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Sample records for water resistor divider

  1. Resistor holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, John H.

    1989-01-01

    A resistor device for use with electrostatic particle accelerators includes a resistor element positioned within a tubular housing having a fixed end cap at one end thereof and a movable end cap at the other end thereof. The tubular housing, fixed end cap, and movable end cap serve as an electromagnetic field for the resistor element. Conductive disks engage opposite ends of the resistor element and concentrically position the resistor element within the tubular housing. Helical springs engage the conductive disks and the end caps to yieldably support the movable end caps and resistor element for yieldable axial movement relative to the tubular housing. An annular conducting ring is secured to the tubular housing and is spaced radially from the movable end cap and cooperates with the latter to define an annular spark gap.

  2. Resistor divider for high voltage pulse measurement in vacuum%一种在真空中测量脉冲高电压的电阻分压器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫兵; 关永超; 卿燕玲; 陈林; 周良骥; 李晔; 丰树平

    2012-01-01

    A resistor divider has been designed for voltage measurement of diode load for 1 MV/100 kA fast linear transformer driver(LTD). The divider is designed with two stages. The primary stage is a column of alternating annular metal grading rings and tapered insulators enclosing a resistive solution of sodium thiosulfate. A middle electrode is connected to the secondary voltage dividing stage. There is a 4 kΩ resistor in series with the 50 Ω input impedance of the attenuator or oscilloscope. The e-quivalent circuit of the divider which includes distributed capacitance and inductance has been calculated. It indicates that the high frequency limit of the divider is about 200 MHz. The divider has been calibrated in-situ using a P6015A probe and a high voltage pulser. The calibration ratio is 5 400 : 1. The voltage of diode load reaches 1. 08 MV when the charging voltage of LTD stage is ±85 kV respectively, according with the simulation of LTD.%为测量快脉冲直线变压器驱动源(LTD)二极管负载的脉冲高电压,设计了在真空环境中使用的电阻分压器.分压器使用绝缘堆结构,采用静电场模拟分析了分压器的电场分布.建立了包含分布参数的等效电路,并进行了频率响应仿真,可得分压器的频响上限为200 MHz.使用标准高压探头对分压器进行在线标定,分压比标定结果为5 400∶1,与设计值相符合.在LTD调试实验中,模块充电85 kV时二极管电压为1.08 MV,与理论估算结果一致.

  3. Breakdown voltage of metal-oxide resistors in liquid argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagby, L. F. [Fermilab; Gollapinni, S. [Kansas State U.; James, C. C. [Fermilab; Jones, B. J.P. [MIT; Jostlein, H. [Fermilab; Lockwitz, S. [Fermilab; Naples, D. [Pittsburgh U.; Raaf, J. L. [Fermilab; Rameika, R. [Fermilab; Schukraft, A. [Fermilab; Strauss, T. [Bern U., LHEP; Weber, M. S. [Bern U., LHEP; Wolbers, S. A. [Fermilab

    2014-11-07

    We characterized a sample of metal-oxide resistors and measured their breakdown voltage in liquid argon by applying high voltage (HV) pulses over a 3 second period. This test mimics the situation in a HV-divider chain when a breakdown occurs and the voltage across resistors rapidly rise from the static value to much higher values. All resistors had higher breakdown voltages in liquid argon than their vendor ratings in air at room temperature. Failure modes range from full destruction to coating damage. In cases where breakdown was not catastrophic, subsequent breakdown voltages were lower in subsequent measuring runs. One resistor type withstands 131 kV pulses, the limit of the test setup.

  4. Uniform tiling with electrical resistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cserti, Jozsef; Szechenyi, Gabor [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Eoetvoes University, H-1117 Budapest, Pazmany Peter setany 1/A (Hungary); David, Gyula, E-mail: cserti@elte.hu [Department of Atomic Physics, Eoetvoes University, H-1117 Budapest, Pazmany Peter setany 1/A (Hungary)

    2011-05-27

    The electric resistance between two arbitrary nodes on any infinite lattice structure of resistors that is a periodic tiling of space is obtained. Our general approach is based on the lattice Green's function of the Laplacian matrix associated with the network. We present several non-trivial examples to show how efficient our method is. Deriving explicit resistance formulas it is shown that the Kagome, diced and decorated lattice can be mapped to the triangular and square lattice of resistors. Our work can be extended to the random walk problem or to electron dynamics in condensed matter physics.

  5. Uniform tiling with electrical resistors

    CERN Document Server

    Cserti, Jozsef; David, Gyula

    2011-01-01

    Electric resistances between two arbitrary nodes on any infinite lattice structure of resistor networks that is a periodic tiling of the space is obtained. Our general approach is based on the lattice Green's function of the Laplacian matrix associated with the network. We present several and non-trivial examples to show how efficient our method is. Deriving explicit resistance formulas it is shown that the Kagom\\'e, the diced and the decorated lattice can be mapped to the triangular and square lattice of resistors. Our work can be extended to random walk problem or electron dynamics in condensed matter physics.

  6. Farey Sequences and Resistor Networks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sameen Ahmed Khan

    2012-05-01

    In this article, we employ the Farey sequence and Fibonacci numbers to establish strict upper and lower bounds for the order of the set of equivalent resistances for a circuit constructed from equal resistors combined in series and in parallel. The method is applicable for networks involving bridge and non-planar circuits.

  7. Decision-centric adaptation appraisal for water management across Colorado’s Continental Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David N. Yates

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-step decision support process was developed and applied to the physically and legally complex case of water diversions from the Upper Colorado River across the Continental Divide to serve cities and farms along Colorado’s Front Range. We illustrate our approach by simulating the performance of an existing drought-response measure, the Shoshone Call Relaxation Agreement (SCRA [the adaptation measure], using the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP tool [the hydrologic cycle and water systems model]; and the Statistical DownScaling Model (SDSM-DC [the stochastic climate scenario generator]. Scenarios relevant to the decision community were analyzed and results indicate that this drought management measure would provide only a small storage benefit in offsetting the impacts of a shift to a warmer and drier future climate coupled with related environmental changes. The analysis demonstrates the importance of engaging water managers in the development of credible and computationally efficient decision support tools that accurately capture the physical, legal and contractual dimensions of their climate risk management problems.

  8. Direct High-Precision Measurements of the (87)Sr/(86)Sr Isotope Ratio in Natural Water without Chemical Separation Using Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry Equipped with 10(12) Ω Resistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao-Feng; Guo, Jing-Hui; Chu, Zhu-Yin; Feng, Lian-Jun; Wang, Xuan-Ce

    2015-07-21

    Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) allows excellent precision for determining Sr isotope ratios in natural water samples. Traditionally, a chemical separation procedure using cation exchange resin has been employed to obtain a high purity Sr fraction from natural water, which makes sample preparation time-consuming. In this study, we present a rapid and precise method for the direct determination of the Sr isotope ratio of natural water using TIMS equipped with amplifiers with two 10(12) Ω resistors. To eliminate the (87)Rb isobaric interference, Re ribbons are used as filaments, providing a significant advantage over W ribbons in the inhibition of Rb(+) emission, based on systematically examining a series of NIST SRM987 standard doping with various amounts of Rb using Re and W ribbons. To validate the applicability of our method, twenty-two natural water samples, including different water types (rain, snow, river, lake and drinking water), that show a large range in Sr content variations (2.54-922.8 ppb), were collected and analyzed from North and South China. Analytical results show good precision (0.003-0.005%, 2 RSE) and the method was further validated by comparative analysis of the same water with and without chemical separation. The method is simple and rapid, eliminates sample preparation time, and prevents potential contamination during complicated sample-preparation procedures. Therefore, a high sample throughput inherent to the TIMS can be fully utilized.

  9. Reliability growth of thin film resistors contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lugin A. N.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Necessity of resistive layer growth under the contact and in the contact zone of resistive element is shown in order to reduce peak values of current flow and power dissipation in the contact of thin film resistor, thereby to increase the resistor stability to parametric and catastrophic failures.

  10. Infant breathing rate counter based on variable resistor for pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakti, Novi Angga; Hardiyanto, Ardy Dwi; La Febry Andira R., C.; Camelya, Kesa; Widiyanti, Prihartini

    2016-03-01

    Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of death in new born baby in Indonesia. According to WHO in 2002, breathing rate is very important index to be the symptom of pneumonia. In the Community Health Center, the nurses count with a stopwatch for exactly one minute. Miscalculation in Community Health Center occurs because of long time concentration and focus on two object at once. This calculation errors can cause the baby who should be admitted to the hospital only be attended at home. Therefore, an accurate breathing rate counter at Community Health Center level is necessary. In this work, resistance change of variable resistor is made to be breathing rate counter. Resistance change in voltage divider can produce voltage change. If the variable resistance moves periodically, the voltage will change periodically too. The voltage change counted by software in the microcontroller. For the every mm shift at the variable resistor produce average 0.96 voltage change. The software can count the number of wave generated by shifting resistor.

  11. Thermal Characterization of the Overload Carbon Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Kostić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In many applications, the electronic component is not continuously but only intermittently overloaded (e.g., inrush current, short circuit, or discharging interference. With this paper, we provide insight into carbon resistors that have to hold out a rarely occurring transient overload. Using simple electrical circuit, the resistor is overheating with higher current than declared, and dissipation is observed by a thermal camera.

  12. Shot noise in linear macroscopic resistors

    OpenAIRE

    Gomila Lluch, Gabriel; Pennetta, C.; Reggiani, L.; Ferrari, G; Sampietro, M.; G. Bertuccio(Politecnico di Milano, Italy)

    2004-01-01

    We report on direct experimental evidence of shot noise in a linear macroscopic resistor. The origin of the shot noise comes from the fluctuation of the total number of charge carriers inside the resistor associated with their diffusive motion under the condition that the dielectric relaxation time becomes longer than the dynamic transit time. The present results show that neither potential barriers nor the absence of inelastic scattering are necessary to observe shot noise in electronic devi...

  13. Shot Noise in Linear Macroscopic Resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomila, G.; Pennetta, C.; Reggiani, L.; Sampietro, M.; Ferrari, G.; Bertuccio, G.

    2004-06-01

    We report on direct experimental evidence of shot noise in a linear macroscopic resistor. The origin of the shot noise comes from the fluctuation of the total number of charge carriers inside the resistor associated with their diffusive motion under the condition that the dielectric relaxation time becomes longer than the dynamic transit time. The present results show that neither potential barriers nor the absence of inelastic scattering are necessary to observe shot noise in electronic devices.

  14. Characterization of interdigitated electrode structures for water contaminant detection using a hybrid voltage divider and a vector network analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Delgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez-Delgado, Melissa Marlene; Mendoza-Buenrostro, Christian; Dieck-Assad, Graciano; Omar Martínez-Chapa, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Interdigitated capacitive electrode structures have been used to monitor or actuate over organic and electrochemical media in efforts to characterize biochemical properties. This article describes a method to perform a pre-characterization of interdigitated electrode structures using two methods: a hybrid voltage divider (HVD) and a vector network analyzer (VNA). Both methodologies develop some tests under two different conditions: free air and bi-distilled water media. Also, the HVD methodology is used for other two conditions: phosphate buffer with laccase (polyphenoloxidase; EC 1.10.3.2) and contaminated media composed by a mix of phosphate buffer and 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS). The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a characterization methodology using both, a hybrid voltage divider and VNA T-# network impedance models of the interdigitated capacitive electrode structure that will provide a shunt RC network of particular interest in detecting the amount of contamination existing in the water solution for the media conditions. This methodology should provide us with the best possible sensitivity in monitoring water contaminant media characteristics. The results show that both methods, the hybrid voltage divider and the VNA methodology, are feasible in determining impedance modeling parameters. These parameters can be used to develop electric interrogation procedures and devices such as dielectric characteristics to identify contaminant substances in water solutions.

  15. Design of a Compact Dump Resistor System for LCD Magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Gaddi, A

    2010-01-01

    In this technical note we suggest a possible solution for the choice of the detector magnet dump resistor. The push-pull scenario for Linear Collider Detectors imposes new solutions for magnet powering and protection lines, else than what developed for LHC detectors. The magnet dump resistor is the protecting equipment that has the function of extracting a significant amount of magnetic stored energy, from the coil winding to a dump. The LCD magnet has to move with the experiment from the garage to the beam position, so it has to be compact and reliable at the same time. We make here a proposal for a passive water-cooled dumper, we calculate the minimum amount of water required, the resistor hot-spot temperature, the overall mechanical design. The electrical part is not covered by this note, as it can be assumed that the solutions adopted by LHC detector magnets, in terms of quench instrumentation, energy extraction and maximum voltage, are not significantly affected by the push-pull scenario.

  16. Crossing the divide between homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis in water oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Aaron K; Alibabaei, Leila; Losego, Mark D; Concepcion, Javier J; Kalanyan, Berç; Parsons, Gregory N; Meyer, Thomas J

    2013-12-24

    Enhancing the surface binding stability of chromophores, catalysts, and chromophore-catalyst assemblies attached to metal oxide surfaces is an important element in furthering the development of dye sensitized solar cells, photoelectrosynthesis cells, and interfacial molecular catalysis. Phosphonate-derivatized catalysts and molecular assemblies provide a basis for sustained water oxidation on these surfaces in acidic solution but are unstable toward hydrolysis and loss from surfaces as the pH is increased. Here, we report enhanced surface binding stability of a phosphonate-derivatized water oxidation catalyst over a wide pH range (1-12) by atomic layer deposition of an overlayer of TiO2. Increased stability of surface binding, and the reactivity of the bound catalyst, provides a hybrid approach to heterogeneous catalysis combining the advantages of systematic modifications possible by chemical synthesis with heterogeneous reactivity. For the surface-stabilized catalyst, greatly enhanced rates of water oxidation are observed upon addition of buffer bases -H2PO(-)(4)/HPO(2-)(4), B(OH)3/B(OH)2 O-, HPO(2-)4 /PO(3-)(4) - and with a pathway identified in which O-atom transfer to OH(-) occurs with a rate constant increase of 10(6) compared to water oxidation in acid.

  17. Electrostatic Discharge Effects on Thin Film Resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Michael J.; Hull, Scott M.

    1999-01-01

    Recently, open circuit failures of individual elements in thin film resistor networks have been attributed to electrostatic discharge (ESD) effects. This paper will discuss the investigation that came to this conclusion and subsequent experimentation intended to characterize design factors that affect the sensitivity of resistor elements to ESD. The ESD testing was performed using the standard human body model simulation. Some of the design elements to be evaluated were: trace width, trace length (and thus width to length ratio), specific resistivity of the trace (ohms per square) and resistance value. However, once the experiments were in progress, it was realized that the ESD sensitivity of most of the complex patterns under evaluation was determined by other design and process factors such as trace shape and termination pad spacing. This paper includes pictorial examples of representative ESD failure sites, and provides some options for designing thin film resistors that are ESD resistant. The risks of ESD damage are assessed and handling precautions suggested.

  18. Resistor array infrared nonuniformity correction based on sparse grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xudong; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qiao; Du, Huijie; Zhao, Hongming

    2013-10-01

    Resistor array plays a vital role in emulation of the IR control and guide system. However, its serious nonuniformity confines the range of its application. Therefore, in order to obtain an available IR image, nonuniformity correction (NUC) is necessary. The traditional method is sparse grid and flood which only take the array's nonuniformity into account. In this paper we present an improved sparse grid method which considers the whole system which affects the array's nonuniformity by dividing the NUC process into different gray levels. In each gray level, we can take two points or several points to calculate the nonuniformity of every block which is divided before correction. After that, we can have several characteristic curves which will be operated with curve fitting. By this means, we will correct the nonuniformity. At last, through the experiment of a number of images, we find the residual nonuniformity associated with random noise is about 0.2% after the correction.

  19. Multiple High Voltage Pulse Stressing of Polymer Thick Film Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busi Rambabu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study high voltage interactions in polymer thick film resistors, namely, polyvinyl chloride- (PVC- graphite thick film resistors, and their applications in universal trimming of these resistors. High voltages in the form of impulses for various pulse durations and with different amplitudes have been applied to polymer thick film resistors and we observed the variation of resistance of these resistors with high voltages. It has been found that the resistance of polymer thick film resistors decreases in the case of higher resistivity materials and the resistance of polymer thick film resistor increases in the case of lower resistivity materials when high voltage impulses are applied to them. It has been also found that multiple high voltage pulse (MHVP stressing can be used to trim the polymer thick film resistors either upwards or downwards.

  20. Stochastic Resonance Induced by Dichotomous Resistor in an Electric Circuit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-Hui; HAN Yin-Xia

    2007-01-01

    An electric circuit with dichotomous resistor is investigated.It is shown that the amplitude of the average electric current washing the resistor represents the phenomenon of stochastic resonance,which is the response as a function of the correlation time of the dichotomous resistor.

  1. Slew rate induced distortion in switched-resistor integrators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiraseree-amornkun, A.; Worapishet, A.; Klumperink, E.A.M.; Nauta, B.; Surakampontorn, W.

    2006-01-01

    Opamp-RC integrators built with linear resistors and capacitors can achieve very high linearity. By means of a switched resistor, tuning of the RC time-constant is possible via the duty-cycle of the clock controlling the switched resistor. This paper analyzes the effect of opamp slew rate limitation

  2. FGMOS Based Voltage-Controlled Grounded Resistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pandey

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new floating gate MOSFET (FGMOS based voltage-controlled grounded resistor. In the proposed circuit FGMOS operating in the ohmic region is linearized by another conventional MOSFET operating in the saturation region. The major advantages of FGMOS based voltage-controlled grounded resistor (FGVCGR are simplicity, low total harmonic distortion (THD, and low power consumption. A simple application of this FGVCGR as a tunable high-pass filter is also suggested. The proposed circuits operate at the supply voltages of +/-0.75 V. The circuits are designed and simulated using SPICE in 0.25-µm CMOS technology. The simulation results of FGVCGR demonstrate a THD of 0.28% for the input signal 0.32 Vpp at 45 kHz, and a maximum power consumption of 254 µW.

  3. Resistor Networks based on Symmetrical Polytopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Moody

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how a method developed by Van Steenwijk can be generalized to calculate the resistance between any two vertices of a symmetrical polytope all of whose edges are identical resistors. The method is applied to a number of cases that have not been studied earlier such as the Archimedean polyhedra and their duals in three dimensions, the regular polytopes in four dimensions and the hypercube in any number of dimensions.

  4. Predicted effects on ground water of construction of Divide Cut section, Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway, northeastern Mississippi, using a digital model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Mark S.

    1981-01-01

    The Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway, connecting the Tennessee River in northeastern Mississippi with the Gulf of Mexico, is currently (1980) under construction. The Divide Section, the northernmost 39 miles of the Waterway, will consist, from north to south, of (1) a dredged channel, (2) the Divide Cut, and (3) an artifical lake impounded by the Bay Springs Dam. In all three , water will be at Tennessee River level. A three-dimensional digital model covering 3,273 square miles was constructed to simulate ground-water flow in the Gordo and Eutaw Formations and the Coffee Sand in the vicinity of the Divide Section. The model was calibrated to preconstruction water levels, then used to simulate the effects of stresses imposed by the construction of the Divide Section. The model indicates that the system stabilizes after major changes in conditions within a few months. The Divide Cut acts as a drain, lowering water levels as much as 55 feet. Drawdowns of 5 feet occur as much as 8 miles from the Cut. The 80-foot-high Bay Springs Dam raises ground-water levels by 5 feet as far as 6 miles from its impoundment. Drawdown is not likely to affect public water supplies significantly, but probably will adversely affect a relatively small number of private wells. (USGS)

  5. Solid-state resistor for pulsed power machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoltzfus, Brian; Savage, Mark E.; Hutsel, Brian Thomas; Fowler, William E.; MacRunnels, Keven Alan; Justus, David; Stygar, William A.

    2016-12-06

    A flexible solid-state resistor comprises a string of ceramic resistors that can be used to charge the capacitors of a linear transformer driver (LTD) used in a pulsed power machine. The solid-state resistor is able to absorb the energy of a switch prefire, thereby limiting LTD cavity damage, yet has a sufficiently low RC charge time to allow the capacitor to be recharged without disrupting the operation of the pulsed power machine.

  6. Variable thermal resistor based on self-powered Peltier effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min Gao; Yatim, N Md [School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Cardiff, CF24 3AA (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-21

    Heat flow through a thermoelectric material or device can be varied by an electrical resistor connected in parallel to it. This phenomenon is exploited to design a novel thermal component-variable thermal resistor. The theoretical background to this novel application is provided and an experimental result to demonstrate its feasibility is reported. (fast track communication)

  7. Electrochemical Migration on Electronic Chip Resistors in Chloride Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per;

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical migration behavior of end terminals on ceramic chip resistors (CCRs) was studied using a novel experimental setup in varying sodium chloride concentrations from 0 to 1000 ppm. The chip resistor used for the investigation was 10-kΩ CCR size 0805 with end terminals made of 97Sn3Pb...

  8. Hybrid optical antennas with photonic resistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butakov, N A; Schuller, J A

    2015-11-16

    Hybrid optical antennas, comprising active materials placed in the gaps of plasmonic split-ring-resonators and nano-dimers, have been the subject of numerous recent investigations. Engineered coupling between the two plasmonic resonators is achieved by modulating the active material, enabling control over the near- and far-field electromagnetic properties. Here, using electromagnetics calculations, we study the evolving optical response of a hybrid metal-semiconductor-metal nanorod antenna as the semiconductor free charge carrier density is continuously varied. In particular, we demonstrate qualitatively new behavior arising from epsilon-near-zero properties in intermediately doped semiconductors. In agreement with optical nano-circuit theory, we show that in the epsilon-near-zero regime such a load acts as an ideal optical resistor with an optimized damping response and strongly suppressed electromagnetic scattering. In periodic arrays, or metasurfaces, we then show how to use these effects to construct high-efficiency nanophotonic intensity modulators for dynamically shaping light.

  9. Preparation of Lead-free Thick-film Resistor Pastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Hui; LI Shihong; LIU Jisong; CHEN Liqiao; YING Xingang; WANG Ke

    2012-01-01

    The preparation of lead-free thick-film resistors are reported:using RuO2 and ruthenates as conductive particles,glass powders composed of B2O3,SiO2,CaO and Al2O3 as insulating phase,adding organic matter which mainly consists of ethyl cellulose and terpineol to form printable pastes.Resistors were fabricated and sintered by conventional screen-printing on 96%Al2O3 substrates,and then sintering in a belt furnace.X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron scanning microscopy (SEM) have been used to characterize the conductive particles.The resistors exhibit good retiring stability and low temperature coefficient of resistance.Sheet resistance spans from about 80 Ω/□ to 600 Ω/□.The resistors prepared are qualified for common use.

  10. Direct-Write Precision Resistors for Ceramic Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, S.; Dimos, D.; Huang, R.F.; Rodriguez, M.A.; Wilcox, D.; Yang, P.

    1998-11-30

    A direct-write approach to f abricate high precision resistors is reported. Special attention is paid to the effect of print thickrw;s on the resistance value of buried resistors after a low temperature co-firing process. The results show that the direct-write approach provides a superior line definition and thickness control over a traditional screen printing process. Microstructural analysis indicates that there is an interdiffused layer developed between the resistor material and the low temperature co-fired ceramic substrate. These observations are consistent with electrical IIH.SUKHIlentS which show that resistance increases as the effective cross-sectional area is reduced. Th: resistance data show that the standard deviations for resistors printed on a 6" x 6" area are 59Z0 and 15$Z0 for the direct-write and the screen-printed patterns, respectively.

  11. Noise characteristics of resistors buried in low-temperature co-fired ceramics

    CERN Document Server

    Kolek, A; Dziedzic, A

    2003-01-01

    The comparison of noise properties of conventional thick film resistors prepared on alumina substrates and resistors embedded in low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCCs) is presented. Both types of resistors were prepared from commercially available resistive inks. Noise measurements of LTCC resistors below 1 kHz show Gaussian 1/f noise. This is concluded from the calculations of the second spectra as well as from studying the volume dependence of noise intensity. It has occurred that noise index of LTCC resistors on average is not worse than that of conventional resistors. A detailed study of co-fired surface resistors and co-fired buried resistors show that burying a resistor within LTCC substrate usually leads to (significant) enhancement of resistance but not of noise intensity. We interpret this behaviour as another argument in favour of tunnelling as the dominant conduction mechanism in LTCC resistors.

  12. The Sponge Resistor Model--A Hydrodynamic Analog to Illustrate Ohm's Law, the Resistor Equation R=?l/A, and Resistors in Series and Parallel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfister, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Physics students encountering electric circuits for the first time often ask why adding more resistors to a circuit sometimes increases and sometimes decreases the resulting total resistance. It appears that these students have an inadequate understanding of current flow and resistance. Students who do not adopt a model of current, voltage, and…

  13. Plan for study of water and its relation to economic development in the Green River and Great Divide basins in Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowham, H.W.; De Long, L.L.; Peter, K.D.; Wangsness, D.J.; Head, W.J.

    1976-05-01

    Development of extensive coal, oil, gas, trona, and oil-shale resources as well as other developments in the Green River and Great Divide basins will require a projected increase in water consumption of 490,000 acre-ft (600 cu hm) per year by 2020. Developments of energy resources in other parts of Wyoming also will require large amounts of water; transbasin diversion of Green River water to other areas could total an additional 270,000-acre-ft (330 cu hm) per year. In anticipation of this increased demand, water planners and managers need much more information about available ground and surface waters, present quality of the waters, and hydrologic effects that would be caused by development of energy resources. The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting an extensive hydrologic study of the basins. This report summarizes the study plan and discusses particular methods of approach that would be utilized in the study. The principal objectives of the study are given. (73 refs.)

  14. Continental Divide Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was created to show the proximity of the Continental Divide to the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail in New Mexico. This work was done as part...

  15. Series fault limiting resistors for Atlas Marx modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C.; Bowman, D.; Gribble, R.F.; Griego, J.; Hinckley, W.B.; Kasik, R.J.; Reass, W.A.; Parsons, W.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Cooper, R.A. [Maxwell Lab., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The proposed Atlas design provides a current pulse to the experiment chamber from a set of 20, 3-Marx-unit-wide modules radially positioned around a retangular disk transmission-line system (total of 60 Marxes in parallel){sup 1}. The Atlas circuit is designed to be near-critically-damped network with a total erected capacitance of 200 {mu}F at 600 KV. The justification for the necessary circuit resistance in this approach is based on reliability, fault tolerance and operational maintenance{sup 1}. Also the use of high energy- density capacitors that have lower tolerance to voltage reversal is a primary reason for the damping provided by significant series resistance. To obtain the damping there are two system resistors in the Atlas design. One resistor is a shunt element designed to damp the resonance caused by the relatively high-Q disk transmission-line capacitance and the Marx bank inductance. The second, more significant resistor is a series, fault-current limiting element that also performs the necessary damping for voltage reversal at the bank capacitors. The Series resistor is the subject of this paper.

  16. A controllable resistor and its applications in pole-zero tracking frequency compensation methods for LDOs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yi; He Lenian; Ning Zhihua; Shao Yali

    2009-01-01

    unit-gain compensation ceil and pseudo-ESR (equivalent serial resistor of load capacitor) power stage have been realized by this controllable resistor.Their advantages and limitations are discussed and verified by simulation results.

  17. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, A.C.W.(L.)

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful, a

  18. The electromagnetic "memory" of a dc-conducting resistor

    CERN Document Server

    Gluskin, Emanuel

    2010-01-01

    A circuit-field problem is considered. A resistor conducting a constant current is argued to be associated with electromagnetic energy accumulated in the surrounded space, though contrary to the case of an inductor or a capacitor, this energy is always associated with both magnetic and electrical fields, not with a single respective classical state-variable, -- either current or voltage. The circuit-theory point of view that a resistor has no electromagnetic memory is accepted, but the necessarily involved (in view of the field argument) capacitance and inductiveness are argued then also not be associated with any memory. The mutually completing circuit and physical arguments are presented in the form of dialog between a physicist and an electrical engineer. A teacher can find the work be pedagogically useful.

  19. Functional Laser Trimming Of Thin Film Resistors On Silicon ICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael J.; Mickanin, Wes

    1986-07-01

    Modern Laser Wafer Trimming (LWT) technology achieves exceptional analog circuit performance and precision while maintain-ing the advantages of high production throughput and yield. Microprocessor-driven instrumentation has both emphasized the role of data conversion circuits and demanded sophisticated signal conditioning functions. Advanced analog semiconductor circuits with bandwidths over 1 GHz, and high precision, trimmable, thin-film resistors meet many of todays emerging circuit requirements. Critical to meeting these requirements are optimum choices of laser characteristics, proper materials, trimming process control, accurate modeling of trimmed resistor performance, and appropriate circuit design. Once limited exclusively to hand-crafted, custom integrated circuits, designs are now available in semi-custom circuit configurations. These are similar to those provided for digital designs and supported by computer-aided design (CAD) tools. Integrated with fully automated measurement and trimming systems, these quality circuits can now be produced in quantity to meet the requirements of communications, instrumentation, and signal processing markets.

  20. Investigation of OSL signal of resistors from mobile phones for accidental dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Mrozik, Anna; Bilski, Pawel; Gieszczyk, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Resistors from mobile phones, usually located near the human body, are considered as individual dosimeters of ionizing radiation in emergency situations. The resistors contain Al2O3, which is optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) material sensitive to ionizing radiation. This work is focused on determination of dose homogeneity within a mobile phones which was carried out by OSL measurements of resistors placed in different parts inside the mobile phone. Separate, commercially available resistors, similar in the shape and size to the resistors from circuit board of the studied mobile phone, were situated in different locations inside it. The irradiations were performed in uniform 60Co and 137Cs radiation fields, with the mobile phones connected and not connected to the cellular network. The dose decrease of 9% was measured for original resistors situated between layer of copper-clad laminate and battery, in comparison to the dose at the front of the phone. The resistors showed the lower signal when the mobi...

  1. System and method of modulating electrical signals using photoconductive wide bandgap semiconductors as variable resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, John Richardson; Caporaso, George J; Sampayan, Stephen E

    2013-10-22

    A system and method for producing modulated electrical signals. The system uses a variable resistor having a photoconductive wide bandgap semiconductor material construction whose conduction response to changes in amplitude of incident radiation is substantially linear throughout a non-saturation region to enable operation in non-avalanche mode. The system also includes a modulated radiation source, such as a modulated laser, for producing amplitude-modulated radiation with which to direct upon the variable resistor and modulate its conduction response. A voltage source and an output port, are both operably connected to the variable resistor so that an electrical signal may be produced at the output port by way of the variable resistor, either generated by activation of the variable resistor or propagating through the variable resistor. In this manner, the electrical signal is modulated by the variable resistor so as to have a waveform substantially similar to the amplitude-modulated radiation.

  2. Infinite Body Centered Cubic Network of Identical Resistors

    CERN Document Server

    Asad, J H

    2013-01-01

    We express the equivalent resistance between the origin and any other lattice site in an infinite Body Centered Cubic (BCC) network consisting of identical resistors each of resistance R rationally in terms of known values and . The equivalent resistance is then calculated. Finally, for large separation between the origin and the lattice site two asymptotic formulas for the resistance are presented and some numerical results with analysis are given.

  3. Bridging the Digital Divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2002-01-01

    The article concerns the digital divide, meaning the social inequity in the access and the opportunities for gaining competencies with ICT (information and communication technologies). Problematic issues are highlighted in relation to experiences during visits to several Computer Clubhouses...

  4. Failure Behaviors and Mechanisms of High-Ohmic Resistors Protected by PF/EP Paint in Heat and Humid Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀宇; 程强; 马小品; 张浩; 李明秀; 陈同宁; 张平; 李志珣

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic formaldehyde(PF)and epoxy(EP)resins are commonly used in electronic packaging. In this paper, high-ohmic resistors(2.2 MΩ,±0.5%,)with Cr-Si film were coated by PF/EP paint, and the resulting coated resistors were used for heat and humid(HH)experiments. The experimental results show that the corrosion of band-like resistive films is selective and isotropic, and that the corrosion spots in resistive films all form along grooves and extend in the same direction. It is revealed that OH-ions are generated due to the electrochemical reactions of resistive film in HH experiments, so a NaOH aqueous solution with pH about 10 was used to study the effects of absorbed water and OH-ions on PF/EP polymer film. The results indicates that the color of some part on PF/EP polymer film changes due to corrosion, and that the corrosion part of the polymer film is easy to be peeled off. It can be inferred that OH-ions generated in HH experiments may play a catalytic role in the chemical reactions between polymer film and the absorbed water, which accelerates the degradation of PF/EP protection film for a resistor.

  5. Computer vision on color-band resistor and its cost-effective diffuse light source design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Sheng; Wang, Jeng-Yau

    2016-11-01

    Color-band resistor possessing specular surface is worthy of studying in the area of color image processing and color material recognition. The specular reflection and halo effects appearing in the acquired resistor image will result in the difficulty of color band extraction and recognition. A computer vision system is proposed to detect the resistor orientation, segment the resistor's main body, extract and identify the color bands, as well as recognize the color code sequence and read the resistor value. The effectiveness of reducing the specular reflection and halo effects are confirmed by several cheap covers, e.g., paper bowl, cup, or box inside pasted with white paper combining with a ring-type LED controlled automatically by the detected resistor orientation. The calibration of the microscope used to acquire the resistor image is described and the proper environmental light intensity is suggested. Experiments are evaluated by 200 4-band and 200 5-band resistors comprising 12 colors used on color-band resistors and show the 90% above correct rate of reading resistor. The performances reported by the failed number of horizontal alignment, color band extraction, color identification, as well as color code sequence flip over checking confirm the feasibility of the presented approach.

  6. Electrical Switching of Perovskite Thin-Film Resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shangqing; Wu, Juan; Ignatiev, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Electronic devices that exploit electrical switching of physical properties of thin films of perovskite materials (especially colossal magnetoresistive materials) have been invented. Unlike some related prior devices, these devices function at room temperature and do not depend on externally applied magnetic fields. Devices of this type can be designed to function as sensors (exhibiting varying electrical resistance in response to varying temperature, magnetic field, electric field, and/or mechanical pressure) and as elements of electronic memories. The underlying principle is that the application of one or more short electrical pulse(s) can induce a reversible, irreversible, or partly reversible change in the electrical, thermal, mechanical, and magnetic properties of a thin perovskite film. The energy in the pulse must be large enough to induce the desired change but not so large as to destroy the film. Depending on the requirements of a specific application, the pulse(s) can have any of a large variety of waveforms (e.g., square, triangular, or sine) and be of positive, negative, or alternating polarity. In some applications, it could be necessary to use multiple pulses to induce successive incremental physical changes. In one class of applications, electrical pulses of suitable shapes, sizes, and polarities are applied to vary the detection sensitivities of sensors. Another class of applications arises in electronic circuits in which certain resistance values are required to be variable: Incorporating the affected resistors into devices of the present type makes it possible to control their resistances electrically over wide ranges, and the lifetimes of electrically variable resistors exceed those of conventional mechanically variable resistors. Another and potentially the most important class of applications is that of resistance-based nonvolatile-memory devices, such as a resistance random access memory (RRAM) described in the immediately following article

  7. A dividing issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard; Sandøe, Peter

    2016-01-01

    . While there was broad agreement across all three groups that recreational hunting of naturally occurring “surplus” wildlife is acceptable, the release of farm-reared game birds for shooting was a dividing issue, both within the groups and between them. The majority of participants (51%) in the survey...

  8. Force Sensing Resistor and Its Application to Robotic Control①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHongrui; LUYingquan; 等

    1997-01-01

    The force sensing resistor(FSR) and its construction and characteristic are described.By using the optimal electronic interface,the end result which is a direct proportionality between force and voltage is obtained.The circuits of application for force and position measurements in the robotic control are given.The experiment that FSRs are placed on the fingers of BH-1 dexterous hand as tactile sensors to measure the contacting forces shows FSR's force sensitivity is optimized for use in the control of robot contacting with environment.

  9. An automated resistor network to inspect the linearity of resistance-thermometry measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, E.; Mana, G.

    2013-10-01

    This note describes a resistor network that enables automated linearity checks of resistance-thermometry measurements. The network is made in such a manner that the voltages across any number of resistors in a resistor series are read to get separate four-terminal values interrelated by the formula for the series connection. Linearity tests of resistance bridges show that the network can resolve deviations from linearity down to ±20 μΩ for resistance measurements from 32 to 284 Ω.

  10. Design of coupling resistor networks for neural network hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Ozdal; Smith, W. R.; Persky, George

    1990-06-01

    The specification of an artificial neural network includes (1) the transformation relating each neuron's output voltage to its input voltage, and (2) a set of coupling weight factors expressing the input voltage of any neuron as a linear combination of the output voltages of other neurons. In analog VLSI chips for direct hardware implementation of these networks, neurons are often represented by amplifier elements (e.g. operational amplifiers or opamps), and resistors or active transconductances are used to couple signals from the outputs of certain neurons to the inputs of other neurons. Each coupling conductance is proportional to a single, corresponding coupling weight only under the following 'ideal' conditions: (1) each opamp has negligible output impedance, and (2) the input voltage of each opamp is developed across a low-resistance sampling resistor that is not loaded by the opamp itself. By contrast, the output impedance of a practical opamp may not be negligible in comparison to that of the high-fan network that it drives, and the sampling resistances on the opamp inputs cannot be arbitrarily low lest the input voltages be corrupted by unavoidable opamp input voltage offsets.

  11. An optimized resistor pattern for temperature gradient control in microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva, Bertrand; Marchalot, Julien; Jullien, Marie-Caroline

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility of generating high-temperature gradients with a linear temperature profile when heating is provided in situ. Thanks to improved optimization algorithms, the shape of resistors, which constitute the heating source, is optimized by applying the genetic algorithm NSGA-II (acronym for the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm) (Deb et al 2002 IEEE Trans. Evol. Comput. 6 2). Experimental validation of the linear temperature profile within the cavity is carried out using a thermally sensitive fluorophore, called Rhodamine B (Ross et al 2001 Anal. Chem. 73 4117-23, Erickson et al 2003 Lab Chip 3 141-9). The high level of agreement obtained between experimental and numerical results serves to validate the accuracy of this method for generating highly controlled temperature profiles. In the field of actuation, such a device is of potential interest since it allows for controlling bubbles or droplets moving by means of thermocapillary effects (Baroud et al 2007 Phys. Rev. E 75 046302). Digital microfluidics is a critical area in the field of microfluidics (Dreyfus et al 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 14) as well as in the so-called lab-on-a-chip technology. Through an example, the large application potential of such a technique is demonstrated, which entails handling a single bubble driven along a cavity using simple and tunable embedded resistors.

  12. Characterization of DuPont 1900 series resistors applied to DuPont 5704 dielectric on alumina substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barner, G.E.

    1997-06-01

    Existing thick film hybrid microcircuit (HMC) production utilizing integral thick film resistors requires that thick film resistors be deposited via screen printing directly on the base alumina substrate material. This requirement, when coupled with circuits of moderate to high density and associated layer buildup prior to resistor application, results in printing on surfaces with significant topography surrounding the resistor, compared to required as-printed resistor thicknesses. Due to the technological requirement to print resistors after most other thick film processing has been completed, resistor printing is seldom performed on a flat surface. The surface topography of the substrate surrounding the resistor area prohibits the printing process from maintaining a relatively uniform printed resistor thickness across the substrate. Although resistors are, in most cases, adjusted to final electrical values by physically modifying the length-to-width ratio through laser trimming, the resistors must be within certain resistance ranges. This variation in thickness translates into potential scrap product through extreme variation in as-fired resistor electrical values and/or product incapable of being laser trimmed due to excessive resistor thickness. The development of a thick film resistor application process compatible with existing conductor and dielectric materials and enabling more planarization of the print surface was needed to enhance production yields on products of moderate complexity.

  13. CROSSING THE GREAT DIVIDE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The safety and quality standards divide is the most severe challenge facing China’s toy industry China was blamed a spate of toy recalls this year.Overseas customers and press pointed the finger at China’s toy makers who had manu- factured toys according to their con- tracts.It was later found that most of the toy problems came from design faults of brand holders,not from Chinese manufacturers. To Wei Chuangzhong,Vice Minister of the General Administration of Quality Supervision,Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ),the cavalcade of negative press coverage overseas has been unfair and bad for China’s manufacturers.

  14. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Variable thermal resistor based on self-powered Peltier effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Gao; Yatim, N. Md

    2008-11-01

    Heat flow through a thermoelectric material or device can be varied by an electrical resistor connected in parallel to it. This phenomenon is exploited to design a novel thermal component-variable thermal resistor. The theoretical background to this novel application is provided and an experimental result to demonstrate its feasibility is reported.

  15. Sensation of resistor-induced warmth in blind persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandierendonck, A; van der Goten, K

    1994-06-01

    It is commonly believed that the human sense of warmth is inferior in spatiotemporal acuity to the tactile senses. However, little or no evidence is available about the active feeling of warmth. We investigated the ability of people to detect in an active way small changes of warmth on very small areas (2-mm x 2-mm resistors). To that end, a new procedure was developed to measure perception of warmth. The results indicate that people who are able to detect the warmth stimuli perceive small incremental changes and that detection performance improves as stimulus intensity increases. Male subjects seem to be less sensitive than female subjects at lower level of stimulation, but this relationship is reversed at higher levels of stimulation.

  16. Voltage controlled resistor using quasi-floating-gate MOSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susheel Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A voltage controlled resistor (VCR using quasi-floating-gate MOSFETs (QFGMOS suitable for low voltage applications is presented. The performance of the VCR implemented with QFGMOS is compared with its floating-gate MOSFET (FGMOS version. It was found that QFGMOS offers better performance than FGMOS in terms of frequency response, offsets and chip area. The VCR using QFGMOS offers high bandwidth and low power dissipation and yields high value of resistance as compared to its FGMOS counterpart. The workability of the presented circuits was tested by PSpice simulations using level 3 parameters of 0.5μm CMOS technology with supply voltage of ± 0.75V. The simulations results were found to be in accordance with the theoretical predictions.

  17. Characteristics and Breakdown Behaviors of Polysilicon Resistors for High Voltage Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yu Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the power integrated circuit technology, polysilicon resistors have been widely used not only in traditional CMOS circuits, but also in the high voltage applications. However, there have been few detailed reports about the polysilicon resistors’ characteristics, like voltage and temperature coefficients and breakdown behaviors which are critical parameters of high voltage applications. In this study, we experimentally find that the resistance of the polysilicon resistor with a relatively low doping concentration shows negative voltage and temperature coefficients, while that of the polysilicon resistor with a high doping concentration has positive voltage and temperature coefficients. Moreover, from the experimental results of breakdown voltages of the polysilicon resistors, it could be deduced that the breakdown of polysilicon resistors is thermally rather than electrically induced. We also proposed to add an N-type well underneath the oxide to increase the breakdown voltage in the vertical direction when the substrate is P-type doped.

  18. Why do bacteria divide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vic eNorris

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of not only how but also why cells divide can be tackled using recent ideas. One idea from the origins of life – Life as independent of its constituents – is that a living entity like a cell is a particular pattern of connectivity between its constituents. This means that if the growing cell were just to get bigger the average connectivity between its constituents per unit mass – its cellular connectivity – would decrease and the cell would lose its identity. The solution is division which restores connectivity. The corollary is that the cell senses decreasing cellular connectivity and uses this information to trigger division. A second idea from phenotypic diversity – Life on the Scales of Equilibria – is that a bacterium must find strategies that allow it to both survive and grow. This means that it has learnt to reconcile the opposing constraints that these strategies impose. The solution is that the cell cycle generates daughter cells with different phenotypes based on sufficiently complex equilibrium and non-equilibrium cellular compounds and structures appropriate for survival and growth, respectively, alias `hyperstructures'. The corollary is that the cell senses both the quantity of equilibrium material and the intensity of use of non-equilibrium material and then uses this information to trigger the cell cycle. A third idea from artificial intelligence – Competitive Coherence – is that a cell selects the active subset of elements that actively determine its phenotype from a much larger set of available elements. This means that the selection of an active subset of a specific size and composition must be done so as to generate both a coherent cell state, in which the cell’s contents work together harmoniously, and a coherent sequence of cell states, each coherent with respect to itself and to an unpredictable environment. The solution is the use of a range of mechanisms ranging from hyperstructure dynamics

  19. Why do bacteria divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Vic

    2015-01-01

    The problem of not only how but also why cells divide can be tackled using recent ideas. One idea from the origins of life - Life as independent of its constituents - is that a living entity like a cell is a particular pattern of connectivity between its constituents. This means that if the growing cell were just to get bigger the average connectivity between its constituents per unit mass - its cellular connectivity - would decrease and the cell would lose its identity. The solution is division which restores connectivity. The corollary is that the cell senses decreasing cellular connectivity and uses this information to trigger division. A second idea from phenotypic diversity - Life on the Scales of Equilibria - is that a bacterium must find strategies that allow it to both survive and grow. This means that it has learnt to reconcile the opposing constraints that these strategies impose. The solution is that the cell cycle generates daughter cells with different phenotypes based on sufficiently complex equilibrium (E) and non-equilibrium (NE) cellular compounds and structures appropriate for survival and growth, respectively, alias 'hyperstructures.' The corollary is that the cell senses both the quantity of E material and the intensity of use of NE material and then uses this information to trigger the cell cycle. A third idea from artificial intelligence - Competitive Coherence - is that a cell selects the active subset of elements that actively determine its phenotype from a much larger set of available elements. This means that the selection of an active subset of a specific size and composition must be done so as to generate both a coherent cell state, in which the cell's contents work together harmoniously, and a coherent sequence of cell states, each coherent with respect to itself and to an unpredictable environment. The solution is the use of a range of mechanisms ranging from hyperstructure dynamics to the cell cycle itself.

  20. Effective thermal conductivity of real two-phase systems using resistor model with ellipsoidal inclusions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jagjiwanram; Ramvir Singh

    2004-08-01

    A theoretical model has been developed for real two-phase system assuming linear flow of heat flux lines having ellipsoidal particles arranged in a three-dimensional cubic array. The arrangement has been divided into unit cells, each of which contains an ellipsoid. The resistor model has been applied to determine the effective thermal conductivity (ETC) of the unit cell. To take account of random packing of the phases, non-uniform shape of the particles and non-linear flow of heat flux lines in real systems, incorporating an empirical correction factor in place of physical porosity modifies an expression for ETC. An effort is made to correlate it in terms of the ratio of thermal conductivities of the constituents and the physical porosity. Theoretical expression so obtained has been tested on a large number of samples cited in the literature and found that the values predicted are quite close to the experimental results. Comparison of our model with different models cited in the literature has also been made.

  1. 基于BP神经网络的城市时用水量分时段预测模型%Period-divided predictive model of urban hourly water consumption based on BP neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向平; 张蒙; 张智; 张南

    2012-01-01

    At present there are scant studies on the impact factors of hourly water demand in the water demand prediction. This work investigated the main impact factors for the water consumption in different hours through the analysis on the correlation between the different impact factors and the hourly water consumption. The period-divided prediction model was established on the basis of three divided periods of one day. And BP neural network was used to predict. Precision index was indicated with MAPE value. Case analysis results show that for the established period-divided water consumption prediction model, MAPE values are all within 5%, which indicates a high prediction accuracy, and the water supply system optimization scheduling requirements can be met, providing a simple and feasible approach and method for the urban hourly water consumption prediction.%针对目前时用水量预测模型中对时用水量影响因素分析研究较少的问题,通过分析各种时用水量影响因素与时用水量之间的相关性,筛选出时用水量的主要影响因子;通过分类将1d划分为3个时段,建立分时段用水量模型.采用BP神经网络预测,精度指标采用平均绝对百分比误差(MAPE)表示.实例分析结果表明:模型预测MAPE均在5%以内,预测精度较高,满足供水系统优化调度的要求,为城市时用水量预测提供一种简单可行的思路和方法.

  2. Research of improved sparse grid non-uniformity correction technologies for infrared resistor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hui-jie; Zhao, Hong-ming; Gao, Yang; Yu, Hong; Zhang, Yi

    2015-10-01

    Infrared resistor arrays perform a vital role in the hardware in the loop testing of infrared seekers. Infrared resistor arrays composed of large numbers of suspended resistor elements are commonly used to produce dynamic two-dimensional images of infrared radiation. Due to inconsistencies in the fabrication process of the resistor arrays, the temperature each resistor elements reaches for a given input voltage is variable and this leads to more significant radiance differences, these differences result in spatially-distributed radiance non-uniformity. Therefore, in order to obtain an available infrared image, non-uniformity correction (NUC) is necessary. In this paper, the non-uniformity characters of the infrared resistor arrays are analyzed base on measured data and then an improved sparse grid method for engineering are discussed and analyzed. First of all, the NUC camera has a strong influence on the effectiveness of the infrared resistor arrays NUC procedure. According to the actual fact and the laboratory condition, we presented an alternative method for collecting resistor arrays intended to reduce the influence causing by the NUC camera. Secondly, based on the measured non-uniformity data, we obtain the response characteristics of the infrared resistor arrays. In each gray level, we take two points or several points correction algorithm to calculate the gain data and the offset data, and then the linear look-up table is established. Finally, through MATLAB we develop the correction software, and we can obtain the driving output conveniently. The result shows that the image quality has a remarkable improvement after non-uniformity correction, the non-uniformity correction flow and algorithm preferably satisfies the requirement of the high confidence infrared imaging simulation.

  3. Negative-Resistance Characteristics Analysis of Poly-Silicon Resistors Formed on the Flow Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianzhong Wen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we put forward a new concept about effective trapping center concentration NeT which is decreasing with the trapped charge Q corresponding to index movement, based on that, we discuss the I-V and temperature characteristics of polysilicon resistors. The new concept presents ideal theoretical interpretion for the originally observed current-voltage negative-resistance characteristics of polysilicon resistors formed on the flow sensor, and also for poly-silicon film resistors.The final results agree well with the theoretical current-voltage characteristics.

  4. Ultrabroadband Microwave Metamaterial Absorber Based on Electric SRR Loaded with Lumped Resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingcheng; Cheng, Yongzhi

    2016-10-01

    An ultrabroadband microwave metamaterial absorber (MMA) based on an electric split-ring resonator (ESRR) loaded with lumped resistors is presented. Compared with an ESRR MMA, the composite MMA (CMMA) loaded with lumped resistors offers stronger absorption over an extremely extended bandwidth. The reflectance simulated under different substrate loss conditions indicates that incident electromagnetic (EM) wave energy is mainly consumed by the lumped resistors. The simulated surface current and power loss density distributions further illustrate the mechanism underlying the observed absorption. Further simulation results indicate that the performance of the CMMA can be tuned by adjusting structural parameters of the ESRR and lumped resistor parameters. We fabricated and measured MMA and CMMA samples. The CMMA yielded below -10 dB reflectance from 4.4 GHz to 18 GHz experimentally, with absorption bandwidth and relative bandwidth of 13.6 GHz and 121.4%, respectively. This ultrabroadband microwave absorber has potential applications in the electromagnetic energy harvesting and stealth fields.

  5. A low-cost DAC BIST structure using a resistor loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jaewon; Kim, Heetae; Kang, Sungho

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new DAC BIST (digital-to-analog converter built-in self-test) structure using a resistor loop known as a DDEM ADC (deterministic dynamic element matching analog-to-digital converter). Methods for both switch reduction and switch effect reduction are proposed for solving problems related to area overhead and accuracy of the conventional DAC BIST. The proposed BIST modifies the length of each resistor in the resistor loop via a merging operation and reduces the number of switches and resistors. In addition, the effect of switches is mitigated using the proposed switch effect reduction method. The accuracy of the proposed BIST is demonstrated by the reduction in the switch effect. The experimental results show that the proposed BIST reduces resource usages and the mismatch error caused by the switches.

  6. An Investigation of the Relationship between Resistance and Thickness of Deposited Nickel Thin Film Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericam R.R. Mucunguzi-Rugwebe

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is finding the relationship between resistance and thickness of deposited Nickel Thin Film Resistors. It was found that the Sheet Resistance, Rs, is inversely proportional to the thickness of the film on the substrate. It was also observed that when the film thickness is greater than 50 nm, films behave like ordinary resistors. In other words in bulk, films obey Ohm’s law if other physical quantities remain constant.

  7. Design and fabrication of carbon nanotube field-emission cathode with coaxial gate and ballast resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yonghai; Yeow, John T W; Jaffray, David A

    2013-10-25

    A low density vertically aligned carbon nanotube-based field-emission cathode with a ballast resistor and coaxial gate is designed and fabricated. The ballast resistor can overcome the non-uniformity of the local field-enhancement factor at the emitter apex. The self-aligned fabrication process of the coaxial gate can avoid the effects of emitter tip misalignment and height non-uniformity.

  8. The Influence of Electrical Pulses on Thick Film (Du Pont 1421 Birox) Resistors

    OpenAIRE

    Tancula, M.; Kozlowski, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents data on the effect of electric pulses on thick film resistors made using Du Pont 1421 Birox resistor pastes.Resistance changes during the application of the electric pulses were investigated. Two types of change were observed: reversible and irreversible (i.e. catastrophic).In order to illustrate the causes of these changes, observations of the film on a scanning electron microscope were made. Microcracks were observed in the film, which were mostly responsible for the per...

  9. Development of Low-Noise High Value Chromium Silicide Resistors for Cryogenic Detector Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhabvala, Murzy; Babu, Sachi; Monroy, Carlos; Darren, C.; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Extremely high sensitivity detectors, such as silicon bolometers are required in many NASA missions for detection of photons from the x-ray to the far infrared regions. Typically, these detectors are cooled to well below the liquid helium (LHe) temperature (4.2 K) to achieve the maximum detection performance. As photoconductors, they are generally operated with a load resistor and a pre-set bias voltage, which is then coupled to the input gate of a source-follower Field Effect Transistor (FET) circuit. It is imperative that the detector system signal to noise performance be limited by the noise of the detector and not by the noise of the external components. The load resistor value is selected to optimize the detector performance. These two criteria tend to be contradictory in that these detectors require load resistors in the hundreds of megaohms, which leads to a higher Johnson noise. Additionally, the physical size of the resistor must be small for device integration as required by such missions as the NASA High Resolution Airborne Wide-Band Camera (HAWC) instrument and the Submillimeter High Angular Resolution Camera (SHARC) for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). We have designed, fabricated and characterized thin film resistors using a CrSi/TiW/Al metal system on optical quality quartz substrates. The resistor values range from 100 megaohms to over 650 megaohms and are Johnson noise limited at LHe temperatures. The resistor film is sputtered with a sheet resistance ranging from 300 ohms to 1600 ohms and the processing sequence developed for these devices allows for chemically fine tuning the sheet resistance in-situ. The wafer fabrication process was of sufficiently high yield (>80%) providing clusters of good resistors for integrated multiple detector channels, a very important feature in the assembly of these two instruments.

  10. Essays on the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Belal M. T.

    2013-01-01

    The digital divide is a phenomenon that is globally persistent, despite rapidly decreasing costs in technology. While much of the variance in the adoption and use of information communication technology (ICT) that defines the digital divide can be explained by socioeconomic and demographic variables, there is still significant unaccounted variance…

  11. Investigation about decoupling capacitors of PMT voltage divider effects on neutron-gamma discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divani, Nazila, E-mail: n-divani@birjand.ac.ir; Firoozabadi, Mohammad M. [Dep. Of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Birjand, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Bayat, Esmail [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-24

    Scintillators are almost used in any nuclear laboratory. These detectors combine of scintillation materials, PMT and a voltage divider. Voltage dividers are different in resistive ladder design. But the effect of decoupling capacitors and damping resistors haven’t discussed yet. In this paper at first a good equilibrium circuit designed for PMT, and it was used for investigating about capacitors and resistors in much manner. Results show that decoupling capacitors have great effect on PMT output pulses. In this research, it was tried to investigate the effect of Capacitor’s value and places on PMT voltage divider in Neutron-Gamma discrimination capability. Therefore, the voltage divider circuit for R329-02 Hamamatsu PMT was made and Zero Cross method used for neutron-gamma discrimination. The neutron source was a 20Ci Am-Be. Anode and Dynode pulses and discrimination spectrum were saved. The results showed that the pulse height and discrimination quality change with the value and setting of capacitors.

  12. A novel pseudo resistor structure for biomedical front-end amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu-Chieh Huang; Tzu-Sen Yang; Shun-Hsi Hsu; Xin-Zhuang Chen; Jin-Chern Chiou

    2015-08-01

    This study proposes a novel pseudo resistor structure with a tunable DC bias voltage for biomedical front-end amplifiers (FEAs). In the proposed FEA, the high-pass filter composed of differential difference amplifier and a pseudo resistor is implemented. The FEA is manufactured by using a standard TSMC 0.35 μm CMOS process. In this study, three types FEAs included three different pseudo resistor are simulated, fabricated and measured for comparison and electrocorticography (ECoG) measurement, and all the results show the proposed pseudo resistor is superior to other two types in bandwidth. In chip implementation, the lower and upper cutoff frequencies of the high-pass filter with the proposed pseudo resistor are 0.15 Hz and 4.98 KHz, respectively. It also demonstrates lower total harmonic distortion performance of -58 dB at 1 kHz and higher stability with wide supply range (1.8 V and 3.3 V) and control voltage range (0.9 V and 1.65 V) than others. Moreover, the FEA with the proposed pseudo successfully recorded spike-and-wave discharges of ECoG signal in in vivo experiment on rat with pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures.

  13. Architecture design of resistor/FET-logic demultiplexer for hybrid CMOS/nanodevice circuit interconnect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu; Zhang, Tong

    2008-05-07

    Hybrid nanoelectronics consisting of nanodevice crossbars on top of CMOS backplane circuits is emerging as one viable option to sustain Moore's law after the CMOS scaling limit is reached. One main design challenge in such hybrid nanoelectronics is the interface between the highly dense nanowires in nanodevice crossbars and relatively coarse microwires in the CMOS domain. Such an interface can be realized through a logic circuit called a demultiplexer (demux). In this context, all the prior work on demux design uses a single type of device, such as resistor, diode or field effect transistor (FET), to realize the demultiplexing function. However, different types of devices have their own advantages and disadvantages in terms of functionality, manufacturability, speed and power consumption. This makes none of them provide a satisfactory solution. To tackle this challenge, this work proposes to combine resistor with FET to implement the demux, leading to the hybrid resistor/FET-logic demux. Such hybrid demux architecture can make these two types of devices complement each other well to improve the overall demux design effectiveness. Furthermore, due to the inevitable fabrication process variations at the nanoscale, the effects of resistor conductance and FET threshold voltage variability are analyzed and evaluated based on computer simulations. The simulation results provide the requirement on the fabrication process to ensure a high demux reliability, and promise the hybrid resistor/FET-logic demux an improved addressability and process variance tolerance.

  14. Isolation Enhancement between Indoor Repeater Antennas with Chip Resistor Embedded FSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Yeong Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolation enhancement between the donor antenna and the service antenna for indoor repeater systems is presented by using a frequency-selective surface (FSS. A unit cell of the proposed FSS consists of a quarter-wavelength resonator, a chip resistor, an FR4 substrate, and a ground plane. Applying the unit cells of the proposed FSS embedded a chip resistor on the side walls of each reflector for indoor WCDMA repeater antennas and aligning them along with the cross-polarization of each antenna, the isolation is improved by about 13 dB at the WCDMA band.

  15. Implementation of an analogue model of a memristor based on a light-dependent resistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiao-Yuan; Andrew L. Fitch; Herbert H. C. Iu; Victor Sreeram; Qi Wei-Gui

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,an analogue model of a memristor using a light-dependent resistor (LDR) is presented.This model can be simplified into two parts:a control circuit and a variable resistor.It can be used to easily verify theoretical presumptions about the switching properties of memristors.This LDR-based memristor model can also be used in both simulations and experiments for future research into memristor applications.The paper includes mathematical models,simulations,and experimental results.

  16. Divided by the Market, Divided by the State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike; Starke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    of the individual differences, the analysis also shows, for the first time, that both high inequality and strongly redistributive policies divide public opinion along the lines of socioeconomic position. Put differently, while market inequality may be associated with less cohesive attitudes, a highly redistributive...

  17. 30 CFR 77.802 - Protection of high-voltage circuits; neutral grounding resistors; disconnecting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protection of high-voltage circuits; neutral... AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.802 Protection of high-voltage circuits; neutral grounding resistors; disconnecting devices. High-voltage...

  18. Hand-Drawn Resistors and a Simple Tester Using a Light-Emitting Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Abe, Mayumi

    2012-01-01

    A thick line drawn on a sheet of paper with a 6B pencil is electrically conductive and its resistance can be roughly estimated using a simple tester made of a light-emitting diode (LED) and a lithium coin-type cell. Using this hand-drawn resistor and the LED tester, we developed teaching materials that help students to understand how electrical…

  19. Cosmic Ray Measurements by Scintillators with Metal Resistor Semiconductor Avalanche Photo Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Francesco; La Rocca, Paola; Riggi, Francesco; Akindinov, Alexandre; Mal'kevich, Dmitry

    2008-01-01

    An educational set-up for cosmic ray physics experiments is described. The detector is based on scintillator tiles with a readout through metal resistor semiconductor (MRS) avalanche photo diode (APD) arrays. Typical measurements of the cosmic angular distribution at sea level and a study of the East-West asymmetry obtained by such a device are…

  20. Getting Past the "Digital Divide"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Sean

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, "digital divide" has become a catchphrase for the stubborn disparity in IT resources between communities, especially in regard to education. Low-income, rural and minority populations have received special scrutiny as the technological "have-nots." This article presents success stories of educators who can work around obstacles…

  1. Dividing Fractions: A Pedagogical Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert

    2016-01-01

    When dividing one fraction by a second fraction, invert, that is, flip the second fraction, then multiply it by the first fraction. To multiply fractions, simply multiply across the denominators, and multiply across the numerators to get the resultant fraction. So by inverting the division of fractions it is turned into an easy multiplication of…

  2. Information Societies and Digital Divides

    CERN Document Server

    Sorj, Bernardo

    2008-01-01

    The book argues ICT are part of the set of goods and services that determine quality of life, social inequality and the chances for economic development. Therefore understanding the digital divide demands a broader discussion of the place of ICT within each society and in the international system. The author argues against the perspectives that either isolates ICT from other basic social goods (in particular education and employment) as well as those that argue that new technologies are luxury of a consumer society. Though the author accepts that new technologies are not a panacea for the problems of inequality, access to them become a condition of full integration of social life. Using examples mainly from Latin America, the work presents some general policy proposals on the fight against the digital divide which take in consideration other dimensions of social inequality and access to public goods. Bernardo Sorj was born in Montevideo, Uruguay. He is a naturalized Brazilian, living in Brazil since 1976. He ...

  3. Quasi-Random Resistor Network Model for Linear Magnetoresistance of Metal-Semiconductor Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jie; ZHANG Duan-Ming; DENG Zong-Wei; YANG Feng-Xia; LI Zhi-Hua; PAN Yuan

    2008-01-01

    A new model for the linear magentoresistance (MR) of the Ag2+δ Se and Ag2+δ Te thin films is proposed. The thin film is considered as a metal-semiconductor composite and dispersed into an N×N quasi-random resistor network. The network is constructed from four-terminal resistors and the mobility of carries μ within the network has a quasi-random distribution, i.e. a Gaussian distribution with two constraint conditions. The model predicts that the MR increases with the increasing magnetic fields, and increases linearly at high field. Moreover, the MR decreases with the increasing temperatures. A good agreement between the theoretical MR and the available experimental data is found.

  4. Sizing of the Series Dynamic Breaking Resistor in a Doubly Fed Induction Generator Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Hammam; Wang, Huai; Zhou, Dao

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of Series Dynamic Breaking Resistor (SDBR) sizing on a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based wind power conversion system. The boundary of the SDBR value is firstly derived by taking into account the controllability of the rotor side converter and the maxi......This paper investigates the effect of Series Dynamic Breaking Resistor (SDBR) sizing on a Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based wind power conversion system. The boundary of the SDBR value is firstly derived by taking into account the controllability of the rotor side converter...... and the maximum allowable voltage of the stator. Then the impact of the SDBR value on the rotor current, stator voltage, DC-link voltage, reactive power capability and introduced power loss during voltage sag operation is evaluated by simulation. The presented study enables a trade-off sizing of the SDBR among...

  5. Nanoporous carbon tunable resistor/transistor and methods of production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Juergen; Baumann, Theodore F; Dasgupta, Subho; Hahn, Horst

    2014-04-22

    In one embodiment, a tunable resistor/transistor includes a porous material that is electrically coupled between a source electrode and a drain electrode, wherein the porous material acts as an active channel, an electrolyte solution saturating the active channel, the electrolyte solution being adapted for altering an electrical resistance of the active channel based on an applied electrochemical potential, wherein the active channel comprises nanoporous carbon arranged in a three-dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method for forming the tunable resistor/transistor includes forming a source electrode, forming a drain electrode, and forming a monolithic nanoporous carbon material that acts as an active channel and selectively couples the source electrode to the drain electrode electrically. In any embodiment, the electrolyte solution saturating the nanoporous carbon active channel is adapted for altering an electrical resistance of the nanoporous carbon active channel based on an applied electrochemical potential.

  6. Design and Analysis of the Distributed Resistor-loading GPR Antenna with Reflected Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Bing-heng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the use of a half-ellipse dipole with distributed resistor-loading. By improving the structure of the antenna arms and using distributed resistor-loading technology, the current reflection at the end of dipole is significantly reduced, the input impedance is improved, and the operation bandwidth is widened. We decreased the backward radiation of the antenna with a cubic metal-reflective cavity and also improved the ground penetration ability. The proposed antenna was simulated and designed with electromagnetic computing software; on the basis of the design results, we fabricated the antenna sample. Measurement results of the return loss and radiation characteristics of the proposed antenna confirm the validity of the simulation. We applied the proposed antenna in a GPR system as an underground target detection experiment; on the basis of the experimental results, we conclude that the antenna is able to meet the needs of GPR systems.

  7. Flood Nonuniformity Measurement Resistor Arrays%电阻阵列Flood非均匀性测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春伟; 王仕成; 苏德伦; 廖守亿; 张金生

    2011-01-01

    Resistor array has been the hot research area during the late 20 years in the field of hard-ware-in-the-loop(HWIL), of which the radiance non-uniformity is a negative effect to the scene fidelity. The resistor array non-uniformity must be measured precisely in order to correct it. The functional diagram of resistor array Flood non-uniformity measurement method was introduced; the reasons for Moire fringes appearance was analyzed; the resistor array non-uniformity Flood measurement method based on the prediction of Moire fringes was proposed towards the Moire fringes. The simulation results indicate that the method achieves good effect in the mapping ratio less than 1:1.%在红外成像半实物仿真领域,电阻阵列一直是近20多年的研究热点,但其固有的辐射非均匀性对成像的保真度有着很大的负面影响.为了对电阻阵列进行非均匀性校正,必须对电阻阵列的非均匀性进行精确的测量.给出了电阻阵列Flood非均匀性测试法系统模型;分析了莫尔条纹的产生原因;针对非1∶1映射比例下Flood非均匀性测试方法产生的莫尔条纹,提出了基于莫尔条纹预测的电阻阵列Flood非均匀性测试方法.仿真结果表明,该方法在小于1∶1映射比例下可以取得很好的效果.

  8. Efficient Green's-function approach to finding the currents in a random resistor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kang; Bradley, R. Mark

    1994-02-01

    Using Green's functions, we reformulate Kirchhoff's laws for a two-component random resistor network in which a fraction p of the resistors has conductance σ- and the remainder have conductance σ+. In this Green's-function formulation (GFF), the current correlation between any two resistors in the network is explicitly taken into account. The GFF yields a linear system equivalent to Kirchhoff's laws but with a smaller number of variables. In the dilute case (pGFF. For general p, a variety of algorithms can be used to solve the GFF linear system. We present the technical details of solving the GFF linear system using the conjugate gradient method (method A). Our extensive numerical work shows that method A consistently requires fewer iterations than solving Kirchhoff's laws directly using the conjugate gradient method (method B). For example, for a 128×128 grid with p>=0.65 and σ-/σ+<=10-4, the number of iterations needed to achieve a precision of 10-10 is more than 100 times smaller in method A than in method B.

  9. Maximum Bandwidth Enhancement of Current Mirror using Series-Resistor and Dynamic Body Bias Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Niranjan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new approach for enhancing the bandwidth of a low voltage CMOS current mirror. The proposed approach is based on utilizing body effect in a MOS transistor by connecting its gate and bulk terminals together for signal input. This results in boosting the effective transconductance of MOS transistor along with reduction of the threshold voltage. The proposed approach does not affect the DC gain of the current mirror. We demonstrate that the proposed approach features compatibility with widely used series-resistor technique for enhancing the current mirror bandwidth and both techniques have been employed simultaneously for maximum bandwidth enhancement. An important consequence of using both techniques simultaneously is the reduction of the series-resistor value for achieving the same bandwidth. This reduction in value is very attractive because a smaller resistor results in smaller chip area and less noise. PSpice simulation results using 180 nm CMOS technology from TSMC are included to prove the unique results. The proposed current mirror operates at 1Volt consuming only 102 µW and maximum bandwidth extension ratio of 1.85 has been obtained using the proposed approach. Simulation results are in good agreement with analytical predictions.

  10. Electrohydrodynamic printing of organic polymeric resistors on flat and uneven surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maktabi, Sepehr; Chiarot, Paul R.

    2016-08-01

    In materials printing applications, the ability to generate fine droplets is critical for achieving high-resolution features. Other desirable characteristics are high print speeds, large stand-off distances, and minimal instrumentation requirements. In this work, a tunable electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing technique capable of generating micron-sized droplets is reported. This method was used to print organic resistors on flat and uneven substrates. These ubiquitous electronic components were built using the commercial polymer-based conductive ink poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), which has been widely used in the manufacturing of organic electronic devices. Resistors with widths from 50 to 500 μm and resistances from 1 to 70 Ω/μm were created. An array of emission modes for EHD printing was identified. Among these, the most promising is the microdripping mode, where droplets 10 times smaller than the nozzle's inner diameter were created at frequencies in excess of 5 kHz. It was found that the ink flow rate, applied voltage, and stand-off distance all significantly influence the droplet generation frequency. In particular, the experimental results reveal that the frequency increases nonlinearly with the applied voltage. The non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior of PEDOT:PSS strongly influenced the droplet frequency. Finally, the topology of a 3-dimensional target substrate had a significant effect on the structure and function of a printed resistor.

  11. Passive Resistor Temperature Compensation for a High-Temperature Piezoresistive Pressure Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zong; Liang, Ting; Jia, Pinggang; Hong, Yingping; Qi, Lei; Lei, Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Li, Wangwang; Zhang, Diya; Xiong, Jijun

    2016-07-22

    The main limitation of high-temperature piezoresistive pressure sensors is the variation of output voltage with operating temperature, which seriously reduces their measurement accuracy. This paper presents a passive resistor temperature compensation technique whose parameters are calculated using differential equations. Unlike traditional experiential arithmetic, the differential equations are independent of the parameter deviation among the piezoresistors of the microelectromechanical pressure sensor and the residual stress caused by the fabrication process or a mismatch in the thermal expansion coefficients. The differential equations are solved using calibration data from uncompensated high-temperature piezoresistive pressure sensors. Tests conducted on the calibrated equipment at various temperatures and pressures show that the passive resistor temperature compensation produces a remarkable effect. Additionally, a high-temperature signal-conditioning circuit is used to improve the output sensitivity of the sensor, which can be reduced by the temperature compensation. Compared to traditional experiential arithmetic, the proposed passive resistor temperature compensation technique exhibits less temperature drift and is expected to be highly applicable for pressure measurements in harsh environments with large temperature variations.

  12. Zero-point term and quantum effects in the Johnson noise of resistors: a critical appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Laszlo B.; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G.

    2016-05-01

    There is a longstanding debate about the zero-point term in the Johnson noise voltage of a resistor. This term originates from a quantum-theoretical treatment of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem (FDT). Is the zero-point term really there, or is it only an experimental artifact, due to the uncertainty principle, for phase-sensitive amplifiers? Could it be removed by renormalization of theories? We discuss some historical measurement schemes that do not lead to the effect predicted by the FDT, and we analyse new features that emerge when the consequences of the zero-point term are measured via the mean energy and force in a capacitor shunting the resistor. If these measurements verify the existence of a zero-point term in the noise, then two types of perpetual motion machines can be constructed. Further investigation with the same approach shows that, in the quantum limit, the Johnson-Nyquist formula is also invalid under general conditions even though it is valid for a resistor-antenna system. Therefore we conclude that in a satisfactory quantum theory of the Johnson noise, the FDT must, as a minimum, include also the measurement system used to evaluate the observed quantities. Issues concerning the zero-point term may also have implications for phenomena in advanced nanotechnology.

  13. Effect of Annealing Process on the Properties of Ni(55%Cr(40%Si(5% Thin-Film Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Yi Cheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Resistors in integrated circuits (ICs are implemented using diffused methods fabricated in the base and emitter regions of bipolar transistor or in source/drain regions of CMOS. Deposition of thin films on the wafer surface is another choice to fabricate the thin-film resistors in ICs’ applications. In this study, Ni(55%Cr(40%Si(5% (abbreviated as NiCrSi in wt % was used as the target and the sputtering method was used to deposit the thin-film resistors on Al2O3 substrates. NiCrSi thin-film resistors with different thicknesses of 30.8 nm~334.7 nm were obtained by controlling deposition time. After deposition, the thin-film resistors were annealed at 400 °C under different durations in N2 atmosphere using the rapid thermal annealing (RTA process. The sheet resistance of NiCrSi thin-film resistors was measured using the four-point-probe method from 25 °C to 125 °C, then the temperature coefficient of resistance could be obtained. We aim to show that resistivity of NiCrSi thin-film resistors decreased with increasing deposition time (thickness and the annealing process had apparent effect on the sheet resistance and temperature coefficient of resistance. We also aim to show that the annealed NiCrSi thin-film resistors had a low temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR between 0 ppm/°C and +50 ppm/°C.

  14. Crossroads - Bridging the Digital Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cobb

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available It’s so good to be in Cambridge, it feels almost like home. Let me start by stating that in the past year ITMB, a successful map publisher in British Columbia, Canada published more paper map titles than at any time in their history. Similarly, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS recently announced that they have ceased producing paper from their aerial photography archive and will only produce digital copies. I believe that both of these facts speak to the future of maps and digital data. It means there will be paper maps well into the future and there will be an increasing array of digital data - some of it reformatted, as in the USGS case, and most of it will be born digital. When asked to speak about GIS and its role in libraries I often find myself in a conundrum - am I here to slay the dragon, or to pet the dragon. The role of technology in libraries is not one that has been embraced by everyone, and often the technology itself seems to have been force-fed upon us. The library profession is not one that has historically been a proponent of change and the very nature of GIS is change. In one sense, we have been given the choice of becoming paper museums or, at the very least, making GIS technology available in our collections. Today, I would like to review the many ways that GIS is, or will, affect our collections. I will divide the presentation into a general overview of GIS in libraries, how it affects our acquisitions or collection development policies, its effect on cataloging, on reference services, staffing, and our web services. Then I will shift the focus a little and discuss the current situation at the Harvard Map Collection, the future role of legacy collections, and a look to the future.

  15. Design, development and evaluation of a resistor-based multiplexing circuit for a 20×20 SiPM array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhonghai; Sun, Xishan; Lou, Kai; Meier, Joseph; Zhou, Rong; Yang, Chaowen; Zhu, Xiaorong; Shao, Yiping

    2016-04-01

    One technical challenge in developing a large-size scintillator detector with multiple Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays is to read out a large number of detector output channels. To achieve this, different signal multiplexing circuits have been studied and applied with different performances and cost-effective tradeoffs. Resistor-based multiplexing circuits exhibit simplicity and signal integrity, but also present the disadvantage of timing shift among different channels. In this study, a resistor-based multiplexing circuit for a large-sized SiPM array readout was developed and evaluated by simulation and experimental studies. Similarly to a multiplexing circuit used for multi-anode PMT, grounding and branching resistors were connected to each SiPM output channel. The grounding resistor was used to simultaneously reduce the signal crosstalk among different channels and to improve timing performance. Both grounding and branching resistor values were optimized to maintain a balanced performance of the event energy, timing, and positioning. A multiplexing circuit was implemented on a compact PCB and applied for a flat-panel detector which consisted of a 32×32 LYSO scintillator crystals optically coupled to 5×5 SiPM arrays for a total 20×20 output channels. Test results showed excellent crystal identification for all 1024 LYSO crystals (each with 2×2×30 mm3 size) with 22Na flood-source irradiation. The measured peak-to-valley ratio from typical crystal map profile is around 3:1 to 6.6:1, an average single crystal energy resolution of about 17.3%, and an average single crystal timing resolution of about 2 ns. Timing shift among different crystals, as reported in some other resistor-based multiplexing circuit designs, was not observed. In summary, we have designed and implemented a practical resistor-based multiplexing circuit that can be readily applied for reading out a large SiPM array with good detector performance.

  16. Design, development and evaluation of a resistor-based multiplexing circuit for a 20×20 SiPM array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhonghai [College of Physical Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology, Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tx (United States); Sun, Xishan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tx (United States); Lou, Kai [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rice University, Houston, Tx (United States); Meier, Joseph [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Tx (United States); Zhou, Rong; Yang, Chaowen [College of Physical Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology, Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Zhu, Xiaorong [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Tx (United States); Shao, Yiping [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tx (United States)

    2016-04-21

    One technical challenge in developing a large-size scintillator detector with multiple Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays is to read out a large number of detector output channels. To achieve this, different signal multiplexing circuits have been studied and applied with different performances and cost-effective tradeoffs. Resistor-based multiplexing circuits exhibit simplicity and signal integrity, but also present the disadvantage of timing shift among different channels. In this study, a resistor-based multiplexing circuit for a large-sized SiPM array readout was developed and evaluated by simulation and experimental studies. Similarly to a multiplexing circuit used for multi-anode PMT, grounding and branching resistors were connected to each SiPM output channel. The grounding resistor was used to simultaneously reduce the signal crosstalk among different channels and to improve timing performance. Both grounding and branching resistor values were optimized to maintain a balanced performance of the event energy, timing, and positioning. A multiplexing circuit was implemented on a compact PCB and applied for a flat-panel detector which consisted of a 32×32 LYSO scintillator crystals optically coupled to 5×5 SiPM arrays for a total 20×20 output channels. Test results showed excellent crystal identification for all 1024 LYSO crystals (each with 2×2×30 mm{sup 3} size) with {sup 22}Na flood-source irradiation. The measured peak-to-valley ratio from typical crystal map profile is around 3:1 to 6.6:1, an average single crystal energy resolution of about 17.3%, and an average single crystal timing resolution of about 2 ns. Timing shift among different crystals, as reported in some other resistor-based multiplexing circuit designs, was not observed. In summary, we have designed and implemented a practical resistor-based multiplexing circuit that can be readily applied for reading out a large SiPM array with good detector performance.

  17. Quality estimation of thick-film resistor terminations based on electrical parameters extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiełbasiński, Konrad; Jakubowska, Małgorzata; Kalenik, Jerzy; Młożniak, Anna

    2008-01-01

    The RoHS and WEEE regulation forced the large investigations for environmental friendly materials in electronic. The Lead and cadmium which was the significant component of resistors and conductors used in thick-film technology have to be replaced. Quick and precise measurement techniques need to be elaborated to maintain consumer's demand. Usually the test samples with the conductive and resistive layers were used for electrical parameters measurements. The layer thickness measurements and mean value of resistance allowed calculating the sheet resistance. Such a method of measurement have very serious disadvantage. The calculated mean value can be significantly affected by resistors terminations, especially if silver conductor is used, which is known as an easily migrating material. The solution was known and involved preparing and printing samples with the reference terminations. Silver platinum and silver palladium conductors are less susceptible to migration, therefore they were used in previous investigations. The reference terminations improves the precision of calculating sheet resistance, however they enlarges the number of measurements and its influence could still be significant. The authors proposed completely new method of sheet resistance calculation. Such a calculated value called True Sheet Resistance do not depend on the phenomena taking place at the termination, The second evaluated value called Offset indicates the influence of the terminations on measured resistance, and also termination quality. Its value is correlated with the diffusion rate at the interface between conductive film and resistive film at the termination. The usability of this method was proven by performing multiple firing test. One kind of resistive layer was printed on different kinds of conductive layers. The samples were fired sequently and measured. Then the old method of resistor properties evaluation was compared to the new one.

  18. Random-Resistor-Random-Temperature Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (RRRT-KLJN Key Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kish Laszlo B.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce two new Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN secure key distribution schemes which are generalizations of the original KLJN scheme. The first of these, the Random-Resistor (RR- KLJN scheme, uses random resistors with values chosen from a quasi-continuum set. It is well-known since the creation of the KLJN concept that such a system could work in cryptography, because Alice and Bob can calculate the unknown resistance value from measurements, but the RR-KLJN system has not been addressed in prior publications since it was considered impractical. The reason for discussing it now is the second scheme, the Random Resistor Random Temperature (RRRT- KLJN key exchange, inspired by a recent paper of Vadai, Mingesz and Gingl, wherein security was shown to be maintained at non-zero power flow. In the RRRT-KLJN secure key exchange scheme, both the resistances and their temperatures are continuum random variables. We prove that the security of the RRRT-KLJN scheme can prevail at a non-zero power flow, and thus the physical law guaranteeing security is not the Second Law of Thermodynamics but the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem. Alice and Bob know their own resistances and temperatures and can calculate the resistance and temperature values at the other end of the communication channel from measured voltage, current and power-flow data in the wire. However, Eve cannot determine these values because, for her, there are four unknown quantities while she can set up only three equations. The RRRT-KLJN scheme has several advantages and makes all former attacks on the KLJN scheme invalid or incomplete.

  19. Thin Film Chip Resistors with High Resistance and Low Temperature Coefficient of Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀宇; 张之圣; 白天; 刘仲娥

    2010-01-01

    High resistance thin film chip resistors(0603 type) were studied,and the specifications are as follows:1 k? with tolerance about ±0.1% after laser trimming and temperature coefficient of resistance(TCR) less than ±15×10-6/℃.Cr-Si-Ta-Al films were prepared with Ar flow rate and sputtering power fixed at 20 standard-state cubic centimeter per minute(sccm) and 100 W,respectively.The experiment shows that the electrical properties of Cr-SiTa-Al deposition films can meet the specification requirements of 0603 ty...

  20. Current Redistribution in Resistor Networks: Fat-Tail Statistics in Regular and Small-World Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lehmann, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    The redistribution of electrical currents in resistor networks after single-bond failures is analyzed in terms of current-redistribution factors that are shown to depend only on the topology of the network and on the values of the bond resistances. We investigate the properties of these current-redistribution factors for regular network topologies (e.g. $d$-dimensional hypercubic lattices) as well as for small-world networks. In particular, we find that the statistics of the current redistribution factors exhibits a fat-tail behavior, which reflects the long-range nature of the current redistribution as determined by Kirchhoff's circuit laws.

  1. Silicon avalanche photodiodes on the base of metal-resistor-semiconductor (MRS) structures

    CERN Document Server

    Saveliev, V

    2000-01-01

    The development of a high quantum efficiency, fast photodetector, with internal gain amplification for the wavelength range 450-600 nm is one of the critical issues for experimental physics - registration of low-intensity light photons flux. The new structure of Silicon Avalanche Detectors with high internal amplification (10 sup 5 -10 sup 6) has been designed, manufactured and tested for registration of visible light photons and charge particles. The main features of Metal-Resistor-Semiconductor (MRS) structures are the high charge multiplication in nonuniform electric field near the 'needle' pn-junction and negative feedback for stabilization of avalanche process due to resistive layer.

  2. Generalized Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) secure key exchange system using arbitrary resistors

    CERN Document Server

    Vadai, Gergely; Gingl, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    The Kirchhoff-Law-Johnson-Noise (KLJN) secure key exchange system has been introduced as a simple, very low cost and efficient classical physical alternative to quantum key distribution systems. The ideal system uses only a few electronic components - identical resistor pairs, switches and interconnecting wires - to guarantee perfectly protected data transmission. We show that a generalized KLJN system can provide unconditional security even if it is used with significantly less limitations. The more universal conditions ease practical realizations considerably and support more robust protection against attacks. Our theoretical results are confirmed by numerical simulations.

  3. Zero-point energy in the Johnson noise of resistors: Is it there?

    CERN Document Server

    Kish, Laszlo B

    2015-01-01

    There is a longstanding debate about the zero-point term in the Johnson noise voltage of a resistor: Is it indeed there or is it only an experimental artifact due to the uncertainty principle for phase-sensitive amplifiers? We show that, when the zero-point term is measured by the mean energy and force in a shunting capacitor and, if these measurements confirm its existence, two types of perpetual motion machines could be constructed. Therefore an exact quantum theory of the Johnson noise must include also the measurement system used to evaluate the observed quantities. The results have implications also for phenomena in advanced nanotechnology.

  4. Some results on numerical divided difference formulas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Xinghua; Wang; Heyu; Ming-Jun; Lai

    2005-01-01

    The remainder estimates of numerical divided difference formula are given for the functions of lower and higher smoothness, respectively. Then several divided difference formulas with super-convergence are derived with their remainder expressions.

  5. Comprehensive behavioral model of dual-gate high voltage JFET and pinch resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banáš, Stanislav; Paňko, Václav; Dobeš, Josef; Hanyš, Petr; Divín, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Many analog technologies operate in large voltage range and therefore include at least one or more high voltage devices built from low doped layers. Such devices exhibit effects not covered by standard compact models, namely pinching (depletion) effects, in high voltage FETs often called quasisaturation. For example, the conventional compact JFET model is insufficient and oversimplified. Its scalability is controlled by the area factor, which only multiplies currents and capacitances but does not take into account existing 3-D effects. Also the optional second independent gate is missing. Therefore, the customized four terminal (4T) model written in Verilog-A (FitzPatrick and Miller, 2007; Sagdeo, 2007) was developed. It converges very well, its simulation speed is comparable with conventional compact models, and contains all required phenomena, including parasitic effects as, for example, impact ionization. This model has universal usage for many types of devices in various high voltage technologies such as stand-alone voltage dependent resistor, pinch resistor, drift area of power FET, part of special high side or start-up devices, and dual-gate JFET.

  6. Active energy harvesting from microbial fuel cells at the maximum power point without using resistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Heming; Park, Jae-Do; Ren, Zhiyong

    2012-05-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology offers a sustainable approach to harvest electricity from biodegradable materials. Energy production from MFCs has been demonstrated using external resistors or charge pumps, but such methods can only dissipate energy through heat or receive electrons passively from the MFC without any controllability. This study developed a new approach and system that can actively extract energy from MFC reactors at any operating point without using any resistors, especially at the peak power point to maximize energy production. Results show that power harvesting from a recirculating-flow MFC can be well maintained by the maximum power point circuit (MPPC) at its peak power point, while a charge pump was not able to change operating point due to current limitation. Within 18-h test, the energy gained from the MPPC was 76.8 J, 76 times higher than the charge pump (1.0 J) that was commonly used in MFC studies. Both conditions resulted in similar organic removal, but the Coulombic efficiency obtained from the MPPC was 21 times higher than that of the charge pump. Different numbers of capacitors could be used in the MPPC for various energy storage requirements and power supply, and the energy conversion efficiency of the MPPC was further characterized to identify key factors for system improvement. This active energy harvesting approach provides a new perspective for energy harvesting that can maximize MFC energy generation and system controllability.

  7. A New Control Method of a Large-Capacity Capacitor Simulator with an Inner Series Resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Hiraki, Eiji; Tanaka, Toshihiko

    This paper proposes a new control method for the previously proposed large-capacity capacitor simulator, which can perform an inner series resistor of the EDLCs. In the proposed large-capacity capacitor simulator, one of three legs performs a bi-directional dc-dc converter. The others are used for a single-phase PWM rectifier. In the charging operation of the proposed large-capacity simulator, one-leg is used as a boost converter. Most power, which is stored in the proposed simulator, is injected to the utility through the PWM rectifier. In the discharging operation, the one-leg performs a buck converter. Most power, which is supplied to the load, is from the utility through the PWM rectifier. Thus the proposed simulator performs a large-capacity capacitor with an inner resistor in both charging and discharging operations. The basic principle of the proposed simulator is discussed in detail. The validity and excellent practicability of the proposed control method for the large-capacity capacitor simulator are confirmed using PSIM software.

  8. Synthesis of Modified Epoxy Resin Undercoat for Resistor by Nano-SiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiuyu; ZHANG Zhisheng; LI Haiyan; HU Ming

    2006-01-01

    A kind of undercoat for resistor with high temperature and humidity resistance was obtained by modifying epoxy resin with proper nano-SiO2 added at 80 ℃.The structure, thermal stability, humidity resistance, and morphological characteristics of the modified epoxy resin undercoat were studied by electrical tests, infrared spectra (IR) analysis, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).The results show that more compact and steady inter-crosslinked network structures are formed in the modified epoxy resin undercoat added with nano-SiO2, which greatly improves the performance of modified epoxy resin undercoat.The undercoat with nano-SiO2 of about 2.71%, kept for six months at room temperature without flocculating and aggregating, is of good stability, and the surface of painted resistor is uniform, tight and without air holes on it.The varying ratio of resistance with such undercoat painted is less than one in a thousand after high temperature and humidity resistance tests.

  9. The Myth about the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Brian L.; Oblinge, Diana G.

    2006-01-01

    Although computer ownership is not 100 percent, progress has been made on closing the digital divide. However, defining the digital divide according to the haves and have-nots of computer ownership is only a starting point. Beyond computer ownership, colleges and universities should explore the "second-level digital divide," which can be…

  10. Diversity, Disability, and Geographic Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumari, Melati; Carr, Erika; Ndebe-Ngovo, Manjerngie

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon called digital divide was the focus of this paper. Diversity, disability, and geographical digital divide were relevant to this collaborative project. An extensive review of the literature was conducted for the completion of this project. The evidence for the digital divide in terms of race, level of education, and gender in the…

  11. Tech, Teachers & Teens: Bridging the Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuht, Amy Colcord; Colcord, Cean

    2011-01-01

    In past decades, the "digital divide" referred to the gap between those who could afford access to technology and those who could not. The divide has shifted in recent years to reflect the growing technological chasm between teachers and their students: today's schools and teenagers' worlds. The digital divide is widening and deepening…

  12. Accurate SPICE Modeling of Poly-silicon Resistor in 40nm CMOS Technology Process for Analog Circuit Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Lijie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the SPICE model of poly resistor is accurately developed based on silicon data. To describe the non-linear R-V trend, the new correlation in temperature and voltage is found in non-silicide poly-silicon resistor. A scalable model is developed on the temperature-dependent characteristics (TDC and the temperature-dependent voltage characteristics (TDVC from the R-V data. Besides, the parasitic capacitance between poly and substrate are extracted from real silicon structure in replacing conventional simulation data. The capacitance data are tested through using on-wafer charge-induced-injection error-free charge-based capacitance measurement (CIEF-CBCM technique which is driven by non-overlapping clock generation circuit. All modeling test structures are designed and fabricated through using 40nm CMOS technology process. The new SPICE model of poly-silicon resistor is more accurate to silicon for analog circuit simulation.

  13. Thermal analysis and temperature characteristics of a braking resistor for high-speed trains for changes in the braking current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dae-Dong; Kang, Hyun-Il; Shim, Jae-Myung

    2015-09-01

    Electric brake systems are used in high-speed trains to brake trains by converting the kinetic energy of a railway vehicle to electric energy. The electric brake system consists of a regenerative braking system and a dynamic braking system. When the electric energy generated during the dynamic braking process is changed to heat through the braking resistor, the braking resistor can overheat; thus, failures can occur to the motor block. In this paper, a braking resistor for a high-speed train was used to perform thermal analyses and tests, and the results were analyzed. The analyzed data were used to estimate the dependence of the brake currents and the temperature rises on speed changes up to 300 km/h, at which a test could not be performed.

  14. Annealing effect on the electrical properties and composition of a NiCrAl thin film resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Nai-Chuan; Lin, Jyi-Tsong; Chen, Huey-Ru

    2015-12-01

    The composition of NiCrAl thin film resistors, under different annealing conditions in a N2 atmosphere, was investigated. The Auger electron spectrum (AES) has been used in studying the composition of NiCrAl thin films. The concentration ratio of Cr to Ni decreases when the annealing temperature increases. The electrical properties of a NiCrAl thin film resistor are affected by the concentrations of Cr and Ni, which lead to a higher temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and a lower sheet resistivity. The TCR of a NiCrAl thin film resistor is -5 ppm/°C at a 250 °C annealing temperature.

  15. Adjustable built-in resistor on oxygen-vacancy-rich electrode-capped resistance random access memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chih-Hung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Chu, Tian-Jian; Chen, Po-Hsun; Chen, Min-Chen; Sze, Simon M.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, an adjustable built-in resistor was observed on an indium-tin oxide (ITO)-capped resistance random access memory (RRAM) device, which has the potential to reduce operating power. Quite notably, the high-resistance state (HRS) current of the device decreased with decreasing current compliance, and a special situation, that is, a gradual change in current always appears and climbs slowly to reach the compliance current in the set process even when the compliance current decreases, was observed. Owing to this observed phenomenon, the device is regarded to be equipped with an adjustable built-in resistor, which has the potential for low-power device application.

  16. Use of a Pre-Insertion Resistor to Minimize Zero-Missing Phenomenon and Switching Overvoltages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Claus Leth; da Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria; Gudmundsdottir, Unnur Stella;

    2009-01-01

    which countermeasure works the best. Technically the best way to avoid zero-missing phenomenon produces very high switching overvoltages, making the operator to choose to either avoid the zero-missing phenomenon or to minimize the switching transients. This paper presents a method of determining......With the increasing use of High-Voltage Cables, which have different electric characteristics from Overhead Lines, phenomenon like current zero-missing start to appear more often on the transmission systems. Methods to prevent zero-missing phenomenon are still being studied and compared to see...... an optimal value of the resistance of the pre-insertion resistor that results in minimizing both the zero-missing phenomenon and switching overvoltages simultaneously....

  17. Structure of Grading a Resistor-Heated System of Warm Compaction in Powder Metallurgy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hua; SHAO Ming; CHEN Wei-ping; ZHU Quan-li; LI Yuan-yuan

    2005-01-01

    We present the scheme of the structure of grading a resistor-heated system of warm compaction in powder metallurgy. The structure has the first heater and the second heater that are heated by electrical tubes. Powder is heated in turn in the first heater and the second heater, where there is the mass fluidity of powder under gravity. The dimensions of the first heater and the second heater were calculated from the Fourier equation of heat conduction, and the boundary condition was constant temperature. The drawings of the first heater, the second heater and the powder-delivering device were given. The structure of the heat equipment is simple and easy to manufacture. Finally, an exact warm compaction press system HGWY-Ⅱ was developed for the heating system.

  18. A Novel Read Scheme for Large Size One-Resistor Resistive Random Access Memory Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zackriya, Mohammed; Kittur, Harish M.; Chin, Albert

    2017-01-01

    The major issue of RRAM is the uneven sneak path that limits the array size. For the first time record large One-Resistor (1R) RRAM array of 128x128 is realized, and the array cells at the worst case still have good Low-/High-Resistive State (LRS/HRS) current difference of 378 nA/16 nA, even without using the selector device. This array has extremely low read current of 9.7 μA due to both low-current RRAM device and circuit interaction, where a novel and simple scheme of a reference point by half selected cell and a differential amplifier (DA) were implemented in the circuit design. PMID:28186147

  19. Inductive voltage divider modeling in Matlab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, S. A.; Kim, V. L.

    2017-01-01

    Inductive voltage dividers have the most appropriate metrological characteristics on alternative current and are widely used for converting physical signals. The model of a double-decade inductive voltage divider was designed with the help of Matlab/Simulink. The first decade is an inductive voltage divider with balanced winding, the second decade is a single-stage inductive voltage divider. In the paper, a new transfer function algorithm was given. The study shows errors and differences that appeared between the third degree reduced model and a twenty degree unreduced model. The obtained results of amplitude error differ no more than by 7 % between the reduced and unreduced model.

  20. Thermocapillary actuation by optimized resistor pattern: bubbles and droplets displacing, switching and trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva, Bertrand; Miralles, Vincent; Cantat, Isabelle; Jullien, Marie-Caroline

    2010-07-21

    We report a novel method for bubble or droplet displacement, capture and switching within a bifurcation channel for applications in digital microfluidics based on the Marangoni effect, i.e. the appearance of thermocapillary tangential interface stresses stemming from local surface tension variations. The specificity of the reported actuation is that heating is provided by an optimized resistor pattern (B. Selva, J. Marchalot and M.-C. Jullien, An optimized resistor pattern for temperature gradient control in microfluidics, J. Micromech. Microeng., 2009, 19, 065002) leading to a constant temperature gradient along a microfluidic cavity. In this context, bubbles or droplets to be actuated entail a surface force originating from the thermal Marangoni effect. This actuator has been characterized (B. Selva, I. Cantat, and M.-C. Jullien, Migration of a bubble towards a higher surface tension under the effect of thermocapillary stress, preprint, 2009) and it was found that the bubble/droplet (called further element) is driven toward a high surface tension region, i.e. toward cold region, and the element velocity increases while decreasing the cavity thickness. Taking advantage of these properties three applications are presented: (1) element displacement, (2) element switching, detailed in a given range of working, in which elements are redirected towards a specific evacuation, (3) a system able to trap, and consequently stop on demand, the elements on an alveolus structure while the continuous phase is still flowing. The strength of this method lies in its simplicity: single layer system, in situ heating leading to a high level of integration, low power consumption (P < 0.4 W), low applied voltage (about 10 V), and finally this system is able to manipulate elements within a flow velocity up to 1 cm s(-1).

  1. Technical-economic evaluation of the utilization of closing resistor in CEMIG extra-high voltage circuit breakers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Angelica C.O.; Pinto, Roberto del Giudice R.; Teixeira, Jose Cleber; Fonseca, Rodrigo Assuncao; F. Junior, Sebastiao V. [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents the technical and economic studies performed by CEMIG, Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais, Brazil, concerning the use of closing resistor in its extra-high voltage (EHV) breakers. The analysis emphasizes the advantages which could be achieved with the elimination of the resistor as far as costs and reliability are concerned. This evaluation was motivated by two 500 kV breaker failures resulting from the breakdown of the closing resistor operation mechanism. These occurrences resulted in operative restriction for CEMIG EHV system. The analysis demanded a review of the capability criteria of silicon carbide (Si C) gap arresters, which are still greatly used in CEMIG EHV System, and of the procedures to be applied when carrying out the transient studies. The investigation resulted in the prompt removal of closing resistors from circuit breakers in CEMIG extra-high voltage system generating an economy of approximately U$ 840,00 and an improvement in safety and system reliability. (author) 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Detection of light pulses using an avalanche-photodiode array with a metal-resistor-semiconductor structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akindinov, AV; Bondarenko, GB; Voloshin, KG; Golovin, VM; Grigoriev, EA; Mal'kevich, DB; Martemiyanov, AN; Smirnitskiy, AV

    2005-01-01

    The results from tests of avalanche-photodiode (APD) arrays with a metal-resistor-semiconductor (MRS) structure are presented. The photodiodes, having a working area of 1 X 1 mm(2), operated in the Geiger mode. MRS APD arrays were tested using light-emitting diodes and as components of scintillation

  3. METHOD OF DETERMINING THE START TIME OF INDUCTION MOTORS IN THE CONTROL OF RESISTOR-THYRISTOR MODULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Lobov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. An electric general-purpose drive with asynchronous motor is proposed. For motor control in stator and rotor, circuits used resistors and thyristors. These elements included together in various ways. This allows to get a variety of power converter circuit with resistor-thyristor modules. Methodology. Taking into account the technical requirements for industrial machinery developed an analytical method for determining the run-up controlled induction motor. Formed starting modes by changing the value of the equivalent resistor-thyristor modules. Using logic synthesis and function of thyristors switching to determine the equivalent value of resistor-thyristor modules. Scientific novelty. It lies in the fact that the proposed method of calculation to determine the run-up in the limited amount of transient current and torque of the motor. The total moment of inertia and the static moment of the drive do not have a significant impact on the maximum value of the transient electromagnetic torque. Most of these options affect the transition process, the oscillation frequency of the electromagnetic torque and the motor speed. Practical value. The method used for calculating allows to select the simplest laws of launch control actuator and apply open-loop control system without increasing the cost of the power converter, so it is of practical importance.

  4. Bridge the Digital Divide for Educational Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Christine Y.; Dodds, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Students' technological savvy has challenged schools to make greater use of computers and the Internet in their curricula, but unfortunately, not every student has the same access to it, and the inability to keep pace has created a digital divide that continues to widen. The digital divide particularly affects students who are black, Hispanic,…

  5. Social Welfare Implications of the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjin; Lee, Byungtae; Menon, Nirup M.

    2009-01-01

    The Internet plays a critical role in informing individuals about society, politics, business, and the environment. So much so that it has been said that the digital divide makes the segment of society on the ''right side'' of the divide (the digitally endowed group) better off and that on the ''wrong side'' (the digitally challenged group) worse…

  6. New Media and the Digital Divide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, van A.J.A.M.; Dijk, van J.A.G.M.; Wright, James D.

    2015-01-01

    During the 1990s, researchers and policy makers began discussing the presence of a so-called ‘digital divide,’ a distinction of people who do and do not have access to information and communication technologies. The concept of the digital divide stems from a comparative perspective of social and inf

  7. Centrosome positioning in non-dividing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Amy R; McIntosh, Kate V; Dawe, Helen R

    2016-07-01

    Centrioles and centrosomes are found in almost all eukaryotic cells, where they are important for organising the microtubule cytoskeleton in both dividing and non-dividing cells. The spatial location of centrioles and centrosomes is tightly controlled and, in non-dividing cells, plays an important part in cell migration, ciliogenesis and immune cell functions. Here, we examine some of the ways that centrosomes are connected to other organelles and how this impacts on cilium formation, cell migration and immune cell function in metazoan cells.

  8. Environmental Aesthetics. Crossing Divides and Breaking Ground

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenthen, M.; Keulartz, J.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental aesthetics crosses several commonly recognized divides: between analytic and continental philosophy, Eastern and Western traditions, universalizing and historicizing approaches, and theoretical and practical concerns. This volume sets out to show how these,perspectives can be brought i

  9. Americans Divided Over Organic, GM Foods: Poll

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_162314.html Americans Divided Over Organic, GM Foods: Poll Their opinions aren't driven by politics ... News) -- Americans are split on the value of organic foods and concerns about genetically modified (GM) foods, a ...

  10. Energy conserving effects of dividing wall column☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Fang; Hanmei Zhao; Jianchao Qi; Chunli Li; Junjie Qi; Jiajia Guo

    2015-01-01

    The energy-conserving performance of dividing wal column (DWC) is discussed in this paper. The heat transfer through the dividing wall is considered and the results are compared with that of common heat insulation dividing wall column (HIDWC). Based on the thermodynamic analysis of heat transfer dividing wall column (HTDWC) and HIDWC, both computer simulation and experiments are employed to analyze the energy-conserving situation. Mixtures of n-hexane, n-heptane and n-octane are chosen as the example for separation. The results show that the energy consumption of HTDWC is 50.3%less than that of conventional distillation column, while it is 46.4% less than that of HIDWC. It indicates that DWC is efficient on separating three-component mixtures and HTDWC can save more energy than HIDWC. Thus it is necessary to consider the heat transfer while applying DWC to industry.

  11. Noise Measurements Of Resistors With The Use Of Dual-Phase Virtual Lock-In Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadler Adam Witold

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of low-frequency noise properties of modern electronic components is a very demanding challenge due to the low magnitude of a noise signal and the limit of a dissipated power. In such a case, an ac technique with a lock-in amplifier or the use of a low-noise transformer as the first stage in the signal path are common approaches. A software dual-phase virtual lock-in (VLI technique has been developed and tested in low-frequency noise studies of electronic components. VLI means that phase-sensitive detection is processed by a software layer rather than by an expensive hardware lock-in amplifier. The VLI method has been tested in exploration of noise in polymer thick-film resistors. Analysis of the obtained noise spectra of voltage fluctuations confirmed that the 1/f noise caused by resistance fluctuations is the dominant one. The calculated value of the parameter describing the noise intensity of a resistive material, C = 1·10−21 m3, is consistent with that obtained with the use of a dc method. On the other hand, it has been observed that the spectra of (excitation independent resistance noise contain a 1/f component whose intensity depends on the excitation frequency. The phenomenon has been explained by means of noise suppression by impedances of the measurement circuit, giving an excellent agreement with the experimental data.

  12. Design of Improved Resistor Less 45NM Switched Inverter Scheme (SIS Analog to Digital Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Sunaniya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents three different approaches which eliminates the resistor ladder completely and hencereduce the power demand drastically of a Analog to Digital Converter. The first approach is SwitchedInverter Scheme (SIS ADC; The test result obtained for it on 45nm technology indicates an offset error of0.014 LSB. The full scale error is of -0.112LSB. The gain error is of 0.07 LSB, actual full scale range of0.49V, worst case DNL & INL each of -0.3V. The power dissipation for the SIS ADC is 207.987 μwatts;Power delay product (PDP is 415.9 fWs, and the area is 1.89μm2. The second and third approaches areclocked SIS ADC and Sleep transistor SIS ADC. Both of them show significant improvement in powerdissipation as 57.5% & 71% respectively. Whereas PDP is 229.7 fWs and area is 0.05 μm2 for Clocked SISADC and 107.3 fWs & 1.94 μm2 for Sleep transistor SIS ADC.

  13. GaAs resistor structures for X-ray imaging detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Ayzenshtat, G I; Koretskaya, O B; Novikov, V A; Okaevich, L S; Potapov, A I; Tolbanov, O P; Tyazhev, A V; Vorobev, A P

    2002-01-01

    Unlike conventional GaAs detector structures, which operation is based on the use of a space charge region of a barrier structure, we propose to form a detector structure of resistor type. In this case, the electric field distribution, xi(x), is not screened by the ion concentration in the SCR but it is defined only by the uniformity of the resistance value distribution in the structure. The experimental results on charge collection efficiency for the detector irradiation with alpha, beta, gamma-radiation are presented. It is shown that the amplitude spectrum shape in the case of interaction with gamma-radiation is defined mainly by the electron component of the charge. The simulation of the detector response function confirms it. It is established that, despite of hole trapping, it is possible to achieve high values of charge collection efficiency of gamma-radiation. Explanation of the charge collection efficiency dependence on a type of ionizing radiation is made. Problems of design of the detector with hig...

  14. Force Sensing Resistor and Evaluation of Technology for Wearable Body Pressure Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Giovanelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wearable technologies are gaining momentum and widespread diffusion. Thanks to devices such as activity trackers, in form of bracelets, watches, or anklets, the end-users are becoming more and more aware of their daily activity routine, posture, and training and can modify their motor-behavior. Activity trackers are prevalently based on inertial sensors such as accelerometers and gyroscopes. Loads we bear with us and the interface pressure they put on our body also affect posture. A contact interface pressure sensing wearable would be beneficial to complement inertial activity trackers. What is precluding force sensing resistors (FSR to be the next best seller wearable? In this paper, we provide elements to answer this question. We build an FSR based on resistive material (Velostat and printed conductive ink electrodes on polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate; we test its response to pressure in the range 0–2.7 kPa. We present a state-of-the-art review, filtered by the need to identify technologies adequate for wearables. We conclude that the repeatability is the major issue yet unsolved.

  15. Design of Improved Resistor Less 45NM Switched Inverter Scheme (SIS Analog to Digital Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Sunaniya

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This work presents three different approaches which eliminates the resistor ladder completely and henc e reduce the power demand drastically of a Analog to Digital Converter. The first approach is Switched Inverter Scheme (SIS ADC; The test result obtained for it on 45nm technology indicates an offset erro r of 0.014 LSB. The full scale error is of -0.112LSB. Th e gain error is of 0.07 LSB, actual full scale rang e of 0.49V, worst case DNL & INL each of -0.3V. The powe r dissipation for the SIS ADC is 207.987 μ watts; Power delay product (PDP is 415.9 fWs, and the are a is 1.89μ m2. The second and third approaches are clocked SIS ADC and Sleep transistor SIS ADC. Both of them show significant improvement in power dissipation as 57.5% & 71% respectively. Whereas PD P is 229.7 fWs and area is 0.05 μ m2 for Clocked SIS ADC and 107.3 fWs & 1.94 μ m2 for Sleep transistor S IS ADC.

  16. Complete passive vibration suppression using multi-layered piezoelectric element, inductor, and resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes passive technique for suppressing vibration in flexible structures using a multi-layered piezoelectric element, an inductor, and a resistor. The objective of using a multi-layered piezoelectric element is to increase its capacitance. A piezoelectric element with a large capacitance value does not require an active electrical circuit to simulate an inductor with a large inductance value. The effect of multi-layering of piezoelectric elements was theoretically analyzed through an equivalent transformation of a multi-layered piezoelectric element into a single-layered piezoelectric element. The governing equations were derived using this equivalent transformation. The effect of the resistances of the inductor and piezoelectric elements were considered because the sum of these resistances may exceed the optimum resistance. The performance of the passive vibration suppression using an LR circuit was compared to that of the method where a resistive circuit is used assuming that the sum of the resistances of the inductor and piezoelectric elements exceeds the optimum resistance. The effectiveness of the proposed method and theoretical analysis was verified through simulations and experiments.

  17. A High-Swing OTA with wide Linearity for design of self-tunable linear resistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Raj

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Low power consumption, long battery life and portability are essential requirements of modern health monitoring products. Operational Trans-conductance Amplifier (OTA operating in sub threshold region is an basic building block for low power health monitoring products design. An modified design of OTA which incorporates better linearity and increased output impedance has been discussed in this paper. The proposed OTA uses High-swing improved-Wilson current mirror for low power and low-frequency applications. The achieved linearity is about ± 1.9 volt and unity gain bandwidth (UGB of 342.30 KHz at power supply of 0.9 volt which makes OTA to consume power in range of nanowatts. The proposed lowvoltage OTA implementation in design of self- tunable linear resistor has been presented in this paper. The circuit implementation has been done using standard 0.18 micron technology provided by TSMC on BSIM3v3 level-53 model parameter and verified results through use of ELDO Simulator.

  18. The effect of biomechanical variables on force sensitive resistor error: Implications for calibration and improved accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Jonathon S; Evans, Katherine R; Hebert, Jacqueline S; Marasco, Paul D; Carey, Jason P

    2016-03-21

    Force Sensitive Resistors (FSRs) are commercially available thin film polymer sensors commonly employed in a multitude of biomechanical measurement environments. Reasons for such wide spread usage lie in the versatility, small profile, and low cost of these sensors. Yet FSRs have limitations. It is commonly accepted that temperature, curvature and biological tissue compliance may impact sensor conductance and resulting force readings. The effect of these variables and degree to which they interact has yet to be comprehensively investigated and quantified. This work systematically assesses varying levels of temperature, sensor curvature and surface compliance using a full factorial design-of-experiments approach. Three models of Interlink FSRs were evaluated. Calibration equations under 12 unique combinations of temperature, curvature and compliance were determined for each sensor. Root mean squared error, mean absolute error, and maximum error were quantified as measures of the impact these thermo/mechanical factors have on sensor performance. It was found that all three variables have the potential to affect FSR calibration curves. The FSR model and corresponding sensor geometry are sensitive to these three mechanical factors at varying levels. Experimental results suggest that reducing sensor error requires calibration of each sensor in an environment as close to its intended use as possible and if multiple FSRs are used in a system, they must be calibrated independently.

  19. Voltage-Mode All-Pass Filters Using Universal Voltage Conveyor and MOSFET-Based Electronic Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Herencsar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents two novel realizations of voltage-mode first-order all-pass filters. Both circuits use single universal voltage conveyor (UVC, single capacitor, and two grounded resistors. Using the two NMOS transistors-based realizations of the electronic resistor with two symmetrical power supplies, presented all-pass filter circuits can be easily made electronically tunable. Proposed filter structures provide both inverting and non-inverting outputs at the same configuration simultaneously and they have high-input and low-output impedances that are desired for easy cascading in voltage-mode operations. The nonidealities of the proposed circuits are also analyzed and compared. The theoretical results of both circuits are verified by SPICE simulations using TSMC 0.35 μm CMOS process parameters. Based on the evaluation, the behavior of one of the circuits featuring better performance was also experimentally measured using the UVC-N1C 0520 integrated circuit.

  20. Orbital angular momentum divider of light

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Hailong Zhou Jianji; Cai, Xinlun; Yu, SiYuan; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    Manipulation of orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light is essential in OAM-based optical systems. Especially, OAM divider, which can convert the incoming OAM mode into one or several new smaller modes in proportion at different spatial paths, is very useful in OAM-based optical networks. However, this useful tool was never reported yet. For the first time, we put forward a passive OAM divider based on coordinate transformation. The device consists of a Cartesian to log-polar coordinate converter and an inverse converter. The first converter converts the OAM light into a rectangular-shaped plane light with a transverse phase gradient. And the second converter converts the plane light into multiple diffracted light. The OAM of zeroth-order diffracted light is the product of the input OAM and the scaling parameter. The residual light is output from other diffracted orders. Furthermore, we extend the scheme to realize equal N-dividing of OAM and arbitrary dividing of OAM. The ability of dividing OAM shows huge p...

  1. DVCCs Based High Input Impedance Voltage-Mode First-Order Filters Employing Grounded Capacitor and Resistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Horng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A voltage-mode high input impedance first-order highpass, lowpass and allpass filters using two differential voltage current conveyors (DVCCs, one grounded capacitor and one grounded resistor is presented. The highpass, lowpass and allpass signals can be obtained simultaneously from the circuit configuration. The suggested filter uses a canonical number of passive components without requiring any component matching condition. The simulation results confirm the theoretical analysis.

  2. Wideband unbalanced waveguide power dividers and combiners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halligan, Matthew; McDonald, Jacob Jeremiah; Strassner, II, Bernd H.

    2016-05-17

    The various technologies presented herein relate to waveguide dividers and waveguide combiners for application in radar systems, wireless communications, etc. Waveguide dividers-combiners can be manufactured in accordance with custom dimensions, as well as in accordance with waveguide standards such that the input and output ports are of a defined dimension and have a common impedance. Various embodiments are presented which can incorporate one or more septum(s), one or more pairs of septums, an iris, an input matching region, a notch located on the input waveguide arm, waveguide arms having stepped transformer regions, etc. The various divider configurations presented herein can be utilized in high fractional bandwidth applications, e.g., a fractional bandwidth of about 30%, and RF applications in the Ka frequency band (e.g., 26.5-40 GHz).

  3. FLOOD ROUTING MODELS IN CONFLUENT AND DIVIDING CHANNELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范平; 李家春; 刘青泉

    2004-01-01

    By introducing a water depth connecting formula, the hydraulic equations in the dividing channel system were coupled and the relation of discharge distribution between the branches of the dividing channels can be yielded. In this manner, a numerical model for the confluent channels was established to study the variation of backwater effects with the parameters in the channel junction. The meeting of flood peaks in the mainstream and tributary can be analyzed with this model. The flood peak meeting is found to be a major factor for the extremely high water level in the mainstream during the 1998 Yangtze River flood. Subsequently the variations of discharge distribution and water level with channel parameters between each branch in this system were studied as well. As a result, flood evolution caused by Jingjiang River shortcut and sediment deposition in the entrance of dividing channels of the Yangtze River may be qualitatively elucidated. It is suggested to be an effective measure for flood mitigation to enhance regulation capability of reservoirs available upstream of the tributaries and harness branch entrance channels.

  4. Young People's Internet Use: Divided or Diversified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonaert, Tom; Vettenburg, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    This article critically analyses research on young people's internet use. Based on a literature analysis, it examines which young people do what on the internet. These results invite a reflection on the dominant discourse on the digital divide. Within this discourse, there is a strong focus on the use of the internet for information purposes only,…

  5. Bridging the digital divide with mobile services

    CERN Document Server

    Yelton, Andromeda

    2013-01-01

    In this issue of Library Technology Reports, Andromeda Yelton shows how libraries can build on the breadth of this population to help bridge the digital divide and provide even greater access to information. Yelton breaks down the demographics of mobile internet users, provides examples of how different libraries are reaching out to these populations, and suggests what the future may hold for this trend.

  6. Digital divide research, achievements and shortcomings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Jan A.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    From the end of the 1990s onwards the digital divide, commonly defined as the gap between those who have and do not have access to computers and the Internet, has been a central issue on the scholarly and political agenda of new media development. This article makes an inventory of 5 years of digita

  7. The electronic health record: a digital divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, John

    2007-10-01

    The gap between EHR adoption among larger providers versus adoption by smaller or rural providers has caused a "digital divide" that could threaten smaller providers' survival in the years ahead. Closing this gap will require the collective action of providers, payers, and government.

  8. Democratisation and Conflict in Ethnically Divided Societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorrath, Judith; Krebs, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews three important factors in the academic debate on ethnic civil wars: the role of ethnicity in causing and structuring violence, the spread of ethnic civil wars once they have started, and the influence of democratic transitions in divided societies. The review displays the range

  9. A non-destructive crossbar architecture of multi-level memory-based resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebkarkhorasani, Seyedmorteza

    Nowadays, researchers are trying to shrink the memory cell in order to increase the capacity of the memory system and reduce the hardware costs. In recent years, there has been a revolution in electronics by using fundamentals of physics to build a new memory for computer application in order to increase the capacity and decrease the power consumption. Increasing the capacity of the memory causes a growth in the chip area. From 1971 to 2012 semiconductor manufacturing process improved from 6mum to 22 mum. In May 2008, S.Williams stated that "it is time to stop shrinking". In his paper, he declared that the process of shrinking memory element has recently become very slow and it is time to use another alternative in order to create memory elements [9]. In this project, we present a new design of a memory array using the new element named Memristor [3]. Memristor is a two-terminal passive electrical element that relates the charge and magnetic flux to each other. The device remained unknown since 1971 when it was discovered by Chua and introduced as the fourth fundamental passive element like capacitor, inductor and resistor [3]. Memristor has a dynamic resistance and it can retain its previous value even after disconnecting the power supply. Due to this interesting behavior of the Memristor, it can be a good replacement for all of the Non-Volatile Memories (NVMs) in the near future. Combination of this newly introduced element with the nanowire crossbar architecture would be a great structure which is called Crossbar Memristor. Some frameworks have recently been introduced in literature that utilized Memristor crossbar array, but there are many challenges to implement the Memristor crossbar array due to fabrication and device limitations. In this work, we proposed a simple design of Memristor crossbar array architecture which uses input feedback in order to preserve its data after each read operation.

  10. Conquering the digital divide: Botswana and South Korea digital divide status and interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonofo C. Sedimo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Botswana is putting in place initiatives towards establishing itself as a knowledgebased economy. Transformation from a resource-based to a knowledge-based economy is partly hinged on innovation, research and development capability, knowledge channels, and the funding of research and development activities.Objectives: Bridging the digital divide and narrowing the intra-national divide brings about global information and communication technology (ICT usage that translates into changing work patterns and eventually transformed economies. This article outlines the different interventions implemented in Botswana to bridge the divide. The South Korean experience in bridging the divide is discussed so as to serve as lessons on how to effectively bridge the divide to Botswana’s initiatives.Method: Using a mix of exploratory and empirical study, this article presents the findings on the status of ICT uptake in Botswana and investigates the level of the digital divide in the country.Results: The results of the study show that the digital divide is much more evident in Botswana than in South Korea. South Korea has put in place robust strategic initiatives towards reducing the digital divide and this has largely transcended into its transformation into a full-fledged knowledge society.Conclusion: This article is timely as it unearths the different pointers that may be utilised in policy formation and what interventions need to be taken at both the individual and national level to bridge the digital divide.

  11. Divided or kissing nevus of the penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Carolyn A; Tieu, Kathy D

    2013-10-16

    The divided or kissing nevus is an unusual congenital melanocytic nevus. By definition, these nevi appear on skin that separates during embryological development. These lesions have been reported on the eyelids, fingers, and rarely the penis. We describe an 18 year old uncircumcised male who presented with an asymptomatic darkly pigmented patch on the glans penis. He reported that the lesion had appeared recently and was enlarging. Physical examination revealed a second symmetric lesion on the adjacent foreskin. Punch biopsy of the lesion on the glans penis showed abundant intradermal melanocytes devoid of mitoses and atypia, consistent with an intradermal melanocytic nevus. Based on the benign histologic nature and clinical exam, the lesion was diagnosed as a divided or kissing nevus of the penis. Proposed treatments include excision and grafting as well as Nd:YAG laser therapy. However, these patients may be safely monitored with regular follow-up skin examinations because there is minimal risk of malignant transformation.

  12. REGENERATIVE GAS TURBINES WITH DIVIDED EXPANSION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2004-01-01

    divided expansion can be advantageous under certain circumstances. But, in order for todays micro gas turbines to be competitive, the thermodynamic efficiencies will have to be rather high. This requires that all component efficiencies including the recuperator effectiveness will have to be high......Recuperated gas turbines are currently drawing an increased attention due to the recent commercialization of micro gas turbines with recuperation. This system may reach a high efficiency even for the small units of less than 100 kW. In order to improve the economics of the plants, ways to improve....... The advantages of the divided expansion manifest themselves over a rather limited range of the operating parameters, that lies outside the range required to make modern micro turbines economically competitive....

  13. Analyzing Broadband Divide in the Farming Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture industry has been evolving for centuries. Currently, the technological development of Internet oriented farming tools allows to increase the productivity and efficiency of this sector. Many of the already available tools and applications require high bandwidth in both directions......, upstream and downstream connection. The main constraint is that farms are naturally located in rural areas where the required access broadband data rates are not available. This paper studies the broadband divide in relation to the Danish agricultural sector. Results show how there is an important...... difference between the broadband availability for farms and the rest of the households/buildings the country. This divide may be slowing down the potential technological development of the farming industry, in order to keep their competitiveness in the market. Therefore, broadband development in rural areas...

  14. Parametric frequency dividers in satellite communications

    OpenAIRE

    Kosmopoulos, S. A.; Lo Forti, R.; Saggese, E.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of two different parametric frequency dividers, using GaAs varactor diodes in a balanced circuit configuration implemented by planar (microstrip) or quasi-planar (finline, coupled finline ) elements respectively, is presented. The almost phase noise free operation of these devices allows the construction of efficient miniature synthesizers or carrier recovering schemes, incorporated on the space segment of Ku- or Ka-band satellite communications systems.

  15. Splicing the Divide: A Review of Research on the Evolving Digital Divide among K-12 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    The digital divide has narrowed with regard to one definition of access to technology--the binary view of the "haves" and "have-nots." However, use of technology at home and in school is not equitable for all students. According to recent literature, a broader and more nuanced definition of the technological divide is necessary…

  16. The private – public law divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyldenløve Jeppesen-de Boer, Christina; Kronborg, Annette; Svendsen, Idamarie Leth

    2013-01-01

    to a particular societal institution. Marriage as an institution has been individualized and the goodness of the family has to relate to the well-being of the individuals instead. This article shows that within this historical development the private-public law divide has not been seriously challenged......In a Scandinavian perspective, the family and the individual have changed places during the 20th Century. Today, the law takes its starting point in the individual - not in the family. A consequence of this development is that it is no longer legally possible to relate the good family...

  17. New Frontiers in the Digital Divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Birgit

    the question is: How to form a policy for digital inclusion where nobody is left behind? In continuation of the EU policy it seems reasonable to argue that the public authorities now has an obligation to ‘dress up’ the citizens to serve themselves through the public e-services. Hence, policies and actions...... on the internet. The analysis in this paper is based on a multidisciplinary theoretical approach drawing on theories of the digital divide, theories of domestication of technology, and theories about the interplay between users and technology developed in the field of STS (Science, Technology and Society...

  18. CMOS Direct-Injection Divide-by-3 Injection-Locked Frequency Dividers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chia-Wei; Chang; Jhin-Fang; Huang; Sheng-Lyang; Jang; Ying-Hsiang; Liao; Miin-Horng; Juang

    2010-01-01

    <正>This paper proposes CMOS LC-tank divide-by-3 injection locked frequency dividers(ILFDs)fabricated in 0.18μn and 90nm CMOS process and describes the circuit design,operation principle and measurement results of the ILFDs.The ILFDs use two injection series-MOSFETs across the LC resonator and a differential injection signal is applied to the gates of injection MOSFETs.The direct-injection divide-by-3 ILFDs are potential for radio-frequency application and can have wide locking range.

  19. Influences of Resistor-Type Superconducting Fault Current Limiter on Power System Transient Stability with Asymmetrical Short-Circuit Faults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Ping Gu; Zhi-Long Yang

    2008-01-01

    The transient stability of a single machine to infinite-busbar power system with resistor- type superconducting fault current limiters (SFCL) is analyzed under asymmetrical short-circuit fault conditions. The SFCL is considered to introduce a resistance into the three-phase circuits when faults occur. Based on the power-angle curves for different short-circuit conditions of the single-line to ground, double-line to ground and line to line short-circuit faults, the influences of the SFCLs on transient stability are analyzed in detail. The time-domain simulation of transient stability is carried out to verify the analytical results.

  20. America's digital divide: 2000-2003 trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Kermit C

    2004-04-01

    Computer ownership and literacy, along with Internet access and its many applications, has become, for many, a trademark for the Americans' lifestyle. Research shows that computer ownership and literacy, along with Internet access and expertise, is rapidly changing how Americans go about their business. The technological industry is providing many opportunities for Americans to operate in markets, global and local, not previously available. These changes are apparent across all U.S. sociocultural and geographic boundaries. Yet, upon close analysis, there are individuals and communities less connected with many completely excluded from participation. Those individuals exist below a line called the Digital Divide. Growth in computer ownership and Internet use, while offering optimism that the Digital Divide is narrowing, also illustrates that, without focused intervention will for certain populations, continue. Public and private programs, focus groups, and pocks of community activism, each hope to correct the disparities among on- and-off line Americans. On many fronts, there is evidence that progress is being made by many. Income, race, age, and geographic location are often the determining factors.

  1. DIGITAL DIVIDE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu HERMAN

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate that income, education and infrastructure play a critical role in shaping the divide. The global challenge for the new millennium is to build a society where everyone can access and shareinformation. A fully integrated digital world has become a reality, and all segments of society must embrace it in order to be contributing partners to future success in the EU. As they are fast becoming an essential tool for economic activity, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT became a vital engine of economic performance. The problem, however, is that in many countries technological diffusion is obstructed by the limited capacity of networks to carry large amounts of knowledge swiftly and the limited access of individuals even to networks in which knowledge products are minimal.

  2. Library outreach: addressing Utah's "Digital Divide".

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, K M

    2000-10-01

    A "Digital Divide" in information and technological literacy exists in Utah between small hospitals and clinics in rural areas and the larger health care institutions in the major urban area of the state. The goals of the outreach program of the Spencer S. Eccles Health Sciences Library at the University of Utah address solutions to this disparity in partnership with the National Network of Libraries of Medicine-- Midcontinental Region, the Utah Department of Health, and the Utah Area Health Education Centers. In a circuit-rider approach, an outreach librarian offers classes and demonstrations throughout the state that teach information-access skills to health professionals. Provision of traditional library services to unaffiliated health professionals is integrated into the library's daily workload as a component of the outreach program. The paper describes the history, methodology, administration, funding, impact, and results of the program.

  3. Versatile Tunable Current-Mode Universal Biquadratic Filter Using MO-DVCCs and MOSFET-Based Electronic Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Pin Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a versatile tunable current-mode universal biquadratic filter with four-input and three-output employing only two multioutput differential voltage current conveyors (MO-DVCCs, two grounded capacitors, and a well-known method for replacement of three grounded resistors by MOSFET-based electronic resistors. The proposed configuration exhibits high-output impedance which is important for easy cascading in the current-mode operations. The proposed circuit can be used as either a two-input three-output circuit or a three-input single-output circuit. In the operation of two-input three-output circuit, the bandpass, highpass, and bandreject filtering responses can be realized simultaneously while the allpass filtering response can be easily obtained by connecting appropriated output current directly without using additional stages. In the operation of three-input single-output circuit, all five generic filtering functions can be easily realized by selecting different three-input current signals. The filter permits orthogonal controllability of the quality factor and resonance angular frequency, and no inverting-type input current signals are imposed. All the passive and active sensitivities are low. Postlayout simulations were carried out to verify the functionality of the design.

  4. A new measurement method of magnetic flux density using magnetorheological fluid characteristics and a variable resistor circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwan-Choong; Han, Chulhee; Kim, Pyunghwa; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2015-08-01

    This work proposes a new approach with which to measure the magnetic flux density using the characteristics of magnetorheological fluid (MRF) that is integrated with a variable resistor. For convenience, it is called a magnetorheological fluid variable resistor (MRF-VR) system in this study. The mechanism of the MRF-VR is based on the interaction between ferromagnetic iron particles of the MRF due to an external magnetic field, which causes its electrical resistance to be field dependent. Using this salient principle, the proposed MRF-VR system is constructed with electrodes and MRF, and its performance is demonstrated by evaluating its electrical resistive characteristics such as dimensional influence, response time, hysteresis and frequency response. After evaluating the performance characteristics, a feedback control system with a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller is established, and resistance-trajectory control experiments are carried out. Based on this MRF-VR system, a magnetic field-sensing system is constructed using a Wheatstone bridge circuit, and a polynomial model for calculating the magnetic flux density is formulated from the measured voltage. Finally, the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed sensing system associated with the empirical polynomial model is successfully verified by comparing the calculated values of magnetic flux density with those measured by a commercial tesla meter.

  5. Characterization of printing and laser trimming of DuPont 2000 series resistors on DuPont 951 {open_quotes}Green Tape{trademark}{close_quotes}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgenstern, H.; Bandler, S.; Barner, G.

    1996-10-01

    DuPont 2000 series resistors were reviewed and found to come closest to our requirement of 1% resistor tolerance over the expected 30-year life of our products. The evaluation performed involved the characterization of both the printing and trimming processes. The printing process was characterized for firing temperature print thickness, print direction, resistor geometry and encapsulant effect. Laser trimming was characterized by first finding an operating envelope and then selecting an operating point. The envelope was located by varying the trimming parameters and determining their acceptability to electrical and visual criteria. Samples from both the envelope and operating point were environmentally conditioned The conditioning included thermal shock temperature cycle, 1000-hour temperature aging, 1000-hour humidity aging, and a simulated gold/tin solder reflow.

  6. The Gender Digital Divide in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies clearly show that women in the developing world have significantly lower technology participation rates than men; a result of entrenched socio-cultural attitudes about the role of women in society. However, as studies are beginning to show, when those women are able to engage with Internet technology, a wide range of personal, family and community benefits become possible. The key to these benefits is on-line education, the access to which sets up a positive feedback loop. This review gives an overview of the digital divide, before focusing specifically on the challenges women in developing countries face in accessing the Internet. Current gender disparities in Internet use will be outlined and the barriers that potentially hinder women’s access and participation in the online world will be considered. We will then look at the potential opportunities for women’s participation in a global digital society along with a consideration of current initiatives that have been developed to mitigate gender inequity in developing countries. We will also consider a promising avenue for future research.

  7. The Digital Divide and urban older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, M Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N; Morrell, Roger W

    2010-01-01

    Computers and the Internet offer older adults opportunities and resources for independent living. However, many urban older adults do not use computers. This study examined the demographic, health, and social activities of urban older adults to determine variables that might predict the use and nonuse of computers in this population. A secondary data analysis was performed using the 2001 Detroit City-Wide Needs Assessment of Older Adults (n = 1410) data set. Logistic regression was used to explore potential differences in predictor variables between computer users and nonusers. Overall, computer users were younger (27%), had a higher level of education, were more likely to be employed, had an annual income greater than $20,000, and were healthier and more active than nonusers. They also were more likely to have memberships in community organizations and do volunteer work. Preferred computer activities included conducting Internet searches, playing games, writing, and communicating with family members and friends. The results suggest significant differences in demographic and health-related characteristics between computer users and nonusers among urban older adults. Although about a quarter of participants in this study used computers, the Digital Divide continues to exist in urban settings for scores of others.

  8. Bridging the digital divide: reaching vulnerable populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Betty L; Bakken, Suzanne; Brown, S Scott; Houston, Thomas K; Kreps, Gary L; Kukafka, Rita; Safran, Charles; Stavri, P Zoe

    2004-01-01

    The AMIA 2003 Spring Congress entitled "Bridging the Digital Divide: Informatics and Vulnerable Populations" convened 178 experts including medical informaticians, health care professionals, government leaders, policy makers, researchers, health care industry leaders, consumer advocates, and others specializing in health care provision to underserved populations. The primary objective of this working congress was to develop a framework for a national agenda in information and communication technology to enhance the health and health care of underserved populations. Discussions during four tracks addressed issues and trends in information and communication technologies for underserved populations, strategies learned from successful programs, evaluation methodologies for measuring the impact of informatics, and dissemination of information for replication of successful programs. Each track addressed current status, ideal state, barriers, strategies, and recommendations. Recommendations of the breakout sessions were summarized under the overarching themes of Policy, Funding, Research, and Education and Training. The general recommendations emphasized four key themes: revision in payment and reimbursement policies, integration of health care standards, partnerships as the key to success, and broad dissemination of findings including specific feedback to target populations and other key stakeholders.

  9. Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There are countless reasons nearly every scientist should learn how to communicate effectively with the media, including increased understanding of critical research findings to attract or sustain funding and build new professional partnerships that will further propel forward research. But where do scientists begin? Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism offers practical tips for any scientist looking to work with the media. Given the traditional and internet-based sources for medical research and healthcare-related news now available, it is imperative that scientists know how to communicate their latest findings through the appropriate channels. The credible media channels are managed by working journalists, so learning how to package vast, technical research in a form that is appetizing and "bite-sized" in order to get their attention, is an art. Reducing years of research into a headline can be extremely difficult and certainly doesn't come naturally to every scientist, so this article provides suggestions on how to work with the media to communicate your findings.

  10. Quantitative Measurement of the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Roger

    2007-04-01

    Bandwidth and the Internet infrastructure are the life-blood of the world's knowledge economy, but they are often scarcest where most needed. Measuring the numbers of users of the Internet infrastructure is not easy in developing countries because many people share accounts, use corporate and academic networks, or visit the rapidly growing number of cyber cafes, telecentres and business services. Also measuring the number of users does not take into account the level of use. One valuable indicator for measuring the Internet infrastructure is the international Internet performance of a country or region. One of the major aims of the PingER project is to provide an historical archive of extensive, publicly accessible, up-to-date, measurements, analyses and reports of multiple Internet performance indicators (such as delay, loss, throughput, reachability, and jitter) between sites, countries and regions of the world. This talk will briefly describe the PingER project and then compare and contrast the Internet performance and its trends within and between countries and regions of the world. By means of extensive case studies it will also identify which regions need the greatest attention, together with their major issues and possible approaches to reducing the divide.

  11. Vegetation baseline report : Connacher great divide project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-01

    This baseline report supported an application by Connacher Oil and Gas Ltd. to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) and Alberta Environment (AENV) for the Great Divide Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) Project. The goal of the report was to document the distribution and occurrence of ecosite phases and wetland classes in the project footprint as well as to document the distribution of rare plants; rare plant communities: and intrusive species and old growth communities, including species of management concern. A methodology of the baseline report was presented, including details of mapping and field surveys. Six vegetation types in addition to the disturbed land unit were identified in the project footprint and associated buffer. It was noted that all vegetation types are common for the boreal forest natural regions. Several species of management concern were identified during the spring rare plant survey, including rare bryophytes and non-native or invasive species. Mitigation was identified through a slight shift of the footprint, transplant of appropriate bryophyte species and implementation of a weed management plan. It was noted that results of future surveys for rare plants will be submitted upon completion. It was concluded that the effects of the project on existing vegetation is expected to be low because of the small footprint, prior disturbance history, available mitigation measures and conservation and reclamation planning. 27 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  12. "Enlivening and - Dividing": An Aporia of Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Christian Hönes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Verdana;} In 1798, Karl August Böttiger paid a nocturnal visit to the Gallery of Antiques in Dresden, illuminating the statues with a torch. At first glance, this seems to be yet another example of a popular practice for visiting galleries c.1800. Illuminating the sculptures by torchlight was a popular means of enlivening the objects, set in motion by the light flickering on their surfaces. The collections were thus meant to become a place where cold, white stone comes to life, and where the beholder becomes part of a revived antiquity.This was precisely what Böttiger intended, too. But to him, the effect of the torchlight appeared to be, as he wrote, “enlivening and – dividing!” The torchlight highlighted not only the beauty of the sculptures but also their modern restorations. Böttiger apparently failed to experience the living presence of the antique celebrated by many of his contemporaries (e.g. Goethe, Moritz.This essay focuses on the consequence of such a perception of sculptures as historically multi-layered objects. Böttiger’s experience resulted in a problematic situation. In trying to view the sculptures as contemporaries, he hoped to become ancient himself. But this operation failed in the moment when the sculptures themselves appeared to be anachronistic, impure palimpsests. In consequence, galleries may not only be the place were art history as chronological Stilgeschichte was born. They may also be the site where this perception changed into the experience of a more chaotic shape of time.

  13. Second Sound Measurement using SMD resistors to simulate Quench locations on the 704 MHZ Single-Cell Cavity at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, K; Ciapala, E; Junginger, T; Weingarten, W

    2012-01-01

    Oscillating Superleak Transducers (OSTs) containing flexible porous membranes are widely used to detect the so-called second sound temperature wave when a quench event occurs in a superconducting RF cavity. In principle, from the measured speed of this wave and the travel time between the quench event and several OSTs, the location of the quench sites can be derived by triangulation. Second sound behaviour has been simulated through different surface mount (SMD) resistors setups on a Superconducting Proton Linac (SPL) test cavity, to help understanding the underlying physics and improve quench localisation. Experiments are described that have been conducted to search for explanation of heat transfer during cavity quench that causes contradictory triangulation results.

  14. Study of the selective effect on cells induced by nanosecond pulsed electric field with the resistor-capacitor circuit model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Fei; Xiao Dengming; Li Zhaozhi

    2009-01-01

    A resistor-capacitor (RC) circuit model is proposed to study the effect of nanosecond pulsed electric field on cells according to the structure and electrical parameters of cells. After a nanosecond step field has been applied, the variation of voltages across cytomembrane and mitochondria membrane both in normal and in malignant cells are studied with this model. The time for selectively targeting the mitochondria membrane and malignant cell can be evaluated much easily with curves that show the variation of voltage across each membrane with time. Ramp field is the typical field applied in electrobiology. The voltages across each membrane induced by ramp field are analyzed with this model. To selectively target the mitochondria membrane, proper range of ramp slope is needed. It is relatively difficult to decide the range of a slope to selectively affect the malignant cell. Under some conditions, such a range even does not exist.

  15. Principles to Set up Nominal Values of Resistors and Method to Select them%标称阻值的制定原理和选用方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕炳仁

    2012-01-01

    论述电阻器标称阻值的制定原理,对电子工业部的部颁标称阻值提出质疑和建议。依据允许偏差,推导出计算标称阻值的通用表达式。将误差绝对值的计算结果与部颁的相比较,结论是笔者的标准差远远小于部颁的。最后指明电阻器阻值的选用方法。%The principle to set up nominal values of the resistors is discussed. Queries and suggestions are proposed to nominal values of the resistors promulgated by the Electronic Industry Ministry of China. According to permissible deviation, the general expression to calculate nominal values of the resistors is developed. The absolute values of the errors calculated by the author are compared with the ones issued by the Electronics Industry Ministry of China. Based on the comparison, it is found that the standard deviation obtained by the author is smaller than one promulgated by the Ministry. Finally, the method to select values of the resistors is given.

  16. The Barometric Effect Based on Standard Resistors%基于标准电阻的气压效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林飞鹏; 邵海明; 梁波; 贾凯

    2012-01-01

    本文研究标准电阻器气压效应,通过实验测定了各种型号标准电阻器的气压效应.研究了标准电阻器气压效应的机理,阐明了阻值随气压的变化规律;提出了采用双层密封结构增强电阻内壁的机械强度可以极大减少其气压系数的方法,并验证了此方法.%This paper researches the standard resistor barometric effect.The barometric effect is determined by various models of standard resistors through experiments.It studied on the mechanism of standard resistor barometric effect and clarified the law of the resistance value changing with barometric; the double sealing structure is proposed to significantly reduce the barometric coefficient by enhancing the mechanical strength of the resistors internal wall,and the experiment verified this method.

  17. Avaliação de modelo de extração da água do solo por sistemas radiculares divididos entre camadas de solo com propriedades hidráulicas distintas Evaluation of a root-soil water extraction model by root systems divided over soil layers with distinct hydraulic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon Gomes da Rocha

    2010-08-01

    solo mais frequentemente do que ela ocorreu no experimento. Esse fato pode indicar que a resistência interna do sistema radicular, não contabilizada pelo modelo, pode ter papel importante nas relações hídricas na rizosfera.Evaluating plant root capacity in extrating water from the soil is important for transpiration modeling and to understand crop growth and yield and soil water and nutrient balance. Aiming to test a macroscopic root water extraction model based on the microscopic process description, an experiment was described in which the root system of plants penetrated different soil layers with contrasting hydraulic properties. Four lysimeters containing two physically divided compartments were built and filled with material of two soils with different texture (a medium textured soil - AR and a clayey soil - AG. During a month and a half a water regime was imposed alternating the irrigation among the compartments. The soil water content in the compartments was measured with TDR and tensiometers. Soil hydraulic properties - retention and conductivity - were analyzed by standard methods. Root density was determined by weighing at the end of the experiment, resulting in values twice as high in AR than in AG soil. It was observed that water extraction occurred preferentially from the lysimeter compartments with the highest matric flux potential. Occasionally, water transfer from the compartment with higher matric flux potential to the lower one was observed, releasing water from root to soil (hydraulic lift. To compensate for the effect of heterogeneity of root distribution and root activity and soil-root contact, an empirical factor f was added to the model. Its value was determined by a numerical fitting procedure aiming at the highest correlation between model and observation in the four lysimeters. The model described 80% of the observations satisfactorily by using these f values, which were 0.01506 and 0.003713, respectively, for AR and AG. Model

  18. Digital divide in education : a shift to ethical usage

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Under the trend of ICT implementation in education, students’ learning becomes highly reliant on ICT. A student will thus suffer in his / her learning process if he / she lacks the chance of using ICT at home. This is what a divide in student’s learning is. As the occurrence of this divide is due to digital ICT devices and its effect is focussed on students’ academic performance, such divide is termed as digital divide in education (DDE). To bridge this divide, most governments around the wor...

  19. A technique for conditioning and calibrating force-sensing resistors for repeatable and reliable measurement of compressive force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Rick S; Desmoulin, Geoffrey T; Milner, Theodore E

    2008-12-01

    Miniature sensors that could measure forces applied by the fingers and hand without interfering with manual dexterity or range of motion would have considerable practical value in ergonomics and rehabilitation. In this study, techniques have been developed to use inexpensive pressure-sensing resistors (FSRs) to accurately measure compression force. The FSRs are converted from pressure-sensing to force-sensing devices. The effects of nonlinear response properties and dependence on loading history are compensated by signal conditioning and calibration. A fourth-order polynomial relating the applied force to the current voltage output and a linearly weighted sum of prior outputs corrects for sensor hysteresis and drift. It was found that prolonged (>20h) shear force loading caused sensor gain to change by approximately 100%. Shear loading also had the effect of eliminating shear force effects on sensor output, albeit only in the direction of shear loading. By applying prolonged shear loading in two orthogonal directions, the sensors were converted into pure compression sensors. Such preloading of the sensor is, therefore, required prior to calibration. The error in compression force after prolonged shear loading and calibration was consistently industrial design applications where measurements of finger and hand force are needed.

  20. Force Sensing Resistor (FSR): a brief overview and the low-cost sensor for active compliance control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadun, A. S.; Jalani, J.; Sukor, J. A.

    2016-07-01

    Force Sensing Resistors (FSR) sensors are devices that allow measuring static and dynamic forces applied to a contact surface. Their range of responses is basically depending on the variation of its electric resistance. In general, Flexiforce and Interlink are two common types of FSR sensors that are available, cheap and easily found in the market. Studies have shown that the FSR sensors are usually applied for robotic grippers and for biomechanical fields. This paper provides a brief overview of the application of the FSR sensors. Subsequently, two different set of experiments are carried out to test the effectiveness of the Flexiforce and Interlink sensors. First, the hardness detector system (Case Study A) and second, the force-position control system (Case Study B). The hardware used for the experiment was developed from low-cost materials. The results revealed that both FSR sensors are sufficient and reliable to provide a good sensing modality particularly for measuring force. Apart from the low-cost sensors, essentially, the FSR sensors are very useful devices that able to provide a good active compliance control, particularly for the grasping robotic hand.

  1. A Suitable Coordinate Transformation Method for Correcting Voltage Vector in Motor Current Detection Using a Single Shunt Resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomigashi, Yoshio; Hida, Hajime; Ueyama, Kenji

    To reduce costs of inverters, a current detection method using a single shunt resistor is required for motor drive systems in home electrical appliances. In this paper, a method is proposed to correct a voltage reference vector by converting coordinates from a rotating reference frame into a fixed reference frame. Also proposed is a new coordinate transformation method that is appropriate for the correction. Authors focused on the undetectable area that exists every 60 degrees in α-β coordinates. When the α-β coordinates in an nπ/3 rotation are defined as αn-βn, the αn-axis can be defined as the central axis in an undetectable area. We propose a coordinate transformation method that converts the voltage vector in the d-q coordinates into uvw phase voltages through αn-βn coordinates then correct it. This method corrects the voltage vector by a very simple algorithm that limits the αn-βn elements. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed by simulation and experiment. Currents were clearly detected by using the proposed method. This shows that the proposed method is suitable for position sensor-less drives in permanent magnet synchronous motors.

  2. A noble technique a using force-sensing resistor for immobilization-device quality assurance: A feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Min-Seok; Kim, Tae-Ho; Kang, Seong-Hee; Kim, Dong-Su; Kim, Kyeong-Hyeon; Shin, Dong-Seok; Noh, Yu-Yun; Koo, Hyun-Jae; Cheon, Geum Seong; Suh, Tae Suk; Kim, Siyong

    2016-03-01

    Many studies have reported that a patient can move even when an immobilization device is used. Researchers have developed an immobilization-device quality-assurance (QA) system that evaluates the validity of immobilization devices. The QA system consists of force-sensing-resistor (FSR) sensor units, an electric circuit, a signal conditioning device, and a control personal computer (PC) with in-house software. The QA system is designed to measure the force between an immobilization device and a patient's skin by using the FSR sensor unit. This preliminary study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of using the QA system in radiation-exposure situations. When the FSR sensor unit was irradiated with a computed tomography (CT) beam and a treatment beam from a linear accelerator (LINAC), the stability of the output signal, the image artifact on the CT image, and changing the variation on the patient's dose were tested. The results of this study demonstrate that this system is promising in that it performed within the error range (signal variation on CT beam < 0.30 kPa, root-mean-square error (RMSE) of the two CT images according to presence or absence of the FSR sensor unit < 15 HU, signal variation on the treatment beam < 0.15 kPa, and dose difference between the presence and the absence of the FSR sensor unit < 0.02%). Based on the obtained results, we will volunteer tests to investigate the clinical feasibility of the QA system.

  3. The bounds of the set of equivalent resistances of n equal resistors combined in series and in parallel

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Sameen Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The order of the set of equivalent resistances, A(n) of n equal resistors combined in series and in parallel has been traditionally addressed computationally, for n up to 22. For larger n there have been constraints of computer memory. Here, we present an analytical approach using the Farey sequence with Fibonacci numbers as its argument. The approximate formula, A(n) ~ 2.55^n, obtained from the computational data up to n = 22 is consistent with the strict upper bound, A(n) ~ 2.618^n, presented here. It is further shown that the Farey sequence approach, developed for the A(n) is applicable to configurations other than the series and/or parallel, namely the bridge circuits and non-planar circuits. Expressions describing set theoretic relations among the sets A(n) are presented in detail. For completeness, programs to generate the various integer sequences occurring in this study, using the symbolic computer language MATHEMATCA, are also presented.

  4. Hybrid functional IrO2-TiO2 thin film resistor prepared by atomic layer deposition for thermal inkjet printheads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Won-Sub KWACK; Hyoung-Seok MOON; Seong-Jun JEONG; Qi-min WANG; Se-Hun KWON

    2011-01-01

    IrO2-TiO2 thin films were prepared by atomic layer deposition using Ir(EtCp)(COD) and titanium isopropoxide (TTIP).in the IrO2-TiO2 thin films. The low temperature coefficient of resistance(TCR) values can be obtained by adopting IrO2-TiO2 composite thin films. Moreover, the change in the resistivity of lrO2-TiO2 thin films was below 10% even after O2 annealing process at 600 ℃. The step stress test results show that IrO2-TiO2 films have better characteristics than conventional TaN08 heater resistor.Therefore, IrO2-TiO2 composite thin films can be used as a heater resistor material in thermal inkjet printhead.

  5. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  6. An Empirical Analysis of the Determinants of International Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Liu

    International Digital Divide is an imbalance state of ICT penetration between countries. This paper analyzes the current status and trends of international digital divide, adopts Gompertz technology diffusion model to verify the determinants of ICT penetration level and diffusion rate separately. Finally, China should use "policy levers" to strengthen international trade cooperation, improve the capability of independent innovation, and achieve Chinese goal of bridging digital divide.

  7. Is there a second level divide in students Internet skills?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Purushothaman, Aparna

    2015-01-01

    The concept of digital divide have moved beyond physical disparities in usage and also encompasses issues impending access like human (skills) social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies apart from ownership. This paper focuses...... face to take information from the Internet that brings a second level of divide. Through a cross-national comparison the paper hopes to contribute to the literature to learn from each other´s experiences and giving insights to researchers on digital divide. The digital divide in Internet skills...

  8. The benefit of dividing an indirect thermal storage into two compartments: Discharge experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragoonanan, Vishard; Davidson, Jane H.; Mantell, Susan C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, 111 Church Street, S.E. Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Homan, Kelly O. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Missouri-Rolla, 1870 Miner Circle, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2006-01-15

    Experiments are presented to demonstrate the benefits of dividing an indirect thermal storage into two compartments. The transient discharge experiments were conducted in an undivided and equally divided 126l rectangular storage vessel, which has a height to depth aspect ratio of 9.3:1 and is inclined at 30{sup o} to the horizontal. A 240-tube copper heat exchanger with a total surface area of 2.38m{sup 2} was immersed in the storage fluid. For the divided storage, the heat exchanger flow path was in series through the two compartments. Water flow rate through the heat exchanger was varied from 0.05 to 0.15kg/s to demonstrate the effect of varying the number of transfer units (NTU) from 2.2 to 7 on the relative performance of undivided and divided storage vessels. Reported measurements include transient storage temperature distribution, heat exchanger outlet temperature, delivered energy, and exergy of the divided and undivided storage. The divided storage provides higher energy delivery rates and higher heat exchanger outlet temperatures during most of the discharge. The magnitude of these benefits depends on NTU and the extent of discharge. For a flow rate of 0.05kg/s, corresponding to a nominal NTU of 7, the divided storage delivers a maximum of 11% more energy than the undivided storage when 100l of hot water or 55% of the stored energy has been delivered. For a flow rate of 0.15kg/s, corresponding to a nominal NTU of 2.5, the divided storage delivers a maximum of 5% more energy at the same level of discharge. Data agree with first and second law analyses of a storage system comprised of two tanks in series. (author)

  9. The Quality Control of Fuse Resistor in Production Process%熔断电阻器生产过程中的质量控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霞; 曹喻霖; 滕坚; 秦好泉

    2016-01-01

    Fuse resistor is a kind of resistor which is widely used in circuit to protect electrical components.It can be used as protective tube and fuse.In order to save costs and simplify the circuit,fuse resistor was used to replace of protective tube.In this paper,when fuse resistor was used in the phone charger prod-ucts,its abnormal cut-off was studied.The material selection,production process and control of fusing re-sistors,application in the phone charger products were analyzed and measured.The main reasons about abnormal cut-off were found.Final y unqualified rate of abnormal fuse resistor circuit was wel control ed, and the quality control of cel phone charger was effectively ensured.%熔断电阻器是一种广泛应用安装在电路中、保证电路安全运行的电器元件。可视为具有保险管和电阻的双层功效。为节约成本和简化电路使用熔断电阻器代替保险管。该文研究了手机充电器产品上使用熔断电阻器存在着异常断路的问题,并对熔断电阻器的选材、生产过程与控制、以及投入手机充电器工程组使用这三方面进行原因分析和检测。找出了导致熔断电阻器异常断路的主要原因,最终很好地控制了熔断电阻器异常断路不合格率,使手机充电器的质量控制得到有效保障。

  10. The Digital Divide and Health Outcomes: A Teleretinal Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Kathleen Kihmm

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to understand, explore and describe the digital divide and the relationship between technology utilization and health outcomes. Diabetes and diabetic eye disease was used as the real-life context for understanding change and exploring the digital divide. As an investigational framework, a telemedicine…

  11. Digital Natives and Digital Divide: Analysing Perspective for Emerging Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onye, Uriel U.; Du, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the concepts of digital natives and digital divide from the perspective of the digital outsiders (part of digital natives). It takes a critical look at the implications of available ICT in both developed and underdeveloped countries in the fight against digital divide. The major contribution to literature is by drawing…

  12. The Digital Divide in Health Education: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellefson, Michael; Chaney, Beth; Chaney, Don

    2008-01-01

    Although e-health interventions provide new opportunities for health education, there has been cause for concern regarding the purported information technology gap between those who have access to digital applications and those who do not--termed the "digital divide." The literature suggests, however, that this divide may now be illusory, driven…

  13. Distance Education and the Digital Divide: An Academic Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Judy

    2010-01-01

    This paper will address how the digital divide affects distance education. Lack of access for some students does raise concerns. Access to technology is often defined by what students don't have: what is called a digital divide. Access also is defined by the speed of Internet connections. Access in the future will be even greater as more computers…

  14. Bridging the Digital Divide--An Australian Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Robyn; Papadopoulos, Theo

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the lack of access to information and communication technology (ICT) or the "digital divide" severely limits education, employment and economic prospects. This paper reports on the evaluation of a project that aims to bridge the digital divide. In particular, the case study data has been used to bring to…

  15. Evaluation of Fatih Project in the Frame of Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, Kerim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research realized at the general survey model is to evaluate "FATIH Project" in the frame of digital divide by determining the effects of the distributed tablets to the students being educated at K-12 schools on digital divide. Sample is taking from the 9th grade students in Sakarya city in the 2013-2014 academic session.…

  16. Rethinking the Digital Divide: Impacts on Student-Tutor Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Jean D. M.

    2007-01-01

    This article emerged from a series of debates and workshops on the impact of the Digital Divide on educational practice at the "Futures of Learning: New Learning Paradigms Conference" in Paris. The conceptualisation of the Digital Divide into the "haves" and the "have-nots", with a perception of the economically…

  17. Annan warns of 'content divide' between rich and poor

    CERN Multimedia

    Dickson, D

    2003-01-01

    "The Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan, warned today (10 December) that a "content divide" is threatening to deprive developing countries of the full benefits offered by information and communications technologies (ICTs)" (1 page)

  18. Continental Divide of the United States - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays the Continental Divide of the United States. The map layer was created by extracting Hydrologic Unit Boundary line features from an existing...

  19. Pulse swallowing frequency divider with low power and compact structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Haijun; Sun Lingling; Cai Chaobo; Zhan Haiting

    2012-01-01

    A pulse swallowing frequency divider with low power and compact structure is presented.One of the DFFs in the divided by 2/3 prescaler is controlled by the modulus control signal,and automatically powered off when it has no contribution to the operation of the prescaler.The DFFs in the program counter and the swallow counter are shared to compose a compact structure,which reduces the power consumption further.The proposed multi-modulus frequency divider was implemented in a standard 65 nm CMOS process with an area of 28 ×22 μm2.The power consumption of the divider is 0.6 mW under 1.2 V supply voltage when operating at 988 MHz.

  20. A Line Dividing "Trademark License" and "Trademark Infringement"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi Shaojie

    2004-01-01

    @@ Opinions are not divided on in fringement by another person's use of a registered trademark without license from the trademark registrant,nor on the non-infringement by its/his licensed use of a registered trademark.

  1. Neural Correlates of Divided Attention in Natural Scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagioli, Sabrina; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2016-09-01

    Individuals are able to split attention between separate locations, but divided spatial attention incurs the additional requirement of monitoring multiple streams of information. Here, we investigated divided attention using photos of natural scenes, where the rapid categorization of familiar objects and prior knowledge about the likely positions of objects in the real world might affect the interplay between these spatial and nonspatial factors. Sixteen participants underwent fMRI during an object detection task. They were presented with scenes containing either a person or a car, located on the left or right side of the photo. Participants monitored either one or both object categories, in one or both visual hemifields. First, we investigated the interplay between spatial and nonspatial attention by comparing conditions of divided attention between categories and/or locations. We then assessed the contribution of top-down processes versus stimulus-driven signals by separately testing the effects of divided attention in target and nontarget trials. The results revealed activation of a bilateral frontoparietal network when dividing attention between the two object categories versus attending to a single category but no main effect of dividing attention between spatial locations. Within this network, the left dorsal premotor cortex and the left intraparietal sulcus were found to combine task- and stimulus-related signals. These regions showed maximal activation when participants monitored two categories at spatially separate locations and the scene included a nontarget object. We conclude that the dorsal frontoparietal cortex integrates top-down and bottom-up signals in the presence of distractors during divided attention in real-world scenes.

  2. Generation of five phase-locked harmonics by implementing a divide-by-three optical frequency divider

    CERN Document Server

    Suhaimi, Nurul Sheeda; Gavara, Trivikramarao; Nakagawa, Ken'ichi; Hong, Feng Lei; Katsuragawa, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    We report the generation of five phase-locked harmonics, f_1: 2403 nm, f_2: 1201 nm, f_3: 801 nm, f_4: 600 nm, and f_5: 480 nm with an exact frequency ratio of 1 : 2 : 3 : 4 : 5 by implementing a divide-by-three optical-frequency divider in the high harmonic generation process. All five harmonics are generated coaxially with high phase coherence in time and space, which are applicable for various practical uses.

  3. Bridging the Divide: Translating Landsat Research Into Usable Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchio, L. E.; Davis, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    Science has long served humankind. Breakthroughs in medicine have increased longevity and advances in technology have made modern-day conveniences possible. Yet, social benefits begotten by the environmental sciences, although critical for the survival of humanity, have not always been as widely recognized or used. To benefit today's rapidly growing population, the divides between environmental research, applied environmental science, and use of this information by decision makers must be bridged. Lessons about the translation from research to usable science can be learned from the four decades of Landsat history, and these lessons can serve as useful models for bridging the gaps between new technology, scientific research, and the use of that research and technology in real-world problem solving. In 1965, William Pecora, then-director of the U.S. Geological Survey, proposed the idea of a remote sensing satellite program to gather facts about natural resources of Earth. For the next seven years, an intense campaign showing the depth and diversity of satellite imagery applications was waged. This led to the 1972 launch of the first civilian land-observing satellite, Landsat 1. By 1975, successful application research based on Landsat 1 imagery prompted then-NASA Administrator Dr. James Fletcher to proclaim that if one space age development would save the world, it would be Landsat and its successor satellites. Thirty-four years of continual Landsat imaging and related-research has lead to the implementation of many socially beneficial applications, such as improved water management techniques, crop insurance fraud reduction, illicit crop inventories, natural disaster relief planning, continent-scale carbon estimates, and extensive cartographic advances. Despite these successes, the challenge of translating Landsat research into realized social benefits remains. Even in this geospatially-savvy era, the utility of Landsat largely escapes policymakers. Here, in an

  4. [Promoting nursing competitiveness: introduction to the digital divide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Hsu; Lee, Ting-Ting

    2010-02-01

    Increasingly sophisticated information technology (IT) has widened the gap (the so-called "digital divide") between those with effective access to IT resources and those without. Problems related to the digital divide exist in every country. In addition to level of familiarity with technology, the divide can also be influenced by factors of race, gender, age, education, economic status and area of residence. The digital divide may be ameliorated through technology innovations in terms of access to information, information application and information literacy. As IT is an increasingly significant component of modern healthcare, it may be expected that the "width" of the potential gap widens as IT applications increase in sophistication. Nursing professionals must keep abreast of advancing technologies in order to narrow the digital divide. To cope with this challenge, nursing professionals should enhance their understanding of new technologies beyond what is taught in formal education curricula. This knowledge enhancement may be attained through self learning or on-the-job training in nursing informatics. Content could cover hospital information system (IS) usage, security, applications and web access. This will improve the ability of nursing staff to face the current IT challenge.

  5. Romania's Digital Divide and the Failures of E-Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Dan ŞANDOR

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to measure the level of the digital divide existing in Romania and also to verify its relationship with e-government. At the country level, Romania is one of the least digitally developed countries in Europe, but it has shown a sharp increase in recent years. At the social level, based on data from public opinion surveys, digital divide is analyzed at two levels: lack of access and lack of knowledge. The results are similar to those in other countries: digital divide appears along the same dimensions: rural/urban, age, education, wealth and, to a lesser extent, gender. E-government services, while presumed to be at an adequate level, are used only by a very small number of citizens, thus having no impact upon the digital divide. Confronted with a serious divide, and with great possibility of its increasing, Romania needs to promote policies designed to increase access and knowledge. Also, e-government is not possible, unless administrative culture and procedures change.

  6. Bridging the Digital Divide for urban seniors: community partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, M Kay; Jarosz, Patricia A

    2010-01-01

    Computers and the Internet offer older adults resources for improving health. For many older adults, the "Digital Divide" (the social, economic, and demographic factors that exist between individuals who use computers and those who do not) is a barrier to taking advantage of these resources. Bridging the Digital Divide by making computers and the Internet more accessible and making online health information more usable for older adults has the potential to improve health of older adults. This article describes a strategy for closing the Digital Divide for urban seniors through the formation of a community- university partnership with the goal of improving health and well-being through the use of online health information.

  7. Transition State Theory for dissipative systems without a dividing surface

    CERN Document Server

    Revuelta, F; Benito, R M; Borondo, F

    2015-01-01

    Transition State Theory is a central cornerstone in reaction dynamics. Its key step is the identification of a dividing surface that is crossed only once by all reactive trajectories. This assumption is often badly violated, especially when the reactive system is coupled to an environment. The calculations made in this way then overestimate the reaction rate and the results depend critically on the choice of the dividing surface. In this Letter, we study the phase space of a stochastically driven system close to an energetic barrier in order to identify the geometric structure unambiguously determining the reactive trajectories, which is then incorporated in a simple rate formula for reactions in condensed phase that is both independent of the dividing surface and exact.

  8. Ouroboros: A Tool for Building Generic, Hybrid, Divide& Conquer Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J R; Foster, I

    2003-05-01

    A hybrid divide and conquer algorithm is one that switches from a divide and conquer to an iterative strategy at a specified problem size. Such algorithms can provide significant performance improvements relative to alternatives that use a single strategy. However, the identification of the optimal problem size at which to switch for a particular algorithm and platform can be challenging. We describe an automated approach to this problem that first conducts experiments to explore the performance space on a particular platform and then uses the resulting performance data to construct an optimal hybrid algorithm on that platform. We implement this technique in a tool, ''Ouroboros'', that automatically constructs a high-performance hybrid algorithm from a set of registered algorithms. We present results obtained with this tool for several classical divide and conquer algorithms, including matrix multiply and sorting, and report speedups of up to six times achieved over non-hybrid algorithms.

  9. Google and the digital divide the bias of online knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Segev, Elad

    2010-01-01

    Beneficial to scholars and students in the fields of media and communication, politics and technology, this book outlines the significant role of search engines in general and Google in particular in widening the digital divide between individuals, organisations and states. It uses innovative methods and research approaches to assess and illustrate the digital divide by comparing the popular search queries in Google and Yahoo in different countries as well as analysing the various biases in Google News and Google Earth. The different studies developed and presented in this book provide various

  10. Transformer-based design techniques for oscillators and frequency dividers

    CERN Document Server

    Luong, Howard Cam

    2016-01-01

    This book provides in-depth coverage of transformer-based design techniques that enable CMOS oscillators and frequency dividers to achieve state-of-the-art performance.  Design, optimization, and measured performance of oscillators and frequency dividers for different applications are discussed in detail, focusing on not only ultra-low supply voltage but also ultra-wide frequency tuning range and locking range.  This book will be an invaluable reference for anyone working or interested in CMOS radio-frequency or mm-Wave integrated circuits and systems.

  11. Enhanced Model of Nonlinear Spiral High Voltage Divider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Panko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the enhanced accurate DC and RF model of nonlinear spiral polysilicon voltage divider. The high resistance polysilicon divider is a sensing part of the high voltage start-up MOSFET transistor that can operate up to 700 V. This paper presents the structure of a proposed model, implemented voltage, frequency and temperature dependency, and scalability. A special attention is paid to the ability of the created model to cover the mismatch and influence of a variation of process parameters on the device characteristics. Finally, the comparison of measured data vs. simulation is presented in order to confirm the model validity and a typical application is demonstrated.

  12. Engineering the Divide-and-Conquer Closest Pair Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-hui Jiang; Joel gillespie

    2007-01-01

    We improve the famous divide-and-conquer algorithm by Bentley and Shamos for the planar closest-pair problem. For n points on the plane, our algorithm keeps the optimal O(n log n) time complexity and, using a circle-packing property, computes at most 7n/2 Euclidean distances, which improves Ge et al.'s bound of (3n log n)/2 Euclidean distances. We present experimental results of our comparative studies on four different versions of the divide-and-conquer closest pair algorithm and propose two effective heuristics.

  13. A School Divided: One Elementary School's Response to Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoch, Melody

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how one elementary school was divided into two schools--a primary and an intermediate school--because of how policies were interpreted and enacted with regard to high-stakes testing. The grades in which students took high-stakes tests were privileged in terms of receiving monetary resources and support from staff. An emphasis…

  14. Leadership Analysis in K-12 Case Study: "Divided Loyalties"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubaie, Merfat Ayesh

    2016-01-01

    This report mainly aims to provide a critical and in-depth analysis of the K-12 Case, "Divided Loyalty" by Holy and Tartar (2004). The case recounts how the manifestation of inadequate leadership skills in a school setting could affect negatively the performance of students.

  15. From Fundamentalists to Structuralists: Bridging the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Ayse

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to provide information about several ICT initiatives undertaken in education on a global basis in order to overcome the digital divide and summarise the findings of these initiatives. Due to the limited scope of the study, the bulk of the review mainly concerns initiatives undertaken in secondary schools,…

  16. The Digital Divide and Its Impact on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jerry Chih-Yuan; Metros, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore issues of the digital divide and its impact on academic performance. Research shows that proper use of technology by students increases their academic performance outcomes. In the literature review section, the authors review articles and theories based on Bennett's (2001) societal equity framework. The…

  17. Journalism Students, Web 2.0 and the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Mary Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if students were utilizing Web 2.0 applications. Since the applications in question are often employed by the media industry, the study aspired to find out if students majoring in mass communication and journalism utilized the applications more often than other students. The "digital divide" is a term used…

  18. The Digital Divide: The Special Case of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the evidence for the digital divide based on gender. An overview of research published in the last 20 years draws to the conclusion that females are at a disadvantage relative to men when learning about computers or learning other material with the aid of computer-assisted software. The evidence shows that the digital divide…

  19. Peculiarities of the Digital Divide in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutula, Stephen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Seeks to argue that the peculiarities of sub-Saharan Africa, in terms of its socio-cultural diversity, low economic development, linguistic factors, HIV/AIDS pandemic, gender discrimination, low ICT awareness and so on, demand a new model of addressing the digital divide. Design/methodology/approach: Paper largely based on literature…

  20. Digital Divide among Youth: Socio-Cultural Factors and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parycek, Peter; Sachs, Michael; Schossbock, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine socio-cultural differences in internet use (Digital Divide) among 14-year-old Austrian pupils, in particular usage scenarios and research competences. It is based on a paper presented at the International Association for the Development of the Information Society e-Society conference, 10-13 March 2011, Spain…

  1. Dividing Attention Lowers Children's but Increases Adults' False Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Peters, Maarten; Howe, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of divided attention on children's and adults' neutral and negative true and false memories in a standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Children (7- and 11-year-olds; n = 126) and adults (n = 52) received 5 neutral and 5 negative Deese/Roediger-McDermott word lists; half of each group also received a…

  2. Effects of valence and divided attention on cognitive reappraisal processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, John A; Leclerc, Christina M; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2014-12-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates supporting cognitive reappraisal, identifying the importance of cognitive control processes implemented by prefrontal cortex (PFC). This study examined how valence and attention affect the processes used for cognitive reappraisal by asking participants to passively view or to cognitively reappraise positive and negative images with full or divided attention. When participants simply viewed these images, results revealed few effects of valence or attention. However, when participants engaged in reappraisal, there was a robust effect of valence, with the reappraisal of negative relative to positive images associated with more widespread activation, including within regions of medial and lateral PFC. There also was an effect of attention, with more lateral PFC recruitment when regulating with full attention and more medial PFC recruitment when regulating with divided attention. Within two regions of medial PFC and one region of ventrolateral PFC, there was an interaction between valence and attention: in these regions, divided attention reduced activity during reappraisal of positive but not negative images. Critically, participants continued to report reappraisal success even during the Divided Attention condition. These results suggest multiple routes to successful cognitive reappraisal, depending upon image valence and the availability of attentional resources.

  3. Fiber-optic Michelson interferometer using an optical power divider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, M; Ohashi, T; Ohtsuka, Y

    1980-10-01

    A fiber-optic interferometer consisting of a multimode fiber-optical power divider was constructed in the Michelson arrangement and applied to measure a micrometer-order displacement of the vibrating object based on an optical homodyne technique. Improvement in the sensitivity of the apparatus is discussed from the viewpoint of increasing the minimum detectable beat signal.

  4. The Digital Divide and Rural Community Colleges: Problems and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsinas, Stephen G.; Moeck, Pat

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the seriousness of the digital divide-the discrepancy between technology-literate and -illiterate people-in rural areas in the United States. Reports that rural young, minority, and single-parent households lag behind the national average in both personal computer ownership and Internet access. Offers suggestions for ways rural community…

  5. Response Styles and the Rural-Urban Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Troy D.; Abts, Koen; Vander Weyden, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of the rural-urban divide on mean response styles (RSs) and their relationships with the sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents. It uses the Representative Indicator Response Style Means and Covariance Structure (RIRSMACS) method and data from Guyana--a developing country in the Caribbean. The…

  6. Theories of Learning in Educational Development: Relocating the Paradigmatic Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Alistair

    1996-01-01

    Offers a critique of a previous discussion on instructional industrialism in distance education based on instructional design. Topics include the psychological foundations of instructional design, competing paradigms in educational development, behaviorism and cognitivism, theories of learning and the paradigmatic divide, and implications for…

  7. Tamil Nadu and the Diagonal Divide in Sex Ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh); S. Srinivasan (Sharada)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBetween 1961 and 2001, India’s 0-6 sex ratio has steadily declined. Despite evidence to the contrary, this ratio is often characterised in terms of a diagonal divide with low 0-6 sex ratios in northern and western India and normal 0-6 sex ratios in eastern and southern India. While unexp

  8. Using Bloom To Bridge the WAC/WID Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Geoffrey; Wills, Katherine

    A longitudinal study combined Stephen Tsuchdi's Workaday activities with Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives to bridge the WAC/WID (writing across the curriculum/writing in the disciplines) divide. The researchers hoped that by combining concrete activities that can be applied across disciplines with a Bloomian conceptual framework of…

  9. Advanced on-chip divider for monolithic microwave VCO's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Weddell C.

    1989-01-01

    High frequency division on a monolithic circuit is a critical technology required to significantly enhance the performance of microwave and millimeter-wave phase-locked sources. The approach used to meet this need is to apply circuit design practices which are essentially 'microwave' in nature to the basically 'digital' problem of high speed division. Following investigation of several promising circuit approaches, program phase 1 culminated in the design and layout of an 8.5 GHz (Deep Space Channel 14) divide by four circuit based on a dynamic mixing divider circuit approach. Therefore, during program phase 2, an 8.5 GHz VCO with an integral divider which provides a phase coherent 2.125 GHz reference signal for phase locking applications was fabricated and optimized. Complete phase locked operation of the monolithic GaAs devices (VCO, power splitter, and dynamic divider) was demonstrated both individually and as an integrated unit. The fully functional integrated unit in a suitable test fixture was delivered to NASA for engineering data correlation. Based on the experience gained from this 8.5 GHz super component, a monolithic GaAs millimeter-wave dynamic divider for operation with an external VCO was also designed, fabricated, and characterized. This circuit, which was also delivered to NASA, demonstrated coherent division by four at an input frequency of 24.3 GHz. The high performance monolithic microwave VCO with a coherent low frequency reference output described in this report and others based on this technology will greatly benefit advanced communications systems in both the DoD and commercial sectors. Signal processing and instrumentation systems based on phase-locking loops will also attain enhanced performance at potentially reduced cost.

  10. Advanced on-chip divider for monolithic microwave VCO's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Weddell C.

    1989-05-01

    High frequency division on a monolithic circuit is a critical technology required to significantly enhance the performance of microwave and millimeter-wave phase-locked sources. The approach used to meet this need is to apply circuit design practices which are essentially 'microwave' in nature to the basically 'digital' problem of high speed division. Following investigation of several promising circuit approaches, program phase 1 culminated in the design and layout of an 8.5 GHz (Deep Space Channel 14) divide by four circuit based on a dynamic mixing divider circuit approach. Therefore, during program phase 2, an 8.5 GHz VCO with an integral divider which provides a phase coherent 2.125 GHz reference signal for phase locking applications was fabricated and optimized. Complete phase locked operation of the monolithic GaAs devices (VCO, power splitter, and dynamic divider) was demonstrated both individually and as an integrated unit. The fully functional integrated unit in a suitable test fixture was delivered to NASA for engineering data correlation. Based on the experience gained from this 8.5 GHz super component, a monolithic GaAs millimeter-wave dynamic divider for operation with an external VCO was also designed, fabricated, and characterized. This circuit, which was also delivered to NASA, demonstrated coherent division by four at an input frequency of 24.3 GHz. The high performance monolithic microwave VCO with a coherent low frequency reference output described in this report and others based on this technology will greatly benefit advanced communications systems in both the DoD and commercial sectors. Signal processing and instrumentation systems based on phase-locking loops will also attain enhanced performance at potentially reduced cost.

  11. Development of a new lower hybrid antenna module using a poloidal power divider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maebara, Sunao; Seki, Masami; Suganuma, Kazuaki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment] [and others

    1996-07-01

    The antenna using poloidal power divider is an effective method for simplification of Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) antenna system. This method should allow to reduce the power density in the antenna while maintaining a good flexibility of N{sub parallel} spectrum of waves. For this purpose, three types of poloidal power divider which split the power in three, and the 3 x 6 multi-junction module were developed. r.f. properties and outgassing of these components were evaluated using the CEA Cadarache RF Test Facility. A good power dividing ratio of 33 {+-} 4% was obtained for each of these poloidal dividers, and the reflection coefficient was lower value than 1.5%. For the 3 x 6 multi-junction, reflection coefficient was less than 1.3% and r.f. losses lower than 1.0% were measured. On the other hand, it was found in the scattering matrix analysis that reflection coefficient at plasma has to be less than a few % in order to operate these components under available conditions. In combination with two poloidal power dividers connected to the 3 x 6 multi-junction module, quasi stationary operation for r.f. injection time of 1000 sec at 300 kW was demonstrated under water cooling. In this case, it was found that the outgassing rate is in the lower range of 10{sup -7}Pam{sup 3}s{sup -1}m{sup -2} within the maximum module temperature of {approx}100degC. This report describes the experimental and analytical results of a new lower hybrid (LH) antenna module using the poloidal power divider. (author)

  12. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Baldwin, Helene L.

    1962-01-01

    What do you use water for?If someone asked you this question you would probably think right away of water for drinking. Then you would think of water for bathing, brushing teeth, flushing the toilet. Your list would get longer as you thought of water for cooking, washing the dishes, running the garbage grinder. Water for lawn watering, for play pools, for swimming pools, for washing the car and the dog. Water for washing machines and for air conditioning. You can hardly do without water for fun and pleasure—water for swimming, boating, fishing, water-skiing, and skin diving. In school or the public library, you need water to wash your hands, or to have a drink. If your home or school bursts into flames, quantities of water are needed to put it out.In fact, life to Americans is unthinkable without large supplies of fresh, clean water. If you give the matter a little thought, you will realize that people in many countries, even in our own, may suffer from disease and dirt simply because their homes are not equipped with running water. Imagine your own town if for some reason - an explosion, perhaps - water service were cut off for a week or several weeks. You would have to drive or walk to a neighboring town and bring water back in pails. Certainly if people had to carry water themselves they might not be inclined to bathe very often; washing clothes would be a real chore.Nothing can live without water. The earth is covered by water over three-fourths of its surface - water as a liquid in rivers, lakes and oceans, and water as ice and snow on the tops of high mountains and in the polar regions. Only one-quarter of our bodies is bone and muscle; the other three-fourths is made of water. We need water to live, and so do plants and animals. People and animals can live a long time without food, but without water they die in a few days. Without water, everything would die, and the world would turn into a huge desert.

  13. A Novel Nanometric Reversible Signed Divider with Overflow Checking Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz Dastan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the best approaches for designing future computers is that we use reversible logic. Reversible logic circuits have lower power consumption than the common circuits, used in computers nowadays. In this study we propose a new reversible division circuit. This reversible division circuit is signed divider and has an overflow checking capability. Among the designed and proposed reversible division circuits, our proposed division circuit is the first reversible signed divider with overflow checking capability which has been designed. In this circuit we use some reversible components like reversible parallel adder, reversible left-shift register, reversible multiplexer, reversible n-bit register and reversible n-bit register with parallel load line. In this paper all the scales are in the nanometric area.

  14. Divided-aperture differential confocal fast-imaging microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Qiu, Lirong; Zhao, Xiangye; Zhao, Weiqian

    2017-03-01

    A new method, laser divided-aperture differential confocal microscopy (DDCM), is proposed to achieve high-resolution 3D imaging of microstructures of large-scale sample surfaces. This method uses a divided-aperture confocal structure to significantly improve the axial resolution of confocal microscopy and keep a long working distance simultaneously; uses two radically offset point detectors to achieve differential detection to further improve the axial response sensitivity and realize fast imaging of a large-scale sample surface with a big axial scan-step interval. Theoretical analyses and experimental results show that the DDCM can reach an axial resolution of 5 nm with a 3.1 mm working distance with a 3 times imaging speed of a confocal system with the same resolution.

  15. Multiple-resolution clustering for recursive divide and conquer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Steven E.; Szu, Harold H.

    1997-04-01

    In recent work, a recursive divide-and-conquer approach was developed for path-minimization problems such as the traveling salesman problem (TSP). The approach is based on multiple-resolution clustering to decompose a problem into minimally-dependent parts. It is particularly effective for large-scale, fractal data sets, which exhibit clustering on all scales, and hence at all resolutions. This leads to the application of wavelets for performing the necessary multiple-resolution clustering. While the general topic of multiple-resolution clustering via wavelets is relatively immature, it has been explored for certain specific applications. However, nothing in the literature addresses the specific type of multiple-resolution clustering needed for the divide-and-conquer approach. That is the primary goal of this paper.

  16. SIW based multilayer transition and power divider in LTCC technology

    KAUST Repository

    Abuzaid, Hattan

    2013-06-01

    A multilayer transition and balanced power divider are presented for millimeter-wave system-on-package (SoP). These two components operate at Ka-band and exploit the substrate integrate waveguide (SIW) technology with its shielding characteristics and the Low-temperature co-fired ceramics (LTCC) technology for its high density integration. A coupling slot has been used to perform vertical integration, which can be easily optimized through its length. The measured input return loss within the bandwidth of interest (32 GHz-38 GHz) is less than -15 dB and -18 dB for the multilayer transition and the power divider, respectively. The lateral dimensions of a multilayer system, such as a feed network of an array, can be greatly reduced by employing these 3D slot-coupled components. © 2013 IEEE.

  17. Clobazam single or divided dose against diazepam in anxiety neurosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Channabasavanna, S M; Pinto Pereira, L M

    1986-01-01

    One-hundred-and-fifteen patients diagnosed as anxiety neurotics randomly received in a double blind study 20 mg clobazam (Frisium) as a single nightly dose (37 patients) or 10 mg b.d. (38 patients) or diazepam 5 mg b.d. (40 patients) for six weeks, followed by two weeks on placebo. Both the single and divided doses of clobazam were therapeutically equivalent to diazepam. After drug withdrawal, all three treatment groups continued to improve. Patients on clobazam showed better motor performance than the diazepam series. Patients on clobazam divided dose performed significantly better than those on diazepam. Minor side-effects occurred in all patients. From the results clobazam as a single dose of 20 mg has good anxiolysis without any hungover effect.

  18. Crossing of the phantom divide in modified gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D

    2009-01-01

    We reconstruct an explicit model of modified gravity in which a crossing of the phantom divide can be realized. It is shown that the Big Rip singularity appears in the model of modified gravity, whereas that the (finite-time) Big Rip singularity in modified gravity is transformed to the infinite-time singularity in the corresponding scalar field theory obtained through the conformal transformation. Furthermore, we investigate the relations between the scalar field theories realizing a crossing of the phantom divide and the corresponding modified gravitational theories by using the inverse conformal transformation. It is demonstrated that the scalar field theories describing the non-phantom phase (phantom one with the Big Rip) can be represented as the theories of real (complex) $F(R)$ gravity through the inverse (complex) conformal transformation. We also study a viable model of modified gravity in which the transition from the de Sitter universe to the phantom phase can occur.

  19. Fast image retargeting based on strip dividing and resizing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shungang Hua; Honglei Wei; Tieming Su

    2014-01-01

    Based on image strip dividing, an effective and fast image retargeting algorithm is proposed for resizing images. First, we construct the image energy map using gradient magnitude of the pixels and calculate the accumulated energy of each column, dividing the image into several strips by integrating similar energy columns. The reduced amount of dimension is decided in inverse proportion to the average energy for each strip. Then we retar-get the image combining scaling with cropping in terms of each strip’s reduced ratio. Experiment results show that the proposed algorithm is capable of implementing fast image retargeting and preserving both the local structures and the global visual effect of the image.

  20. The plastid-dividing machinery: formation, constriction and fission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yamato; Miyagishima, Shin-ya; Kuroiwa, Haruko; Kuroiwa, Tsuneyoshi

    2012-12-01

    Plastids divide by constriction of the plastid-dividing (PD) machinery, which encircles the division site. The PD machinery consists of the stromal inner machinery which includes the inner PD and filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z (FtsZ) rings and the cytosolic outer machinery which includes the outer PD and dynamin rings. The major constituent of the PD machinery is the outer PD ring, which consists of a bundle of polyglucan filaments. In addition, recent proteomic studies suggest that the PD machinery contains additional proteins that have not been characterized. The PD machinery forms from the inside to the outside of the plastid. The constriction seems to occur by sliding of the polyglucan filaments of the outer PD ring, aided by dynamin. The final fission of the plastid is probably promoted by the 'pinchase' activity of dynamin.

  1. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lead Poisoning Prevention Training Center (HHLPPTC) Training Tracks Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For information about lead in water in Flint, MI, please visit http://www.phe. ...

  2. Binary Versus Decade Inductive Voltage Divider Comparison and Error Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    1995 IEEE Authorized licensed use limited to: US Naval Academy. Downloaded on January 30, 2009 at 11:28 from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply...Downloaded on January 30, 2009 at 11:28 from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. 906 s, A U U U U U l f U U J s, sa I IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON...30, 2009 at 11:28 from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. AVRAMOV-ZAMUROVIC et al.: BINARY VERSUS DECADE INDUCTIVE VOLTAGE DIVIDER COMPARISON AND ERROR

  3. Crossing of Phantom Divide in $F(R)$ Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D

    2010-01-01

    An explicit model of $F(R)$ gravity with realizing a crossing of the phantom divide is reconstructed. In particular, it is shown that the Big Rip singularity may appear in the reconstructed model of $F(R)$ gravity. Such a Big Rip singularity could be avoided by adding $R^2$ term or non-singular viable $F(R)$ theory to the model because phantom behavior becomes transient.

  4. Dividing Streamline Formation Channel Confluences by Physical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarni Nur Trilita

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Confluence channels are often found in open channel network system and is the most important element. The incoming flow from the branch channel to the main cause various forms and cause vortex flow. Phenomenon can cause erosion of the side wall of the channel, the bed channel scour and sedimentation in the downstream confluence channel. To control these problems needed research into the current width of the branch channel. The incoming flow from the branch channel to the main channel flow bounded by a line distributors (dividing streamline. In this paper, the wide dividing streamline observed in the laboratory using a physical model of two open channels, a square that formed an angle of 30º. Observations were made with a variety of flow coming from each channel. The results obtained in the laboratory observation that the width of dividing streamline flow is influenced by the discharge ratio between the channel branch with the main channel. While the results of a comparison with previous studies showing that the observation in the laboratory is smaller than the results of previous research.

  5. RTIA readout circuit for infrared focal plane array using active resistor%有源电阻RTIA红外焦平面读出电路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡滨; 李威; 李平; 阙滨城

    2012-01-01

    提出了一种基于有源电阻的电阻反馈跨导放大器(RTIA)红外焦平面读出电路,该电路采用工作在亚阈区的MOS管实现1011Ω以上的有源大电阻,不仅能与热释电红外探测器的高阻抗良好匹配,而且配合两管共源放大器可针对热释电微弱信号进行高增益电流放大.同时,简单的三管单元结构能够方便地置于像元之下,相比于采用特殊高阻材料实现的RTIA,不附加材料和工艺.经上华0.5 μmCMOS工艺流片验证,在5V电源电压下,该电路增益40 dB,输出摆幅3V,在高低温测试下表现出了良好的增益带宽稳定性,适用于PZT和BST等热释电大阵列探测器.%A Resistive Trans-impedance Amplifier (RTIA) readout circuit for Uncooled Focal Plane Array (UFPA) using active resistor was proposed in this paper. By using a sub-threshold MOSFET as a 1011 Ω and above feedback resistor, a high gain current amplifier could be realized by common source structure which consisted of two transistors. The simple three transistors could be easily integrated under pixel and it had good impedance matching with pyroelectric infrared detector. Compared with traditional RTIAs which use special high-resistance materials as feedback resistor, the novel RTIA was low cost because no additional materials and processes were needed. The circuit was successfully manufactured by 0.5 μm standard CMOS process of CSMC foundry. 40 dB gain and 3 V output swing were realized by this design and the gain and bandwidth of the chip kept stable during high and low temperature tests. So it can be used for large arrays pyroelectric detectors such as Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) and Barium Strontium Titanate (BST), etc.

  6. Rivers as borders, uniting or dividing? The effect of topography and implications for catchment management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, D A; Rowntree, K M

    2012-01-01

    South Africa's water resources are unequally distributed over space and time and an already stressed water resource situation will only be exacerbated by climate change if current predictions are correct. The potential for conflict over increasingly strained water resources in South Africa is thus very real. In order to deal with these complex problems, national legislation is demanding that water resource management be decentralized to the local level where active participation can take place in an integrated manner in accordance with the principles of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). However, administrative and political boundaries rarely match those of catchments as, throughout South Africa, rivers have been employed extensively to delineate administrative and political boundaries at a number of spatial scales. The aim of this research is to determine if rivers act as dividing or uniting features in a socio-political landscape and whether topography will influence their role in this context. The Orange-Senqu River is used as a case study. This paper goes on to consider the implications of this for catchment management in South Africa. No study known to the authors has explored the effect of the river itself, and its topographic setting, on the drivers that foster either conflict or cooperation, and allow for participatory management. This study presents evidence that the topography of a catchment has the ability to aggravate or reduce the impact of the variables considered by water managers and thereby influence the role of a river as a dividing or uniting feature. South Africa's proposed form of decentralized water management will have to contend with the effects of different topographies on the way in which rivers are perceived and utilized.

  7. 小电流接地系统经过渡电阻接地的分析%Analysis of neutral grounded via a transition resistor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余水忠

    2001-01-01

    An analysis on the change of the three-phase to ground voltage and neutral point to ground voltage is done in this paper as the single phase grounded via a transition resistor in neutral indirectly grounded system. The sensitivity of the insulation supervisory system , the range of healthy phase to ground voltage which is greater than 3 multiple phase voltage and its maximum value are analyzed as well.%对小电流接地系统单相经过渡电阻接地后三相对地电压、中性点对地电压的变化进行分析,并对绝缘监察系统的灵敏度及非故障相对地电压大于3倍相电压的范围和最大值作了分析。

  8. New CMOS-based Resistor-less Current-mode First-order All-pass Flter Using Only Ten Transistors and One External Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lahiri

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new, compact CMOS realization of current-mode (CM first-order all-pass filter (APF using no external resistors. The circuit is created using only ten transistors and one external capacitor. The circuit uses lower number of transistors as compared to previously reported CM APFs using active building block (ABB based approach. A comparison with previously reported CM APFs in terms of number of transistors and current consumption has been provided. As a design example, a 512 kHz pole-frequency (at typical process and 27ºC CM APF is designed in 40nm CMOS technology and validated through SPICE simulations.

  9. Implementation of Dividing Cubes Algorithm Based on CUDA%基于 CUDA 的 Dividing Cubes 算法实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文波; 曹耀钦; 孙伟; 李海龙

    2013-01-01

    In traditional Dividing Cubes algorithm ,voxels are divided into many small elements in one time which bring a large number of calculations .Therefore ,a progressive subdivision is proposed to reduce calculations .In the meanwhile ,the algorithm is transplanted into GPU , and implemented based on CUDA . The kernel , thread organization and memory allocation is also designed .Experimental results show that almost 10 times speedup is reached by using GPU′s parallel acceleration capacity .%针对传统Dividing Cubes算法中一次性将体元剖分为较小体元而带来大量计算的问题,提出递进式的体元剖分方式,以减少剖分过程中的计算量。同时,将算法移植到图形处理器(GPU )上执行,在统一计算设备架构(CUDA )下对其进行实现,并分别对 kernel函数、线程结构和存储空间进行了设计和分配。实验结果表明,利用GPU的并行加速能力可以达到将近10倍的加速比,有效地提升了等值面的绘制速度。

  10. CLOBAZAM SINGLE OR DIVIDED DOSE AGAINST DIAZEPAM IN ANXIETY NEUROSIS

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    SUMMARY One-hundred-and-fifteen patients diagnosed as anxiety neurotics randomly received in a double blind study 20 mg clobazam (Frisium) as a single nightly dose (37 patients) or 10 mg b.d. (38 patients) or diazepam 5 mg b.d. (40 patients) for six weeks, followed by two weeks on placebo. Both the single and divided doses of clobazam were therapeutically equivalent to diazepam. After drug withdrawal, all three treatment groups continued to improve. Patients on clobazam showed better motor pe...

  11. The NCI Digital Divide Pilot Projects: implications for cancer education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, Gary L; Gustafson, David; Salovey, Peter; Perocchia, Rosemarie Slevin; Wilbright, Wayne; Bright, Mary Anne; Muha, Cathy

    2007-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) supported four innovative demonstration research projects, "The Digital Divide Pilot Projects," to test new strategies for disseminating health information via computer to vulnerable consumers. These projects involved active research collaborations between the NCI's Cancer Information Service (CIS) and regional cancer control researchers to field test new approaches for enhancing cancer communication in vulnerable communities. The projects were able to use computers to successfully disseminate relevant cancer information to vulnerable populations. These demonstration research projects suggested effective new strategies for using communication technologies to educate underserved populations about cancer prevention, control, and care.

  12. Digital Television, Convergence, and the Public: Another Digital Divide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Smith

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available While 85 percent of Americans pay to receive television signals through satellite or cable companies, 15 percent still receive their television using over-the-air signals. With the elminination of analog television signals, the 15 percent of households have had to make significant changes in their viewing technology. These households tend to be elderly, poor, minority and rural. Signal coverage areas will be cut back, since government assumed a viewer would have an antenna on a 30 foot pole. Few do, and governmental programs delibertely hid this engineering fact. It is argued that digitalism has neglected the public use of the airways and created yet one more digital divide.

  13. Transition duct with divided upstream and downstream portions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Maldonado, Jaime Javier; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Flanagan, James Scott

    2015-07-14

    Turbine systems are provided. In one embodiment, a turbine system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a duct passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The duct passage includes an upstream portion extending from the inlet and a downstream portion extending from the outlet. The turbine system further includes a rib extending from an outer surface of the duct passage, the rib dividing the upstream portion and the downstream portion.

  14. Observations favor the crossing of phantom divide lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Using three different parameterized dark energy models, we reconstruct the properties of dark energy from the latest 397 Sne Ia, CMB and BAO with the present matter density, Ωm0, given prior. We find that, when Ωm0 is not small, for example, Ωm0 = 0.28 or 0.32, an evolving dark energy with a crossing of phantom divide line is favored and this conclusion seems to be model independent. We also find that the evolving properties of dark energy become more and more evident with the increase of Ωm0 given prior.

  15. Traffic Prediction Based on SVM Training Sample Divided by Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingli Li

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the volume of traffic is rapidly increasing. When vehicles running through the tunnel are more intensive or move slowly, the tunnel environment occurs deteriorated sharply, which affects the normal operation of the vehicle in the tunnel. This paper uses the result of previous mining association rules to select feature items and to establish four training samples divided by time. Then the training samples are utilized to create the SVM classification model. Finally the trained SVM model is used to prediction the tunnel traffic situation. Through traffic situation prediction, effective decisions can be made before traffic jams, and ensure that the tunnel traffic is normal.  

  16. Korean Nationalism in a Divided Nation: Challenges to US Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Edward A.

    2008-01-01

    The article of record as published may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1976-5118.2008.00002.x Korean nationalism poses challenges for Koreans dwelling in each half of the divided Korean nation because each half of the nation must simultaneously deal with both their own and the other half’s form of semi-nationalism and also with peninsular pan-nationalism. Coping with these three forms of nationalism is also a problem for US policy toward each Korean state and toward ...

  17. BRIDGING THE KNOWLEDGE DIVIDE Educational Technology for Development

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    BRIDGING THE KNOWLEDGE DIVIDEEducational Technology for DevelopmentMarshall,S., Kinuthia, W. & Wallace Taylor., Ed.D.; Information Age Publishing, Charlotte, NC, SBN: 978-1-60752-109-9, p.433, 2009Reviewed by Ozlem OZANFaculty of EducationEskişehir Osmangazi UniversityEskisehir, TURKEYThe concept of a knowledge divide is used to describe the gap in living conditions between those who can find, manage and process information or knowledge, and those who are impaired in this, for one reason or a...

  18. Affinity and Hostility in Divided Communities: a Mathematical Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thron, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We propose, develop, and analyze a mathematical model of intergroup attitudes in a community that is divided between two distinct social groups (which may be distinguished by religion, ethnicity, or some other socially distinguishing factor). The model is based on very simple premises that are both intuitive and justified by sociological research. We investigate the behavior of the model in various special cases, for various model configurations. We discuss the stability of the model, and the continuous or discontinuous dependence of model behavior on various parameters. Finally, we discuss possible implications for strategies to improve intergroup affinity, and to defuse tension and prevent deterioration of intergroup relationships.

  19. Mechanisms of Organelle Inheritance in Dividing Plant Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Organelles form essential compartments of all eukaryotic cells. Mechanisms that ensure the unbiased inheritance of organelles during cell division are therefore necessary to maintain the viability of future cell generations. Although inheritance of organelles represents a fundamental component of the cell cycle, surprisingly little is known about the underlying mechanisms that facilitate unbiased organelle inheritance. Evidence from a select number of studies, however,indicates that ordered organelle inheritance strategies exist in dividing cells of higher plants. The basic requirement for unbiased organelle inheritance is the duplication of organelle volume and distribution of the resulting organelle populations in a manner that facilitates unbiased partitioning of the organelle population to each daughter cell. Often, partitioning strategies are specific to the organelle, being influenced by the functional requirements of the organelle and whether the cells are mitotically active or re-entering into the cell cycle. Organelle partitioning mechanisms frequently depend on interactions with either the actin or microtubule cytoskeleton. In this focused review, we attempt to summarize key findings regarding organelle partitioning strategies in dividing cells of higher plants. We particularly concentrate on the role of the cytoskeleton in mediating unbiased organelle partitioning.

  20. The digital divide phenomenon in a hand surgery outpatient clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Selene G; Sodha, Samir; McGuire, Kevin J; Bozentka, David J; Rozental, Tamara D; Beredjiklian, Pedro K

    2004-04-01

    The Internet has become an important source of medical information for patients. However, the availability of this resource for individuals in the lower socioeconomic groups is limited, a concept termed the digital divide. To evaluate this phenomenon, we conducted a survey study to quantify the accessibility and use of the Internet for obtaining medical information in an outpatient hand surgery clinic population. A 28-question survey was distributed to 207 patients concerning computer accessibility, Internet use for medical and nonmedical information, Internet trust and security, and patient economic demographics. After analysis of the data, we found individuals in households with higher incomes had a greater likelihood of owning computers than those in lower income brackets. As income increases, the time spent on the Internet also increases. Another statistically significant trend was that higher income patient households thought that Internet information was trustworthy, secure, and private compared with the lower income brackets. We concluded that clinical settings where the predominant patient population earns less than $18,000 may not benefit or use physician Internet-based services or information. The concept of the digital divide seems to be a real phenomenon in the clinical practice of orthopaedics.

  1. Stratified Flow Past a Hill: Dividing Streamline Concept Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Laura S.; Thompson, Michael Y.; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Fernando, Harindra J. S.

    2016-06-01

    The Sheppard formula (Q J R Meteorol Soc 82:528-529, 1956) for the dividing streamline height H_s assumes a uniform velocity U_∞ and a constant buoyancy frequency N for the approach flow towards a mountain of height h, and takes the form H_s/h=( {1-F} ) , where F=U_{∞}/Nh. We extend this solution to a logarithmic approach-velocity profile with constant N. An analytical solution is obtained for H_s/h in terms of Lambert-W functions, which also suggests alternative scaling for H_s/h. A `modified' logarithmic velocity profile is proposed for stably stratified atmospheric boundary-layer flows. A field experiment designed to observe H_s is described, which utilized instrumentation from the spring field campaign of the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program. Multiple releases of smoke at F≈ 0.3-0.4 support the new formulation, notwithstanding the limited success of experiments due to logistical constraints. No dividing streamline is discerned for F≈ 10, since, if present, it is too close to the foothill. Flow separation and vortex shedding is observed in this case. The proposed modified logarithmic profile is in reasonable agreement with experimental observations.

  2. On a nonlinear Kalman filter with simplified divided difference approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong

    2012-03-01

    We present a new ensemble-based approach that handles nonlinearity based on a simplified divided difference approximation through Stirling\\'s interpolation formula, which is hence called the simplified divided difference filter (sDDF). The sDDF uses Stirling\\'s interpolation formula to evaluate the statistics of the background ensemble during the prediction step, while at the filtering step the sDDF employs the formulae in an ensemble square root filter (EnSRF) to update the background to the analysis. In this sense, the sDDF is a hybrid of Stirling\\'s interpolation formula and the EnSRF method, while the computational cost of the sDDF is less than that of the EnSRF. Numerical comparison between the sDDF and the EnSRF, with the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) as the representative, is conducted. The experiment results suggest that the sDDF outperforms the ETKF with a relatively large ensemble size, and thus is a good candidate for data assimilation in systems with moderate dimensions. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A divide and conquer approach to multiple alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dress, A; Füllen, G; Perrey, S

    1995-01-01

    We present a report on work in progress on a divide and conquer approach to multiple alignment. The algorithm makes use of the costs calculated from applying the standard dynamic programming scheme to all pairs of sequences. The resulting cost matrices for pairwise alignment give rise to secondary matrices containing the additional costs imposed by fixing the path through the dynamic programming graph at a particular vertex. Such a constraint corresponds to a division of the problem obtained by slicing both sequences between two particular positions, and aligning the two sequences on the left and the two sequences on the right, charging for gaps introduced at the slicing point. To obtain an estimate for the additional cost imposed by forcing the multiple alignment through a particular vertex in the whole hypercube, we will take a (weighted) sum of secondary costs over all pairwise projections of the division of the problem, as defined by this vertex, that is, by slicing all sequences at the points suggested by the vertex. We then use that partition of every single sequence under consideration into two 'halfs' which imposes a minimal (weighted) sum of pairwise additional costs, making sure that one of the sequences is divided somewhere close to its midpoint. Hence, each iteration can cut the problem size in half. As the enumeration of all possible partitions may restrict this approach to small-size problems, we eliminate futile partitions, and organize their enumeration in a way that starts with the most promising ones.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. The Reliability Analyses and Implementation of Polysilicon Resistors in EHV BCD Process%超高压BCD工艺中多晶硅电阻的可靠性分析及实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包飞军; 曹刚; 葛艳辉; 石艳玲; 陈滔

    2015-01-01

    Temperature and current have great effects on polysilicon resistors. So,the reliability of polysilicon resis-tors used in EHV BCD should be specially analyzed. According to the test and analysis of the polysilicon resistors with different doping concentrations in 0. 18 μm 700 V BCD process combining with the theory of Joule heating effect,electromigration effect and polysilicon conductive mechanism,the effects of Joule heating and electromigration on polysilicon resistors have been analyzed. Then the methods were proposed to the implementation of polysilicon re-sistors with high reliability.%多晶硅电阻由于其独特的温度特性及电迁移效应,阻值受温度和电流的影响很大,针对应用于超高压BCD工艺中的多晶硅电阻,其可靠性需进行特别分析和设计。通过对0.18μm 700 V BCD工艺中不同掺杂浓度多晶硅电阻的测试与分析,结合多晶硅结构、导电机制、焦耳热效应及电迁移理论,分析了焦耳热和电迁移对多晶硅电阻的影响,并实现了高压BCD工艺中高可靠性的多晶硅电阻。

  5. 基于 ADS1247的小型计量检定铂电阻温度计设计%The Miniature Platinum resistor temperature gauge for Metrology Calibration based on ADS1247r

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    To solve the problem of low precision and complex structure of platinum resistor temperature gauge for metrology calibration in the range of -30-300℃ ,this paper presents a design scheme of miniature platium resistor temperature gauge for metrology calibration based on ADS1247 of TI corp.The programmable constant-current source of ADS1247 is used as exciting source of platinum resistor.The programmable amplifier of ADS1247 is adopted to amplified the voltage drop of platinum resistor during the course of measurement,and the output voltage of amplifier was digitalized by a 24-bit analog-to-digital converter. According to the experiment,the measurement precision of platinum resistor temperature gauge can reach to 0.05℃ ,and the resolution can reach to 0.004℃.%  针对当前在-30-300℃范围内铂电阻计量检定温度计存在结构复杂、精度较低的问题,本文提出一种基于 TI 公司ADS1247的小型计量检定用铂电阻温度计的设计方案。将 ADS1247输出的可编程恒定电流作为铂电阻激励源。测量过程中,采用 ADS1247集成的可编程放大器放大铂电阻的电压降,并将放大器输出信号进行24位的 AD 转换。通过实验测试,基于ADS1247的铂电阻温度计精度可达到0.05℃,分辨率可达到0.004℃。

  6. Universal Service in a Broader Perspective: The European Digital Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Concepcion GARCIA-JIMENEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring universal service is a top objective in many countries in order that all the citizens can have access basic communications services. Although the ICT equipment in households and its usage by individuals are essential prerequisites for benefiting from ICTs, the situation in the European Union is far from uniform. This article provides a description of the European information society development scenario using the values reached by the member states in a set of indicators selected for measuring said progress in households. Two tools are used for providing a broader perspective of the digital divide: a composite index and the cluster analysis. Below, a study is provided on what variables are relevant for interpreting the situation that is presented.

  7. Digital Divide between Teachers and Students in Urban Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    2011-01-01

    data available on them in Bangladesh context. A study was conducted to study the digital divide and ICT usage pattern among the urban students and teachers of schools and colleges in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. About 75 students enrolled in probability and statistics course of Independent...... to use’ compared to Bangla medium students. Significantly higher percentage of students can use and own desktop, laptop, cellphone, iPOD and MP3 player. While teachers mostly use computers for work (73%), study (45%) and listening music (34%), students use for playing games (63%), listening musing (62...... University, Bangladesh (IUB) in autumn 2009 participated in conducting survey activities. Total 33 academic institutes were south for approval and 11 could be surveyed before the Christmas and annual recess. Responses from 6 other academics institutes were collected from the personal networks of students...

  8. Divide and be different: Priestly identity in the Persian period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esias E. Meyer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focused on the Hebrew root לדב [divide] [bdl] in Priestly and post-Priestly material of the Pentateuch. In Genesis 1 God is the subject of the verb and often enough in the Holiness Code, but in many instances in Leviticus (e.g. 10:10 and 11:47 it is expected of priests to perform the same act. It was argued that in this regard priests were to imitate God. The article further argued that these texts helped us to describe Jewish identity in the Persian period as an identity of non-conformity, and they also helped us to describe the priests’ own understanding of their role in maintaining this identity.

  9. Re-Dividing and Coding of Urbanization Kirkuk City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najat K. Omar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available  Presented in this paper is a public service data base for Kirkuk city. The data base is based on dividing the town into a number of main districts and coding the zones and neighborhoods in each of the main distracted. This coding would help in constructing a comprehensive indexing system for the available services in the Nations zones of the city. The system may then be utilized in the plans of future expansion of the city in order to reduce discrepancies in the distribution of public services. It has been found that the block system is better and more suitable than other existing methods. It can be implemented easily by governmental establishments that are involved in such services uses geographical information system (GIS. 

  10. Nationality Divides and Shared Leadership in Multinational Teams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paunova, Minna

    2015-01-01

    nationality-based characteristics of members may divide teams and affect leadership. We argue that the national belonging of members may result in both identity subgroups and status ranks. However, the configurational properties of identity subgroups and status ranks will have distinct effects on team......How shared leadership is enacted in teams that are nationally diverse is currently under- researched, despite the increasing presence of multinational teams in the workplace. To better understand the phenomenon of shared leadership in multinational team contexts, we propose two ways in which...... dynamics, shared leadership within the team, and team performance. We conduct two empirical studies, and find that the number and balance of identity subgroups have important implications for multinational team functioning, in line with social identity approaches. Interestingly, the number and balance...

  11. Flagellation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in newly divided cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Lee, Calvin; Anda, Jaime; Wong, Gerard

    2015-03-01

    For monotrichous bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, after cell division, one daughter cell inherits the old flagellum from its mother cell, and the other grows a new flagellum during or after cell division. It had been shown that the new flagellum grows at the distal pole of the dividing cell when the two daughter cells haven't completely separated. However, for those daughter cells who grow new flagella after division, it still remains unknown at which pole the new flagellum will grow. Here, by combining our newly developed bacteria family tree tracking techniques with genetic manipulation method, we showed that for the daughter cell who did not inherit the old flagellum, a new flagellum has about 90% chances to grow at the newly formed pole. We proposed a model for flagellation of P. aeruginosa.

  12. Envy up, scorn down: how comparison divides us.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Susan T

    2010-11-01

    Comparison compels people, even as it stresses, depresses, and divides us. Comparison is only natural, but the collateral damage reveals envy upward and scorn downward, and these emotions, arguably, poison people and their relationships. Summaries of several experiments--using questionnaire, psychometric, response-time, electromyographic, and neuroimaging data--illustrate the dynamics of envy up and scorn down, as well as proposing how to mitigate their effects. Initial studies suggest the importance of status. Other data show how scorn down minimizes thought about another's mind; power deactivates mental concepts. Regarding envy up, other studies demonstrate that Schadenfreude (malicious joy) targets envied outgroups. However, counterstereotypic information, empathy, and outcome dependency can mitigate both scorn and envy.

  13. The cultural divide: exploring communication barriers between scientists and clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda L. Restifo

    2011-07-01

    Despite remarkable advances in basic biomedical science that have led to improved patient care, there is a wide and persistent gap in the abilities of researchers and clinicians to understand and appreciate each other. In this Editorial, the authors, a scientist and a clinician, discuss the rift between practitioners of laboratory research and clinical medicine. Using their first-hand experience and numerous interviews throughout the United States, they explore the causes of this ‘cultural divide’. Members of both professions use advanced problem-solving skills and typically embark on their career paths with a deeply felt sense of purpose. Nonetheless, differences in classroom education, professional training environments, reward mechanisms and sources of drive contribute to obstacles that inhibit communication, mutual respect and productive collaboration. More than a sociological curiosity, the cultural divide is a significant barrier to the bench-to-bedside goals of translational medicine. Understanding its roots is the first step towards bridging the gap.

  14. Older people and digital disengagement: a fourth digital divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olphert, Wendy; Damodaran, Leela

    2013-01-01

    Digital technologies are becoming more pervasive in all areas of society. Enabling everyone to have access and capability to use the Internet and associated digital technologies, summed up in the term 'digital inclusion', is seen to have wide-ranging benefits to the individual, to the economy and to society. For older people, being digitally included can help them to maintain their independence, social connectedness and sense of worth in the face of declining health or limited capabilities, as well as also offering new opportunities to improve their quality of life. At present however, access to the technology and to the benefits is not equally distributed either between or within nations, and older people tend to be on the 'wrong' side of what is termed the 'digital divide'. Governments globally are developing strategies to promote digital inclusion and indeed Internet uptake is increasing steadily, including amongst older people. However, such strategies have focussed on getting people online, and there appears to be an assumption that once someone is online they will remain 'digitally engaged'. In fact statistics show that some users give up using the Internet, and there is emerging evidence that older people are more vulnerable to the factors which can lead to this outcome. The authors see this phenomenon as a potential but largely unrecognised 'fourth digital divide' which has serious implications for social inclusion. The objectives of this article are (a) to raise awareness of the phenomenon of digital disengagement by considering some of the emerging evidence, (b) to explore some of the potential implications of not recognising and therefore not addressing the needs of the digitally disengaged older population, and (c) to reveal the prevailing gap in knowledge which future research should address.

  15. Politeness: Is There an East-West Divide?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geoffrey Leech

    2005-01-01

    The theory of politeness of Brown and Levinson (1978, 1987) has remained the most seminal and influential starting point for cross-cultural and cross-linguistic contrastive pragmatics. Yet is has also provoked countervailing arguments from Ide (1989, 1993), Matsumoto (1989), Gu (1990), Mao (1994) and others, pointing out a Western bias in Brown and Levinson's theory, particularly in their individualistic and egalitarian motivations, as opposed to the more group-centred hierarchy-based ethos of Eastern societies. This leads to the question in thetitle of this article: Is there an East-West divide in politeness?The following argument will be presented. There is an overarching framework for studying linguistic politeness phenomena in communication: a common principle of politeness (Leech, 1983,2002) and a Grand Strategy of Politeness (GSP), which is evident in common linguistic behaviour patterns in the performance of polite speech acts such as requests, offers, compliments, apologies,thanks, and responses to these. The GSP says simply: In order to be polite, a speaker communicates meanings which (a) place a high value on what relates to the other person (typically the addressee),(MAJOR CONSTRAINT) and (b) place a low value on what relates to the speaker. (MINOR CONSTRAINT). It is clear from many observations that constraint (a) is more powerful than constraint (b). The following hypothesis will be put forward, and supported by very limited evidence: that the GSP provides a very general explanation for communicative politeness phenomena in Eastern languages such as Chinese,Japanese and Korean, as well as in Western languages such as English. This is not to deny the importance of quantitative and qualitative differences in the settings of social parameters and linguistic parameters of politeness in such languages. A framework such as the GSP provides the parameters of variation within which such differences can be studied.Hence this article argues in favour of the

  16. Divided Attention and Processes Underlying Sense of Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen eWen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sense of agency refers to the subjective feeling of controlling events through one’s behavior or will. Sense of agency results from matching predictions of one’s own actions with actual feedback regarding the action. Furthermore, when an action involves a cued goal, performance-based inference contributes to sense of agency. That is, if people achieve their goal, they would believe themselves to be in control. Previous studies have shown that both action-effect comparison and performance-based inference contribute to sense of agency; however, the dominance of one process over the other may shift based on task conditions such as the presence or absence of specific goals. In this study, we examined the influence of divided attention on these two processes underlying sense of agency in two conditions. In the experimental task, participants continuously controlled a moving dot for 10 s while maintaining a string of three or seven digits in working memory. We found that when there was no cued goal (no-cued-goal condition, sense of agency was impaired by high cognitive load. Contrastingly, when participants controlled the dot based on a cued goal (cued-goal-directed condition, their sense of agency was lower than in the no-cued-goal condition and was not affected by cognitive load. The results suggest that the action-effect comparison process underlying sense of agency requires attention. On the other hand, the weaker influence of divided attention in the cued-goal-directed condition could be attributed to the dominance of performance-based inference, which is probably automatic.

  17. Further reflections on the humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Alan S

    2014-01-01

    Replies to comments by Morley (see record 2014-01475-010), Serlin (see record 2014-01475-011), Friedman (see record 2014-01475-012), Churchill and Mruk (see record 2014-01475-013), and Schneider (see record 2014-01475-014) on the current author's original article "The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: Contrasts in philosophical foundations" (see record 2013-12501-001). The article contrasting humanistic psychology and positive psychology with respect to their ontological, epistemological, and practical philosophical foundations has generated commentaries from leading proponents of varying perspectives within humanistic psychology. There is a great deal of material within those commentaries with which the current author is in full accord. It is worth noting at the outset that no one appears to be challenging the observations (a) that published exchanges between proponents of humanistic and positive psychology have been marked by tension and ambivalence, albeit with occasional efforts at reconciliation and rapprochement; (b) that proponents of the two perspectives differ with respect to the philosophers they most frequently cite in their writings; or (c) that such citations reflect the philosophical assumptions serving as foundations for the theoretical, research, and counseling/therapeutic endeavors of psychologists in both groups. The principal points of concurrence in the critiques published here are that the current underestimates the extent to which mutually supportive, collaborative work can be accomplished across the philosophical divide and that the recommendations the current author has made has advanced serious potential negative consequences for the field. The current author will address these points here in the reply, although space does not permit him to address other substantive points raised by individual commentators.

  18. The transient divided bar method for laboratory measurements of thermal properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bording, Thue S.; Nielsen, Søren B.; Balling, Niels

    2016-12-01

    Accurate information on thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of materials is of central importance in relation to geoscience and engineering problems involving the transfer of heat. Several methods, including the classical divided bar technique, are available for laboratory measurements of thermal conductivity, but much fewer for thermal diffusivity. We have generalized the divided bar technique to the transient case in which thermal conductivity, volumetric heat capacity and thereby also thermal diffusivity are measured simultaneously. As the density of samples is easily determined independently, specific heat capacity can also be determined. The finite element formulation provides a flexible forward solution for heat transfer across the bar, and thermal properties are estimated by inverse Monte Carlo modelling. This methodology enables a proper quantification of experimental uncertainties on measured thermal properties and information on their origin. The developed methodology was applied to various materials, including a standard ceramic material and different rock samples, and measuring results were compared with results applying traditional steady-state divided bar and an independent line-source method. All measurements show highly consistent results and with excellent reproducibility and high accuracy. For conductivity the obtained uncertainty is typically 1-3 per cent, and for diffusivity uncertainty may be reduced to about 3-5 per cent. The main uncertainty originates from the presence of thermal contact resistance associated with the internal interfaces in the bar. These are not resolved during inversion and it is imperative that they are minimized. The proposed procedure is simple and may quite easily be implemented to the many steady-state divided bar systems in operation. A thermally controlled bath, as applied here, may not be needed. Simpler systems, such as applying temperature-controlled water directly from a tap, may also be applied.

  19. Universal logic gates via liquid-electronic hybrid divider

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Bingpu

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrated two-input microdroplet-based universal logic gates using a liquid-electronic hybrid divider. All 16 Boolean logic functions have been realized by manipulating the applied voltages. The novel platform consists of a microfluidic chip with integrated microdroplet detectors and external electronic components. The microdroplet detectors act as the communication media for fluidic and electronic information exchange. The presence or absence of microdroplets at the detector translates into the binary signal 1 or 0. The embedded micro-mechanical pneumatically actuated valve (PAV), fabricated using the well-developed multilayer soft lithography technique, offers biocompatibility, flexibility and accuracy for the on-chip realization of different logic functions. The microfluidic chip can be scaled up to construct large-scale microfluidic logic computation. On the other hand, the microfluidic chip with a specific logic function can be applied to droplet-based chemical reactions for on-demand bio or chemical analysis. Our experimental results have presented an autonomously driven, precision-controlled microfluidic chip for chemical reactions based on the IF logic function. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  20. Divided attention limits perception of 3-D object shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharff, Alec; Palmer, John; Moore, Cathleen M

    2013-01-01

    Can one perceive multiple object shapes at once? We tested two benchmark models of object shape perception under divided attention: an unlimited-capacity and a fixed-capacity model. Under unlimited-capacity models, shapes are analyzed independently and in parallel. Under fixed-capacity models, shapes are processed at a fixed rate (as in a serial model). To distinguish these models, we compared conditions in which observers were presented with simultaneous or sequential presentations of a fixed number of objects (The extended simultaneous-sequential method: Scharff, Palmer, & Moore, 2011a, 2011b). We used novel physical objects as stimuli, minimizing the role of semantic categorization in the task. Observers searched for a specific object among similar objects. We ensured that non-shape stimulus properties such as color and texture could not be used to complete the task. Unpredictable viewing angles were used to preclude image-matching strategies. The results rejected unlimited-capacity models for object shape perception and were consistent with the predictions of a fixed-capacity model. In contrast, a task that required observers to recognize 2-D shapes with predictable viewing angles yielded an unlimited capacity result. Further experiments ruled out alternative explanations for the capacity limit, leading us to conclude that there is a fixed-capacity limit on the ability to perceive 3-D object shapes.

  1. Reduced Complexity Divide and Conquer Algorithm for Large Scale TSPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda A. Darwish

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP is the problem of finding the shortest path passing through all given cities while only passing by each city once and finishing at the same starting city. This problem has NP-hard complexity making it extremely impractical to get the most optimal path even for problems as small as 20 cities since the number of permutations becomes too high. Many heuristic methods have been devised to reach “good” solutions in reasonable time. In this paper, we present the idea of utilizing a spatial “geographical” Divide and Conquer technique in conjunction with heuristic TSP algorithms specifically the Nearest Neighbor 2-opt algorithm. We have found that the proposed algorithm has lower complexity than algorithms published in the literature. This comes at a lower accuracy expense of around 9%. It is our belief that the presented approach will be welcomed to the community especially for large problems where a reasonable solution could be reached in a fraction of the time.

  2. “Identity Monarchy”: Interrogating Heritage for a Divided Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Milner

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia, it has been observed, is currently experiencing a “revival” of “Malay kingship” with the growing importance of “proactive and participating constitutional rulers.” In fact, modern Malaysia has since independence been characterized by monarchy—by a multiplicity of Rulers and elaborate royal ceremony and hierarchy—as well as by its “plural society.” But the modern monarchs—though they have never become quite “constitutional Rulers”—cannot be seen as merely “traditional,”because the institution of monarchy was transformed in a fundamental way during the British colonial period. Monarchy continues to be an underexamined feature of the Malaysian polity, and when it is discussed there is a tendency to focus on issues of power and to neglect its sociocultural role. One pre-colonial dimension of monarchy that continues to be significant today—though in a manner less psychologically profound than before—is its identity-giving role. The principal concern of this article is to determine—through a process of hermeneutic retrieval—if this role is merely relevant to the Malay community, or does it possess more inclusive possibilities? Are the Rulers of Malaysia essentially “Malay Rulers” or has the institution a nation-building potential that has so far not been fully utilized? The question is important for a country that many see as becoming increasingly divided.

  3. Informaticiens Sans Frontieres: Helping to bridge the Digital Divide

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    ISF was formed as a CERN club during the World Summit for the Information Society, in Geneva, in 2003. Today we are involved in a number of international projects aimed to helping Africa bridge the Digital Divide, as well as using computing power (BOINCs) in the research against Malaria, or creating GRIDs that could allow African universities to join us in scientific research projects such as the LHC. Our latest project, named MANGO Net, is aimed at capacity building, by creating a network of computer assembly schools across the continent, which would form hardware and software technicians, create assembly centres, and lay the foundation for a future IT industry. ISF est né comme un club du CERN, en 2003, pendant le Sommet Mondiale de la Société de l'information à Genève. Aujourd'hui nous participons à plusieurs projets avec le but d'aider l'Afrique à reduire la Fracture Numérique, ou de fournir de la puissance de calcul (BOINC) à la recherche contre le Paludisme, ou en créant des GRIDs qui pourra...

  4. BRIDGING THE KNOWLEDGE DIVIDE Educational Technology for Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Ozlem OZAN,

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available BRIDGING THE KNOWLEDGE DIVIDEEducational Technology for DevelopmentMarshall,S., Kinuthia, W. & Wallace Taylor., Ed.D.; Information Age Publishing, Charlotte, NC, SBN: 978-1-60752-109-9, p.433, 2009Reviewed by Ozlem OZANFaculty of EducationEskişehir Osmangazi UniversityEskisehir, TURKEYThe concept of a knowledge divide is used to describe the gap in living conditions between those who can find, manage and process information or knowledge, and those who are impaired in this, for one reason or another. In the 21st century, the emergence of the knowledge society becomes pervasive hence the information and ICT systems that support knowledge are very important.This book discusses how educational technology can be used to transform education and assist developing communities to close the knowledge divide. Its broader audience is anyone who is interested in educational technology for development. In the book you can find best practices and case studies especially from countries in Africa.The book is edited by Stewart Marshall, Wanjira Kinuthia, Wallace Taylor. Professor Stewart Marshall, PhD, is the director of the Academic Division of the University of the West Indies Open Campus (UWIOC and holds the UNESCO Chair in Educational Technologies.Dr. Wanjira Kinuthia is assistant professor of Learning Technologies at Georgia State University. She works as an instructional designer in higher education and business and industry for several years. Professor Wallace Taylor, PhD, is a founding director of The Information Society Institute (TISI, a non-profit academic, research, and policy development organization based in South Africa.The book is consisted of 433 pages (+xxxv covering 24 articles divided into four sections and provides information about flexible learning for empowerment, managing and communicating knowledge, flexible delivery in higher education and preparing teacher using flexible approaches.Topics covered in the book are as follows

  5. Resistive switching mechanism in the one diode-one resistor memory based on p+-Si/n-ZnO heterostructure revealed by in-situ TEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Liang; Li, Xiaomei; Xu, Zhi; Wang, Wenlong; Bai, Xuedong

    2017-01-01

    One diode-one resistor (1D1R) memory is an effective architecture to suppress the crosstalk interference, realizing the crossbar network integration of resistive random access memory (RRAM). Herein, we designed a p+-Si/n-ZnO heterostructure with 1D1R function. Compared with the conventional multilayer 1D1R devices, the structure and fabrication technique can be largely simplified. The real-time imaging of formation/rupture process of conductive filament (CF) process demonstrated the RS mechanism by in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Meanwhile, we observed that the formed CF is only confined to the outside of depletion region of Si/ZnO pn junction, and the formation of CF does not degrade the diode performance, which allows the coexistence of RS and rectifying behaviors, revealing the 1D1R switching model. Furthermore, it has been confirmed that the CF is consisting of the oxygen vacancy by in-situ TEM characterization.

  6. Amplifying Earth history: Zircon U-Pb geochronology by ID-TIMS at the 0.1 ‰ level using new 1013 ohm resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotzlaw, Jörn-Frederik; von Quadt, Albrecht

    2016-04-01

    Precise and accurate radiometric dating of volcanic ash beds in sedimentary successions is the backbone of the numerical calibration of Earth history. Uranium-lead geochronology by isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) is the most precise and accurate dating technique and is applicable to most of Earth history from the Hadean to the Pleistocene. The accessory mineral zircon is the prime target material due to its commonly high U concentration, virtually no initial Pb and high daughter-product retentivity. However, complex crystallization histories as well as magmatic and sedimentary recycling of zircons require the analysis of single crystals resulting in small amounts of radiogenic Pb (Pb* usually dates with uncertainties <0.2 ‰ for high-Pb* zircons and weighted mean ages for populations of closed system zircons with uncertainties <0.1 ‰ . This level of temporal resolution will allow to better quantify the timing and durations of critical intervals in Earth history, evaluate causalities between different events such as flood basalt eruptions and mass extinctions, quantify rates of changes in biodiversity and assess the origin of cyclic patterns in the sedimentary records. [1] von Quadt, A., Wotzlaw, J.F., Buret, Y., Large, S., Peytcheva, I., Trinquier, A., 2016, High-precision zircon U/Pb geochronology by ID-TIMS using new 1013 ohm resistors. J. Anal. At. Spectrom., DOI: 10.1039/C5JA00457H

  7. Material insights of HfO2-based integrated 1-transistor-1-resistor resistive random access memory devices processed by batch atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Gang; Kim, Hee-Dong; Roelofs, Robin; Perez, Eduardo; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Zaumseil, Peter; Costina, Ioan; Wenger, Christian

    2016-06-01

    With the continuous scaling of resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices, in-depth understanding of the physical mechanism and the material issues, particularly by directly studying integrated cells, become more and more important to further improve the device performances. In this work, HfO2-based integrated 1-transistor-1-resistor (1T1R) RRAM devices were processed in a standard 0.25 μm complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process line, using a batch atomic layer deposition (ALD) tool, which is particularly designed for mass production. We demonstrate a systematic study on TiN/Ti/HfO2/TiN/Si RRAM devices to correlate key material factors (nano-crystallites and carbon impurities) with the filament type resistive switching (RS) behaviours. The augmentation of the nano-crystallites density in the film increases the forming voltage of devices and its variation. Carbon residues in HfO2 films turn out to be an even more significant factor strongly impacting the RS behaviour. A relatively higher deposition temperature of 300 °C dramatically reduces the residual carbon concentration, thus leading to enhanced RS performances of devices, including lower power consumption, better endurance and higher reliability. Such thorough understanding on physical mechanism of RS and the correlation between material and device performances will facilitate the realization of high density and reliable embedded RRAM devices with low power consumption.

  8. Two-point resistance of an m × n resistor network with an arbitrary boundary and its application in RLC network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi-Zhong, Tan

    2016-05-01

    A rectangular m × n resistor network with an arbitrary boundary is investigated, and a general resistance formula between two nodes on an arbitrary axis is derived by the Recursion-Transform (RT) method, a problem that has never been resolved before, for the Green’s function technique and the Laplacian matrix approach are inapplicable to it. To have the exact solution of resistance is important but it is difficult to obtain under the condition of arbitrary boundary. Our result is directly expressed in a single summation and mainly composed of characteristic roots, which contain both finite and infinite cases. Further, the current distribution is given explicitly as a byproduct of the method. Our framework can be effectively applied to RLC networks. As an application to the LC network, we find that our formulation leads to the occurrence of resonances at h 1 = 1 - cos ϕ i - sin ϕ i cot n ϕ i . This somewhat curious result suggests the possibility of practical applications of our formulae to resonant circuits. Project supported by the Prophase Preparatory Project of Natural Science Foundation of Nantong University, China (Grant No. 15ZY16).

  9. Material insights of HfO2-based integrated 1-transistor-1-resistor resistive random access memory devices processed by batch atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Gang; Kim, Hee-Dong; Roelofs, Robin; Perez, Eduardo; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Zaumseil, Peter; Costina, Ioan; Wenger, Christian

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous scaling of resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices, in-depth understanding of the physical mechanism and the material issues, particularly by directly studying integrated cells, become more and more important to further improve the device performances. In this work, HfO2-based integrated 1-transistor-1-resistor (1T1R) RRAM devices were processed in a standard 0.25 μm complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) process line, using a batch atomic layer deposition (ALD) tool, which is particularly designed for mass production. We demonstrate a systematic study on TiN/Ti/HfO2/TiN/Si RRAM devices to correlate key material factors (nano-crystallites and carbon impurities) with the filament type resistive switching (RS) behaviours. The augmentation of the nano-crystallites density in the film increases the forming voltage of devices and its variation. Carbon residues in HfO2 films turn out to be an even more significant factor strongly impacting the RS behaviour. A relatively higher deposition temperature of 300 °C dramatically reduces the residual carbon concentration, thus leading to enhanced RS performances of devices, including lower power consumption, better endurance and higher reliability. Such thorough understanding on physical mechanism of RS and the correlation between material and device performances will facilitate the realization of high density and reliable embedded RRAM devices with low power consumption. PMID:27312225

  10. The transatlantic divide over brain death determination and the debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2012-04-01

    In 1976, the Royal College of Physicians published neurological criteria of death. The memorandum stated that-after preconditions and exclusion criteria were met-the absence of brainstem function, including apnoea testing, would suffice. In the USA, many experts felt that brain death could be only determined by demonstrating death of the entire brain. In the history of further refinement of UK and USA brain death criteria, one particular period stands out that would bring about an apparent transatlantic divide. On 13 October 1980, the British Broadcasting Corporation aired a programme entitled 'Transplants: Are the Donors Really Dead?' Several United States experts not only disagreed with the United Kingdom criteria, but claimed that patients diagnosed with brain death using United Kingdom criteria could recover. The fallout of this television programme was substantial, as indicated by a media frenzy and a 6-month period of heated correspondence within The Lancet and The British Medical Journal. Members of the Parliament questioned the potential long-term effect on the public's trust in organ transplantation. Given the concerns raised, the British Broadcasting Corporation commissioned a second programme, which was broadcast on 19 February 1981 entitled 'A Question of Life or Death: The Brain Death Debate.' Two panels debated the issues on the accuracy of the electroencephalogram and its place, the absolute need for assessing preconditions before an examination, the problems with recognition of toxins and the feasibility of doing a new prospective study in the United Kingdom, which would follow patients' examination assessed with United Kingdom criteria until cardiac standstill. The positions of the United States and United Kingdom remained diametrically opposed to each other. This article revisits this landmark moment and places it in a wider historical context. In the USA, the focus was not on the brainstem, and the definition of brain death became rapidly infused

  11. 云广直流±800kV交流滤波器的电阻过负荷保护%Overload Protection of ± 800 kV AC Filter Resistor in Yunnan - Guangdong DC Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐峰; 吕涛; 曹继丰

    2011-01-01

    高压直流换流站在进行滤波器组投切时往往会对小组中电阻器产生较大的冲击电流,并造成滤波器电阻过负荷异常动作.比较了不同型号的滤波器投切时在电阻上产生的冲击电流,分析产生该电流的原因,推导该电流随时间衰减关系.然后,对滤波器电阻过负荷异常动作提出改进意见.%A great inrush current in the AC filter resistor caused by the sub-bank breaker closing and opening in HVDC converter stations could produce abnormal trip of the AC filter protection. This article contrasts the inrush currents in different kinds of AC filter resistor when the breaker closing and opening, analyzes the cause of the inrush current, and deduces the current decay with time. Then suggestions are given to improve the overload protection abnormal trip of AC filter Resistor.

  12. Design of equal-split power divider with arbitrary port impedances based on admittance matrix%基于导纳矩阵的任意端口阻抗等分功分器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪晨; 郑学政; 吴文

    2014-01-01

    To decrease the circuit size of non-fifty Ω port impedances power dividers, equal-split power dividers with arbitrary port impedances are studied. It is theoretically verified that if two output ports of an equal-split power divider are connected by a resistor,the impedance matching of arbitrary ports and output port isolation cannot be realized simultaneously. A new circuit topology of equal-split power divider with arbitrary port impedances is proposed. Different microstrip lines are added in series with the isolation resistor at both ends;short/open stubs are loaded at each port. Impedance matching and output port isolation can be achieved simultaneously by adopting this configuration. The closed design formulae of this equal-split power divider with arbitrary port impedances are derived using an admittance matrix. As an example, an equal-split power divider is designed with 30 Ω, 53 Ω,47 Ω port impedances and operating at 1 GHz. The circuit size designed by the method proposed here decreases by about 66% compared with that of the traditional design method. Experimental results demonstrate the simplicity and effectiveness of the proposed circuit topology of equal-split power divider with arbitrary port impedances.%为减小非50Ω功分器电路尺寸,研究了任意端口阻抗等分功分器。理论证明了若等分功分器的输出端口之间只使用电阻连接,不能同时实现任意端口阻抗匹配和输出端口隔离。提出了一种新的任意端口阻抗等分功分器结构。在隔离电阻两端串联不同的微带线,在各端口加载短路/开路短截线。利用此结构同时实现了各端口匹配与输出端口之间的互相隔离。基于导纳矩阵推导了该功分器的设计公式,并据此设计研制了中心频率为1 GHz,端口阻抗分别为30Ω、53Ω、47Ω的等分功分器。该文方法设计的功分器电路尺寸比传统设计方法减小了约66%。测试结果验证了该等分功分器结构简单有效。

  13. Reducing the Digital Divide among Children Who Received Desktop or Hybrid Computers for the Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilka, Gila Cohen

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and policy makers have been exploring ways to reduce the digital divide. Parameters commonly used to examine the digital divide worldwide, as well as in this study, are: (a) the digital divide in the accessibility and mobility of the ICT infrastructure and of the content infrastructure (e.g., sites used in school); and (b) the digital…

  14. Migratory divides and their consequences for dispersal, population size and parasite-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, A P; Garamszegi, L Z; Peralta-Sánchez, J M; Soler, J J

    2011-08-01

    Populations of migratory birds differ in their direction of migration with neighbouring populations often migrating in divergent directions separated by migratory divides. A total of 26% of 103 passerine bird species in Europe had migratory divides that were located disproportionately often along a longitudinal gradient in Central Europe, consistent with the assumption of a Quaternary glacial origin of such divides in the Iberian and Balkan peninsulas followed by recolonization. Given that studies have shown significant genetic differentiation and reduced gene flow across migratory divides, we hypothesized that an absence of migratory divides would result in elevated rates of gene flow and hence a reduced level of local adaptation. In a comparative study, species with migratory divides had larger population sizes and population densities and longer dispersal distances than species without migratory divides. Species with migratory divides tended to be habitat generalists. Bird species with migratory divides had higher richness of blood parasites and higher growth rates of Staphylococcus on their eggs during the incubation period. There was weaker cell-mediated immunity in adults and stronger cell lysis in species with migratory divides. These findings may suggest that migratory divides constitute barriers to dispersal with consequences for ecology and evolution of distributions, population sizes, habitats and parasite-host interactions. They also suggest that migratory divides may play a role in local adaptation in host-parasite interactions.

  15. Public Library Internet Services: Impacts on the Digital Divide. Stage I Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Charles R.; Bertot, John Carlo

    This report provides preliminary findings and a summary of study activities for Stage I of a project that examined public library Internet services that could impact the Digital Divide. The first section discusses the E-rate program and the Digital Divide, including closing the gap in the Digital Divide and public library Internet connectivity and…

  16. Divided attention capacity in adults with autism spectrum disorders and without intellectual disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogte, H; Flamma, B; Van der Meere, J.J.; van Engeland, H.

    2009-01-01

    Earlier research showed that divided attention, an aspect of executive function, is limited in both children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The current study explored divided attention capacity in adults with ASD and without intellectual disability (n = 36). Divided attention was

  17. A divide-conquer-recombine algorithmic paradigm for large spatiotemporal quantum molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimojo, Fuyuki; Hattori, Shinnosuke; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Kunaseth, Manaschai; Mou, Weiwei; Nakano, Aiichiro; Nomura, Ken-ichi; Ohmura, Satoshi; Rajak, Pankaj; Shimamura, Kohei; Vashishta, Priya

    2014-05-01

    We introduce an extension of the divide-and-conquer (DC) algorithmic paradigm called divide-conquer-recombine (DCR) to perform large quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations on massively parallel supercomputers, in which interatomic forces are computed quantum mechanically in the framework of density functional theory (DFT). In DCR, the DC phase constructs globally informed, overlapping local-domain solutions, which in the recombine phase are synthesized into a global solution encompassing large spatiotemporal scales. For the DC phase, we design a lean divide-and-conquer (LDC) DFT algorithm, which significantly reduces the prefactor of the O(N) computational cost for N electrons by applying a density-adaptive boundary condition at the peripheries of the DC domains. Our globally scalable and locally efficient solver is based on a hybrid real-reciprocal space approach that combines: (1) a highly scalable real-space multigrid to represent the global charge density; and (2) a numerically efficient plane-wave basis for local electronic wave functions and charge density within each domain. Hybrid space-band decomposition is used to implement the LDC-DFT algorithm on parallel computers. A benchmark test on an IBM Blue Gene/Q computer exhibits an isogranular parallel efficiency of 0.984 on 786 432 cores for a 50.3 × 106-atom SiC system. As a test of production runs, LDC-DFT-based QMD simulation involving 16 661 atoms is performed on the Blue Gene/Q to study on-demand production of hydrogen gas from water using LiAl alloy particles. As an example of the recombine phase, LDC-DFT electronic structures are used as a basis set to describe global photoexcitation dynamics with nonadiabatic QMD (NAQMD) and kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) methods. The NAQMD simulations are based on the linear response time-dependent density functional theory to describe electronic excited states and a surface-hopping approach to describe transitions between the excited states. A series of techniques

  18. A divide-conquer-recombine algorithmic paradigm for large spatiotemporal quantum molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimojo, Fuyuki; Hattori, Shinnosuke [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Computer Science, and Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States); Department of Physics, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kalia, Rajiv K.; Mou, Weiwei; Nakano, Aiichiro; Nomura, Ken-ichi; Rajak, Pankaj; Vashishta, Priya [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Computer Science, and Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States); Kunaseth, Manaschai [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Computer Science, and Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States); National Nanotechnology Center, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Ohmura, Satoshi [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Computer Science, and Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States); Department of Physics, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Shimamura, Kohei [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Computer Science, and Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States); Department of Physics, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2014-05-14

    We introduce an extension of the divide-and-conquer (DC) algorithmic paradigm called divide-conquer-recombine (DCR) to perform large quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) simulations on massively parallel supercomputers, in which interatomic forces are computed quantum mechanically in the framework of density functional theory (DFT). In DCR, the DC phase constructs globally informed, overlapping local-domain solutions, which in the recombine phase are synthesized into a global solution encompassing large spatiotemporal scales. For the DC phase, we design a lean divide-and-conquer (LDC) DFT algorithm, which significantly reduces the prefactor of the O(N) computational cost for N electrons by applying a density-adaptive boundary condition at the peripheries of the DC domains. Our globally scalable and locally efficient solver is based on a hybrid real-reciprocal space approach that combines: (1) a highly scalable real-space multigrid to represent the global charge density; and (2) a numerically efficient plane-wave basis for local electronic wave functions and charge density within each domain. Hybrid space-band decomposition is used to implement the LDC-DFT algorithm on parallel computers. A benchmark test on an IBM Blue Gene/Q computer exhibits an isogranular parallel efficiency of 0.984 on 786 432 cores for a 50.3 × 10{sup 6}-atom SiC system. As a test of production runs, LDC-DFT-based QMD simulation involving 16 661 atoms is performed on the Blue Gene/Q to study on-demand production of hydrogen gas from water using LiAl alloy particles. As an example of the recombine phase, LDC-DFT electronic structures are used as a basis set to describe global photoexcitation dynamics with nonadiabatic QMD (NAQMD) and kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) methods. The NAQMD simulations are based on the linear response time-dependent density functional theory to describe electronic excited states and a surface-hopping approach to describe transitions between the excited states. A series of

  19. SU-E-T-258: Development of a New Patient Set-Up Monitoring System Using Force Sensing Resistor (FSR) Sensor for the Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, M; Kim, T; Kang, S; Kim, D; Kim, K; Shin, D; Suh, T [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work is to develop a new patient set-up monitoring system using force sensing resistor (FSR) sensors that can confirm pressure of contact surface and evaluate its feasibility. Methods: In this study, we focused on develop the patient set-up monitoring system to compensate for the limitation of existing optical based monitoring system, so the developed system can inform motion in the radiation therapy. The set-up monitoring system was designed consisting of sensor units (FSR sensor), signal conditioning devices (USB cable/interface electronics), a control PC, and a developed analysis software. The sensor unit was made by attaching FSR sensor and dispersing pressure sponge to prevent error which is caused by concentrating specific point. Measured signal from the FSR sensor was sampled to arduino mega 2560 microcontroller, transferred to control PC by using serial communication. The measured data went through normalization process. The normalized data was displayed through the developed graphic user interface (GUI) software. The software was designed to display a single sensor unit intensity (maximum 16 sensors) and display 2D pressure distribution (using 16 sensors) according to the purpose. Results: Changes of pressure value according to motion was confirmed by the developed set-up monitoring system. Very small movement such as little physical change in appearance can be confirmed using a single unit and using 2D pressure distribution. Also, the set-up monitoring system can observe in real time. Conclusion: In this study, we developed the new set-up monitoring system using FSR sensor. Especially, we expect that the new set-up monitoring system is suitable for motion monitoring of blind area that is hard to confirm existing optical system and compensate existing optical based monitoring system. As a further study, an integrated system will be constructed through correlation of existing optical monitoring system. This work was supported by

  20. Resistor Array Non-uniformity Test Based on PSF Estimation%基于PSF估计的电阻阵列非均匀性测试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏德伦; 廖守亿; 张金生

    2015-01-01

    电阻阵列的非均匀性是一种固定模式的空间噪声,是影响红外图像质量的主要因素。测试数据的准确性对非均匀性校正效果是至关重要的,全屏测试时辐射能量的扩散是导致测试误差的重要原因。分析了经典图像复原方法的局限性,提出一种新的基于PSF粗估计的迭代测试方法。分析了不同PSF估计误差对新方法收敛速度和测试精度的影响,评估了不同PSF条件下的测试效果。数值仿真结果表明,新的方法计算量更低,收敛速度更快,且能够适应更宽的平滑因子参数范围。新方法可有效地从退化图像中复原电阻阵列的实际非均匀性图像,取得较好的校正效果。%The non-uniformity of resistor array dynamic infrared scene projector is a kind of fixed pattern spatial noise which makes a great impact on the quality of the output infrared image. The accuracy of the test data is vitally important for the non-uniformity correction. The spread of the radiant energy is a main source of error in flood test. The limitation of classical image restoration method was analyzed. A new iterative test method based on PSF rough estimation was presented. The impact of estimation error on convergence speed and test accuracy was analyzed and the method effect under different PSF condition was evaluated. Numerical simulation indicates that the new method has features of reducing calculation complexity, fast convergence speed and adaptability of more widely range of smooth factors. The new method can effectively restore the degraded image to extract the true non-uniformity image and attain good correction result.

  1. Research on Analysis and Measurement Method for Thermal Resistance of Precision Resistor%精密电阻器热阻分析与测定方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴键; 李正坤; 陈乐; 张钟华

    2015-01-01

    提出了一种锰铜丝精密电阻的热阻测定新方法,推导出适用于锰铜丝精密电阻的热阻计算公式。通过建立电阻温度特性及负载效应的测试平台,解释了测试得到的锰铜丝零负载效应点现象。实验得到的零负载效应温度点重复性测试结果均达到10-8量级。将已知零负载效应点的锰铜丝精密电阻作为参考电阻,可以对其他电阻进行额定功率下负载效应的准确测试。%A new method of measuring thermal resistance for manganese-copper wire precision resistance is developed. The thermal resistance calculation formula which is suitable for manganese-copper wire precision resistance is derived. A test system for temperature characteristic of resistance and load effect of resistance is built. The phenomenon of zero load effect point is explained. The repeatability of measuring results for of zero load effect point got in experiment is about several parts in 10 - 8. Finally,the load effect testing method for other resistors with rated power is introduced,in which the reference resistor is the manganese-copper wire precision resistor with measured zero effect point.

  2. Divided Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten

    institutions. This conceptual stretching takes place at the expense of accuracy and clarity clouding our understanding of the multiple levels involved in trusting. This chapter seeks to clarify this issue conceptually by comparing and developing Niklas Luhmann’s system theoretical investigation of trust...

  3. Final Divide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Montenegro's independence deals a death blow to the glory of the former Yugoslavia On May 21, Montenegro held a referendum to decide its statehood. According to results announced by the referendum commission, of the 86.5 percent of registered citizens who participated in the voting, a total of 55.5 percent were for independence. With

  4. Dividing Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2012-01-01

    International Relations (IR) has cultivated an image as a discipline with strong divisions along paradigmatic, methodological, metatheoretical, geographical, and other lines. This article questions that image analyzing the latent structures of communication in IR. It uses citation data from more...... than 20,000 articles published in 59 IR journals to construct a network among IR journals and finds a discipline with a center consisting of pedigreed IR journals, albeit closely related to political science. Divisions are identifiable as specialty areas that form clusters of specialized journals along...

  5. Mobility Divides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    Contemporary mobilities are cultural and social manifestations, and the mobile practices in the everyday life of billions of humans are re-configuring senses of place, self, other and relationships to the built environment. The way ‘mobile situations’ are staged in designed and built environments...... are increasingly becoming ‘second nature’ but also expressions of power, exclusion, and difference. In this talk I will be applying a perspective of ‘mobile situationism’ illustrating how mobile everyday life practices are staged ‘from above’ in planning and policy frameworks, design codes and architectural...... designs, but also how the situated and embodied mobile everyday life practices are staged ‘from below’ in concrete acts of choice concerning modes of mobilities, ways of moving and interacting. The ‘staging mobilites’ framework opens up to an understanding of the meaning of ‘mobilities design...

  6. A low-power digital frequency divider for system-on-a-chip applications

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, an idea for a new frequency divider architecture is proposed. The divider is based on a coarse-fine architecture. The coarse block operates at a low frequency to save power consumption and it selectively enables the fine block which operates at the high input frequency. The proposed divider has the advantages of synchronous divider, but with lower power consumption and higher operation speed. The design can achieve a wide division range with a minor effect on power consumption and speed. The architecture was implemented on a complex programmable logic device (CPLD) to verify its operation. Experimental measurements validate system operation with power reduction greater than 40%. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. "Is There a Second Level Divide in Student’s Internet Skills?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purushothaman, Aparna; Dau, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The concept of a digital divide has moved beyond only physical disparities in technology usage and now also encompasses issues impeding access such as human social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies. This paper focuses on students......-level divide. Through a cross-national comparison, the paper hopes to contribute to the literature through experiences of students in the two countries, providing researchers with insights into the digital divide. This divide in Internet skills is illuminated from different perspectives in the context of two...

  8. 直流高压高值电阻器测量结果的不确定度评定与分析%Evaluation and Analysis on Measurement Uncertainty with DC High Voltage and High Value Resistors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文; 周航; 王红洁; 杨东华; 高歌

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of verification traceability in high voltage and high value resistor and ensure accurate and reliable transfer value during the calibration, this paper evaluates the standard uncertainty of high voltage and high value resistor based on an example, and verifies the assessment results by means of comparison test. This paper can supply references for the standard uncertainty of same type of the units, enhance the practicality of standard uncertainty.%为解决高压高值电阻器的检定溯源问题,保证量值传递的准确可靠,通过实例对直流高压高值电阻器标准的不确定度进行评定,并通过实验室间比对实验对评定结果进行了验证.为同类型标准装置的不确定度评定提供了很强的借鉴性和可操作性,增强了不确定评定的实用性.

  9. Development of a new lower hybrid antenna module using a poloidal power divider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maebara, S.; Imai, T.; Seki, M.; Suganuma, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Goniche, M.; Bibet, Ph.; Berio, S.; Brossaud, J.; Rey, G.; Tonon, G. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1997-03-01

    A realistic antenna module using a poloidal divider for lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) experiment, is modelled and fabricated. In this antenna module test II, three types of poloidal dividers, which split the power in 3, are tested. (author). 15 refs.

  10. The Role of IT Literacy in Defining Digital Divide Policy Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Enrico; Helbig, Natalie C.; Gil-Garcia, J. Ramon

    2011-01-01

    This article expands our current understanding of the digital divide by examining differences in individuals' IT skills acquisition. In the last two decades scholars have gradually refined the conceptualization of the digital divide, moving from a dichotomous model mainly based on access, to a multidimensional model accounting for differences in…

  11. From Digital Divides to Digital Inequality -- The Emerging Digital Inequality in the Norwegian Unitarian School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumsvik, Rune J.

    2008-01-01

    This position paper highlights existing and emerging, prospective digital divides in Norwegian schools and asks whether we are now moving from traditional digital divides to digital inequality in our digitized society and schools. Despite very good technology density in Norwegian society and schools in general, there is the reason to pay attention…

  12. Computer and Video Games in Family Life: The Digital Divide as a Resource in Intergenerational Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarsand, Pal Andre

    2007-01-01

    In this ethnographic study of family life, intergenerational video and computer game activities were videotaped and analysed. Both children and adults invoked the notion of a digital divide, i.e. a generation gap between those who master and do not master digital technology. It is argued that the digital divide was exploited by the children to…

  13. The Inequities of the Digital Divide: Is E-Learning a Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journell, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the continuing digital divide in public education, one that defines itself largely along geographic, socioeconomic, and cultural lines. The article refutes the idea that the digital divide is dwindling due to increasing access to technology within the United States, instead focusing on digital literacy and cultural barriers…

  14. Understanding the Complex Dimensions of the Digital Divide: Lessons Learned in the Alaskan Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramony, Deepak Prem

    2007-01-01

    An ethnographic case study of Inupiat Eskimo in the Alaskan Arctic has provided insights into the complex nature of the sociological issues surrounding equitable access to technology tools and skills, which are referred to as the digital divide. These people can overcome the digital divide if they get the basic ready access to hardware and…

  15. Essays on the Digital Divide--Explorations through Global, National and Individual Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaletsky, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The Digital Divide has emerged as an important research and policy issue during the past thirty years. The divide exists at different levels, such as global, regional and individual levels. While extensive research already exists on this subject, the complexity of the issue presents opportunities for further research. In particular, there is ample…

  16. The Digital Divide as Cultural Practice: A Cognitive Anthropological Exploration of Japan as an "Information Society"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Tadamasa

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the socio-cultural contextualization of the digital divide in Japanese society. I undertake this task by developing a theoretical and methodological framework based on the notion of "culture as models," while explicating the cultural dimensions of the digital divide and the dynamics of…

  17. Dynamic crossmodal links revealed by steady-state responses in auditory-visual divided attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Ritske; Toffanin, Paolo; Harbers, Marten; Martens, Sander

    2010-01-01

    Frequency tagging has been often used to study intramodal attention but not intermodal attention. We used EEG and simultaneous frequency tagging of auditory and visual sources to study intermodal focused and divided attention in detection and discrimination performance. Divided-attention costs were

  18. A Nation under Joint Custody: How Conflicting Family Models Divide US Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehling, Eva Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Across the globe and throughout history, politics are regularly divided into "left-leaning" and "right-leaning" camps. Explaining the sources of this conservative-liberal divide has become a major quest in the cognitive and social sciences. Early attempts have focused on self-interest as a possible explanation. However, as the…

  19. Methodical Approaches to Creation of Dividing Automation at Industrial Enterprises with Generating Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kalentionok

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem pertaining to creation of dividing automation at industrial enterprises which have their own generating plants. Algorithms for action of dividing automation that permit to ensure minimum possible power non-balance while using generating plants for autonomous operation and possible parameters for its response are proposed in the paper.

  20. Kinematic Identification of Parallel Mechanisms by a Divide and Conquer Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durango, Sebastian; Restrepo, David; Ruiz, Oscar;

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a Divide and Conquer strategy to estimate the kinematic parameters of parallel symmetrical mechanisms. The Divide and Conquer kinematic identification is designed and performed independently for each leg of the mechanism. The estimation of the kinematic parameters is performed...

  1. Combination N-Way Power Divider/Combiner and Noninvasive Reflected Power Detection

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An N-way RF/microwave power divider/combiner utilizes one input and N outputs, or conversely N inputs and one output to divide (or combine) RF/microwave power while...

  2. Defining and dividing the greater Caribbean: insights from the biogeography of shorefishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, D Ross; Cramer, Katie L

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Caribbean biogeographic region is the high-diversity heart of the Tropical West Atlantic, one of four global centers of tropical marine biodiversity. The traditional view of the Greater Caribbean is that it is limited to the Caribbean, West Indies, southwest Gulf of Mexico and tip of Florida, and that, due to its faunal homogeneity, lacks major provincial subdivisions. In this scenario the northern 2/3 of the Gulf of Mexico and southeastern USA represent a separate temperate, "Carolinian" biogeographic region. We completed a comprehensive re-assessment of the biogeography of the Greater Caribbean by comparing the distributions of 1,559 shorefish species within 45 sections of shelf waters of the Greater Caribbean and adjacent areas. This analysis shows that that the Greater Caribbean occupies a much larger area than usually thought, extending south to at least Guyana, and north to encompass the entire Carolinian area. Rather than being homogenous, the Greater Caribbean is divided into three major provinces, each with a distinctive, primarily tropical fauna: (1) a central, tropical province comprising the West Indies, Bermuda and Central America; (2) a southern, upwelling-affected province spanning the entire continental shelf of northern South America; and (iii) a northern, subtropical province that includes all of the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and southeastern USA. This three-province pattern holds for both reef- and soft bottom fishes, indicating a general response by demersal fishes to major variation in provincial shelf environments. Such environmental differences include latitudinal variation in sea temperature, availability of major habitats (coral reefs, soft bottom shorelines, and mangroves), and nutrient additions from upwelling areas and large rivers. The three-province arrangement of the Greater Caribbean broadly resembles and has a similar environmental basis to the provincial arrangement of its sister biogeographic region, the Tropical Eastern

  3. Defining and dividing the greater Caribbean: insights from the biogeography of shorefishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ross Robertson

    Full Text Available The Greater Caribbean biogeographic region is the high-diversity heart of the Tropical West Atlantic, one of four global centers of tropical marine biodiversity. The traditional view of the Greater Caribbean is that it is limited to the Caribbean, West Indies, southwest Gulf of Mexico and tip of Florida, and that, due to its faunal homogeneity, lacks major provincial subdivisions. In this scenario the northern 2/3 of the Gulf of Mexico and southeastern USA represent a separate temperate, "Carolinian" biogeographic region. We completed a comprehensive re-assessment of the biogeography of the Greater Caribbean by comparing the distributions of 1,559 shorefish species within 45 sections of shelf waters of the Greater Caribbean and adjacent areas. This analysis shows that that the Greater Caribbean occupies a much larger area than usually thought, extending south to at least Guyana, and north to encompass the entire Carolinian area. Rather than being homogenous, the Greater Caribbean is divided into three major provinces, each with a distinctive, primarily tropical fauna: (1 a central, tropical province comprising the West Indies, Bermuda and Central America; (2 a southern, upwelling-affected province spanning the entire continental shelf of northern South America; and (iii a northern, subtropical province that includes all of the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and southeastern USA. This three-province pattern holds for both reef- and soft bottom fishes, indicating a general response by demersal fishes to major variation in provincial shelf environments. Such environmental differences include latitudinal variation in sea temperature, availability of major habitats (coral reefs, soft bottom shorelines, and mangroves, and nutrient additions from upwelling areas and large rivers. The three-province arrangement of the Greater Caribbean broadly resembles and has a similar environmental basis to the provincial arrangement of its sister biogeographic region, the

  4. A study on determining the location of groundwater divide using a mathematical morphology method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN; Yun; GONG; Huili; DUAN; Fuzhou; HU; Zhuowei

    2006-01-01

    Placement of a groundwater divide indicates sink areas and spatial distribution, knowledge of which helps in the mapping of regional aquifer properties and the management of groundwater resources. By applying mathematical morphology to a conceptual model of a watershed and characteristic erosion and dilation operations, this paper proposes a structuring element with which to extract the shape and location of groundwater divide. With due consideration to watershed linearity, a structuring element with three origins is designed to connect watershed points. After erosion, closing, and dilation operations, the groundwater divide is determined; the results indicate this method's feasibility and accuracy.

  5. A case against a divide and conquer approach to the nonsymmetric eigenvalue problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jessup, E.R.

    1991-12-01

    Divide and conquer techniques based on rank-one updating have proven fast, accurate, and efficient in parallel for the real symmetric tridiagonal and unitary eigenvalue problems and for the bidiagonal singular value problem. Although the divide and conquer mechanism can also be adapted to the real nonsymmetric eigenproblem in a straightforward way, most of the desirable characteristics of the other algorithms are lost. In this paper, we examine the problems of accuracy and efficiency that can stand in the way of a nonsymmetric divide and conquer eigensolver based on low-rank updating. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Variable-geometry turbocharger with asymmetric divided volute for engine exhaust gas pulse optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serres, Nicolas

    2010-11-09

    A turbine assembly for a variable-geometry turbocharger includes a turbine housing defining a divided volute having first and second scrolls, wherein the first scroll has a substantially smaller volume than the second scroll. The first scroll feeds exhaust gas to a first portion of a turbine wheel upstream of the throat of the wheel, while the second scroll feeds gas to a second portion of the wheel at least part of which is downstream of the throat. Flow from the second scroll is regulated by a sliding piston. The first scroll can be optimized for low-flow conditions such that the turbocharger can operate effectively like a small fixed-geometry turbocharger when the piston is closed. The turbine housing defines an inlet that is divided by a dividing wall into two portions respectively feeding gas to the two scrolls, a leading edge of the dividing wall being downstream of the inlet mouth.

  7. New judging model of fuzzy cluster optimal dividing based on rough sets theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yun; Liu Qinghong; Mu Yong; Shi Kaiquan

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the judging problem of optimal dividing matrix among several fuzzy dividing matrices in fuzzy dividing space, correspondingly, which is determined by the various choices of cluster samples in the totality sample space, two algorithms are proposed on the basis of the data analysis method in rough sets theory: information system discrete algorithm (algorithm 1) and samples representatives judging algorithm (algorithm 2).On the principle of the farthest distance, algorithm 1 transforms continuous data into discrete form which could be transacted by rough sets theory.Taking the approximate precision as a criterion, algorithm 2 chooses the sample space with a good representative.Hence, the clustering sample set in inducing and computing optimal dividing matrix can be achieved.Several theorems are proposed to provide strict theoretic foundations for the execution of the algorithm model.An applied example based on the new algorithm model is given, whose result verifies the feasibility of this new algorithm model.

  8. Residual Phase Noise and Time Jitters of Single-Chip Digital Frequency Dividers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu-Lu Yan; Sen Meng; Wen-Yu Zhao; Wen-Ge Guo; Hai-Feng Jiang; Shou-Gang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract-In this paper, we demonstrate the residual phase noise of a few microwave frequency dividers which usually limit the performance of frequency synthesizers. In order to compare these dividers under different operation frequencies, we calculate additional time jitters of these dividers by using the measured phase noise. The time jitters are various from ~0.1fs to 43fs in a bandwidth from 1Hz to 100Hz in dependent of models and operation frequencies. The HMC series frequency dividers exhibit outstanding performance for high operation frequencies, and the time jitters can be sub-fs. The time jitters of SP8401, MC10EP139, and MC100LVEL34 are comparable or even below that of HMC series for low operation frequencies.

  9. Poor need knowledge not only technology to bridge digital divide: experts

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Developing countries need to gain knowledge rather than technology to latch onto the booming information society, experts said Monday ahead of a major conference on bridging the digital divide between rich and poor" (1/2 page).

  10. Near-Earth Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at CS3-Palmer Divide Station: 2016 April-July

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Brian D.

    2016-10-01

    Lightcurves for 31 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), obtained at the Center for Solar System Studies-Palmer Divide Station (CS3-PDS) from 2016 April-July, were analyzed for rotation period and signs of satellites or tumbling.

  11. Review: Funston, John (ed. (2009, Divided Over Thaksin: Thailand’s Coup and Problematic Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Chambers

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Review of the edited volume: Funston, John (ed. (2009, Divided Over Thaksin: Thailand’s Coup and Problematic Transition, Chiangmai: Silkworm Books, Singapore: ISEAS. ISBN 978-981-230-961-7, 203 pages.

  12. Near-Earth Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at CS3-Palmer Divide Station: 2016 October-December

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Brian D.

    2017-04-01

    Lightcurves for 33 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) obtained at the Center for Solar System Studies-Palmer Divide Station (CS3-PDS) from 2016 October through December were analyzed for rotation period and signs of satellites or tumbling.

  13. 变频器限流电阻旁路开关的选用探讨%Research on selection of bypass switch for current-limit resistor of inverter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席志刚

    2016-01-01

    介绍了目前固态继电器、交流接触器、单极直流接触器等变频器的限流电阻保护用旁路开关的具体用法和选用习惯,讨论解决了在使用单极直流接触器时绝缘电压选择、接触器并联使用及额定工作电压选择等相关问题。%The usages and the selection trend of the bypass switches for the current-limit resistors of the solid-state relays, AC contactors and single-polar DC contactors of the inverters are presented. The three problems and the relevant solutions on the insulation voltage, the parallel connection and the rated working voltage for the single-polar DC contactors using are also given.

  14. Controls on Variable Fractal Geometry of the Conterminous U.S. Continental Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice-Snow, S.

    2004-05-01

    Relief, dominant surficial process, and bedrock geology stand among the potential controls of drainage divide plan-view geometry. This study addresses correlations among these factors for 65 divide trace segments comprising the Continental Divide in the conterminous U.S. The divider-walk method provides a detailed analysis of Divide plan-view geometry, with resulting fractal dimension (D) values giving an index of the degree of Divide wandering. Within this study's resolution range of 0.5 - 50 km, approximate self-similarity is a common feature of all Divide trace segments. However there are distinct shifts of geometry expressed in part by varying D values, along the Divide trace (from segment to segment) and, in many cases, across the scale ranges of inspection for individual segments. Thirty-nine of the segments display homogeneous fractal character, with a single linear Richardson plot trend identified. The remaining cases are heterogeneous in character, with two distinct linear trends. Fifteen of these display greater wandering (higher D) at relatively fine scales (approx. 0.5 - 2.4 km resolution), while eleven show greater wandering at coarse scales (approx. 3.0 - 18 km). These three categories, along with fine and coarse scale D values quantified for all segments, provide a basis for further analysis. Divide trace fractal dimension values range from 1.01 to 1.16. A mean value of 1.09 applies to each scale range, but coarse scale D displays greater variance than fine scale D. Effects of control factors also relate mainly to variance of fractal dimension values, rather than means of those values. Segments traversing sedimentary bedrock show less variance in D values than those traversing igneous-metamorphic and mixed lithologies. This effect is especially apparent in the coarse scale range. Divide crests dominated by fluvial processes show more coarse scale D variance than those affected by strong alpine glacial sculpting, but this effect entirely disappears at

  15. The robotics divide a new frontier in the 21st century?

    CERN Document Server

    López Peláez, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Analyzes how robotics will shape our societies in the twenty-first century; a time when industrial and service robotics, particularly for military and aerospace purposes, will become an essential technology Examines an emerging divide: the "robotics divide"; a phenomenon linked to the model to integrate advanced robotics in economic, social and military spheres Focuses on the main technological trends in the field of robotics, and the impact that robotics will have on different facets of social life

  16. Statistical and numerical methods to improve the transient divided bar method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bording, Thue Sylvester; Nielsen, S.B.; Balling, N.

    The divided bar method is a commonly used method to measure thermal conductivity of rock samples in laboratory. We present improvements to this method that allows for simultaneous measurements of both thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. The divided bar setup is run in a transient mode a...... and the temperature distribution in the stack is simulated by Finite Element Modeling (FEM). A Markov Chain Monte Carlo Metropolis Hastings (MCMCMH) algorithm is used to estimate the thermal parameters of the sample....

  17. Combined method for simultaneously dewatering and reconstituting finely divided carbonaceous material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Wu-Wey; Deurbrouck, Albert W.

    1990-01-01

    A finely-divided carbonaceous material is dewatered and reconstituted in a combined process by adding a binding agent directly into slurry of finely divided material and dewatering the material to form a cake or consolidated piece which can be hardened by drying at ambient or elevated temperatures. Alternatively, the binder often in the form of a crusting agent is sprayed onto the surface of a moist cake prior to curing.

  18. Creative and analytical thinking in connection to focused sustained and divided attention

    OpenAIRE

    Primož Žagavec

    2005-01-01

    In our research we examined the relation between creative and analytical thinking. We also tried to determine the relation of both types of thinking with divided and sustained attention. Some authors believe that creative and analytical thinking are in contradiction with each other. There is also a question of connection of both types of thinking with attention. Analytical thinking is supposed to be connected with focused attention, while creative thinking is suppose to connect with divided a...

  19. Design of T-Split Power Divider Using Double Ended Spur-Line DMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyra, Tamasi; Parui, Susanta Kumar; Das, Santanu

    2016-09-01

    Power dividers and power combiners are passive microwave components for power dividing and power combining. In this article one T-split equal power divider has been designed by using conventional 50 Ω microstrip line and double ended spur line renamed as defected microstrip structures (DMS). Introducing DMS provides one stop band characteristics, changes the effective inductance and capacitance of the line by increasing effective dielectric constant, reduces the phase velocity and supports slow-wave propagation. Thus, increases the effective line impedance of the microstrip line. Consequently, all passive and active components that are implemented using DMS have a miniaturized size compared to conventional components. In this paper one 3 dB or equal power divider has been designed at 1.6 GHz in the first step. Where, 100 Ω output line is implemented using double ended spur type DMS on conventional 50 Ω microstrip line. In the second step each output port power has been divided equally into 6 dB in the next level of the branch. Design of those dividers are very simple and have wide applications in microwave circuits and feeds of array antennas.

  20. The Influence of Selective and Divided Attention on Audiovisual Integration in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiping; Ren, Yanna; Yang, Dan Ou; Yuan, Xue; Wu, Jinglong

    2016-01-24

    This article aims to investigate whether there is a difference in audiovisual integration in school-aged children (aged 6 to 13 years; mean age = 9.9 years) between the selective attention condition and divided attention condition. We designed a visual and/or auditory detection task that included three blocks (divided attention, visual-selective attention, and auditory-selective attention). The results showed that the response to bimodal audiovisual stimuli was faster than to unimodal auditory or visual stimuli under both divided attention and auditory-selective attention conditions. However, in the visual-selective attention condition, no significant difference was found between the unimodal visual and bimodal audiovisual stimuli in response speed. Moreover, audiovisual behavioral facilitation effects were compared between divided attention and selective attention (auditory or visual attention). In doing so, we found that audiovisual behavioral facilitation was significantly difference between divided attention and selective attention. The results indicated that audiovisual integration was stronger in the divided attention condition than that in the selective attention condition in children. Our findings objectively support the notion that attention can modulate audiovisual integration in school-aged children. Our study might offer a new perspective for identifying children with conditions that are associated with sustained attention deficit, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  1. Water Wisdom: 23 Stand-Alone Activities on Water Supply and Water Conservation for High School Students. 2nd Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts State Water Resources Authority, Boston.

    This water conservation education program for high schools consists of both stand-alone activities and teacher support materials. Lessons are divided into six broad categories: (1) The Water Cycle; (2) Water and Society; (3) Keeping Water Pure; (4) Visualizing Volumes; (5) The Economics of Water Use; and (6) Domestic Water Conservation. The…

  2. EFFECT OF DIVIDED CORE ON THE BENDING PERFORMANCES OF TEXTILE REINFORCED FOAM CORE SANDWICH COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALPYILDIZ Tuba

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich composites are generally used in marine applications, wind turbines, space and aircraft vehicles due to their high bending rigidities in addition to their lighter weights. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of divided foam core and interlayer sheet of glass fabric on the bending performances of sandwich composites which are manufactured with glass fabrics as the facesheets/interlayer sheets and PVC foam as the core material. Sandwich composites with single and divided core are manufactured and compared in terms of flexural behavious via three point bending tests. It is found that the bending performance is enhanced with the use of divided core and using divided core does not affect the behaviour of the sandwich composite against bending deformations. In the case of the plain core sandwich composite, dividing the core is advised for certain applications rather than perforating the core to increase the bending stiffness and strength of the textile reinforced sandwich composites because it is possible to purchase core with any thickness and there is no need for additional process such as perforation. The proposed application could enhance the bending performances without altering the weight and cost of the sandwich composites, which are preferred due to their higher bending rigidities in relation to their lighter weights.

  3. A Social Milieu Approach to the Online Participation Divides in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on digital divides has been helpful in advancing our understanding of the social structuration of Internet access, motivations to go online, digital skills, and Internet (non-use, including participatory uses. However, digital divide research has been criticized for oversimplifying the relationship between demographic characteristics and Internet use and for its under-theorization. A social milieu approach, inspired by Pierre Bourdieu’s sociological theory, presents an excellent set of concepts to address these criticisms and thus advance digital divide research. This article uses the social milieu approach for an empirical investigation of the participation divides in Germany. Focus groups and online communities with 96 participants from seven distinct Internet milieus serve to differentiate online participation along social lines. The results show that German citizens are strongly segregated into distinct Internet milieus that differ in their intensity, variety, understanding, and attitudes toward online participation. Each milieu displays specific participatory patterns and some of the findings challenge existing research on digital and participation divides. Implications are derived and limitations of the approach carved out.

  4. Knowledge Reduction Based on Divide and Conquer Method in Rough Set Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The divide and conquer method is a typical granular computing method using multiple levels of abstraction and granulations. So far, although some achievements based on divided and conquer method in the rough set theory have been acquired, the systematic methods for knowledge reduction based on divide and conquer method are still absent. In this paper, the knowledge reduction approaches based on divide and conquer method, under equivalence relation and under tolerance relation, are presented, respectively. After that, a systematic approach, named as the abstract process for knowledge reduction based on divide and conquer method in rough set theory, is proposed. Based on the presented approach, two algorithms for knowledge reduction, including an algorithm for attribute reduction and an algorithm for attribute value reduction, are presented. Some experimental evaluations are done to test the methods on uci data sets and KDDCUP99 data sets. The experimental results illustrate that the proposed approaches are efficient to process large data sets with good recognition rate, compared with KNN, SVM, C4.5, Naive Bayes, and CART.

  5. Large-scale atomistic simulations of nanostructured materials based on divide-and-conquer density functional theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vashishta P.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A linear-scaling algorithm based on a divide-and-conquer (DC scheme is designed to perform large-scale molecular-dynamics simulations, in which interatomic forces are computed quantum mechanically in the framework of the density functional theory (DFT. This scheme is applied to the thermite reaction at an Al/Fe2O3 interface. It is found that mass diffusion and reaction rate at the interface are enhanced by a concerted metal-oxygen flip mechanism. Preliminary simulations are carried out for an aluminum particle in water based on the conventional DFT, as a target system for large-scale DC-DFT simulations. A pair of Lewis acid and base sites on the aluminum surface preferentially catalyzes hydrogen production in a low activation-barrier mechanism found in the simulations

  6. The Political Divide Over Same-Sex Marriage: Mating Strategies in Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsof, David; Haselton, Martie

    2016-04-01

    Although support for same-sex marriage has grown dramatically over the past decade, public opinion remains markedly divided. Here, we propose that the political divide over same-sex marriage represents a deeper divide between conflicting mating strategies. Specifically, we propose that opposition to same-sex marriage can be explained in terms of (a) individual differences in short-term mating orientation and (b) mental associations between homosexuality and sexual promiscuity. We created a novel Implicit Association Test to measure mental associations between homosexuality and promiscuity. We found that mental associations between homosexuality and promiscuity, at both the implicit and the explicit levels, interacted with short-term mating orientation to predict opposition to same-sex marriage. Our model accounted for 42.3% of the variation in attitudes toward same-sex marriage, and all predictors remained robust when we controlled for potential confounds. Our results reveal the centrality of mating psychology in attitudes toward same-sex marriage.

  7. An InGaAs/InP 40 GHz CML static frequency divider

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Yongbo; Jin Zhi; Cheng Wei; Ge Ji; Wang Xiantai; Chen Gaopeng; Liu Xinyu; Xu Anhuai; Qi Ming

    2011-01-01

    Static frequency dividers are widely used as a circuit performance benchmark or figure-of-merit indicator to gauge a particular device technology's ability to implement high speed digital and integrated high performance mixed-signal circuits.We report a 2:1 static frequency divider in InGaAs/InP heterojunction bipolar transistor technology.This is the first InP based digital integrated circuit ever reported on the mainland of China.The divider is implemented in differential current mode logic (CML) with 30 transistors.The circuit operated at a peak clock frequency of 40 GHz and dissipated 650 mW from a single -5 V supply.

  8. The effect of divided attention on emotion-induced memory narrowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R; Waring, Jill D; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Individuals are more likely to remember emotional than neutral information, but this benefit does not always extend to the surrounding background information. This memory narrowing is theorised to be linked to the availability of attentional resources at encoding. In contrast to the predictions of this theoretical account, altering participants' attentional resources at encoding by dividing attention did not affect emotion-induced memory narrowing. Attention was divided using three separate manipulations: a digit ordering task (Experiment 1), an arithmetic task (Experiment 2) and an auditory discrimination task (Experiment 3). Across all three experiments, divided attention decreased memory across the board but did not affect the degree of memory narrowing. These findings suggest that theories to explain memory narrowing must be expanded to include other potential mechanisms beyond the limitations of attentional resources.

  9. Photonic-crystal switch divider based on Ge2Sb2Te5 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Beijiao; Zhang, Peiqing; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Tengyu; Zeng, Jianghui; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Guoxiang; Xu, Peipeng; Zhang, Wei; Dai, Shixun

    2016-11-10

    A three-port phase-change photonic-crystal switch divider based on Ge2Sb2Te5 chalcogenide thin film was proposed. The chalcogenide material used was determined to have a high refractive index and fast phase-change speed by using laser radiation. The structure with a T-junction cavity was used to achieve three switch functions: switching "ON" in only one output port, switching "OFF" in both output ports, and dividing signals into two output ports. The transmission properties of the designed device at 2.0 μm were studied by the finite difference time domain method, which showed that the switch divider can achieve very high switching efficiency by optimizing T-junction cavity parameters. The scaling laws of photonic crystals revealed that the operating wavelength of the designed structure can be easily extended to another wavelength in the midinfrared region.

  10. Modeling of a Planar Nine-Way Metamaterial Power Divider/Combiner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Chiang Lee; Tah-Hsiung Chu

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of the scattering parameters (S-parameters) of planarN-way metamaterial power dividers/combiners mostly uses commercial microwave circuit simulators due to the large circuit size involved. This paper presents an efficient circuit modeling approach, which is based on the multi-input and multi-output transmission matrix (T-matrix) method, to analyze theS-parameter of a planar nine-way metamaterial power-divider/combiner structure. S-parameter computation results are shown in good agreement with the simulation results by using the Agilent advanced design system (ADS) and measurement results. The computation time of an N-way metamaterial power divider/combiner withN=5, 9, 13, and 17 usingT-matrix method is also compared with those of ADS and AWR Microwave Office (MWO) to demonstrate its computational efficiency.

  11. Theoretical and Experimental Results of Substrate Effects on Microstrip Power Divider Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhair Mansoor Mahmood

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of substrate materials on the design of microstrip power divider are investigated theoretically and experimentally. Three dielectric substrate materials, Duroid 3003, G10/FR4 epoxy Glass, and Duroid 3010, are chosen to be studied. A three-way two-stage power divider is designed at S-band frequency of 2.25 GHz and etched on each studied substrate separately. The substrate effects on the characteristics and performance of the microsrip circuits are studied taking into consideration the large difference in dielectric constant and the dissipation factor. The circuit designs presented here are analyzed using the Genesys CAD program and implemented and tested experimentally. The simulated and measured results are compared and discussed, and they indicate that significant changes in the characteristics of the microstrip power divider are observed.

  12. Are divided attention tasks useful in the assessment and management of sport-related concussion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Register-Mihalik, Johna K; Littleton, Ashley C; Guskiewicz, Kevin M

    2013-12-01

    This article is a systematic review of the literature on divided attention assessment inclusive of a cognitive and motor task (balance or gait) for use in concussion management. The systematic review drew from published papers listed in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL databases. The search identified 19 empirical research papers meeting the inclusion criteria. Study results were considered for the psychometric properties of the paradigms, the influence of divided attention on measures of cognition and postural control and the comparison of divided attention task outcomes between individuals with concussion and healthy controls (all samples were age 17 years or older). The review highlights that the reliability of the tasks under a divided attention paradigm presented ranges from low to high (ICC: 0.1-0.9); however, only 3/19 articles included psychometric information. Response times are greater, gait strategies are less efficient, and postural control deficits are greater in concussed participants compared with healthy controls both immediately and for some period following concussive injury, specifically under divided attention conditions. Dual task assessments in some cases were more reliable than single task assessments and may be better able to detect lingering effects following concussion. Few of the studies have been replicated and applied across various age groups. A key limitation of these studies is that many include laboratory and time-intensive measures. Future research is needed to refine a time and cost efficient divided attention assessment paradigm, and more work is needed in younger (pre-teens) populations where the application may be of greatest utility.

  13. Reducing the Digital Divide among Children Who Received Desktop or Hybrid Computers for the Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gila Cohen Zilka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and policy makers have been exploring ways to reduce the digital divide. Parameters commonly used to examine the digital divide worldwide, as well as in this study, are: (a the digital divide in the accessibility and mobility of the ICT infrastructure and of the content infrastructure (e.g., sites used in school; and (b the digital divide in literacy skills. In the present study we examined the degree of effectiveness of receiving a desktop or hybrid computer for the home in reducing the digital divide among children of low socio-economic status aged 8-12 from various localities across Israel. The sample consisted of 1,248 respondents assessed in two measurements. As part of the mixed-method study, 128 children were also interviewed. Findings indicate that after the children received desktop or hybrid computers, changes occurred in their frequency of access, mobility, and computer literacy. Differences were found between the groups: hybrid computers reduce disparities and promote work with the computer and surfing the Internet more than do desktop computers. Narrowing the digital divide for this age group has many implications for the acquisition of skills and study habits, and consequently, for the realization of individual potential. The children spoke about self improvement as a result of exposure to the digital environment, about a sense of empowerment and of improvement in their advantage in the social fabric. Many children expressed a desire to continue their education and expand their knowledge of computer applications, the use of software, of games, and more. Therefore, if there is no computer in the home and it is necessary to decide between a desktop and a hybrid computer, a hybrid computer is preferable.

  14. E-LEARNING AND THE GLOBAL DIVIDE: The Challenges Facing Distance Education in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamidele A. OJO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the question of distance education and its pivotal role in promoting social change and development in Africa. It also discussed within the context of the global digital divide and the ongoing need for collaborative effort at global education, the limitation imposed by the socio-economic and political environment on the continent. The paper in its findings conclude that the crisis within African societies constitutes a serious challenge to the implementation of and the effectiveness of distance education in Africa and therefore contributes to the widening of the digital divide rather than reducing it.

  15. MRI enterography with divided dose oral preparation: Effect on bowel distension and diagnostic quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Sinha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the impact of an extended oral preparation magnetic resonance (MR enterography protocol on bowel distension, timing of imaging, and the quality of diagnostic images. Materials and Methods: An analysis of 52 patients who underwent divided oral preparation and 39 patients who underwent standard preparation for MR enterography examination was done. Distension was assessed by measuring the transverse diameters of the jejunum, ileum, and the ileocecal region. Diagnostic quality of the examination was assessed subjectively by two radiologists and graded as poor, diagnostic, and excellent (Grades 1-3. Correlation between bowel diameter and diagnostic quality was assessed using regression analysis. Results: The mean diameters of the jejunum, ileum, and colon in patients who underwent divided preparation were 1.90 ± 0.47, 2.14 ± 0.41, and 4.27 ± 0.96 cm, respectively, and the mean diameters in patients who underwent standard preparation were 1.46 ± 0.47, 2.02 ± 0.47, and 4.45 ± 0.90 cm, respectively. A total of 96.6% of patients on divided dose had diagnostic distension of the bowel (Grades 2 and 3. A total of 87.9% of the patients on standard dose had diagnostic distension of the bowel (Grades 2 and 3. A greater number of patients who underwent divided preparation had diagnostic quality examinations compared to those given standard preparation (96.6% vs. 87.9%. A greater number of patients who underwent divided preparation had Grade 3 quality examinations compared to those on standard preparation (75.5% vs. 68.5%. There was significant difference between diagnostic (Grades 2 and 3 and optimal grades (Grade 3 of the jejunal diameters in patients having divided or standard preparation (89.7% vs. 66.6%, P < 0.05; 40.8% vs. 25%, P < 0.05, respectively. Linear regression showed a positive correlation between increasing bowel diameter and diagnostic grade of the examination (ρ = 0.76. Conclusion: Using an extended oral preparation with

  16. Bridging the Digital Divide Creating Digital Dividend - The Investigation in Guizhou Province and the Analysis of GZNW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linbo Jing

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with attention to the digital divide. It gives a brief overview of the digital divide on a global basis and analyzes specific aspects of the digital divide in our country. It also introduces the informationization construction of Guizhou Province and points out problems with the digital divide in that province. Then it focuses on the practice of Guizhou Province to bridge the digital divide ---- the practice and experience of GZNW. The final section gives a series of policy recommendations on how to bridge the digital divide, realize digital dividends, and how to build a new socialist countryside.

  17. Building Bridging Social Capital in a Divided Society: The Role of Participatory Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Alan; Niens, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Participatory citizenship education has been highlighted as a strategy to promote social cohesion in divided societies whereby collaborations with non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and inter-school links have been proposed as tools to improve social networks between schools and communities. This article explores the role and meaning of…

  18. Social Justice Leadership in Multicultural Schools: The Case of an Ethnically Divided Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Iasonos, Sotiroula

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of an exploratory study focusing on the perceptions of elementary school principals who espouse a critical multicultural approach and show signs of a social justice leadership style. The study has taken place in an ethnically divided society (Cyprus) in which the political situation seems to influence the ways in…

  19. Revisiting the Digital Divide in the Context of a "Flattening" World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramony, Deepak Prem

    2014-01-01

    This article employs a variety of theoretical lenses to describe the nature and ramifications of the Digital Divide, which, the author states, continues to remain one of the biggest social challenges to confront the human race in modern times--even as technological advances, globalization, and other socioeconomic shifts are rendering digital media…

  20. An Analysis of the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service's Role in Bridging the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Antoine J.; Hilton, Lashawn; English, Chastity Warren; Elbert, Chanda; Wakefield, Dexter

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here sought to determine the perception of North Carolina County Cooperative Extension directors in regard to the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service's role in bridging the digital divide. It was perceived by respondents that variables such as income, education, gender, disability status, race/ethnicity, age, and…

  1. The Digital Divide across All Citizens of the World: A New Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the requirements for and implications of, moving from the confines of the conventional concept of the digital divide to one that reflects a world distribution of Internet users with different income levels, with particular reference to those users living in poverty. The first part of the note provides a simple,…

  2. Reducing the Digital Divide through ICT Adoption: Factors, Barriers, and How ICT in Schools Can Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengtrakul, Pitikorn

    2013-01-01

    Through econometric analysis of data from multiple surveys, this study explores factors that affect ICT adoption and evaluates the extent to which ICT in schools affect the ICT adoption of surrounding communities, in order to provide a perspective that can help narrow the gap of digital divide. Understanding factors affecting ICT adoption may…

  3. Mapping the Digital Divide in Britain: Implications for Learning and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eynon, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    The internet presents many potential opportunities for people to learn for both formal and informal purposes. However, not everyone is able to make the most of the internet for learning. This paper utilises quantitative nationally representative survey data of internet use in Britain in order to explore the digital divide in relation to learning…

  4. Mobile Phones Bridging the Digital Divide for Teens in the US?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Katie; Campbell, Scott; Ling, Richard

    2011-01-01

    of the digital divide, offering internet access to those without other means of going online. This is an important move, as, in today’s society, internet access is central to active citizenship in general and teen citizenship in particular. Yet the cost of this move toward equal access is absorbed by those who...

  5. Overcoming the Digital Divide: The Story of an Urban Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banister, Savilla; Fischer, John

    2010-01-01

    Access to appropriate technological resources in schools has become an issue, commonly labeled the "digital divide." While the debate ensues in regards to an explicit definition for this phenomenon, research overwhelmingly demonstrates that students of marginalized populations remain on the lower end of access to and innovative use of current…

  6. Still Digitally Divided? An Assessment of Historically Black College and University Library Web Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Renee Franklin

    2012-01-01

    Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) are post-secondary institutions which, at one time, were considered to be particularly affected by the digital divide. Research study results have suggested the need for HBCUs to continuously increase campus technology. Guided by four research questions, this study examines the current state of…

  7. From Atoms to Bits: Consequences of the Emerging Digital Divide in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagtar

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the impact of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and the digital divide in India. Considers the impact of information technologies, including the Internet and the Web, on the life and work of people; digital determinism; library and information infrastructure and superstructure; digital library initiatives; and the need…

  8. Consolidation of Science Education in Ethnically Divided Postwar Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šorgo, Andrej; Živkovic, Mate

    2015-01-01

    Because of war and civil war on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina, education in ethnically divided country has become fragmented. Because of postwar divisions thirteen different ministries of education or similar bodies are responsible for education, resulting in inefficiency and low quality. To overcome differences, a committee of experts…

  9. Near-Earth Asteorid Lightcurve Analysis at CS3-Palmer Divide Station: 2016 January-April

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Brian D.

    2016-07-01

    Lightcurves for 38 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) were obtained at the Center for Solar System Studies-Palmer Divide Station (CS3-PDS) from 2016 January-April. Also reported are 4 lightcurves obtained from 2014-2015 that were not previously published.

  10. Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at CS3-Palmer Divide Station: 2015 June-September

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    Lightcurves for 29 main-belt asteroids were obtained at the Center for Solar System Studies-Palmer Divide Station (CS3-PDS) from 2015 June-September. Hungaria members 1876 Napolitania and (47141) 1999 HB3 are suspected binary asteroids.

  11. How To Manage the Emerging Generational Divide in the Contemporary Knowledge-Rich Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novicevic, Milorad M.; Buckley, M. Ronald

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the manager's dilemmas and options in resolving emerging latent intergenerational conflict in the contemporary knowledge-rich workplace. Topics include a theoretical framework for generational divide management; the polarization in task requirements; social and environmental factors; differences in employee needs and expectations; and…

  12. Bridging the Digital Divide: Changing the Technological Landscape of Inner-City Catholic Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Michael G.; Dosen, Anthony J.; Guerrero, Rosalie B.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an evaluation of the Bridging the Digital Divide Program, an intervention in five inner-city Chicago Catholic schools during one school year conducted by a local university. The interventions included (a) instillation of technology and (b) professional technology skill development for in-service teachers. The analysis…

  13. From Access to Usage: The Divide of Self-Reported Digital Skills among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Zhi-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Based on the PISA data in 2003 and 2006, this paper develops a hierarchical linear model to identify multi-level explanatory variables of the divide of adolescents' self-reported digital skills. At the country-level, the study finds a generally negative relationship between the ICT penetration rate of a country and adolescents' digital skills,…

  14. Reassessing the Racial Divide in Support for Capital Punishment: The Continuing Significance of Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnever, James D.; Cullen, Francis T.

    2007-01-01

    This project investigates the racial divide in support for capital punishment. The authors examine whether race has a direct effect on support for capital punishment and test whether the influence of race varies across class, being a native southerner, confidence in government officials, political orientation, and religious affiliation. Using data…

  15. Digital divide across borders : A cross-national study of adolescents’ use of digital technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.; Peter, J.; Kraaykamp, G.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we analyse digital divides in terms of social inequality in digital access and use patterns from a hierarchical perspective. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 in 30 nations, we focus on social cleavages in mid-adolescents’ access and use of

  16. Digital divide across borders: A cross-national study of adolescents use of digital technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.J.W.R.; Peter, J.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we analyse digital divides in terms of social inequality in digital access and use patterns from a hierarchical perspective. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 in 30 nations, we focus on social cleavages in mid-adolescents access and use of

  17. Selective and divided attention modulates auditory-vocal integration in the processing of pitch feedback errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Hu, Huijing; Jones, Jeffery A; Guo, Zhiqiang; Li, Weifeng; Chen, Xi; Liu, Peng; Liu, Hanjun

    2015-08-01

    Speakers rapidly adjust their ongoing vocal productions to compensate for errors they hear in their auditory feedback. It is currently unclear what role attention plays in these vocal compensations. This event-related potential (ERP) study examined the influence of selective and divided attention on the vocal and cortical responses to pitch errors heard in auditory feedback regarding ongoing vocalisations. During the production of a sustained vowel, participants briefly heard their vocal pitch shifted up two semitones while they actively attended to auditory or visual events (selective attention), or both auditory and visual events (divided attention), or were not told to attend to either modality (control condition). The behavioral results showed that attending to the pitch perturbations elicited larger vocal compensations than attending to the visual stimuli. Moreover, ERPs were likewise sensitive to the attentional manipulations: P2 responses to pitch perturbations were larger when participants attended to the auditory stimuli compared to when they attended to the visual stimuli, and compared to when they were not explicitly told to attend to either the visual or auditory stimuli. By contrast, dividing attention between the auditory and visual modalities caused suppressed P2 responses relative to all the other conditions and caused enhanced N1 responses relative to the control condition. These findings provide strong evidence for the influence of attention on the mechanisms underlying the auditory-vocal integration in the processing of pitch feedback errors. In addition, selective attention and divided attention appear to modulate the neurobehavioral processing of pitch feedback errors in different ways.

  18. Toward a Multifaceted Model of Internet Access for Understanding Digital Divides: An Empirical Investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, van Alexander J.A.M.; Dijk, van Jan A.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this investigation, a multifaceted model of Internet appropriation that encompasses four types of access—motivational, material, skills, and usage—is tested with a representative sample of the Dutch population. The analysis indicates that while the digital divide policies' focus has moved to skil

  19. The third level digital divide: who benefits most from being online?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deursen, van Alexander J.A.M.; Helsper, Ellen J.; Robinson, Laura; Cotten, Shelia R.; Schulz, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Research into the explanations of digital inclusion has moved from investigations of skills and usage to tangible outcomes, what we label here as the third-level digital divide. There is a lack of theoretical development about which types of people are most likely to benefit. Understanding

  20. 21 CFR 610.63 - Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Divided manufacturing responsibility to be shown. 610.63 Section 610.63 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... manufacturing responsibility to be shown. If two or more licensed manufacturers participate in the...

  1. Two Aspects of the Rural-Urban Divide and Educational Stratification in China: A Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingxin; Hu, Alfred; Lo, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Contextualized in China's social change of the past half-century, this article conceptualizes the two aspects of China's rural-urban divide in educational inequality--the household registration system ("hukou") assigns people to a hierarchy, and the rural-urban schooling system institutionalizes unequal resource distribution and diverse…

  2. 75 FR 54085 - Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 171 (Friday, September 3, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 54085] [FR Doc No: 2010-22037] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Divide Ranger District, Rio Grande National Forest; Colorado; Big Moose Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, Rio...

  3. An Internal ALD-Based High Voltage Divider and Signal Circuit for MCP-based Photodetectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Bernhard W.; Elagin, Andrey; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Frisch, Henry J.; Genat, Jean-Francois; Gregar, Joseph S.; Mane, Anil U.; Minot, Michael J.; Northrup, Richard; Obaid, Razib; Oberla, Eric; Alexander, Vostrikov; Wetstein, Matthew

    2015-04-21

    We describe a pin-less design for the high voltage (HV) resistive divider of the all-glass LAPPD (TM) 8 in,square thin photodetector module. The divider, which distributes high voltage applied to the photocathode to the two micro-channel plates (MCPs) that constitute the amplification stage, is comprised of the two MCPs and three glass mechanical spacers, each of which is coated with a resistive layer using atomic layer deposition (ALD). The three glass grid spacers and the two MCPs form a continuous resistive path between cathode and anode, with the voltages across the MCPs and the spacers determined by the resistance of each. High voltage is applied on an external tab on the top glass window that connects to the photocathode through the metal seal. The DC ground is supplied by microstrips on the bottom glass plate that form the high-bandwidth anode. The microstrips exit the package through the glass-frit seal of the anode base-plate and the package sidewall. The divider is thus completely internal, with no HV pins penetrating the low-profile flat glass package. Measurements of the performance of the divider are presented for the 8 in.-square MCP and spacer package in a custom test fixture and for an assembled externally pumped LAPPD (TM) prototype with an aluminum photocathode. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Asymmetric localization of Numb:EGFP in dividing neuroepithelial cells during neurulation in Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reugels, Alexander M; Boggetti, Barbara; Scheer, Nico; Campos-Ortega, José A

    2006-04-01

    In the neural plate and tube of the zebrafish embryo, cells divide with their mitotic spindles oriented parallel to the plane of the neuroepithelium, whilst in the neural keel and rod, the spindle is oriented perpendicular to it. This change is achieved by a 90 degrees rotation of the mitotic spindle. We cloned zebrafish homologues of the gene for the Drosophila cell fate determinant Numb, and analyzed the localization of EGFP fusion proteins in vivo in dividing neuroepithelial cells during neurulation. Whereas Numb isoform 3 and the related protein Numblike are localized in the cytoplasm, Numb isoform 1 is localized to the cell membrane. Time-lapse analyses showed that Numb 1 is distributed uniformly around the cell cortex in dividing cells during plate and keel stages, but becomes localized at the basolateral membrane of some dividing cells during the transition from neural rod to tube. Using in vitro mutagenesis and Numb:EGFP deletion constructs, we showed that the first 196 amino acids of Numb are sufficient for this localization. Furthermore, we found that an 11-amino acid insertion in the PTB domain is essential for localization to the cortex, whereas amino acids 2-12 mediate the basolateral localization in the neural tube stage.

  5. Nuclear Technology. Course 27: Metrology. Module 27-2, Fixed Gages, Dividers, Calipers, and Micrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleck, Ben; Espy, John

    This second in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology dscribes fixed gages, dividers, calipers, vernier and dial calipers, and micrometers. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (l) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject matter, (6)…

  6. An improved fully integrated, high-speed, dual-modulus divider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sun; Yong, Xu; Guangyan, Ma; Hui, Shi; Fei, Zhao; Ying, Lin

    2014-11-01

    A fully integrated 2n/2n+1 dual-modulus divider in GHz frequency range is presented. The improved structure can make all separated logic gates embed into correlative D flip—flops completely. In this way, the complex logic functions can be performed with a minimum number of devices and with maximum speed, so that lower power consumption and faster speed are obtained. In addition, the low-voltage bandgap reference needed by the frequency divider is specifically designed to provide a 1.0 V output. According to the design demand, the circuit is fabricated in 0.18 μm standard CMOS process, and the measured results show that its operating frequency range is 1.1-2.5 GHz. The dual-modulus divider dissipates 1.1 mA from a 1.8 V power supply. The temperature coefficient of the reference voltage circuit is 8.3 ppm/°C when the temperature varies from -40 to +125 °C. By comparison, the dual-modulus divide designed in this paper can possess better performance and flexibility.

  7. An improved fully integrated, high-speed, dual-modulus divider

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zheng; Xu Yong; Ma Guangyan; Shi Hui; Zhao Fei; Lin Ying

    2014-01-01

    A fully integrated 2n/2n+l dual-modulus divider in GHz frequency range is presented.The improved structure can make all separated logic gates embed into correlative D flip-flops completely.In this way,the complex logic functions can be performed with a minimum number of devices and with maximum speed,so that lower power consumption and faster speed are obtained.In addition,the low-voltage bandgap reference needed by the frequency divider is specifically designed to provide a 1.0 V output.According to the design demand,the circuit is fabricated in 0.18μm standard CMOS process,and the measured results show that its operating frequency range is 1.1-2.5 GHz.The dual-modulus divider dissipates 1.1 mA from a 1.8 V power supply.The temperature coefficient of the reference voltage circuit is 8.3 ppm/℃ when the temperature varies from-40 to + 125 ℃.By comparison,the dual-modulus divide designed in this paper can possess better performance and flexibility.

  8. Two Aspects of the Rural-Urban Divide and Educational Stratification in China: A Trajectory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lingxin; Hu, Alfred; Lo, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Contextualized in China's social change of the past half-century, this article conceptualizes the two aspects of China's rural-urban divide in educational inequality--the household registration system ("hukou") assigns people to a hierarchy, and the rural-urban schooling system institutionalizes unequal resource distribution…

  9. The costs of monitoring simultaneously two sensory modalities decrease when dividing attention in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Valerio; Fagioli, Sabrina; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2010-02-01

    Traditional views of multisensory integration emphasise the advantage of stimulating or attending to different senses at one single spatial location. We challenge this view demonstrating that in-parallel processing of two sensory modalities can be more efficient when attention is spatially divided rather than focused. We asked subjects to monitor simultaneously vision and audition either at one location (focused attention) or in the two opposite hemifields (divided attention) or to monitor one single modality at one or two locations. Behavioural results demonstrated that the costs of monitoring two modalities, versus one modality, decrease when spatial attention is divided between two separate locations compared with focused attention. Neuroimaging data revealed increased activity in the posterior-parietal cortex (PPC) when monitoring two modalities at different locations, while no specific region was recruited in the focused attention conditions. We suggest that supramodal control and the integration of spatial representations hinders the selection of independent sensory streams when attention is spatially focused, while a greater exploitation of modality-specific resources and the engagement of PPC allows in-parallel processing when attention is spatially divided.

  10. Quantifying and Mapping the Digital Divide from an Internet Point of View

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, R.Les; /SLAC; Khan, Shahryar; /NUST, Rawalpindi; Williams, Jerrod; /SLAC; Mehdi, Akbar; Kalim, Umar; Ali, Arshad; /NUST, Rawalpindi

    2008-09-18

    Quantitative knowledge of the magnitude, extent and trends of the Digital Divide are critical to understand and identify the regions most in need of help, to make rational decisions on how to address the problems and to make cases for executives, funding agencies and politicians. We report on a project (PingER) to measure the Digital Divide from the point of view of Internet performance. The PingER project has been measuring Internet performance since 1995 and with the increased emphasis on measuring and tracking the Digital Divide, it now covers over 700 hosts in over 150 countries that between them contain over 99% of the world's Internet connected population. In this paper we will describe the how PingER works, it deployment, the data analysis, and presentation. We also introduce a new PingER visualization tool (ViPER) that provides a more appealing interactive visualization of the PingER data and also works on mobile PDAs. We will also show results from PingER that illustrate the magnitude, extent and trends for the Digital Divide, and also compare PingER results with some human development and technology indices.

  11. The Racial Divide in Support for the Death Penalty: Does White Racism Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unnever, James D.; Cullen, Francis T.

    2007-01-01

    Using data from the 2000 National Election Study, this research investigates the sources of the racial divide in support for capital punishment with a specific focus on white racism. After delineating a measure of white racism, we explore whether it can account for why a majority of African Americans oppose the death penalty while most whites…

  12. Towards a renewed understanding of the complex nerves of the digital divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Mubarak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Past research has provided ample support for the assertion that advancement in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT accelerates economic growth. Recently, developing countries are witnessing high growth rates in ICT; nevertheless, the pace of research in this sector is relatively lower than the developed world. Although the digital divide globally seems to be diminished over time, the awareness about the issue is on a continuous rise. Despite vast research in the field, the multidimensional aspects of the term ‘digital divide’ are poorly understood. The majority of the published literature on the digital divide suffers from the lack of a multidimensional perspective on the topic. It appears that the conventional knowledge base on the digital divide has caused confusion in academia rather than clarifications. The aim of this paper is to establish an adequate understanding of the enormous complexity that hides in the term ‘digital divide’. For this purpose, a comprehensive literature review consisting of peer reviewed scientific articles was systematically conducted to understand and examine the current trends in the topic. Building on the past peer reviewed research; the present study discusses the multifaceted concept of the digital divide in depth and proposes future courses of action for policy makers.

  13. Arnol'd tongues for a resonant injection-locked frequency divider: analytical and numerical results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartuccelli, Michele; Deane, Jonathan H.B.; Gentile, Guido;

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider a resonant injection-locked frequency divider which is of interest in electronics, and we investigate the frequency locking phenomenon when varying the amplitude and frequency of the injected signal. We study both analytically and numerically the structure of the Arnol’d...

  14. Advanced AODV Protocol for Identify Victim Nodes Using Divide and Conquer Strategy-in MANET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hemalatha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study is there are many protocols have been proposed in Ad-hoc network, but none of the protocol is working under the principle of handling and checking on packet delivery. We have developed a routing protocol called the Advanced Ad-hoc on demand Vector protocol. The working principle of this protocol is checking the packet delivery to the destination. If any one of the nodes in the route is not forwarding the packet, that corresponding node will be identified and redirect the packet to the new route. For doing this checking this protocol uses divide and conquer strategy. The number hop between the source to destination is divided into two halves and check whether the up to the middle node the packet are flowing in a proper order or not. Recursively doing the divide and conquer of the route path, can identify the node which is not forward the packet to the next node. The design of this protocol contains several stages from path discovery, packet transmits, apply divide and conquer strategy on route, identify the victim node which is not forward the packet, redirect the new path, alert all the nodes about the victim node. Finally performance graph has been given compared with AODV protocol.

  15. Gender Divide and Acceptance of Collaborative Web 2.0 Applications for Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Hao David; Hood, Denice Ward; Yoo, Sun Joo

    2013-01-01

    Situated in the gender digital divide framework, this survey study investigated the role of computer anxiety in influencing female college students' perceptions toward Web 2.0 applications for learning. Based on 432 college students' "Web 2.0 for learning" perception ratings collected by relevant categories of "Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use…

  16. Divided attention years after severe closed head injury : The effect of dependencies between the subtasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, W; Verzendaal, M; van der Naalt, J; Smit, J; van Zomeren, E

    2001-01-01

    Lesions of white matter which connects distant brain areas are characteristic for closed head injury (CHI). It was predicted that this impairs divided attention only if dependent subtasks are used which require communication between corresponding brain processes. Fourteen chronic severe CHI patients

  17. Low-power wide-locking-range injection-locked frequency divider for OFDM UWB systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin Jiangwei; Li Ning; Zheng Renliang; Li Wei; Ren Junyan, E-mail: lining@fudan.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes a divide-by-two injection-locked frequency divider (ILFD) for frequency synthesizers as used in multiband orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) ultra-wideband (UWB) systems. By means of dual-injection technique and other conventional tuning techniques, such as DCCA and varactor tuning, the divider demonstrates a wide locking range while consuming much less power. The chip was fabricated in the Jazz 0.18 mum RF CMOS process. The measurement results show that the divider achieves a locking range of 4.85 GHz (6.23 to 11.08 GHz) at an input power of 8 dBm. The core circuit without the test buffer consumes only 3.7 mA from a 1.8 V power supply and has a die area of 0.38 x 0.28 mm{sup 2}. The wide locking range combined with low power consumption makes the ILFD suitable for its application in UWB systems.

  18. Understanding gender bias in face recognition: effects of divided attention at encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Matthew A; Brewer, Neil; Horry, Ruth

    2013-03-01

    Prior research has demonstrated a female own-gender bias in face recognition, with females better at recognizing female faces than male faces. We explored the basis for this effect by examining the effect of divided attention during encoding on females' and males' recognition of female and male faces. For female participants, divided attention impaired recognition performance for female faces to a greater extent than male faces in a face recognition paradigm (Study 1; N=113) and an eyewitness identification paradigm (Study 2; N=502). Analysis of remember-know judgments (Study 2) indicated that divided attention at encoding selectively reduced female participants' recollection of female faces at test. For male participants, divided attention selectively reduced recognition performance (and recollection) for male stimuli in Study 2, but had similar effects on recognition of male and female faces in Study 1. Overall, the results suggest that attention at encoding contributes to the female own-gender bias by facilitating the later recollection of female faces.

  19. Divided attention and driving. The effects of aging and brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withaar, Frederiec Kunna

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis, divided attention was investigated in four groups of subjects: closed head injury (CHI) patients, young control and healthy older subjects, and older subjects with cognitive impairments. It was studied how diffuse brain injury and normal and abnormal aging affect cognitive processes

  20. Study on phase current reconstruction of inverter compressor based on single-resistor sampling%基于单电阻的变频压缩机相电流重构方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李岳; 徐鸣; 黄跃进; 顾江萍; 沈希

    2013-01-01

    为了提高直流变频压缩机的控制效率,降低运行成本,需要对其电动机的定子相电流的精确采样.针对电机三相相电流与直流母线电流及逆变器开关状态的关系,结合压缩机电机的数学模型,采用了一种基于单电阻采样母线电流的电机相电流重构方法.首先,结合永磁同步电机(PMSM)的数学模型,对单电阻电流采样重构三相电流技术及其难点进行了原理上的分析;然后,在空间矢量PWM调制过程中的中、高频调制区的非观测区域采用了预测状态观测器的数学方法,正确、有效地完成了三相电流的重构;最后,基于STM32芯片设计了一套无传感器直流变频压缩机控制的平台.实验结果表明,该方法能够实现正确重构相电流,在低成本的变频冰箱领域具有很高的实际应用价值.%In order to improve the control efficiency of the DC inverter compressor and reduce cost, the phase current of motor stator should be sampled. Aiming at the relationship between the motor three-phase current, DC bus current and inverter switch states, three-phase current reconstruction using only a single-resistor in the inverter DC link was proposed. Firstly, based on the mathematical model of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) , the key technology and difficulties in reconstructing three-phase current by single-resistor sensor were analyzed. Then, a mathematical method of using predictive state observer to the non-observable regions of the middle and high frequency modulation region in the process of space vector PWM modulated was adopted. The three-phase current was constructed effectively and accurately. Finally,based on STM32 chip,a system of senseless DC inverter compressor control was designed. The hardware circuit of the single-resistor sensor was given. The results indicate that this method can correctly reconstruct the phase current and has a high practical value in the field of low-cost frequency

  1. Divide and rule: A qualitative analysis of the debriefing process in elite team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macquet, A-C; Ferrand, C; Stanton, N A

    2015-11-01

    This article aimed to gain an understanding of the process of debriefing during major competitions in elite team sports. Debrief interviews were conducted with 9 head coaches. The interview data were used to identify how head coaches divided up the tasks given to staff and team members prior to, and during the post-match debriefing. Results showed that debriefing consisted of two steps: preparation and presentation. Preparation referred to four successive tasks. Presentation to the team of players consisted of eight tasks relating to transformational and transactional styles of leadership. Coaches were shown to divide the labor within the staff and team. The data tend to support the view that in elite team sports, coaches are both transformational and transactional leaders, adapting their style of leadership to the situation, athletes and time available. This study provides insights into the task-work and team-work underlying team functioning and division of labor.

  2. Optical frequency divider with division uncertainty at the 10^(-21) level

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Yuan; Yu, Hongfu; Bi, Zhiyi; Ma, Longsheng

    2016-01-01

    Optical clocks with unprecedented accuracy of 10^(-18) will lead to innovations in many research areas. All the applications of optical clocks rely on the ability of precisely converting the frequency from one optical clock to another, or particularly to the frequencies in the fiber telecom band for long-distance transmission. Here, we report a low-noise, high precision optical frequency divider. It can realize accurate optical frequency conversion as well as enable precise measurement of optical frequency ratios. By comparing against the frequency ratio between the fundamental and the second harmonic of a 1064 nm laser rather than a second similar system, the optical frequency divider is demonstrated to have a frequency division instability of 6e-19 at 1 s and a fractional frequency division uncertainty of 1.4e-21, nearly three orders of magnitude better than the most accurate optical clocks. It allows optical clocks to be accessible to many precision measurement applications.

  3. Effect of Layers Position on Fracture Toughness of Functionally Graded Steels in Crack Divider Configuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ali Nazari; Jamshid Aghazadeh Mohandesi; Shadi Riahi

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, fracture toughness of functionally graded steels in crack divider configuration has been modeled. By utilizing plain carbon and austenitic stainless steels slices with various thicknesses and arrangements as electroslag remelting electrodes, functionally graded steels were produced. The fracture toughness of the functionally graded steels in crack divider configuration has been found to depend on the composites' type together with the volume fraction and the position of the containing phases. According to the area under stress-strain curve of each layer in the functionally graded steels, a mathematical model has been presented for predicting fracture toughness of composites by using the rule of mixtures. The fracture toughness of each layer has been modified according to the position of that layer where for the edge layers, net plane stress condition was supposed and for the central layers, net plane strain condition was presumed. There is a good agreement between experimental results and those acquired from the analytical model.

  4. Hypospadias: the release of chordee without dividing the urethral plate and onlay island flap (92 cases)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, P; Castagnola, C

    1994-10-01

    Standard teaching states that the correction of fibrous chordee requires division of the urethral plate. Subsequently, it is necessary to reconstruct the urethra using tubular urethroplasty, which carries a significant incidence of complications, for example stenosis. In fact, we have demonstrated that it is possible to release severe chordee associated with hypospadias simply by dissecting the urethral plate of the corpora rather than dividing it. Between 1989 and 1993 we operated on 101 patients with hypospadias with fibrous chordee. The release of chordee was achieved without dividing the plate in 92 patients (91%), including all 71 cases of penile hypospadias, 11 perineal hypospadias and 10 reoperations. A total of 92 urethroplasties was performed with an onlay flap and 19 complications occurred in 15 patients.

  5. A fast divide-and-conquer algorithm for indexing human genome sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Loh, Woong-Kee; Lee, Wookey

    2010-01-01

    Since the release of human genome sequences, one of the most important research issues is about indexing the genome sequences, and the suffix tree is most widely adopted for that purpose. The traditional suffix tree construction algorithms have severe performance degradation due to the memory bottleneck problem. The recent disk-based algorithms also have limited performance improvement due to random disk accesses. Moreover, they do not fully utilize the recent CPUs with multiple cores. In this paper, we propose a fast algorithm based on 'divide-and-conquer' strategy for indexing the human genome sequences. Our algorithm almost eliminates random disk accesses by accessing the disk in the unit of contiguous chunks. In addition, our algorithm fully utilizes the multi-core CPUs by dividing the genome sequences into multiple partitions and then assigning each partition to a different core for parallel processing. Experimental results show that our algorithm outperforms the previous fastest DIGEST algorithm by up t...

  6. R.D. Laing and theology: the influence of Christian existentialism on "The Divided Self".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gavin

    2009-04-01

    The radical psychiatrist R.D. Laing's first book, "The Divided Self" (1960), is informed by the work of Christian thinkers on scriptural interpretation -- an intellectual genealogy apparent in Laing's comparison of Karl Jaspers's symptomatology with the theological tradition of "form criticism." Rudolf Bultmann's theology, which was being enthusiastically promoted in 1950s Scotland, is particularly influential upon Laing. It furnishes him with the notion that schizophrenic speech expresses existential truths as if they were statements about the physical and organic world. It also provides him with a model of the schizoid position as a form of modern-day Stoicism. Such theological recontextualization of "The Divided Self" illuminates continuities in Laing's own work, and also indicates his relationship to a wider British context, such as the work of the "clinical theologian" Frank Lake.

  7. [Formation, development and changes of the eye acupunture region-dividing acupoint location program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jian; Tian, Wei-zhu

    2005-04-01

    Eye acupuncture, a micro-needling therapy, has been widely applied in clinical treatment for over 30 years. Its theoretic system, especially, the eye acupuncture region-dividing point location program has been revised for 2 times, and the third program with reasonability of acupoint distribution, strictness of angle of acupoint region is easily accepted by clinical workers. In the paper, the theoretical basis of professor Peng Jingshan's inspection of the eye for recognition of diseases, diagnosis of diseases and eye acupuncture therapy were explained, and the information, development and change of the eye acupuncture region-dividing acupoint location program were analyzed and the history of development of eye acupuncture were introduced so as to direct clinical application of eye acupuncture.

  8. The quantum divide why Schrödinger's cat is either dead or alive

    CERN Document Server

    Gerry, Christopher C

    2013-01-01

    Using a selection of key experiments performed over the past 30 years or so, we present a discussion of the strikingly counter-intuitive phenomena of the quantum world that defy explanation in terms of everyday "common sense" reasoning, and we provide the corresponding quantum mechanical explanations with a very elementary use of associated formalism. Most, but certainly not all, of the experiments we describe are optical experiments involving a very small number of photons (particles of light). We begin with experiments on the wave-particle duality of electrons, proceed to experiments on the particle nature of light and single photon interference, delayed choice experiments and interaction-free detection, then go on to experiments involving the interference of two photons, quantum entanglement and Bell's Theorem, quantum teleportation, large-scale quantum effects and the divide between the classical and quantum worlds, addressing the question as to whether or not there is such a divide.

  9. A transient divided-bar method for simultaneous measurements of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bording, Thue Sylvester; Nielsen, Søren Bom; Balling, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Accurate information on thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of materials is of central importance in relation to geoscience and engineering problems involving the transfer of heat. Within the geosciences, this applies to all aspects regarding the determination of terrestrial heat flow...... and subsurface temperature modelling. Several methods, including the classical divided-bar technique, are available for laboratory measurements of thermal conductivity, and much fewer for thermal diffusivity. We have generalized the divided-bar technique to the transient case, in which thermal conductivity...... and volumetric heat capacity, and thereby also thermal diffusivity, are measured simultaneously. As the density of samples is easily determined independently, specific heat capacity may also be determined. Finite element formulation provides a flexible forward solution for heat transfer across the bar...

  10. The role of leadership in bridging the cultural divide within university-industry cooperative research centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahdad, Maral; Bogers, Marcel; Piccaluga, Andrea

    The purpose of this study is to understand the role of leadership in bridging the cultural gap within university-industry cooperative research centres. Many different aspects of university-industry collaborations have been researched, but the role of leadership in such organizations has not been...... deeply investigated. In order to advance our understanding in this context, our multiple case study addresses the question of how leadership bridges the cultural divide within university-industry joint laboratories. Our results are derived from 53 in-depth interviews with laboratory directors...... by distributed leadership practices at the collective level as being crucial in bridging the cultural divide between individuals within university-industry research centres. Our qualitative analysis draws on an analytical framework for leadership of university-industry cooperative research centres. Our findings...

  11. Design of Configurable Resistance Divider Type DAC-PUF Circuit%可配置电阻分压型DAC-PUF电路设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪鹏君; 李刚; 钱浩宇

    2016-01-01

    Physical Unclonable Functions (PUF)exploits process variation across same structure and design parameter unit circuits during the manufacturing processes to generate numerous unique,random and unclonable security keys.In this pa-per,a configurable resistance divider type DAC-PUF scheme is proposed,which consists of input register,resistor-string based DAC,voltage comparator and timing control module.After configuring the DAC cell by applying input challenges,the PUF circuit updates keys without physically replacement.In TSMC-LP 65 nm CMOS technology,the layout occupies 72. 4μm × 87. 8μm with custom designing.Experimental results show that the PUF circuit possesses nice statistical characteristic of u-niqueness,high randomness of 99. 1%and high stability of 97. 8%,both with respect to supply voltage variation from 1. 08V to 1. 32V,and temperature variation from -40℃to 125℃.It can be effectively used in information security field.%物理不可克隆函数(Physical Unclonable Function,PUF)电路利用结构和设计参数相同的单元电路在制造过程中存在的随机工艺偏差,产生具有唯一性、随机性和不可克隆性的密钥.通过对电阻失配和数模转换器(Digital to Analogue Conversion,DAC)的研究,提出一种可配置电阻分压型DAC-PUF电路设计方案.该PUF电路由输入寄存器、电阻分压型DAC、电压比较器和时序控制模块构成.通过激励信号配置DAC单元,使该PUF电路无需更换硬件便可实现输出密钥的变化.在TSMC-LP 65 nm CMOS工艺下采用全定制方式进行版图设计,面积为72.4μm ×87.8μm.实验结果表明该PUF电路唯一性高,且在不同温度(-40~125℃)和电压(1.08~1.32V)下随机性和可靠性分别大于99.1%和97.8%,可广泛应用于信息安全领域.

  12. Research on the Dividing Method for Present-Day Regional Active Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiaoliang; Jiang Zaisen; Chen Bing; Wang Qi; Zhang Xi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new idea that combines Quasi-Accurate Detection of gross errors (QUAD) with discontinuous deformation positive analysis, is brought forward to divide the regional active blocks. The method can improve the demarcation of active blocks for areas lacking with observation data and offer a new train of through for the complete study of the regional deformation of active blocks. In addition, using the Sichuan-Yunnan area as example, the practice process of the method is introduced briefly.

  13. Effect of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) on Non-Industrial Countries-Digital Divide Model

    OpenAIRE

    MAHMOUD Z. ISKANDARANI

    2008-01-01

    The influence of information and communication technology on the collective activities and interests of a broad range of people was discussed and analyzed. The important consequence of ICT called digital divide was mathematically modeled and the results analyzed. The closed loop feedback model proved the need for a society to be educationally, culturally, economically and politically ready to integrate and implement new technologies into its infrastructure.

  14. MRI enterography with divided dose oral preparation: Effect on bowel distension and diagnostic quality

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh Sinha; Sudarshan Rawat

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To assess the impact of an extended oral preparation magnetic resonance (MR) enterography protocol on bowel distension, timing of imaging, and the quality of diagnostic images. Materials and Methods: An analysis of 52 patients who underwent divided oral preparation and 39 patients who underwent standard preparation for MR enterography examination was done. Distension was assessed by measuring the transverse diameters of the jejunum, ileum, and the ileocecal region. Diagnostic quality of ...

  15. Viscosity-Induced Crossing of the Phantom Divide in the Dark Cosmic Fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Brevik, Iver

    2013-01-01

    Choosing various natural forms for the equation-of-state parameter w and the bulk viscosity \\zeta, we discuss how it is possible for a dark energy fluid to slide from the quintessence region across the divide w=-1 into the phantom region, and thus into a Big Rip future singularity. Different analytic forms for \\zeta, as powers of the scalar expansion, are suggested and compared with experiments.

  16. Program-Controlled High Voltage Module in Active Voltage Dividers(AVD) for MPGD

    CERN Document Server

    Ginting, Muhammad Fadhil

    2016-01-01

    Micro Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGD) applications are rapidly developing and became an important part of upgrades for the LHC detectors. RD51/CERN have worked on Active Voltage Divider (AVD) technology for multistage MPGDs, One of the next developments for the AVD is to design and integrate high voltage module in a single box. The Program-Controlled High Voltage Module, part of one AIDA2020 project, has been successfully designed and developed, and can be integrated in AVD design.

  17. High Power Combiner/Divider Design for Dual Band RF Power Amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Flattery, Kyle; Amin, Shoaib; Rönnow, Daniel; Mahamat, Yaya; Eroglu, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Design of low loss with an enhanced thermal profile power divider/combiner for high power dual-band Radio Frequency (RF) power amplifier applications is given. The practical implementation, low loss and substrate characteristics make this type of combiner ideal for high power microwave applications.  The combiner operational frequencies are chosen to operate at 900 MHz and 2.14 GHz, which are common frequencies for concurrent dual band RF power amplifiers. The analytical results are verified ...

  18. The thermodynamic equilibrium of gas in a box divided by a piston

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Gomez, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The equilibrium conditions of a system consisting of a box with gas divided by a piston are revised. The apparent indetermination of the problem is solved by explicitly imposing the constancy of the internal energy when the Entropy Maximum Principle is applied. The equality of the pressures is naturally concluded from this principle when the piston is allowed to spontaneously move. The application of the Energy Minimum Principle is also revised.

  19. A mathematical model of the controlled axial flow divider for mobile machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyukin, V. L.; Karelin, D. L.; Belousov, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    The authors give a mathematical model of the axial adjustable flow divider allowing one to define the parameters of the feed pump and the hydraulic motor-wheels in the multi-circuit hydrostatic transmission of mobile machines, as well as for example built features that allows to clearly evaluate the mutual influence of the values of pressure and flow on all input and output circuits of the system.

  20. Borders that Divide: Education and Religion in Ghana and Togo since Colonial Times

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    When European powers partitioned Africa, individuals of otherwise homogeneous communities were divided and found themselves randomly assigned to one coloniser. This provides for a natural experiment: applying a border discontinuity analysis to Ghana and Togo, we test what impact coloniser’s policies really made. Using a new data set of men recruited to the Ghana colonial army 1908-1955, we find literacy and religious beliefs to diverge between British and French mandated part of Togoland as...

  1. 烧结过程中毛细作用对钌基厚膜应变电阻的影响%Influene of Capillarity on the Ru-Based Thick Film Resistor in the Progress of Sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁鹏; 马以武

    2004-01-01

    通过应用毛细作用的基本公式得到钌基厚膜应变电阻烧结阶段的模型.用Bi2O3和RuO2合成Bi2Ru2O7并进行试验,发现方阻随烧结时间和导电相粒径的增大而增大.用该模型解释了该现象,同时解释了导电相不同的体系,应尽导电相含量一样,但方阻不同,以及方阻随玻璃粘度增大而减小.%The fundamental formula of capillarity is employed on the Ru-based thick film strain resistors in the progress of sintering, and we got a mathematical model of this stage. Bi2O3 and RuO2 are synthesized to produce Bi2 Ru2 O7. This model can interpret the sheet resistance enhances with the aggrandizement of sintering time and the accretion of conductive particles radius. We also explain that, for two different conductive phase systems, although the conductive phase contents are identical, the sheet resistances are different and the sheet resistance reduces with aggrandizement of glass viscosity.

  2. Methods for Least Squares Data Smoothing by Adjustment of Divided Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriou, I. C.

    2008-09-01

    A brief survey is presented for the main methods that are used in least squares data smoothing by adjusting the signs of divided differences of the smoothed values. The most distinctive feature of the smoothing approach is that it provides automatically a piecewise monotonic or a piecewise convex/concave fit to the data. The data are measured values of a function of one variable that contain random errors. As a consequence of the errors, the number of sign alterations in the sequence of mth divided differences is usually unacceptably large, where m is a prescribed positive integer. Therefore, we make the least sum of squares change to the measurements by requiring the sequence of the divided differences of order m to have at most k-1 sign changes, for some positive integer k. Although, it is a combinatorial problem, whose solution can require about O(nk) quadratic programming calculations in n variables and n-m constraints, where n is the number of data, very efficient algorithms have been developed for the cases when m = 1 or m = 2 and k is arbitrary, as well as when m>2 for small values of k. Attention is paid to the purpose of each method instead of to its details. Some software packages make the methods publicly accessible through library systems.

  3. Dissolution of Intact, Divided and Crushed Circadin Tablets: Prolonged vs. Immediate Release of Melatonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Ming Chua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadin 2 mg prolonged-release tablet is the only licensed melatonin product available in the UK. Circadin is indicated for patients with primary insomnia aged 55 and over, but is more widely used “off-label” to treat sleep disorders especially in the paediatric population. Children and older people often have difficulty swallowing tablets and dividing the tablet is sometimes required to ease administration. The aim of this study was to measure the release profile of melatonin from Circadin tablets when divided or crushed, and compare this with release from intact tablets. Dissolution testing was also performed for unlicensed melatonin products for comparison. Dissolution tests were performed using the pharmacopoeial paddle apparatus, with melatonin release analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Melatonin content, hardness, friability, and disintegration of the products were also evaluated. The prolonged release of melatonin from Circadin tablets was unlike that of any other product tested. When divided into halves, Circadin preserved most of the prolonged-release characteristic (f2 = 58, whereas quarter-cut and crushed tablet had a more immediate melatonin release profile. Circadin is significantly less expensive and should be preferred to unlicensed medicines which are not pharmaceutically equivalent and offer less quality assurance.

  4. Healing psychiatry: a pragmatic approach to bridging the science/humanism divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendel, David

    2004-01-01

    Competing urges to think of human mental suffering as comprehensible and susceptible to scientific formulation, or as deeply complex and beyond the reach of scientific analysis, have torn at the fabric of psychiatry for many years and have left the field conceptually divided between science and humanism. Conceptual reparation of psychiatry is now a core mission of a field that is trying to heal itself so that it is equipped to heal the patients it serves. To formulate their cases comprehensively and provide patients with cutting-edge care, psychiatrists must heal the conceptual wounds that have resulted from dividing the human individual into an object of scientific scrutiny and a subject of personal experience. They must synthesize science and humanism in order to generate new understanding of mental disorders and to train future clinicians and researchers. Principles of classical American pragmatism, I argue in this article, can help to transcend the science/humanism divide in psychiatry. Clinical pragmatism focuses on favorable treatment outcomes by respecting the practical, pluralistic, participatory, and provisional aspects of psychiatric care. It demands that psychiatrists have the skill and flexibility to use multiple explanatory concepts in a collaborative, open-ended process with their patients. These themes are explored from the perspectives of contemporary psychiatric treatment, training, and research.

  5. Maximum likelihood-based iterated divided difference filter for nonlinear systems from discrete noisy measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changyuan; Zhang, Jing; Mu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    A new filter named the maximum likelihood-based iterated divided difference filter (MLIDDF) is developed to improve the low state estimation accuracy of nonlinear state estimation due to large initial estimation errors and nonlinearity of measurement equations. The MLIDDF algorithm is derivative-free and implemented only by calculating the functional evaluations. The MLIDDF algorithm involves the use of the iteration measurement update and the current measurement, and the iteration termination criterion based on maximum likelihood is introduced in the measurement update step, so the MLIDDF is guaranteed to produce a sequence estimate that moves up the maximum likelihood surface. In a simulation, its performance is compared against that of the unscented Kalman filter (UKF), divided difference filter (DDF), iterated unscented Kalman filter (IUKF) and iterated divided difference filter (IDDF) both using a traditional iteration strategy. Simulation results demonstrate that the accumulated mean-square root error for the MLIDDF algorithm in position is reduced by 63% compared to that of UKF and DDF algorithms, and by 7% compared to that of IUKF and IDDF algorithms. The new algorithm thus has better state estimation accuracy and a fast convergence rate.

  6. Maximum Likelihood-Based Iterated Divided Difference Filter for Nonlinear Systems from Discrete Noisy Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changyuan Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new filter named the maximum likelihood-based iterated divided difference filter (MLIDDF is developed to improve the low state estimation accuracy of nonlinear state estimation due to large initial estimation errors and nonlinearity of measurement equations. The MLIDDF algorithm is derivative-free and implemented only by calculating the functional evaluations. The MLIDDF algorithm involves the use of the iteration measurement update and the current measurement, and the iteration termination criterion based on maximum likelihood is introduced in the measurement update step, so the MLIDDF is guaranteed to produce a sequence estimate that moves up the maximum likelihood surface. In a simulation, its performance is compared against that of the unscented Kalman filter (UKF, divided difference filter (DDF, iterated unscented Kalman filter (IUKF and iterated divided difference filter (IDDF both using a traditional iteration strategy. Simulation results demonstrate that the accumulated mean-square root error for the MLIDDF algorithm in position is reduced by 63% compared to that of UKF and DDF algorithms, and by 7% compared to that of IUKF and IDDF algorithms. The new algorithm thus has better state estimation accuracy and a fast convergence rate.

  7. The flexible focus: whether spatial attention is unitary or divided depends on observer goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Lisa N; Enns, James T; Di Lollo, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    The distribution of visual attention has been the topic of much investigation, and various theories have posited that attention is allocated either as a single unitary focus or as multiple independent foci. In the present experiment, we demonstrate that attention can be flexibly deployed as either a unitary or a divided focus in the same experimental task, depending on the observer's goals. To assess the distribution of attention, we used a dual-stream Attentional Blink (AB) paradigm and 2 target pairs. One component of the AB, Lag-1 sparing, occurs only if the second target pair appears within the focus of attention. By varying whether the first-target-pair could be expected in a predictable location (always in-stream) or not (unpredictably in-stream or between-streams), observers were encouraged to deploy a divided or a unitary focus, respectively. When the second-target-pair appeared between the streams, Lag-1 sparing occurred for the Unpredictable group (consistent with a unitary focus) but not for the Predictable group (consistent with a divided focus). Thus, diametrically different outcomes occurred for physically identical displays, depending on the expectations of the observer about where spatial attention would be required.

  8. Differential reinforcement and resistance to change of divided-attention performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Thrailkill, Eric; Shahan, Timothy A

    2012-06-01

    Behavioral momentum theory provides a framework for understanding how conditions of reinforcement influence instrumental response strength under conditions of disruption (i.e., resistance to change). The present experiment examined resistance to change of divided-attention performance when different overall probabilities of reinforcement were arranged across two components of a multiple schedule. Pigeons responded in a delayed-matching-to-sample procedure with compound samples (color + line orientation) and element comparisons (two colors or two line orientations). Reinforcement ratios of 1:9, 1:1, and 9:1 for accurate matches on the two types of comparison trials were examined across conditions using reinforcement probabilities (color/lines) of .9/.1, .5/.5, and .1/.9 in the rich component and .18/.02, .1/.1, and .02/.18 in the lean component. Relative accuracy with color and line comparisons was an orderly function of relative reinforcement, but this relation did not depend on the overall rate of reinforcement between components. The resistance to change of divided-attention performance was greater for both trial types in the rich component with presession feeding and extinction, but not with decreases in sample duration. These findings suggest promise for the applicability of quantitative models of operant behavior to divided-attention performance, but they highlight the need to further explore conditions impacting the resistance to change of attending.

  9. A Novel Strategy to Eliminate the Influence of Water Adsorption on Quartz Surfaces on Piezoelectric Dynamometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhenyuan; Jin, Lei; Liu, Wei; Ren, Zongjin

    2016-07-08

    Piezoelectric dynamometers are out of use in high humidity. Experimental results showed that piezoelectric coefficients measured by the force-induced charges method initially fluctuated in a small range and then was unstable, and they could not be measured at high relative humidity (RH). The traditional shielding method-insulation paste was not quiet convenient, and it even added the weight of piezoelectric dynamometers. In this paper, a novel strategy that eliminates the influence of water adsorption with quartz surfaces on piezoelectric dynamometers was proposed. First, a water-quartz model was developed to analyze the origin of the RH effect. In the model, water vapor, which was adsorbed by the quartz sheet side surface, was considered. Second, equivalent sheet resistor of the side surface was researched, while the relationship of the three R's (Roughness, RH, and Resistor) was respectively discussed based on the adsorption mechanism. Finally, fluorination technology was skillfully adapted to each surface of quartz sheets to shield the water vapor. The experiment verified the fluorination strategy and made piezoelectric dynamometers work in high humidity up to 90%RH successfully. The results showed that the presented model above was reasonable. In addition, these observations also drew some useful insights to change the structure of piezoelectric dynamometers and improve the properties.

  10. 分根交替灌溉技术研究综述%The Research Summary of Controlled Root-divided Irrigation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾芳钰; 衣华鹏

    2012-01-01

      在我国水资源短缺的情况下,分根交替灌溉具有良好的发展前景。综述了分根交替灌溉的理论机制及其研究进展,展望了其发展前景。%  The controlled roots-divided alternative irrigation be expected as a advanced method of irrigation which have a bright future not only reduce the agriculture’s irrigating water but could have few effect on crop production. The passage describes the theory mechanism and research progress of Controlled roots-divided alternative irrigation, as well as looks forward to the developing prospect of this irrigation’s method.

  11. Ecological assessment of divided attention: What about the current tools and the relevancy of virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Maïté, C; Gaétane, D; Axel, C

    2016-01-01

    The ability to perform two tasks simultaneously has become increasingly important as attention-demanding technologies have become more common in daily life. This type of attentional resources allocation is commonly called "divided attention". Because of the importance of divided attention in natural world settings, substantial efforts have been made recently so as to promote an integrated, realistic assessment of functional abilities in dual-task paradigms. In this context, virtual reality methods appear to be a good solution. However to date, there has been little discussion on validity of such methods. Here, we offer a comparative review of conventional tools used to assess divided attention and of the first virtual reality studies (mostly from the field of road and pedestrian safety). The ecological character of virtual environments leads to a better understanding of the influence of dual-task settings and also makes it possible to clarify issues such as the utility of hands-free phones. After discussing the theoretical and clinical contributions of these studies, we discuss the limits of virtual reality assessment, focusing in particular: (i) on the challenges associated with lack of familiarity with new technological devices; (ii) on the validity of the ecological character of virtual environments; and (iii) on the question of whether the results obtained in a specific context can be generalized to all dual-task situations typical of daily life. To overcome the limitations associated with virtual reality, we propose: (i) to include a standardized familiarization phase in assessment protocols so as to limit the interference caused by the use of new technologies; (ii) to systematically compare virtual reality performance with conventional tests or real-life tests; and (iii) to design dual-task scenarios that are independent from the patient's expertise on one of the two tasks. We conclude that virtual reality appears to constitute a useful tool when used in

  12. A transient divided-bar method for simultaneous measurements of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bording, Thue S.; Nielsen, Søren B.; Balling, Niels

    2016-04-01

    Accurate information on thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of materials is of central importance in relation to geoscience and engineering problems involving the transfer of heat. Within the geosciences, this applies to all aspects regarding the determination of terrestrial heat flow and subsurface temperature modelling. Several methods, including the classical divided-bar technique, are available for laboratory measurements of thermal conductivity, and much fewer for thermal diffusivity. We have generalized the divided-bar technique to the transient case, in which thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity, and thereby also thermal diffusivity, are measured simultaneously. As the density of samples is easily determined independently, specific heat capacity may also be determined. Finite element formulation provides a flexible forward solution for heat transfer across the bar and thermal properties are estimated by inverse Monte Carlo modelling. This methodology enables a proper quantification of experimental uncertainties on measured thermal properties. The developed methodology was applied to laboratory measurements of various materials, including a standard ceramic material and different rock samples, and measuring results were compared with results applying traditional steady-state divided-bar and an independent line-source method. All measurements show highly consistent results and with excellent reproducibility and high accuracy. For conductivity, uncertainty is typically 1-3 %, and for diffusivity uncertainty may be reduced to about 3-5 %. The main uncertainty originates from the presence of thermal contact resistance associated with the internal interfaces of the bar. They are not resolved during inversion, and it is highly important that they are minimized by careful sample preparation.

  13. The north–south divide in the Italian higher education system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abramo, Giovanni; D’Angelo, Ciriaco Andrea; Rosati, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This work examines whether the macroeconomic divide between northern and southern Italy is also present at the level of higher education. The analysis confirms that the research performance in the sciences of the professors in the south is on average less than that of the professors in the north......, and that this gap does not show noticeable variations at the level of gender or academic rank. For the universities, the gap is still greater. The study analyzes some possible determinants of the gap, and provides some policy recommendations for its reduction....

  14. eGY-Africa: Addressing the Digital Divide for Science in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, C.E.; /Australian Natl. U., Canberra; Amory-Mazaudier, C.; /Lab.Phys.Plasmas, Saint Maur des Fosses; Barry, B.; /Assoc.African Univ., Accra; Chukwuma; /Olabisi Onabanjo U.; Cottrell, R.L.; /SLAC; Kalim, U.; /Pakistan Natl. U.; Mebrahtu, A.; /Mekelle U.; Petitdidier, M.; /Lab. d' Atmos., Velizy; Rabiu, B.; /Federal Tech. U., Akure; Reeves, C.; /Earthworks bv, Delft

    2010-06-16

    Adoption of information and communication technologies and access to the Internet is expanding in Africa, but because of the rapid growth elsewhere, a Digital Divide between Africa and the rest of the world exists, and the gap is growing. In many sub-Saharan African countries, education and research sector suffers some of the worst deficiencies in access to the Internet, despite progress in development of NRENs - National Research and Education (cyber) Networks. By contrast, it is widely acknowledged in policy statements from the African Union, the UN, and others that strength in this very sector provides the key to meeting and sustaining Millennium Development Goals. Developed countries with effective cyber-capabilities proclaim the benefits to rich and poor alike arising from the Information Revolution. This is but a dream for many scientists in African institutions. As the world of science becomes increasingly Internet-dependent, so they become increasingly isolated. eGY-Africa is a bottom-up initiative by African scientists and their collaborators to try to reduce this Digital Divide by a campaign of advocacy for better institutional facilities. Four approaches are being taken. The present status of Internet services, problems, and plans are being mapped via a combination of direct measurement of Internet performance (the PingER Project) and a questionnaire-based survey. Information is being gathered on policy statements and initiatives aimed at reducing the Digital Divide, which can be used for arguing the case for better Internet facilities. Groups of concerned scientists are being formed at the national, regional levels in Africa, building on existing networks as much as possible. Opinion in the international science community is being mobilized. Finally, and perhaps most important of all, eGY-Africa is seeking to engage with the many other programs, initiatives, and bodies that share the goal of reducing the Digital Divide - either as a direct policy

  15. Applying Blooms Digital Taxonomy to Address Creativity and Second Order Digital Divide in Internet Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purushothaman, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    for students coming from underprivileged backgrounds thus bringing a digital divide in skills. The chapter draws upon an empirical study done in India on how an intervention comprised of Internet training designed on Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy and action research workshops based on the learning domains...... of the digital taxonomy was an effective approach for empowering women students through learning to use the Internet. The chapter puts forward the argument that an intervention for learning to use the Internet can be effective where focus is on the reflective and conceptual skills in using the Internet than...

  16. Evidence of an emerging digital divide among hospitals that care for the poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ashish K; DesRoches, Catherine M; Shields, Alexandra E; Miralles, Paola D; Zheng, Jie; Rosenbaum, Sara; Campbell, Eric G

    2009-01-01

    Some hospitals that disproportionately care for poor patients are falling behind in adopting electronic health records (EHRs). Data from a national survey indicate early evidence of an emerging digital divide: U.S. hospitals that provide care to large numbers of poor patients also had minimal use of EHRs. These same hospitals lagged others in quality performance as well, but those with EHR systems seemed to have eliminated the quality gap. These findings suggest that adopting EHRs should be a major policy goal of health reform measures targeting hospitals that serve large populations of poor patients.

  17. Informaticiens Sans Frontières. Helping to bridge the Digital Divide

    CERN Multimedia

    Josiane Uwantege

    2009-01-01

    SF was formed as a CERN club during the World Summit for the Information Society, in Geneva, in 2003. Today we are involved in a number of international projects aimed to helping Africa bridge the Digital Divide, as well as using computing power (BOINCs) in the research against Malaria, or creating GRIDs that could allow African universities to join us in scientific research projects such as the LHC. Our latest project, named MANGO Net, is aimed at capacity building, by creating a network of computer assembly schools across the continent, which would form hardware and software technicians, create assembly centres, and lay the foundation for a future IT industry.

  18. A dialectical take on artifact ecologies and the physical - digital divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    In this position paper, we will present and discuss our understanding of artifact ecologies as we have developed it, rooted in activity theoretical HCI and dialectical thinking . Our basis is in the Human-Artifact Model, as well as well as cases where we have worked with artifact ecologies in ana...... in analysis and design of computer mediated activity. The paper concludes with a positioning of our perspective vis-a-vis the notions of natural and blended interaction and the physical-digital divide...

  19. Application of Divide and Conquer Extended Genetic Algorithm to Tertiary Protein Structure of Chymotrypsin Inhibitor-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alfaro

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining the method by which a protein thermodynamically folds and unfolds in three-dimension is one of the most complex and least understood problems in modern biochemistry. Misfolded proteins have been recently linked to diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Because of the large number of parameters involved in defining the tertiary structure of proteins, based on free energy global minimisation, we have developed a new Divide and Conquer (DAC Extended Genetic Algorithm. The approach was applied to explore and verify the energy landscape of protein chymotrypsin inhibitor-2.

  20. CMOS DESIGN OF A MULTI_INPUT ANALOG MULTIPLIER AND DIVIDER CIRCUIT

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a CMOS current-mode multi_input analog multiplier and divider circuit based on a new method. Exponential and logarithmic functions are employed to realize the circuit which is used in neural network and fuzzy integrated systems. The major advantages of this multiplier are ability of having multi_input signals, and low Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). The circuit is designed and simulated using MATLAB software and HSPICE simulator by level 49 parameters (BSIM3v3) in 0.35μm ...

  1. DESIGN OF V-BAND SUBSTRATE INTEGRATED WAVEGUIDE POWER DIVIDER, CIRCULATOR AND COUPLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouchra Rahali

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently there is growing interest in a new technology, substrate integrated waveguide (SIW, it has been applied successfully to the conception of planar compact components for the microwave and millimeter waves applications. In this study, a V-band substrate integrated waveguide power divider, circulator and coupler are conceived and optimized by Ansoft HFSS code. Thus, through this modeling, design considerations and results are discussed and presented. Attractive features including compact size and planar form make these devices structure easily integrated in planar circuits.

  2. Generic feature of future crossing of phantom divide in viable $f(R)$ gravity models

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Lee, Chung-Chi

    2010-01-01

    We study the equation of state for dark energy and explicitly demonstrate that the future crossings of the phantom divide line $w_{\\mathrm{DE}}=-1$ are the generic feature in the existing viable $f(R)$ gravity models. We also explore the future evolution of the cosmological horizon entropy and illustrate that the cosmological horizon entropy oscillates with time due to the oscillatory behavior of the Hubble parameter. The important cosmological consequence is that in the future, the sign of the time derivative of the Hubble parameter changes from negative to positive in these viable $f(R)$ gravity models.

  3. Generic feature of future crossing of phantom divide in viable f(R) gravity models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Geng, Chao-Qiang; Lee, Chung-Chi, E-mail: bamba@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: geng@phys.nthu.edu.tw, E-mail: g9522545@oz.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Section 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2010-11-01

    We study the equation of state for dark energy and explicitly demonstrate that the future crossings of the phantom divide line w{sub DE} = −1 are the generic feature in the existing viable f(R) gravity models. We also explore the future evolution of the cosmological horizon entropy and illustrate that the cosmological horizon entropy oscillates with time due to the oscillatory behavior of the Hubble parameter. The important cosmological consequence is that in the future, the sign of the time derivative of the Hubble parameter changes from negative to positive in these viable f(R) gravity models.

  4. A Compact, Planar, Eight-Port Waveguide Power Divider/Combiner: The Cross Potent Superhybrid

    OpenAIRE

    Nantista, Christopher D.; Tantawi, Sami G.

    2001-01-01

    In this letter, we present a novel four-way divider/combiner in rectangular waveguide. The design is completely two-dimensional in the h-plane, with eight-fold mirror symmetry, and is based on a recent four-port hybrid design [6]. In combining mode, it can function as a phased array with four inputs and four outputs. The planar nature of this design provides advantages, such as the freedom to increase the waveguide height beyond the over-moding limit in order to reduce field strengths. Along ...

  5. Divide by 4 the emissions: the Negatep scenario; Diviser par 4 nos rejets: le scenario Negatep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acket, C.; Bacher, P

    2007-01-15

    The Negatep scenario is proposed in the framework of the french energy policy, aiming to divide by 4 the CO{sub 2} emissions for 2050. After an evaluation of the today situation concerning the energy consumption and needs, the scenario proposes some ways of energy conservation in different sectors, other energy sources in place of the fossil fuels, the energy needs by sectors. The last part of the document provides the main consumption posts, the CO{sub 2} releases and the approach. (A.L.B.)

  6. Hierarchical robot control structure and Newton's divided difference approach to robot path planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A hierarchical robot control is proposed for robot soccer system. The Newton' s divided difference is utilized in robot path planning. This paper describes the problems encoutered, software design considerations, vision algorithm and controls of individual robots. The solutions.to the problems implemented are simple and di rect. It is observed that many of the ideas and solutions can be evolved based on simple theories and concepts. This paper focuses on software structure of multi-agent controls, vision algorithm and simple path planning method.

  7. Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Palmer Divide Observatory: September-December 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Brian D.

    2008-06-01

    Lightcurves for 20 asteroids were obtained at the Palmer Divide Observatory from September-December 2007. 167 Urda; 793 Arizona; 1112 Polonia; 1325 Inanda; 1590 Tsiolkovskaja; 1741 Giclas; 2347 Vinata; 4464 Vulcano; 5720 Halweaver; 7086 Bopp; 7187 Isobe; (8309) 1996 NL1; (10496) 1986 RK; (11904) 1991 TR1; (17738) 1998 BS15; (20936) 4835 T-1; (25332) 1999 KK6; (31793) 1999 LB6; (44892) 1999 VJ8; (52314) 1991 XD. In addition, previously unpublished results from 2000 for (10936) 1998 FN11 are reported.

  8. Arnold tongues for a resonant injection-locked frequency divider: analytical and numerical results

    CERN Document Server

    Bartuccelli, Michele V; Gentile, Guido; Schilder, Frank

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider a resonant injection-locked frequency divider which is of interest in electronics, and we investigate the frequency locking phenomenon when varying the amplitude and frequency of the injected signal. We study both analytically and numerically the structure of the Arnold tongues in the frequency-amplitude plane. In particular, we provide exact analytical formulae for the widths of the tongues, which correspond to the plateaux of the devil's staircase picture. The results account for numerical and experimental findings presented in the literature for special driving terms and, additionally, extend the analysis to a more general setting.

  9. Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at CS3-Palmer Divide Station: 2016 April-July

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Brian D.

    2016-10-01

    Lightcurves for nine main-belt asteroids were obtained at the Center for Solar System Studies-Palmer Divide Station (CS3-PDS) from 2016 April to July. Of the group, four are known Hungaria binary asteroids: 1727 Mette, 2047 Smetana, 5899 Jedicke, and (18890) 2000 EV26. The Mars-crosser (54697) 2001 FA70 appears to be a newly-confirmed binary with P1 = 2.7075 h and POrb = 16.269 h. A third period, P2 = 2.1239 h, appears to be real. If so, it could be due to the asynchronous rotation of the satellite or a third body in the system.

  10. eGY-Africa: addressing the digital divide for science in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baki, Paul; Nguno, Anna; Barton, Charles; Amaeshi, Larry; Tenthani, Chifundo; Petitdidier, Monique; Cottrell, Les

    2013-04-01

    Adoption of information and communication technologies and access to the Internet is expanding in Africa, but because of the rapid growth elsewhere, a Digital Divide between Africa and the rest of the world exists. In many sub-Saharan African countries, education and research sector suffers some of the worst deficiencies in access to the Internet, despite progress in the development of NRENs - National Research and Education (cyber) Networks. By contrast, it is widely acknowledged in policy statements from the African Union, the UN, and others that strength in this very sector provides the key to meeting and sustaining Millennium Development Goals. Developed countries with effective cyber-capabilities proclaim the benefits to rich and poor alike arising from the Information Revolution. This is still a dream for many scientists in African institutions. As the world of science becomes increasingly Internet-dependent, so they become increasingly isolated. eGY-Africa is a bottom-up initiative by African scientists and their collaborators to try to reduce this digital divide by a campaign of advocacy for better institutional facilities. Four approaches are being taken. The present status of Internet services, problems, and plans are being mapped via a combination of direct measurement of Internet performance (the PingER Project) and a questionnaire-based survey. Information is being gathered on policy statements and initiatives aimed at reducing the digital divide, which can be used for arguing the case for better Internet facilities. Groups of concerned scientists are being formed at the national, regional levels in Africa, building on existing networks as much as possible. Opinion in the international science community is being mobilized. Finally, and perhaps most important of all, eGY-Africa is seeking to engage with the many other programs, initiatives, and bodies that share the goal of reducing the digital divide - either as a direct policy objective, or indirectly

  11. Computation of Private Key Based on Divide-By-Prime for Luc Cryptosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawara M.A. Makhzoum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: One of the public key cryptosystem is Luc cryptosystems. This system used Lucas Function for encryption and decryption process. Lucas Function is a special form of second-order linear recurrence relation. An encyption process is used to encrypt an original message to ciphertext by using public key. A decryption process is the process to decrypt a ciphertext into original message using private key. The existing algorithm on computing private key computation involved some redundant computations. Approach: In this study, an efficient algorithm to compute private key for Luc cryptosystem is developed. The Extended Euclidean Algorithm will be enhanced by implementing Divide-By-Prime in its computations. The comparison is focused on the computation time by the existing and new algorithms. The more efficient algorithm means the better computation time. The shorter computation time the better algorithm. Results: A new algorithm shows better computation time. In all experiments, the computation time by new algorithm is always better than the existing algorithm. Conclusion: The new computation algorithm that based on Divide-By-Prime provided better efficiency of decryption process compared to the existing algorithm.

  12. The distribution of TPX2 in dividing leaf cells of the fern Asplenium nidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteris, E; Adamakis, I-D S; Chanoumidou, K

    2013-01-01

    Plant cell division requires the dynamic organisation of several microtubule arrays. The mechanisms of regulation of the above arrays are under rigorous research. Among several factors that are involved in plant microtubule dynamics, the Targeting Protein for Xklp2 (TPX2) has been found to play a role in spindle organisation, in combination with Aurora kinases, in dividing cells of angiosperms. Microtubule organisation in dividing cells of ferns exhibits certain peculiarities. Accordingly, the presence and distribution of a TPX2 homologue might be helpful in understanding the patterns and regulatory mechanisms of microtubule arrays in this plant group. In this study, a putative TPX2 homologue was identified using Western blotting in the fern Asplenium nidus. It was found, using immunostaining and CLSM, that it is co-localised with perinuclear preprophase microtubules and the prophase spindle, and follows the microtubule pattern during metaphase/anaphase and telophase. During cytokinesis, while in angiosperms TPX2 is degraded, in A. nidus the TPX2 signal persists, co-localising with the phragmoplast. In early post-cytokinetic cells, a TPX2 signal is present on the nuclear surface facing the daughter cell wall and, thereafter it is co-localised with the fern-specific microtubule aggregation that lines the new wall, which is possibly involved in cortical microtubule assembly.

  13. The North-South divide in snake bite envenomation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Chauhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Snake bite envenomations are common in rural areas and the incidence peaks during monsoons in India. Prominent venomous species have been traditionally labeled as the ′big four′ that includes Cobra, Krait, Russel′s viper and Saw scaled viper. Systematic attempts for identification and classification of prevalent snakes in various states of India are missing till now and there is no concrete data on this aspect. The published literature however shows that some species of snakes are more prevalent in a particular region than the other parts of India e.g. Saw scaled vipers in Rajasthan. We reviewed the published literature from various parts of India and found that there is a North-South divide in the snake bite profile from India. Neurotoxic envenomations are significantly higher in North India compared to South India where Hematotoxic envenomations are prevalent. Russel′s viper causes local necrosis, gangrene and compartment syndrome. These manifestations have never been reported in North Indian snake bite profile in the published literature. Early morning neuroparalysis caused by Krait is a common problem in North India leading to high mortality after snake bite. This review presents supporting evidence for the North-South divide and proposes a way forward in formulation and revision of guidelines for snake bite in India.

  14. The quantum-classical divide understood in terms of Bohm's holographic paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matarese, Vera [The University of Hong Kong (China)

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims to interpret the problem of the quantum-classical divide following Bohm's holographic model and to reformulate it as an indication of a new physical order. First of all I briefly outline the differences between the classical world and the quantum one (such as locality against nonlocality, determinism against indeterminism and continuity against discontinuity); then I claim that in order to understand the divide between the two domains we should start from what is common, and regard them as two abstractions and limiting cases of a general theory. In particular, following Bohm, I show that the central notion of this new theory is an undivided whole characterized by a general order consisting of a holomovement from an implicate order - the quantum domain - to an explicate order - in the classical domain. This part is explained with the aid of the structure of the hologram and is supported by a reflection on some key terms such as 'order', 'structure', 'implicate' and 'explicate'. Finally I propose that this movement of unfoldment and enfoldment can explain the apparent incompatibility of the two physical domains and the passage from one to the other.

  15. Infinitesimal dividing modeling method for dual suppliers inventory model with random lead times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Pengcheng; Song Shiji; Wu Cheng

    2009-01-01

    As one of the basic inventory cost models, the (Q, r) inventory cost model of dual suppliers with random procurement lead time is mostly formulated by using the concepts of "effective lead time" and "lead time demand", which may lead to an imprecise inventory cost. Through the real-time statistic of the inventory quantities, this paper considers the precise (Q, r) inventory cost model of dual supplier procurement by using an infinitesimal dividing method. The traditional modeling method of the inventory cost for dual supplier procurement includes complex procedures. To reduce the complexity effectively, the presented method investigates the statistics properties in real-time of the inventory quantities with the application of the infinitesimal dividing method. It is proved that the optimal holding and shortage costs of dual supplier procurement are less than those of single supplier procurement respectively. With the assumption that both suppliers have the same distribution of lead times, the convexity of the cost function per unit time is proved. So the optimal solution can be easily obtained by applying the classical convex optimization methods. The numerical examples are given to verify the main conclusions.

  16. Randomly dividing homologous samples leads to overinflated accuracies for emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Di; Xu, Minpeng; Qi, Hongzhi; He, Feng; Zhao, Xin; Zhou, Peng; Zhang, Lixin; Ming, Dong

    2015-04-01

    There are numerous studies measuring the brain emotional status by analyzing EEGs under the emotional stimuli that have occurred. However, they often randomly divide the homologous samples into training and testing groups, known as randomly dividing homologous samples (RDHS), despite considering the impact of the non-emotional information among them, which would inflate the recognition accuracy. This work proposed a modified method, the integrating homologous samples (IHS), where the homologous samples were either used to build a classifier, or to be tested. The results showed that the classification accuracy was much lower for the IHS than for the RDHS. Furthermore, a positive correlation was found between the accuracy and the overlapping rate of the homologous samples. These findings implied that the overinflated accuracy did exist in those previous studies where the RDHS method was employed for emotion recognition. Moreover, this study performed a feature selection for the IHS condition based on the support vector machine-recursive feature elimination, after which the average accuracies were greatly improved to 85.71% and 77.18% in the picture-induced and video-induced tasks, respectively.

  17. Phase space barriers and dividing surfaces in the absence of critical points of the potential energy

    CERN Document Server

    Ezra, Gregory S

    2010-01-01

    We consider the existence of invariant manifolds in phase space governing reaction dynamics in situations where there are no saddle points on the potential energy surface in the relevant regions of configuration space. We point out that such situations occur in a number of important classes of chemical reactions, and we illustrate this concretely by considering a model for transition state switching in an ion-molecule association reaction due to Chesnavich (J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 84}, 2615 (1986)). For this model we show that, in the region of configuration space relevant to the reaction, there are no saddle points on the potential energy surface, but that in phase space there is a normally hyperbolic invariant manifold (NHIM) bounding a dividing surface having the property that the reactive flux through this dividing surface is a minimum. We then describe two methods for finding NHIMs and their associated phase space structures in systems with more than two degrees-of-freedom. These methods do not rely on the e...

  18. Ensemble Kalman Filtering with a Divided State-Space Strategy for Coupled Data Assimilation Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Xiaodong

    2014-12-01

    This study considers the data assimilation problem in coupled systems, which consists of two components (subsystems) interacting with each other through certain coupling terms. A straightforward way to tackle the assimilation problem in such systems is to concatenate the states of the subsystems into one augmented state vector, so that a standard ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) can be directly applied. This work presents a divided state-space estimation strategy, in which data assimilation is carried out with respect to each individual subsystem, involving quantities from the subsystem itself and correlated quantities from other coupled subsystems. On top of the divided state-space estimation strategy, the authors also consider the possibility of running the subsystems separately. Combining these two ideas, a few variants of the EnKF are derived. The introduction of these variants is mainly inspired by the current status and challenges in coupled data assimilation problems and thus might be of interest from a practical point of view. Numerical experiments with a multiscale Lorenz 96 model are conducted to evaluate the performance of these variants against that of the conventional EnKF. In addition, specific for coupled data assimilation problems, two prototypes of extensions of the presented methods are also developed in order to achieve a trade-offbetween efficiency and accuracy.

  19. Dividing line between quantum and classical trajectories in a measurement problem: Bohmian time constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Antonio B; Miret-Artés, Salvador

    2013-10-11

    This Letter proposes an answer to a challenge posed by Bell on the lack of clarity in regards to the dividing line between the quantum and classical regimes in a measurement problem. To this end, a generalized logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation is proposed to describe the time evolution of a quantum dissipative system under continuous measurement. Within the Bohmian mechanics framework, a solution to this equation reveals a novel result: it displays a time constant that should represent the dividing line between the quantum and classical trajectories. It is shown that continuous measurements and damping not only disturb the particle but compel the system to converge in time to a Newtonian regime. While the width of the wave packet may reach a stationary regime, its quantum trajectories converge exponentially in time to classical trajectories. In particular, it is shown that damping tends to suppress further quantum effects on a time scale shorter than the relaxation time of the system. If the initial wave packet width is taken to be equal to 2.8×10(-15) m (the approximate size of an electron), the Bohmian time constant is found to have an upper limit, i.e., τ(Bmax)=10(-26) s.

  20. [How do we cure the medical divide between northern Tohoku district and Tokyo?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukaura, Hikoaki

    2010-11-01

    What is required to provide high quality medical service to anybody, anytime and anywhere? We have investigated health care in neurology as provided by national health insurance in Aomori, Akita and Iwate prefectures compared to health care in Tokyo. We have conducted hearing surveillance to patients and doctors. Most of the patients have to drive to hospital for more than 100 kms as there is no licensed neurologist in their neighborhood and public transportation is poor. There are only a few medical facilities that can satisfy their needs even in prefectural cities. Neurologists who work alone at general hospitals face difficulties as they cannot consult with other neurologist about diagnosis and treatment and have rare opportunity to attend academic conferences. A licensed neurologist at northern Tohoku district has to be in charge of a half of Tokyo 23 districts area and twice as many people as Tokyo. We have concluded that medical divide due to the more or less of quantity of selection exists between northern Tohoku and Tokyo. How do we cure this medical divide? Creating a new framework of patients transporting system, increasing the number of doctors who work at general hospitals and opening satellite clinics at regional towns should be considered.

  1. The role of working memory and divided attention in metaphor interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Sam; Baird, Anne D

    2014-10-01

    Although several types of figurative language exist, neuropsychological tests of non-literal language have focused on proverbs. Metaphors in the form X is (a) Y (e.g., The body's immunological response is a battle against disease.) place a lower demand on language skills and are more easily manipulated for novelty than proverbs. Forty healthy participants completed the Metaphor Interpretation Test (developed by the authors). The task includes 20 items chosen from a list of metaphors that were rated on several scales (e.g. imagery, aptness) in a study by Katz et al. (Metaphor Symb Act 3(4):191-214, 1988). Participants were asked to rate the familiarity and provide an explanation of each metaphor. A scoring system was developed to categorize answers into: abstract complete (AC), abstract partial (AP), concrete (CT), and other/unrelated (OT) types. Participants also completed short-term memory and divided attention tests. Overall, participants produced 56 % AC, 25.38 % AP, 7.88 % CT, and 10.88 % OT responses. It was found that a measure of verbal short-term memory span was the best predictor of performance on this task (adjusted R(2) = .369). It appears that short-term memory span, not working memory or divided attention, contributes most to providing abstract responses in explaining metaphors. This is in line with the idea that when one accesses the semantic network associated with a novel metaphor, one must hold this information in mind long enough to search for and link similar cognitive networks.

  2. How cells grow and divide: mathematical analysis confirms demand for the cell cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyun Woong; Choi, M. Y.

    2012-04-01

    Eukaryotes usually grow through cell growth and division. How cells grow and divide is essential to life because too small or too large cells cannot function well. In order for an organism to survive even under a condition where cell growth and division processes are independent of each other, cells must have an appropriate growth factor, growth rate and division rate. To determine them, we derive a time evolution equation for the size distribution of cells from the master equation describing changes in the cell size due to growth and in the total number of cells due to division. It is found that long-time behaviors of moments of the size distribution divide the parameter space, consisting of the growth factor and the ratio of the division rate to the growth rate, into infinitely many regions. Examining the properties of each region, we conclude that growth with a small growth factor may be disastrous; this demonstrates the demand for the cell cycle consisting of coordinated growth and division processes.

  3. Examining the University-Profession Divide: An Inquiry into a Teacher Education Program’s Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awneet Sivia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the divide between the university as a site of teacher education and the profession of practicing teachers. We employed a theoretical inquiry methodology on a singular case study which included formulating questions about the phenomena of the university-profession divide (UPD, analysing constituents of the UPD, and developing a language system to represent our findings about the UPD. The questions guiding our examination were: How do we conceptualize this divide? How are these concepts represented in the literature? How can a Teacher Education Program (TEP respond to the divide? The theoretical inquiry was conducted within a singular case study of a TEP in order to explore the chasm between these two settings in a limited and focused manner. Our inquiry led to the identification of three key concepts: competing cultures, competing expectations, and theory-practice dichotomy. In analyzing these concepts and responding to questions which drove this inquiry from the beginning, we assert that these concepts contribute to the divide and therefore, have implications for teacher education programming. We summarize findings about these three concepts, suggest causes for the chasm, and offer recommendations to address the divide. Finally, we argue that while it is important to address the divide to enhance teacher education, the divide itself is a potentially rich site of possibilities. We contend that a reconceptualization of the UPD in this way might mitigate its negative impact on teacher education curriculum and programming. Cet article se concentre sur l’écart qui existe entre l’université en tant que lieu de formation des enseignants et la profession d’enseignant en exercice. Nous avons employé une méthodologie d’enquête théorique basée sur une seule étude de cas qui comprenait des questions sur l’écart entre université et profession, l’analyse des composantes de cet écart et le développement d

  4. Physico-mathematical model of motor vehicle of divided weight with unifying energetic element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Petrov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The traction characteristics are important for ensuring of motor vehicle work process. In providing the traction characteristics the average velocity of mobile energetic transport grows, energy costs for work process execution are uprating and operation costs are reducing. The implementation of traction characteristics is performed by transmission of mobile energetic transport. Aim: The aim of the work is improvement of torque transfer technology from the engine to the wheel driving forces through the establishment of new construction of divided weight vehicle transmission. Materials and Methods: Consider a motor vehicle of divided weight with unifying energetic element which performs rotary motions relative to the vehicle frame. Results: It was shown that, the momentum which creates the rotational motion depends on the module and the direction of rotation speed of the unifying energetic element. For the first time, the technology and design of vehicle transmission which differs from previous designs by significant simplifying of the torque transmission from the engine to driving wheels at increased value of efficiency coefficient were proposed.

  5. Understanding the divide between the theory and practice of organisational change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Pollack

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the different ways that academics and practitioners write about and discuss change management, to develop an understanding of whether there is a divide between the theory and practice of change management. This research used scientometric research techniques to compare three corpora: one based on the most cited research in the general management literature on change management; one based on the most cited research in specialist change management journals; and one based on interviews with practising change managers. It was found that the general management literature emphasised an abstract understanding of knowledge management and the learning organisation, while the change management literature focused more on issues associated with value, culture and social identity. The practitioners emphasised issues at the individual, project and team levels, the need for the effective use of targeted communication to achieve organisational change objectives, and the value of rapidly identifying key drivers in a new context. This research found significant differences between these three corpora, which lends support to other researchers’ claims of a divide between theory and practice in change management.

  6. A divide-and-combine method for large scale nonparallel support vector machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yingjie; Ju, Xuchan; Shi, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Nonparallel Support Vector Machine (NPSVM) which is more flexible and has better generalization than typical SVM is widely used for classification. Although some methods and toolboxes like SMO and libsvm for NPSVM are used, NPSVM is hard to scale up when facing millions of samples. In this paper, we propose a divide-and-combine method for large scale nonparallel support vector machine (DCNPSVM). In the division step, DCNPSVM divide samples into smaller sub-samples aiming at solving smaller subproblems independently. We theoretically and experimentally prove that the objective function value, solutions, and support vectors solved by DCNPSVM are close to the objective function value, solutions, and support vectors of the whole NPSVM problem. In the combination step, the sub-solutions combined as initial iteration points are used to solve the whole problem by global coordinate descent which converges quickly. In order to balance the accuracy and efficiency, we adopt a multi-level structure which outperforms state-of-the-art methods. Moreover, our DCNPSVM can tackle unbalance problems efficiently by tuning the parameters. Experimental results on lots of large data sets show the effectiveness of our method in memory usage, classification accuracy and time consuming.

  7. Discovery of Opinion Leader Community Via Multilayer Structure based Time-dividing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of web 3.0, social network has become an important way to disclosure and spread the public sentiment. Opinion leaders play an important role in leading the direction of the public opinion. In this paper, due to the structure of the community in the network, we extracted the community by replies of each post in BBS, and we came up with an opinion leader community mining method based on level structure. In this way the communities each other have a better overlap result. Thus, communities can have more relations. Then, we analyzed the revolution of the communities after we got the structure of the opinion leader communities and we put forward a time-dividing method, and divided the whole communities into different pieces based on the character of the post and the duration of the time and we came up with the suitable measurement parameter to get the evolution result of the communities. Finally, experiments prove the efficiency of the opinion leader community mining method and we summarize the properties of the opinion leader community in revolution.

  8. Subglacial lake matters: piracy on a divide between thawed and frozen bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, S. P.; Bougamont, M. H.; Christoffersen, P.; Fricker, H. A.; Lipscomb, W. H.; Price, S. F.

    2011-12-01

    The two most populated active subglacial lake districts in Antarctica, upper Kamb Ice Stream and lower Whillans Ice Stream, occur along boundaries between where temperature models predict net basal freezing and net basal accretion. This occurs in part due to a basal traction contrast, which creates a ridge in the ice surface and creates a pressure seal; this impedes the downstream movement of water until a subglacial lake flood occurs. Here we use a model for basal water routing, which incorporates subglacial floods and a realistic term for effective pressure, to explore the ability of these floods to provide water to areas of net basal accretion and thus maintain basal lubrication. We hypothesize that these floods can distribute sufficient water to most of the regions experiencing net basal freezing; the exception being those nearest to the lakes themselves, Discharge in these regions likely occurs via narrow subglacial conduits. Over time this will cause ice downstream of the dam to thicken and pre-flood lake levels to increase until water ultimately exits the lake via an alternate route i.e. water piracy. Once piracy occurs, water is no longer supplied along the former flowpath and ice stream shutdown accelerates. We conclude that the formation and quasi-periodic flooding of lakes at the basal melt/ basal freezing boundary is a critical process in accelerating ice stream shutdown.

  9. Signs of divided differences yield least squares data fitting with constrained monotonicity or convexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriou, I. C.

    2002-09-01

    Methods are presented for least squares data smoothing by using the signs of divided differences of the smoothed values. Professor M.J.D. Powell initiated the subject in the early 1980s and since then, theory, algorithms and FORTRAN software make it applicable to several disciplines in various ways. Let us consider n data measurements of a univariate function which have been altered by random errors. Then it is usual for the divided differences of the measurements to show sign alterations, which are probably due to data errors. We make the least sum of squares change to the measurements, by requiring the sequence of divided differences of order m to have at most q sign changes for some prescribed integer q. The positions of the sign changes are integer variables of the optimization calculation, which implies a combinatorial problem whose solution can require about O(nq) quadratic programming calculations in n variables and n-m constraints. Suitable methods have been developed for the following cases. It has been found that a dynamic programming procedure can calculate the global minimum for the important cases of piecewise monotonicity m=1,q[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 and piecewise convexity/concavity m=2,q[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 of the smoothed values. The complexity of the procedure in the case of m=1 is O(n2+qn log2 n) computer operations, while it is reduced to only O(n) when q=0 (monotonicity) and q=1 (increasing/decreasing monotonicity). The case m=2,q[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 requires O(qn2) computer operations and n2 quadratic programming calculations, which is reduced to one and n-2 quadratic programming calculations when m=2,q=0, i.e. convexity, and m=2,q=1, i.e. convexity/concavity, respectively. Unfortunately, the technique that receives this efficiency cannot generalize for the highly nonlinear case m[greater-or-equal, slanted]3,q[greater-or-equal, slanted]2. However, the case m[greater-or-equal, slanted]3,q=0 is solved by a special strictly

  10. The Optimum Design Methodology of Low-Phase-Noise LC-VCO Using Multiple-Divide Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Shoichi; Murakami, Rui; Okada, Kenichi; Matsuzawa, Akira

    The multiple-divide technique, using the multi-ratio frequency divider, has a possibility to improve FoM of VCO. This paper proposes a design optimization of LC-VCO using the multiple-divide technique. In the simulated results using 90-nm CMOS model parameters, the optimum frequency range, achieving better than -187.0dBc/Hz of FoM, can be extended from 6.5-12.5GHz to 1.5-12.5GHz. The proposed multiple-divide technique can provide a lower phase-noise, lower power consumption, smaller layout area of LC-VCO.

  11. 1MΩ~100GΩ高值电阻器高精度的校准方法%A High Accurate Calibration Method for High Value DC Resistor 1 MΩ~100 GΩ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一帮; 郑世棋; 梁法国; 乔玉娥; 刘霞美

    2015-01-01

    High resistance meter and digital source-meter have a wide application in semiconductor industry. But commercial high value resistance whose accuracy is (±1. 0×10-3 ~±1. 0×10-2) cannot meet the need of traceability of resistance parameter for high resistance meter and digital source-meter. The paper demonstrates a high accurate calibration method for commercial high value dc resistor, realized by a comparator bridge composed of two multifunctional calibrated voltage source and a zero-current-me-ter. A calibrated system is set based on the method, and the measurement uncertainty is 3. 0×10-5 ~8. 0 ×10-4 , whose accuracy can meet the calibration need of most of high resistance measurement instrument.%高阻计、数字源表等仪器在半导体行业有着广泛的应用. 但目前市场上1MΩ~100GΩ高值电阻器准确度(±1. 0×10-3 ~±1. 0×10-2)无法满足高阻计、数字源表等仪器电阻参数的溯源需求. 本文提出了一种高精度的高值电阻器的校准方法,该方法由两个多功能校准源和指零仪组成的比较电桥实现. 根据校准方法组建了1MΩ~100GΩ测量系统,测量结果的不确定度为3. 0×10-5 ~8. 0×10-4,可满足市场上绝大部分高阻测量仪器的校准需求.

  12. 基于陶瓷基体铂薄膜电阻热式气体质量流量计设计%Design of thermal gas mass flowmeter based on platinum film resistors on ceramic substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志亮; 姜国光

    2016-01-01

    A kind of design method for thermal gas mass flowmeter based on platinum film resistors on ceramic substrate is presented,principle of thermal gas flowmeter is analyzed,platinum resistive flow sensor based on ceramic substrate is made. In order to reduce power supply,through-hole scheme is proposed. A prototype is fabricated with a thermostatic control circuit and MSP430 MCU processing circuit. Calibration and test are implemented using sonic nozzle calibration device,measurement range of flowmeter is 500~1 500 kg/h,precision is ±0. 5%,and response time is 2 s,which meet demand for most industrial pipe air mass flow test,and has broad application prospects.%提出了一种基于陶瓷基体铂薄膜电阻热式气体质量流量计的设计方法,分析了热式气体流量计的原理,制作了陶瓷铂电阻流量敏感元件,为降低加热功耗,提出了通孔方案.设计了恒温差控制电路和MSP430单片机处理电路,并制作出了实际样机.采用音速喷嘴标定装置对样机进行了标定和测试,该流量计的测量范围500~1 500 kg/h,精度±0. 5%,响应时间2 s,能够满足大工业气体管道流量的测量要求,具有广阔的应用前景.

  13. Impact of the digital divide on information literacy training in a higher education context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segarani Naidoo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a master’s study undertaken to investigate the impact of the digital divide on information literacy(IL training of Extended Curriculum Programme (ECP students at the Durban University of Technology (DUT. Since1994 the demographics of higher education institutions in South Africa have changed. Today these institutions compriseheterogeneous groups of students, by race, economic background, digital background, etc. and consequently with differentlevels of literacy, information and otherwise. The problem that this study addressed was the impact of having both digitallyadvantaged and digitally disadvantaged students in the same information literacy classroom, expecting them to reachlearning outcomes without frustrating students from either group. The objective of the study was to investigate the impactof the digital divide on IL training of ECP students at the DUT and to recommend guidelines for teaching and learning of ILthat would accommodate both digitally advantaged and digitally disadvantaged students. The study employed a mixedmethod approach in its research design. Data was collected from ECP students (of 2010 by means of a questionnaire; aninterview schedule was used to collect data from Subject Librarians involved in teaching the IL module to ECP students; aseparate interview schedule was used to collect data from the ECP Coordinator. Qualitative and quantitative datacollected were prepared for analysis by means of content analysis and numerical coding, respectively and then subjectedto statistical analysis via SPSS, which produced percentage and frequency distributions to ascertain findings. The findingsof the study revealed that the digital divide does impact on IL training in ways such as: slowing down the progress of ILlessons; basic computer skills need to be taught in the IL classroom; and that digitally disadvantaged students find itdifficult to follow online lessons while advantaged students already have the

  14. Across the Great Divide: The Effects of Technology in Secondary Biology Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Johnny Howard, II

    This study investigates the relationship between technology use and student achievement in public high school across North Carolina. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a digital divide (differences in technology utilization based on student demographics of race/ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, and municipality) exists among schools and whether those differences relate to student achievement in high school biology classrooms. The study uses North Carolina end-of-course (EOC) data for biology to analyze student demographic data and assessment results from the 2010-2011 school year from the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. The data analyses use descriptive and factorial univariate statistics to determine the existence of digital divides and their effects on biology achievement. Analysis of these data described patterns of technology use to determine whether potential variances resulted in a digital divide. Specific technology uses were identified in the data and then their impact on biology achievement scores within various demographic groups was examined. Research findings revealed statistically significant variations of use within different population groups. Despite being statistically significant, the relevance of the association in the variations was minimal at best -- based on the effect scale established by Cohen (1988). Additional factorial univariate analyses were employed to determine potential relationships between technology use and student achievement. The data revealed that technology use did not influence the variation of student achievement scale scores as much as race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. White students outperformed Hispanic students by an average of three scale score points and Black students by an average of six scale score points. Technology use alone averaged less than a one point difference in mean scale scores, and only when interacting with race, gender, and/or SES did the mean difference

  15. Microwave Slow-Wave Structure and Phase-Compensation Technique for Microwave Power Divider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Li

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, T-shaped electromagnetic bandgap is loaded on a coupled transmission line itself and its electric performance is studied. Results show that microwave slow-wave effect can be enhanced and therefore, size reduction of a transmission-line-based circuit is possible. However, the transmission-line-based circuits characterize varied phase responses against frequency, which becomes a disadvantage where constant phase response is required. Consequently, a phase-compensation technique is further presented and studied. For demonstration purpose, an 8-way coupled-line power divider with 22.5 degree phase shifts between adjacent output ports, based on the studied slow-wave structure and phase-compensation technique, is developed. Results show both compact circuit architecture and improved phase imbalance are realized, confirming the investigated circuit structures and analyzing methodologies.

  16. Upon Further Review: VI. An Examination of Previous Lightcurve Analysis from the Palmer Divide Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Brian D.

    2011-04-01

    Updated results of lightcurve analysis are given for 31 asteroids previously reported from the Palmer Divide Observatory (PDO). The original images were remeasured to obtain new data sets using the latest version of MPO Canopus photometry software, analysis tools, and revised techniques for linking observing runs that ranged from several days to several weeks. Moderately to significantly different results were found for: 301 Bavaria, 436 Patricia, 507 Laodica, 549 Jessonda, 585 Bilkis, 596 Scheila, 607 Jenny, 630 Euphemia, 875 Nymphe, 912 Maritima, 926 Imhilde, 1177 Gonnessia, 1203 Nanna, 1333 Cevenola, 1679 Nevanlinna, 1796 Riga, 2000 Herschel, 2266 Tchaikovsky, 2460 Mitlincoln, 2494 Inge, 3915 Fukushima, 3940 Larion, 4091 Lowe, 4209 Briggs, 4431 Holeungholee, 4690 Strasbourg, 5390 Huichiming, 5940 Feliksobolev, (16558) 1991 VQ2, (18108) 2000 NT5, and (45646) 2000 EE45. This is expected to be the final paper in a current series that has examined results obtained during the initial years of the asteroid lightcurve program at PDO.

  17. Toward a High Performance Tile Divide and Conquer Algorithm for the Dense Symmetric Eigenvalue Problem

    KAUST Repository

    Haidar, Azzam

    2012-01-01

    Classical solvers for the dense symmetric eigenvalue problem suffer from the first step, which involves a reduction to tridiagonal form that is dominated by the cost of accessing memory during the panel factorization. The solution is to reduce the matrix to a banded form, which then requires the eigenvalues of the banded matrix to be computed. The standard divide and conquer algorithm can be modified for this purpose. The paper combines this insight with tile algorithms that can be scheduled via a dynamic runtime system to multicore architectures. A detailed analysis of performance and accuracy is included. Performance improvements of 14-fold and 4-fold speedups are reported relative to LAPACK and Intel\\'s Math Kernel Library.

  18. A Compact, Planar, Eight-Port Waveguide Power Divider\\/Combiner The Cross Potent Superhybrid

    CERN Document Server

    Nantista, C D; Nantista, Christopher D.; Tantawi, Sami G.

    2000-01-01

    In this letter, we present a novel four-way divider/combiner in rectangular waveguide. The design is completely two-dimensional in the h-plane, with eight-fold mirror symmetry, and is based on a recent four-port hybrid design [6]. In combining mode, it can function as a phased array with four inputs and four outputs. The planar nature of this design provides advantages, such as the freedom to increase the waveguide height beyond the over-moding limit in order to reduce field strengths. Along with its open geometry, this makes it ideal for high-power applications where rf break down is a concern. Design criteria, field-solver simulation results, and prototype measurements are presented.

  19. Morphomes as a level of representation capture unity of exponence across the inflection-derivation divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich R. Round

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Inferential-realisational analyses formalise a language's inflectional morphology in terms of a mapping on the one side from a lexical index and set of morphosyntactic properties to on the other side a phonological form. Round (2009 has argued that the Australian language Kayardild requires the postulation of an intermediate level of representation, identified with Aronoff's (1994 notion of a "morphome". This morphomic level serves to express patterns of identities of exponence abstracted away from the actual forms of exponents and its use makes possible the expression of certain identities of form which defy expression by means of Rules of Referral (Zwicky 1985, Stump 1993. This paper considers identities of form that span the inflection-derivation divide in Kayardild and shows that they too are coherently captured by assuming that a morphomic level of representation is present. A consequence is that lexical stems must possess a morphomic representation in addition to their representations on other levels.

  20. Meaningful Use Attestations among US Hospitals: The Growing Rural-Urban Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandefer, Ryan H; Marc, David T; Kleeberg, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess EHR Incentive Program attestations of eligible US hospitals across geography and hospital type. The proportions of attestations were compared between metropolitan, micropolitan, and rural hospitals and by whether a hospital was critical access or prospective payment system. From 2011 until December 2013, rural and critical access hospitals were attesting to meaningful use and receiving federal incentive payments at a significantly lower proportion than their urban counterparts. The data suggest that the digital divide between urban and rural hospitals that are adopting electronic health records and using the technology effectively is widening. These findings illustrate that the needs of rural hospitals currently and into the future are different than urban hospitals, and the meaningful use program does not appear to provide the resources needed to propel these rural hospitals forward.

  1. The digital divide: Trends in global mobile and broadband Internet access from 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquillo, Charlene; Currie, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    The digital divide is described as the gap between those who do and do not have access to digital information and communications technologies (ICT). ICTs are viewed as an indicator of infrastructure and potential for development, and are a growing platform for health information and services delivery. This study compares the penetration of mobile and broadband Internet technologies by global region from 2000 to 2010. Results illustrate the rapid growth of mobile cellular telephone subscriptions in all global regions with trends suggesting a continued increase. Little to modest gains were made in fixed broadband Internet subscriptions globally. There is a growing popularity of mobile subscriptions with use of data communications, exceeding the numbers of fixed Internet subscriptions. This comparison reveals current strengths that can be built on and highlights the importance of awareness of global trends and using such knowledge to inform design and delivery of ICT-based health services.

  2. A socioeconomic related 'digital divide' exists in how, not if, young people use computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Courtenay; Straker, Leon; Pollock, Clare

    2017-01-01

    Government initiatives have tried to ensure uniform computer access for young people; however a divide related to socioeconomic status (SES) may still exist in the nature of information technology (IT) use. This study aimed to investigate this relationship in 1,351 Western Australian children between 6 and 17 years of age. All participants had computer access at school and 98.9% at home. Neighbourhood SES was related to computer use, IT activities, playing musical instruments, and participating in vigorous physical activity. Participants from higher SES neighbourhoods were more exposed to school computers, reading, playing musical instruments, and vigorous physical activity. Participants from lower SES neighbourhoods were more exposed to TV, electronic games, mobile phones, and non-academic computer activities at home. These patterns may impact future economic, academic, and health outcomes. Better insight into neighbourhood SES influences will assist in understanding and managing the impact of computer use on young people's health and development.

  3. Digital Divide: How Do Home Internet Access and Parental Support Affect Student Outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between home Internet access/parental support and student outcomes. Survey data were collected from 1,576 middle school students in China. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, independent-samples T-test, and regression analysis. Results indicate that students who had home Internet access reported higher scores than those without home Internet on all three dimensions: Computer and Internet self-efficacy, Attitudes towards technology and Developmental outcomes. Home Internet access and parental support were significantly positively associated with technology self-efficacy, interest in technology, perceived importance of the Internet, and perceived impact of the Internet on learning. Findings from this study have significant implications for research and practice on how to narrow down the digital divide.

  4. Evaluating the Spectrum of Unlocked Injection Frequency Dividers in Pulling Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Lo Schiavo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the phenomenon of periodic pulling which occurs in certain integrated microcircuits of relevant interest in applications, namely the injection-locked frequency dividers (ILFDs. They are modelled as second-order driven oscillators working in the subharmonic (secondary resonance regime, i.e., when the self-oscillating frequency is close (resonant to an integer submultiple n of the driving frequency. Under the assumption of weak injection, we find the spectrum of the system’s oscillatory response in the unlocked mode through closed-form expressions, showing that such spectrum is double-sided and asymmetric, unlike the single-sided spectrum of systems with primary resonance (n=1. An analytical expression for the amplitude modulation of the oscillatory response is also presented. Numerical results are presented to support theoretical relations derived.

  5. European freshwater VHSV genotype Ia isolates divide into two distinct subpopulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahns, Søren; Skall, Helle Frank; Kaas, Rolf Sommer;

    2012-01-01

    Viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), caused by the novirhabdovirus VHSV, often leads to significant economic losses to European rainbow trout production. The virus isolates are divided into 4 distinct genotypes with additional subgroups including sublineage Ia, isolates of which are the main...... detected in Denmark since January 2009. Full-length G-genes of all Danish VHSV isolates that were submitted for diagnostic analyses in the period 2004−2009 were sequenced and analysed. All 58 Danish isolates from rainbow trout grouped with sublineage Ia isolates. Furthermore, VHSV isolates from infected...... Danish freshwater catchments appear to have evolved into a distinct clade within sublineage Ia, herein designated clade Ia-1, whereas trout isolates originating from other continental European countries cluster in another distinct clade, designated clade Ia-2. In addition, phylogenetic analyses indicate...

  6. Design of High speed Low Power Reversible Vedic multiplier and Reversible Divider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth G Department of Electronics & Communication Engineerig, Indur Institute of Engineering & Technology, Siddipet, Medak, JNTUH University, Telangana, India.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper bring out a 32X32 bit reversible Vedic multiplier using "Urdhva Tiryakabhayam" sutra meaning vertical and crosswise, is designed using reversible logic gates, which is the first of its kind. Also in this paper we propose a new reversible unsigned division circuit. This circuit is designed using reversible components like reversible parallel adder, reversible left-shift register, reversible multiplexer, reversible n-bit register with parallel load line. The reversible vedic multiplier and reversible divider modules have been written in Verilog HDL and then synthesized and simulated using Xilinx ISE 9.2i. This reversible vedic multiplier results shows less delay and less power consumption by comparing with array multiplier.

  7. Foreign technology assessment: Environmental evaluation of a radiation-hard oscillator/divider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorack, M. A.

    1993-03-01

    Salford Electrical Instruments, Ltd., and the General Electric Company's Hirst Research Center, under contract to the United Kingdom's (UK) Ministry of Defence, developed a radiation-hard, leadless chip-carrier-packaged oscillator/divider. Two preproduction clocks brought to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) by a potential SNL customer underwent mechanical and thermal environmental evaluation. Because of the subsequent failure of one device and the deteriorating condition of another device, the devices were not subjected to radiation tests. The specifics of the environmental evaluation performed on these two clocks and the postmortem analysis of one unit, which ultimately failed, are described. Clock startup time versus temperature studies were also performed and compared to an SNL-designed clock having the same fundamental frequency.

  8. Near-Earth Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at CS3-Palmer Divide Station: 2015 June-September

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    Lightcurves for 46 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) were obtained at the Center for Solar System Studies-Palmer Divide Station (CS3-PDS) from 2015 June-September. Four of the asteroids showed indications of non-principal axis rotation (NPAR), or tumbling, (9400) 1994 TW1, (86666) 2000 FL10, (154807) 2004 PP97, and (206378) 2003 RB, but there were insufficient data for full analysis. On the other hand, 2015 JY1 is a confirmed tumbler with a dominate period of 6.442 h and a likely second period of 11.42 h. Evidence of the satellite for the known binary system (385186) 1994 AW1 was found. The estimated size ratio of Ds/Dp >= 0.25 is in good agreement with earlier results. A third period was also found but its origin is not confirmed.

  9. Spectroscopic measurements with a silicon drift detector having a continuous implanted drift cathode-voltage divider

    CERN Document Server

    Bonvicini, V; D'Acunto, L; Franck, D; Gregorio, A; Pihet, P; Rashevsky, A; Vacchi, A; Vinogradov, L I; Zampa, N

    2000-01-01

    A silicon drift detector (SDD) prototype where the drift electrode also plays the role of a high-voltage divider has been realised and characterised for spectroscopic applications at near-room temperatures. Among the advantages of this design, is the absence of metal on the sensitive surface which makes this detector interesting for soft X-rays. The detector prototype has a large sensitive area (2x130 mm sup 2) and the charge is collected by two anodes (butterfly-like detector). The energy resolution of a such a detector has been investigated at near-room temperatures using a commercial, hybrid, low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier. The results obtained for the X-ray lines from sup 5 sup 5 Fe and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am are presented.

  10. Competency in network use as a resource for citizenship: implications for the digital divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jääskeläinen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual and empirical issues of citizens' network ompetency are explored, defined as people's capabilities to use the Internet in order to communicate and seek information and to utilize electronic public services. First, the concept of network competency is discussed. Second, based on an empirical case study conducted in Finland, perceived network competency is explored as a resource for autonomous and participatory citizenship. Perceived network competency refers to the self-rated assessment made by the informants. A high degree of perceived network competency correlated positively with success in work life. Network competent people participated more frequently in the activities of civic organizations and contacted decision-makers. Compared to less competent people, they appeared to be informed consumers. Those with high perceived competency believed that people's opportunities to influence social issues will increase in the future. The findings are explored with regard to the digital divide vs. digital inclusion, discussing the prospects for future research.

  11. The ideological divide and climate change opinion: "top-down" and "bottom-up" approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Jennifer; Dietrich, Monica; Jost, John T

    2014-01-01

    The United States wields disproportionate global influence in terms of carbon dioxide emissions and international climate policy. This makes it an especially important context in which to examine the interplay among social, psychological, and political factors in shaping attitudes and behaviors related to climate change. In this article, we review the emerging literature addressing the liberal-conservative divide in the U.S. with respect to thought, communication, and action concerning climate change. Because of its theoretical and practical significance, we focus on the motivational basis for skepticism and inaction on the part of some, including "top-down" institutional forces, such as corporate strategy, and "bottom-up" psychological factors, such as ego, group, and system justification. Although more research is needed to elucidate fully the social, cognitive, and motivational bases of environmental attitudes and behavior, a great deal has been learned in just a few years by focusing on specific ideological factors in addition to general psychological principles.

  12. A socioeconomic related 'digital divide' exists in how, not if, young people use computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Government initiatives have tried to ensure uniform computer access for young people; however a divide related to socioeconomic status (SES) may still exist in the nature of information technology (IT) use. This study aimed to investigate this relationship in 1,351 Western Australian children between 6 and 17 years of age. All participants had computer access at school and 98.9% at home. Neighbourhood SES was related to computer use, IT activities, playing musical instruments, and participating in vigorous physical activity. Participants from higher SES neighbourhoods were more exposed to school computers, reading, playing musical instruments, and vigorous physical activity. Participants from lower SES neighbourhoods were more exposed to TV, electronic games, mobile phones, and non-academic computer activities at home. These patterns may impact future economic, academic, and health outcomes. Better insight into neighbourhood SES influences will assist in understanding and managing the impact of computer use on young people’s health and development. PMID:28362868

  13. Review of corporate digital divide research: A decadal analysis (2003-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Bach

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The digital divide (DD refers to the gap between individuals, companies, regions and countries in accessing and using the information and communication technology (ICT. DD research is mainly oriented towards detection of differences in the ICT use among individuals. An important part of DD research refers to the differences in ICT adoption and use among corporations. The goal of this paper is to present a review of published papers on DD among corporations. Papers from the journals indexed in SSCI that investigate corporate DD were examined in order to compare the research on corporate DD in terms of: (1 geographical area, time frame of the study, sampled corporations; (2 phenomena used as the indicators/measure of DD, inequality type, ICT adoption cycle, determinants of DD; and (3 data collection approach, data sources, sample size and methodology used for investigation of DD determinants.

  14. Divide and conquer the Hilbert space of translation-symmetric spin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisse, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Iterative methods that operate with the full Hamiltonian matrix in the untrimmed Hilbert space of a finite system continue to be important tools for the study of one- and two-dimensional quantum spin models, in particular in the presence of frustration. To reach sensible system sizes such numerical calculations heavily depend on the use of symmetries. We describe a divide-and-conquer strategy for implementing translation symmetries of finite spin clusters, which efficiently uses and extends the "sublattice coding" of H. Q. Lin [Phys. Rev. B 42, 6561 (1990)]. With our method, the Hamiltonian matrix can be generated on-the-fly in each matrix vector multiplication, and problem dimensions beyond 10^{11} become accessible.

  15. Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Palmer Divide Observatory: 2012 September - 2013 January

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Brian D.

    2013-04-01

    Lightcurves for 40 asteroids were obtained at the Palmer Divide Observatory (PDO) from 2012 September to 2013 January: 495 Eulalia, 1694 Kaiser, 2001 Einstein, 3086 Kalbaugh, 3635 Kreutz, 5806 Archieroy, 6310 Jankonke, 6447 Terrycole, 6744 Komoda, 7086 Bopp, 7560 Spudis, 8325 Trigo-Rodriguez, 11149 Tateshina, 11709 Eudoxos, (13245) 1998 MM19, (13573) 1993 FZ18, 14395 Tommorgan, 15434 Mittal, (17657) 1996 VO4, (22013) 1999 XO89, (26916) 1996 RR2, 27776 Cortland, (30878) 1992 GQ, (30981) 1995 SJ4, (31831) 1999 YL, (32626) 2001 RX64, (51371) 2000 XF15, 55844 Bicak, (55854) 1996 VS1, (63440) 2001 MD30, (66832) 1999 UE45, (70927) 1999 VX210, (72675) 2001 FP54, (86388) 2000 AT60, (90988) 1997 XS13, (123937) 2001 EX16, (136017) 2002 VH74, (192683) 1999 SO27, (330825) 2008 XE3, and 2012 TC4. Based on data and analysis in 2012 for 27776 Cortland, the previously reported period from 2009 has been revised.

  16. Internet Politics and Digital Divide Issues: The Rising of a New Electronic Aristocrats and Electronic Meticians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios I. Bozinis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT from the beginning of 1990 until today has brought important changes on function and structure of both public sector and governments. Within the framework of application and use of e-democracy, new technologies enhance the citizens’ democratic participation in public affairs, by using e-voting, e-ballot, while by using e-mail, citizens can develop and consolidate the digital Ancient Agora by exchanging their views with each other or with the elected representatives. Information systems and Internet is today a powerful tool for governments and citizens aiming at the collective decision-making and the reduction of democracy shortcoming. This paper conclude that the access impossibility of citizens to digital democracy services, in the form of digital divide, can be easily compared with the right of vote in Ancient Athens, a right that only privileged citizens had.

  17. An Uncontrolled Item of Enterprise ICT Innovation: the High Level Digital Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Pighin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The globalization phenomena strongly stresses western countries’ economies. Especially in industrial districts, companies are reacting with continuous innovations in product and process, based mainly on the introduction of ICT. This continuous organizational change process forces employees to keep in touch with the working environment in an endless learning process. Therefore, the introduction of new ICT seems to bring a cultural development for individuals. Is this always true? Our conviction is that the strong ICT impact generates a new form of digital-divide, a “High-Level Digital Divide” (HLDD: an increasing cultural distance between people able to follow the enterprise ICT evolution and complexity, and people with a lower cultural growth ability. An uncontrolled growth of HLDD may limit the evolution capacity of the enterprise and drop out people from labor market.

  18. A divide-and-inner product parallel algorithm for polynomial evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jie; Li, Lei [Aomori Univ. (Japan); Nakamura, Tadao [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1994-12-31

    In this paper, a divide-and-inner product parallel algorithm for evaluating a polynomial of degree N (N+1=KL) on a MIMD computer is presented. It needs 2K + log{sub 2}L steps to evaluate a polynomial of degree N in parallel on L+1 processors (L{<=}2K-2log{sub 2}K) which is a decrease of log{sub 2}L steps as compared with the L-order Homer`s method, and which is a decrease of (2log{sub 2}L){sup 1/2} steps as compared with the some MIMD algorithms. The new algorithm is simple in structure and easy to be realized.

  19. Novel process integration for biodiesel blend in membrane reactive divided wall (MRDW column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhre Vandana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a novel process integration for biodiesel blend in the Membrane assisted Reactive Divided Wall Distillation (MRDW column. Biodiesel is a green fuel and grade of biodiesel blend is B20 (% which consist of 20% biodiesel and rest 80% commercial diesel. Instead of commercial diesel, Tertiary Amyl Ethyl Ether (TAEE was used as an environment friendly fuel for blending biodiesel. Biodiesel and TAEE were synthesized in a pilot scale reactive distillation column. Dual reactive distillation and MRDW were simulated using aspen plus. B20 (% limit calculation was performed using feed flow rates of both TAEE and biodiesel. MRDW was compared with dual reactive distillation column and it was observed that MRDW is comparatively cost effective and suitable in terms of improved heat integration and flow pattern.

  20. Long division unites - long union divides, a model for social network evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Jian, Jiang; Michel, Pezeril; Qiuping-Alexandre, Wang

    2013-01-01

    A remarkable phenomenon in the time evolution of many networks such as cultural, political, national and economic systems, is the recurrent transition between the states of union and division of nodes. In this work, we propose a phenomenological modeling, inspired by the maxim "long union divides and long division unites", in order to investigate the evolutionary characters of these networks composed of the entities whose behaviors are dominated by these two events. The nodes are endowed with quantities such as identity, ingredient, richness (power), openness (connections), age, distance, interaction etc. which determine collectively the evolution in a probabilistic way. Depending on a tunable parameter, the time evolution of this model is mainly an alternative domination of union or division state, with a possible state of final union dominated by one single node.