Reduction as the Basis of Good Water Supply Companies' Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ociepa-Kubicka, Agnieszka; Wilczak, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    Companies using water distribution systems to reduce the operating costs and increase the reliability of water supply systems, as well as to protect disposable water resources, must search for ways to reduce water losses. The article points out the economic and environmental aspects of water losses. The possibilities of using international water loss assessment standards have been analysed. The reflections presented in the paper refer to the current trends and world standards in the field of water distribution systems management. The article presents the results and analysis of water losses for the water supply network operated by the Water Supply and Sewerage Company in Gliwice (Przedsiębiorstwo Wodociągów i Kanalizacji w Gliwicach, PWiK). The losses were determined on the basis of numerous indicators and compared with other distribution systems. At present, most indicators of water loss are at a very good or good level. The Infrastructure Leakage Index (ILI), as one of the most reliable loss indicators for the surveyed distribution system, assumed values from 3.33 in 2012 to 2.06 in 2015. The recent drop in ILI values indicates the effectiveness of the Company's strategy for water leakage reduction. The success comprises a number of undertakings, such as ongoing monitoring, pressure reduction and stabilisation, repairs and replacement of the most emergency wires.

  12. Features of internal water supply and water disposal of shopping centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline from an external system should be inlet in the part of the building where a large number of water folding devices will be concentrated. As a rule, for shopping centers with a lot of water consumers it is necessary to make not less than three inputs, each of them should be connected to different areas of an external ring water supply system in order to make the work of the system more reliable.The places for water folding fittings in shopping centers are the following. The water folding devices: mixers are placed in sanitary cabins of shopping centers. Usually, for for water saving in buildings with a big pass-through capacity per hour it is reasonable to use contactless mixers, which are turned on upon raising a hand with a help of motion sensor or light sensor. Another important argument in favor of such mixers is prevention of infections spread for the reason that the consumer doesn't touch the device, so, the risk of bacteria transmission via the device decreases. Such mixer supplies water with a demanded expense and temperature. As a rule, water for such mixers moves from the centralized internal water supply system of hot water, mixing up with cold water. If there is no centralized hot water supply system, it is possible to use hot water storage heaters in case of a small number of visitors or to reject mixers at all in favor of the cranes giving water of only one temperature (cold, which is also practiced.For the branch of economic and household the water receivers are used, which are present in sanitary cabins in most cases by toilet bowls, wash basins, urinals.

  13. Relationships demand-supply of water and the rate of water shortage as tools for evaluating water resources in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez Calle, Efrain Antonio; Gonzalo Rivera, Hebert; Vanegas, Sarmiento Raquel; Moreno, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    This paper shows updated results about Colombian water resources and their requirements by the economic sectors. Water demand water availability relationship is used as a pressure index on water resources. This relationship is expressed through the water scarcity index, which applies constraints over water availability; due to the runoff temporal variability and to the low levels of water during the dry season each year and for each geographic region to characterize average and low runoff years. Different water availability scenarios were building. One for modal runoff values and another for 95 percents for 2025 also were prepared. To the results call our attention to problems caused by the concentration of high density settlements and the presence of economics sectors in regions with low water availability. The infrastructure lag for management of a scarce high variable and over pressured resources emerges as a key factor to avoid a looming crisis in the process of water management

  14. Regulatory Impacts on Sustainable Drinking Water Supply: A Comparative Study on Dutch Water Companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalhuisen, J.M.; Nijkamp, P.

    2006-01-01

    Regulatory changes have exerted deep impacts on public service provision. This paper aims to disentangle recent differences in the external production circumstances of Dutch regional water companies in order to identify the crucial regulatory factors influencing the supply of water to various users

  15. Regulatory Impacts on Sustainable Drinking Water Supply: A Comparative Study on Dutch Water Companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalhuisen, J.M.; Nijkamp, P.

    2007-01-01

    Regulatory changes have exerted deep impacts on public service provision. This paper aims to disentangle recent differences in the external production circumstances of Dutch regional water companies in order to identify the crucial regulatory factors influencing the supply of water to various users

  16. Optimum combination of water drainage,water supply and eco-environment protection in coal-accumulated basin of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The conflict among water drainage,water supply and eco-environment protection is getting more and more serious due to the irrational drainage and exploitation of ground water resources in coal-accumulated basins of North China.Efficient solutions to the conflict are to maintain long-term dynamic balance between input and output of the ground water basins,and to try to improve resourcification of the mine water.All solutions must guarantee the eco-environment quality.This paper presents a new idea of optimum combination of water drainage,water supply and eco-environment protection so as to solve the problem of unstable mine water supply,which is caused by the changeable water drainage for the whole combination system.Both the management of hydraulic techniques and constraints in economy,society,ecology,environment,industrial structural adjustments and sustainable developments have been taken into account.Since the traditional and separate management of different departments of water drainage,water supply and eco-environment protection is broken up,these departments work together to avoid repeated geological survey and specific evaluation calculations so that large amount of national investment can be saved and precise calculation for the whole system can be obtained.In the light of the conflict of water drainage,water supply and eco-environment protection in a typical sector in Jiaozuo coal mine,a case study puts forward an optimum combination scheme,in which a maximum economic benefit objective is constrained by multiple factors.The scheme provides a very important scientific base for finding a sustainable development strategy.

  17. Arsenic in public water supplies and cardiovascular mortality in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano, Ma Jose; Boix, Raquel; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Palau, Margarita; Damian, Javier; Ramis, Rebeca; Barrio, Jose Luis del; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Background: High-chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. At low-chronic levels, as those present in Spain, evidence is scarce. In this ecological study, we evaluated the association of municipal drinking water arsenic concentrations during the period 1998-2002 with cardiovascular mortality in the population of Spain. Methods: Arsenic concentrations in drinking water were available for 1721 municipalities, covering 24.8 million people. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for cardiovascular (361,750 deaths), coronary (113,000 deaths), and cerebrovascular (103,590 deaths) disease were analyzed for the period 1999-2003. Two-level hierarchical Poisson models were used to evaluate the association of municipal drinking water arsenic concentrations with mortality adjusting for social determinants, cardiovascular risk factors, diet, and water characteristics at municipal or provincial level in 651 municipalities (200,376 cardiovascular deaths) with complete covariate information. Results: Mean municipal drinking water arsenic concentrations ranged from 10 μg/L. Compared to municipalities with arsenic concentrations 10 μg/L, respectively (P-value for trend 0.032). The corresponding figures were 5.2% (0.8% to 9.8%) and 1.5% (-4.5% to 7.9%) for coronary heart disease mortality, and 0.3% (-4.1% to 4.9%) and 1.7% (-4.9% to 8.8%) for cerebrovascular disease mortality. Conclusions: In this ecological study, elevated low-to-moderate arsenic concentrations in drinking water were associated with increased cardiovascular mortality at the municipal level. Prospective cohort studies with individual measures of arsenic exposure, standardized cardiovascular outcomes, and adequate adjustment for confounders are needed to confirm these ecological findings. Our study, however, reinforces the need to implement arsenic remediation treatments in water supply systems above the World Health Organization safety standard of 10 μg/L.

  18. Intrusion problematic during water supply systems' operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Jesus; Lopez-Jimenez, P. Amparo [Departamento de Ingenieria Hidraulica y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, 46022, Valencia (Spain); Ramos, Helena M. [Civil Engineering Department and CEHIDRO, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-07-01

    Intrusion through leaks occurrence is a phenomenon when external fluid comes into water pipe systems. This phenomenon can cause contamination problems in drinking pipe systems. Hence, this paper focuses on the entry of external fluids across small leaks during normal operation conditions. This situation is especially important in elevated points of the pipe profile. Pressure variations can origin water volume losses and intrusion of contaminants into the drinking water pipes. This work focuses in obtaining up the physical representation on a specific case intrusion in a pipe water system. The combination of two factors is required to generate this kind of intrusion in a water supply system: on one hand the existence of at least a leak in the system; on the other hand, a pressure variation could occur during the operation of the system due to consumption variation, pump start-up or shutdown. The potential of intrusion during a dynamic or transient event is here analyzed. To obtain this objective an experimental case study of pressure transient scenario is analyzed with a small leak located nearby the transient source.

  19. Proposed water-supply investigations in Sidamo Province, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, David A.

    1966-01-01

    The present report describes the results of an air and ground hydrologic reconnaissance of some 32,000 square kilometers in Sidamo Province of southern Ethiopia. Existing (1966) water resources developments, chiefly for livestock and village supplies, include surface reservoirs, a few drilled wells, several clusters of dug wells in the Mega area, several scattered springs, and the perennial Dawa Parma River. Surface-water reservoirs range from hand-dug ponds of a few hundred cubic meters capacity to large machine-constructed excavations built to hold 62,000 cubic meters of water. All the existing drilled wells tap saturated alluvium at depths of less than 120 meters. The dug wells tap water-bearing zones in tuffaceous lacustrine deposits or stream-channel alluvium generally at depths of less than 30 meters. The springs mostly rise from fractured Precambrian quartzite and individual discharges are all less than 75 liters per minute. The report also outlines the terms of reference for a longer term water-resources investigation of the region including staffing, housing and equipment requirements and other logistic support.

  20. Vulnerability of water supply systems to cyber-physical attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galelli, Stefano; Taormina, Riccardo; Tippenhauer, Nils; Salomons, Elad; Ostfeld, Avi

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of smart meters, distributed sensor networks and industrial control systems has largely improved the level of service provided by modern water supply systems. Yet, the progressive computerization exposes these critical infrastructures to cyber-physical attacks, which are generally aimed at stealing critical information (cyber-espionage) or causing service disruption (denial-of-service). Recent statistics show that water and power utilities are undergoing frequent attacks - such as the December power outage in Ukraine - , attracting the interest of operators and security agencies. Taking the security of Water Distribution Networks (WDNs) as domain of study, our work seeks to characterize the vulnerability of WDNs to cyber-physical attacks, so as to conceive adequate defense mechanisms. We extend the functionality of EPANET, which models hydraulic and water quality processes in pressurized pipe networks, to include a cyber layer vulnerable to repeated attacks. Simulation results on a medium-scale network show that several hydraulic actuators (valves and pumps, for example) can be easily attacked, causing both service disruption - i.e., water spillage and loss of pressure - and structural damages - e.g., pipes burst. Our work highlights the need for adequate countermeasures, such as attacks detection and reactive control systems.

  1. Working group report on water resources, supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marta, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    A summary is presented of the issues discussed, and the conclusions and recommendations of a working group on water resources, supply and demand. The issues were grouped into the categories of detecting climatic change and water impacts, simulating potential impacts, and responding to potential impacts. The workshop groups achieved consensus on the following points: the physics of global warming and climatic change have been satifactorily proven; there appears to be some evidence of climatic change and a signal could soon be detected; policy decisions and strategic plans for climatic change and its potential impacts are needed immediately; and targets and priorities for decison making should be identified and addressed immediately. Three top-priority issues are the identification of indicators for the detection of climatic change impacts on hydrology, determining response to climate-related change, and evaluation of design criteria. Better information on regional climate and hydrology under conditions of global warming is needed before design criteria could be altered

  2. Trends in Rural Water Supply: Towards a Service Delivery Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Moriarty

    2013-10-01

    The papers in this special issue argue that tackling these challenges requires a shift in emphasis in rural water supply in developing countries: away from a de-facto focus on the provision of hardware for first-time access towards the proper use of installed hardware as the basis for universal access to rural water services. The outline of the main actions required to achieve this shift are becoming clearer. Chief amongst these are the professionalisation of community management and/or provision of direct support to community service providers; adoption of a wider range of service delivery models than community management alone; and addressing the sustainable financing of all costs with a particular focus on financing capital maintenance (asset management and direct support costs. This introductory paper provides an overview of these issues and a guide to the other articles, which demonstrate these points.

  3. Radon-removal techniques for small community public water supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinner, N.E.; Malley, J.P.; Clement, J.A.; Quern, P.A.; Schell, G.S.

    1990-08-01

    The report presents the results of an evaluation, performed by the University of New Hampshire--Environmental Research Group (ERG), of radon removal in small community water supplies using full-scale granular activated carbon adsorption, diffused bubble aeration and packed tower aeration. Various low technology alternatives, such as loss in a distribution system and addition of coarse bubble aeration to a pilot-scale atmospheric storage tank were also evaluated. The report discusses each of the treatment alternatives with respect to their radon removal efficiency, potential problems (i.e., waste disposal, radiation exposure and intermedia pollution), and economics in small community applications. In addition, several sampling methods, storage times, scintillation cocktails and extraction procedures currently used in the liquid scintillation technique for analysis of radon in water were compared

  4. Climate Change, Forests, and Water Supply: Managing to Reduce Vulnerability in Central Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenberg, J.; Duinker, P.

    2009-12-01

    Global climate change is increasingly relevant in managing Canada’s forests sustainably. Forest managers are faced with the necessity of incorporating climate change into forest management plans. The formulation and evaluation of potential management strategies to contend with expected impacts of climate change will be necessary to reduce forest sector vulnerability. The Halifax Regional Water Commission manages forest watersheds for the purpose of supplying clean water to much of the Halifax Regional Municipality. The purpose of this study is to characterize the future forest structure of the two principal watersheds supplying the Halifax Regional Municipality using simulation modelling and to develop a framework of adaptive forest management. A combination of uncertainty analysis, sensitivity analysis, and field data collection are used to refine, calibrate, and validate the spatially dynamic landscape disturbance model LANDIS-II prior to the incorporation of climate change scenarios into model simulations. Final model-based analysis will inform framework development dedicated to improving watershed resilience in the face of future climate change. This study is applicable to forest management under a changing climate, but also has further significance to water security, as watershed management and point-source protection are tightly linked to forest management.

  5. Approximate dynamic fault tree calculations for modelling water supply risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindhe, Andreas; Norberg, Tommy; Rosén, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Traditional fault tree analysis is not always sufficient when analysing complex systems. To overcome the limitations dynamic fault tree (DFT) analysis is suggested in the literature as well as different approaches for how to solve DFTs. For added value in fault tree analysis, approximate DFT calculations based on a Markovian approach are presented and evaluated here. The approximate DFT calculations are performed using standard Monte Carlo simulations and do not require simulations of the full Markov models, which simplifies model building and in particular calculations. It is shown how to extend the calculations of the traditional OR- and AND-gates, so that information is available on the failure probability, the failure rate and the mean downtime at all levels in the fault tree. Two additional logic gates are presented that make it possible to model a system's ability to compensate for failures. This work was initiated to enable correct analyses of water supply risks. Drinking water systems are typically complex with an inherent ability to compensate for failures that is not easily modelled using traditional logic gates. The approximate DFT calculations are compared to results from simulations of the corresponding Markov models for three water supply examples. For the traditional OR- and AND-gates, and one gate modelling compensation, the errors in the results are small. For the other gate modelling compensation, the error increases with the number of compensating components. The errors are, however, in most cases acceptable with respect to uncertainties in input data. The approximate DFT calculations improve the capabilities of fault tree analysis of drinking water systems since they provide additional and important information and are simple and practically applicable.

  6. Modelling income distribution impacts of water sector projects in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, C S; Jones, S

    1991-09-01

    Dynamic analysis was conducted to assess the long-term impacts of water sector projects on agricultural income distribution, and sensitivity analysis was conducted to check the robustness of the 5 assumptions in this study of income distribution and water sector projects in Bangladesh. 7 transitions are analyzed for mutually exclusive irrigation and flooding projects: Nonirrigation to 1) LLP irrigation, 2) STW irrigation, 3) DTW irrigation, 4) major gravity irrigation, and manually operated shallow tubewell irrigation (MOSTI) and Flood Control Projects (FCD) of 6) medium flooded to shallow flooded, and 7) deeply flooded to shallow flooded. 5 analytical stages are involved: 1) farm budgets are derived with and without project cropping patterns for each transition. 2) Estimates are generated for value added/hectare from each transition. 3) Assumptions are made about the number of social classes, distribution of land ownership between classes, extent of tenancy for each social class, term of tenancy contracts, and extent of hiring of labor for each social class. 4) Annual value added/hectare is distributed among social classes. 5) Using Gini coefficients and simple ratios, the distribution of income between classes is estimated for with and without transition. Assumption I is that there are 4 social classes defined by land acreage: large farmers (5 acres), medium farmers (1.5-5.0), small farmers, (.01-1.49), and landless. Assumption II is that land distribution follows the 1978 Land Occupancy Survey (LOS). Biases, if any, are indicated. Assumption III is that large farmers sharecrop out 15% of land to small farmers. Assumption IV is that landlords provide nonirrigated crop land and take 50% of the crop, and, under irrigation, provide 50% of the fertilizer, pesticide, and irrigation costs and take 50% of the crop. Assumption V is that hired and family labor is assumed to be 40% for small farmers, 60% for medium farmers, and 80% for large farmers. It is understood that

  7. Pollution source localization in an urban water supply network based on dynamic water demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xuesong; Zhu, Zhixin; Li, Tian

    2017-10-27

    Urban water supply networks are susceptible to intentional, accidental chemical, and biological pollution, which pose a threat to the health of consumers. In recent years, drinking-water pollution incidents have occurred frequently, seriously endangering social stability and security. The real-time monitoring for water quality can be effectively implemented by placing sensors in the water supply network. However, locating the source of pollution through the data detection obtained by water quality sensors is a challenging problem. The difficulty lies in the limited number of sensors, large number of water supply network nodes, and dynamic user demand for water, which leads the pollution source localization problem to an uncertainty, large-scale, and dynamic optimization problem. In this paper, we mainly study the dynamics of the pollution source localization problem. Previous studies of pollution source localization assume that hydraulic inputs (e.g., water demand of consumers) are known. However, because of the inherent variability of urban water demand, the problem is essentially a fluctuating dynamic problem of consumer's water demand. In this paper, the water demand is considered to be stochastic in nature and can be described using Gaussian model or autoregressive model. On this basis, an optimization algorithm is proposed based on these two dynamic water demand change models to locate the pollution source. The objective of the proposed algorithm is to find the locations and concentrations of pollution sources that meet the minimum between the analogue and detection values of the sensor. Simulation experiments were conducted using two different sizes of urban water supply network data, and the experimental results were compared with those of the standard genetic algorithm.

  8. Costing the supply chain for delivery of ACT and RDTs in the public sector in Benin and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shretta, Rima; Johnson, Brittany; Smith, Lisa; Doumbia, Seydou; de Savigny, Don; Anupindi, Ravi; Yadav, Prashant

    2015-02-05

    Studies have shown that supply chain costs are a significant proportion of total programme costs. Nevertheless, the costs of delivering specific products are poorly understood and ballpark estimates are often used to inadequately plan for the budgetary implications of supply chain expenses. The purpose of this research was to estimate the country level costs of the public sector supply chain for artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) from the central to the peripheral levels in Benin and Kenya. A micro-costing approach was used and primary data on the various cost components of the supply chain was collected at the central, intermediate, and facility levels between September and November 2013. Information sources included central warehouse databases, health facility records, transport schedules, and expenditure reports. Data from document reviews and semi-structured interviews were used to identify cost inputs and estimate actual costs. Sampling was purposive to isolate key variables of interest. Survey guides were developed and administered electronically. Data were extracted into Microsoft Excel, and the supply chain cost per unit of ACT and RDT distributed by function and level of system was calculated. In Benin, supply chain costs added USD 0.2011 to the initial acquisition cost of ACT and USD 0.3375 to RDTs (normalized to USD 1). In Kenya, they added USD 0.2443 to the acquisition cost of ACT and USD 0.1895 to RDTs (normalized to USD 1). Total supply chain costs accounted for more than 30% of the initial acquisition cost of the products in some cases and these costs were highly sensitive to product volumes. The major cost drivers were found to be labour, transport, and utilities with health facilities carrying the majority of the cost per unit of product. Accurate cost estimates are needed to ensure adequate resources are available for supply chain activities. Product volumes should be considered when costing supply chain

  9. Water Supply or ‘Beautiful Latrines’? Microcredit for Rural Water Supply and Sanitation in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Reis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Around half of the Mekong Delta’s rural population lacks year-round access to clean water. In combination with inadequate hygiene and poor sanitation this creates a high risk of diseases. Microcredit schemes are a popular element in addressing such problems on the global policy level. The present paper analyses the contradictory results of such a microcredit programme for rural water supply and sanitation in the context of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, through a qualitative study primarily based on semi-structured interviews in rural communes of Can Tho City. We come to the conclusion that the programme has a positive effect regarding the safer disposal of human excreta as well as surface water quality, but a marginal impact on poverty reduction as it only reaches better-off households already having access to clean water. The paper shows how the outcome of rural water supply and sanitation policies are strongly influenced by the local ecological, technological, and social settings, in particular by stakeholders’ interests. The authors challenge the assumption that water supply and sanitation should be integrated into the same policy in all circumstances. ----- Etwa die Hälfte der ländlichen Bevölkerung des Mekong-Deltas hat nicht das ganze Jahr über Zugang zu sauberem Wasser. Zusammen mit unzureichender Hygiene und mangelnder sanitärer Grundversorgung erhöht diese Situation das Krankheitsrisiko. Auf globaler Ebene sind Mikrokreditprogramme eine gefragte Strategie, um diese Probleme zu behandeln. Der vorliegende Artikel analysiert die widersprüchlichen Ergebnisse eines solchen Mikrokreditprogramms für ländliche Wasser- und sanitäre Grundversorgung im Mekong-Delta in Vietnam im Rahmen einer qualitativen Studie, die auf halbstrukturierten Interviews im Raum Can Tho City basiert. Die Studie kommt zu dem Schluss, dass das Programm eine positive Wirkung in Bezug auf die sichere Entsorgung von Fäkalien und die Qualität des Regenwassers

  10. Potential impacts of changing supply-water quality on drinking water distribution: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Ya; Knibbe, Willem-Jan; Feng, Cuijie; Liu, Wentso; Medema, Gertjan; van der Meer, Walter

    2017-06-01

    Driven by the development of water purification technologies and water quality regulations, the use of better source water and/or upgraded water treatment processes to improve drinking water quality have become common practices worldwide. However, even though these elements lead to improved water quality, the water quality may be impacted during its distribution through piped networks due to the processes such as pipe material release, biofilm formation and detachment, accumulation and resuspension of loose deposits. Irregular changes in supply-water quality may cause physiochemical and microbiological de-stabilization of pipe material, biofilms and loose deposits in the distribution system that have been established over decades and may harbor components that cause health or esthetical issues (brown water). Even though it is clearly relevant to customers' health (e.g., recent Flint water crisis), until now, switching of supply-water quality is done without any systematic evaluation. This article reviews the contaminants that develop in the water distribution system and their characteristics, as well as the possible transition effects during the switching of treated water quality by destabilization and the release of pipe material and contaminants into the water and the subsequent risks. At the end of this article, a framework is proposed for the evaluation of potential transition effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of Investments in Irrigation Water Sector in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Fahad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation water sector is playing pivotal role in agricultural production and have prominent contribution to GDP (Gross Domestic Product both at provincial and country level. Many of the stakeholders including different ministries/department of Federal and Provincial governments, private sectors, farmers, and NGOs (Non-Government Organizations are investing in this sector. Although that the data and data analysis tools are present in most of the countries, yet a comprehensive information base on investments in irrigation water sector is missing. This has led to duplication at resources and beneficiaries? level on one side, as well as gaps in technical, infrastructural, institutional and managerial strategies of the irrigation water sector projects on the other. This paper analyzes investments in irrigation water sector made by government of KPK (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa during the last 10 fiscal years? time period (2003-2013 and identifies gaps. Besides recommendations are also made in order to overcome the identified gaps/issues.

  12. Arsenic in drinking water: a worldwide water quality concern for water supply companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. van Dijk

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available For more than a decade it has been known that shallow tube wells in Bangladesh are frequently contaminated with arsenic concentrations at a level that is harmful to human health. By now it is clear that a disaster of an unheard magnitude is going on: the World Health Organization has estimated that long-term exposure to arsenic in groundwater, at concentrations over 500 μg L−1, causes death in 1 in 10 adults. Other studies show that problems with arsenic in groundwater/drinking water occur in many more countries worldwide, such as in the USA and China. In Europe the focus on arsenic problems is currently confined to countries with high arsenic levels in their groundwater, such as Serbia, Hungary and Italy. In most other European countries, the naturally occurring arsenic concentrations are mostly lower than the European drinking water standard of 10 μg L−1. However, from the literature review presented in this paper, it is concluded that at this level health risks cannot be excluded. As consumers in European countries expect the drinking water to be of impeccable quality, it is recommended that water supply companies optimize arsenic removal to a level of <1 μg L−1, which is technically feasible.

  13. Greater Vancouver's water supply receives ozone treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, J.; Singh, I.; Reil, D. D.; Neden, G.

    2000-10-01

    To improve the overall quality of the treated water delivered to the member municipalities of the Greater Vancouver Water District (GVWD), the GVWD implemented a phased drinking water quality improvement program. The phased treatment program is directed at attaining effective disinfection while minimizing the formation of chlorinated disinfection by-products. Accordingly, the current primary disinfection method of chlorination was reevaluated and an ozone primary disinfection without filtration was authorized. Ozonization provides increased protection against Giardia and Cryptosporidium and a decrease in the formation potential for disinfection by-products (DPBs). This paper describes the design for the ozonation facility at Coquitlam, construction of which began in 1998 and completed during the summer of 2000. The facility houses the liquid oxygen supply, ozone generation, cooling water, ozone injection, primary off-gas ozone destruct system, and provides a home for various office, electrical maintenance and diesel generating functions. The second site at Capilano is expected to start construction in the fall of 2000 and be completed late in 2002. Wit its kilometre long stainless steel ozone contactor and sidestream injector tower, the Coquitlam Ozonation Facility is the first ozone pressure injection system of its kind in North America. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  14. Supply chain challenges in the South African automotive sector: do location, size and age matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheline Juliana Naude

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The South African automotive industry makes an important contribution to the South African economy. However, there are deficiencies within the local automotive component manufacturers’ (ACMs supplier base and therefore automotive assemblers, or original equipment manufacturers (OEMs, have to import many of their parts requirements. These deficiencies are caused by ACMs’ lack of technology, global supply capability, cost competitiveness and their geographic location (ACMs are scattered across the country. A study was conducted to explore the supply chain challenges South African ACMs face and whether the location, size and age of participating ACMs have a bearing on whether they face the same challenges. The results revealed that the most significant supply chain challenges in South Africa were in the customer relationship category. From the hypotheses testing, the conclusion could be drawn that, in general, participating ACMs face common supply chain challenges, irrespective of their location, age and size.This article contributes to the published research on the topic and the findings reveal that business opportunities in the automotive industry exist for entrepreneurs aspiring to enter into the automotive component industry.

  15. Application of BIM Technology in Building Water Supply and Drainage Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tianyun; Chen, Guiqing; Wang, Junde

    2017-12-01

    Through the application of BIM technology, the idea of building water supply and drainage designers can be related to the model, the various influencing factors to affect water supply and drainage design can be considered more comprehensively. BIM(Building information model) technology assist in improving the design process of building water supply and drainage, promoting the building water supply and drainage planning, enriching the building water supply and drainage design method, improving the water supply and drainage system design level and building quality. Combined with fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to analyze the advantages of BIM technology in building water supply and drainage design. Therefore, application prospects of BIM technology are very worthy of promotion.

  16. Perceptions of climate-related risk among water sector professionals in Africa-Insights from the 2016 African Water Association Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Katherine; Mbutu, Mwaura; Bartram, Jamie; Fuente, David

    2018-04-23

    The ability of water and wastewater utilities to provide safe and reliable water and sanitation services now and in the future will be determined, in part, by their resilience to climate change. Investment in infrastructure, planning, and operational practices that increase resilience are affected, in turn, by how water sector professionals perceive the risks posed to utilities by climate change and its related impacts. We surveyed water sector professionals at the 2016 African Water Association's Congress in Nairobi, Kenya to assess their perceptions of climate-specific and general risks that may disrupt utility service. We find that water sector professionals are most concerned about climate-specific and general risks that affect utility water supplies (quantity), followed by adequacy of utility infrastructure. We also find that professionals tend to rank climate-specific risks as less concerning than general risks facing utilities. Furthermore, non-utility professionals are more concerned about climate-specific risks and climate change in general than utility professionals. These findings highlight the multiple, competing risks utilities face and the need for adaptation strategies that simultaneously address climate-specific and general concerns of utilities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessing rural small community water supply in Limpopo, South Africa: water service benchmarks and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majuru, Batsirai; Jagals, Paul; Hunter, Paul R

    2012-10-01

    Although a number of studies have reported on water supply improvements, few have simultaneously taken into account the reliability of the water services. The study aimed to assess whether upgrading water supply systems in small rural communities improved access, availability and potability of water by assessing the water services against selected benchmarks from the World Health Organisation and South African Department of Water Affairs, and to determine the impact of unreliability on the services. These benchmarks were applied in three rural communities in Limpopo, South Africa where rudimentary water supply services were being upgraded to basic services. Data were collected through structured interviews, observations and measurement, and multi-level linear regression models were used to assess the impact of water service upgrades on key outcome measures of distance to source, daily per capita water quantity and Escherichia coli count. When the basic system was operational, 72% of households met the minimum benchmarks for distance and water quantity, but only 8% met both enhanced benchmarks. During non-operational periods of the basic service, daily per capita water consumption decreased by 5.19l (pwater sources were 639 m further (p ≤ 0.001, 95% CI 560-718). Although both rudimentary and basic systems delivered water that met potability criteria at the sources, the quality of stored water sampled in the home was still unacceptable throughout the various service levels. These results show that basic water services can make substantial improvements to water access, availability, potability, but only if such services are reliable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Privatization by Other Means: Social Power, Tankers and Techno-Assemblages of Water Supply in Amman, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, D.

    2016-12-01

    Combined piped and tanker based water supply systems have become a ubiquitous feature of urban waterscapes in the global South. Jordanian water sector, and Amman in particular has been a recipient of considerable international financial and technical assistance over the past decades. The international assistance has coupled with the Jordanian state's own pro-market ideological stance, and its political compulsions to spawn a techno-social assemblage of water supply that represents a hybrid state and commercial water supply system. I present the results of a field study in Amman, Jordan on water tankers and water users to understand the techno-political underpinnings of the hybrid system and its impact on differential access to water. I explore how Actor Network Theory (ANT) based analysis of tankers, suction pumps and piped water system and their materiality may explain differential access to water. But that exploration is inflected by a larger political ecological concern with questions of power and discourses about citizenship and claim making on the state. I find that ANT based focus on water technologies, while ontologically fertile, and epistemologically innovative, is nevertheless politically barren. Much richer political insights are to be gained from structural and post-structurally based investigations of the discursive and material drivers of the techno-social assemblages of water supply. The technologies don't just neutrally impact water access, but seem to almost intentionally favour the powerful over the powerless. Surely the political agency must not reside in inanimate technologies but in the social actors and structures that fashion those technologies, and configure them such to reinforce geographies of power. I call for a renewed focus on social power and how its impact on lived geographies is mediated by technology.

  19. A Holistic ICT Solution to Improve Matching between Supply and Demand over the Water Supply Distribution Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Anzaldi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While many water management tools exist, these systems are not usually interconnected and therefore cannot communicate between one another, preventing Integrated Water Resources Management to be fully achieved. This paper presents the solution proposed by WatERP project* where a novel solution enables better matching between water supply and demand from holistic perspective. Subsystems that control the production, management and consumption of water will be interconnected through both information architecture and intelligent infrastructure. The main outcome will consist of, a web-based Open Management Platform integrating near real-time knowledge on water supplies and demand, from sources to users, across geographic and organizational scales and supported by a knowledge base where information will be structured in water management ontology to ensure interoperability and maximize usability. WatERP will thus provide a major contribution to: 1 Improve coordination among actors, 2 Foster behavioural change, 3 Reduce water and energy consumption, 4 Optimize water accountability.

  20. FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS CONDUCTED IN THE LABORATORIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF WATER SUPPLY OF MGSU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Irina Nikolaevna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the work of the laboratories of the Department of Water Supply of MGSU. The laboratory of pipe-lines, pumping equipment and sanitary equipment operates in MGSU affiliated to the department of water supply. A hydraulic stand for testing and defining the the hydraulic characteristics of pressure and free-flow pipelines of water supply and sewerage systems is installed there. There are also stands for investigating the sanitary equipment of the buildings, the fire and hot water supply systems. The main research directions of the department of water supply are diverse: hydraulics of water supply systems, recon-struction of pipelines using trenchless technologies, reliable water supply and distribution systems, purification of natural water for drinking and industrial water supply, post-treatment of natural water for domestic water supply, resource conservation in domes-tic water supply systems, etc. The laboratory also has a computer lab, able to simultane-ously hold up to 30 students. In collaboration with the laboratory there operates a scien-tific circle for students and Master students, which provides a lot of interesting and useful information on the latest developments.

  1. The economic impacts of climate change on the Chilean agricultural sector: A non-linear agricultural supply model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ponce

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture could be one of the most vulnerable economic sectors to the impacts of climate change in the coming decades, with impacts threatening agricultural production in general and food security in particular. Within this context, climate change will impose a challenge to policy makers, especially in those countries that based their development on primary sectors. In this paper we present a non-linear agricultural supply model for the analysis of the economic impacts of changes in crop yields due to climate change. The model accounts for uncertainty through the use of Monte Carlo simulations about crop yields. According to our results, climate change impacts on the Chilean agricultural sector are widespread, with considerable distributional consequences across regions, and with fruits producers being worst-off than crops producers. In general, the results reported here are consistent with those reported by previous studies showing large economic impacts on the northern zone. However, our model does not simulate remarkable economic consequences at the country level as previous studies did.

  2. Measuring the Impact of Convenient Water Supply on Household Time Use in Rural Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J.; Masuda, Y.; Fortmann, L.; Smith-Nilson, M.; Gugerty, M.

    2012-12-01

    What is the impact of providing convenient water supply on water carriers' pattern of time use? How much of the freed time is re-allocated to paid market work, education (for girls), agricultural labor, or leisure? Do women report spending more time on activities they enjoy? Does convenient water supply lead to a re-allocation of leisure time to other household members? These questions are an important, but largely missing, piece of the economic evidence base for investment in the water supply sector. Cairncross and Valdmanis (2007) observe that "given the relevance of the time-saving benefit to water supply policy and the fact that the benefit is usually uppermost in the mind of the consumer, it is remarkable how few data have been collected on the amounts of time spent collecting water". We address this gap by measuring changes in time use among female water carriers before and after new water systems are installed in three rural villages in the Oromia region of Ethiopia. The timing of completion of the projects in the three villages was staggered over time for logistical reasons, so our quasi-experimental design allows us to control for any region-wide changes in time use. Because of low literacy levels, we used a pictorial time use elicitation approach based on respondents' recall of the previous day as well as the standard questions used in the DHS and LSMS ("how many minutes..."). We measured time use for all household members over the age of 10. We use this unique panel dataset with both pre- and post-project time use data to examine not only the effect on water carriers' time use but also any intra-household reallocation of time savings. In total, we interviewed 454 randomly-selected households in the three villages over three rainy seasons, and collected time use information on 1,590 household members. Primary water carriers spend (pre-project) an average of 110 minutes per day collecting water, roughly representative of water collection times reported in

  3. A capacity expansion planning model for integrated water desalination and power supply chain problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saif, Y.; Almansoori, A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Water and power supply chain is considered by a discrete optimization model. • The model examines the capacity expansion and operation of the supply chain problem. • Renewable/alternative power technologies and carbon mitigation are considered. • A case study of Abu Dhabi in UAE is examined as an application of the model. - Abstract: Cogeneration of water and power in integrated cogeneration production plants is a common practice in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries. There are several combinations of water desalination and power technologies which give significant adverse environmental impact. Renewable and alternative energy technologies have been recently proposed as alternative power production paths in the water and power sector. In this study, we examine the optimal capacity expansion of water and power infrastructure over an extended planning horizon. A generic mixed integer linear programming model is developed to assist in the decision making process on: (1) optimal installation of cogeneration expansion capacities; (2) optimal installation of renewable and alternative power plants; (3) optimal operation of the integrated water and power supply chain over large geographical areas. Furthermore, the model considers the installation of carbon capture methods in fossil-based power plants. A case study will be presented to illustrate the mathematical programming application for the Emirate of Abu Dhabi (AD) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The case study is solved reflecting different scenarios: base case scenario, integration of renewable and alternative technologies scenario, and CO_2 reduction targets scenario. The results show that increased carbon tax values up to 150 $/ton-CO_2 gives a maximum 3% cost increase for the supply chain net present value. The installation of carbon capture methods is not an economical solution due to its high operation energy requirements in the order of 370 kW h per ton of captured CO_2

  4. IMPROVING CYANOBACTERIA AND CYANOTOXIN MONITORING IN SURFACE WATERS FOR DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria in fresh water can cause serious threats to drinking water supplies. Managing cyanobacterial blooms particularly at small drinking water treatment plants is challenging. Because large amount of cyanobacteria may cause clogging in the treatment process and various cyanotoxins are hard to remove, while they may cause severe health problems. There is lack of instructions of what cyanobacteria/toxin amount should trigger what kind of actions for drinking water management except for Microcystins. This demands a Cyanobacteria Management Tool (CMT to help regulators/operators to improve cyanobacteria/cyanotoxin monitoring in surface waters for drinking water supply. This project proposes a CMT tool, including selecting proper indicators for quick cyanobacteria monitoring and verifying quick analysis methods for cyanobacteria and cyanotoxin. This tool is suggested for raw water management regarding cyanobacteria monitoring in lakes, especially in boreal forest climate. In addition, it applies to regions that apply international WHO standards for water management. In Swedish context, drinking water producers which use raw water from lakes that experience cyanobacterial blooms, need to create a monitoring routine for cyanobacteria/cyanotoxin and to monitor beyond such as Anatoxins, Cylindrospermopsins and Saxitoxins. Using the proposed CMT tool will increase water safety at surface water treatment plants substantially by introducing three alerting points for actions. CMT design for each local condition should integrate adaptive monitoring program.

  5. Designing water supplies: Optimizing drinking water composition for maximum economic benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Arvin, Erik; Bath, A.

    2011-01-01

    to water quality aspects, costs of water production, fresh water abstraction and CO2-emissions are integrated into a holistic economic assessment of the optimum share of desalinated water in water supplies. Results show that carefully designed desalination post-treatment can have net benefits up to €0.......3 ± 0.2 per delivered m3 for Perth and €0.4(±0.2) for Copenhagen. Costs of remineralization and green house gas emission mitigation are minor when compared to the potential benefits of an optimum water composition. Finally, a set of optimum water quality criteria is proposed for the guidance of water...... includes modeling of possible water quality blends and an evaluation of corrosion indices. Based on concentration-response relationships a range of impacts on public health, material lifetimes and consumption of soap have been valued for Perth, Western Australia and Copenhagen, Denmark. In addition...

  6. A case study on the status of water supply for domestic purposes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domestic water supply is a daily necessity and key factor in human health and well being. Without water, life cannot be sustained and lack of access to adequate water supplies leads to wide spread of diseases with children bearing the greatest health burden associated with poor water quality and sanitation. The WHO ...

  7. 76 FR 366 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9247-4] Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program... State Public Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Washington has adopted a definition for public water system that is analogous to EPA's definition of public water system, and has adopted regulations...

  8. 18 CFR 401.36 - Water supply projects-Conservation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water supply projects-Conservation requirements. 401.36 Section 401.36 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN... Compact § 401.36 Water supply projects—Conservation requirements. Maximum feasible efficiency in the use...

  9. 78 FR 42945 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9834-9] Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program... Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Oregon has adopted regulations analogous to EPA's Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; Ground Water...

  10. The Water-Energy-Food Nexus in a Rapidly Developing Resource Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. M.; Kirste, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Technological advances and access to global markets have changed the rate at which resource exploitation takes place. The environmental impact of the rapid development and distribution of resources such as minerals and hydrocarbons has led to a greater potential for significant stress on water resources both in terms of quality and quantity. How and where those impacts manifest is crucial to determining appropriate risk management strategies. North East British Columbia has an abundance of shale gas reserves that are anticipated to be exploited at a large scale in coming years, primarily for export as liquefied natural gas (LNG). However, there is growing concern that fracking and other activities related to shale gas development pose risks to water quality and quantity in the region. Water lies at the center of the water-energy-food nexus, with an accelerating water demand for fracking and industrial operations as well as for domestic, environmental and agricultural uses. Climate change is also anticipated to alter the hydrologic regime, posing added stress to the water resource. This case study examines the water-energy-food nexus in the context of a region that is impacted by a rapidly developing resource sector, encompassing water demand/supply, climate change, interaction between deep aquifers and shallow aquifers/surface waters, water quality concerns related to fracking, land use disturbance, and community impacts. Due to the rapid rate of development, there are significant knowledge gaps in our understanding of the water resource. Currently agencies are undertaking water resource assessments and establishing monitoring sites. This research aims to assess water security in North East British Columbia in a coordinated fashion through various partnerships. In addition to collecting baseline knowledge and data, the study will evaluate risk and resilience indicators in relation to water security. A risk assessment framework specific to the shale gas development

  11. Arsenic in public water supplies and cardiovascular mortality in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medrano, Ma Jose, E-mail: pmedrano@isciii.es [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Boix, Raquel; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Palau, Margarita [Subdireccion General de Sanidad Ambiental y Salud Laboral, Direccion General de Salud Publica y Sanidad Exterior, Ministerio de Sanidad y Politica Social, Madrid (Spain); Damian, Javier [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Ramis, Rebeca [Centro Nacional de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Sinesio Delgado 6, 28029 Madrid (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Barrio, Jose Luis del [Departamento de Salud Publica, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid (Spain); Navas-Acien, Ana [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2010-07-15

    water were associated with increased cardiovascular mortality at the municipal level. Prospective cohort studies with individual measures of arsenic exposure, standardized cardiovascular outcomes, and adequate adjustment for confounders are needed to confirm these ecological findings. Our study, however, reinforces the need to implement arsenic remediation treatments in water supply systems above the World Health Organization safety standard of 10 {mu}g/L.

  12. Work Floor Experiences of Supply Chain Partnering in the Dutch Housing Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Venselaar, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and research approach The construction industry is known for its waste of money and materials, low innovative capacities, and low productivity (Cox and Thompson, 1997; Vrijhoef, 2011). One reason is that the relationships between client and contractors is often perceived as a problematic one (Tazelaar en Snijder, 2010; Vrijhoef, 2011). Since decades, attention has been paid to supply chain partnering (SCP) in the construction industry, as a promising strategy to decrease wast...

  13. Technological Implications of Supply Chain Practices in Agri-Food Sector: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Mor; Sarbjit Singh; Arvind Bhardwaj; Lakhwinder Singh

    2015-01-01

    Today, the global business environment compels enterprises to consider rest of the world in their competitive strategy analysis where firms ignore external factors such as economic trends, competitive positions or technology advancement in other countries. While going truly global with supply chain management, a company develops product in the United States, produce in India and trade in Europe, and they have changed the traditional operation management & logistical activities. This change in...

  14. Internalizing the external costs of biogas supply chains in the Italian energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrizio, P.; Leduc, S.; Chinese, D.; Kraxner, F.

    2017-01-01

    In Italy biogas support schemes are being revised to include subsidies for the production of biomethane. Energy policies should foster environmentally optimal solutions, especially because social acceptance issues often arise in the case of biogas. In this paper we use the external cost methodology to quantify the environmental impact of airborne emissions associated with biogas-based energy vectors and their corresponding fossil substitutes These are evaluated at supply chain level and incorporated in a spatially explicit optimization model. The method is applied to northern Italy to compare the potential impact of alternative policy options. It is found that, while the external costs of biogas-based pathways are always lower than corresponding fossil fuel based pathways, the differences are generally so small that policies based on internalization of external costs alone would not lead to further development of biogas-based technologies. For all utilization pathways, consideration of local externalities leads to a less favourable evaluation of biogas-based technologies, which results in external costs even higher than the substituted fossil fuel if biogas is allocated to local heating. - Highlights: • A MILP model has been developed to optimize the economic and environmental performance of the biogas supply chain. • The external costs methodology has been included in the optimization process. • The emissions of the most relevant pollutants generated along the supply chain have been included in the assessment. • Different biogas utilization pathways have been considered.

  15. Supply prospects and network integration in the European natural gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, B.

    1998-01-01

    At least for the next 10-15 years, natural gas will be the fastest growing energy form in Europe, with a higher rate of growth in consumption (from a lower base) in central Europe than in western Europe. Although most of the prospective demand until 2010 is covered by signed import contracts and indigenous production, important additional gas supply capacity still has to be developed out of a plenitude of reserves within and (in the long run primarily) outside western and central Europe. The real problem is how to mobilise the reserves economically and direct them towards the European market, in competition with other markets. Europe has a sophisticated transmission system whose development has gone hand-in-hand with long-term import agreements. Among the missing links is the Interconnector, which, at the end of 1998, is due to integrate the UK and Ireland into mainland Europe. This is expected to enhance security of supply in both areas, to balance prices and maybe also to foster ideas of liberalisation. Overall, the European gas industry is in an excellent position to develop the supply of gas in an environmentally benign way. The future belongs all the more to natural gas, the fewer the mistakes that are made when it comes to matters of legal frameworks and taxation

  16. Evaluation of measures for greenhouse gas emissions reduction in energy supply sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khristov, Kh.; Todorova, S.; Vasilev, Kh.; Simeonova, K.

    1996-01-01

    This study performed by the Energoproekt Company, Sofia (BG) is aimed at estimating the economic costs of CO 2 emissions reduction in the electricity supply system for the period 2000-2020. The specific capital investment and cost price of the following technical options have been compared: reduction of electricity and heat loss; gas and steam cycle power plants; micro hydro potential; renewable sources; extension of nuclear power installations; gas steam turbine equipment; combined cycle power plants. The evaluation is made according to requirements of a baseline scenario - to develop an import-independent energy supply policy and an economic growth without sharp structural changes. A 25-year-operation of a hypothetical energy supply system is modelled by the ENPEP code (ANL, US). The three least-cost options identified are: power loss reduction; gas and steam cycle PPs and hydroelectric objects. An optimal combination of measures, so called ' aggregated scenario' is proposed. It would allow for CO 2 reduction by 23,7 mill tons and prime cost reduction by $19,83 per ton reduced emissions. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  17. National water summary 1987: Hydrologic events and water supply and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jerry E.; Chase, Edith B.; Paulson, Richard W.; Moody, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Water use in the United States, as measured by freshwater withdrawals in 1985, averaged 338,000 Mgal/d (million gallons per day), which is enough water to cover the 48 conterminous States to a depth of about 2.4 inches. Only 92,300 Mgal/d, or 27.3 percent of the water withdrawn, was consumptive use and thus lost to immediate further use; the remainder of the withdrawals (72.7 percent) was return flow available for reuse a number of times as the water flowed to the sea. The 1985 freshwater withdrawals were much less than the average 30 inches of precipitation that falls on the conterminous States each year; consumptive use accounted for only 7 percent of the estimated annual runoff of 1,230,000 Mgal/d. Nonetheless, as the State summaries on water supply and use clearly show, water is not always available when and where it is needed. Balancing water demands with available water supplies constitutes one of the major resource allocation issues that will face the United States in the coming decade.Of the 1985 freshwater withdrawals, 78.3 percent (265,000 Mgal/d) came from surface-water sources (streams and lakes), and 21.7 percent (73,300 Mgal/d) came from ground water. Surface water provided drinking water for about 47 percent of the Nation's total population. It was the source of 59.9 percent of the Nation's public-supply systems. For self-supplied withdrawals, surface water accounted for 1.6 percent of the domestic and commercial uses; 64.0 percent of the industrial and mining use; 99.4 percent of the thermoelectric generation withdrawals, mainly for cooling water; and 65.6 percent of the agricultural withdrawals. Eight States accounted for 43 percent of the surface-water use; California, Colorado, and Idaho used surface water primarily for irrigation, and Dlinois, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Texas used surface-water primarily for cooling condensers or reactors in thermoelectric plants.Ground water provided drinking water for 53 percent of the Nation's total

  18. Natural Radioactivity in Public Water supplies in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sostoa Grodo-Pacheco, A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper present the values of the Ra-226 concentration in public water supplies from different provinces of Spain and the values of anual intake. The Ra-226 concentration is in the range of (22.31 ± 3.44) 10 5 Bq/I - (8.55 ± 0.44) 10''2 Bq/l. The annual intake is in the range of (17.80±2.75) 10''2 Bq/l- (68 ± 3.5) Bq/I. As a conclusion no health risk due to intake is expected. Also is discussed in the paper a method for determination of Ra-226 concentration. (Author) 11 ref

  19. Impacts of market liberalization on the electricity supply sector: a comparison of the experience in Austria and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madlener, R.; Jochem, E.

    2001-01-01

    The impacts of market liberalization on the electricity supply sector depend on many different factors and boundary conditions. Comparing these impacts in Austria and Germany, two countries which both participate in the European internal market and have a central geographical location in Western Europe, and which both have borders and important trade relationships with Central and Eastern European countries, provides some important insights with regard to the following aspects: (a) the differences in the primary energy supply mix for electricity generation; (b) the substantial excess capacity, not only in the two countries analyzed but also in the EU as a whole, and its uneven reduction due to different market opening speeds within the Community and differences in the plant stock composition; (c) the utility company structure, including ownership and traditional energy supply and customer relations; (d) the changing situation faced by co-generation and small power producers; and (e) the relevant regulation of third-party access to the grid, electricity transmission, and prices for small/captive consumers. Last but not least, the paper also covers the influence of the expected increase in the volumes of electricity traded in the two countries, also with their Central and Eastern European neighbors (where the level of the playing field may not yet be equalized in the near future), and the concerns that this may lead to conflicts in the achievement of the energy policies, environmental policies, and climate change policies aimed for at the national and European level. (author)

  20. More efficient optimization of long-term water supply portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Brian R.; Characklis, Gregory W.; Dillard, Karen E. M.; Kelley, C. T.

    2009-03-01

    The use of temporary transfers, such as options and leases, has grown as utilities attempt to meet increases in demand while reducing dependence on the expansion of costly infrastructure capacity (e.g., reservoirs). Earlier work has been done to construct optimal portfolios comprising firm capacity and transfers, using decision rules that determine the timing and volume of transfers. However, such work has only focused on the short-term (e.g., 1-year scenarios), which limits the utility of these planning efforts. Developing multiyear portfolios can lead to the exploration of a wider range of alternatives but also increases the computational burden. This work utilizes a coupled hydrologic-economic model to simulate the long-term performance of a city's water supply portfolio. This stochastic model is linked with an optimization search algorithm that is designed to handle the high-frequency, low-amplitude noise inherent in many simulations, particularly those involving expected values. This noise is detrimental to the accuracy and precision of the optimized solution and has traditionally been controlled by investing greater computational effort in the simulation. However, the increased computational effort can be substantial. This work describes the integration of a variance reduction technique (control variate method) within the simulation/optimization as a means of more efficiently identifying minimum cost portfolios. Random variation in model output (i.e., noise) is moderated using knowledge of random variations in stochastic input variables (e.g., reservoir inflows, demand), thereby reducing the computing time by 50% or more. Using these efficiency gains, water supply portfolios are evaluated over a 10-year period in order to assess their ability to reduce costs and adapt to demand growth, while still meeting reliability goals. As a part of the evaluation, several multiyear option contract structures are explored and compared.

  1. Risk-based prioritization and its application to inspection of valves in the water sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlow, David R.; Beale, David J.; Mashford, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Isolation valves facilitate the effective operation and maintenance of water supply networks, but their sheer number presents a significant asset management challenge. If left unmanaged, valve reliability issues can become widespread. Inspections provide a means of increasing reliability, but a survey of industry practices indicated that some utilities did not have such a program in place. To improve asset management and reduce business risk exposure, such utilities need an effective means of commencing inspection programs. From a theoretical perspective, risk concepts provide a means of optimizing maintenance effort. However, in the face of poor data on reliability or condition, pragmatic approaches to risk-based prioritization are needed. One such approach, risk indexing, is considered in this paper. Background on the research is presented, including the application of risk-based inspection concepts within the water sector. The development of a risk indexing scheme is then investigated, drawing on two industry workshops in which the analytical hierarchy process was used to set relative weights. It is concluded that risk indexing provides the basis for a rational prioritization process in the absence of data on valve reliability or condition. - Highlights: ► Importance of valve inspections to water network reliability. ► Theoretical perspective of risk concepts that provide a means of optimizing inspection programs. ► Pragmatic approaches to prioritization in light of poor valve data. ► Development and assessment of a risk index scheme. ► Use of the analytical hierarchy process to set relative weights of risk factors.

  2. Adaptation to climate-induced regional water constraints in the Spanish energy sector: An integrated assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Zarrar; Linares, Pedro; García-González, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The energy sector depends on water in all phases of its life-cycle, including raw material extraction, power plant cooling, irrigation of biofuel crops and directly in hydropower generation. In the coming decades, several regions of the world are expected to experience a decrease in water resource availability, in part due to climate change. The dependence of the energy sector on water resources calls for an active effort to adapt to the possible scenarios. This paper presents a novel model that addresses the direct impacts of regional and temporal water shortages on energy operation and investment decisions. The paper investigates the costs and benefits of adapting the energy sector to climate-induced water scarcity. The results show that the increase in costs for an energy plan that considers future water stress is relatively small as compared to one which ignores it. A plan which ignores water constraints, however, may lead to significant economic damages when actually exposed to water shortages. The results also highlight the value of the availability of water for the energy sector, which is significantly higher than existing prices. The paper concludes that the potential benefits to be gained by integrating energy and water models can be considerable. - Highlights: • Spatial and temporal water constraints are added to an energy planning model. • Integrated water-energy planning can lead to significant savings in future water-stressed scenarios. • Actual value of water for the energy sector may be much higher than existing prices.

  3. A COMPARISON OF GREEN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT PRACTICES AMONG INDUSTRIES SECTORS IN CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Miyadera, Tetsuhiko; Fujita, Tsuyoshi

    This paper aims to examine the differences of Green supply chain management (GSCM) implementation among chemical, automobile and machinery industries in China based on a questionnaire survey designed by Industrial Ecology at two industrial parks in Shenyang city. Exploratory factor analysis and one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the data. The main result was that the GSCM practices of the three industries are still at a beginning stage. The level of GSCM practices of automobile industry (promoted by international market competition) was higher than those of chemical and machinery industry (promoted by domestic laws and policies).

  4. The Water Supply of El Morro National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Samuel Wilson; Baldwin, Helene Louise

    1964-01-01

    In the land of enchantment, between Gallup and Grants, N. Mex., near the Zuni Mountains, a huge sandstone bluff rises abruptly 200 feet above the plain. The Spaniards called it 'El Morro,' which means 'the headland' or 'bluff.' Around it are other mesas and canyons and stands of pinon and ponderosa pine. Other great rocks are nearby, but none are as popular as El Morro, and none have been as important to the traveler. For at El Morro there is water. In that country, water is scarce and precious. In the old days, travelers from Santa Fe would tell each other about the pool of clear, refreshing water at the base of the huge rock. This is the story of the great bluff, its water supply, and the rocks around it. In the late summer of 1849, an American lieutenant of the Topographical Engineers, James H. Simpson, accompanied infantry and artillery troops on a reconnaissance march from Santa Fe into the Navajo Country. On September 18, at the urging of one Mr. Lewis, an Indian trader, Lieutenant Simpson left the main party in order to see 'half an acre of inscriptions' upon a huge rock (fig. 1) . Although somewhat dubious, the Lieutenant had allowed himself to be persuaded by Lewis that the trip was worthwhile. Taking with him an artist named R. H. Kern, another man by the name of Bird, and Mr. Lewis as guide, he set off through miles of desert country, filled with huge red and white sandstone rocks, 'some of them looking like steamboats, and others presenting very much the appearance of facades of heavy Egyptian architecture'.

  5. An Analysis on the Economical Impacts from the Establishment of Environment-friendly Taxation System I concentrating on a Subsidy for Water Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, D.K.; Cho, S.H.; Kang, M.O.; Lim, H.J. [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    Recently, rapid economic growth and water shortage have become of growing concern. The relationship between the economy and water resources is not seemingly apparent, but in the environmental context, there exists a close interaction. By and large, government policies emphasizing economic issues can very well be subject to neglecting environmental issues. In addition, it is a well-known fact that supply side management policies have a negative impact on the environmental sector. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of securing economic growth and improving environmental quality simultaneously by taking a static general equilibrium approach. Implementation of such policy is initiated by means of cutting environmentally unfriendly subsidies to water sector (water supply and sewage). The revenue from the reduction of subsidies is associated with indirect taxes in production sectors, which consequently reduces indirect tax rates. The study has revealed a type of double dividend effect: reduction of water supply and increase of gross domestic products (GDP). The GDP changes 0.299% - 0.561% according to variations of elasticities and the way revenue is linked with indirect taxes applied to scenarios. Meanwhile, the impacts of cutting subsidies in the water sector result in the significant increase of water prices and the reduction of water output respectively. The output reduction is proportional to values of elasticity utilized; starting a 10% for zero up to 60%. Several policy implications can be inferred from the results of this study. Taking in account the long-term effects of the subsidy-cut policy, the study predicts more output reduction in the water sector since, economically-speaking, long-term elasticities are larger than the short-term ones, like that in the present study. Hence, a current water policy that is under-priced, so as to allow over-consumption, should be changed in order for the society to achieve economic growth and

  6. HEAT LOSS FROM HOT WATER SUPPLY LINE IN A RESIDENTIAL BUILDING

    OpenAIRE

    近藤, 修平; 鉾井, 修一

    2011-01-01

    In order to the evaluate heat loss from hot water supply lines in a residential building, hot water demand in a house in Chiba prefecture was measured and analyzed. The following results were obtained. 1. The heat loss of the hot water supply line was about 132kJ for the shower and 110kJ for the bathtub in winter. Since the temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of the hot water supply line is small, the measured heat loss from the hot water supply line sometimes becomes negative...

  7. A Review of the Water and Energy Sectors and the Use of a Nexus Approach in Abu Dhabi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Parneet; Al Tenaiji, Ameena Kulaib; Braimah, Nuhu

    2016-03-25

    Rapid population increase coupled with urbanization and industrialization has resulted in shortages of water in the Middle East. This situation is further exacerbated by global climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions. Recent research advocates that solutions to the global water security and scarcity crisis must involve water-energy nexus approaches. This means adopting policies and strategies that harmonize these inter-related sectors to minimize environmental impact while maximizing human benefit. In the case of Abu Dhabi, when designing and locating oil/gas refineries and associated power generation facilities, previous relevant decisions were based on simple economic and geographical grounds, such as nearness to oil rigs, pipelines, existing industries and port facilities, etc. The subsequent design and location of water abstraction and treatment works operated by the waste heat from these refining and/or power generation processes was catered for as an afterthought, meaning that there is now a mismatch between the water and energy supplies and demands. This review study was carried out to show how Abu Dhabi is trying now to integrate its water-energy sectors using a nexus approach so that future water/power infrastructure is designed optimally and operated in harmony, especially in regard to future demand. Based upon this review work, some recommendations are made for designers and policy makers alike to bolster the nexus approach that Abu Dhabi is pursuing.

  8. Chemical, physical, and radiological quality of selected public water supplies in Florida, January-May 1979. Water-resources investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franks, B.J.; Irwin, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Most public water supplies sampled in Florida meet the National Interim Primary and Proposed Secondary Drinking Water Regulations. This conclusion is based on a water quality reconnaissance of 131 raw and treated public supplies throughout the State during the period January through May 1979. In a few public supplies, primary drinking water regulation maximum contaminant levels were exceeded for mercury, turbidity, and gross alpha particle activity. Secondary drinking water regulations were also occasionally exceeded in some public supplies for such parameters as chloride, pH, color, dissolved solids, iron, and manganese

  9. Quality of surface-water supplies in the Triangle area of North Carolina, water year 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifle, C. A.; Giorgino, M. J.; Rasmussen, R. B.

    2014-01-01

    Surface-water supplies are important sources of drinking water for residents in the Triangle area of North Carolina, which is located within the upper Cape Fear and Neuse River Basins. Since 1988, the U.S. Geological Survey and a consortium of governments have tracked water-quality conditions and trends in several of the area’s water-supply lakes and streams. This report summarizes data collected through this cooperative effort, known as the Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project, during October 2008 through September 2009. Major findings for this period include: - Annual precipitation was approximately 20 percent below the long-term mean (average) annual precipitation. - Streamflow was below the long-term mean at the 10 project streamgages during most of the year. - More than 7,000 individual measurements of water quality were made at a total of 26 sites—15 in the Neuse River Basin and 11 in the Cape Fear River Basin. Forty-seven water-quality properties and constituents were measured. - All observations met North Carolina water-quality standards for water temperature, pH, hardness, chloride, fluoride, sulfate, nitrate, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, nickel, and selenium. - North Carolina water-quality standards were exceeded one or more times for dissolved oxygen, dissolved oxygen percent saturation, chlorophyll a, mercury, copper, iron, manganese, silver, and zinc. Exceedances occurred at 23 sites—13 in the Neuse River Basin and 10 in the Cape Fear River Basin. - Stream samples collected during storm events contained elevated concentrations of 18 water-quality constituents compared to samples collected during non-storm events. - Concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus were within ranges observed during previous years. - Five reservoirs had chlorophyll a concentrations in excess of 40 micrograms per liter at least once during 2009: Little River Reservoir, Falls Lake, Cane Creek Reservoir, University Lake, and Jordan Lake.

  10. A Sustainable Closed-Loop Supply Chain Decision Mechanism in the Electronic Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiafu Su

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In a closed-loop supply chain for electronic products, the manufacturer’s priority is to enhance the residual value of the collected end-of-use product and decide whether to outsource this business to a retailer, a third-party service, or retain it exclusively. In this paper, we constructed three models to study the decision mechanism in a closed-loop supply chain, with different players selected to collect the used product. By comparing the three models, we characterized the conditions under which the manufacturer will benefit most, and we then aimed to determine the best choice for the manufacturer. Our findings show that, when the retailer and the third-party service provider provide equal performance in collecting the used product, the manufacturer will give priority to the third-party service provider if they choose to outsource this business. If the reverse flows managed by the retailer result in a higher payoff for the manufacturer, then the manufacturer will choose to outsource this business to the retailer who will also benefit.

  11. LPG consumption in the long term: supply, pricing demand with particular reference to the petrochemical sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shammas, P.

    1996-01-01

    Supply of LPG is forecast to grow over the next decade from the present level of 180 million t/y to about 185-190 million t/y, depending on demand in Asia which is rising rapidly and on new LPG export projects. Most of the increase in supply will come from new gas and crude oil production, from new LPG ventures, and from refineries reducing the n-butane content of motor gasoline. Pricing will remain volatile as a result of crude oil price volatility, variations in the winter weather in the Northern Hemisphere, and as result of competition between ethane, PPG, naphtha and condensate as ethylene cracker feedstocks. Demand for LPG in OECD countries will continue to show steady growth. The increase in demand will be more rapid in the relatively less developed OECD countries, as the trend in Spain has shown in recent years. Provided that the LPG price is competitive, demand in China, South-East Asia and the Indian sub-continent could grow beyond current projections. Consumption in these countries will depend on the installation of distribution facilities and the rate at which LPG can substitute for traditional fuels and kerosene as well as compete for limited disposable incomes. (author)

  12. Improvement in supply chain management for oil and gas sector using drag reduction theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjum, A.A.; Chughtai, A.; Shafeeq, A.; Muhammad, A.

    2010-01-01

    Supply chain management is an integrative philosophy about managing the flow of distribution channels from supplier to the consumer. PARCO, an oil and gas company in Pakistan has three existing pipelines. Out of three, two pipelines are running parallel from Karachi to Mehmood kot. One pipeline is of crude oil and meeting the demand of PARCO refinery while second pipeline is of High Speed Diesel (HSD) and third pipeline is of (HSD and Kerosene) running from Mehmood Kot to Machhike (Sheikhupura). PARCO supply petroleum products from Shikarpur, Mehmood Kot, Faisalabad and Machhike to oil marketing companies (OMCs) as per their share, standard and demand. The purpose of these pipelines is to meet the country demand for petroleum products at various locations all over Pakistan. In the peak season when OMCs have high demand and receipt of product from PARCO pipelines are less, there is a need to enhance the flow rate of oil inside the PARCO pipelines to fulfill the demand of OMCs. This could be done economically by the application of drag reduction theory. So by injecting drag reducer, dragging of the oil inside the pipeline could appreciably be reduced thereby improving the pumping of oil. (author)

  13. Determination of aluminium and physicochemical parameters in the palm oil estates water supply at Johor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siti Farizwana, M R; Mazrura, S; Zurahanim Fasha, A; Ahmad Rohi, G

    2010-01-01

    The study was to determine the concentration of aluminium (Al) and study the physicochemical parameters (pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), turbidity, and residual chlorine) in drinking water supply in selected palm oil estates in Kota Tinggi, Johor. Water samples were collected from the estates with the private and the public water supplies. The sampling points were at the water source (S), the treatment plant outlet (TPO), and at the nearest houses (H1) and the furthest houses (H2) from the TPO. All estates with private water supply failed to meet the NSDWQ for Al with mean concentration of 0.99 ± 1.52 mg/L. However, Al concentrations in all public water supply estates were well within the limit except for one estate. The pH for all samples complied with the NSDWQ except from the private estates for the drinking water supply with an acidic pH (5.50 ± 0.90). The private water supply showed violated turbidity value in the drinking water samples (14.2 ± 24.1 NTU). Insufficient amount of chlorination was observed in the private water supply estates (0.09 ± 0.30 mg/L). Private water supplies with inefficient water treatment served unsatisfactory drinking water quality to the community which may lead to major health problems.

  14. Water Quality Study on the Hot and Cold Water Supply Systems at Vietnamese Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Toyosada

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted as part of the Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM of the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, and the Ministry of the Environment project’s preparation in Vietnam. Samples were taken from hot and cold water supplies from guest rooms’ faucets in 12 hotels in Hanoi city, Vietnam, and 13 hotels in Japan for comparison. A simple water quality measurement and determination of Legionella was carried out. The results showed that residual effective chlorine—which guarantees bactericidal properties—was not detected in tap water supplied in hotel rooms in Vietnam, and nitrite (an indicator of water pollution was detected in 40% of buildings. In the hotels in Japan, the prescribed residual chlorine concentration met the prescribed levels, and nitrite was not detected. Additionally, while there was no Legionella detected in the Japanese cases, it was detected in most of the Vietnamese hotels, which were found to manage the hot water storage tank at low temperatures of 40–50 °C. It was found that there were deficiencies in cold and hot water supply quality, and that there was no effective system in place for building operation maintenance and management.

  15. Study on Utilization of an Artesian Well as a Source of Water Supply at Raw Water Backup System (GBA01)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosa Pujiarta; Yuyut Suraniyanto; Amril; Setyo Budi Utomo

    2012-01-01

    Raw water supply system (GBA01) is a unit of ponds used as a provider of raw water for secondary cooling system and free mineral water production systems. Source of raw water pond has been supplied from PAM Puspiptek with water conductivity between 126-310 μS / cm and a pH of 6 to 8, and this condition is maintained because there is no other source that is used to supply water to the reactor cooling water supply. This conductivity is always unstable, if during the dry season the conductivity is low trend, but in the rainy season the conductivity will be increase because the water contains a lot of mud. And one more problem that is important is if the PAM Puspiptek failed to supply fresh water to the reactor. So to handling and anticipate these things, necessary to optimize the deep well former Interatom legacy as a backup water supply for raw water supply system of the reactor. With a conductivity of 136 μS / cm, pH 7,4 and total hardness 37 ppm, the water from deep wells can be used as a backup supply of secondary raw water cooling system. (author)

  16. Evaluating Water Supply and Water Quality Management Options for Las Vegas Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.

    2007-05-01

    The ever increasing population in Las Vegas is generating huge demand for water supply on one hand and need for infrastructure to collect and treat the wastewater on the other hand. Current plans to address water demand include importing water from Muddy and Virgin Rivers and northern counties, desalination of seawater with trade- payoff in California, water banking in Arizona and California, and more intense water conservation efforts in the Las Vegas Valley (LVV). Water and wastewater in the LVV are intrinsically related because treated wastewater effluent is returned back to Lake Mead, the drinking water source for the Valley, to get a return credit thereby augmenting Nevada's water allocation from the Colorado River. The return of treated wastewater however, is a major contributor of nutrients and other yet unregulated pollutants to Lake Mead. Parameters that influence the quantity of water include growth of permanent and transient population (i.e., tourists), indoor and outdoor water use, wastewater generation, wastewater reuse, water conservation, and return flow credits. The water quality of Lake Mead and the Colorado River is affected by the level of treatment of wastewater, urban runoff, groundwater seepage, and a few industrial inputs. We developed an integrated simulation model, using system dynamics modeling approach, to account for both water quantity and quality in the LVV. The model captures the interrelationships among many variables that influence both, water quantity and water quality. The model provides a valuable tool for understanding past, present and future pathways of water and its constituents in the LVV. The model is calibrated and validated using the available data on water quantity (flows at water and wastewater treatment facilities and return water credit flow rates) and water quality parameters (TDS and phosphorus concentrations). We used the model to explore important questions: a)What would be the effect of the water transported from

  17. Water supply development and tariffs in Tanzania: From free water policy towards cost recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashauri, Damas A.; Katko, Tapio S.

    1993-01-01

    The article describes the historical development of water tariff policy in Tanzania from the colonial times to present. After gaining independence, the country introduced “free” water policy in its rural areas. Criticism against this policy was expressed already in the 1970s, but it was not until the late 1980s that change became unavoidable. All the while urban water tariffs continued to decline in real terms. In rural and periurban areas of Tanzania consumers often have to pay substantial amounts of money for water to resellers and vendors since the public utilities are unable to provide operative service. Besides, only a part of the water bills are actually collected. Now that the free water supply policy has been officially abandoned, the development of water tariffs and the institutions in general are a great challenge for the country.

  18. Development of specific water quality index for water supply in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiwat Prakirake

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the specific water quality index for assessing water quality in terms of water supply (WSI usage has been developed by using Delphi technique and its application in Thai rivers is proposed. The thirteen parameters including turbidity, DO, pH, NO3-N, TDS, FCB, Fe, color, BOD, Mn, NH3-N, hardness, and total PO4-P are employed for the estimation of water quality. The sub-index transformation curves are established for each variable to assess the variation in water quality level. An appropriate function to aggregate overall sub-indices was weighted Solway function that provided reasonableresults for reducing ambiguous and eclipsing effects for high and slightly polluted samples. The developed WSI couldbe applied to measure water quality into 5 levels - very good (85-100; good (80-<85; average (65-<80; poor (40-<65and very poor (<40. The proposed WSI could be used for evaluating water quality in terms of water supply. In addition, it could be used for analyzing long-term trait analysis and comparing water quality among different reaches of rivers or between different watersheds.

  19. A Framework for Sustainable Urban Water Management through Demand and Supply Forecasting: The Case of Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yalçıntaş

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The metropolitan city of Istanbul is becoming overcrowded and the demand for clean water is steeply rising in the city. The use of analytical approaches has become more and more critical for forecasting the water supply and demand balance in the long run. In this research, Istanbul’s water supply and demand data is collected for the period during 2006 and 2014. Then, using an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA model, the time series water supply and demand forecasting model is constructed for the period between 2015 and 2018. Three important sustainability metrics such as water loss to supply ratio, water loss to demand ratio, and water loss to residential demand ratio are also presented. The findings show that residential water demand is responsible for nearly 80% of total water use and the consumption categories including commercial, industrial, agriculture, outdoor, and others have a lower share in total water demand. The results also show that there is a considerable water loss in the water distribution system which requires significant investments on the water supply networks. Furthermore, the forecasting results indicated that pipeline projects will be critical in the near future due to expected increases in the total water demand of Istanbul. The authors suggest that sustainable management of water can be achieved by reducing the residential water use through the use of water efficient technologies in households and reduction in water supply loss through investments on distribution infrastructure.

  20. Life-cycle assessments in the South African water sector: A review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, in South Africa it is important to promote the use of LCAs for the water sector in order to improve efficiency of processes and systems, but also to promote life-cycle based water footprinting and to include differentiated water consumption data into life-cycle inventories to make more efficient use of water as a ...

  1. INFLUENCE OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND FACTORS AT THE DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENTALLY RESPONSIBLE HOUSING AND UTILITIES SECTOR IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia B. Safronova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Empirical marketing regional research on supply and demand factors of housing and communal services (HCS revealed determinants of customer loyalty and satisfaction with the service level and factors influencing on willingness to purchase additional services. Specific features of housing and utilities sector (HUS as a social significant industry determine requirements to models reflecting reciprocal influence of indices of satisfaction, loyalty and economic indices of operation. The article presents definition of requirements along with development of techniques for modeling influence of satisfaction and loyalty on consumer behaviour of clients. The authors demonstrate trustworthy statistical results of correlative interrelationship of different factors. There have been designed regression models for taking management solutions by executives of management company housing and communal services at the development environmental responsibility. The causes that lead and hamper development of socially oriented services in different regions of the Russian Federation have been identified.

  2. Green supply chain management strategies - experiences from the Danish textile sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forman, Marianne; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    This paper focuses on Danish textile industry experiences with setting environmental requirements throughout the supply chain. Based on a qualitative study, three models were formulated for the development of environmental competency in the product chain. The models centre on the environmental...... to their potential contribution to a long-term environmental effort, including how the models contribute to the spread of environmental competency etc. to other textile companies, as well as how certain model aspects ensure/hinder stabilisation of the product chain, including the interaction between social, economic......, legal, and environmental variables, among others. This last theme is central as it says much about the durability of the models and the inherent risk factors with regard to the organisations involved. The first section of this article will outline the background and status of environmental efforts...

  3. Corporatization of the water sector: Implications for transitioning to sustainable urban water management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratini, Chiara; Elle, Morten; Brown, Norman R.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of climate change, the Danish water sector is experiencing two major pressures. On one hand, a number of agents are pushing towards more sustainable urban water management (SUWM) approaches with the aim of improving surface water quality and mitigating flood risk. On the other hand....... A more direct collaboration of the national regulator of competitive performances with government institutions and other non-governmental actors might be an effective answer to such challenges....... the influencing factors for transitioning to SUWM and highlighted the potential governance attributes for enhancing and/or constraining such change. This paper explores the corporatization of the water sector and its implications for transitioning to SUWM. On the base of a preliminary literature review we...... identify the rationales for and drawbacks of corporatization and compare them with the critical factors to build institutional capacity for SUWM. Preliminary results suggest that corporatization is expected to create a range of challenges that might hinder the transition towards more SUWM approaches...

  4. Accessibility levels to potable Water Supply in Rural Areas of Akwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of 50 rural communities were sampled using table of random numbers. Community heads or their spokesmen/women in the sampled areas were target respondents and data on major sources of water supply, distance to the nearest major source of water supply and the number of water boreholes in the communities were ...

  5. Impacts of multiple stresses on water demand and supply across the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; Steven G. McNulty; Jennifer A. Moore Myers; Erika C. Cohen

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of long-term impacts of projected changes in climate, population, and land use and land cover on regional water resource is critical to the sustainable development of the southeastern United States. The objective of this study was to fully budget annual water availability for water supply (precipitation ) evapotranspiration + groundwater supply + return flow...

  6. 76 FR 5157 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9259-6] Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program... Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Alaska has adopted regulations analogous to EPA's Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproducts Rule; Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule; and Lead and...

  7. 76 FR 45253 - Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program Revision for the State of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9444-8] Public Water Supply Supervision Program; Program... Water Supply Supervision Primacy Program. Alaska has adopted regulations analogous to the EPA's Ground Water Rule. The EPA has determined that these revisions are no less stringent than the corresponding...

  8. Implications of Upstream Flow Availability for Watershed Surface Water Supply Across the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai Duan; Ge Sun; Peter V. Caldwell; Steven G. McNulty; Yang Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Although it is well established that the availability of upstream flow (AUF) affects downstream water supply, its significance has not been rigorously categorized and quantified at fine resolutions. This study aims to fill this gap by providing a nationwide inventory of AUF and local water resource, and assessing their roles in securing water supply across the 2,099 8-...

  9. A risk-based framework to assess long-term effects of policy and water supply changes on water resources systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Wheater, Howard; Gober, Patricia

    2015-04-01

    Climate uncertainty can affect water resources availability and management decisions. Sustainable water resources management therefore requires evaluation of policy and management decisions under a wide range of possible future water supply conditions. This study proposes a risk-based framework to integrate water supply uncertainty into a forward-looking decision making context. To apply this framework, a stochastic reconstruction scheme is used to generate a large ensemble of flow series. For the Rocky Mountain basins considered here, two key characteristics of the annual hydrograph are its annual flow volume and the timing of the seasonal flood peak. These are perturbed to represent natural randomness and potential changes due to future climate. 30-year series of perturbed flows are used as input to the SWAMP model - an integrated water resources model that simulates regional water supply-demand system and estimates economic productivity of water and other sustainability indicators, including system vulnerability and resilience. The simulation results are used to construct 2D-maps of net revenue of a particular water sector; e.g., hydropower, or for all sectors combined. Each map cell represents a risk scenario of net revenue based on a particular annual flow volume, timing of the peak flow, and 200 stochastic realizations of flow series. This framework is demonstrated for a water resources system in the Saskatchewan River Basin (SaskRB) in Saskatchewan, Canada. Critical historical drought sequences, derived from tree-ring reconstructions of several hundred years of annual river flows, are used to evaluate the system's performance (net revenue risk) under extremely low flow conditions and also to locate them on the previously produced 2D risk maps. This simulation and analysis framework is repeated under various reservoir operation strategies (e.g., maximizing flood protection or maximizing water supply security); development proposals, such as irrigation

  10. Towards a Carbon-Neutral Energy Sector: Opportunities and Challenges of Coordinated Bioenergy Supply Chains-A PSE Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Puigjaner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The electricity generation sector needs to reduce its environmental impact and dependence on fossil fuel, mainly from coal. Biomass is one of the most promising future options to produce electricity, given its potential contribution to climate change mitigation. Even though biomass is an old source of energy, it is not yet a well-established commodity. The use of biomass in large centralised systems requires the establishment of delivery channels to provide the desired feedstock with the necessary attributes, at the right time and place. In terms of time to deployment and cost of the solution, co-combustion/co-gasification of biomass and coal are presented as transition and short-medium term alternatives towards a carbon-neutral energy sector. Hence, there is a need to assess an effective introduction of co-combustion/co-gasification projects in the current electricity production share. The purpose of this work is to review recent steps in Process Systems Engineering towards bringing into reality individualised and ad-hoc solutions, by building a common but adjustable design platform to tailored approaches of biomass-based supply chains. Current solutions and the latest developments are presented and future needs under study are also identified.

  11. FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS CONDUCTED IN THE LABORATORIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF WATER SUPPLY OF MGSU

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitina Irina Nikolaevna; Eremeev Aleksandr Vladimirovich

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the work of the laboratories of the Department of Water Supply of MGSU. The laboratory of pipe-lines, pumping equipment and sanitary equipment operates in MGSU affiliated to the department of water supply. A hydraulic stand for testing and defining the the hydraulic characteristics of pressure and free-flow pipelines of water supply and sewerage systems is installed there. There are also stands for investigating the sanitary equipment of the buildings, the fire and hot ...

  12. Optimal crop selection and water allocation under limited water supply in irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Peter; Grießbach, Ulrike; Schütze, Niels

    2015-04-01

    Due to climate change, extreme weather conditions such as droughts may have an increasing impact on irrigated agriculture. To cope with limited water resources in irrigation systems, a new decision support framework is developed which focuses on an integrated management of both irrigation water supply and demand at the same time. For modeling the regional water demand, local (and site-specific) water demand functions are used which are derived from optimized agronomic response on farms scale. To account for climate variability the agronomic response is represented by stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF). These functions take into account different soil types, crops and stochastically generated climate scenarios. The SCWPF's are used to compute the water demand considering different conditions, e.g., variable and fixed costs. This generic approach enables the consideration of both multiple crops at farm scale as well as of the aggregated response to water pricing at a regional scale for full and deficit irrigation systems. Within the SAPHIR (SAxonian Platform for High Performance IRrigation) project a prototype of a decision support system is developed which helps to evaluate combined water supply and demand management policies.

  13. The energy and emissions footprint of water supply for Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, A. J.; Newell, Joshua P.; Cousins, Joshua J.

    2015-11-01

    Due to climate change and ongoing drought, California and much of the American West face critical water supply challenges. California’s water supply infrastructure sprawls for thousands of miles, from the Colorado River to the Sacramento Delta. Bringing water to growing urban centers in Southern California is especially energy intensive, pushing local utilities to balance water security with factors such as the cost and carbon footprint of the various supply sources. To enhance water security, cities are expanding efforts to increase local water supply. But do these local sources have a smaller carbon footprint than imported sources? To answer this question and others related to the urban water-energy nexus, this study uses spatially explicit life cycle assessment to estimate the energy and emissions intensity of water supply for two utilities in Southern California: Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, which serves Los Angeles, and the Inland Empire Utility Agency, which serves the San Bernardino region. This study differs from previous research in two significant ways: (1) emissions factors are based not on regional averages but on the specific electric utility and generation sources supplying energy throughout transport, treatment, and distribution phases of the water supply chain; (2) upstream (non-combustion) emissions associated with the energy sources are included. This approach reveals that in case of water supply to Los Angeles, local recycled water has a higher carbon footprint than water imported from the Colorado River. In addition, by excluding upstream emissions, the carbon footprint of water supply is potentially underestimated by up to 30%. These results have wide-ranging implications for how carbon footprints are traditionally calculated at local and regional levels. Reducing the emissions intensity of local water supply hinges on transitioning the energy used to treat and distribute water away from fossil fuel, sources such as coal.

  14. Groundwater for urban water supplies in northern China - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaisheng, Han

    Groundwater plays an important role for urban and industrial water supply in northern China. More than 1000 groundwater wellfields have been explored and installed. Groundwater provides about half the total quantity of the urban water supply. Complete regulations and methods for the exploration of groundwater have been established in the P.R. China. Substantial over-exploitation of groundwater has created environmental problems in some cities. Some safeguarding measures for groundwater-resource protection have been undertaken. Résumé Les eaux souterraines jouent un rôle important dans l'approvisionnement en eau des agglomérations et des industries du nord de la Chine. Les explorations ont conduit à mettre en place plus de 1000 champs de puits captant des eaux souterraines. Les eaux souterraines satisfont environ la moitié des besoins en eau des villes. Une réglementation complète et des méthodes d'exploration des eaux souterraines ont étéétablies en République Populaire de Chine. Une surexploitation très nette est à l'origine de problèmes environnementaux dans certaines villes. Des mesures ont été prises pour protéger la ressource en eau souterraine. Resumen El agua subterránea desempeña un papel importante en el suministro de agua para uso doméstico e industrial en la China septentrional. Se han explorado y puesto en marcha más de 1000 campos de explotación de aguas subterráneas, que proporcionan cerca de la mitad del total del suministro urbano. En la República Popular de China se han definido totalmente la legislación y la metodología para realizar estas explotaciones. La gran sobreexplotación en algunas ciudades ha creado algunos problemas medioambientales. Como consecuencia, se han llevado a cabo algunas medidas de protección de los recursos de aguas subterráneas.

  15. 43 CFR 404.9 - What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? 404.9 Section 404.9 Public Lands... RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.9 What types of infrastructure and facilities may be included in an eligible rural water supply project? A rural water supply project may include, but is not...

  16. Relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in a water-scarce area in China: A quantitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; Gao, Lei; Liu, Pin; Hailu, Atakelty

    2014-07-01

    Northern China has been facing severe water scarcity as a result of vigorous economic growth, population expansion and changing lifestyles. A typical case is Shandong province whose water resources per capita is approximately only a sixth of the national average and a twentieth of the global average. It is useful to assess the implications of the province’s growth and trade patterns for water use and water conservation strategies. This study quantitatively analyses relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in Shandong using an input-output model for virtual water resources. The changes in key indicators for 1997-2007 are tracked and the effects of water-saving policies on these changes are examined. The results highlight the benefits of applying a virtual water trade analysis on a water-scarce region where water resources exhibit highly heterogeneous temporal and geographical distributions. The net export of virtual water in Shandong was initially large, but this declined over the years and the province has recently become a net importer. Between 1997 and 2002, water use in most sectors increased due to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. Since then, water use in all Shandong economic sectors exhibit a downward trend despite continued increases in goods and services net exports, a trend which can be attributed to the vigorous implementation of water-saving policies and measures, especially water use quotas. Economic sectors consume water directly and indirectly and understanding the pattern of virtual water trade implied by sectoral relationships is important for managing water scarcity problems. This study fills the knowledge gap in the existing literature created by the lack of case studies that dynamically assess virtual water trade and analyse the effects of water-saving policies and measures. The study draws policy recommendations that are relevant for future water planning in Shandong and other regions in northern China.

  17. Private Sector Participation in Urban Water and Sanitation Provision in Ghana: Experiences from the Tamale Metropolitan Area (TMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osumanu, Issaka Kanton

    2008-07-01

    African governments, like most countries in the developing world, face daunting tasks in their attempts to provide effective and equitable water and sanitation services for their ever increasing urban populations. Consequently, the past few years have witnessed increased private sector participation in urban water and sanitation provision, as many African governments strive to improve access to water and sanitation services for their citizens in line with Millennium Development Goal 7 (MDG7). Since the early 1990s, the government of Ghana and many local authorities have entered into various forms of public-private partnerships in urban water and sanitation provision. This article examines the outcome of such partnerships using the Tamale Metropolitan Area (TMA) as a case study with the aim of providing policy guidelines for the way forward. The article argues that the public-private arrangement for water supply and sanitation infrastructure management in the Tamale Metropolis has done nothing that an invigorated public sector could not have possibly achieved. It concludes that there can be no sustainable improvement in water and sanitation provision without political commitment, stakeholder ownership, and strong support for community driven initiatives.

  18. Optimum design of water supply purifying station in living section of a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianjun; Zhang Yu

    2012-01-01

    A design of water supply purifying station in living section of a uranium mine was optimized, and appropriate technique and equipment were chosen based on the raw water quality characteristic, water consumption and change, landform of construction field, etc. After the engineering finished, the circulation is steady-going, the quality of treated water fulfills water standards for drinking water quality. (authors)

  19. Using an Integrated Hydrologic-Economic Model to Develop Minimum Cost Water Supply Portfolios and Manage Supply Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characklis, G. W.; Ramsey, J.

    2004-12-01

    Water scarcity has become a reality in many areas as a result of population growth, fewer available sources, and reduced tolerance for the environmental impacts of developing the new supplies that do exist. As a result, successfully managing future water supply risk will become more dependent on coordinating the use of existing resources. Toward that end, flexible supply strategies that can rapidly respond to hydrologic variability will provide communities with increasing economic advantages, particularly if the frequency of more extreme events (e.g., drought) increases due to global climate change. Markets for established commodities (e.g., oil, gas) often provide a framework for efficiently responding to changes in supply and demand. Water markets, however, have remained relatively crude, with most transactions involving permanent transfers and long regulatory processes. Recently, interest in the use of flexible short-term transfers (e.g., leases, options) has begun to motivate consideration of more sophisticated strategies for managing supply risk, strategies similar to those used in more mature markets. In this case, communities can benefit from some of the advantages that water enjoys over other commodities, in particular, the ability to accurately characterize the stochastic nature of supply and demand through hydrologic modeling. Hydrologic-economic models are developed for two different water scarce regions supporting active water markets: Edward Aquifer and Lower Rio Grande Valley. These models are used to construct portfolios of water supply transfers (e.g., permanent transfers, options, and spot leases) that minimize the cost of meeting a probabilistic reliability constraint. Real and simulated spot price distributions allow each type of transfer to be priced in a manner consistent with financial theory (e.g., Black-Scholes). Market simulations are integrated with hydrologic models such that variability in supply and demand are linked with price behavior

  20. Development and Performance of Alternative Electricity Sector Pathways Subject to Multiple Climate and Water Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmark, R. L.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Miara, A.; Cohen, S.; Macknick, J.; Sun, Y.; Corsi, F.; Fekete, B. M.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change impacts on air temperatures and water availability have the potential to alter future electricity sector investment decisions as well as the reliability and performance of the power sector. Different electricity sector configurations are more or less vulnerable to climate-induced changes. For example, once-through cooled thermal facilities are the most cost-effective and efficient technologies under cooler and wetter conditions, but can be substantially affected by and vulnerable to warmer and drier conditions. Non-thermal renewable technologies, such as PV and wind, are essentially "drought-proof" but have other integration and reliability challenges. Prior efforts have explored the impacts of climate change on electric sector development for a limited set of climate and electricity scenarios. Here, we provide a comprehensive suite of scenarios that evaluate how different electricity sector pathways could be affected by a range of climate and water resource conditions. We use four representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios under five global circulation models (GCM) as climate drivers to a Water Balance Model (WBM), to provide twenty separate future climate-water conditions. These climate-water conditions influence electricity sector development from present day to 2050 as determined using the Regional Energy Deployment Systems (ReEDS) model. Four unique electricity sector pathways will be considered, including business-as-usual, carbon cap, high renewable energy technology costs, and coal reliance scenarios. The combination of climate-water and electricity sector pathway scenarios leads to 80 potential future cases resulting in different national and regional electricity infrastructure configurations. The vulnerability of these configurations in relation to climate change (including in-stream thermal pollution impacts and environmental regulations) is evaluated using the Thermoelectric Power and Thermal Pollution (TP2M) model, providing

  1. Labour market assessment of the offshore oil and gas industry supply and service sector in Newfoundland and Labrador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-09-01

    The Petroleum Industry Human Resource Committee (PIHRC) commissioned this study in December 2002 to develop a profile of the labour demand and supply for the upstream production phase of the offshore oil and gas industry. Interviews with representatives from more than 45 countries in the offshore oil and gas sector in Newfoundland and Labrador were conducted. In addition, the results of a mail survey forwarded to an additional 42 companies were included along with a review of secondary labour market research. More than 340 positions were identified in the production phase in the study. Of these, approximately 80 were identified as difficult to recruit for a variety of reasons including: insufficient experience in the oil industry; occupational shortages; short-term or project employment opportunities; very limited employment opportunities and limited occupational supply; lack of specific occupational training programs; and additional projects possibly leading to occupational shortages. The study provided valuable input concerning future labour market and human resource planning and career counselling on the 340 positions previously identified. 10 tabs

  2. Labour market assessment of the offshore oil and gas industry supply and service sector in Newfoundland and Labrador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-09-01

    The Petroleum Industry Human Resource Committee (PIHRC) commissioned this study in December 2002 to develop a profile of the labour demand and supply for the upstream production phase of the offshore oil and gas industry. Interviews with representatives from more than 45 countries in the offshore oil and gas sector in Newfoundland and Labrador were conducted. In addition, the results of a mail survey forwarded to an additional 42 companies were included along with a review of secondary labour market research. More than 340 positions were identified in the production phase in the study. Of these, approximately 80 were identified as difficult to recruit for a variety of reasons including: insufficient experience in the oil industry; occupational shortages; short-term or project employment opportunities; very limited employment opportunities and limited occupational supply; lack of specific occupational training programs; and additional projects possibly leading to occupational shortages. The study provided valuable input concerning future labour market and human resource planning and career counselling on the 340 positions previously identified. 10 tabs.

  3. Effects of water-supply reservoirs on streamflow in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Sara B.

    2016-10-06

    State and local water-resource managers need modeling tools to help them manage and protect water-supply resources for both human consumption and ecological needs. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, has developed a decision-support tool to estimate the effects of reservoirs on natural streamflow. The Massachusetts Reservoir Simulation Tool is a model that simulates the daily water balance of a reservoir. The reservoir simulation tool provides estimates of daily outflows from reservoirs and compares the frequency, duration, and magnitude of the volume of outflows from reservoirs with estimates of the unaltered streamflow that would occur if no dam were present. This tool will help environmental managers understand the complex interactions and tradeoffs between water withdrawals, reservoir operational practices, and reservoir outflows needed for aquatic habitats.A sensitivity analysis of the daily water balance equation was performed to identify physical and operational features of reservoirs that could have the greatest effect on reservoir outflows. For the purpose of this report, uncontrolled releases of water (spills or spillage) over the reservoir spillway were considered to be a proxy for reservoir outflows directly below the dam. The ratio of average withdrawals to the average inflows had the largest effect on spillage patterns, with the highest withdrawals leading to the lowest spillage. The size of the surface area relative to the drainage area of the reservoir also had an effect on spillage; reservoirs with large surface areas have high evaporation rates during the summer, which can contribute to frequent and long periods without spillage, even in the absence of water withdrawals. Other reservoir characteristics, such as variability of inflows, groundwater interactions, and seasonal demand patterns, had low to moderate effects on the frequency, duration, and magnitude of spillage. The

  4. The energy and emissions footprint of water supply for Southern California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, A J; Newell, Joshua P; Cousins, Joshua J

    2015-01-01

    Due to climate change and ongoing drought, California and much of the American West face critical water supply challenges. California’s water supply infrastructure sprawls for thousands of miles, from the Colorado River to the Sacramento Delta. Bringing water to growing urban centers in Southern California is especially energy intensive, pushing local utilities to balance water security with factors such as the cost and carbon footprint of the various supply sources. To enhance water security, cities are expanding efforts to increase local water supply. But do these local sources have a smaller carbon footprint than imported sources? To answer this question and others related to the urban water–energy nexus, this study uses spatially explicit life cycle assessment to estimate the energy and emissions intensity of water supply for two utilities in Southern California: Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, which serves Los Angeles, and the Inland Empire Utility Agency, which serves the San Bernardino region. This study differs from previous research in two significant ways: (1) emissions factors are based not on regional averages but on the specific electric utility and generation sources supplying energy throughout transport, treatment, and distribution phases of the water supply chain; (2) upstream (non-combustion) emissions associated with the energy sources are included. This approach reveals that in case of water supply to Los Angeles, local recycled water has a higher carbon footprint than water imported from the Colorado River. In addition, by excluding upstream emissions, the carbon footprint of water supply is potentially underestimated by up to 30%. These results have wide-ranging implications for how carbon footprints are traditionally calculated at local and regional levels. Reducing the emissions intensity of local water supply hinges on transitioning the energy used to treat and distribute water away from fossil fuel, sources such as coal

  5. Climate change and its effect on agriculture, water resources and human health sectors in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Szwed

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Multi-model ensemble climate projections in the ENSEMBLES Project of the EU allowed the authors to quantify selected extreme-weather indices for Poland, of importance to climate impacts on systems and sectors. Among indices were: number of days in a year with high value of the heat index; with high maximum and minimum temperatures; length of vegetation period; and number of consecutive dry days. Agricultural, hydrological, and human health indices were applied to evaluate the changing risk of weather extremes in Poland in three sectors. To achieve this, model-based simulations were compared for two time horizons, a century apart, i.e., 1961–1990 and 2061–2090. Climate changes, and in particular increases in temperature and changes in rainfall, have strong impacts on agriculture via weather extremes – droughts and heat waves. The crop yield depends particularly on water availability in the plant development phase. To estimate the changes in present and future yield of two crops important for Polish agriculture i.e., potatoes and wheat, some simple empirical models were used. For these crops, decrease of yield is projected for most of the country, with national means of yield change being: –2.175 t/ha for potatoes and –0.539 t/ha for wheat. Already now, in most of Poland, evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation during summer, hence the water storage (in surface water bodies, soil and ground decreases. Summer precipitation deficit is projected to increase considerably in the future. The additional water supplies (above precipitation needed to use the agro-potential of the environment would increase by half. Analysis of water balance components (now and in the projected future can corroborate such conclusions. As regards climate and health, a composite index, proposed in this paper, is a product of the number of senior discomfort days and the number of seniors (aged 65+. The value of this index is projected to increase over 8-fold during

  6. Effective drinking water collaborations are not accidental: Interagency relationships in the international water utility sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalba, D.I.; Cromar, N.J.; Pollard, S.J.T.; Charrois, J.W.; Bradshaw, R.; Hrudey, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    The role that deficient institutional relationships have played in aggravating drinking water incidents over the last 30 years has been identified in several inquiries of high profile drinking water safety events, peer-reviewed articles and media reports. These indicate that collaboration between water utilities and public health agencies (PHAs) during normal operations, and in emergencies, needs improvement. Here, critical elements of these interagency collaborations, that can be integrated within the corporate risk management structures of water utilities and PHAs alike, were identified using a grounded theory approach and 51 semi-structured interviews with utility and PHA staff. Core determinants of effective interagency relationships are discussed. Intentionally maintained functional relationships represent a key ingredient in assuring the delivery of safe, high quality drinking water. - Highlights: • Qualitative analysis of current water sector practices on interagency relations • Identification of suboptimal approaches to working with public health agencies • Effective strategies for developing and maintaining institutional collaborations • Supporting the implementation of WHO guidelines for drinking water quality

  7. Effective drinking water collaborations are not accidental: Interagency relationships in the international water utility sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalba, D.I. [School of Medicine, Flinders University, GPO 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Cromar, N.J., E-mail: nancy.cromar@flinders.edu.au [School of the Environment, Flinders University, GPO 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001 (Australia); Pollard, S.J.T. [Cranfield Water Science Institute, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Charrois, J.W. [Curtin Water Quality Research Centre, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia); Bradshaw, R. [Cranfield Water Science Institute, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Hrudey, S.E. [Analytical and Environmental Toxicology Division, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, 10-102 Clinical Sciences Building, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2G3 (Canada)

    2014-02-01

    The role that deficient institutional relationships have played in aggravating drinking water incidents over the last 30 years has been identified in several inquiries of high profile drinking water safety events, peer-reviewed articles and media reports. These indicate that collaboration between water utilities and public health agencies (PHAs) during normal operations, and in emergencies, needs improvement. Here, critical elements of these interagency collaborations, that can be integrated within the corporate risk management structures of water utilities and PHAs alike, were identified using a grounded theory approach and 51 semi-structured interviews with utility and PHA staff. Core determinants of effective interagency relationships are discussed. Intentionally maintained functional relationships represent a key ingredient in assuring the delivery of safe, high quality drinking water. - Highlights: • Qualitative analysis of current water sector practices on interagency relations • Identification of suboptimal approaches to working with public health agencies • Effective strategies for developing and maintaining institutional collaborations • Supporting the implementation of WHO guidelines for drinking water quality.

  8. The Effects of Intermittent Drinking Water Supply in Arraiján, Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, John Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Over three hundred million people throughout the world receive supply from piped drinking water distribution networks that operate intermittently. This dissertation evaluates the effects of intermittent supply on water quality, pipe damage and service reliability in four study zones (one continuous and three intermittent) in a peri-urban drinking water distribution network in Arraiján, Panama. Normal water quality in all zones was good, with 97% of routine water quality grab samples from the ...

  9. The water-energy nexus at water supply and its implications on the integrated water and energy management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalkhali, Masoumeh; Westphal, Kirk; Mo, Weiwei

    2018-09-15

    Water and energy are highly interdependent in the modern world, and hence, it is important to understand their constantly changing and nonlinear interconnections to inform the integrated management of water and energy. In this study, a hydrologic model, a water systems model, and an energy model were developed and integrated into a system dynamics modeling framework. This framework was then applied to a water supply system in the northeast US to capture its water-energy interactions under a set of future population, climate, and system operation scenarios. A hydrologic model was first used to simulate the system's hydrologic inflows and outflows under temperature and precipitation changes on a weekly-basis. A water systems model that combines the hydrologic model and management rules (e.g., water release and transfer) was then developed to dynamically simulate the system's water storage and water head. Outputs from the water systems model were used in the energy model to estimate hydropower generation. It was found that critical water-energy synergies and tradeoffs exist, and there is a possibility for integrated water and energy management to achieve better outcomes. This analysis also shows the importance of a holistic understanding of the systems as a whole, which would allow utility managers to make proactive long-term management decisions. The modeling framework is generalizable to other water supply systems with hydropower generation capacities to inform the integrated management of water and energy resources. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Passive system with steam-water injector for emergency supply of NPP steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Il'chenko, A.G.; Strakhov, A.N.; Magnitskij, D.N.

    2009-01-01

    The calculation results of reliability indicators of emergency power supply system and emergency feed-water supply system of serial WWER-1000 unit are presented. To ensure safe water supply to steam generators during station blackout it was suggested using additional passive emergency feed-water system with a steam-water injector working on steam generators dump steam. Calculated analysis of steam-water injector operating capacity was conducted at variable parameters of steam at the entrance to injector, corresponding to various moments of time from the beginning of steam-and-water damping [ru

  11. Holistic assessment of a secondary water supply for a new development in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Godskesen, Berit; Jørgensen, C.

    2013-01-01

    Nordhavn, a former industrial harbour area is under development into an integrated part of Copenhagen City. All infrastructures will be updated to accommodate 40,000 inhabitants and 40,000 jobs in the future. Our project assesses the potential for establishing a secondary water supply to relieve...... the pressure on the primary and conventional groundwater based drinking water supply. Four alternative water resources for a secondary water supply have been considered: 1) polluted groundwater for use in toilets and laundry, 2) desalinated brackish water for use in toilets, laundry, and dishwashers, 3...... assessment method for use in alternative water supplies and an evaluation of the four suggested concepts for alternative water supply in Copenhagen....

  12. Holistic assessment of a secondary water supply for a new development in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Godskesen, B.; Jørgensen, C.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing stress on water resources is driving urban water utilities to establish new concepts for water supply. This paper presents the consequences of proposed alternative water supply options using a unique combination of quantitative and qualitative methods from different research fields....... A former industrial harbor area in Copenhagen, Denmark, is currently under development and all infrastructure will be updated to accommodate 40,000 inhabitants and 40,000 jobs in the future. To reduce stress on water resources it has been proposed to establish a secondarywater supply in the area...... as an alternative to the conventional groundwater-based drinking water supply. Four alternative concepts for a secondarywater supply have been considered: 1) slightly polluted groundwater for use in toilets and laundry, 2) desalinated brackish water for use in toilets, laundry, and dishwashers, 3) desalinated...

  13. Integrated water assessment and modelling: A bibliometric analysis of trends in the water resource sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Fateme; Elsawah, Sondoss; Iwanaga, Takuya; Jakeman, Anthony J.; Pierce, Suzanne A.

    2017-09-01

    There are substantial challenges facing humanity in the water and related sectors and purposeful integration of the disciplines, connected sectors and interest groups is now perceived as essential to address them. This article describes and uses bibliometric analysis techniques to provide quantitative insights into the general landscape of Integrated Water Resource Assessment and Modelling (IWAM) research over the last 45 years. Keywords, terms in titles, abstracts and the full texts are used to distinguish the 13,239 IWAM articles in journals and other non-grey literature. We identify the major journals publishing IWAM research, influential authors through citation counts, as well as the distribution and strength of source countries. Fruitfully, we find that the growth in numbers of such publications has continued to accelerate, and attention to both the biophysical and socioeconomic aspects has also been growing. On the other hand, our analysis strongly indicates that the former continue to dominate, partly by embracing integration with other biophysical sectors related to water - environment, groundwater, ecology, climate change and agriculture. In the social sciences the integration is occurring predominantly through economics, with the others, including law, policy and stakeholder participation, much diminished in comparison. We find there has been increasing attention to management and decision support systems, but a much weaker focus on uncertainty, a pervasive concern whose criticalities must be identified and managed for improving decision making. It would seem that interdisciplinary science still has a long way to go before crucial integration with the non-economic social sciences and uncertainty considerations are achieved more routinely.

  14. Irrigation, risk aversion, and water right priority under water supply uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Man; Xu, Wenchao; Rosegrant, Mark W.

    2017-09-01

    This paper explores the impacts of a water right's allocative priority—as an indicator of farmers' risk-bearing ability—on land irrigation under water supply uncertainty. We develop and use an economic model to simulate farmers' land irrigation decision and associated economic returns in eastern Idaho. Results indicate that the optimal acreage of land irrigated increases with water right priority when hydroclimate risk exhibits a negatively skewed or right-truncated distribution. Simulation results suggest that prior appropriation enables senior water rights holders to allocate a higher proportion of their land to irrigation, 6 times as much as junior rights holders do, creating a gap in the annual expected net revenue reaching up to 141.4 acre-1 or 55,800 per farm between the two groups. The optimal irrigated acreage, expected net revenue, and shadow value of a water right's priority are subject to substantial changes under a changing climate in the future, where temporal variation in water supply risks significantly affects the profitability of agricultural land use under the priority-based water sharing mechanism.

  15. Water Quality, Mitigation Measures of Arsenic Contamination and Sustainable Rural Water Supply Options in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOSSAIN M. ANAWAR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater has created a serious public health issue in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India, because groundwater is widely used for drinking, household and agriculture purposes. Given the magnitude of the problem of groundwater contamination facing Bangladesh, effective, acceptable and sustainable solutions are urgently required. Different NGOs (Non-government organizations and research organizations are using their extensive rural networks to raise awareness and conduct pilot projects. The implication of the results from the previous studies is robust, but coastly arsenic reduction technologies such as activated alumina technology, and As and Fe removal filters may find little social acceptance, unless heavily subsidized. This review paper analysed the quality of surface water and ground water, all mitigation measures and the most acceptable options to provide sustainable access to safe- water supply in the rural ares of Bangladesh. Although there are abundant and different sources of surface water, they can not be used for drinking and hosehold purposes due to lack of sanitation, high faecal coliform concentration, turibidity and deterioration of quality of surface water sources. There are a few safe surface water options; and also there are several methods available for removal of arsenic and iron from groundwater in large conventional treatments plants. This review paper presented a short description of the currently available and most sustainable technologies for arsenic and iron removal, and alternative water supply options in the rural areas.

  16. Surface wastewater in Samara and their impact on water basins as water supply sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strelkov, Alexander; Shuvalov, Mikhail; Gridneva, Marina

    2017-10-01

    The paper gives an overview of surface wastewater outlets in Samara through the rainwater sewer system into the Saratov water reservoir and the Samara river. The rainwater sewer system in Samara is designed and executed according to a separate scheme, except for the old part of the city, where surface run-off is dumped into the sewer system through siphoned drain. The rainwater system disposes of surface, drainage, industrial clean-contamined waters, emergency and technology discharges from the city’s heat supply and water supply systems. The effluent discharge is carried out by means of separate wastewater outlets into ravines or directly into the Samara river and the Saratov water reservoir without cleaning. The effluent discharge is carried out through the rainwater sewer system with 17 wastewater outlets into the Saratov water reservoir. In the Samara river, surface runoff drainage and clean-contamined water of industrial enterprises is carried out through 14 wastewater outlets. This study emphasizes the demand to arrange effluent discharge and construction of sewage treatment plants to prevent contamination of water objects by surface run-off from residential areas and industrial territories.

  17. Energy Cost Optimization in a Water Supply System Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Moreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of the life cycle costs (LCC of a pump are related to the energy spent in pumping, with the rest being related to the purchase and maintenance of the equipment. Any optimizations in the energy efficiency of the pumps result in a considerable reduction of the total operational cost. The Fátima water supply system in Portugal was analyzed in order to minimize its operational energy costs. Different pump characteristic curves were analyzed and modeled in order to achieve the most efficient operation point. To determine the best daily pumping operational scheduling pattern, genetic algorithm (GA optimization embedded in the modeling software was considered in contrast with a manual override (MO approach. The main goal was to determine which pumps and what daily scheduling allowed the best economical solution. At the end of the analysis it was possible to reduce the original daily energy costs by 43.7%. This was achieved by introducing more appropriate pumps and by intelligent programming of their operation. Given the heuristic nature of GAs, different approaches were employed and the most common errors were pinpointed, whereby this investigation can be used as a reference for similar future developments.

  18. Scenarios for the South African Water Sector in 2025

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-20

    Mar 20, 2012 ... anced solutions to the ever-growing challenges of a developing nation. In this ... precedence, with a view to 'improving the quality of life'; and when decisions are made ... delivery, work is going to the private sector (often via costly .... and adaptive management, particularly in balancing social and economic ...

  19. Many-objective optimization and visual analytics reveal key trade-offs for London's water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrosov, Evgenii S.; Huskova, Ivana; Kasprzyk, Joseph R.; Harou, Julien J.; Lambert, Chris; Reed, Patrick M.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we link a water resource management simulator to multi-objective search to reveal the key trade-offs inherent in planning a real-world water resource system. We consider new supplies and demand management (conservation) options while seeking to elucidate the trade-offs between the best portfolios of schemes to satisfy projected water demands. Alternative system designs are evaluated using performance measures that minimize capital and operating costs and energy use while maximizing resilience, engineering and environmental metrics, subject to supply reliability constraints. Our analysis shows many-objective evolutionary optimization coupled with state-of-the art visual analytics can help planners discover more diverse water supply system designs and better understand their inherent trade-offs. The approach is used to explore future water supply options for the Thames water resource system (including London's water supply). New supply options include a new reservoir, water transfers, artificial recharge, wastewater reuse and brackish groundwater desalination. Demand management options include leakage reduction, compulsory metering and seasonal tariffs. The Thames system's Pareto approximate portfolios cluster into distinct groups of water supply options; for example implementing a pipe refurbishment program leads to higher capital costs but greater reliability. This study highlights that traditional least-cost reliability constrained design of water supply systems masks asset combinations whose benefits only become apparent when more planning objectives are considered.

  20. Update of Market Assessment for Capturing Water Conservation Opportunities in the Federal Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcmordie, Katherine; Solana, Amy E.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Sullivan, Gregory P.; Parker, Graham B.

    2005-09-08

    This updated market assessment for capturing water conservation opportunities in the Federal sector is based on a new analytical approach that utilizes newly available data and technologies. The new approach fine-tunes the original assessment by using actual Federal water use, which is now tracked by DOE (as compared to using estimated water use). Federal building inventory data is also used to disseminate water use by end-use technology in the Federal sector. In addition, this analysis also examines the current issues and obstacles that face performance contracting of water efficiency projects at Federal sites.