WorldWideScience

Sample records for water relations link

  1. Linking carbon and water relations to drought-induced mortality in Pinus flexilis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Keith; Germino, Matthew J; Kueppers, Lara M; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Mitton, Jeffry

    2015-07-01

    Survival of tree seedlings at high elevations has been shown to be limited by thermal constraints on carbon balance, but it is unknown if carbon relations also limit seedling survival at lower elevations, where water relations may be more important. We measured and modeled carbon fluxes and water relations in first-year Pinus flexilis seedlings in garden plots just beyond the warm edge of their natural range, and compared these with dry-mass gain and survival across two summers. We hypothesized that mortality in these seedlings would be associated with declines in water relations, more so than with carbon-balance limitations. Rather than gradual declines in survivorship across growing seasons, we observed sharp, large-scale mortality episodes that occurred once volumetric soil-moisture content dropped below 10%. By this point, seedling water potentials had decreased below -5 MPa, seedling hydraulic conductivity had decreased by 90% and seedling hydraulic resistance had increased by >900%. Additionally, non-structural carbohydrates accumulated in aboveground tissues at the end of both summers, suggesting impairments in phloem-transport from needles to roots. This resulted in low carbohydrate concentrations in roots, which likely impaired root growth and water uptake at the time of critically low soil moisture. While photosynthesis and respiration on a leaf area basis remained high until critical hydraulic thresholds were exceeded, modeled seedling gross primary productivity declined steadily throughout the summers. At the time of mortality, modeled productivity was insufficient to support seedling biomass-gain rates, metabolism and secondary costs. Thus the large-scale mortality events that we observed near the end of each summer were most directly linked with acute, episodic declines in plant hydraulic function that were linked with important changes in whole-seedling carbon relations.

  2. Linking water resources to food security through virtual water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamea, Stefania

    2014-05-01

    The largest use of global freshwater resources is related to food production. While each day we drink about 2 liters of water, we consume (eating) about 4000 liters of ''virtual water'', which represents the freshwater used to produce crop-based and livestock-based food. Considering human water consumption as a whole, most part originates from agriculture (85.8%), and only minor parts come from industry (9.6%) or households (4.6%). These numbers shed light on the great pressure of humanity on global freshwater resources and justify the increasing interest towards this form of environmental impact, usually known as ''water footprint''. Virtual water is a key variable in establishing the nexus between water and food. In fact, water resources used for agricultural production determine local food availability, and impact the international trade of agricultural goods. Trade, in turn, makes food commodities available to nations which are not otherwise self-sufficient, in terms of water resources or food, and it establishes an equilibrium between food demand and production at the global scale. Therefore, food security strongly relies on international food trade, but also on the use of distant and foreign water resources, which need to be acknowledged and investigated. Virtual water embedded in production and international trade follows the fate of food on the trade network, generating virtual flows of great magnitude (e.g., 2800 km3 in 2010) and defining local and global virtual water balances worldwide. The resulting water-food nexus is critical for the societal and economic development, and it has several implications ranging from population dynamics to the competing use of freshwater resources, from dietary guidelines to globalization of trade, from externalization of pollution to policy making and to socio-economic wealth. All these implications represent a great challenge for future research, not only in hydrology but in the many fields related to this

  3. Milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a tool to investigate ovarian cyclicity of water buffaloes in relation to body condition score and milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Turgish A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Application of assisted reproductive technologies in buffaloes is limited to some extent by farmers’ inability to detect oestrus because of its poor expression. The present study aimed at investigating reliability of a milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to assess the ovarian cyclicity during post partum, oestrus and post-breeding periods in water buffaloes. Methods Progesterone concentrations were measured by an ELISA in milk of 23 postpartum buffaloes in relation to oestrus, pregnancy, body condition score (BCS and milk production. Two milk samples were taken at 10 days intervals, every month starting from day 30 and continued to day 150 post partum. BCS and milk production were recorded during sample collection. Milk samples from bred buffaloes were collected at Day 0 (day of breeding, Days 10–12 and Days 22–24. Defatted milk was preserved at −80°C until analysis. Pregnancy was confirmed by palpation per rectum on Days 70–90. Results Seventeen buffaloes had 47 ovulatory cycles, one to four in each, 13 were detected in oestrus once (28 % oestrus detection rate. Progesterone concentration ≥1 ng/ml in one of the two 10-day-interval milk samples reflected ovulation and corpus luteum formation. The intervals between calving to first luteal activity and to first detected oestrus varied from 41 to 123 days (n = 17 and 83 to 135 (n = 13 days, respectively. Eight buffaloes were bred in the course of the study and seven were found pregnant. These buffaloes had a progesterone profile of low (P P  Conclusions Milk progesterone ELISA is a reliable tool for monitoring ovarian cyclicity and good BCS may be an indicator of resuming cyclicity in water buffalo.

  4. Link prediction in the network of global virtual water trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuninetti, Marta; Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Through the international food-trade, water resources are 'virtually' transferred from the country of production to the country of consumption. The international food-trade, thus, implies a network of virtual water flows from exporting to importing countries (i.e., nodes). Given the dynamical behavior of the network, where food-trade relations (i.e., links) are created and dismissed every year, link prediction becomes a challenge. In this study, we propose a novel methodology for link prediction in the virtual water network. The model aims at identifying the main factors (among 17 different variables) driving the creation of a food-trade relation between any two countries, along the period between 1986 and 2011. Furthermore, the model can be exploited to investigate the network configuration in the future, under different possible (climatic and demographic) scenarios. The model grounds the existence of a link between any two nodes on the link weight (i.e., the virtual water flow): a link exists when the nodes exchange a minimum (fixed) volume of virtual water. Starting from a set of potential links between any two nodes, we fit the associated virtual water flows (both the real and the null ones) by means of multivariate linear regressions. Then, links with estimated flows higher than a minimum value (i.e., threshold) are considered active-links, while the others are non-active ones. The discrimination between active and non-active links through the threshold introduces an error (called link-prediction error) because some real links are lost (i.e., missed links) and some non-existing links (i.e., spurious links) are inevitably introduced in the network. The major drivers are those significantly minimizing the link-prediction error. Once the structure of the unweighted virtual water network is known, we apply, again, linear regressions to assess the major factors driving the fluxes traded along (modelled) active-links. Results indicate that, on the one hand

  5. Linking water treatment practices and fish welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zubiaurre, Claire; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Peracetic acids can be used as sanitizers to control water quality in aquaculture systems. As an alternative to formalin, chloramine-T or copper sulphate, PAA has strong anti-microbial effects, degrades quickly and is relatively safe to use. Its mode of action and associated rapid decay can make...

  6. Linking water treatment practices and fish welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zubiaurre, Claire; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Peracetic acids can be used as sanitizers to control water quality in aquaculture systems. As an alternative to formalin, chloramine-T or copper sulphate, PAA has strong anti-microbial effects, degrades quickly and is relatively safe to use. Its mode of action and associated rapid decay can make...... optimizing treatment protocols a challenge. Continuous low-dose applications seem to be a promising solution. In this preliminary study behavioral response was used to assess potential correlations with PAA dosage. A behavioral change or response is not necessarily an indication of compromised welfare....... Supportive enzymatic, biochemical and physiological biomarkers can be used along with gill and epidermal histological measures to evaluate the effects on water treatment regimens. The ultimate goal is to define the therapeutic window where fish welfare is not compromised.PAA is among the few disinfectants...

  7. Water service delivery - the weakest link

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available and operators • There are ~ 2000 plumbers and other water service men in local government, but ~ 1100 vacancies. Plus more posts required – largely for maintenance • The majority of the 3 000 to 5 000 operators working in the 2 000+ water and wastewater... and systems (e.g. procurement processes) that could enable more assistance than they do; – poor operation and maintenance: the services have been delivered, yes, in the sense that the pipe is in the ground -- but operation and maintenance...

  8. Water-Related Teaching Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, Herbert L.; Price, Charles L.

    This publication is designed to provide interested teachers with teaching activities for all grade levels and subject areas that can be used to help students learn about water resources. For each activity, the purpose, level, subject, and concept are given. Activities are organized by grade level. Most of these water related learning activities…

  9. Steam-water relative permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambusso, W.; Satik, C.; Home, R.N. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A set of relative permeability relations for simultaneous flow of steam and water in porous media have been measured in steady state experiments conducted under the conditions that eliminate most errors associated with saturation and pressure measurements. These relations show that the relative permeabilities for steam-water flow in porous media vary approximately linearly with saturation. This departure from the nitrogen/water behavior indicates that there are fundamental differences between steam/water and nitrogen/water flows. The saturations in these experiments were measured by using a high resolution X-ray computer tomography (CT) scanner. In addition the pressure gradients were obtained from the measurements of liquid phase pressure over the portions with flat saturation profiles. These two aspects constitute a major improvement in the experimental method compared to those used in the past. Comparison of the saturation profiles measured by the X-ray CT scanner during the experiments shows a good agreement with those predicted by numerical simulations. To obtain results that are applicable to general flow of steam and water in porous media similar experiments will be conducted at higher temperature and with porous rocks of different wetting characteristics and porosity distribution.

  10. Linking global water demand and supply using remote sensing products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortinga, A.; Thanh Ha, L.; Phuong Vu, N.; Saah, D. S.; Cutter, P. G.; Troy, A.; Ganz, D.

    2016-12-01

    Due to increasing pressures on water resources and changing population dynamics, there is a need to monitor regional water resource availability in a spatially and temporally explicit manner. However, for many parts of the world, there is insufficient data to quantify stream flow in river basins or potential ground water infiltration rates. Often water resource managers use sophistic hydrology models that require complex data sets to generate estimations, but the results of these efforts lack confidence due to the absence of accurate input data or validation methods. Global open access remote sensing derived data products offer exciting new opportunities to study spatial-temporal water dynamics in a way directly relevant to managers. We present the results of an elegant pixel-based water balance formulation to partition rainfall into evapotranspiration, surface water runoff and potential ground water. The method provides a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective solution to mapping water resource availability in basins with no gauges or monitoring infrastructure. The presented method provides important new insights into the spatial and temporal water supply and demand dynamics. The preliminary result of an application of the model build for the Mekong region will be presented, where quantitative water supply estimations are linked with demand patterns. It will be demonstrated that global freely available remote sensing products can be used to produce significant and operational results for water resource managers. We demonstrate that space based technologies and their applications play a key role to optimize the planning, implementation, and monitoring of projects.

  11. Missing Links in Global Water Governance: a Processes-Oriented Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pahl-Wostl

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, the policy and scholarly communities have increasingly recognized the need for governance of water-related issues at the global level. There has been major progress in the achievement of international goals related to the provision of basic water and some progress on sanitation services. However, the water challenge is much broader than securing supply. Doubts have been raised about the effectiveness of some of the existing governance processes, in the face of trends such as the unsustainable use of water resources, the increasing pressure imposed by climate change, or the implications of population growth for water use in food and energy production. Conflicts between different water uses and users are increasing, and the state of the aquatic environment is further declining. Inequity in access to basic water and sanitation services is still an issue. We argue that missing links in the trajectories of policy development are one major reason for the relative ineffectiveness of global water governance. To identify these critical links, a framework is used to examine how core governance processes are performed and linked. Special attention is given to the role of leadership, representativeness, legitimacy, and comprehensiveness, which we take to be critical characteristics of the processes that underpin effective trajectories of policy development and implementation. The relevance of the identified categories is illustrated with examples from three important policy arenas in global water governance: the effort to address access to water and sanitation, currently through the Millennium Development Goals; the controversy over large dams; and the links between climate change and water resources management. Exploratory analyses of successes and failures in each domain are used to identify implications and propose improvements for more effective and legitimate action.

  12. A vital link: water and vegetation in the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gerten

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the interplay of water, carbon and vegetation dynamics fundamentally links some global trends in the current and conceivable future Anthropocene, such as cropland expansion, freshwater use, and climate change and its impacts. Based on a review of recent literature including geographically explicit simulation studies with the process-based LPJmL global biosphere model, it demonstrates that the connectivity of water and vegetation dynamics is vital for water security, food security and (terrestrial ecosystem dynamics alike. The water limitation of net primary production of both natural and agricultural plants – already pronounced in many regions – is shown to increase in many places under projected climate change, though this development is partially offset by water-saving direct CO2 effects. Natural vegetation can to some degree adapt dynamically to higher water limitation, but agricultural crops usually require some form of active management to overcome it – among them irrigation, soil conservation and eventually shifts of cropland to areas that are less water-limited due to more favourable climatic conditions. While crucial to secure food production for a growing world population, such human interventions in water–vegetation systems have, as also shown, repercussions on the water cycle. Indeed, land use changes are shown to be the second-most important influence on the terrestrial water balance in recent times. Furthermore, climate change (warming and precipitation changes will in many regions increase irrigation demand and decrease water availability, impeding rainfed and irrigated food production (if not CO2 effects counterbalance this impact – which is unlikely at least in poorly managed systems. Drawing from these exemplary investigations, some research perspectives on how to further improve our knowledge of human–water–vegetation interactions in the Anthropocene are outlined.

  13. Linking Europa's plume activity to tides, tectonics, and liquid water

    CERN Document Server

    Rhoden, Alyssa R; Roth, Lorenz; Retherford, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    Much of the geologic activity preserved on Europa's icy surface has been attributed to tidal deformation, mainly due to Europa's eccentric orbit. Although the surface is geologically young (30 - 80 Myr), there is little information as to whether tidally-driven surface processes are ongoing. However, a recent detection of water vapor near Europa's south pole suggests that it may be geologically active. Initial observations indicated that Europa's plume eruptions are time-variable and may be linked to its tidal cycle. Saturn's moon, Enceladus, which shares many similar traits with Europa, displays tidally-modulated plume eruptions, which bolstered this interpretation. However, additional observations of Europa at the same time in its orbit failed to yield a plume detection, casting doubt on the tidal control hypothesis. The purpose of this study is to analyze the timing of plume eruptions within the context of Europa's tidal cycle to determine whether such a link exists and examine the inferred similarities and...

  14. Linking water quality and well-being for improved assessment and valuation of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Bonnie L; Polasky, Stephen; Brauman, Kate A; Johnson, Kris A; Finlay, Jacques C; O'Neill, Ann; Kovacs, Kent; Dalzell, Brent

    2012-11-06

    Despite broad recognition of the value of the goods and services provided by nature, existing tools for assessing and valuing ecosystem services often fall short of the needs and expectations of decision makers. Here we address one of the most important missing components in the current ecosystem services toolbox: a comprehensive and generalizable framework for describing and valuing water quality-related services. Water quality is often misrepresented as a final ecosystem service. We argue that it is actually an important contributor to many different services, from recreation to human health. We present a valuation approach for water quality-related services that is sensitive to different actions that affect water quality, identifies aquatic endpoints where the consequences of changing water quality on human well-being are realized, and recognizes the unique groups of beneficiaries affected by those changes. We describe the multiple biophysical and economic pathways that link actions to changes in water quality-related ecosystem goods and services and provide guidance to researchers interested in valuing these changes. Finally, we present a valuation template that integrates biophysical and economic models, links actions to changes in service provision and value estimates, and considers multiple sources of water quality-related ecosystem service values without double counting.

  15. Linking economic water use, freshwater ecosystem impacts, and virtual water trade in a Great Lakes watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubako, S. T.; Ruddell, B. L.; Mayer, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of human water uses and economic pressures on freshwater ecosystems is of growing interest for water resource management worldwide. This case study for a water-rich watershed in the Great Lakes region links the economic pressures on water resources as revealed by virtual water trade balances to the nature of the economic water use and the associated impacts on the freshwater ecosystem. A water accounting framework that combines water consumption data and economic data from input output tables is applied to quantify localized virtual water imports and exports in the Kalamazoo watershed which comprises ten counties. Water using economic activities at the county level are conformed to watershed boundaries through land use-water use relationships. The counties are part of a region implementing the Michigan Water Withdrawal Assessment Process, including new regulatory approaches for adaptive water resources management under a riparian water rights framework. The results show that at local level, there exists considerable water use intensity and virtual water trade balance disparity among the counties and between water use sectors in this watershed. The watershed is a net virtual water importer, with some counties outsourcing nearly half of their water resource impacts, and some outsourcing nearly all water resource impacts. The largest virtual water imports are associated with agriculture, thermoelectric power generation and industry, while the bulk of the exports are associated with thermoelectric power generation and commercial activities. The methodology is applicable to various spatial levels ranging from the micro sub-watershed level to the macro Great Lakes watershed region, subject to the availability of reliable water use and economic data.

  16. Aggregating land use quantity and intensity to link water quality in upper catchment of Miyun Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, E.

    2015-12-01

    Land use is closely related to hydrological and biochemical processes influencing the water quality. Quantifying relationship between both of them can help effectively manage land use to improve water quality. Previous studies majorly utilized land use quantity as an indicator to link water quality parameters, which lacked an insight to the influence of land use intensity. Taking upper catchment of Miyun Reservoir as a case study, we proposed a method of aggregating land use quantity and intensity to build a new land use indicator and investigated its explanation empower on water quality. Six nutrient concentrations from 52 sub-watersheds covering the whole catchment were used to characterize spatial distributions of water eutrophication. Based on spatial techniques and empirical conversion coefficients, combined remote sensing with socio-economic statistical data, land use intensity was measured and mapped visually. Then the new land use indicator was calculated and linked to nutrient concentrations by Pearson correlation coefficients. Results demonstrated that our new land use indicator incorporating intensity information can quantify the potential different nutrients exporting abilities from land uses. Comparing to traditional indicators only characterized by land use quantity, most Pearson correlation coefficients between new indicator and water nutrient concentrations increased. New information enhanced the explanatory power of land use on water nutrient concentrations. Then it can help better understand the impact of land use on water quality and guide land use management for supporting decision making.

  17. The Energy-Water Nexus: Managing the Links between Energy and Water for a Sustainable Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Karen; Petit, Carine

    2010-05-01

    Water and energy are both indispensable inputs to modern economies but currently both resources are under threat owing to the impacts of an ever-increasing population and associated demand, unsustainable practices in agriculture and manufacturing, and the implications of a changing climate. However, it is where water and energy rely on each other that pose the most complex challenges for policy-makers. Water is needed for mining coal, drilling oil, refining gasoline, and generating and distributing electricity; and, conversely, vast amounts of energy are needed to pump, transport, treat and distribute water, particularly in the production of potable water through the use of desalination plants and waste water treatment plants. Despite the links, and the urgency in both sectors for security of supply, in existing policy frameworks energy and water policies are developed largely in isolation from one another. Worse still, some policies designed to encourage alternative energy supplies give little thought to the resultant consequences on water resources, and, similarly, policies designed to secure water supplies pay little attention to the resultant consequences on energy use. The development of new technologies presents both opportunities and challenges for managing the energy-water nexus but a better understanding of the links between energy and water is essential in any attempt to formulate policies for more resilient and adaptable societies. The energy-water nexus must be adequately integrated into policy and decision-making or governments run the risk of contradicting their efforts, and therefore failing in their objectives, in both sectors. A series of COST Exploratory Workshops, drawing on on-going research in the energy-water nexus from a number of international teams, identified the implications of the energy-water nexus on the development of (i) energy policies (ii) water resource management policies and (iii) climate adaptation and mitigation policies. A

  18. Linking Atomistic and Mesoscale Simulations of Water Soluble Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. L.

    2003-03-01

    There exist a range of techniques for studying surfactants and polymers in the mesoscale regime. One of the challenges is to link mesoscale theories and simulations to other calculation methods which address different length scales of the system. We introduce some mesoscale methods of calculation for polymers and surfactants and then present a case study of where mesoscale modelling is used for mechanistic understanding, by linking the method to high throughput in-silico screening methods. We look at the adsorption onto silica of ethylene oxide (EO)/ propylene oxide (PO) block copolymers (lutrols) which have been modified by end-grafting of short, cationic dimethylamino ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA)chains. Given that the silica surface is negatively charged, it is remarkable that in some circumstances, polymers with longercationic chains have a lower adsorption. The effect is attributed to a competition between strong adsorption of the cationic DMAEMA groups driven by electrostatics, and weaker adsorption of the more numerous EO groups. This then raises the question of how we produce the values for the mesoscale parameters in these models and in the second part of the talk we describe a calculation method for doing this for water soluble polymers. The most promising route, but notoriously costly, is based on free energy calculations at the atomistic level. Free energy calculations are computationally intensive in general, but in an aqueous system one is also faced with the additional problem of using complex continuum models and/or accurate interaction potentials for water. Here we show how potential of mean force (PMF)calculations offer a practical alternative which avoids these drawbacks, though one is still faced with extremely long simulations.

  19. Linking integrated water resources management and integrated coastal zone management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, P S; Ipsen, N; Malmgren-Hansen, A; Mogensen, B

    2005-01-01

    Some of the world's most valuable aquatic ecosystems such as deltas, lagoons and estuaries are located in the coastal zone. However, the coastal zone and its aquatic ecosystems are in many places under environmental stress from human activities. About 50% of the human population lives within 200 km of the coastline, and the population density is increasing every day. In addition, the majority of urban centres are located in the coastal zone. It is commonly known that there are important linkages between the activities in the upstream river basins and the environment conditions in the downstream coastal zones. Changes in river flows, e.g. caused by irrigation, hydropower and water supply, have changed salinity in estuaries and lagoons. Land use changes, such as intensified agricultural activities and urban and industrial development, cause increasing loads of nutrients and a variety of chemicals resulting in considerable adverse impacts in the coastal zones. It is recognised that the solution to such problems calls for an integrated approach. Therefore, the terms Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) are increasingly in focus on the international agenda. Unfortunately, the concepts of IWRM and ICZM are mostly being developed independently from each other by separate management bodies using their own individual approaches and tools. The present paper describes how modelling tools can be used to link IWRM and ICZM. It draws a line from the traditional sectoral use of models for the Istanbul Master Planning and assessment of the water quality and ecological impact in the Bosphorus Strait and the Black Sea 10 years ago, to the most recent use of models in a Water Framework Directive (WFD) context for one of the selected Pilot River Basins in Denmark used for testing of the WFD Guidance Documents.

  20. Leaf photosynthetic rate of tropical ferns is evolutionarily linked to water transport capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Bao; Sun, Mei; Cao, Kun-Fang; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Jiao-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Ferns usually have relatively lower photosynthetic potential than angiosperms. However, it is unclear whether low photosynthetic potential of ferns is linked to leaf water supply. We hypothesized that there is an evolutionary association of leaf water transport capacity with photosynthesis and stomatal density in ferns. In the present study, a series of functional traits relating to leaf anatomy, hydraulics and physiology were assessed in 19 terrestrial and 11 epiphytic ferns in a common garden, and analyzed by a comparative phylogenetics method. Compared with epiphytic ferns, terrestrial ferns had higher vein density (Dvein), stomatal density (SD), stomatal conductance (gs), and photosynthetic capacity (Amax), but lower values for lower epidermal thickness (LET) and leaf thickness (LT). Across species, all traits varied significantly, but only stomatal length (SL) showed strong phylogenetic conservatism. Amax was positively correlated with Dvein and gs with and without phylogenetic corrections. SD correlated positively with Amax, Dvein and gs, with the correlation between SD and Dvein being significant after phylogenetic correction. Leaf water content showed significant correlations with LET, LT, and mesophyll thickness. Our results provide evidence that Amax of the studied ferns is linked to leaf water transport capacity, and there was an evolutionary association between water supply and demand in ferns. These findings add new insights into the evolutionary correlations among traits involving carbon and water economy in ferns.

  1. Scotland's Water Map: Understanding water sector links to support decision making for the Hydro Nation Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Ruth E.; Gilmour, Daniel; Duffy, Alison; Isaacs, John; Stojanovic, Vladeta; O'Keeffe, Juliette; Blackwood, David

    2015-04-01

    The value of Scotland's water and sewerage market is projected to grow to £1.24bn by 2016/17. Developing future opportunities must take place alongside maintaining current service provision; however the demand on water and waste water services is constantly evolving. An integrated approach to water management requires an understanding of complex interactions that exist between key actors in the sector to allow water management strategies to exploit inter-sectorial links. Successful integrated analysis of the water sector in Scotland will support management activities key to responding to the Hydro Nation themes of 1) Governance and international development 2) Environmental protection 3) Economic opportunities 4) Research development. In order to deliver on these objectives an approach is required to capture and communicate the scope and scale of the water sector and its interconnectedness. The methodology required to determine scope, scale and interconnectedness of water sector involved the identification and application of an appropriate range of techniques from the Information and Knowledge Management disciplines combined with the Information Visualisation field. Scope and scale of the water sector was identified by a desk based study and this data was visualized using a geographic map. Sector interconnectedness was determined by interviewing key actors. The interviews identified the stakeholders associated with information flows, and the purpose of the information transfer through Reporting/Managing (R/M), Influence and Information sharing (I) or Control (C) activities. Primary information flows were also scored with respect to importance against the 4 key Hydro Nation agenda themes. Many organisations were identified who interact within Scotland's water sector including the Scottish Government and Ministers, the Regulators (WICS, DWQR, SEPA), Scottish Water (core and non-core functions), plus many other stakeholders ranging from research institutions to

  2. Linking carbon and water limitations to drought-induced mortality of Pinus flexilis seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Keith; Germino, Matthew J.; Kueppers, Lara M.; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Mitton, Jeffry

    2015-01-01

    Survival of tree seedlings at high elevations has been shown to be limited by thermal constraints on carbon balance, but it is unknown if carbon relations also limit seedling survival at lower elevations, where water relations may be more important. We measured and modeled carbon fluxes and water relations in first-year Pinus flexilis seedlings in garden plots just beyond the warm edge of their natural range, and compared these with dry-mass gain and survival across two summers. We hypothesized that mortality in these seedlings would be associated with declines in water relations, more so than with carbon-balance limitations. Rather than gradual declines in survivorship across growing seasons, we observed sharp, large-scale mortality episodes that occurred once volumetric soil-moisture content dropped below 10%. By this point, seedling water potentials had decreased below −5 MPa, seedling hydraulic conductivity had decreased by 90% and seedling hydraulic resistance had increased by >900%. Additionally, non-structural carbohydrates accumulated in aboveground tissues at the end of both summers, suggesting impairments in phloem-transport from needles to roots. This resulted in low carbohydrate concentrations in roots, which likely impaired root growth and water uptake at the time of critically low soil moisture. While photosynthesis and respiration on a leaf area basis remained high until critical hydraulic thresholds were exceeded, modeled seedling gross primary productivity declined steadily throughout the summers. At the time of mortality, modeled productivity was insufficient to support seedling biomass-gain rates, metabolism and secondary costs. Thus the large-scale mortality events that we observed near the end of each summer were most directly linked with acute, episodic declines in plant hydraulic function that were linked with important changes in whole-seedling carbon relations.

  3. AFLP marker linked to water-stress-tolerant bulks in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Altinkut

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP assay is an efficient method for the identification of molecular markers, useful in the improvement of numerous crop species. Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA was used to identify AFLP markers associated with water-stress tolerance in barley, as this would permit rapid selection of water-stress tolerant genotypes in breeding programs. AFLP markers linked to water-stress tolerance was identified in two DNA pools (tolerant and sensitive, which were established using selected F2 individuals resulting from a cross between water-stress-tolerant and sensitive barley parental genotypes, based on their paraquat (PQ tolerance, leaf size, and relative water content (RWC. All these three traits were previously shown to be associated with water-stress tolerance in segregating F2 progeny of the barley cross used in a previous study. AFLP analysis was then performed on these DNA pools, using 40 primer pairs to detect AFLP fragments that are present/absent, respectively, in the two pools and their parental lines. One separate AFLP fragment, which was present in the tolerant parent and in the tolerant bulk, but absent in the sensitive parent and in the sensitive bulk, was identified. Polymorphism of the AFLP marker was tested among tolerant and sensitive F2 individuals. The presence of this marker that is associated with water-stress tolerance will greatly enhance selection for paraquat and water-stress tolerant genotypes in future breeding programs.

  4. Links between climate change, water-table depth, and water chemistry in a mineralized mountain watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Andrew H.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Caine, Jonathan S.; Todd, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that climate change is causing rising solute concentrations in mountain lakes and streams. These changes may be more pronounced in mineralized watersheds due to the sensitivity of sulfide weathering to changes in subsurface oxygen transport. Specific causal mechanisms linking climate change and accelerated weathering rates have been proposed, but in general remain entirely hypothetical. For mineralized watersheds, a favored hypothesis is that falling water tables caused by declining recharge rates allow an increasing volume of sulfide-bearing rock to become exposed to air, thus oxygen. Here, we test the hypothesis that falling water tables are the primary cause of an increase in metals and SO4 (100-400%) observed since 1980 in the Upper Snake River (USR), Colorado. The USR drains an alpine watershed geologically and climatologically representative of many others in mineralized areas of the western U.S. Hydrologic and chemical data collected from 2005 to 2011 in a deep monitoring well (WP1) at the top of the USR watershed are utilized. During this period, both water table depths and groundwater SO4 concentrations have generally increased in the well. A numerical model was constructed using TOUGHREACT that simulates pyrite oxidation near WP1, including groundwater flow and oxygen transport in both saturated and unsaturated zones. The modeling suggests that a falling water table could produce an increase in metals and SO4 of a magnitude similar to that observed in the USR (up to 300%). Future water table declines may produce limited increases in sulfide weathering high in the watershed because of the water table dropping below the depth of oxygen penetration, but may continue to enhance sulfide weathering lower in the watershed where water tables are shallower. Advective air (oxygen) transport in the unsaturated zone caused by seasonally variable recharge and associated water table fluctuations was found to have little influence on pyrite

  5. Cross-linking of dermal sheep collagen using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, P.J.; Luyn, van M.J.A.; Wachem, van P.B.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Feijen, J.

    1996-01-01

    A cross-linking method for collagen-based biomaterials was developed using the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC). Cross-linking using EDC involves the activation of carboxylic acid groups to give O-acylisourea groups, which form cross-links

  6. Water and energy link in the cities of the future - achieving net zero carbon and pollution emissions footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, V

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the link between water conservation, reclamation, reuse and energy use as related to the goal of achieving the net zero carbon emission footprint in future sustainable cities. It defines sustainable ecocities and outlines quantitatively steps towards the reduction of energy use due to water and used water flows, management and limits in linear and closed loop water/stormwater/wastewater management systems. The three phase water energy nexus diagram may have a minimum inflection point beyond which reduction of water demand may not result in a reduction of energy and carbon emissions. Hence, water conservation is the best alternative solution to water shortages and minimizing the carbon footprint. A marginal water/energy chart is developed and proposed to assist planners in developing future ecocities and retrofitting older communities to achieve sustainability.

  7. Living waters: Linking cultural knowledge, ecosystem services, and wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Moon Stumpff

    2013-01-01

    American Indian tribes value pristine water sources that often originate in wilderness areas to support provisioning and cultural benefits. Based on interviews with four traditional leaders, this article focuses on the concept of living waters in ways that connect ecosystem service benefits to wilderness. Cultural knowledge connects indigenous water stewardship and...

  8. Linking ceragenins to water-treatment membranes to minimize biofouling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Feng, Yanshu (Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah); Savage, Paul B. (Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah); Pollard, Jacob (Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah); Branda, Steven S.; Goeres, Darla (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Buckingham-Meyer, Kelli (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Stafslien, Shane (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Marry, Christopher; Jones, Howland D. T.; Lichtenberger, Alyssa; Kirk, Matthew F.; McGrath, Lucas K. (LMATA, Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-01-01

    Ceragenins were used to create biofouling resistant water-treatment membranes. Ceragenins are synthetically produced antimicrobial peptide mimics that display broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. While ceragenins have been used on bio-medical devices, use of ceragenins on water-treatment membranes is novel. Biofouling impacts membrane separation processes for many industrial applications such as desalination, waste-water treatment, oil and gas extraction, and power generation. Biofouling results in a loss of permeate flux and increase in energy use. Creation of biofouling resistant membranes will assist in creation of clean water with lower energy usage and energy with lower water usage. Five methods of attaching three different ceragenin molecules were conducted and tested. Biofouling reduction was observed in the majority of the tests, indicating the ceragenins are a viable solution to biofouling on water treatment membranes. Silane direct attachment appears to be the most promising attachment method if a high concentration of CSA-121a is used. Additional refinement of the attachment methods are needed in order to achieve our goal of several log-reduction in biofilm cell density without impacting the membrane flux. Concurrently, biofilm forming bacteria were isolated from source waters relevant for water treatment: wastewater, agricultural drainage, river water, seawater, and brackish groundwater. These isolates can be used for future testing of methods to control biofouling. Once isolated, the ability of the isolates to grow biofilms was tested with high-throughput multiwell methods. Based on these tests, the following species were selected for further testing in tube reactors and CDC reactors: Pseudomonas ssp. (wastewater, agricultural drainage, and Colorado River water), Nocardia coeliaca or Rhodococcus spp. (wastewater), Pseudomonas fluorescens and Hydrogenophaga palleronii (agricultural drainage), Sulfitobacter donghicola, Rhodococcus fascians, Rhodobacter

  9. Water-Related Parasitic Diseases in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Lv

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Water-related parasitic diseases are directly dependent on water bodies for their spread or as a habitat for indispensable intermediate or final hosts. Along with socioeconomic development and improvement of sanitation, overall prevalence is declining in the China. However, the heterogeneity in economic development and the inequity of access to public services result in considerable burden due to parasitic diseases in certain areas and populations across the country. In this review, we demonstrated three aspects of ten major water-related parasitic diseases, i.e., the biology and pathogenicity, epidemiology and recent advances in research in China. General measures for diseases control and special control strategies are summarized.

  10. Linking knowledge with action in the pursuit of sustainable water-resources management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Katharine; Lebel, Louis; Buizer, James; Addams, Lee; Matson, Pamela; McCullough, Ellen; Garden, Po; Saliba, George; Finan, Timothy

    2016-04-26

    Managing water for sustainable use and economic development is both a technical and a governance challenge in which knowledge production and sharing play a central role. This article evaluates and compares the role of participatory governance and scientific information in decision-making in four basins in Brazil, Mexico, Thailand, and the United States. Water management institutions in each of the basins have evolved during the last 10-20 years from a relatively centralized water-management structure at the state or national level to a decision structure that involves engaging water users within the basins and the development of participatory processes. This change is consistent with global trends in which states increasingly are expected to gain public acceptance for larger water projects and policy changes. In each case, expanded citizen engagement in identifying options and in decision-making processes has resulted in more complexity but also has expanded the culture of integrated learning. International funding for water infrastructure has been linked to requirements for participatory management processes, but, ironically, this study finds that participatory processes appear to work better in the context of decisions that are short-term and easily adjusted, such as water-allocation decisions, and do not work so well for longer-term, high-stakes decisions regarding infrastructure. A second important observation is that the costs of capacity building to allow meaningful stakeholder engagement in water-management decision processes are not widely recognized. Failure to appreciate the associated costs and complexities may contribute to the lack of successful engagement of citizens in decisions regarding infrastructure.

  11. Relating water and air flow characteristics in coarse granular materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Rune Røjgaard; Canga, Eriona; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm

    2013-01-01

    Water pressure drop as a function of velocity controls w 1 ater cleaning biofilter operation 2 cost. At present this relationship in biofilter materials must be determined experimentally as no 3 universal link between pressure drop, velocity and filter material properties have been established. 4...... Pressure drop - velocity in porous media is much simpler and faster to measure for air than for water. 5 For soils and similar materials, observations show a strong connection between pressure drop – 6 velocity relations for air and water, indicating that water pressure drop – velocity may be estimated 7...... from air flow data. The objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate if this approach is valid 8 also for coarse granular biofilter media which usually consists of much larger particles than soils. In 9 this paper the connection between the pressure drop – velocity relationships for air...

  12. Characteristic of hyaluronic acid derivative films cross-linked by polyethylene glycol of low water content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jinghua; Chen Jingtao; Xu Zheng; Gu Qisheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To test the characteristics of byaluronic acid (HA) derivative cross-linked by polyethylene glycol films of low water content. Methods: The cross-linked HA film with 200 μm thickness was got at atmospheric pressure at 25℃ for 5 d. After dried, cross-linked films of 10 mm×10 mm were weighed and immersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS pH 7.45) at 37℃ for 24 h. Then the solution fraction and water content were estimated. Meanwhile, cross-linked HA derivative films were immersed in phosphate buffered saline (PBS: pH 7.45) at 37℃ for determined time and then implanted subcutaneously in the back of white rats to test in vitro or in vivo degradation characteristic. Results and Conclusion: HA hydrogel cross-linked by polyethylene glycol with water content is as low as 60% and this kind of HA derivative has a slow degradation rate.

  13. Links between river water acidity, land use and hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, T.; Celebi, A.; Kloeve, B. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Water Resources and Environmental Eng. Lab.], Email: tuomas.saarinen@oulu.fi

    2013-11-01

    In western Finland, acid leaching to watercourses is mainly due to drainage of acid sulphate (As) soils. This study examined how different land-use and land-cover types affect water acidity in the northwestern coastal region of Finland, which has abundant drained AS soils and peatlands. Sampling conducted in different hydrological conditions in studied river basins revealed two different catchment types: catchments dominated by drained forested peatlands and catchments used by agriculture. Low pH and high electric conductivity (EC) were typical in rivers affected by agriculture. In rivers dominated by forested peatlands and wetlands, EC was considerably lower. During spring and autumn high runoff events, water quality was poor and showed large spatial variation. Thus it is important to ensure that in river basin status assessment, sampling is carried out in different hydrological situations and in also water from some tributaries is sampled. (orig.)

  14. Linking Fish Habitat Modelling and Sediment Transport in Running Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas; EISNER; Silke; WIEPRECHT; Matthias; SCHNEIDER

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of ecological status for running waters is one of the major issues within an integrated river basin management and plays a key role with respect to the implementation of the European Water Frame- work Directive (WFD).One of the tools supporting the development of sustainable river management is physi- cal habitat modeling,e.g.,for fish,because fish population are one of the most important indicators for the e- colngical integrity of rivers.Within physical habitat models hydromorphological ...

  15. Self-assembly made durable: water-repellent materials formed by cross-linking fullerene derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaobing; Shen, Yanfei; Kessel, Stefanie; Fernandes, Paulo; Yoshida, Kaname; Yagai, Shiki; Kurth, Dirk G; Möhwald, Helmuth; Nakanishi, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Fullerene flakes: A diacetylene-functionalized fullerene derivative self-organizes into flakelike microparticles (see picture). Both the diacetylene and C(60) moieties can be effectively cross-linked, which leads to supramolecular materials with remarkable resistivity to solvent, heat, and mechanical stress. Moreover, the surface of the cross-linked flakelike objects is highly durable and water-repellent.

  16. Linking smallholder agriculture and water to household food security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multidisciplinary team: Partners with complementary skills should work together towards a common goal. When working ... on the NWP figures of Table 3, the theoretical water require- .... BOYLE MA (2003) Community Nutrition in Action – An Entrepreneur- ... DÜVEL GH and AFFUL DB (1997) Towards an understanding of.

  17. Linking fractional wettability and contact angle dynamics in water repellent soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Sarah; Smith, James

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic soil water repellency has become a highly documented soil phenomenon across a range of environmental conditions and investigated within a range of disciplines. With global climate change at the environmental science fore, there is growing concern and need for accurate quantification of fundamental soil hydraulic properties and model parameterization. In the presence of soil water repellency, however, substantial unknowns remain in terms of characterizing repellency and drawing linkages to fundamental hydraulic parameters. This is often related to the complexity of investigating soil water repellency, which is often a challenging environment because of its spatially and temporally variable nature. To help bridge this gap, this work reports on different approaches using various technologies to explore opportunities that yield greater quantification and parametrization of soil water repellency in natural hydrologic systems at different scales. These approaches include X-ray microtomography (μXCT), Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis (ADSA), Drop Penetration tests (MED/WDPT), and Tension Infiltrometry. This work has shown the strength of conceptually linking contact angle dynamics and fractional wettability as a means to understand the nature of infiltration in water repellent soils and provide a mechanistic foundation upon which repellency can be quantified and related to fundamental hydraulic properties. Contact angle dynamics and fractional wettability are complimentary terminology that appear in the multiphase flow and soil physics literature, but have largely/essentially only been applied in synthetic systems. Their utility in natural environments is potentially significant and conceptually useful since they can readily incorporate existing characterizations while providing greater opportunity for articulating and defining specific behaviours in systems with high spatial and temporal heterogeneity.

  18. Linking High Frequency Variations in Stream Water DOC to Ages of Water Sources in Peat-Dominated Montane Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunaley, C.; Tetzlaff, D.; Lessels, J. S.; Soulsby, C.

    2015-12-01

    We combined time series of inferred DOC (from optical sensors) and stable isotopes in streams and watershed source areas to assess the link between water age and C fluxes. We monitored temporal dynamics of FDOM for 2 yrs at nested scales (0.9, 3.0 and 30km2) in a montane Scottish watershed. FDOM was strongly correlated (r2 ~ 0.8) with DOC allowing inference of 15 min timeseries. Marked seasonality was observed, with highest DOC concentrations (~25 mg l-1) in summer events and lower concentrations (~5mg l-1) in winter. During events, anticlockwise hysteresis was observed; consistent with expansion of the riparian saturation zone, increasing hydrological connectivity across peat soils and mobilizing DOC. Lag times for peak discharge and DOC were 1-12 hrs depending on event characteristics and antecedent conditions. Isotope time series from precipitation, streams and catchment source waters (overland flow and hillslope drainage) were also generated. These allowed us to model the non-stationary characteristics of their ages. Stream water age ranges from 3 months at high flows when overland flow dominates runoff to 4 yrs under baseflow. Overland flow age was a dominant influence on DOC transport. Highest concentrations occurred in small summer events with relatively young (strategies.

  19. Emotional Intelligence and Its Link to Public Relations Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Timothy Lent

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the ethics chapters in five introduction-to-public relations textbooks and the codes of ethics of four major public relations associations contained within those chapters to determine the prevalence of language that either uses the same terms Daniel Goleman employs for his 25 competencies of emotional…

  20. A Link between Mothers' Disciplinary Strategies and Children's Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Marlene J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the association between maternal disciplinary strategies and children's level of relational aggression, and then compares these associations with those found with overt aggression. Eighty-two 4th graders (aged 9-11 years) completed peer nomination measures of relational and overt aggression, and their mothers completed a…

  1. Emotional Intelligence and Its Link to Public Relations Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Timothy Lent

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the ethics chapters in five introduction-to-public relations textbooks and the codes of ethics of four major public relations associations contained within those chapters to determine the prevalence of language that either uses the same terms Daniel Goleman employs for his 25 competencies of emotional…

  2. On the Links Between Photosynthesis and Soil Water Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, E.; Porporato, A.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2002-12-01

    The equations of soil moisture dynamics and a model of leaf gas exchange and water transport through the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere Continuum (SPAC) are coupled to explore the dependence of plant CO2 assimilation on soil moisture. The model is also coupled with a daily growing boundary layer model, that gives the values of air specific humidity and potential temperature during the day. Two different approaches for modeling stomatal conductance gs are implemented and compared. One is the mixed-empirical formulation of stomatal conductance used by Jarvis (1976), who assumed a multiplicative relationship among the main environmental factors affecting stomatal movement; the other one is the empirical relationship between stomatal conductance and assimilation introduced by Ball et al. (1987) and modified by Leuning (1990, 1995), that assume a direct dependence of stomatal movement on the assimilation rate. This second approach is extended to include drought conditions and the common bases underlying the two approaches are elucidated. The model also gives the soil moisture value below which plants are under stress and the moisture content at the wilting point. These are used to evaluate the probability distribution of soil moisture, carbon assimilation by photosynthesis and plant water stress, thus providing a more physical basis to a previous stochastic model of soil moisture by the authors.

  3. Comparative studies on performance of radiation-induced and thermal cross-linked ion-exchange membrane for water electrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarty, Tina; Jasti, Amaranadh [Electro-Membrane Processes Division, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Goel, N.K. [Radiation Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (India); Shahi, Vinod K., E-mail: vkshahi@csmcri.or [Electro-Membrane Processes Division, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), G. B. Marg, Bhavnagar 364002, Gujarat (India); Sabharwal, Sunil [Radiation Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2011-07-15

    Radiation-induced and thermal cross-linked sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) (SPS)-sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPK) composite ion-exchange membranes (SPS/SPK({gamma}) and SPS/SPK(T), respectively) were prepared. Their performances for water electrolysis were comparatively assessed. Thermal cross-linked membrane (SPS/SPK(T)) showed cross-linking of part functional groups (-SO{sub 3}H) and thus deterioration in membrane conductivity. While, radiation-induced cross-linked membrane (SPS/SPK({gamma})) avoided any cross-linking between functional groups and thus conductivity. Electrolysis performances of these membranes were evaluated in comparison with Nafion117 membrane. Relatively low current efficiency (CE) for SPS/SPK and SPS/SPK(T) membranes was due to their high mass transfer (water) via electro-osmotic drag, which was negligible for SPS/SPK({gamma}) membrane. SPS/SPK({gamma}) membrane exhibited comparable stabilities and water splitting performance with Nafion117 membrane, which revealed its suitability as substitute for electrochemical applications.

  4. Comparative studies on performance of radiation-induced and thermal cross-linked ion-exchange membrane for water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Tina; Jasti, Amaranadh; Goel, N. K.; Shahi, Vinod K.; Sabharwal, Sunil

    2011-07-01

    Radiation-induced and thermal cross-linked sulfonated poly(ether sulfone) (SPS)-sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPK) composite ion-exchange membranes (SPS/SPK(γ) and SPS/SPK(T), respectively) were prepared. Their performances for water electrolysis were comparatively assessed. Thermal cross-linked membrane (SPS/SPK(T)) showed cross-linking of part functional groups (-SO 3H) and thus deterioration in membrane conductivity. While, radiation-induced cross-linked membrane (SPS/SPK(γ)) avoided any cross-linking between functional groups and thus conductivity. Electrolysis performances of these membranes were evaluated in comparison with Nafion117 membrane. Relatively low current efficiency (CE) for SPS/SPK and SPS/SPK(T) membranes was due to their high mass transfer (water) via electro-osmotic drag, which was negligible for SPS/SPK(γ) membrane. SPS/SPK(γ) membrane exhibited comparable stabilities and water splitting performance with Nafion117 membrane, which revealed its suitability as substitute for electrochemical applications.

  5. Linking water age and solute dynamics in streamflow at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolo Benettin; Scott W. Bailey; John L. Campbell; Mark B. Green; Andrea Rinaldo; Gene E. Likens; Kevin J. McGuire; Gianluca Botter

    2015-01-01

    We combine experimental and modeling results from a headwater catchment at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), New Hampshire, USA, to explore the link between stream solute dynamics and water age. A theoretical framework based on water age dynamics, which represents a general basis for characterizing solute transport at the catchment scale, is here applied to...

  6. European water policy and research on water-related topics - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevauviller, Philippe

    2014-10-01

    European water policy developments are essentially linked to the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive and parent legislation, which is built upon the principle of river basin management planning with the objective of achieving good status for all European water bodies. Recent policy developments in the climate change area call for ‘climate proofing' of EU actions through mainstreaming of adaptation measures into policies and programmes. These policy trends are very closely related to the capacity to get access to supporting scientific information and to bridge the knowledge gap. This paper is about these features, serving as an introduction to the special issue of Journal of Hydrology on climatic change impact on water: overcoming data and science gaps.

  7. Links between the Philippines and Spain: migration and bilateral relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelia Pe-Pua

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the implications which Spanish policy regarding foreign workers has on the living and working conditions of the Filipino community in Spain. The author pays special attention to bilateral relations between the Philippines and Spain in issues suchas Spanish investment in the Philippines, the trade balance between the two countries and labour relations. In conclusion the article considers the necessity of reaching a bilateral labour agreement which would be beneficial to both countries and which at the same time would improve the working conditions and the integration of Philippine nationals living in Spain.

  8. A Framework for Developing Indicators Linking Socio-Economic and Ecological Impacts of Water Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, L.; Game, E.; Calvache, A.; Moreno, P.; Morales, A.; Rivera, B.; Rodriguez, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    Growing interest in the equity and sustainability of water funds and other investment in watershed services programs has spurred interest in evaluation of program impacts on ecosystem services and human well-being. Yet, programs often lack a systematic framework to select indicators that are both important to stakeholders and relevant to hypothesized program impact. To fill this gap, we developed a participatory indicator selection methodology and piloted it in Fondo Agua por La Vida y la Sostenibilidad in the East Cauca Valley Colombia. We started by linking program activities to anticipated ecological and socio-economic impacts through stakeholder developed results chains. Using results chains as the framework, we constructed fuzzy cognitive models to explore the relative impact of program activities on social and ecological attributes. To prioritize indicators to monitor, we combined our fuzzy modelling results with an assessment of the perceived importance of different attributes for stakeholders in the water fund. We used the selected indicators to design a monitoring program that will allow the water fund to track and communicate its impact over the long-term.

  9. Relative Efficiency Evaluation on Water Resource Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Ying

    2011-01-01

    Water resource allocation was defined as an input-output question in this paper, and a preliminary input-output index system was set up. Then GEM (group eigenvalue method)-MAUE (multi-attribute utility theory) model was applied to evaluate relative efficiency of water resource allocation plans. This model determined weights of indicators by GEM, and assessed the allocation schemes by MAUE. Compared with DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) or ANN (Artificial Neural Networks), the mode was more applicable in some cases where decision-makers had preference for certain indicators

  10. Income Satisfaction and Relative Deprivation: An Empirical Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Conchita; Frick, Joachim R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between two well-established concepts of measuring individual well-being: the concept of "happiness," i.e. self-reported level of satisfaction with income, and "relative deprivation," i.e. the gaps between the individual's income and the incomes of all individuals richer than him. Operationalizing both concepts…

  11. Linking water age and solute dynamics in streamflow at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, NH, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benettin, Paolo; Bailey, Scott W.; Campbell, John L.; Green, Mark B.; Rinaldo, Andrea; Likens, Gene E.; McGuire, Kevin J.; Botter, Gianluca

    2015-11-01

    We combine experimental and modeling results from a headwater catchment at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), New Hampshire, USA, to explore the link between stream solute dynamics and water age. A theoretical framework based on water age dynamics, which represents a general basis for characterizing solute transport at the catchment scale, is here applied to conservative and weathering-derived solutes. Based on the available information about the hydrology of the site, an integrated transport model was developed and used to compute hydrochemical fluxes. The model was designed to reproduce the deuterium content of streamflow and allowed for the estimate of catchment water storage and dynamic travel time distributions (TTDs). The innovative contribution of this paper is the simulation of dissolved silicon and sodium concentration in streamflow, achieved by implementing first-order chemical kinetics based explicitly on dynamic TTD, thus upscaling local geochemical processes to catchment scale. Our results highlight the key role of water stored within the subsoil glacial material in both the short-term and long-term solute circulation. The travel time analysis provided an estimate of streamflow age distributions and their evolution in time related to catchment wetness conditions. The use of age information to reproduce a 14 year data set of silicon and sodium stream concentration shows that, at catchment scales, the dynamics of such geogenic solutes are mostly controlled by hydrologic drivers, which determine the contact times between the water and mineral interfaces. Justifications and limitations toward a general theory of reactive solute circulation at catchment scales are discussed.

  12. Modeling water quality, temperature, and flow in Link River, south-central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2016-09-09

    The 2.1-km (1.3-mi) Link River connects Upper Klamath Lake to the Klamath River in south-central Oregon. A CE-QUAL-W2 flow and water-quality model of Link River was developed to provide a connection between an existing model of the upper Klamath River and any existing or future models of Upper Klamath Lake. Water-quality sampling at six locations in Link River was done during 2013–15 to support model development and to provide a better understanding of instream biogeochemical processes. The short reach and high velocities in Link River resulted in fast travel times and limited water-quality transformations, except for dissolved oxygen. Reaeration through the reach, especially at the falls in Link River, was particularly important in moderating dissolved oxygen concentrations that at times entered the reach at Link River Dam with marked supersaturation or subsaturation. This reaeration resulted in concentrations closer to saturation downstream at the mouth of Link River.

  13. Humanin and Age-related diseases: A new link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwei eGong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Humanin (HN is 24-amino acid mitochondria-associated peptide. Since its initial discovery over a decade ago, a role for HN has been reported in many biological processes such as apoptosis, cell survival, substrate metabolism, inflammatory response and response to stressors such as oxidative stress, ischemia and starvation. HN and its potent analogs have been shown to have beneficial effects in many age-related diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD, stroke, diabetes, myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (MI-R, atherosclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and certain types of cancer both in vitro and in vivo. More recently, an association between HN levels, growth hormone/ insulin-like growth factor-1 (GH/IGF axis and life span was demonstrated using various mouse models with mutations in the GH/IGF axis. The goal of this review is to summarize the current understanding of the role of HN in aging and age-related diseases.

  14. Sorption of substituted indoles on highly cross-linked polystyrene from water-acetonitrile solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafigulin, R. V.; Myakishev, A. A.; Il'Ina, E. A.; Il'in, M. M.; Davankov, V. A.; Bulanova, A. V.

    2011-07-01

    The sorption of first synthesized indole derivatives by highly cross-linked polystyrenes from water-acetonitrile solutions was studied by high-performance liquid chromatography. The retention factors and differences in the Gibbs energy of adsorption from infinite diluted solutions were calculated, and the applicability of the Snyder-Soczewinski and Scott-Kucera models for describing the chromatographic retention of sorbates on a polymer network of highly cross-linked polystyrene was shown.

  15. Nuclear Quantum Effects in Water at the Triple Point: Using Theory as a Link Between Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bingqing; Behler, Jörg; Ceriotti, Michele

    2016-06-16

    One of the most prominent consequences of the quantum nature of light atomic nuclei is that their kinetic energy does not follow a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. Deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS) experiments can measure this effect. Thus, the nuclear quantum kinetic energy can be probed directly in both ordered and disordered samples. However, the relation between the quantum kinetic energy and the atomic environment is a very indirect one, and cross-validation with theoretical modeling is therefore urgently needed. Here, we use state of the art path integral molecular dynamics techniques to compute the kinetic energy of hydrogen and oxygen nuclei in liquid, solid, and gas-phase water close to the triple point, comparing three different interatomic potentials and validating our results against equilibrium isotope fractionation measurements. We will then show how accurate simulations can draw a link between extremely precise fractionation experiments and DINS, therefore establishing a reliable benchmark for future measurements and providing key insights to increase further the accuracy of interatomic potentials for water.

  16. Water Vapor Feedback and Links to Mechanisms of Recent Tropical Climate Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, F. R.; Miller, Tim L.

    2008-01-01

    Recent variations of tropical climate on interannual to near-decadal scales have provided a useful target for studying feedback processes. A strong warm/cold ENSO couplet (e.g. 1997-2000) along with several subsequent weaker events are prominent interannual signals that are part of an apparent longer term strengthening of the Walker circulation during the mid to late1990 s with some weakening thereafter. Decadal scale changes in tropical SST structure during the 1990s are accompanied by focusing of precipitation over the Indo-Pacific warm pool and an increase in tropical ocean evaporation of order 1.0 %/decade. Here we use a number of diverse satellite measurements to explore connections between upper-tropospheric humidity (UTH) variations on these time scales and changes in other water and energy fluxes. Precipitation (GPCP, TRMM), turbulent fluxes (OAFlux), and radiative fluxes (ERBE / CERES, SRB) are use to analyze vertically-integrated divergence of moist static energy, divMSE, and its dry and moist components. Strong signatures of MSE flux transport linking ascending and descending regions of tropical circulations are found. Relative strengths of these transports compared to radiative flux changes are interpreted as a measure of efficiency in the overall process of heat rejection during episodes of warm or cold SST forcing. In conjunction with the diagnosed energy transports we explore frequency distributions of upper-tropospheric humidity as inferred from SSM/T-2 and AMSU-B passive microwave measurements. Relating these variations to SST changes suggests positive water vapor feedback, but at a level reduced from constant relative humidity.

  17. Water-Food-Nutrition-Health Nexus: Linking Water to Improving Food, Nutrition and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi; Tendai Chibarabada; Albert Modi

    2016-01-01

    Whereas sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA) water scarcity, food, nutrition and health challenges are well-documented, efforts to address them have often been disconnected. Given that the region continues to be affected by poverty and food and nutrition insecurity at national and household levels, there is a need for a paradigm shift in order to effectively deliver on the twin challenges of food and nutrition security under conditions of water scarcity. There is a need to link water use in agriculture...

  18. Linking poverty levels to water resource use and conflicts in rural Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madulu, Ndalahwa F.

    Water scarcity is an important environmental constraint to development. Water availability is closely linked to human welfare and health by affecting nutrition status and quantity of drinking water especially for the poor. It has impacts on household labour because of the time and energy spent in obtaining it. These problems are more keenly felt among the poor households and in the agricultural subsistence economy. In many areas, the demand for water has been increasing due to rapid population growth, economic development, and climatic change. Water scarcity also stimulates social conflicts between various water users: individuals, communities, industries, livestock, wildlife, agriculture etc. Consequently, local communities have evolved strategies for coping with water stress and drought. These strategies include use of various sources of water, inaction to strict bye-laws regarding the use of water, crop diversification, wage labour, and possibly seasonal migration. The available strategies are likely to vary from one area to another. Some of these actions have measurable longterm demographic consequences, particularly if water stress is severe or repetitive. Although most governments and donor organizations often put much emphasis on the provision of water for drinking purposes, there is clear evidence that the supply of water for other uses has equal importance especially among rural communities. This observation suggests that putting too much emphasis on drinking water needs, addresses a rather insignificant part of the problem of water resources and biases the range of solutions which are likely to be proposed for perceived shortages. The presence of other water uses necessitates the provision of multi-purpose water sources that can serve a number of contrasting functions. This demand-responsive approach can enable the local communities and the poor households to choose the type of services they require on the basis of perceived needs and their ability to

  19. Managing coopetition through horizontal supply chain relations : Linking dyadic and network levels of analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, Miriam M.

    2011-01-01

    A growing research stream has expanded the level of analysis beyond single buyer-supplier relations to the network, including supplier-supplier relations. These supplier-supplier relations may constitute a missing link between the traditional analysis of the dyadic and the network level of analysis

  20. Managing coopetition through horizontal supply chain relations : Linking dyadic and network levels of analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, Miriam M.

    2011-01-01

    A growing research stream has expanded the level of analysis beyond single buyer-supplier relations to the network, including supplier-supplier relations. These supplier-supplier relations may constitute a missing link between the traditional analysis of the dyadic and the network level of analysis

  1. Exploring the link between meteorological drought and streamflow to inform water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennard, Amy; Macdonald, Neil; Hooke, Janet

    2015-04-01

    Drought indicators are an under-used metric in UK drought management. Standardised drought indicators offer a potential monitoring and management tool for operational water resource management. However, the use of these metrics needs further investigation. This work uses statistical analysis of the climatological drought signal based on meteorological drought indicators and observed streamflow data to explore the link between meteorological drought and hydrological drought to inform water resource management for a single water resource region. The region, covering 21,000 km2 of the English Midlands and central Wales, includes a variety of landscapes and climatological conditions. Analysis of the links between meteorological drought and hydrological drought performed using streamflow data from 'natural' catchments indicates a close positive relationship between meteorological drought indicators and streamflow, enhancing confidence in the application of drought indicators for monitoring and management. However, many of the catchments in the region are subject to modification through impoundments, abstractions and discharge. Therefore, it is beneficial to explore how climatological drought signal propagates into managed hydrological systems. Using a longitudinal study of catchments and sub-catchments that include natural and modified river reaches the relationship between meteorological and hydrological drought is explored. Initial statistical analysis of meteorological drought indicators and streamflow data from modified catchments shows a significantly weakened statistical relationship and reveals how anthropogenic activities may alter hydrological drought characteristics in modified catchments. Exploring how meteorological drought indicators link to streamflow across the water supply region helps build an understanding of their utility for operational water resource management.

  2. Relating watershed nutrient loads to satellite derived estuarine water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrter, J. C.; Le, C.

    2015-12-01

    Nutrient enhanced phytoplankton production is a cause of degraded estuarine water quality. Yet, relationships between watershed nutrient loads and the spatial and temporal scales of phytoplankton blooms and subsequent water quality impairments remain unquantified for most systems. This is partially due to a lack of observations. In many systems, satellite remote sensing of water quality variables may be used to supplement limited field observations and improve understanding of linkages to nutrients. Here, we present the results from a field and satellite ocean color study that quantitatively links nutrients to variations in estuarine water quality endpoints. The study was conducted in Pensacola Bay, Florida, an estuary in the northern Gulf of Mexico that is impacted by watershed nutrients. We developed new empirical band ratio algorithms to retrieve phytoplankton biomass as chlorophyll a (chla), colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS). MERIS had suitable spatial resolution (300-m) for the scale of Pensacola Bay (area = 370 km2, mean depth = 3.4 m) and a spectral band centered at wavelength 709 nm that was used to minimize the effect of organic matter on chla retrieval. The algorithms were applied to daily MERIS remote sensing reflectance (level 2) data acquired from 2003 to 2011 to calculate nine-year time-series of mean monthly chla, CDOM, and SPM concentrations. The MERIS derived time-series were then analyzed for statistical relations with time-series of mean monthly river discharge and river loads of nitrogen, phosphorus, dissolved organic carbon, and SPM. Regression analyses revealed significant relationships between river loads and MERIS water quality variables. The simple regression models provide quantitative predictions about how much chla, CDOM, and SPM concentrations in Pensacola Bay will increase with increased river loading, which is necessary information

  3. Ground-water flow related to streamflow and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voast, W. A.; Novitzki, R.P.

    1968-01-01

    A ground-water flow system in southwestern Minnesota illustrates water movement between geologic units and between the land surface and the subsurface. The flow patterns indicate numerous zones of ground-water recharge and discharge controlled by topography, varying thicknesses of geologic units, variation in permeabilities, and the configuration of the basement rock surface. Variations in streamflow along a reach of the Yellow Medicine River agree with the subsurface flow system. Increases and decreases in runoff per square mile correspond, apparently, to ground-water discharge and recharge zones. Ground-water quality variations between calcium sulfate waters typical of the Quaternary drift and sodium chloride waters typical of the Cretaceous rocks are caused by mixing of the two water types. The zones of mixing are in agreement with ground-water flow patterns along the hydrologic section.

  4. Acanthamoeba Species Keratitis in a Soft Contact Lens Wearer Molecularly Linked to Well Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Mubareka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba species keratitis has been associated with soft contact lens wear. In the present report, an epidemiological link was established between the patient's isolate and well water from the home using molecular methods. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case in Canada where such a link has been established. Primary care practitioners and specialists, including ophthalmologists and infectious diseases specialists, must maintain a high degree of clinical suspicion in soft contact lens wearers with keratitis unresponsive to conventional topical and systemic treatment.

  5. Reinforced films based on cross-linked water-soluble sulfonated carbon nanotubes with sulfonated polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ying; Haiping, Hong; Guiver, Michael; Welsh, Jeffry S

    2009-09-01

    Reinforced films based on sulfonated polystyrene cross-linked with water-soluble sulfonated carbon nanotubes were fabricated using a free-standing film-making method. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM and SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to verify the cross-linking reaction. The mechanical properties of these films demonstrated that the tensile strength increases with an increase in the sulfonated nanotube concentration. At 5 wt% nanotube loading, the tensile strength increased 84% compared with polymer containing no nanotube loading. The relationships between structure and mechanical properties are discussed and a possible direction for making ultra thin and ultra lightweight film is proposed.

  6. Water-Food-Nutrition-Health Nexus: Linking Water to Improving Food, Nutrition and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe; Chibarabada, Tendai; Modi, Albert

    2016-01-06

    Whereas sub-Saharan Africa's (SSA) water scarcity, food, nutrition and health challenges are well-documented, efforts to address them have often been disconnected. Given that the region continues to be affected by poverty and food and nutrition insecurity at national and household levels, there is a need for a paradigm shift in order to effectively deliver on the twin challenges of food and nutrition security under conditions of water scarcity. There is a need to link water use in agriculture to achieve food and nutrition security outcomes for improved human health and well-being. Currently, there are no explicit linkages between water, agriculture, nutrition and health owing to uncoordinated efforts between agricultural and nutrition scientists. There is also a need to develop and promote the use of metrics that capture aspects of water, agriculture, food and nutrition. This review identified nutritional water productivity as a suitable index for measuring the impact of a water-food-nutrition-health nexus. Socio-economic factors are also considered as they influence food choices in rural communities. An argument for the need to utilise the region's agrobiodiversity for addressing dietary quality and diversity was established. It is concluded that a model for improving nutrition and health of poor rural communities based on the water-food-nutrition-health nexus is possible.

  7. Water-Food-Nutrition-Health Nexus: Linking Water to Improving Food, Nutrition and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA water scarcity, food, nutrition and health challenges are well-documented, efforts to address them have often been disconnected. Given that the region continues to be affected by poverty and food and nutrition insecurity at national and household levels, there is a need for a paradigm shift in order to effectively deliver on the twin challenges of food and nutrition security under conditions of water scarcity. There is a need to link water use in agriculture to achieve food and nutrition security outcomes for improved human health and well-being. Currently, there are no explicit linkages between water, agriculture, nutrition and health owing to uncoordinated efforts between agricultural and nutrition scientists. There is also a need to develop and promote the use of metrics that capture aspects of water, agriculture, food and nutrition. This review identified nutritional water productivity as a suitable index for measuring the impact of a water-food-nutrition-health nexus. Socio-economic factors are also considered as they influence food choices in rural communities. An argument for the need to utilise the region’s agrobiodiversity for addressing dietary quality and diversity was established. It is concluded that a model for improving nutrition and health of poor rural communities based on the water-food-nutrition-health nexus is possible.

  8. A linked hydrodynamic and water quality model for the Salton Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, E.G.; Schladow, S.G.; Perez-Losada, J.; Robertson, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    A linked hydrodynamic and water quality model was developed and applied to the Salton Sea. The hydrodynamic component is based on the one-dimensional numerical model, DLM. The water quality model is based on a new conceptual model for nutrient cycling in the Sea, and simulates temperature, total suspended sediment concentration, nutrient concentrations, including PO4-3, NO3-1 and NH4+1, DO concentration and chlorophyll a concentration as functions of depth and time. Existing water temperature data from 1997 were used to verify that the model could accurately represent the onset and breakup of thermal stratification. 1999 is the only year with a near-complete dataset for water quality variables for the Salton Sea. The linked hydrodynamic and water quality model was run for 1999, and by adjustment of rate coefficients and other water quality parameters, a good match with the data was obtained. In this article, the model is fully described and the model results for reductions in external phosphorus load on chlorophyll a distribution are presented. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  9. Interactive Links between Relational Aggression, Theory of Mind, and Moral Disengagement among Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Voulgaridou, Ioanna; Mandrali, Marianna; Parousidou, Chrysoula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible interactive links between theory of mind (ToM), moral disengagement and relational aggression, using a moderated mediation analysis, with gender as a moderator, in a sample of 120 Greek preadolescents. Results indicated that relational aggression was significantly positively associated with moral…

  10. Integrated Water Flow Model (IWFM), A Tool For Numerically Simulating Linked Groundwater, Surface Water And Land-Surface Hydrologic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogrul, E. C.; Brush, C. F.; Kadir, T. N.

    2006-12-01

    The Integrated Water Flow Model (IWFM) is a comprehensive input-driven application for simulating groundwater flow, surface water flow and land-surface hydrologic processes, and interactions between these processes, developed by the California Department of Water Resources (DWR). IWFM couples a 3-D finite element groundwater flow process and 1-D land surface, lake, stream flow and vertical unsaturated-zone flow processes which are solved simultaneously at each time step. The groundwater flow system is simulated as a multilayer aquifer system with a mixture of confined and unconfined aquifers separated by semiconfining layers. The groundwater flow process can simulate changing aquifer conditions (confined to unconfined and vice versa), subsidence, tile drains, injection wells and pumping wells. The land surface process calculates elemental water budgets for agricultural, urban, riparian and native vegetation classes. Crop water demands are dynamically calculated using distributed soil properties, land use and crop data, and precipitation and evapotranspiration rates. The crop mix can also be automatically modified as a function of pumping lift using logit functions. Surface water diversions and groundwater pumping can each be specified, or can be automatically adjusted at run time to balance water supply with water demand. The land-surface process also routes runoff to streams and deep percolation to the unsaturated zone. Surface water networks are specified as a series of stream nodes (coincident with groundwater nodes) with specified bed elevation, conductance and stage-flow relationships. Stream nodes are linked to form stream reaches. Stream inflows at the model boundary, surface water diversion locations, and one or more surface water deliveries per location are specified. IWFM routes stream flows through the network, calculating groundwater-surface water interactions, accumulating inflows from runoff, and allocating available stream flows to meet specified or

  11. Bauhinia forficata Link authenticity using flavonoids profile: relation with their biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Vinholes, Juliana; Silva, Sara T; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2012-09-15

    HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) was used to ascertain the authenticity of two certified and two commercial Bauhinia forficata Link samples. Different flavonoids profiles were obtained, involving 39 compounds. Just kaempferol-3-O-(2-rhamnosyl)rutinoside was found in all analysed samples. Five compounds were common to the certified samples of B. forficata Link and B. forficata Link subsp. pruinosa (Vogel) Fortunato & Wunderlin, being kaempferol derivatives the most representative ones. The phenolic composition of B. forficata Link subsp. pruinosa (Vogel) Fortunato & Wunderlin is described herein for the first time, accounting for eight compounds, while 10 new compounds were identified in B. forficata Link. Commercial B. forficata Link showed higher contents of quercetin derivatives, in addition to the presence of myricetin derivatives and flavonoids-(galloyl)glycosides, for which the MS fragmentation pattern is reported for the first time. B. forficata Link and the two commercial samples were able to inhibit α-glucosidase, with EC(50) values lower than that found for acarbose. Mild effects on cholinesterases were observed with the certified samples, while commercial ones were more effective. The same behaviour was observed concerning the scavenging of DPPH, nitric oxide and superoxide radicals. The presence of high contents of quercetin derivatives in commercial samples seems to directly influence their biological properties. The differences between phenolic profiles and their relation with the authenticity of commercial samples are discussed.

  12. Water relations in tree physiology: where to from here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, Joe; Waring, Richard

    2016-12-14

    We look back over 50 years of research into the water relations of trees, with the objective of assessing the maturity of the topic in terms of the idea of a paradigm, put forward by Kuhn in 1962. Our brief review indicates that the physical processes underlying the calculation of transpiration are well understood and accepted, and knowledge of those processes can be applied if information about the leaf area of trees, and stomatal conductance, is available. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the factors governing stomatal responses to environment, with insights into how the hydraulic conducting system of trees determines the maximum aperture of stomata. Knowledge about the maximum stomatal conductance values likely to be reached by different species, and recognition that stomatal responses to increasing atmospheric vapor pressure deficits are in fact responses to water loss from leaves, provides the basis for linking these responses to information about hydraulic conductance through soil-root-stem-branch systems. Improved understanding in these areas is being incorporated into modern models of stomatal conductance and responses to environmental conditions. There have been significant advances in understanding hydraulic pathways, including cavitation and its implications. A few studies suggest that the major resistances to water flux within trees are not in the stem but in the branches. This insight may have implications for productivity: it may be advantageous to select trees with the genetic propensity to produce short branches in stands with open canopies. Studies on the storage of water in stems have provided improved understanding of fluxes from sapwood at different levels. Water stored in the stems of large trees may provide up to 20-30% daily sap flow, but this water is likely to be replaced by inflows at night. In dry conditions transpiration by large trees may be maintained from stored water for up to a week, but flows from storage may be

  13. Increase in outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to bathing water in Finland in summer 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ari; Al-Hello, Haider; Zacheus, Outi; Kilponen, Jaana; Maunula, Leena; Huusko, Sari; Lappalainen, Maija; Miettinen, Ilkka; Blomqvist, Soile; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska

    2017-01-01

    An increased number of suspected outbreaks of gastroenteritis linked to bathing water were reported to the Finnish food- and waterborne outbreak (FWO) registry in July and August 2014. The investigation reports were assessed by a national outbreak investigation panel. Eight confirmed outbreaks were identified among the 15 suspected outbreaks linked to bathing water that had been reported to the FWO registry. According to the outbreak investigation reports, 1,453 persons fell ill during these outbreaks. Epidemiological and microbiological data revealed noroviruses as the main causative agents. During the outbreaks, exceptionally warm weather had boosted the use of beaches. Six of eight outbreaks occurred at small lakes; for those, the investigation strongly suggested that the beach users were the source of contamination. In one of those eight outbreaks, an external source of contamination was identified and elevated levels of faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were noted in water. In the remaining outbreaks, FIB analyses were insufficient to describe the hygienic quality of the water. Restrictions against bathing proved effective in controlling the outbreaks. In spring 2015, the National Institute for Health and Welfare (THL) and the National Supervisory Authority for Welfare and Health (Valvira) published guidelines for outbreak control to prevent bathing water outbreaks. PMID:28251888

  14. Sorption of adamantane phenylamide derivatives on hyper-cross-linked polystyrene from water-acetonitrile eluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafigulin, R. V.; Konstantinov, A. V.; Bulanova, A. V.; Il'in, M. M.; Davankov, V. A.

    2016-11-01

    Study of the main physicochemical features of the sorption of phenylamide adamantane derivatives on hyper-cross-linked polystyrene from water-acetonitrile solutions shows that both hydrophobic and electronic interactions make a large contribution to retention, especially for a chlorine-containing derivative in which there are π- p and π- d interactions between the outer-shell electrons of the chlorine atom in addition to π- π interactions between aromatic fragments of the sorbate and sorbent.

  15. Source Water Flow Pathways In Forested, Mountain, Headwater Streams: A Link Between Sediment Movement Patterns And Stream Water Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S.; Conklin, M. H.; Liu, F.

    2015-12-01

    Three years of continuous and discrete sediment and water quality data, from four forested, mountain, headwater catchments in the Sierra Nevada, is used to identify water sources, determine the importance of sub-surface flow pathways, detect any changes in source waters due to seasonal variation or drought, and link flow pathways with observed patterns of in-channel sediment movement within the study watersheds. Patterns in stream chemistry and turbidity point to infiltration as the dominant flow pathway within these catchments. Data support a flow pathway conceptual model in which precipitation water infiltrates into the shallow or deeper subsurface, increasing the hydraulic head of the water table and pushing pre-event water into the stream ahead of event water. Study catchments contain perennial streams and are characterized by a Mediterranean climate with a distinct wet and dry season. Sites are located in the rain-snow transition zone with snow making up 40 to 60 percent of average annual precipitation. Barring human disturbances such as logging/grazing (compaction) or fire (hydrophobicity), catchment soils have high infiltration capacities. Springs and seeps maintain baseflow during the summer low-flow season, and shifting chemical signals within the streams indicate the increased importance of sub-surface water sources during drought years. End-member mixing analysis was conducted to identify possible water end members. Turbidity hysteresis patterns described by previous studies show in-channel sources are dominant for discharge events year round, and there is no difference in fine sediment delivery to streams with or without a soil protecting layer of snow on the land surface. The dominance of sub-surface water sources and evidence for infiltration flow fits with turbidity data, as little material is reaching the stream due to erosive overland flow. An understanding of flow pathways provides a foundation for sustainable land use management in forested

  16. Heightened inflammasome activation is linked to age-related cognitive impairment in Fischer 344 rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawhinney Lana J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the mammalian nucleotide binding domain, leucine-rich repeat (LRR-containing receptor (NLR family of proteins are key modulators of innate immunity regulating inflammation. Our previous work has shown that among the members of this family, NLRP1/NALP1, present in neurons, plays a crucial role in inflammasome formation and the production of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL -1β and IL-18 after various types of central nervous system injury. Results We investigated whether age-related cognitive decline may involve a heightened inflammatory response associated with activation of the NLRP1 inflammasome in the hippocampus. Young (3 months and aged (18 months male Fischer 344 rats were tested in a spatial acquisition task via Morris water maze. Following behavioral testing, hippocampal lysates were assayed for expression of NLRP1 inflammasome components and inflammatory cytokines. Hippocampal lysates from aged rats showed significantly higher levels of NLRP1 inflammasome constituents, caspase-1, caspase-11, the purinergic receptor P2X7, pannexin-1 and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP than lysates from younger animals. Following treatment with probenecid, an inhibitor or pannexin-1, aged animals demonstrated reduction in inflammasome activation and improvement in spatial learning performance. Conclusions Our behavioral findings are consistent with increases in IL-1β and IL-18 that have been previously shown to correlate with spatial learning deficits. Probenecid reduced activated caspase-1 and ameliorated spatial learning deficits in aged rats. Thus, aging processes stimulate activation of the NLRP1 inflammasome and secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 that may contribute to age-related cognitive decline in the growing elderly population. Moreover, probenecid may be potentially useful as a therapy to improve cognitive outcomes in the aging population.

  17. Linking levels of societal and ecosystems metabolism of water in a Mediterranean watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, V.

    2014-12-01

    Water resources degradation is a complex environmental problem that involves multiple dimensions and scales of analysis. The Socio-Ecological Systems Water Metabolism has been proposed as a general holistic framework to deal with integrated analysis of water use sustainability (Madrid and Giampietro 2014). The innovation of the approach is that it sets the research focus beyond the classical supply-demand modeling to societal integrity and ecosystems integrity. To do so, it integrates quantitative grammars of water use (relating water exchange to societal and ecosystems organization) and qualitative methods (discourse analysis). This work presents the first case study focused at a river basin extent: the Upper Andarax, in South-East Spain. Water metabolism is indicated at multiple levels for ecosystems and society. To deal with the interfaces among them, relational indicators of water exploitation, water use and impact over ecosystems are used alongside policies and narratives analysis.While being a rather not intensively exploited river basin (year Water Exploitation Index~0.3 blue water,~0.15 green water), impacts over water bodies are yet important (periodic aquifer overdraft, biological degradation of the river) especially during dry season. Perceived mayor problems of water sustainability are generated by the not integration of different policies at European, national and regional scales: while the water authority establishes a compulsory reduction over water withdrawal to attend environmental flows, agricultural markets force to raise productivity increasing water demands. Adaptation strategies are divided among irrigation efficiency improvement and a reorientation of the economy towards touristic activities. Both of them entail specific trade-offs to be deemed. Aquifer-river interactions and climate change impacts are yet mayor research challenges.

  18. Accurate Linking of Lake Erie Water Level with Shoreline Datum Using GPS Buoy and Satellite Altimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Chien Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to accurately link the water level to the shoreline vertical datum for various applications including coastal management, lake/river/estuary/wetland hydrological or storm surge modeling/forecasting. Coastal topography is historically surveyed and referenced to the predetermined vertical datum in terms of orthometric heights, or the heights above the geoid, which is poorly known in terms of accuracy and lack of adequate spatial resolution for coastal applications such as estuary or storm surge modeling. We demonstrate an accurate linking of the lake surface to a shoreline datum using satellite techniques, including GPS buoy and satellite altimetry, water level gauges, and local geoid and lake circulation models. The possible error sources are analyzed and an error budget is reported in this study. An innovated method to estimate geoid height near the water level gauge using a GPS buoy is proposed. It is found that at a 95% confidence interval, the method is consistent with the National Geodetic Survey GEOID03 geoid model. The lake surface represented using a lake circulation model provided by the Great Lakes Forecasting Systems is also verified with kriging based on the data (1999 - 2001 from the water level gauge, and TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter. Mean discrepancies of 2.7 and 7.2 cm are found with the data from the gauges around Lake Erie, and from the combination of the gauges and the altimeter, respectively. It reveals that the current dominant limitation of more accurate linking of water surface to shoreline is the insufficient knowledge of geoid in the current models. Further improvement is feasible through more accurate and higher resolution modeling of the lake geoid.

  19. A Linked Hydro-Economic Model to Examine the Effects of Water Policy on Rural Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneta, M. P.; Torres, M.; Vosti, S. A.; Wallender, W. W.; Howitt, R.; Rodrigues, L. N.; Bassoi, L. H.; Pfeiffer, L.; Young, J.

    2006-12-01

    The sustainable intensification of small-scale agriculture is a necessary condition for reducing rural poverty in developing countries. Increasing the amount of irrigated cropland and the economic efficiency of irrigation are two key components of most intensification strategies. Improved access to water generally increases farm income but richer farmers use a disproportionate share of the available water, decreasing the chances of poor farmers to meet their water needs. Furthermore, water and poverty have strong spatial components that have so far been neglected in water planning. In that sense, too little is known about the short and long term hydrological effects, especially the externality effects of changes in on-farm water use and its implications to nearby farmers. To address this gap in knowledge, a spatially distributed and transient description of changes in surface and groundwater allocation under different agricultural management scenarios is needed. We propose a hydro-economic model providing a realistic spatio-temporal description of the linkages between the economic and hydrologic subsystems. This hydro-economic model is composed of a basin-level 3D spatially distributed transient hydrologic model (MOD-HMS) and a farm-level, spatially distributed agricultural production model. Both models are explicitly linked through the boundary conditions of the hydrologic model. The linkage will account for the spatial and temporal impact of different crop mixes, irrigation techniques and groundwater pumpage on water availability at farm level to assess the effects of policy action on the hydro-economic components of the system.

  20. AWRA-G: A continental scale groundwater component linked to a land surface water balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joehnk, Klaus; Crosbie, Russell; Peeters, Luk; Doble, Rebecca

    2013-04-01

    The Australian Water Resources Assessment (AWRA) system is a combination of models, data sources and analysis techniques that together will describe the water balance of Australia's landscapes, rivers and groundwater systems. It is a grid based water balance model that has lumped representation of the water balance of the soil, groundwater and surface water stores for each cell. The purpose of AWRA is to operationally provide up to date, credible, comprehensive, and accurate information about the history, present state and future trajectory of the water balance across Australia with sufficient spatial and temporal detail and enable water resources management for undertaking annual water resource assessments and national water accounts. AWRA is developed to link three major components: a landscape water balance model (AWRA-L), a river routing model (AWRA-R), and a groundwater component model (AWRA-G). These three component models combined are expected to be able to model the fluxes and stores of water throughout the landscape. The groundwater component (AWRA-G) addresses an improved representation of groundwater in the AWRA system to describe basic aquifer dynamics and groundwater-surface water processes. While most continental scale land surface models do not have the capacity to allow water to flow between cells and thus ignore this element of the water balance, AWRA-G does account for lateral flows. In general, AWRA-G provides estimates of groundwater fluxes that are not incorporated into either AWRA-L and its modifications to in-cell soil and groundwater processes, or AWRA-R. The processes integrated into AWRA-G thus are lateral groundwater flow between cells in regional and intermediate groundwater flow systems, groundwater discharge to the ocean, groundwater extraction and infiltration, river losses to groundwater, recharge from overbank flooding, and interactions between deep confined systems and surficial groundwater systems. Basis of AWRA-G is a good

  1. Linking knowledge with action in the pursuit of sustainable water-resources management

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Katharine; Lebel, Louis; De Buizer, James; Addams, Lee; Matson, Pamela; McCullough, Ellen; Garden, Po; Saliba, George; Finan, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Managing water for sustainable use and economic development is both a technical and a governance challenge in which knowledge production and sharing play a central role. This article evaluates and compares the role of participatory governance and scientific information in decision-making in four basins in Brazil, Mexico, Thailand, and the United States. Water management institutions in each of the basins have evolved during the last 10–20 years from a relatively centralized water-management s...

  2. Dehydration of an ethanol/water azeotrope through alginate-DNA membranes cross-linked with metal ions by pervaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uragami, Tadashi; Banno, Masashi; Miyata, Takashi

    2015-12-10

    To obtain high dehydration membranes for an ethanol/water azeotrope, dried blend membranes prepared from mixtures of sodium alginate (Alg-Na) and sodium deoxyribonucleate (DNA-Na) were cross-linked by immersing in a methanol solution of CaCl2 or MaCl2. In the dehydration of an ethanol/water azeotropic mixture by pervaporation, the effects of immersion time in methanol solution of CaCl2 or MaCl2 on the permeation rate and water/ethanol selectivity through Alg-DNA/Ca(2+) and Alg-DNA/Mg(2+) cross-linked membranes were investigated. Alg-DNA/Mg(2+) cross-linked membrane immersed for 12h in methanol solution of MaCl2 exhibited the highest water/ethanol selectivity. This results from depressed swelling of the membranes by formation of a cross-linked structure. However, excess immersion in solution containing cross-linker led to an increase in the hydrophobicity of cross-linked membrane. Therefore, the water/ethanol selectivity of Alg-DNA/Mg(2+) cross-linked membranes with an excess immersion in cross-linking solution was lowered. The relationship between the structure of Alg-DNA/Ca(2+) and Alg-DNA/Mg(2+) cross-linked membranes and their permeation and separation characteristics during pervaporation of an ethanol/water azeotropic mixture is discussed in detail.

  3. Synthesis of oxime-linked mucin mimics containing thetumor-related TN and sialyl TN antigens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcaurelle, Lisa A.; Shin, Youngsook; Goon, Scarlett; Bertozzi,Carolyn R.

    2001-08-21

    The synthesis of oxime-linked mucin mimics was accomplished via the incorporation of multiple ketone residues into a peptide followed by reaction with aminooxy sugars corresponding to the tumor-related T{sub N} and sialyl T{sub N} (ST{sub N}) antigens.

  4. Relational Aggression in Adolescents' Sibling Relationships: Links to Sibling and Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Thayer, Shawna M.; Whiteman, Shawn D.; Denning, Donna J.; McHale, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the links between sibling relational aggression and other sibling relationship qualities (i.e., intimacy, negativity, and temporal involvement) and broader parenting dynamics. Participants included 185 adolescent sibling pairs and their mothers and fathers. Data were gathered during home interviews and a series of nightly phone…

  5. MRI links stem water content to stem diameter variations in transpiring trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepper, De V.; Dusschoten, van D.; Copini, P.; Jahnke, S.; Steppe, K.

    2012-01-01

    In trees, stem diameter variations are related to changes in stem water content, because internally stored water is depleted and replenished over a day. To confirm this relationship, non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was combined with point dendrometer measurements in three actively

  6. MRI links stem water content to stem diameter variations in transpiring trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepper, De V.; Dusschoten, van D.; Copini, P.; Jahnke, S.; Steppe, K.

    2012-01-01

    In trees, stem diameter variations are related to changes in stem water content, because internally stored water is depleted and replenished over a day. To confirm this relationship, non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was combined with point dendrometer measurements in three actively tran

  7. Applications of Crown Ether Cross-Linked Chitosan for the Analysis of Lead and Cadmium in Environmental Water Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new type of crown ether cross-linked chitosan was synthesized by the reaction of chitosan with 4,4'-dibromodibenzo-18-crown-6 (Br-DBC). Its token structure was analyzed with FT-IR and NMR and the adsorption behaviors for lead and cadmium in environmental water samples by FAAS were studied. In addition the best analysis conditions were discussed and the adsorption mechanism was explained. As the enrichment factor is above 100, both recoveries are 94%-106%, the detection limits of lead and cadmium are 0.5μg*L-1and 0.04 μg*L-1 and the relatively standard deviations of lead and cadmium are 3.1% and 2.8% respectively, this new method was successfully applied to the determination of environmental water samples. This method is fast and simple and it greatly enhances the determination ability of FAAS for lead and cadmium.

  8. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the anthropogenic marker isolithocholic acid in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldofski, Stefanie; Hoffmann, Holger; Lehmann, Andreas; Breitfeld, Stefan; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Schneider, Rudolf J

    2016-11-01

    Bile acids are promising chemical markers to assess the pollution of water samples with fecal material. This study describes the optimization and validation of a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the bile acid isolithocholic acid (ILA). The quantification range of the optimized assay was between 0.09 and 15 μg/L. The assay was applied to environmental water samples. Most studies until now were focused on bile acid fractions in the particulate phase of water samples. In order to avoid tedious sample preparation, we undertook to evaluate the dynamics and significance of ILA levels in the aqueous phase. Very low concentrations in tap and surface water samples made a pre-concentration step necessary for this matrix as well as for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. Mean recoveries for spiked water samples were between 97% and 109% for tap water and WWTP influent samples and between 102% and 136% for WWTP effluent samples. 90th percentiles of intra-plate and inter-plate coefficients of variation were below 10% for influents and below 20% for effluents and surface water. ILA concentrations were quantified in the range of 33-72 μg/L in influent, 21-49 ng/L in effluent and 18-48 ng/L in surface water samples. During wastewater treatment the ILA levels were reduced by more than 99%. ILA concentrations of influents determined by ELISA and LC-MS/MS were in good agreement. However, findings in LC-ELISA experiments suggest that the true ILA levels in concentrated samples are lower due to interfering effects of matrix compounds and/or cross-reactants. Yet, the ELISA will be a valuable tool for the performance check and comparison of WWTPs and the localization of fecal matter input into surface waters.

  9. A Child with X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia and Enthesitis-Related Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukesh Sukumaran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA is a primary immune deficiency characterized by recurrent bacterial infections and profoundly depressed serum immunoglobulin levels and circulating mature B cells. We describe a 12-year-old boy with XLA and enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA. To date, there has been a paucity of reports of noninfectious inflammatory arthritis in children with XLA. This case illustrates that functional B cells and/or immunoglobulin are not required for ERA pathogenesis. In addition, this case suggests a possible link between immune deficiency, immune dysregulation, and rheumatic illness.

  10. An indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of norfloxacin in waters using a specific polyclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jianlan; Zhang, Kun; Huang, Qiuxin; Yu, Yiyi; Peng, Xianzhi

    2011-02-28

    A specific polyclonal anti-norfloxacin antibody was obtained, and a sensitive indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) was developed for determining trace amounts of norfloxacin in various waters. Good linearity was achieved in the range from 0.1 to 10 μg L(-1). The average IC(50) value was determined to be 2.2 μg L(-1) and the limit of detection was 0.016 μg L(-1) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 in phosphate-buffered saline buffer. Recoveries of norfloxacin at various spiking levels ranged from 74 to 105% in groundwater, surface water, treated and untreated wastewater samples, with relative standard deviations of 3-5%. The assay was applied for determining norfloxacin in municipal wastewater, surface water, and groundwater collected in a metropolis of China. Raw wastewater samples were only submitted to filtration and pH adjustment while the other water samples were pre-concentrated by solid phase extraction prior to the icELISA assay. Good agreement of the results obtained by the icELISA and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry further confirmed the reliability and accuracy of the icELISA for rapid detection of norfloxacin in waters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The degree-related clustering coefficient and its application to link prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang; Zhao, Chengli; Wang, Xiaojie; Huang, Qiangjuan; Zhang, Xue; Yi, Dongyun

    2016-07-01

    Link prediction plays a significant role in explaining the evolution of networks. However it is still a challenging problem that has been addressed only with topological information in recent years. Based on the belief that network nodes with a great number of common neighbors are more likely to be connected, many similarity indices have achieved considerable accuracy and efficiency. Motivated by the natural assumption that the effect of missing links on the estimation of a node's clustering ability could be related to node degree, in this paper, we propose a degree-related clustering coefficient index to quantify the clustering ability of nodes. Unlike the classical clustering coefficient, our new coefficient is highly robust when the observed bias of links is considered. Furthermore, we propose a degree-related clustering ability path (DCP) index, which applies the proposed coefficient to the link prediction problem. Experiments on 12 real-world networks show that our proposed method is highly accurate and robust compared with four common-neighbor-based similarity indices (Common Neighbors(CN), Adamic-Adar(AA), Resource Allocation(RA), and Preferential Attachment(PA)), and the recently introduced clustering ability (CA) index.

  12. Differential growth responses to water balance of coexisting deciduous tree species are linked to wood density in a Bolivian tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendivelso, Hooz A; Camarero, J Julio; Royo Obregón, Oriol; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Toledo, Marisol

    2013-01-01

    A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs). There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability.

  13. Differential growth responses to water balance of coexisting deciduous tree species are linked to wood density in a Bolivian tropical dry forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooz A Mendivelso

    Full Text Available A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs. There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability.

  14. Precipitation isotopes link regional climate patterns to water supply in a tropical mountain forest, eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Martha A.; Murphy, Sheila F.

    2014-01-01

    Like many mountainous areas in the tropics, watersheds in the Luquillo Mountains of eastern Puerto Rico have abundant rainfall and stream discharge and provide much of the water supply for the densely populated metropolitan areas nearby. Projected changes in regional temperature and atmospheric dynamics as a result of global warming suggest that water availability will be affected by changes in rainfall patterns. It is essential to understand the relative importance of different weather systems to water supply to determine how changes in rainfall patterns, interacting with geology and vegetation, will affect the water balance. To help determine the links between climate and water availability, stable isotope signatures of precipitation from different weather systems were established to identify those that are most important in maintaining streamflow and groundwater recharge. Precipitation stable isotope values in the Luquillo Mountains had a large range, from fog/cloud water with δ2H, δ18O values as high as +12 ‰, −0.73 ‰ to tropical storm rain with values as low as −127 ‰, −16.8 ‰. Temporal isotope values exhibit a reverse seasonality from those observed in higher latitude continental watersheds, with higher isotopic values in the winter and lower values in the summer. Despite the higher volume of convective and low-pressure system rainfall, stable isotope analyses indicated that under the current rainfall regime, frequent trade -wind orographic showers contribute much of the groundwater recharge and stream base flow. Analysis of rain events using 20 years of 15 -minute resolution data at a mountain station (643 m) showed an increasing trend in rainfall amount, in agreement with increased precipitable water in the atmosphere, but differing from climate model projections of drying in the region. The mean intensity of rain events also showed an increasing trend. The determination of recharge sources from stable isotope tracers indicates that water

  15. An improved water footprint methodology linking global consumption to local water resources: a case of Spanish tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapagain, A K; Orr, S

    2009-02-01

    A water footprint (WF) measures the total water consumed by a nation, business or individual by calculating the total water used during the production of goods and services. This paper extends the existing methods for WF to more localised levels for crops grown partly in open systems and partly in plastic-covered houses with multi-seasonal harvesting, such as the horticulture industry in Spain. This improvement makes it possible to visualise the links of EU tomato consumption to precise production sites in Spain and opens a debate to the usefulness of such findings. This paper also compares existing ecological methodologies with WF and argues that both life cycle analysis (LCA) and ecological footprint (EF) models could benefit from WF methods. Our results show that the EU consumes 957,000 tons of Spanish fresh tomatoes annually, which evaporates 71 Mm(3)/yr of water and would require 7 Mm(3)/yr of water to dilute leached nitrates in Spain. In Spain, tomato production alone evaporates 297 Mm(3)/yr and pollutes 29 Mm(3)/yr of freshwater. Depending upon the local agro-climatic character, status of water resources, total tomato production volumes and production system, the impact of EU consumption of fresh tomatoes on Spanish freshwater is very location specific. The authors suggest that business now seek to report and address negative impacts on the environment. WF opens the door to complex water relationships and provides vital information for policy actors, business leaders, regulators and managers to their draw, dependence and responsibilities on this increasingly scarce resource.

  16. Modeling stomatal conductance in the Earth system: linking leaf water-use efficiency and water transport along the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Bonan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The empirical Ball–Berry stomatal conductance model is commonly used in Earth system models to simulate biotic regulation of evapotranspiration. However, the dependence of stomatal conductance (gs on vapor pressure deficit (Ds and soil moisture must both be empirically parameterized. We evaluated the Ball–Berry model used in the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5 and an alternative stomatal conductance model that links leaf gas exchange, plant hydraulic constraints, and the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum (SPA to numerically optimize photosynthetic carbon gain per unit water loss while preventing leaf water potential dropping below a critical minimum level. We evaluated two alternative optimization algorithms: intrinsic water-use efficiency (Δ An/Δ gs, the marginal carbon gain of stomatal opening and water-use efficiency (Δ An/Δ El, the marginal carbon gain of water loss. We implemented the stomatal models in a multi-layer plant canopy model, to resolve profiles of gas exchange, leaf water potential, and plant hydraulics within the canopy, and evaluated the simulations using: (1 leaf analyses; (2 canopy net radiation, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, and gross primary production at six AmeriFlux sites spanning 51 site–years; and (3 parameter sensitivity analyses. Without soil moisture stress, the performance of the SPA stomatal conductance model was generally comparable to or somewhat better than the Ball–Berry model in flux tower simulations, but was significantly better than the Ball–Berry model when there was soil moisture stress. Functional dependence of gs on soil moisture emerged from the physiological theory linking leaf water-use efficiency and water flow to and from the leaf along the soil-to-leaf pathway rather than being imposed a priori, as in the Ball–Berry model. Similar functional dependence of gs on Ds emerged from the water-use efficiency optimization. Sensitivity analyses showed that two

  17. Effective Ecological Restoration of Collapsed Ecosystems - Linking Soil, Water and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petursdottir, Thorunn; Finger, David

    2014-05-01

    All natural resources, utilized by humans are embedded in complex social-ecological systems (SESs). To maintain the systems' sustainability, the SESs needs to be managed within their resilience optimum, considering both social and ecological elements. Throughout the centuries the humankind has often failed in doing so. Overexploitation of natural resources has thus widely disrupted equilibrium within the respective SESs, driving unforeseen changes of ecosystems worldwide. Anthropogenic factors such as poor institutional structure on resource utilization and weak policies in combination to environmental factors like droughts, fires or other unpredictable events have ruptured ecosystems' resilience and caused global degradation on a scale that currently threatens the Earth's welfare. As an example it's worth to mention that up to 40% of the world's agricultural land is severely degraded mainly due to unsustainable landuse. Once an ecosystem, or part/s of it, have collapsed, ecological restoration is almost always necessary to overcome the threshold/s that may prevent the system from self-recovering. It also re-activates the system's environmental cycles like the water, carbon and nutrient circulation. Although soil is the fundamental body of terrestrial ecosystems, water availability is of equal importance and should be taken more into consideration in restoration than currently is done. Based on that, we will focus on how to best manage effective large-scale ecological restoration (LSER) of collapsed ecosystems and link it to water catchment areas. LSER is a fundamental social-ecological activity that substantially can improve ecosystem condition, human livelihood and if well organized, facilitate improved management of natural resources. By definition, restoration of ecological integrity and functions is the fundamental basis for all restoration activities. But to achieve long-term sustainability of LSER activities the initial set of rules/policies established by

  18. Water Quality Considerations and Related Dishwashing Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Nina I.

    A number of the chemical and physical factors which cause dishwashing problems are presented in a series of charts. Water quality considerations are vital, but the importance of good housekeeping and proper operating practices cannot and must not be minimized. Topics discussed include--(1) dissolved minerals, (2) dissolved gases, (3) detergents,…

  19. Dwelling on it may make it worse: the links between relational victimization, relational aggression, rumination, and depressive symptoms in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Lindsay C; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Crick, Nicki R

    2014-08-01

    Although there is considerable evidence that relational victimization is associated with depressive symptoms in youth, our understanding about the mechanisms by which victimization and depressive symptoms are linked is limited. The current study explored ruminating about victimization experiences as a potential mechanism that might contribute to an understanding of the association between relational victimization and depressive symptoms. We also tested the specificity of the proposed models by controlling for and testing parallel models of a highly related behavior: relational aggression. A sample of 499 adolescents from sixth through eighth grades participated. Teacher reports were used to assess relational victimization and relational aggression. Self-reports were used to assess depressive symptoms and rumination. The results showed that rumination partially mediated the association between relational victimization and depressive symptoms. No moderation effect was found. In contrast, rumination moderated the association between relational aggression and depressive symptoms. Specifically, relational aggression was associated with depressive symptoms for those adolescents who were also ruminators. Thus, ruminating about victimization experiences appears to be an important mechanism that functions differently for relational aggression and relational victimization in conferring risk for depressive symptoms. The findings offer important practical implications for those working with adolescents and also lay the groundwork for future research.

  20. System of submarine linking between the legs of a platform and the relating foundation piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggradi, G.P.F.; Di Mugello, B.; Ferrante, C.M.

    1987-09-22

    This patent describes a system for submarine linking between anchoring cylinders affixed to a platform leg and a related foundation pile. The anchoring cylinders are composed of two coaxial cylinders, one of which is an outer cylinder having a substantial thickness of high yield strength steel, the other of which is an inner cylinder having a thickness of low yield strength steel. The thickness is less than the thickness of the outer cylinder, wherein the outer cylinder and the inner cylinder are butt-welded to each other at their ends so as to define an annular chamber between the cylinders. The chamber being radially inwardly expansible by the application of pressure. The related foundation pile is composed of high yield strength steel in a zone where the submarine linking is to be accomplished. The zone of the pile including an outer surface with alternating slots and toothing and an inner thickened surface.

  1. Coupling solid-phase extraction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for ultratrace determination of herbicides in pristine water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aga, D.S.; Thurman, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were coupled for automated trace analysis of pristine water samples containing 2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamine-s-triazine (atrazine) and 2-chloro-2???,6???-diethyl-N-(methoxymethyl)acetanilide (alachlor). The isolation of the two herbicides on a C18-resin involved the selection of an elution solvent that both removes interfering substances and is compatible with ELISA. Ethyl acetate was selected as the elution solvent followed by a solvent exchange with methanol/water (20/80, % v/v). The SPE-ELISA method has a detection limit of 5.0 ng/L (5 ppt), >90% recovery, and a relative standard deviation of ??10%. The performance of a microtiter plate-based ELISA and a magnetic particle-based ELISA coupled to SPE was also evaluated. Although the sensitivity of the two ELISA methods was comparable, the precision using magnetic particles was improved considerably (??10% versus ??20%) because of the faster reaction kinetics provided by the magnetic particles. Finally, SPE-ELISA and isotope dilution gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry correlated well (correlation coefficient of 0.96) for lake-water samples. The SPE-ELISA method is simple and may have broader applications for the inexpensive automated analysis of other contaminants in water at trace levels.

  2. Susceptibility of Austrian Clinical Klebsiella and Enterobacter Isolates Linked to Patient-Related Data

    OpenAIRE

    Badura, Alexandra; Pregartner, Gudrun; Holzer, Judith C.; Feierl, Gebhard; Grisold, Andrea J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the antimicrobial susceptibility of Austrian clinical Klebsiella sp. and Enterobacter sp. isolates linked to patient-related data over a time period from 1998 to 2014. The main findings of this study were (i) a marked difference of antibiotic susceptibility rates between different infection sites for both Klebsiella sp. and Enterobacter sp., (ii) significantly greater percentages of resistant isolates among both Klebsiella sp. and Enterobacter sp. in male p...

  3. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Laura De Pretto; Stephen Acreman; Matthew J Ashfold; Mohankumar, Suresh K.; Ahimsa Campos-Arceiz

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surv...

  4. Future land-use related water demand in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tamara; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Cameron, D. Richard

    2016-01-01

    Water shortages in California are a growing concern amidst ongoing drought, earlier spring snowmelt, projected future climate warming, and currently mandated water use restrictions. Increases in population and land use in coming decades will place additional pressure on already limited available water supplies. We used a state-and-transition simulation model to project future changes in developed (municipal and industrial) and agricultural land use to estimate associated water use demand from 2012 to 2062. Under current efficiency rates, total water use was projected to increase 1.8 billion cubic meters(+4.1%) driven primarily by urbanization and shifts to more water intensive crops. Only if currently mandated 25% reductions in municipal water use are continuously implemented would water demand in 2062 balance to water use levels in 2012. This is the first modeling effort of its kind to examine regional land-use related water demand incorporating historical trends of both developed and agricultural land uses.

  5. Future land-use related water demand in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tamara S.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Cameron, D. Richard

    2016-05-01

    Water shortages in California are a growing concern amidst ongoing drought, earlier spring snowmelt, projected future climate warming, and currently mandated water use restrictions. Increases in population and land use in coming decades will place additional pressure on already limited available water supplies. We used a state-and-transition simulation model to project future changes in developed (municipal and industrial) and agricultural land use to estimate associated water use demand from 2012 to 2062. Under current efficiency rates, total water use was projected to increase 1.8 billion cubic meters (+4.1%) driven primarily by urbanization and shifts to more water intensive crops. Only if currently mandated 25% reductions in municipal water use are continuously implemented would water demand in 2062 balance to water use levels in 2012. This is the first modeling effort of its kind to examine regional land-use related water demand incorporating historical trends of both developed and agricultural land uses.

  6. Multiple Brain Markers are Linked to Age-Related Variation in Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Trey; Schultz, Aaron P; Rieckmann, Anna; Mormino, Elizabeth C; Johnson, Keith A; Sperling, Reisa A; Buckner, Randy L

    2016-04-01

    Age-related alterations in brain structure and function have been challenging to link to cognition due to potential overlapping influences of multiple neurobiological cascades. We examined multiple brain markers associated with age-related variation in cognition. Clinically normal older humans aged 65-90 from the Harvard Aging Brain Study (N = 186) were characterized on a priori magnetic resonance imaging markers of gray matter thickness and volume, white matter hyperintensities, fractional anisotropy (FA), resting-state functional connectivity, positron emission tomography markers of glucose metabolism and amyloid burden, and cognitive factors of processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Partial correlation and mediation analyses estimated age-related variance in cognition shared with individual brain markers and unique to each marker. The largest relationships linked FA and striatum volume to processing speed and executive function, and hippocampal volume to episodic memory. Of the age-related variance in cognition, 70-80% was accounted for by combining all brain markers (but only ∼20% of total variance). Age had significant indirect effects on cognition via brain markers, with significant markers varying across cognitive domains. These results suggest that most age-related variation in cognition is shared among multiple brain markers, but potential specificity between some brain markers and cognitive domains motivates additional study of age-related markers of neural health.

  7. [Progress on X-linked mental retardation related gene JARID1C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xu; Gao, Xiao-Cai; Zhang, Fu-Chang

    2010-03-01

    JARID1C is one of the genes related to X-linked mental retardation. Its express product influences transcription and expression of the related genes in brain nervous system, and may be associated with human cognitive ability. Study on the functions of JARID1C not only helps to understand its molecular role in mental retardation and human cognitive ability, but also provides references for clinical diagnosis and prevention of mental retardation. This article reviews the progresses on JARID1C in location, isolation, physiological functions, and cognitive functions of its encoding product. The future re-search work of JARID1C is also discussed.

  8. Membrane fouling mechanism transition in relation to feed water composition

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Darli Theint

    2014-12-01

    The impact of secondary effluent wastewater from the Eastern Treatment Plant (ETP), Melbourne, Australia, before and after ion exchange (IX) treatment and polyaluminium chlorohydrate (PACl) coagulation, on hydrophobic polypropylene (PP) and hydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane fouling was studied. Laboratory fouling tests were operated over 3-5 days with regular, intermittent backwash. During the filtration with PP membranes, organic rejection data indicated that humic adsorption on hydrophobic PP membrane occurred during the first 24h of filtration and contributed to fouling for both raw wastewater and pre-treated wastewaters. However, after the first 24h of filtration the contribution of humic substances to fouling diminished and biopolymers that contribute to cake layer development became more prominent in their contribution to the fouling rate. For PVDF membranes, the per cent removal of humic substances from both raw wastewater and pre-treated wastewaters was very small as indicated by no change in UV254 from the feed to the permeate over the filtration period, even during the early stages of filtration. This suggested that the hydrophobic PP membrane adsorbed humic substances while the hydrophilic PVDF membrane did not. The highest mass of biopolymer removal by each PVDF membrane was from ETP water followed by PACl and IX treated water respectively. This was possibly due to differences in the backwashing efficiency linked to the filter cake contributed by biopolymers. Hydraulic backwashing was more effective during the later stages of filtration for the ETP water compared to IX and PACl treated waters, indicating that the filter cake contributed by ETP biopolymers was more extensively removed by hydraulic backwashing. It was proposed that humic substances may act to stabilise biopolymers in solution and that removing humics substances by coagulation or IX results in greater adhesive forces between the biopolymers and membrane/filter cake

  9. Water relations in Salix with focus on drought responses

    OpenAIRE

    Wikberg, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    Leaves transpire large amounts of water through pores, stomata on their surfaces, which are held open to allow CO2 entry for photosynthesis. This loss must be balanced by water uptake in roots and further transport up the hydraulic pathway. In this thesis, water relations of willows (Salix spp.) were studied. Willows are used, increasingly, for biomass production on arable land where water supply limitation is more pronounced than in their native environments. Hopefully, by identifying physio...

  10. 76 FR 60527 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water- Related Contract... region in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michelle Kelly, Water... for the delivery of project water for authorized uses in newspapers of general circulation in...

  11. 76 FR 73674 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water- Related Contract... region in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michelle Kelly, Water... for the delivery of project water for authorized uses in newspapers of general circulation in...

  12. Incorporation of covariates in simultaneous localization of two linked loci using affected relative pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Kung-Yee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many dichotomous traits for complex diseases are often involved more than one locus and/or associated with quantitative biomarkers or environmental factors. Incorporating these quantitative variables into linkage analysis as well as localizing two linked disease loci simultaneously could therefore improve the efficiency in mapping genes. We extended the robust multipoint Identity-by-Descent (IBD approach with incorporation of covariates developed previously to simultaneously estimate two linked loci using different types of affected relative pairs (ARPs. Results We showed that the efficiency was enhanced by incorporating a quantitative covariate parametrically or non-parametrically while localizing two disease loci using ARPs. In addition to its help in identifying factors associated with the disease and in improving the efficiency in estimating disease loci, this extension also allows investigators to account for heterogeneity in risk-ratios for different ARPs. Data released from the collaborative study on the genetics of alcoholism (COGA for Genetic Analysis Workshop 14 (GAW 14 were used to illustrate the application of this extended method. Conclusions The simulation studies and example illustrated that the efficiency in estimating disease loci was demonstratively enhanced by incorporating a quantitative covariate and by using all relative pairs while mapping two linked loci simultaneously.

  13. Inter-Basin Water Transfer Impact Assessment on Environment of Pennar to Cauvery Link Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, S. V. J. S. S.; Prakasa Rao, B. S.; Niranjan, K.

    2016-07-01

    Owing to its striking differences in its climatic conditions, India is frequently facing with extremities such as heavy rain fall in some regions where as some other regions endure little rainfall. The regions receiving heavy precipitation are facing floods resulting in huge amount of water runs into the sea. Contrarily, the regions, without adequate rainfall are suffering from persistent droughts. To overcome such disparities in the distribution of water, National Water Development Agency (NWDA) put a proposal to transfer water through link canals between rivers. The current study is limited to two river basins, Pennar and Cauvery. The present study is confined to Pennar (somasila) to Cauvery (Grand Anicut) whose length is 483 km. The study consist of10 km. buffer on either side of the canal and it occupies 17,215.68 sq. km. out of these 10,105.96 sq.km.is proposed command area which falls in Chittoor, Chengalpattu, North Arcott and South Arcott districts. Using IRS-P6, LISS-III data the characteristics of the rocks, lineaments, drainage, settlements and land use/land cover are mapped for better analysis and the environmental impact. The study indicated that Current fallow land of 5340.14 km2 and 6307.98 km2 of cropland will be brought under cultivation which is more than what is NWDA estimated land that will be benefited. The canal will provide water for irrigation and drinking to 4597 villages and 244 villages to be rehabilitated. 119 culverts/canal bridges and 24 aqueducts have to be constructed across the canal.

  14. Health-risk market garden production linked to heavy metals in irrigation water in Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumolou, Luc; Edorh, Patrick; Montcho, Sabine; Aklikokou, Kodjo; Loko, Frédéric; Boko, Michel; Creppy, Edmond E

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals in the Benin market garden products: is irrigation water the first factor in question, and what is the level of health risk linked to the consumption of these vegetables? Such are the essential problems that this survey attempts to solve. Comparison of the level of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) pollution shows that all the vegetables taken from three market sites are differently contaminated, as well as their irrigation water and the soil. But establishing that water is the first factor responsible for the presence of heavy metals in market garden products is not so obvious. Otherwise, the health risk assessment revealed that the total daily exposure dose (DED) of Cd, namely 8.05μg/kg/day, is high compared to the daily dose defined by the WHO, which is 1μg/kg/day. Also, the ensuing quotient of danger (QD) is 8.05; such a value poses public health risks for the consumer. Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Chemo-Enzymatic Synthesis of Ester-Linked Docetaxel-Monosaccharide Conjugates as Water-Soluble Prodrugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoji Kubota

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Three new docetaxel prodrugs, i.e., 7-propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-glycopyranosides, which contain ester-linked monosaccharides, were synthesized by a chemo-enzymatic procedure involving enzymatic transglycosylations with lactase, b-galactosidase, or b-xylosidase. The water-solubility of 7-propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-glucopyranoside was 52-fold higher than that of docetaxel. 7-Propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-glucopyranoside and 7-propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-xylopyranoside were effectively hydrolyzed by the relevant enzyme(s of human cancer cells to release docetaxel, whereas 7-propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-galactopyranoside was relatively resistant under similar conditions. 7-Propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-glucopyranoside and 7-propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-xylopyranoside showed in vitro cytotoxic activity against human cancer cells, whereas 7-propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-galactopyranoside exerted low cytotoxicity.

  16. Arcobacter in Lake Erie beach waters: an emerging gastrointestinal pathogen linked with human-associated fecal contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheonghoon; Agidi, Senyo; Marion, Jason W; Lee, Jiyoung

    2012-08-01

    The genus Arcobacter has been associated with human illness and fecal contamination by humans and animals. To better characterize the health risk posed by this emerging waterborne pathogen, we investigated the occurrence of Arcobacter spp. in Lake Erie beach waters. During the summer of 2010, water samples were collected 35 times from the Euclid, Villa Angela, and Headlands (East and West) beaches, located along Ohio's Lake Erie coast. After sample concentration, Arcobacter was quantified by real-time PCR targeting the Arcobacter 23S rRNA gene. Other fecal genetic markers (Bacteroides 16S rRNA gene [HuBac], Escherichia coli uidA gene, Enterococcus 23S rRNA gene, and tetracycline resistance genes) were also assessed. Arcobacter was detected frequently at all beaches, and both the occurrence and densities of Arcobacter spp. were higher at the Euclid and Villa Angela beaches (with higher levels of fecal contamination) than at the East and West Headlands beaches. The Arcobacter density in Lake Erie beach water was significantly correlated with the human-specific fecal marker HuBac according to Spearman's correlation analysis (r = 0.592; P Arcobacter sequences were closely related to Arcobacter cryaerophilus, which is known to cause gastrointestinal diseases in humans. Since human-pathogenic Arcobacter spp. are linked to human-associated fecal sources, it is important to identify and manage the human-associated contamination sources for the prevention of Arcobacter-associated public health risks at Lake Erie beaches.

  17. Effect of hardening method and structure of linking bridges on strength of water glass moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stachowicz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents examination results of the effect of four hardening methods on structure of linking bridges in sandmixes containing hydrated sodium silicate. Test pieces prepared of the moulding sands containing 2.5 % of a binder with molar module between 2.4 and 2.6 were hardened with carbon dioxide, dried traditionally in an oven and hardened with microwaves at 2.54 GHz or using a combination of the CO2 process and microwave heating. It was revealed that the hardening method influences structure of linking bridges and is correlated with mechanical properties of the hardened moulding sands. It was found that strength of the moulding sands microwave-heated for 240 s is approximate to that measured after traditional drying for 120 min at 110 °C. So, the microwave hardening permits significant reduction of the process time, comparable to the CO2 hardening, at the same time guaranteeing over 10 times higher mechanical properties. Analysis of SEM photographs of the moulding sands hardened with the mentioned methods allow explaining differences in qualitative parameters of the moulding sands and their relation to structures of the created linking bridges.

  18. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), environmental enteropathy, nutrition, and early child development: making the links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngure, Francis M; Reid, Brianna M; Humphrey, Jean H; Mbuya, Mduduzi N; Pelto, Gretel; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    There is scarce research and programmatic evidence on the effect of poor water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions of the physical environment on early child cognitive, sensorimotor, and socioemotional development. Furthermore, many common WASH interventions are not specifically designed to protect babies in the first 3 years of life, when gut health and linear growth are established. We review evidence linking WASH, anemia, and child growth, and highlight pathways through which WASH may affect early child development, primarily through inflammation, stunting, and anemia. Environmental enteropathy, a prevalent subclinical condition of the gut, may be a key mediating pathway linking poor hygiene to developmental deficits. Current early child development research and programs lack evidence-based interventions to provide a clean play and infant feeding environment in addition to established priorities of nutrition, stimulation, and child protection. Solutions to this problem will require appropriate behavior change and technologies that are adapted to the social and physical context and conducive to infant play and socialization. We propose the concept of baby WASH as an additional component of early childhood development programs.

  19. Modeling stomatal conductance in the earth system: linking leaf water-use efficiency and water transport along the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonan, G. B.; Williams, M.; Fisher, R. A.; Oleson, K. W.

    2014-09-01

    The Ball-Berry stomatal conductance model is commonly used in earth system models to simulate biotic regulation of evapotranspiration. However, the dependence of stomatal conductance (gs) on vapor pressure deficit (Ds) and soil moisture must be empirically parameterized. We evaluated the Ball-Berry model used in the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) and an alternative stomatal conductance model that links leaf gas exchange, plant hydraulic constraints, and the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPA). The SPA model simulates stomatal conductance numerically by (1) optimizing photosynthetic carbon gain per unit water loss while (2) constraining stomatal opening to prevent leaf water potential from dropping below a critical minimum. We evaluated two optimization algorithms: intrinsic water-use efficiency (ΔAn /Δgs, the marginal carbon gain of stomatal opening) and water-use efficiency (ΔAn /ΔEl, the marginal carbon gain of transpiration water loss). We implemented the stomatal models in a multi-layer plant canopy model to resolve profiles of gas exchange, leaf water potential, and plant hydraulics within the canopy, and evaluated the simulations using leaf analyses, eddy covariance fluxes at six forest sites, and parameter sensitivity analyses. The primary differences among stomatal models relate to soil moisture stress and vapor pressure deficit responses. Without soil moisture stress, the performance of the SPA stomatal model was comparable to or slightly better than the CLM Ball-Berry model in flux tower simulations, but was significantly better than the CLM Ball-Berry model when there was soil moisture stress. Functional dependence of gs on soil moisture emerged from water flow along the soil-to-leaf pathway rather than being imposed a priori, as in the CLM Ball-Berry model. Similar functional dependence of gs on Ds emerged from the ΔAn/ΔEl optimization, but not the ΔAn /gs optimization. Two parameters (stomatal efficiency and root hydraulic

  20. Ecosystem-groundwater interactions under changing land uses: Linking water, salts, and carbon across central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbagy, E. G.; Nosetto, M. D.; Santoni, C. S.; Jackson, R. B.

    2007-05-01

    Although most ecosystems display a one-way connection with groundwater based on the regulation of deep water drainage (recharge), this link can become reciprocal when the saturated zone is shallow and plants take up groundwater (discharge). In what context is the reciprocal link most likely? How is it affected by land use changes? Has it consequences on salt and carbon cycling? We examine these questions across a precipitation gradient in the Pampas and Espinal of Argentina focusing on three vegetation change situations (mean annual rainfall): afforestation of humid (900-1300 mm) and subhumid grassland (700-900 mm/yr of rainfall), annual cultivation of subhumid grasslands (700-800 mm/yr), and annual cultivation of semiarid forests (500-700 mm). Humid and subhumid grasslands have shallow (salinity of tree species. Cultivation with corn and soybean can lead to groundwater consumption in the driest belt of subhumid grassland. Up to five-fold yield increases in lowlands vs. uplands during the driest years indicate a dramatic impact of groundwater use on carbon uptake and groundwater salinization suggests a recharge-to- discharge switch. In dry forests groundwater is not accessible (> 15 m deep) and recharge under natural conditions is null. The establishment of crops, however, triggers the onset of recharge, as evidenced by vadose zones getting wetter and leached of atmospheric chloride. Cropping may cause water table raises leading to a two-way coupling of ecosystems and groundwater in the future, as it has been documented for similar settings in Australia and the Sahel. In the Pampas land use change interacts with groundwater consumption leading to higher carbon uptake (humid and subhumid grasslands) and salt accumulation (subhumid grasslands). In the Espinal (semiarid forest) land use change currently involves a one-way effect on groundwater recharge that may switch to a reciprocal connection if regional water table raises occur. Neglecting the role of groundwater

  1. Klamath River Water Quality Data from Link River Dam to Keno Dam, Oregon, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Deas, Michael L.; Asbill, Jessica; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Butler, Kenna D.; Vaughn, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This report documents sampling and analytical methods and presents field data from a second year of an ongoing study on the Klamath River from Link River Dam to Keno Dam in south central Oregon; this dataset will form the basis of a hydrodynamic and water quality model. Water quality was sampled weekly at six mainstem and two tributary sites from early April through early November, 2008. Constituents reported herein include field-measured water-column parameters (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, specific conductance); total nitrogen and phosphorus; particulate carbon and nitrogen; total iron; filtered orthophosphate, nitrite, nitrite plus nitrate, ammonia, organic carbon, and iron; specific UV absorbance at 254 nanometers; chlorophyll a; phytoplankton and zooplankton enumeration and species identification; and bacterial abundance and morphological subgroups. Sampling program results indicated: *Most nutrient and carbon concentrations were lowest in spring, increased starting in mid-June, remained elevated in the summer, and decreased in fall. Dissolved nitrite plus nitrate had a different seasonal cycle and was below detection or at low concentration in summer. *Although total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations did not show large differences from upstream to downstream, filtered ammonia and orthophosphate concentrations increased in the downstream direction and particulate carbon and particulate nitrogen generally decreased in the downstream direction. *Large bacterial cells made up most of the bacteria biovolume, though cocci were the most numerous bacteria type. Cocci, with diameters of 0.1 to 0.2 micrometers, were smaller than the filter pore sizes used to separate dissolved from particulate matter. *Phytoplankton biovolumes were dominated by diatoms in spring and by the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae after mid-June. Another blue-green, Anabaena flos-aquae, was noted in samples from late May to late June. Phytoplankton

  2. Linking ecosystem services and water resources: landscape-scale hydrology of the Little Karoo

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Maitre, David C

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available relatively high rainfall (> 900 mm per year), but the Little Karoo is in a rain shadow and receives only 150–350 mm annually. The rainfall season occurs in summer in the east and in winter in the west. Most of the water in the major river systems... infiltration and overland flow determines the amount of water and waterborne materials that are retained or exported from a patch and, ultimately, a hillslope, to river systems and the ocean. The responses of large spatial units may not simply be the sum...

  3. Ecology, Religious Practices and Identities Related to Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia García, Ángeles

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts arising around the management of water are frequently resolved through a continuous process of symbolic or material appropriation of those places where the control, distribution and selection of water poses problems. The case of hermitages devoted to the Virgin Mary which serve as a crucial axis for the symbolic resolution of earthly conflicts, as is the case of those related to the administrative borders between neighbouring villages, is a constant. The link between the cult of the Virgin Mary and water shows the existence of more or less explicit interests of a part of the population in using symbolic control to achieve real and material domination through the construction of identity models, both locally and on a wider scale. A certain kind of knowledge is used to generate a social practice which, in turn, is transformed into ideology. Beliefs are thus linked to both economic and ecological factors, as well as to other referents of social organization. The religious practices associated with miraculous springs promote a certain way of thinking: springs, rivers and wells are not exclusively natural objects, rather they are fundamental mental maps of the social and environmental context.

    Los conflictos generados a partir de la gestión sobre el agua se han resuelto mediante un continuado proceso de apropiación simbólica o material de los lugares en los que el control, distribución y selección de las aguas planteaba problemas. La situación de las ermitas marianas como eje de resolución simbólica de conflictos terrenales, como los derivados de los litigios por límites entre pueblos, es una constante reiterada. La vinculación entre culto mariano y agua pone de manifiesto la existencia de intereses más o menos implícitos de una parte de la población que utiliza el dominio de los símbolos como instrumento de dominación real a través de la construcción de modelos identitarios locales o microcomarcales. Un cierto tipo

  4. Tuvan-Mongolian relations and links under the People’s Republic of Tuva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubov K. Hertek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the links and relations between Tuva and Mongolia during the two decades of People’s Republic of Tuva (1921-1944. Although some aspects of these relations have been studied by a number of Russian, Mongolian and Chinese scholars, they have so far failed to outline their general tendencies. In this article, we aim to study the Tuvan-Mongolian relations in the PRT period in the light of new archival materials, which will help us trace the main stages of their development and characterize the specific features of each stage. The first stage (1921-1925 opens with the establishment of Tuvan statehood and its non-recognition by Mongolia. Tuvan lamas and noyons retained their links to the highest-profile Mongolian clergy and the rulers of Mongolian aimags in the borderlands. The second stage (1926–1929 begins with the changes in leadership of both states, which led to PRT being officially recognized by the Mongolian People’s Republic. The recognition was followed by signing a Treaty of Friendship between the two states and the restoration of cultural links, given that traditional culture and the Mongolian written language still prevailed in Tuva. We have reconstructed a full list of Tuvan diplomatic envoys in Mongolia and Mongolian envoys in Tuva. The third stage (1930–1944 was marked by the victory of the political left in both Tuva and Mongolia. The new leaders of both states had been educated in Moscow, in Communist University of the Toilers of the East. This helped establish what was deemed ‘truly revolutionary mutual relations’ and build up an interparty network. Indirectly, it also helped enhance economic, trade and cultural links. Our study was based, among other sources, on archival documents from the State Archive of the Republic of Tuva, the research archive of Tuva Institute for Humanities and Applied Socioeconomic Studies, and some published sources from the Mongolian Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ archive

  5. Extreme diving behaviour in devil rays links surface waters and the deep ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorrold, Simon R; Afonso, Pedro; Fontes, Jorge; Braun, Camrin D; Santos, Ricardo S; Skomal, Gregory B; Berumen, Michael L

    2014-07-01

    Ecological connections between surface waters and the deep ocean remain poorly studied despite the high biomass of fishes and squids residing at depths beyond the euphotic zone. These animals likely support pelagic food webs containing a suite of predators that include commercially important fishes and marine mammals. Here we deploy pop-up satellite archival transmitting tags on 15 Chilean devil rays (Mobula tarapacana) in the central North Atlantic Ocean, which provide movement patterns of individuals for up to 9 months. Devil rays were considered surface dwellers but our data reveal individuals descending at speeds up to 6.0 m s(-1) to depths of almost 2,000 m and water temperatures <4 °C. The shape of the dive profiles suggests that the rays are foraging at these depths in deep scattering layers. Our results provide evidence of an important link between predators in the surface ocean and forage species occupying pelagic habitats below the euphotic zone in ocean ecosystems.

  6. Extreme diving behaviour in devil rays links surface waters and the deep ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Thorrold, Simon R.

    2014-07-01

    Ecological connections between surface waters and the deep ocean remain poorly studied despite the high biomass of fishes and squids residing at depths beyond the euphotic zone. These animals likely support pelagic food webs containing a suite of predators that include commercially important fishes and marine mammals. Here we deploy pop-up satellite archival transmitting tags on 15 Chilean devil rays (Mobula tarapacana) in the central North Atlantic Ocean, which provide movement patterns of individuals for up to 9 months. Devil rays were considered surface dwellers but our data reveal individuals descending at speeds up to 6.0 ms-1 to depths of almost 2,000 m and water temperatures <4 C. The shape of the dive profiles suggests that the rays are foraging at these depths in deep scattering layers. Our results provide evidence of an important link between predators in the surface ocean and forage species occupying pelagic habitats below the euphotic zone in ocean ecosystems. 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  7. Linking water quality and quantity in environmental flow assessment in deteriorated ecosystems: a food web view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, He; Ma, Lekuan; Guo, Wei; Yang, Ying; Guo, Tong; Feng, Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Most rivers worldwide are highly regulated by anthropogenic activities through flow regulation and water pollution. Environmental flow regulation is used to reduce the effects of anthropogenic activities on aquatic ecosystems. Formulating flow alteration-ecological response relationships is a key factor in environmental flow assessment. Traditional environmental flow models are characterized by natural relationships between flow regimes and ecosystem factors. However, food webs are often altered from natural states, which disturb environmental flow assessment in such ecosystems. In ecosystems deteriorated by heavy anthropogenic activities, the effects of environmental flow regulation on species are difficult to assess with current modeling approaches. Environmental flow management compels the development of tools that link flow regimes and food webs in an ecosystem. Food web approaches are more suitable for the task because they are more adaptive for disordered multiple species in a food web deteriorated by anthropogenic activities. This paper presents a global method of environmental flow assessment in deteriorated aquatic ecosystems. Linkages between flow regimes and food web dynamics are modeled by incorporating multiple species into an ecosystem to explore ecosystem-based environmental flow management. The approach allows scientists and water resources managers to analyze environmental flows in deteriorated ecosystems in an ecosystem-based way.

  8. Household rainwater tanks: mediating changing relations with water?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Farbotko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Domestic rainwater tanks have become commonplace in Australia's urban landscape, and have become the physical embodiment of the changing relations between householders, water, and water authorities. The aim of our research was to understand these changing relations by examining how domestic rainwater tanks are inscribed with meanings and assumptions and thus mediate a relationship between households and government. In particular, we considered how domestic rainwater tanks are implicated in various understandings of entitlements to water collected or used in private domains. We examined how tanks can render visible the contestation over rights and obligations of state and citizen as to what is considered private and public water collection, management, and use at the scale of the household. Our exploration of these issues was conducted through a case study of changing water relations in South East Queensland, Australia, where there has been recent widespread installation of domestic rainwater tanks.

  9. Aquaporins: highly regulated channels controlling plant water relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumont, François; Tyerman, Stephen D

    2014-04-01

    Plant growth and development are dependent on tight regulation of water movement. Water diffusion across cell membranes is facilitated by aquaporins that provide plants with the means to rapidly and reversibly modify water permeability. This is done by changing aquaporin density and activity in the membrane, including posttranslational modifications and protein interaction that act on their trafficking and gating. At the whole organ level aquaporins modify water conductance and gradients at key "gatekeeper" cell layers that impact on whole plant water flow and plant water potential. In this way they may act in concert with stomatal regulation to determine the degree of isohydry/anisohydry. Molecular, physiological, and biophysical approaches have demonstrated that variations in root and leaf hydraulic conductivity can be accounted for by aquaporins but this must be integrated with anatomical considerations. This Update integrates these data and emphasizes the central role played by aquaporins in regulating plant water relations.

  10. Physiological plasticity to water flow habitat in the damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus: linking phenotype to performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra A Binning

    Full Text Available The relationships among animal form, function and performance are complex, and vary across environments. Therefore, it can be difficult to identify morphological and/or physiological traits responsible for enhancing performance in a given habitat. In fishes, differences in swimming performance across water flow gradients are related to morphological variation among and within species. However, physiological traits related to performance have been less well studied. We experimentally reared juvenile damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, under different water flow regimes to test 1 whether aspects of swimming physiology and morphology show plastic responses to water flow, 2 whether trait divergence correlates with swimming performance and 3 whether flow environment relates to performance differences observed in wild fish. We found that maximum metabolic rate, aerobic scope and blood haematocrit were higher in wave-reared fish compared to fish reared in low water flow. However, pectoral fin shape, which tends to correlate with sustained swimming performance, did not differ between rearing treatments or collection sites. Maximum metabolic rate was the best overall predictor of individual swimming performance; fin shape and fish total length were 3.3 and 3.7 times less likely than maximum metabolic rate to explain differences in critical swimming speed. Performance differences induced in fish reared in different flow environments were less pronounced than in wild fish but similar in direction. Our results suggest that exposure to water motion induces plastic physiological changes which enhance swimming performance in A. polyacanthus. Thus, functional relationships between fish morphology and performance across flow habitats should also consider differences in physiology.

  11. Abundance and physiology of dominant soft corals linked to water quality in Jakarta Bay, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunilla Baum

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Declining water quality is one of the main reasons of coral reef degradation in the Thousand Islands off the megacity Jakarta, Indonesia. Shifts in benthic community composition to higher soft coral abundances have been reported for many degraded reefs throughout the Indo-Pacific. However, it is not clear to what extent soft coral abundance and physiology are influenced by water quality. In this study, live benthic cover and water quality (i.e. dissolved inorganic nutrients (DIN, turbidity (NTU, and sedimentation were assessed at three sites (< 20 km north of Jakarta in Jakarta Bay (JB and five sites along the outer Thousand Islands (20–60 km north of Jakarta. This was supplemented by measurements of photosynthetic yield and, for the first time, respiratory electron transport system (ETS activity of two dominant soft coral genera, Sarcophyton spp. and Nephthea spp. Findings revealed highly eutrophic water conditions in JB compared to the outer Thousand Islands, with 44% higher DIN load (7.65 μM/L, 67% higher NTU (1.49 NTU and 47% higher sedimentation rate (30.4 g m−2 d−1. Soft corals were the dominant type of coral cover within the bay (2.4% hard and 12.8% soft coral cover compared to the outer Thousand Islands (28.3% hard and 6.9% soft coral cover. Soft coral abundances, photosynthetic yield, and ETS activity were highly correlated with key water quality parameters, particularly DIN and sedimentation rates. The findings suggest water quality controls the relative abundance and physiology of dominant soft corals in JB and may thus contribute to phase shifts from hard to soft coral dominance, highlighting the need to better manage water quality in order to prevent or reverse phase shifts.

  12. Molecular mechanisms linking adipokines to obesity-related colon cancer: focus on leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Janice E

    2012-02-01

    Obesity is linked to increased risk of colon cancer, currently the third most common cancer. Consequently rising levels of obesity worldwide are likely to significantly impact on obesity-related colon cancers in the decades to come. Understanding the molecular mechanisms whereby obesity increases colon cancer risk is thus a focus for research to inform strategies to prevent the increasing trend in obesity-related cancers. This review will consider research on deregulation of adipokine signalling, a consequence of altered adipokine hormone secretion from excess adipose tissue, with a focus on leptin, which has been studied extensively as a potential mediator of obesity-related colon cancer. Numerous investigations using colon cell lines in vitro, in vivo studies in rodents and investigations of colon cancer patients illuminate the complexity of the interactions of leptin with colon tissues via leptin receptors expressed by the colon epithelium. Although evidence indicates a role for leptin in proliferation of colon epithelial cells in vitro, this has been contradicted by studies in rodent models. However, recent studies have indicated that leptin may influence inflammatory mediators linked with colon cancer and also promote cell growth dependent on genotype and is implicated in growth promotion of colon cancer cells. Studies in human cancer patients indicate that there may be different tumour sub-types with varying levels of leptin receptor expression, indicating the potential for leptin to induce variable responses in the different tumour types. These studies have provided insights into the complex interplay of adipokines with responsive tissues prone to obesity-related colon cancer. Deregulation of adipokine signalling via adipokine receptors located in the colon appears to be a significant factor in obesity-related colon cancer. Molecular profiling of colon tumours will be a useful tool in future strategies to characterise the influence that adipokines may have

  13. Water relations of cucumber, tomato and sweet pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behboudian, M.H.

    1977-01-01

    The ever increasing importance of water as a critical resource for agricultural production has encouraged more research on water relations in recent years. Most attention has been paid to field crops and less information is available for horticultural crops, especially vegetables. The results of stu

  14. Water-related planning and design at energy firms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbey, D; Lucero, F

    1980-11-01

    Water related planning and design at energy firms are examined. By identifying production alternatives and specifying the cost of these alternatives under a variety of conditions, one gains insight into the future pattern of water use in the energy industry and the response of industry to water-related regulation. In Part II, the three principal decisions of industry that affect water allocation are reviewed: where to build plants, where to get water, and how much water to use. The cost of water use alternatives is reviewed. Part III presents empirical data to substantiate the inferences derived from engineering/economic analysis. The source of water, type of cooling system, and pattern of discharge for electric plants constructed during the 1970s or projected to come on line in this decade are reported. In the 1970s in the US, there was a trend away from once-through cooling toward use of evaporative cooling. Freshwater, as a source of supply, and discharge of effluent were standard practice. In the 1980s, almost all new capacity in the states and basins surveyed will use evaporative cooling. It is pointed out that a thorough understanding of industrial water use economics and water markets is a precursor to successful regulation.

  15. Linking high-frequency DOC dynamics to the age of connected water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunaley, C.; Tetzlaff, D.; Lessels, J.; Soulsby, C.

    2016-07-01

    We combined high-frequency dissolved organic matter fluorescence (FDOM) data with stable isotope observations to identify the sources and ages of runoff that cause temporal variability in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) within a peat-dominated Scottish catchment. FDOM was strongly correlated (r2 ˜ 0.8) with DOC, allowing inference of a 15 min time series. We captured 34 events over a range of hydrological conditions. Along with marked seasonality, different event responses were observed during summer depending on dry or wet antecedent conditions. The majority of events exhibited anticlockwise hysteresis as a result of the expansion of the riparian saturation zone, mobilizing previously unconnected DOC sources. Water ages from the main runoff sources were extracted from a tracer-aided hydrological model. Particularly useful were ages of overland flow, which were negatively correlated with DOC concentration. Overland flow age, which ranged between 0.2 and 360 days, reflected antecedent conditions, with younger water generally mobilizing the highest DOC concentrations in summer events. During small events with dry antecedent conditions, DOC response was proportionally higher due to the displacement and mixing of small volumes of previously unconnected highly concentrated riparian soil waters by new precipitation. During large events with wet antecedent conditions, the riparian saturation zone expands to organic layers on the hillslopes causing peaks in DOC. However, these peaks were limited by dilution and supply. This study highlights the utility of linking high-frequency DOC measurements with other tracers, allowing the effects of hydrologic connectivity and antecedent conditions on delivery of DOC to streams to be assessed.

  16. 76 FR 44948 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2011-18980] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water- Related Contract Actions AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior... Kelly, Water and Environmental Services Division, Bureau of Reclamation, P.O. Box 25007,...

  17. Elevated carbon dioxide: impacts on soil and plant water relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirkham, M. B

    2011-01-01

    .... Focusing on this critical issue, Elevated Carbon Dioxide: Impacts on Soil and Plant Water Relations presents research conducted on field-grown sorghum, winter wheat, and rangeland plants under elevated CO2...

  18. Data model and relational database design for the New England Water-Use Data System (NEWUDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, Steven

    2001-01-01

    The New England Water-Use Data System (NEWUDS) is a database for the storage and retrieval of water-use data. NEWUDS can handle data covering many facets of water use, including (1) tracking various types of water-use activities (withdrawals, returns, transfers, distributions, consumptive-use, wastewater collection, and treatment); (2) the description, classification and location of places and organizations involved in water-use activities; (3) details about measured or estimated volumes of water associated with water-use activities; and (4) information about data sources and water resources associated with water use. In NEWUDS, each water transaction occurs unidirectionally between two site objects, and the sites and conveyances form a water network. The core entities in the NEWUDS model are site, conveyance, transaction/rate, location, and owner. Other important entities include water resources (used for withdrawals and returns), data sources, and aliases. Multiple water-exchange estimates can be stored for individual transactions based on different methods or data sources. Storage of user-defined details is accommodated for several of the main entities. Numerous tables containing classification terms facilitate detailed descriptions of data items and can be used for routine or custom data summarization. NEWUDS handles single-user and aggregate-user water-use data, can be used for large or small water-network projects, and is available as a stand-alone Microsoft? Access database structure. Users can customize and extend the database, link it to other databases, or implement the design in other relational database applications.

  19. Multiple QTLs Linked to Agro-Morphological and Physiological Traits Related to Drought Tolerance in Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Awais; Saravia, David; Munive, Susan; Lozano, Flavio; Farfan, Evelyn; Eyzaguirre, Raul; Bonierbale, Merideth

    Dissection of the genetic architecture of adaptation and abiotic stress-related traits is highly desirable for developing drought-tolerant potatoes and enhancing the resilience of existing cultivars, particularly as agricultural production in rain-fed areas may be reduced by up to 50 % by 2020. The "DMDD" potato progeny was developed at International Potato Center (CIP) by crossing the sequenced double monoploid line DM and a diploid cultivar of the Solanum tuberosum diploid Andigenum Goniocalyx group. Recently, a high-density integrated genetic map based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), diversity array technology (DArT), simple sequence repeats (SSRs), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers was also made available for this population. Two trials were conducted, in greenhouse and field, for drought tolerance with two treatments each, well-watered and terminal drought, in which watering was suspended 60 days after planting. The DMDD population was evaluated for agro-morphological and physiological traits before and after initiation of stress, at multiple time points. Two dense parental genetic maps were constructed using published genotypic data, and quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified 45 genomic regions associated with nine traits in well-watered and terminal drought treatments and 26 potentially associated with drought stress. In this study, the strong influence of environmental factors besides water shortage on the expression of traits and QTLs reflects the multigenic control of traits related to drought tolerance. This is the first study to our knowledge in potato identifying QTLs for drought-related traits in field and greenhouse trials, giving new insights into genetic architecture of drought-related traits. Many of the QTLs identified have the potential to be used in potato breeding programs for enhanced drought tolerance.

  20. Water Related Health Problems in Central Asia—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakir Bekturganov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides an extensive literature review on water related health issues in Central Asia. Even though the per capita amount of available freshwater is substantial in all Central Asian states the uneven distribution in time and space creates problems for water availability. Due to this, the Central Asian economies are developing under increasing water deficiency. The degradation of water supply systems and sewage treatment plants is often severe leading to potentially high water loss rates and inadequate accessibility to safe water supply. In this context, rural areas are the most affected. Low tariffs in combination with absent metering and low collection rates for water fees mean that operation and maintenance costs for basic services of water supply and sanitation are not covered. Unsafe water supply contains both microbiological and non-microbiological contaminants. Helminthiasis and intestinal protozoa infections are of considerable public health importance in Central Asia. Agricultural and industrial pollution is especially affecting downstream areas of Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers. In large areas copper, zinc, and chromium concentrations in water exceed maximum permissible concentration. Thus, there is an urgent need to strengthen the environmental monitoring system. Small-scale water supply and sanitation systems need to be developed in line with more efficient public spending on these.

  1. Gastrointestinal illness linked to incidents in drinking water distribution networks in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säve-Söderbergh, Melle; Bylund, John; Malm, Annika; Simonsson, Magnus; Toljander, Jonas

    2017-10-01

    During recent years, knowledge gaps on drinking water-related gastrointestinal illness have been identified, especially for non-epidemic cases. Pathogen contamination of drinking water during distribution has been suggested to contribute to these cases, but the risk factors are not yet fully understood. During 2014-2015, we conducted an epidemiological study in five municipalities in Sweden, to assess whether incidents in the drinking water distribution system influence the risk of gastrointestinal illness. Telephone interviews were conducted in the affected areas and in reference areas 7-14 days after a reported incident. Symptoms of gastrointestinal illness occurring during the period were documented for each household member. The results showed a significantly elevated risk of vomiting and acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) in the affected areas, compared to the reference areas (ORvom. = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.2-3.3; ORAGI = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2-3.0). Certain conditions, or risk factors, during the incidents, such as sewage and drinking water pipelines at the same level in the trench, were associated with an elevated risk of AGI and vomiting. Safety measures taken during repair work, like flushing, were also associated with an elevated risk of AGI and vomiting. These results show that incidents in the drinking water distribution network contribute to endemic gastrointestinal illness, especially AGI and vomiting, and that external pathogen contamination of the drinking water is a likely cause of these cases of gastrointestinal illness. The results also indicate that safety measures used today may not be sufficient for eliminating the risk of gastrointestinal illness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Leaf Relative Water Content Estimated from Leaf Reflectance and Transmittance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long term goals of remote sensing research. In the research we report here, we used optical polarization techniques to monitor the light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both change nonlinearly. The result show that the nonlinearities cancel in the ratio R/T, which appears linearly related to RWC for RWC less than 90%. The results suggest that potentially leaf water status and perhaps even canopy water status could be monitored starting from leaf and canopy optical measurements.

  3. X-linked intellectual disability related genes disrupted by balanced X-autosome translocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moysés-Oliveira, Mariana; Guilherme, Roberta Santos; Meloni, Vera Ayres; Di Battista, Adriana; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; Bragagnolo, Silvia; Moretti-Ferreira, Danilo; Kosyakova, Nadezda; Liehr, Thomas; Carvalheira, Gianna Maria; Melaragno, Maria Isabel

    2015-12-01

    Detailed molecular characterization of chromosomal rearrangements involving X-chromosome has been a key strategy in identifying X-linked intellectual disability-causing genes. We fine-mapped the breakpoints in four women with balanced X-autosome translocations and variable phenotypes, in order to investigate the corresponding genetic contribution to intellectual disability. We addressed the impact of the gene interruptions in transcription and discussed the consequences of their functional impairment in neurodevelopment. Three patients presented with cognitive impairment, reinforcing the association between the disrupted genes (TSPAN7-MRX58, KIAA2022-MRX98, and IL1RAPL1-MRX21/34) and intellectual disability. While gene expression analysis showed absence of TSPAN7 and KIAA2022 expression in the patients, the unexpected expression of IL1RAPL1 suggested a fusion transcript ZNF611-IL1RAPL1 under the control of the ZNF611 promoter, gene disrupted at the autosomal breakpoint. The X-chromosomal breakpoint definition in the fourth patient, a woman with normal intellectual abilities, revealed disruption of the ZDHHC15 gene (MRX91). The expression assays did not detect ZDHHC15 gene expression in the patient, thus questioning its involvement in intellectual disability. Revealing the disruption of an X-linked intellectual disability-related gene in patients with balanced X-autosome translocation is a useful tool for a better characterization of critical genes in neurodevelopment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Extreme water-related weather events and waterborne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, K F; Thomas, D Rh; Salmon, R L; Wyn-Jones, A P; Kay, D

    2013-04-01

    Global climate change is expected to affect the frequency, intensity and duration of extreme water-related weather events such as excessive precipitation, floods, and drought. We conducted a systematic review to examine waterborne outbreaks following such events and explored their distribution between the different types of extreme water-related weather events. Four medical and meteorological databases (Medline, Embase, GeoRef, PubMed) and a global electronic reporting system (ProMED) were searched, from 1910 to 2010. Eighty-seven waterborne outbreaks involving extreme water-related weather events were identified and included, alongside 235 ProMED reports. Heavy rainfall and flooding were the most common events preceding outbreaks associated with extreme weather and were reported in 55·2% and 52·9% of accounts, respectively. The most common pathogens reported in these outbreaks were Vibrio spp. (21·6%) and Leptospira spp. (12·7%). Outbreaks following extreme water-related weather events were often the result of contamination of the drinking-water supply (53·7%). Differences in reporting of outbreaks were seen between the scientific literature and ProMED. Extreme water-related weather events represent a risk to public health in both developed and developing countries, but impact will be disproportionate and likely to compound existing health disparities.

  5. Studies on Structure and Properties of Water Soluble Polysaccharide from Fruiting Body of Cordyceps Militarvs(L.) Link

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A water soluble crude polysaccharide has been isolated from the fruiting body of cultivated Cordyceps militarvs(L.) Link. The GC analysis indicated that it contained the monosaccharides of Gal, Man, Glc and GlcA. Their molar ratio is 1.00∶1.58∶7.89∶0.19. The crude polysaccharide was fractionated with ethanol to get three fractions, which were CM-Ⅰ, CM-Ⅱ and CM-Ⅲ. CM-Ⅱ was further purified to get one homogeneous fraction named CMB. The molecular weight was estimated to be 60000 by means of gel filtration. CMB is a greyish white powder. The GC analysis indicated that it was composed of Gal, Man, Glc and the molar ratio is 1.00∶1.38∶5.10. Partial hydrolysis with an acid, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, IR, GC and methylation analyses, GC/MS analyses were used for the structure analyses of CMB. The results reveal that CMB is of a lower branched structure. The main chain is composed of (1→6)-linked-Man, (1→6)-linked-Glc, (1→4)-linked-Glc and (1→4)-linked-Gal. Some of (1→4)-linked-Glc and all (1→4)-linked-Gal residues are substituted at 3-O and 6-O respectively. (1→4)-Linked-Glc residues without branch probably exist with other monosaccharides alternately. On an average, there is one branch every ten hexose residues. The side chain is composed of major (1→4)-linked-Glc and minor (1→6)-linked-Glc. The nonreduced end is composed of Gal and Glc. The main glycosidic link of CMB is α configuration.

  6. College drinking behaviors: mediational links between parenting styles, impulse control, and alcohol-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2006-06-01

    Mediational links between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), impulsiveness (general control), drinking control (specific control), and alcohol use and abuse were tested. A pattern-mixture approach (for modeling non-ignorable missing data) with multiple-group structural equation models with 421 (206 female, 215 male) college students was used. Gender was examined as a potential moderator of parenting styles on control processes related to drinking. Specifically, the parent-child gender match was found to have implications for increased levels of impulsiveness (a significant mediator of parenting effects on drinking control). These findings suggest that a parent with a permissive parenting style who is the same gender as the respondent can directly influence control processes and indirectly influence alcohol use and abuse.

  7. Adaptation of Leaf Water Relations to Climatic and Habitat Water Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. Mitchell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Successful management of forest systems requires a deeper understanding of the role of ecophysiological traits in enabling adaptation to high temperature and water deficit under current and anticipated changes in climate. A key attribute of leaf water relations is the water potential at zero turgor (πtlp, because it defines the operating water potentials over which plants actively control growth and gas exchange. This study examines the drivers of variation in πtlp with respect to species climate of origin and habitat water availability. We compiled a water relations database for 174 woody species occupying clearly delineated gradients in temperature and precipitation across the Australian continent. A significant proportion of the variability in πtlp (~35% could be explained by climatic water deficit and its interaction with summertime maximum temperature, demonstrating the strong selective pressure of aridity and high temperature in shaping leaf water relations among Australian species. Habitat water availability (midday leaf water potential, was also a significant predictor of πtlp (R2 = 0.43, highlighting the importance of species ecohydrologic niche under a set of climatic conditions. Shifts in πtlp in response to both climatic and site-based drivers of water availability emphasises its adaptive significance and its suitability as a predictor of plant performance under future climatic change.

  8. Preparation of new hyper cross-linked chelating resin for adsorption of Cu2+ and Ni2+ from water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Cheng; Jin Nan Wang; Li Xu; Ai Min Li

    2012-01-01

    The new hyper cross-linked chelating resin NDWJN2 modified with carboxyl groups was prepared for removal of Cu2+ and Ni2+ from water.NDWJN2 was characterized using BET,SEM and FT-IR spectroscopy.Comparing with commercial resins D113 and IRC84,NDWJN2 could remove Cu2+ and Ni2+ from water more effectively.Langmuir model could fit adsorption isotherms well.

  9. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Environmental Waters by PCR Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Sails, A. D.; Bolton, F. J.; Fox, A. J.; Wareing, D. R. A.; Greenway, D. L. A.

    2002-01-01

    A PCR enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay was applied to the detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in environmental water samples after enrichment culture. Bacterial cells were concentrated from 69 environmental water samples by using filtration, and the filtrates were cultured in Campylobacter blood-free broth. After enrichment culture, DNA was extracted from the samples by using a rapid-boiling method, and the DNA extracts were used as a template in a PCR ELIS...

  10. Forecasting and Communicating Water-Related Disasters in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y.; Clark, R. A.; Mandl, D.; Gourley, J. J.; Flamig, Z.; Zhang, K.; Macharia, D.; Frye, S. W.; Cappelaere, P. G.; Handy, M.

    2016-12-01

    Accurate forecasting and communication of water and water-related hazards in developing regions could save untold lives and property. To this end, the CREST (Coupled Routing and Excess Storage) hydrologic model has been implemented over East Africa, and in dozens of other countries as a user-friendly, flexible, and highly extensible platform for monitoring water resources, floods, droughts, and landslides since 2009. We will present the updated CREST/EF5 hydrologic ensemble modeling framework with new model physics and better forecasts of streamflow, soil moisture, and other hydrologic states to RCMRD (the Regional Centre for Mapping of Resources for Development) and SERVIR global hub network. The central goal of this project is to develop an ensemble hydrologic prediction system, forced by weather and climate forecasts in a single continuum, to communicate forecasts on scales ranging from sub-daily to seasonal and in formats designed for better decision making about water and water-related disasters. The CREST/EF5 is a proven performer at getting researcher and officials in emerging regions excited about and confident in their ability to independently monitor, forecast, and understand water and water-related disasters, through a series of training workshops and capacity building activities in USA, Africa, Mesoamerica, and South Asia and is thus particularly well-suited for hydrologic capacity building in emerging countries.

  11. Water Relation Parameters of Embryogenic Cultures and Seedlings of Larch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Nigel J.; von Aderkas, Patrick; Fuchs, Edgar E.; Reaney, Martin J. T.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in the water relations parameters of developing somatic embryogenic and xygotic European larch (Larix decidua) were studied. Water release curves were generated by suspending tissue samples over unsaturated NaCl solutions until they reached vapor equilibration with the surrounding air. Twenty solutions were used whose water potentials ranged from −0.05 to −10 MPa. Water release curves were obtained by plotting paired values of tissue relative water content (RWC) and solution potential. Curves were derived for embryonic larch at various stages of development and for hypocotyls and roots from germinated zygotic and somatic embryos. The ability to resist dehydration increased markedly with development. Stage 1 tissue, which consisted of clusters of loosely associated nonchlorophyllous cells, had extremely low bulk elastic modulus (ε) (1.91 MPa) and apoplastic water content (A) (0.023), relatively high osmotic potential (Ψπ) (−0.53 MPa), and lost turgor at 0.56 RWC. In contrast, mature embryoids with primary roots, hypocotyl, and cotyledons (stage 3) had an almost 4-fold increase in A (0.089), significantly higher ε (3.49 MPa), and lower Ψπ (−0.88 MPa) and lost turgor at 0.66 RWC. Hypocotyl tissue from germinated somatic embryos lost turgor at 0.74 RWC and had higher ε, A, and solute accumulation than pregerminated tissue. Hypocotyl tissue resisted dehydration more strongly than root tissue, and differences between root and hypocotyl water relation parameters were more pronounced in xygotic than in somatic seedlings. Highest dehydration resistance was in zygotic hypocotyls. The characterization of the water relations of tissue cultures should allow the development of more consistent and reliable desiccation protocols to induce maturation of embryos and produce synchronously germinating seed. PMID:16653121

  12. Linking Water Table Dynamics to Carbon Cycling in Artificial Soil Column Incubations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertje, Pronk; Adrian, Mellage; Tatjana, Milojevic; Fereidoun, Rezanezhad; Cappellen Philippe, Van

    2016-04-01

    The biogeochemistry of wetlands soils is closely tied to their hydrology. Water table fluctuations that cause flooding and drying of these systems may lead to enhanced degradation of organic matter and release of greenhouse gasses (e.g. CO2, CH4) to the atmosphere. However, predicting the influence of water table fluctuations on the biogeochemical functioning of soils requires an understanding of the interactions of soil hydrology with biogeochemical and microbial processes. To determine the effects of water table dynamics on carbon cycling, we are carrying out state-of-the-art automated soil column experiments with fully integrated monitoring of hydro-bio-geophysical process variables under both constant and oscillating water table conditions. An artificial, homogeneous mixture consisting of minerals and organic matter is used to provide a well-defined starting material. The artificial soils are composed of quartz sand, montmorillonite, goethite and humus from a forested riparian zone, from which we also extracted the microbial inoculum added to the soil mixture. The artificial soils are packed into 60 cm high, 7.5 cm wide columns. In the currently ongoing experiment, three replicate columns are incubated while keeping the water table constant water at mid-depth, while another three columns alternate between drained and saturated conditions. Micro-sensors installed at different depths below the soil surface record time-series redox potentials (Eh) varying between oxidizing (~+700 mV) and reducing (~-200 mV) conditions. Continuous O2 levels throughout the soil columns are monitored using high-resolution, luminescence-based, Multi Fiber Optode (MuFO) microsensors. Pore waters are collected periodically with MicroRhizon samplers from different depths, and analyzed for pH, EC, dissolved inorganic and organic carbon and ion/cation compositions. These measurements allow us to track the changes in pore water geochemistry and relate them to differences in carbon cycling

  13. Relation between man and water: the awareness of living water for sustainable design

    OpenAIRE

    Barbero, Silvia; Pallaro, Agnese

    2015-01-01

    Water is the most precious and one of the most threatened resources on earth: environmental, economic, social and management factors are posing at risk this precious resource. The roots of these problems can be traced in the loss of relation between man and water: from being a vital element with a spiritual character, water has become seen as just a commodity over which to make profit. Through the analysis of how the changing relation between man and water in history has been translated in th...

  14. Critical body residues linked to octanol-water partitioning, organism composition, and LC50 QSARs: Meta-analysis and model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.J.; Traas, T.P.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    To protect thousands of species from thousands of chemicals released in the environment, various risk assessment tools have been developed. Here, we link quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for response concentrations in water (LC50) to critical concentrations in organisms (C-50) b

  15. Water-related disasters: A review and commentary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Walter M. Grayman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of water-related disasters,look at the trends in water-related disasters,categorize water-related disasters in several dimensions,provide insights on the impacts of such disasters and discuss the predictability of disasters.Disasters may be succinctly defined as natural or human events,usually unexpected,that result in significant impacts in terms of a variety of metrics.Metrics for evaluating the impacts of disasters include economic damage,environmental damage,fatalities,reconstruction cost,aesthetic damage,disruption of normal activities,destruction of irreplaceable objects,and long-term or permanent loss of species.Disasters may be categorized in terms of causes (natural events,human induced,or a combination).Water-related disasters may be further categorized as floods,storms,waves,slides,droughts,epidemics,contamination and climate change.The temporal and spatial scale of water-related disasters vary by many orders of magnitude ranging from seconds to centuries and from a few square kilometers to the entire earth.

  16. Geochemistry of water in relation to cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Relations between trace and major element chemistry of drinking water and cardiovascular diseases are reviewed and documented. Several aspects of the problem, related both to the pathway that drinking water takes to man and to its transit through man, are reviewed. Several steps in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease that could be affected by water factors were explored. There is little evidence bearing on the contribution from drinking water to human tissue levels of cadmium, chromium, or zinc. Copper and magnesium levels of tissues may be related to drinking water, but confirmatory evidence is needed. Lead levels in blood and other tissues are most certainly affected by lead levels in drinking water in areas where these levels are unusually elevated. There is little evidence that relatively low levels of lead are toxic to the cardiovascular system, except for the causation of cardiomyopathy. The protective action of selenium and zinc applies mainly to cadmium toxicity. The mode of the protective action of silicon, if any, is unclear at present. Some epidemiological associations between the cadmium level or cadmium:zinc ratio and cardiovascular disease have been reported, but are contradictory. Some epidemiological support exists for a protective effect by selenium; results for zinc are equivocal. Interactions within the human system involving calcium and selected trace elements might be very important for the cardiovascular system. Review of the epidemiological literature indicates that there may be a water factor associated with cardiovascular disease. Its effects, if any, must be very weak in comparison with the effects of known risk factors. The reported inverse relationship between mortality from cardiovascular diseases and hardness of local drinking water supplies appears to be considerably less distinctive in small regional studies. (ERB)

  17. Ectomycorrhizas and water relations of trees: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Tarja; Zwiazek, Janusz J

    2011-02-01

    There is plenty of evidence for improved nutrient acquisition by ectomycorrhizas in trees; however, their role in water uptake is much less clear. In addition to experiments showing improved performance during drought by mycorrhizal plants, there are several studies showing reduced root hydraulic conductivity and reduced water uptake in mycorrhizal roots. The clearest direct mechanism for increased water uptake is the increased extension growth and absorbing surface area, particularly in fungal species with external mycelium of the long-distance exploration type. Some studies have found increased aquaporin function and, consequently, increased root hydraulic conductivity in ectomycorrhizal plants while other studies showed no effect of ectomycorrhizal associations on root water flow properties. The aquaporin function of the fungal hyphae is also likely to be important for the uptake of water by the ectomycorrhizal plant, but more work needs to be done in this area. The best-known indirect mechanism for mycorrhizal effects on water relations is improved nutrient status of the host. Others include altered carbohydrate assimilation via stomatal function, possibly mediated by changes in growth regulator balance; increased sink strength in mycorrhizal roots; antioxidant metabolism; and changes in osmotic adjustment. None of these possibilities has been sufficiently explored. The mycorrhizal structure may also reduce water movement because of different fine root architecture (thickness), cell wall hydrophobicity or the larger number of membranes that water has to cross on the way from the soil to the xylem. In future studies, pot experiments comparing mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants will still be useful in studying well-defined physiological details. However, the quantitative importance of ectomycorrhizas for tree water uptake and water relations can only be assessed by field studies using innovative approaches. Hydraulic redistribution can support nutrient uptake

  18. Unsupervised Group Discovery and LInk Prediction in Relational Datasets: a nonparametric Bayesian approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutsourelakis, P

    2007-05-03

    Clustering represents one of the most common statistical procedures and a standard tool for pattern discovery and dimension reduction. Most often the objects to be clustered are described by a set of measurements or observables e.g. the coordinates of the vectors, the attributes of people. In a lot of cases however the available observations appear in the form of links or connections (e.g. communication or transaction networks). This data contains valuable information that can in general be exploited in order to discover groups and better understand the structure of the dataset. Since in most real-world datasets, several of these links are missing, it is also useful to develop procedures that can predict those unobserved connections. In this report we address the problem of unsupervised group discovery in relational datasets. A fundamental issue in all clustering problems is that the actual number of clusters is unknown a priori. In most cases this is addressed by running the model several times assuming a different number of clusters each time and selecting the value that provides the best fit based on some criterion (ie Bayes factor in the case of Bayesian techniques). It is easily understood that it would be preferable to develop techniques that are able to number of clusters is essentially learned from that data along with the rest of model parameters. For that purpose, we adopt a nonparametric Bayesian framework which provides a very flexible modeling environment in which the size of the model i.e. the number of clusters, can adapt to the available data and readily accommodate outliers. The latter is particularly important since several groups of interest might consist of a small number of members and would most likely be smeared out by traditional modeling techniques. Finally, the proposed framework combines all the advantages of standard Bayesian techniques such as integration of prior knowledge in a principled manner, seamless accommodation of missing data

  19. Water relations and keeping-quality of cut Gerbera flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Meeteren, van, U.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the internal water relations,of ageing Gerbera inflorescences and their consequence on keepingquality of cut inflorescences. As in all parts of this paper, the term "flower" will be used to describe an inflorescence with its supporting stem.A great problem during vase-life of cut Gerbera flowers is ',stem break", a sudden bending of the stem. As described in part 1, this phenomenon was caused by a water shortage in the flower. The water-stress ...

  20. Sagittal synostosis in X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets and related diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currarino, Guido [Texas Scottish Rite Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The recent observations of two new cases of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets associated with premature closure of the sagittal suture prompted a review of similar cases seen in this institution. To review the clinical records and skull radiographs of 28 children with hypophosphatemic rickets in order to investigate the frequency and type of craniosynostosis and other cranial vault changes seen in these conditions and to review the literature for relevant findings. Clinical and imaging records were reviewed on 28 patients with hypophosphatemic rickets, all younger than 18 years. Most patients had X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets and a few had autosomal-dominant hypophosphatemic rickets or were non-familial cases. Of the 28 patients, 13 had sagittal synostosis. Dolichocephaly was present in ten patients. The configuration of the cranial vault in some of these ten patients with dolichocephaly varied somewhat from that seen in nonsyndromic sagittal synostosis. In one patient, a Chiari I malformation was demonstrated by MRI. In another patient with increased intracranial pressure the sagittal suture closure was associated with lambdoidal synostosis. Dolichocephaly was not present in three patients, suggesting that the synostosis started later than in the other patients, probably in the second year of life, a period of slower brain growth than in the first year. The two patients in this group of three showed thickening and sclerosis of the cranial vault of uncertain etiology. There is an increased risk of sagittal synostosis in hypophosphatemic rickets and related diseases in children. The appearance of the cranial vault in this type of synostosis can vary from that seen in nonsyndromic synostosis. In this setting, careful clinical and imaging follow-up is warranted. (orig.)

  1. Ecosystem attributes related to tidal wetland effects on water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, S; Fischer, D

    2013-01-01

    Biogeochemical functioning of ecosystems is central to nutrient cycling, carbon balance, and several ecosystem services, yet it is not always clear why levels of function might vary among systems. Wetlands are widely recognized for their ability to alter concentrations of solutes and particles as water moves through them, but we have only general expectations for what attributes of wetlands are linked to variability in these processes. We examined changes in several water quality variables (dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon, nutrients, and suspended particles) to ascertain which constituents are influenced during tidal exchange with a range of 17 tidal freshwater wetlands along the Hudson River, New York, USA. Many of the constituents showed significant differences among wetlands or between flooding and ebbing tidal concentrations, indicating wetland-mediated effects. For dissolved oxygen, the presence of even small proportional cover by submerged aquatic vegetation increased the concentration of dissolved oxygen in water returned to the main channel following a daytime tidal exchange. Nitrate concentrations showed consistent declines during ebbing tides, but the magnitude of decline varied greatly among sites. The proportional cover by graminoid-dominated high intertidal vegetation accounted for over 40% of the variation in nitrate decline. Knowing which water-quality alterations are associated with which attributes helps suggest underlying mechanisms and identifies what functions might be susceptible to change as sea level rise or salinity intrusion drives shifts in wetland vegetation cover.

  2. EU-Russia Relations Regarding Water Resources in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Likhacheva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Central Asia, the water deficit and water-energy problem have been one of among the most acute and conflict-ridden challenges for the sustainable development of the region and for regional security. Key trade and investment partners, including Russia and the European Union, could play a considerable role in influencing this issue, due to the long-lasting status quo, the inability to find a solution through intra-regional dialogue and the region’s rising dependence on foreign trade. Indeed, water-related interactions between Russia and the EU have been developing in a complementary manner. The EU possesses new technologies and its members have access to long-term capital markets, while Russia carries influence through providing security, regulating migration and holding a favourable political position for offering mediation services to the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. This article examines EU-Russia relations regarding water issues in Central Asia over the medium term. By analyzing cooperative and non-cooperative strategies used by the major stakeholders in the water conflict (the five republics and the third parties of Russia and the EU, it confirms the continuous complementary character of EU and Russian activities in this context. Russia will take responsibility for moderating the principal questions (as with the construction of big dams such as Rogunor Kambarata, as they relate to the provision of security guarantees. The EU will act through providing support for water companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and promoting the European Water Initiative principles and by developing its investment policy. The intersection of interests is possible when if Russia will attracts an independent arbiter, such as an actor available to provide guarantees related to the values of professional objectivism, human rights support and environment protection. These issues inevitably arise with

  3. Relative efficiency of markerassisted selection whenmarker and QTL are incom-pletely linked

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The relative superiority in selection response of two basic marker-assisted selection strategies, marker-as- sisted BLUP (MBLUP) and two-stage selection, in comparison to standard BLUP was investigated using stochastic simulation of a closed nucleus herd. In marker-assisted BLUP the marker information and the phenotypic information were utilized simultaneously for selecting parental animals, whereas in two-stage selection they were utilized separately in two stages. Different heritabilities and QTL sizes were considered in the simulation. The QTL was assumed to be referred only via flanking markers, which were incompletely linked to the QTL. It was shown that both MBLUP and two-stage selection increased the QTL response but decreased the polygenic response. When the heritability was low or the QTL effect was large MBLUP was superior to standard BLUP by up to 5% with respect to total genetic response. While the two-stage selection did not show any superiority although it gave extremely large increase in QTL response due to a rapid increase in favorable QTL allele frequency. The relative responses of MAS were stark associated with the generations of selection. The superiority or inferiority of MAS was large in the early generations and became small or vanished in the later generations.

  4. Is MuSK myasthenia gravis linked to IgG4-related disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibagkar, Pooja; Ferry, Judith A; Stone, John H

    2017-04-15

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an immune-mediated inflammatory condition that affects a wide variety of sites, including the nervous system, where it can involve the meninges or the pituitary gland, and cause perineural mass lesions. A large subset of acetylcholine receptor antibody (Ab)-negative myasthenia gravis (MG) patients has muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) Abs, generally of the IgG4 subclass. There has not been any association found between IgG4-RD and MuSK MG yet. We report the first case of MuSK MG associated with lymphadenopathy with histopathology consistent with IgG4-RD. A 54-year-old woman with MuSK MG developed eight compression fractures related to steroid therapy. Eighteen months after initial presentation she was found to have retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy with biopsy findings consistent with IgG4-RD. She was started on rituximab with clinical improvement and ability to taper immunomodulatory agents for the first time. Our case raises number of questions regarding a potential link between MuSK MG and IgG4-RD which may shed further light on the pathophysiology and management of these diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Water consumption related to different diets in Mediterranean cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D; Del Pozo, S; Pekcan, A G; Keinan-Boker, L; Trichopoulou, A; Gawlik, B M

    2016-12-15

    Providing the sustainable development goals (SDGs) water, food and energy security to cities relies strongly on resource use outside city borders. Many modern cities have recently invested in a sustainable urban water system, and score high in international city rankings regarding water management and direct urban water use. However, these rankings generally neglect external resource use for cities. Here we quantify the water resources related to food consumption in thirteen cities located in Mediterranean countries, by means of the water footprint (WF) concept. These WFs amount from 3277l per capita per day (l/cap/d) to 5789l/cap/d. These amounts are about thirty times higher than their direct urban water use. We additionally analyse the WF of three diet scenarios, based upon a Mediterranean dietary pattern. Many authors identify the Mediterranean diet as cultural heritage, being beneficial for human health and a model for a sustainable food system. The first diet scenario, a healthy Mediterranean diet including meat, leads to WF reductions of -19% to -43%. The second diet scenario (pesco-vegetarian), leads to WF reductions of -28% to -52%. The third diet scenario (vegetarian), leads to WF reductions of -30% to -53%. In other words, if urban citizens want to save water, they need to look at their diets.

  6. Impacts of climate change on surface water quality in relation to drinking water production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpla, I; Jung, A-V; Baures, E; Clement, M; Thomas, O

    2009-11-01

    Besides climate change impacts on water availability and hydrological risks, the consequences on water quality is just beginning to be studied. This review aims at proposing a synthesis of the most recent existing interdisciplinary literature on the topic. After a short presentation about the role of the main factors (warming and consequences of extreme events) explaining climate change effects on water quality, the focus will be on two main points. First, the impacts on water quality of resources (rivers and lakes) modifying parameters values (physico-chemical parameters, micropollutants and biological parameters) are considered. Then, the expected impacts on drinking water production and quality of supplied water are discussed. The main conclusion which can be drawn is that a degradation trend of drinking water quality in the context of climate change leads to an increase of at risk situations related to potential health impact.

  7. Linking low- to high-mass young stellar objects with Herschel-HIFI observations of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    San José-García, I.; Mottram, J. C.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Kristensen, L. E.; van der Tak, F. F. S.; Braine, J.; Herpin, F.; Johnstone, D.; van Kempen, T. A.; Wyrowski, F.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Water probes the dynamics in young stellar objects (YSOs) effectively, especially shocks in molecular outflows. It is therefore a key molecule for exploring whether the physical properties of low-mass protostars can be extrapolated to massive YSOs, an important step in understanding the fundamental mechanisms regulating star formation. Aims: As part of the WISH key programme, we investigate excited water line properties as a function of source luminosity, in particular the dynamics and the excitation conditions of shocks along the outflow cavity wall. Methods: Velocity-resolved Herschel-HIFI spectra of the H2O 202-111 (988 GHz), 211-202 (752 GHz) and 312-303 (1097 GHz) lines were analysed, together with 12CO J = 10-9 and 16-15, for 52 YSOs with bolometric luminosities ranging from 105 L⊙. The H2O and 12CO line profiles were decomposed into multiple Gaussian components which are related to the different physical structures of the protostellar system. The non-LTE radiative transfer code radex was used to constrain the excitation conditions of the shocks along the outflow cavity. Results: The profiles of the three excited water lines are similar, indicating that they probe the same gas. Two main emission components are seen in all YSOs: a broad component associated with non-dissociative shocks in the outflow cavity wall ("cavity shocks") and a narrow component associated with the quiescent envelope material. More than 60% of the total integrated intensity in the excited water lines comes from the broad cavity shock component, while the remaining emission comes mostly from the envelope for low-mass Class I, intermediate- and high-mass objects, and dissociative "spot shocks" for low-mass Class 0 protostars. The widths of the water lines are surprisingly similar from low- to high-mass YSOs, whereas 12CO J = 10-9 line widths increase slightly with Lbol. The excitation analysis of the cavity shock component shows stronger 752 GHz emission for high-mass YSOs

  8. Moderate water stress affects tomato leaf water relations in dependence on the nitrogen supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, A.L.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Garcia-Sanchez, F.; Nicolas, N.; Martinez, V.

    2007-01-01

    The responses of water relations, stomatal conductance (g(s)) and growth parameters of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Royesta) plants to nitrogen fertilisation and drought were studied. The plants were subjected to a long-term, moderate and progressive water stress by adding 80 % of the

  9. Moderate water stress affects tomato leaf water relations in dependence on the nitrogen supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, A.L.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Garcia-Sanchez, F.; Nicolas, N.; Martinez, V.

    2007-01-01

    The responses of water relations, stomatal conductance (g(s)) and growth parameters of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Royesta) plants to nitrogen fertilisation and drought were studied. The plants were subjected to a long-term, moderate and progressive water stress by adding 80 % of the w

  10. Ground water security and drought in Africa: linking availability, access, and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calow, Roger C; Macdonald, Alan M; Nicol, Alan L; Robins, Nick S

    2010-01-01

    Drought in Africa has been extensively researched, particularly from meteorological, agricultural, and food security perspectives. However, the impact of drought on water security, particularly ground water dependent rural water supplies, has received much less attention. Policy responses have concentrated on food needs, and it has often been difficult to mobilize resources for water interventions, despite evidence that access to safe water is a serious and interrelated concern. Studies carried out in Ghana, Malawi, South Africa, and Ethiopia highlight how rural livelihoods are affected by seasonal stress and longer-term drought. Declining access to food and water is a common and interrelated problem. Although ground water plays a vital role in buffering the effects of rainfall variability, water shortages and difficulties in accessing water that is available can affect domestic and productive water uses, with knock-on effects on food consumption and production. Total depletion of available ground water resources is rarely the main concern. A more common scenario is a spiral of water insecurity as shallow water sources fail, additional demands are put on remaining sources, and mechanical failures increase. These problems can be planned for within normal development programs. Water security mapping can help identify vulnerable areas, and changes to monitoring systems can ensure early detection of problems. Above all, increasing the coverage of ground water-based rural water supplies, and ensuring that the design and siting of water points is informed by an understanding of hydrogeological conditions and user demand, can significantly increase the resilience of rural communities to climate variability.

  11. Water-in-diesel emulsions and related systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lif, Anna; Holmberg, Krister

    2006-11-16

    Water-in-diesel emulsions are fuels for regular diesel engines. The advantages of an emulsion fuel are reductions in the emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matters, which are both health hazardous, and reduction in fuel consumption due to better burning efficiency. An important aspect is that diesel emulsions can be used without engine modifications. This review presents the influence of water on the emissions and on the combustion efficiency. Whereas there is a decrease in emissions of nitrogen oxides and particulate matters, there is an increase in the emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide with increasing water content of the emulsion. The combustion efficiency is improved when water is emulsified with diesel. This is a consequence of the microexplosions, which facilitate atomization of the fuel. The review also covers related fuels, such as diesel-in-water-in-diesel emulsions, i.e., double emulsions, water-in-diesel microemulsions, and water-in-vegetable oil emulsions, i.e., biodiesel emulsions. A brief overview of other types of alternative fuels is also included.

  12. Growth, leaf morphology, water use and tissue water relations of Eucalyptus globulus clones in response to water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pita, P; Pardos, J A

    2001-06-01

    Changes in leaf size, specific leaf area (SLA), transpiration and tissue water relations were studied in leaves of rooted cuttings of selected clones of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. subjected to well-watered or drought conditions in a greenhouse. Significant differences between clones were found in leaf expansion and transpiration. There was a significant clone x treatment interaction on SLA. Water stress significantly reduced osmotic potential at the turgor loss point (Pi0) and at full turgor (Pi100), and significantly increased relative water content at the turgor loss point and maximum bulk elastic modulus. Differences in tissue water relations between clones were significant only in the mild drought treatment. Among clones in the drought treatments, the highest leaf expansion and the highest increase in transpiration during the experiment were measured in those clones that showed an early and large decrease in Pi0 and Pi100.

  13. Linking water and energy objectives in lowland areas through the application of model predictive control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Overloop, P.J.A.T.M.; Negenborn, R.R.; Weijs, S.V.; Malda, W.; Bruggers, M.R.; De Schutter, B.

    2010-01-01

    Unlike mountainous areas, lowland areas have limited potential to generate energy from water flows. Instead, for water systems in lowland areas that continuously need to pump water out of the system, the focus should be set to saving energy in the present water management. This paper gives an introd

  14. Urban Stormwater Quality: Linking Pesticide Variability To Our Sustainable Water Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippy, M.; Deletic, A.; Gernjak, W.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change and global population growth demand creative, multidisciplinary, and multi-benefit approaches for sustaining adequate fresh water resources and protecting ecosystem health. Currently, a driving factor of aquatic ecosystem degradation (stormwater) is also one of the largest untapped urban freshwater resources. This suggests that ecosystem protection and potable water security might both be achieved via treating and capturing stormwater for human use (e.g., potable substitution). The viability of such a scheme, however, depends on 1) initial stormwater quality (e.g., the contaminants present and their associated human/environmental health risks), 2) the spatial and temporal variability of contaminants in stormwater, and 3) the capacity of existing technologies to treat those contaminants to fit for purpose standards. Here we present results from a four year study of urban stormwater conducted across ten catchments and four states in Australia that addresses these three issues relative to stormwater pesticides. In total, 19 pesticides were detected across all sites and times. In general, pesticide concentrations were lower than has been reported in other countries, including the United States, Canada and Europe. This is reflected in few exceedences of public health (map closely to co-occurrence patterns in registered Australian products. Importantly, the presence of catchment-specific pesticide variability has clear management implications; namely, urban stormwater must be managed at the catchment level and target local contaminant suites in order to best achieve desired human use and environmental protection standards.

  15. Link between Work-Related Prosocial Orientation and Professional Capability of Employees: A Preliminary Exploratory Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Adamska-Chudzińska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the link between work-related prosocial orientation of organizations and professional capabilities of employees suggesting that the prosocial orientation impacts the level of professional capability and proactive engagement. The article applies three main methods: literature studies, in-depth questionnaire surveys and multi-person method of assessment. The applied sub-measures for both leading constructs were formed and collinearity was tested using linear correlation coefficient. In prosocial environments psychological predispositions as essential aspects of personality and determinants of human behaviour, activate and stimulate professional activity. The implementation of a prosocial orientation leads to significant growth in professional capability and can influence employees’ entrepreneurial behaviour. An important aspect of employee proactive behaviour is building an internal policy based on prosocial mechanisms. Effective stimulation of prosocial and proactive attitudes and actions requires the creation of an environment where activities are realized alongside social values and with respect for individual personal determinants of activity. Considerations and findings presented in the paper contribute to the area of determinants of effective and lasting proactive employee development. The use of the multi-person method can be considered valuable in behavioural research in entrepreneurship.

  16. Direct electrochemical stripping detection of cystic-fibrosis-related DNA linked through cadmium sulfide quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Sergio; Merkoçi, Arben

    2009-02-01

    Electrochemical detection of a cadmium sulfide quantum dots (CdS QDs)-DNA complex connected to paramagnetic microbeads (MB) was performed without the need for chemical dissolving. The method is based on dropping 20 µl of CdS QD-DNA-MB suspension on the surface of a screen-printed electrode. It is followed by magnetic collection on the surface of the working electrode and electrochemical detection using square-wave voltammetry (SWV), giving a well-shaped and sensitive analytical signal. A cystic-fibrosis-related DNA sequence was sandwiched between the two DNA probes. One DNA probe is linked via biotin-streptavidin bonding with MB and the other one via thiol groups with the CdS QD used as tags. Nonspecific signals of DNA were minimized using a blocking agent and the results obtained were successfully employed in a model DNA sensor with an interest in future applications in the clinical field. The developed nanoparticle biosensing system may offer numerous opportunities in other fields where fast, low cost and efficient detection of small volume samples is required.

  17. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pretto, Laura; Acreman, Stephen; Ashfold, Matthew J; Mohankumar, Suresh K; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall), higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports.

  18. Salt intake is related to soft drink consumption in children and adolescents: a link to obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Feng J; Marrero, Naomi M; MacGregor, Graham A

    2008-03-01

    Dietary salt is a major determinant of fluid intake in adults; however, little is known about this relationship in children. Sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption is related to childhood obesity, but it is unclear whether there is a link between salt and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption. We analyzed the data of a cross-sectional study, the National Diet and Nutrition Survey for young people in Great Britain. Salt intake and fluid intake were assessed in 1688 participants aged 4 to 18 years, using a 7-day dietary record. There was a significant association between salt intake and total fluid, as well as sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption (Psoft drink consumption, respectively. These results, in conjunction with other evidence, particularly that from experimental studies where only salt intake was changed, demonstrate that salt is a major determinant of fluid and sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption during childhood. If salt intake in children in the United Kingdom was reduced by half (mean decrease: 3 g/d), there would be an average reduction of approximately 2.3 sugar-sweetened soft drinks per week per child. A reduction in salt intake could, therefore, play a role in helping to reduce childhood obesity through its effect on sugar-sweetened soft drink consumption. This would have a beneficial effect on preventing cardiovascular disease independent of and additive to the effect of salt reduction on blood pressure.

  19. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Pretto

    Full Text Available Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall, higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports.

  20. On the relation between water pools and water holding capacity in cod muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Jørgensen, Bo

    2004-01-01

    measures of water holding capacity (WHC) in a way that WHC related to the original water content could be predicted well for the whole and the minced muscle. The centrifuged samples gave optimal predictions of WHC related to the dry matter content, probably because the centrifuged samples are similar......Low-field 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxations were measured on muscle, minced muscle and centrifuged mince from cod that had been treated under various frozen and chill storage conditions. By using multi-way chemometrics, uni-exponential profiles were obtained, from which the transverse...... relaxation times (T2-values) and the water pool sizes (m- values) were determined. Three pools of water were identified with the different relaxation times and m-values in the centrifuged samples reflecting the removal of loosely bound water. The m-values and the full NMR-signal decays were correlated to two...

  1. A hydrated phospholipid polymer-grafted layer prevents lipid-related oxidative degradation of cross-linked polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyomoto, Masayuki; Moro, Toru; Yamane, Shihori; Takatori, Yoshio; Tanaka, Sakae; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    The surface and substrate of a cross-linked polyethylene (CLPE) liner are designed to achieve resistance against oxidative degradation in the construction of hip joint replacements. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the oxidative degradation caused by lipid absorption of a highly hydrophilic nanometer-scaled thickness layer prepared by grafting a poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) layer and a high-dose gamma-ray irradiated CLPE with vitamin E blending (HD-CLPE[VE]). The HD-CLPE(VE) and PMPC-grafted HD-CLPE(VE) exhibited extremely high oxidation resistance regardless of lipid absorption, even though residual-free radical levels were detectable. The water wettability of the PMPC-grafted CLPE and PMPC-grafted HD-CLPE(VE) surfaces was considerably greater than that of untreated surfaces. The hydrated PMPC-grafted layer also exhibited extremely low solubility for squalene. Lipids such as squalene and cholesterol esters diminished the oxidation resistance of CLPE despite the vitamin E improvement. Notably, the PMPC-grafted surface was resistant to lipid absorption and diffusion as well as subsequent lipid-related oxidative degradation, likely because of the presence of the hydrated PMPC-grafted layer. Together, these results provide preliminary evidence that the resistance against lipid absorption and diffusion of a hydrated PMPC-grafted layer might positively affect the extent of resistance to the in vivo oxidation of orthopedic implants.

  2. Water relations and keeping-quality of cut Gerbera flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the internal water relations,of ageing Gerbera inflorescences and their consequence on keepingquality of cut inflorescences. As in all parts of this paper, the term "flower" will be used to describe an inflorescence with its supporting

  3. Deep water periodic waves as Hamiltonian relative equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.; Lie She Liam, L.S.L.; Lakhturov, I.; Andonowati, A.; Biggs, N.

    2007-01-01

    We use a recently derived KdV-type of equation for waves on deep water to study Stokes waves as relative equilibria. Special attention is given to investigate the cornered Stokes-120 degree wave as a singular solution in the class of smooth steady wave profiles.

  4. Water repellency of soils; the influence of ambient relative humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doerr, S.H.; Dekker, L.W.; Ritsema, C.J.; Shakesby, R.A.; Bryant, R.

    2002-01-01

    Adverse effects of soil water repellency (hydrophobicity) are of concern during or following rainfall or irrigation, and are often preceded by conditions of high atmospheric relative humidity (RH). Assessments of repellency are, however, commonly conducted on air-dried samples at ambient laboratory

  5. Water relations and keeping-quality of cut Gerbera flowers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeteren, van U.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the internal water relations,of ageing Gerbera inflorescences and their consequence on keepingquality of cut inflorescences. As in all parts of this paper, the term "flower" will be used to describe an inflorescence with its supporting stem.A great pr

  6. Surveying Medieval Archaeology: a New Form for Harris Paradigm Linking Photogrammetry and Temporal Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drap, P.; Papini, O.; Pruno, E.; Nucciotti, M.; Vannini, G.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents some reflexions concerning an interdisciplinary project between Medieval Archaeologists from the University of Florence (Italy) and ICT researchers from CNRS LSIS of Marseille (France), aiming towards a connection between 3D spatial representation and archaeological knowledge. It is well known that Laser Scanner, Photogrammetry and Computer Vision are very attractive tools for archaeologists, although the integration of representation of space and representation of archaeological time has not yet found a methodological standard of reference. We try to develop an integrated system for archaeological 3D survey and all other types of archaeological data and knowledge through integrating observable (material) and non-graphic (interpretive) data. Survey plays a central role, since it is both a metric representation of the archaeological site and, to a wider extent, an interpretation of it (being also a common basis for communication between the 2 teams). More specifically 3D survey is crucial, allowing archaeologists to connect actual spatial assets to the stratigraphic formation processes (i.e. to the archaeological time) and to translate spatial observations into historical interpretation of the site. We propose a common formalism for describing photogrammetrical survey and archaeological knowledge stemming from ontologies: Indeed, ontologies are fully used to model and store 3D data and archaeological knowledge. Xe equip this formalism with a qualitative representation of time. Stratigraphic analyses (both of excavated deposits and of upstanding structures) are closely related to E. C. Harris theory of "Stratigraphic Unit" ("US" from now on). Every US is connected to the others by geometric, topological and, eventually, temporal links, and are recorded by the 3D photogrammetric survey. However, the limitations of the Harris Matrix approach lead to use another representation formalism for stratigraphic relationships, namely Qualitative Constraints

  7. DIA1R is an X-linked gene related to Deleted In Autism-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhari Aziz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDS are frequently occurring disorders diagnosed by deficits in three core functional areas: social skills, communication, and behaviours and/or interests. Mental retardation frequently accompanies the most severe forms of ASDs, while overall ASDs are more commonly diagnosed in males. Most ASDs have a genetic origin and one gene recently implicated in the etiology of autism is the Deleted-In-Autism-1 (DIA1 gene. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a bioinformatics-based approach, we have identified a human gene closely related to DIA1, we term DIA1R (DIA1-Related. While DIA1 is autosomal (chromosome 3, position 3q24, DIA1R localizes to the X chromosome at position Xp11.3 and is known to escape X-inactivation. The gene products are of similar size, with DIA1 encoding 430, and DIA1R 433, residues. At the amino acid level, DIA1 and DIA1R are 62% similar overall (28% identical, and both encode signal peptides for targeting to the secretory pathway. Both genes are ubiquitously expressed, including in fetal and adult brain tissue. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Examination of published literature revealed point mutations in DIA1R are associated with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR and DIA1R deletion is associated with syndromes with ASD-like traits and/or XLMR. Together, these results support a model where the DIA1 and DIA1R gene products regulate molecular traffic through the cellular secretory pathway or affect the function of secreted factors, and functional deficits cause disorders with ASD-like symptoms and/or mental retardation.

  8. Simulated nutrient dissolution of Asian aerosols in various atmospheric waters: Potential links to marine primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingyan; Bi, Yanfeng; Zhang, Guosen; Liu, Sumei; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Zhaomeng; Ren, Jingling; Zhang, Guiling

    2017-09-01

    To probe the bioavailability and environmental mobility of aerosol nutrient elements (N, P, Si) in atmospheric water (rainwater, cloud and fog droplets), ten total suspended particulate (TSP) samples were collected at Fulong Mountain, Qingdao from prevailing air mass trajectory sources during four seasons. Then, a high time-resolution leaching experiment with simulated non-acidic atmospheric water (non-AAW, Milli-Q water, pH 5.5) and subsequently acidic atmospheric water (AAW, hydrochloric acid solution, pH 2) was performed. We found that regardless of the season or source, a monotonous decreasing pattern was observed in the dissolution of N, P and Si compounds in aerosols reacted with non-AAW, and the accumulated dissolved curves of P and Si fit a first-order kinetic model. No additional NO3- + NO2- dissolved out, while a small amount of NH4+ in Asian dust (AD) samples was released in AAW. The similar dissolution behaviour of P and Si from non-AAW to AAW can be explained by the Transition State Theory. The sources of aerosols related to various minerals were the natural reasons that affected the amounts of bioavailable phosphorus and silicon in aerosols (i.e., solubility), which can be explained by the dissolution rate constant of P and Si in non-AAW with lower values in mineral aerosols. The acid/particle ratio and particle/liquid ratio also have a large effect on the solubility of P and Si, which was implied by Pearson correlation analysis. Acid processing of aerosols may have great significance for marine areas with limited P and Si and post-acidification release increases of 1.1-10-fold for phosphorus and 1.2-29-fold for silicon. The decreasing mole ratio of P and Si in AAW indicates the possibility of shifting from a Si-limit to a P-limit in aerosols in the ocean, which promotes the growth of diatoms prior to other algal species.

  9. Dealing with Drought: Decoupling Climatic and Management-Related Drivers of Water Conservation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemati, A.; Rippy, M.; Grant, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    As global populations grow, cities in drought prone regions of the world such as California and South East Australia are faced with escalating water scarcity and water security challenges. The management approaches geared towards addressing these challenges are diverse. Given the myriad of possible approaches and the tendency to apply them in combination, successful management actions can be difficult to identify. Background climactic variability further complicates the story, making transfer of management lessons from one drought stressed region to another difficult. Here we use Melbourne, a city of 4.3 million people in South East Australia that recently faced and overcame a > 10 year "Millennium" drought, as a test case for evaluating the relative importance of various management-related and climactic factors in driving reductions in municipal water consumption (~60% in 12 years). Our analysis suggests that Melbourne's declining municipal consumption cannot be explained by potable substitution alone, as reductions in municipal consumption were not matched by increased use of alternative sources (e.g., urban rain or recycled water). Thus, water conservation behavior (not source switching) may be responsible for the majority of demand reduction in Melbourne. Interestingly, while voluntary or mandatory water restrictions appear to have substantially altered the rate of change of consumption near the end of Melbourne's Millennium drought (e.g., forcing a period of intense conservation), overall conservation behavior precedes these restrictions. This suggests that other rapidly implemented (and hither too unquantified) management approaches such as advertising or newspapers may have driven water conservation behavior early in the drought. Climatic factors, particularly precipitation may also have influenced conservation behavior; changes in precipitation were significantly positively correlated with changes in water consumption at a lag of 18 months. Similar

  10. Cross-linked PEG via degradable phosphate ester bond: synthesis, water-swelling, and application as drug carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoxing; Wang, Lei; Bao, Chunyan; Li, Xinxin; Cao, Lei; Dai, Kerong; Zhu, Linyong

    2011-06-13

    A new series of degradable and water-swellable cross-linked PEG phosphoester polymers (CPPs) based on a facile cross-linked reaction between diphosphoesters of polyethylene glycol (P-PEG-P) and diglycidyl ether of polyethylene glycol (E-PEG-E) has been prepared and characterized. The molecular weights and ratios of the prepolymers played an important role for the properties of CPPs polymers, such as mechanical property, swelling, and degradation rates. In the curing process, the glycidyl ether was consumed by both hydroxyl of the phosphoester (P-OH) and hydroxyl generated from the opened glycidyl ethers (C-OH) with the presence of acid, which generated degradable phosphate esters as cross-linked points and ether bonds as the short branches, respectively. Drug entrapment and release test and biological cytotoxicity studies in vitro suggested that the polymers and generated hydrogels have great potential applications in drug delivery system and biological materials.

  11. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the identification of Naegleria fowleri in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveiller, Fabienne L; Varenne, Marie-Pierre; Pougnard, Claire; Cabanes, Pierre-Andre; Pringuez, Emmanuelle; Pourima, Benedicte; Legastelois, Stephane; Pernin, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri, a free-living amoeba, is the causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis, a fatal human disease of the central nervous system often contracted after swimming in fresh water. Identifying sites contaminated by N. fowleri is important in order to prevent the disease. An Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA) has been developed for the specific identification of N. fawleri in primary cultures of environmental water samples. Of 939 samples isolated from artificially heated river water and screened by ELISA, 283 were positive. These results were subsequently confirmed by isoelectric focusing, the established reference method. A sensitivity of 97.4% and a specificity of 97% were obtained. These results indicate that this ELISA method is reliable and can be considered as a powerful tool for the detection of N. fowleri in environmental water samples.

  12. Study on the Workspace of a 6-DOF Parallel Topology Robot Related to Binary Link Lengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin-Octavian Miclosina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study on the workspace of a parallel topology robot with the structure FP3+6•SPS+MP3. The variable parameters are the binary link lengths, from both upper and lower levels, and the driving kinematical joint strokes. The workspace boundary is determined by SolidWorks software simulations. For different binary link lengths, workspace volume is determined and sections through the workspace are presented.

  13. Chemo-Enzymatic Synthesis of Ester-Linked Docetaxel-Monosaccharide Conjugates as Water-Soluble Prodrugs

    OpenAIRE

    Naoji Kubota; Kei Shimoda

    2011-01-01

    Three new docetaxel prodrugs, i.e., 7-propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-glycopyranosides, which contain ester-linked monosaccharides, were synthesized by a chemo-enzymatic procedure involving enzymatic transglycosylations with lactase, b-galactosidase, or b-xylosidase. The water-solubility of 7-propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-glucopyranoside was 52-fold higher than that of docetaxel. 7-Propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-glucopyranoside and 7-propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-xylopyranoside were effectively hydr...

  14. Cross-linking proteins by laccase-catalyzed oxidation: importance relative to other modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffensen, Charlotte L; Andersen, Mogens L; Degn, Peter E; Nielsen, Jacob H

    2008-12-24

    Laccase-catalyzed oxidation was able to induce intermolecular cross-links in beta-lactoglobulin, and ferulic acid-mediated laccase-catalyzed oxidation was able to induce intermolecular cross-links in alpha-casein, whereas transglutaminase cross-linked only alpha-casein. In addition, different patterns of laccase-induced oxidative modifications were detected, including dityrosine formation, formation of fluorescent tryptophan oxidation products, and carbonyls derived from histidine, tryptophan, and methionine. Laccase-catalyzed oxidation as well as transglutaminase induced only minor changes in surface tension of the proteins, and the changes could not be correlated to protein cross-linking. The presence of ferulic acid was found to influence the effect of laccase, allowing laccase to form irreducible intermolecular cross-links in beta-lactoglobulin and resulting in proteins exercising higher surface tensions due to cross-linking as well as other oxidative modifications. The outcome of using ferulic acid-mediated laccase-catalyzed oxidation to modify the functional properties of proteinaceous food components or other biosystems is expected to be highly dependent on the protein composition, resulting in different changes of the functional properties.

  15. Community Knowledge about Water: Who Has Better Knowledge and Is This Associated with Water-Related Behaviors and Support for Water-Related Policies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela J Dean

    Full Text Available Sustainable approaches to water management require broad community acceptance of changes in policy, practice and technology, which in turn, requires an engaged community. A critical first step in building an engaged community is to identify community knowledge about water management, an issue rarely examined in research. To address this, we surveyed a representative sample of Australian adults (n = 5172. Knowledge was assessed using 15 questions about impact of household activities on waterways, the urban water cycle, and water management. This survey also examined demographics, psychosocial characteristics, exposure to water-related information, and water-related behaviors and policy support. Participants correctly answered a mean of 8.0 questions (Range 0-15. Most respondents knew that household actions can reduce water use and influence waterway health, whereas less than one third correctly identified that domestic wastewater is treated prior to entering waterways, urban stormwater is not treated, and that these are carried via different pipes. Higher water knowledge was associated with older age, higher education and living in non-urban areas. Poorer water knowledge was associated with speaking a language other than English in the home. Garden size, experience of water restrictions, satisfaction, waterway use for swimming, and certain information sources were also associated with knowledge. Greater water knowledge was associated with adoption of water-saving and pollution-reduction behaviors, and support for both alternative water sources and raingardens. These findings confirm the importance of community knowledge, and identify potential subgroups who may require additional targeting to build knowledge and support for water management initiatives.

  16. The link between mental health-related discrimination and suicidality: service user perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, S; Jeffery, D; Rüsch, N; Williams, P; Thornicroft, G; Clement, S

    2015-07-01

    Suicide is a major global public health issue. Mental illness is a risk factor for suicide, but as many individuals with a diagnosed mental health problem do not experience suicidal ideation or attempt suicide, other individual and societal factors must be considered. Mental illness-related discrimination is one potential risk factor. Using mixed methods, the influence of discrimination on suicidality amongst 194 individuals diagnosed with depression, bipolar or schizophrenia spectrum disorders was investigated. Qualitative interviews with a sub-sample of 58 individuals who reported a link between experience of discrimination and suicidality were analysed using framework analysis. Quantitative methods were used to examine the model derived from qualitative analyses. Results indicate that the experience of discrimination led 38% of the overall sample of 194 participants, to suicidal feelings and 20% reported that it contributed to making a suicide attempt. The qualitative model derived from interviews with a sub-sample of 58 participants suggested that the experience of discrimination is experienced as a stressor that exceeds coping resources, leading to a negative self-image and a perception of decreased supportive networks/social structure. The anticipation of further negative events and treatment, and the perception of a lack of supportive networks led individuals in this study to feelings of hopelessness and suicidality. Quantitative analyses provided support for the model. These data suggest that both psychological therapies aimed at improving coping skills and population-level anti-stigma interventions that reduce the occurrence of discrimination may provide some protection against suicide amongst individuals with mental health problems.

  17. Water relations of baobab trees (Adansonia spp. L.) during the rainy season: does stem water buffer daily water deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapotin, Saharah Moon; Razanameharizaka, Juvet H; Holbrook, N Michele

    2006-06-01

    Baobab trees are often cited in the literature as water-storing trees, yet few studies have examined this assumption. We assessed the role of stored water in buffering daily water deficits in two species of baobabs (Adansonia rubrostipa Jum. and H. Perrier and Adansonia za Baill.) in a tropical dry forest in Madagascar. We found no lag in the daily onset of sap flow between the base and the crown of the tree. Some night-time sap flow occurred, but this was more consistent with a pattern of seasonal stem water replenishment than with diurnal usage. Intrinsic capacitance of both leaf and stem tissue (0.07-0.08 and 1.1-1.43 MPa(-1), respectively) was high, yet the amount of water that could be withdrawn before turgor loss was small because midday leaf and stem water potentials (WPs) were near the turgor-loss points. Stomatal conductance was high in the daytime but then declined rapidly, suggesting an embolism-avoidance strategy. Although the xylem of distal branches was relatively vulnerable to cavitation (P50: 1.1-1.7 MPa), tight stomatal control and minimum WPs near--1.0 MPa maintained native embolism levels at 30-65%. Stem morphology and anatomy restrict water movement between storage tissues and the conductive pathway, making stored-water usage more appropriate to longer-term water deficits than as a buffer against daily water deficits.

  18. Water availability and genetic effects on water relations of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Benecke, Carlos A; Martin, Timothy A

    2010-03-01

    The effect of water availability on water relations of 11-year-old loblolly pine stands was studied over two growing seasons in material from two contrasting seed sources. Increasing soil water availability via irrigation increased transpiration rate, and maximum daily transpiration rate on irrigated plots was similar for both seasons, reaching values of 4.3 mm day(-)(1). Irrigation also changed soil water extraction patterns. In the rain-fed control plots, 73% of the average daily transpiration was extracted from the upper 0.75 m of the soil profile. Under irrigated conditions, 92% of transpired water was extracted from the upper 0.75 m of soil, with 79% of transpired water coming from the upper 0.35 m of the profile; only 10% of total transpiration in this treatment was extracted from the soil below 1 m. There was an irrigation x seed source interaction in the response of canopy conductance to water vapor (G(C)) to vapor pressure deficit (D). Under water-limited conditions, trees from the South Carolina seed source (SC) had stronger stomatal control than trees from the Florida seed source (FL), but this difference was not present when water was not limiting. The transpiration-induced water potential gradient from roots to shoots (DeltaPsi) was relatively constant across treatments (P = 0.52) and seed sources (P = 0.72), averaging 0.75 MPa. This reflects strong stomatal control that maintains relatively constant DeltaPsi but at the same time allows leaf water potential (Psi(l)) to fluctuate dramatically in synchrony with soil water potential (Psi(s)). The two seed sources evaluated also showed differences in foliar N and delta(13)C, possibly reflecting differences in adaptation to ambient humidity and water availability regimes in their respective ranges. These differences among seed sources under different water availability scenarios may be informative to natural resource managers and breeders as they design tree improvement and genetic deployment programs for

  19. Linking the physical and the socio-economic compartments of an integrated water and land use management model on a river basin scale using an object-oriented water supply model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Roland; Nickel, Darla; Meleg, Alejandro; Trifkovic, Aleksandar; Braun, Juergen

    Within the framework of the research project ‘GLOWA-Danube’, a model of the water supply sector has been developed. GLOWA-Danube investigates long-term changes in the water cycle of the Upper Danube river basin in light of global change. For this purpose, the decision support system DANUBIA, comprising 15 fully coupled models, has been developed. Within DANUBIA the water supply model (‘WaterSupply’) forms the link between various physical models determining water quality and availability and several socio-economic models determining water consumption and demand. Having a central focus on public drinking water supply, its purpose is to correctly simulate the present day system of water extraction and distribution and the related costs, but also to allow meaningful response to possible future changes of boundary conditions, first and foremost changes in water demand or water availability and quality. Response mechanisms are also envisioned for changes in political and economic boundary conditions, and advances in technology. The model will be used locate critical regions which could experience water stress in the future, but does not aim to find the appropriate solutions or to predict the optimal organisation of water supply in the Danube Basin under such changing conditions. In the object-oriented model structure, both water supply companies (WSC) and communities are represented by main classes. Both classes have a limited view and knowledge of their environment. A community knows where and how much water is consumed and from which WSC it is served. A WSC possesses information regarding extraction sites and water rights, raw water quality and potential collaborating WSC. The WSC can perform actions that are different from ‘business as usual’. These deviations from their usual behaviour can be interpreted by decision makers but should not be regarded as a replacement for the decision-making process itself. The model is conceptualised using object

  20. Coastal upwelling linked to toxic Pseudo-nitzschia australis blooms in Los Angeles coastal waters, 2005-2007

    KAUST Repository

    Schnetzer, Astrid

    2013-06-10

    Harmful algal blooms dominated by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. have become a perennial but variable event within surface waters near the greater Los Angeles area. Toxic blooms during spring seasons from 2005 to 2007 varied strongly in their overall toxicity and duration. Differences in bloom dynamics were linked to differences in storm-induced river discharge following episodic rain events and coastal upwelling, both major coastal processes that led to the injection of nutrients into coastal surface waters. Heavy river runoff during early 2005, a record-rainfall year, favored a phytoplankton community mainly comprised of algal taxa other than Pseudo-nitzschia. The spring bloom during 2005 was associated with low domoic acid surface concentrations and minor contributions of (mainly) P. delicatissima to the diatom assemblage. In contrast, highly toxic P. australis-dominated blooms during spring seasons of 2006 and 2007 were linked to strong upwelling events. River discharge quotas in 2006 and 2007, in contrast to 2005, fell well below annual averages for the region. Surface toxin levels were linked to colder, more saline (i.e. upwelled) water over the 3-year study, but no such consistent relationship between domoic acid levels and other physiochemical parameters, such as macronutrient concentrations or nutrient ratios, was observed. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  1. Variations of DOM quality in inflows of a drinking water reservoir: linking of van Krevelen diagrams with EEMF spectra by rank correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzsprung, Peter; von Tümpling, Wolf; Hertkorn, Norbert; Harir, Mourad; Büttner, Olaf; Bravidor, Jenny; Friese, Kurt; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2012-05-15

    Elevated concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) such as humic substances in raw water pose significant challenges during the processing of the commercial drinking water supplies. This is a relevant issue in Saxony, Central East Germany, and many other regions worldwide, where drinking water is produced from raw waters with noticeable presence of chromophoric DOM (CDOM), which is assumed to originate from forested watersheds in spring regions of the catchment area. For improved comprehension of DOM molecular composition, the seasonal and spatial variations of humic-like fluorescence and elemental formulas in the catchment area of the Muldenberg reservoir were recorded by excitation emission matrix fluorescence (EEMF) and ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). The Spearman rank correlation was applied to link the EEMF intensities with exact molecular formulas and their corresponding relative mass peak abundances. Thereby, humic-like fluorescence could be allocated to the pool of oxygen-rich and relatively unsaturated components with stoichiometries similar to those of tannic acids, which are suspected to have a comparatively high disinfection byproduct formation potential associated with the chlorination of raw water. Analogous relationships were established for UV absorption at 254 nm (UV(254)) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and compared to the EEMF correlation.

  2. Water properties in fern spores: sorption characteristics relating to water affinity, glassy states, and storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Daniel; Walters, Christina

    2007-01-01

    Ex situ conservation of ferns may be accomplished by maintaining the viability of stored spores for many years. Storage conditions that maximize spore longevity can be inferred from an understanding of the behaviour of water within fern spores. Water sorption properties were measured in spores of five homosporeous species of ferns and compared with properties of pollen, seeds, and fern leaf tissue. Isotherms were constructed at 5, 25, and 45 degrees C and analysed using different physicochemical models in order to quantify chemical affinity and heat (enthalpy) of sorption of water in fern spores. Fern spores hydrate slowly but dry rapidly at ambient relative humidity. Low Brunauer-Emmet-Teller monolayer values, few water-binding sites according to the D'Arcy-Watt model, and limited solute-solvent compatibility according to the Flory-Huggins model suggest that fern spores have low affinity for water. Despite the low water affinity, fern spores demonstrate relatively high values of sorption enthalpy (DeltaH(sorp)). Parameters associated with binding sites and DeltaH(sorp) decrease with increasing temperature, suggesting temperature- and hydration-dependent changes in volume of spore macromolecules. Collectively, these data may relate to the degree to which cellular structures within fern spores are stabilized during drying and cooling. Water sorption properties within fern spores suggest that storage at subfreezing temperatures will give longevities comparable with those achieved with seeds. However, the window of optimum water contents for fern spores is very narrow and much lower than that measured in seeds, making precise manipulation of water content imperative for achieving maximum longevity.

  3. Brain Formaldehyde is Related to Water Intake behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Su, Tao; He, Yingge; Lu, Jihui; Mo, Weichuan; Wei, Yan; He, Rongqiao

    2016-01-01

    A promising strategy for the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the identification of age-related changes that place the brain at risk for the disease. Additionally, AD is associated with chronic dehydration, and one of the significant changes that are known to result in metabolic dysfunction is an increase in the endogenous formaldehyde (FA) level. Here, we demonstrate that the levels of uric formaldehyde in AD patients were markedly increased compared with normal controls. The brain formaldehyde levels of wild-type C57 BL/6 mice increased with age, and these increases were followed by decreases in their drinking frequency and water intake. The serum arginine vasopressin (AVP) concentrations were also maintained at a high level in the 10-month-old mice. An intravenous injection of AVP into the tail induced decreases in the drinking frequency and water intake in the mice, and these decreases were associated with increases in brain formaldehyde levels. An ELISA assay revealed that the AVP injection increased both the protein level and the enzymatic activity of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO), which is an enzyme that produces formaldehyde. In contrast, the intraperitoneal injection of formaldehyde increased the serum AVP level by increasing the angiotensin II (ANG II) level, and this change was associated with a marked decrease in water intake behavior. These data suggest that the interaction between formaldehyde and AVP affects the water intake behaviors of mice. Furthermore, the highest concentration of formaldehyde in vivo was observed in the morning. Regular water intake is conducive to eliminating endogenous formaldehyde from the human body, particularly when water is consumed in the morning. Establishing good water intake habits not only effectively eliminates excess formaldehyde and other metabolic products but is also expected to yield valuable approaches to reducing the risk of AD prior to the onset of the disease. PMID:27699080

  4. The association between fluoride in drinking water and dental caries in Danish children. Linking data from health registers, environmental registers and administrative registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkeskov, Lilli; Kristiansen, Eva; Bøggild, Henrik; von Platen-Hallermund, Frants; Sckerl, Halfdan; Carlsen, Anders; Larsen, M Joost; Poulsen, Sven

    2010-06-01

    To study the association between fluoride concentration in drinking water and dental caries in Danish children. The study linked registry data on fluoride concentration in drinking water over a 10-year period with data on dental caries from the Danish National Board of Health database on child dental health for 5-year-old children born in 1989 and 1999, and for 15-year-old children born in 1979 and 1989. The number of children included in the cohorts varied between 41.000 and 48.000. Logistic regression was used to assess the correlations, adjusting for gender and taxable family income as a proxy variable for socioeconomic status.   Fluoride concentration in drinking water varied considerably within the country from very low (Dental caries in both 5-year-olds and 15-year-olds decreased over the study period. An inverse relation between the risk of dental caries and fluoride concentration in drinking water was found in both primary and permanent teeth. The risk was reduced by approximately 20% already at the lowest level of fluoride exposure (0.125-0.25mg/l). At the highest level of fluoride exposure (>1 mg/l), a reduction of approximately 50% was found. Similar findings were found if analysis was limited to children residing in the same place during the entire study period. The study confirmed previous findings of an inverse relation between fluoride concentration in the drinking water and dental caries in children. This correlation was found in spite of the extensive use of fluoridated toothpaste and caries-preventive programs implemented by the municipal dental services in Denmark. Linking Danish health registers with environmental and administrative registers offers an opportunity for obtaining sample sizes large enough to identify health effect, which otherwise could not be identified. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Bacterial diversity and antibiotic resistance in water habitats: searching the links with the human microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

    2014-07-01

    Water is one of the most important bacterial habitats on Earth. As such, water represents also a major way of dissemination of bacteria between different environmental compartments. Human activities led to the creation of the so-called urban water cycle, comprising different sectors (waste, surface, drinking water), among which bacteria can hypothetically be exchanged. Therefore, bacteria can be mobilized between unclean water habitats (e.g. wastewater) and clean or pristine water environments (e.g. disinfected and spring drinking water) and eventually reach humans. In addition, bacteria can also transfer mobile genetic elements between different water types, other environments (e.g. soil) and humans. These processes may involve antibiotic resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes. In this review, the hypothesis that some bacteria may share different water compartments and be also hosted by humans is discussed based on the comparison of the bacterial diversity in different types of water and with the human-associated microbiome. The role of such bacteria as potential disseminators of antibiotic resistance and the inference that currently only a small fraction of the clinically relevant antibiotic resistome may be known is discussed.

  6. Ecohydrology of managed ecosystems: Linking rainfall unpredictability, agronomic performance, and sustainable water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico, Giulia; Porporato, Amilcare

    2014-05-01

    The field of ecohydrology, traditionally focusing on natural ecosystems, can offer the necessary quantitative tools to assess and compare the sustainability of agriculture across climates, soil types, crops, and irrigation strategies, including rainfall unpredictability. In particular, irrigation is one of the main strategies to enhance and stabilize agricultural productivity, but represents a cost in terms of often scarce water resources. Here, the sustainability of irrigated and rainfed agriculture is assessed by means of water productivity (defined as the ratio between yield and total supplied water), yields, water requirements, and their variability. These indicators are quantified using a probabilistic description of the soil water balance and crop development. Employing this framework, we interpret changes in water productivity as total water input is altered, in two staple crops (maize and wheat) grown under different soils, climates, and irrigation strategies. Climate change scenarios are explored by using the same approach and altering the rainfall statistics. For a given irrigation strategy, intermediate rainfall inputs leads to the highest variability in yield and irrigation water requirement - it is under these conditions that water management is most problematic. When considering the contrasting needs of limiting water requirements while ensuring adequate yields, micro-irrigation emerges as the most sustainable strategy at the field level, although consideration should be given to its profitability and long-term environmental implications.

  7. Reducing water scarcity possible by 2050: Linking global assessments to policy dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Y.; Gleeson, T.; Esnault, L.

    2015-12-01

    Water scarcity is not a problem just for the developing world. In California, legislators are currently proposing a $7.5 billion emergency water plan to their voters; and U.S. federal officials last year warned residents of Arizona and Nevada that they could face cuts in Colorado River water deliveries in 2016. Irrigation techniques, industrial and residential habits combined with climate change lie at the root of the problem. But despite what appears to be an insurmountable problem, it is possible to turn the situation around and significantly reduce water scarcity in over next 35 years. We identify outline strategies in six key areas that they believe can be combined in different ways in different parts of the world in order to effectively reduce water stress. (Water stress occurs in an area where more than 40% of the available water from rivers is unavailable because it is already being used - a situation that currently affects about a third of the global population, and may affect as many as half the people in the world by the end of the century if the current pattern of water use continues). We separate six key strategy areas for reducing water stress into "hard path" measures, involving building more reservoirs and increasing desalination efforts of sea water, and "soft path" measures that focus on reducing water demand rather than increasing water supply thanks to community-scale efforts and decision-making, combining efficient technology and environmental protection. While there are some economic, cultural and social factors that may make certain of the "soft path" measures such as population control difficult, the "soft path" measures offer the more realistic path forward in terms of reducing water stress by 2050.

  8. Estrogen-related receptor γ disruption of source water and drinking water treatment processes extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Li; Weiwei Jiang; Kaifeng Rao; Mei Ma; Zijian Wang; Satyanarayanan Senthik Kumaran

    2011-01-01

    Environmental chemicals in drinking water can impact human health through nuclear receptors.Additionally, estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are vulnerable to endocrine-disrupting effects.To date, however, ERR disruption of drinking water potency has not been reported.We used ERRγtwo-hybrid yeast assay to screen ERRγ disrupting activities in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) located in north China and in source water from a reservoir, focusing on agonistic, antagonistic, and inverse agonisfic activity to 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT).Water treatment processes in the DWTP consisted of pre-chlorination, coagulation, coal and sand filtration, activated carbon filtration, and secondary chlorination processes.Samples were extracted by solid phase extraction.Results showed that ERRγ antagonistic activities were found in all sample extracts, but agonistic and inverse agonistic activity to 4-OHT was not found.When calibrated with the toxic equivalent of 4-OHT, antagonistic effluent effects ranged from 3.4 to 33.1 μg/L.In the treatment processes, secondary chlorination was effective in removing ERRγ antagonists, but the coagulation process led to significantly increased ERRγ antagonistic activity.The drinking water treatment processes removed 73.5% of ERRγ antagonists.To our knowledge,the occurrence of ERRγ disruption activities on source and drinking water in vitro had not been reported previously.It is vital, therefore,to increase our understanding of ERRγdisrupting activities in drinking water.

  9. Modulation of proton transfer in the water wire of dioxolane-linked gramicidin channels by lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, C M; Cukierman, S

    2001-09-01

    Proton conductance (g(H)) in single SS stereoisomers of dioxolane-linked gramicidin A (gA) channels were measured in different phospholipid bilayers at different HCl concentrations. In particular, measurements were obtained in bilayers made of 1,2-diphytanoyl 3-phosphocholine (DiPhPC) or its ethylated derivative 1,2-diphytanoyl 3-ethyl-phosphocholine (et-DiPhPC,). The difference between these phospholipids is that in et-DiPhPC one of the phosphate oxygens is covalently linked to an ethyl group and cannot be protonated. In relatively dilute acid solutions, g(H) in DiPhPC is significantly higher than in et-DiPhPC. At high acid concentrations, g(H) is the same in both diphytanoyl bilayers. Such differences in g(H) can be accounted for by surface charge effects at the membrane/solution interfaces. In the linear portion of the log g(H)-log [H] relationship, g(H) values in diphytanoyl bilayers were significantly larger (approximately 10-fold) than in neutral glyceryl monooleate (GMO) membranes. The slopes of the linear log-log relationships between g(H) and [H] in diphytanoyl and GMO bilayers are essentially the same (approximately 0.76). This slope is significantly lower than the slope of the log-log plot of proton conductivity versus proton concentration in aqueous solutions (approximately 1.00). Because the chemical composition of the membrane-channel/solution interface is strikingly different in GMO and diphytanoyl bilayers, the reduced slope in g(H)-[HCl] relationships may be a characteristic of proton transfer in the water wire inside the SS channel. Values of g(H) in diphytanoyl bilayers were also significantly larger than in membranes made of the more common biological phospholipids 1-palmitoyl 2-oleoyl phosphocholine (POPC) or 1-palmitoyl 2-oleoyl phosphoethanolamine (POPE). These differences, however, cannot be accounted for by different surface charge effects or by different internal dipole potentials. On the other hand, maximum g(H) measured in the SS channel

  10. A synthesis of atmospheric mercury depletion event chemistry linking atmosphere, snow and water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Steffen

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available It was discovered in 1995 that, during the spring time, unexpectedly low concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM occurred in the Arctic air. This was surprising for a pollutant known to have a long residence time in the atmosphere; however conditions appeared to exist in the Arctic that promoted this depletion of mercury (Hg. This phenomenon is termed atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs and its discovery has revolutionized our understanding of the cycling of Hg in Polar Regions while stimulating a significant amount of research to understand its impact to this fragile ecosystem. Shortly after the discovery was made in Canada, AMDEs were confirmed to occur throughout the Arctic, sub-Artic and Antarctic coasts. It is now known that, through a series of photochemically initiated reactions involving halogens, GEM is converted to a more reactive species and is subsequently associated to particles in the air and/or deposited to the polar environment. AMDEs are a means by which Hg is transferred from the atmosphere to the environment that was previously unknown. In this article we review the history of Hg in Polar Regions, the methods used to collect Hg in different environmental media, research results of the current understanding of AMDEs from field, laboratory and modeling work, how Hg cycles around the environment after AMDEs, gaps in our current knowledge and the future impacts that AMDEs may have on polar environments. The research presented has shown that while considerable improvements in methodology to measure Hg have been made the main limitation remains knowing the speciation of Hg in the various media. The processes that drive AMDEs and how they occur are discussed. As well, the roles that the snow pack, oceans, fresh water and the sea ice play in the cycling of Hg are presented. It has been found that deposition of Hg from AMDEs occurs at marine coasts and not far inland and that a fraction of the deposited Hg does not

  11. Afloat in a Boat: Linking Land Use / Land Cover to the Spatial Evolution of Water Quality along a Blackwater Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, J.; Vose, J. M.; Nichols, E. G.; Jass, T. L.; Emanuel, R. E.; McRae, J.

    2016-12-01

    Water quality and land use/land cover (LULC) are linked intimately in many watersheds, although exact relationships are often nonlinear and sometimes complex. Together with watershed topography, LULC can affect water quality in various ways. As such, attributing water quality characteristics to LULC variations (either in space or time) can be difficult. Many studies seek to understand these relationships from a Eulerian reference frame, which typically involves many samples or observations through time at a fixed location. Here we explore an alternative approach to understanding relationships between LULC and water quality that relies on a Lagrangian, or moving, reference frame, in which the effects of LULC and watershed topography on water quality can be observed through a different lens. We studied three reaches of the Lumber River, a blackwater stream in North Carolina's Coastal Plain, to assess relationships between LULC and water quality in a watershed that is a patchwork of agriculture, forests, wetlands and developed land. Our study combines spatially intensive water quality measurements (temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH and nitrate concentration), collected by boat, with geospatial analyses of LULC to understand influences on the spatial evolution of reach-scale water quality. In particular, we investigate relationships between spatial patterns in nitrate and the changing spatial characteristics of the watershed integrated at sampling points along each reach. We also assess relationships between nitrate and other water quality variables, such as pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen to better understand the potential role of in-stream nutrient processing in observed spatial patterns. This work has implications for the regulation and management of agriculture, wetlands, and forests in a region that has long struggled to balance agriculture, a major economic driver, with water quality, a major concern for recreation and cultural

  12. A Wider Notion of the Scope of Water Services in EU Water LawBoosting Payment for Water-Related Ecosystem Services to Ensure Sustainable Water Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra E. Lindhout

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The services ecosystems on the Earth providing for mankind, like the provision of (clean water for drinking and other purposes, are under pressure. Payment for (water-related ecosystem services, incentive pricing policies and the recovery of service costs are instruments to attain a sustainable use of scarce environmental resources and ecosystems. Although the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, whose purpose explicitly includes striving for sustainable water use, includes an obligation to recover the costs of water services, the scope of application of this obligation depends on the width of the interpretation of 'water services' in the WFD. If 'water services' are interpreted broadly, the WFD embraces the concept of payment for water-related ecosystem services, but raises a number of questions that need to be addressed.

  13. The Broader Context of Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Predictions from Peer Pressure and Links to Psychosocial Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Megan M.; Szwedo, David E.; Antonishak, Jill; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at…

  14. Relational Regulation Theory : A New Approach to Explain the Link Between Perceived Social Support and Mental Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakey, Brian; Orehek, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Perceived support is consistently linked to good mental health, which is typically explained as resulting from objectively supportive actions that buffer stress. Yet this explanation has difficulty accounting for the often-observed main effects between support and mental health. Relational regulatio

  15. The Broader Context of Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Predictions from Peer Pressure and Links to Psychosocial Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Megan M.; Szwedo, David E.; Antonishak, Jill; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at…

  16. Linking Prenatal Androgens to Gender-Related Attitudes, Identity, and Activities : Evidence From Girls With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endendijk, Joyce J.; Beltz, Adriene M.; McHale, Susan M.; Bryk, Kristina; Berenbaum, Sheri A.

    2016-01-01

    Key questions for developmentalists concern the origins of gender attitudes and their implications for behavior. We examined whether prenatal androgen exposure was related to gender attitudes, and whether and how the links between attitudes and gendered activity interest and participation were media

  17. Resin bond strength to water versus ethanol-saturated human dentin pretreated with three different cross-linking agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venigalla, Bhuvan Shome; Jyothi, Pinnamreddy; Kamishetty, Shekhar; Reddy, Smitha; Cherukupalli, Ravi Chandra; Reddy, Depa Arun

    2016-01-01

    Context: Resin-dentin bonds are unstable owing to hydrolytic and enzymatic degradation. Several approaches such as collagen cross-linking and ethanol-wet bonding (EWB) have been developed to overcome this problem. Collagen cross-linking improves the intrinsic properties of the collagen matrix. However, it leaves a water-rich collagen matrix with incomplete resin infiltration making it susceptible to fatigue degradation. Since EWB is expected to overcome the drawbacks of water-wet bonding (WWB), a combination of collagen cross-linking with EWB was tested. Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of pretreatment with different cross-linking agents such as ultraviolet A (UVA)-activated 0.1% riboflavin, 1 M carbodiimide, and 6.5 wt% proanthocyanidin on the immediate and long-term bond strengths of an etch and rinse adhesive system to water- versus ethanol-saturated dentin within clinically relevant application time periods. Settings and Design: Long-term in vitro study evaluating the microtensile bond strength of adhesive-dentin interface after different surface pretreatments. Subjects and Methods: Eighty freshly extracted human molars were prepared to expose dentin, etched with 37% phosphoric acid for 15 s rinsed, and grouped randomly. They were blot-dried and pretreated with different cross-linkers: 0.1% riboflavin for 2 min followed by UVA activation for 2 min; 1 M carbodiimide for 2 min; 6.5 wt% proanthocyanidin for 2 min and rinsed. They were then bonded with Adper Single Bond Adhesive (3M ESPE), by either WWB or EWB, followed by resin composite build-ups (Filtek Z350, 3M ESPE). Bonded specimens in each group were then sectioned and divided into two halves. Microtensile bond strength was tested in one half after 24 h and the other after 6 months storage in artificial saliva. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis was done using SPSS version 18 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Intergroup comparison of bond strength was done using ANOVA with post hoc

  18. Water-energy links in cities: the urban metabolism of London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijic, A.; Ruiz Cazorla, J.; Keirstead, J.

    2014-12-01

    Rapid urbanisation results in increased water consumption in cities, requiring improved tools for understanding adaptive measures for water resources management under climate change. The energy sector is facing the same challenges and requires equally comprehensive solutions. More frequent water shortages due to climate and land use changes and potential limits on CO2 emissions from fossil fuels that science demands indicate clearly that the next step in the sustainable city development will be to look for the most efficient use of these highly interdependent resources. One of the concepts that could be used for quantifying fundamental flows in an urban environment such as water and energy is the urban metabolism framework. This paper will examine the concept of urban metabolism by quantifying amounts and trends of water and energy consumed in London by four main sectors: residential, industrial, commercial and public. Key data requirements at the sector level will be identified and initial mapping of critical factors for urban sustainability will be provided. Finally, the work will examine the potential of urban metabolism framework to provide data and information for implementing water, energy and greenhouse emissions trade-off 'fit-for-purpose' strategy for water supply security. The paper is a part of the Panta Rhei Research Initiative of the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) under the working group of Energy and Food Impacts on Water.

  19. Towards reflexive land and water management in Iran : linking technology, governance and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balali, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Key words: Qanat, land and water, sustainability, Industrial and reflexive modernity This PhD thesis is concerned with the causes and consequences of the environmental crisis and explores possible trajectories towards sustainable land and water management in Iran and other countries of the Middle

  20. Compensatory Water Effects Link Yearly Global Land CO2 Sink Changes to Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Martin; Reichstein, Markus; Tramontana, Gianluca; Viovy, Nicolas; Schwalm, Christopher R.; Wang, Ying-Ping; Weber, Ulrich; Weber, Ulrich; Zaehle, Soenke; Zeng, Ning; hide

    2017-01-01

    Large interannual variations in the measured growth rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) originate primarily from fluctuations in carbon uptake by land ecosystems13. It remains uncertain, however, to what extent temperature and water availability control the carbon balance of land ecosystems across spatial and temporal scales314. Here we use empirical models based on eddy covariance data15 and process-based models16,17 to investigate the effect of changes in temperature and water availability on gross primary productivity (GPP), terrestrial ecosystem respiration (TER) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) at local and global scales. We find that water availability is the dominant driver of the local interannual variability in GPP and TER. To a lesser extent this is true also for NEE at the local scale, but when integrated globally, temporal NEE variability is mostly driven by temperature fluctuations. We suggest that this apparent paradox can be explained by two compensatory water effects. Temporal water-driven GPP and TER variations compensate locally, dampening water-driven NEE variability. Spatial water availability anomalies also compensate, leaving a dominant temperature signal in the year-to-year fluctuations of the land carbon sink. These findings help to reconcile seemingly contradictory reports regarding the importance of temperature and water in controlling the interannual variability of the terrestrial carbon balance36,9,11,12,14. Our study indicates that spatial climate covariation drives the global carbon cycle response.

  1. Towards reflexive land and water management in Iran : linking technology, governance and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balali, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Key words: Qanat, land and water, sustainability, Industrial and reflexive modernity This PhD thesis is concerned with the causes and consequences of the environmental crisis and explores possible trajectories towards sustainable land and water management in Iran and other countries of the Middle

  2. Children's Sleep Regulation Is Linked to Mothers' Sleep-Related Childhood Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviezer, Ora; Scher, Anat

    2013-01-01

    The present research explored how mothers' own childhood experiences are linked to their perceptions of their children's sleep regulation. It focused on collective sleeping; a practice used in the past in the Israeli kibbutz, and used a quasi-experimental research design to examine whether mothers who were raised in collective sleeping…

  3. Aging- and task-related resilience decline is linked to food responsiveness in highly social honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Martin T; Kreibich, Claus D; Amdam, Gro V; Münch, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Conventional invertebrate models of aging have provided striking examples for the influence of food- and nutrient-sensing on lifespan and stress resilience. On the other hand, studies in highly social insects, such as honey bees, have revealed how social context can shape very plastic life-history traits, for example flexible aging dynamics in the helper caste (workers). It is, however, not understood how food perception and stress resilience are connected in honey bee workers with different social task behaviors and aging dynamics. To explore this linkage, we tested if starvation resilience, which normally declines with age, depends on food responsiveness in honey bees. We studied two typically non-senesced groups of worker bees with different social task behaviors: mature nurses (caregivers) and mature foragers (food collectors). In addition, we included a group of old foragers for which functional senescence is well-established. Bees were individually scored for their food perception by measuring the gustatory response to different sucrose concentrations. Subsequently, individuals were tested for survival under starvation stress. We found that starvation stress resilience, but not gustatory responsiveness differed between workers with different social task behaviors (mature nurses vs. mature foragers). In addition starvation stress resilience differed between foragers with different aging progressions (mature foragers vs. old foragers). Control experiments confirmed that differences in starvation resilience between mature nurses and mature foragers were robust against changing experimental conditions, such as water provision and activity. For all worker groups we established that individuals with low gustatory responsiveness were more resilient to starvation stress. Finally, for the group of rapidly aging foragers we found that low food responsiveness was linked to a delayed age-related decline in starvation resilience. Our study highlights associations between

  4. Effects of soil water depletion on the water relations in tropical kudzu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaucto Bellarmino de Pereira-Netto

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth., Leguminosae: Faboideae is native to the humid Southeastern Asia. Tropical kudzu has potential as a cover crop in regions subjected to dryness. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of soil water depletion on leaflet relative water content (RWC, stomatal conductance (g and temperature (T L in tropical kudzu. RWC of waterstressed plants dropped from 96 to 78%, following a reduction in SWC from 0.25 to 0.17 g (H2O.g (dry soil-1.Stomatal conductance of stressed plants decreased from 221 to 98 mmol.m-2.s-1, following the reduction in soil water content (SWC. The day after re-irrigation, g of water stressed plants was 15% lower than g of unstressed plants. Differences in T L between waterstressed and unstressed plants (deltaT L rose linearly from 0.1 to 2.2ºC following progressive water deficit. RWC and T L of waterstressed plants paralled RWC and T L of unstressed plants the day after reirrigation. The strong decrease in SWC found in this study only induced moderate water stress in tropical kudzu. In addition, tropical kudzu recover rapidly from the induced water stress after the re-irrigation.

  5. Evidence on dynamic effects in the water content – water potential relation of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    the required material functions, i.e. the moisture storage characteristic and the liquid water conductivity, from measured basic properties. The current state of the art in material modelling as well as the corresponding transport theory implies that the moisture transport function is unique...... and that the moisture storage characteristic is process dependent with varying significance for the numerical simulation. On the basis of different building materials, a comprehensive instantaneous profile measurement study has been accomplished. Profiles of water content and relative humidity were obtained during...... a series of adsorption and desorption processes. The data provides clear evidence that the water content – water potential relationship is not only dependent on the process history, but also on the process dynamics. The higher moisture potential gradients were induced, the larger was the deviation between...

  6. Relative abundance of water-group ions in Saturn's inner magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mark E.; Cravens, Thomas; Tokar, Robert; Smith, Howard T.; Perryman, Rebecca; Waite, J. Hunter; McNutt, Ralph L.

    2016-10-01

    At nineteen different times over seven years, the Cassini Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) measured the relative fractions of water-group ions in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn near the equatorial plane between 3.8 and 6.5 Saturn radii (RS). INMS samples only a small portion of velocity space in any one measurement, but the measurements span a broad range of velocity space. The data show that H2O+ comprises the bulk of the ions near 4.0 RS, and that its fraction decreases with increasing distance from 4.0 RS, the source of neutral water at Enceladus. At 4.0 RS, the fraction of H2O+ ranges from 60% to 100%, with an average of 80%. At 6.5 RS, the three main water-group constituents, H2O+, OH+, and O+, are nearly equal. H3O+, which dominates the water-group ion fractions in the Enceladus plume, is 10% or less in Saturn's magnetosphere outside the plume. The relative ion fractions show other variations that are not clearly linked to any of the studied parameters including velocity, density, and the orbit-phase-dependent activity of Enceladus.

  7. Effects of global warming on floods and droughts and related water quality of rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, B.

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on the effect of global warming on droughts, rainstorms and floods and related water quality of rivers. Relations of temperature, rainstorms and river discharges with water quality variables like water temperature, chemical concentrations and microbiological activity are

  8. Water relations of climbing ivy in a temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuzinger, S; Hartmann, A; Körner, C

    2011-06-01

    Ivy (Hedera helix) is the most important liana in temperate European forests. We studied water relations of adult ivy in a natural, 35 m tall mixed deciduous forest in Switzerland using a construction crane to access the canopy. Predawn leaf water potential at the top of climbing ivy ranged from -0.4 to -0.6 MPa, daily minima ranged from -1.3 to -1.7 MPa. Leaf water potentials as well as relative sap flow were held surprisingly constant throughout different weather conditions, suggesting a tendency to isohydric behaviour. Maximum stomatal conductance was 200 mmol m⁻² s⁻¹. The use of a potometer experiment allowed us to measure absolute transpiration rates integrated over a whole plant of 0.23 mmol m⁻² s⁻¹. Nightly sap flow of ivy during warm, dry nights accounted for up to 20% of the seasonal maximum. Maximum sap flow rates were reached at ca. 0.5 kPa vpd. On the other hand, the host trees showed a less conservative stomatal regulation, maximum sap flow rates were reached at vpd values of ca. 1 kPa. Sap flow rates of ivy decreased by ca. 20% in spring after bud break of trees, suggesting that ivy profits strongly from warm sunny days in early spring before budbreak of the host trees and from mild winter days. This species may benefit from rising winter temperatures in Europe and thus become a stronger competitor against its host trees.

  9. Productivity Amelioration of Solar Water Distillator Linked with Salt Gradient Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a great need for fresh water in many developing countries. Water sources from, e.g., lakes; rivers and groundwater are often brackish or contain harmful bacteria and should therefore not be used for drinking or irrigation.In this work a simple solar double sloped basin type still was connected to a solar salt gradient pond. The salinity-gradient solar pond is constructed in such a manner that the convective circulation in the pond is prohibited by making the bottom water much denser than the surface water. In doing so, the solar radiation absorbed in the deep water can be stored; the hot water from the salt pond was used to heat salt water in the stiller, at daylight and night.The tests were conducted in September and October in autumn season in Baghdad city-Iraq in 2009. The results show development in stiller productivity at daylight and larger productivity increase at night. The stiller productivity increased also with cooling the glass cover from the still outside. 

  10. Towards more spatially explicit assessments of virtual water flows: linking local water use and scarcity to global demand of Brazilian farming commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Rafaela; Ran, Ylva; Godar, Javier; Karlberg, Louise; Suavet, Clement

    2016-07-01

    Global consumption of farming commodities is an important driver of water demand in regions of production. This is the case in Brazil, which has emerged as one of the main producers of globally traded farming commodities. Traditional methods to assess environmental implications of this demand rely on international trade material flows at country resolution; we argue for the need of finer scales that capture spatial heterogeneity in environmental variables in the regions of production, and that account for differential sourcing within the borders of a country of production. To illustrate this, we obtain virtual water flows from Brazilian municipalities to countries of consumption, by allocating high-resolution water footprints of sugarcane and soy production to spatially-explicit material trade flows. We found that this approach results in differences of virtual water use estimations of over 20% when compared to approaches that disregard spatial heterogeneity in sourcing patterns, for three of the main consumers of the analysed crops. This discrepancy against methods using national resolution in trade flows is determined by national heterogeneity in water resources, and differential sourcing. To illustrate the practical implications of this approach, we relate virtual water flows to water stress, identifying where global demand for water coincides with high levels of water stress. For instance, the virtual water flows for Brazilian sugarcane sourced by China were disproportionally less associated to areas with higher water stress when compared to those of the EU, due to EU’s much higher reliance on sugarcane from water scarce areas in Northeast Brazil. Our findings indicate that the policy relevance of current assessments of virtual water flows that rely on trade data aggregated at the national level may be hampered, as they do not capture the spatial heterogeneity in water resources, water use and water management options.

  11. The cross-linking influence of electromagnetic radiation on water-soluble polyacrylan compositions with biopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grabowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of examinations of the cross-linking influence of electromagnetic radiation - in a microwave range – on polyacrylancompositions with biopolymers, are presented in the hereby paper. The cross-linking process of the tested compositions was determined on the basis of the FT-IR spectroscopic methods. It was shown that microwave operations can lead to the formation of new cross-linkedstructures with strong covalent bonds. The adsorption process and formation of active centres in polymer molecules as well as in highsilica sand were found due to microwave radiations. In this process hydroxyl groups (-OH - present in a polymer - and silane groups (Si- O-H - present in a matrix - are mainly taking part. Spectroscopic and strength tests performed for the system: biopolymer binding agent – matrix indicate that the microwave radiation can be applied for hardening moulding sands with biopolymer binders.

  12. Effects of phase transformation of steam-water relative permeabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, A.K.

    1986-03-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental study of steam-water relative permeabilities (RPs) was carried out. First, an experimental study of two-phase concurrent flow of steam and water was conducted and a set of RP curves was obtained. These curves were compared with semi-empirical and experimental results obtained by other investigators for two-phase, two-component flow (oil/gas; gas/water; gas/oil). It was found that while the wetting phase RPs were in good agreement, RPs for the steam phase were considerably higher than the non-wetting phase RPs in two-component systems. This enhancement of steam RP is attributed to phase transformation effects at the pore level in flow channels. The effects of phase transformation were studied theoretically. This study indicates that there are two separate mechanisms by which phase transformation affects RP curves: (1) Phase transformation is converging-diverging flow channels can cause an enhancement of steam phase RP. In a channel dominated by steam a fraction of the flowing steam condenses upstream from the constriction, depositing its latent heat of condensation. This heat is conducted through the solid grains around the pore throat, and evaporation takes place downstream from it. Therefore, for a given bulk flow quality; a smaller fraction of steam actually flows through the throat segments. This pore-level effect manifests itself as relative permeability enhancement on a macroscopic level; and (2) phase transformation along the interface of a stagnant phase and the phase flowing around it controls the irreducible phase saturation. Therefore, the irreducible phase saturation in steam-water flow will depend, among other factors, on the boundary conditions of the flow.

  13. Reflexive Land and Water Management in Iran: Linking Technology, Governance and Culture. Part 1: Land and Water Management Paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balali, M.R.; Keulartz, F.W.J.; Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.

    2011-01-01

    In order to examine the possibilities for sustainable land and water management in Iran, this research was carried out with two types of research and their combinations, i.e. theoretical and empirical research during 2005- 2009. In the theoretical part, which is the scope of this paper, the co-evolu

  14. Reflexive Land and Water Management in Iran: Linking Technology, Governance and Culture. Part 1: Land and Water Management Paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balali, M.R.; Keulartz, F.W.J.; Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.

    2011-01-01

    In order to examine the possibilities for sustainable land and water management in Iran, this research was carried out with two types of research and their combinations, i.e. theoretical and empirical research during 2005- 2009. In the theoretical part, which is the scope of this paper, the

  15. Leptin as a link between the immune system and kidney-related diseases: leading actor or just a coadjuvant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes-Vieira, P M M; Bassi, E J; Araujo, R C; Câmara, N O S

    2012-08-01

    Food intake and nutritional status modify the physiological responses of the immune system to illness and infection and regulate the development of chronic inflammatory processes, such as kidney disease. Adipose tissue secretes immune-related proteins called adipokines that have pleiotropic effects on both the immune and neuroendocrine systems, linking metabolism and immune physiology. Leptin, an adipose tissue-derived adipokine, displays a variety of immune and physiological functions, and participates in several immune responses. Here, we review the current literature on the role of leptin in kidney diseases, linking adipose tissue and the immune system with kidney-related disorders. The modulation of this adipose hormone may have a major impact on the treatment of several immune- and metabolic-related kidney diseases.

  16. Developmental Links Between Children's Working Memory and their Social Relations with Teachers and Peers in the Early School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, Amber; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the developmental links between children's working memory development and their relations with teachers and peers across 2 years of kindergarten and early elementary school. Kindergarten and first grade children, N = 1109, 50% boys, were followed across 2 school-years. Children were assessed across 3 waves, in the fall and spring of the first school-year (within school-year), and finally in the spring of the second school-year. Working memory was assessed using a visuo-spatial working memory task. The developmental links between working memory and child-reported teacher-child relationship quality (warmth and conflict) and peer-nominated likeability and friendedness were assessed using autoregressive cross-lagged models. Lower working memory scores were related to increases in teacher-child conflict and decreases in teacher-child warmth one school-year later, in addition to decreases in likeability by peers within the same school-year. Conversely, teacher-child conflict was negatively associated with the development of working memory across the studied period. Path estimates between working memory and social relational factors were similar for boys and girls. Findings show developmental links between working memory and social-relational factors and vice versa. These results suggest that children's working memory development can be fostered through pro-social relations with teachers in early elementary school children.

  17. Linking the mobilization of dissolved organic matter in catchments and its removal in drinking water treatment to its molecular characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeke, Julia; Lechtenfeld, Oliver J; Tittel, Jörg; Oosterwoud, Marieke R; Bornmann, Katrin; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2017-04-15

    Drinking water reservoirs in the Northern Hemisphere are largely affected by the decadal-long increase in riverine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. The removal of DOC in drinking water treatment is costly and predictions are needed to link DOC removal efficiency to its mobilization in catchments, both of which are determined by the molecular composition. To study the effect of hydrological events and land use on the molecular characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM), 36 samples from three different catchment areas in the German low mountain ranges, with DOC concentrations ranging from 3 to 32 mg L(-1), were examined. Additionally, nine pairs of samples from downstream drinking water reservoirs were analyzed before and after flocculation. The molecular composition and the age of DOM were analyzed using ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) and radiocarbon ((14)C) analysis. At elevated discharge in a forested catchment comparatively younger, more oxygenated and unsaturated molecules of higher molecular weight were preferentially mobilized, likely linked to the reductive mobilization of iron. DOM with highly similar molecular characteristics (O/C ratio > 0.5, m/z > 500) could also be efficiently removed through flocculation in drinking water treatment. The proportion of DOM removed through flocculation ranged between 43% and 73% of DOC and was highest at elevated discharge. In catchment areas with a higher percentage of grassland and agriculture a higher proportion of DOM molecules containing sulfur and nitrogen was detected, which in turn could be less efficiently flocculated. Altogether, it was shown that DOM that is released during large hydrological events can be efficiently flocculated again, suggesting a reversal of similar chemical mechanisms in both processes. Since the occurrence of heavy rainfall events is predicted to increase in the future, event-driven mobilization of DOC

  18. Absorbing aerosols at high relative humidity: linking hygroscopic growth to optical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michel Flores

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major uncertainties in the understanding of Earth's climate system is the interaction between solar radiation and aerosols in the atmosphere. Aerosols exposed to high humidity will change their chemical, physical, and optical properties due to their increased water content. To model hydrated aerosols, atmospheric chemistry and climate models often use the volume weighted mixing rule to predict the complex refractive index (RI of aerosols when they interact with high relative humidity, and, in general, assume homogeneous mixing. This study explores the validity of these assumptions. A humidified cavity ring down aerosol spectrometer (CRD-AS and a tandem hygroscopic DMA (differential mobility analyzer are used to measure the extinction coefficient and hygroscopic growth factors of humidified aerosols, respectively. The measurements are performed at 80% and 90%RH at wavelengths of 532 nm and 355 nm using size-selected aerosols with different degrees of absorption; from purely scattering to highly absorbing particles. The ratio of the humidified to the dry extinction coefficients (fRHext(%RH, Dry is measured and compared to theoretical calculations based on Mie theory. Using the measured hygroscopic growth factors and assuming homogeneous mixing, the expected RIs using the volume weighted mixing rule are compared to the RIs derived from the extinction measurements.

    We found a weak linear dependence or no dependence of fRH(%RH, Dry with size for hydrated absorbing aerosols in contrast to the non-monotonically decreasing behavior with size for purely scattering aerosols. No discernible difference could be made between the two wavelengths used. Less than 7% differences were found between the real parts of the complex refractive indices derived and those calculated using the volume weighted mixing rule, and the imaginary parts had up to a 20% difference. However, for substances with growth factor less than 1

  19. Modeling Sustainability of Water, Environment, Livelihood, and Culture in Traditional Irrigation Communities and Their Linked Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Boykin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity, land use conversion and cultural and ecosystem changes threaten the way of life for traditional irrigation communities of the semi-arid southwestern United States. Traditions are strong, yet potential upheaval is great in these communities that rely on acequia irrigation systems. Acequias are ancient ditch systems brought from the Iberian Peninsula to the New World over 400 years ago; they are simultaneously gravity flow water delivery systems and shared water governance institutions. Acequias have survived periods of drought and external shocks from changing economics, demographics, and resource uses. Now, climate change and urbanization threaten water availability, ecosystem functions, and the acequia communities themselves. Do past adaptive practices hold the key to future sustainability, or are new strategies required? To explore this issue we translated disciplinary understanding into a uniform format of causal loop diagrams to conceptualize the subsystems of the entire acequia-based human-natural system. Four subsystems are identified in this study: hydrology, ecosystem, land use/economics, and sociocultural. Important linkages between subsystems were revealed as well as variables indicating community cohesion (e.g., total irrigated land, intensity of upland grazing, mutualism. Ongoing work will test the conceptualizations with field data and modeling exercises to capture tipping points for non-sustainability and thresholds for sustainable water use and community longevity.

  20. Relative toxicities of DNA cross-links and monoadducts: new insights from studies of decarbamoyl mitomycin C and mitomycin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palom, Yolanda; Suresh Kumar, Gopinatha; Tang, Li-Qian; Paz, Manuel M; Musser, Steven M; Rockwell, Sara; Tomasz, Maria

    2002-11-01

    Mitomycin C (MC), a cytotoxic anticancer drug and bifunctional DNA DNA alkylating agent, induces cross-linking of the complementary strands of DNA. The DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) are thought to be the critical cytotoxic lesions produced by MC. Decarbamoyl mitomycin C (DMC) has been regarded as a monofunctional mitomycin, incapable of causing ICLs. Paradoxically, DMC is slightly more toxic than MC to hypoxic EMT6 mouse mammary tumor cells as well as to CHO cells. To resolve this paradox, EMT6 cells were treated with MC or DMC under hypoxia at equimolar concentrations and the resulting DNA adducts were analyzed using HPLC and UV detection. MC treatment generated both intrastrand and interstrand cross-link adducts and four monoadducts, as shown previously. DMC generated two stereoisomeric monoadducts and two stereoisomeric ICL adducts, all of which were structurally characterized; one was identical with that formed with MC, the other was new and unique to DMC. Overall, adduct frequencies were strikingly higher (20-30-fold) with DMC than with MC. Although DMC monoadducts greatly exceeded DMC cross-link adducts ( approximately 10:1 ratio), the latter were equal or higher in number than the cross-link adducts from MC. DMC displayed a much higher monoadduct:cross-link ratio than MC. The similar cytotoxicities of the two drug show a correlation with their similar DNA cross-link adduct frequencies, but not with their total adduct or monoadduct frequencies. This provides specific experimental evidence that the ICLs rather than the monoadducts are critical factors in the cell death induced by MC. In vitro, overall alkylation of calf thymus DNA by DMC was much less efficient than by MC. Nevertheless, ICLs formed with DMC were clearly detectable. The chemical pathway of the cross-linking was shown to be analogous to that occurring with MC. These results also suggest that the differential sensitivity of Fanconi's Anemia cells to MC and DMC is related to factors other

  1. Method of cross-linking polyvinyl alcohol and other water soluble resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipp, W. H.; May, C. E.; Hsu, L. C.; Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A self supporting sheet structure comprising a water soluble, noncrosslinked polymer such as polyvinyl alcohol which is capable of being crosslinked by reaction with hydrogen atom radicals and hydroxyl molecule radicals is contacted with an aqueous solution having a pH of less than 8 and containing a dissolved salt in an amount sufficient to prevent substantial dissolution of the noncrosslinked polymer in the aqueous solution. The aqueous solution is then irradiated with ionizing radiation to form hydrogen atom radicals and hydroxyl molecule radicals and the irradiation is continued for a time sufficient to effect crosslinking of the water soluble polymer to produce a water insoluble polymer sheet structure. The method has particular application in the production of battery separators and electrode envelopes for alkaline batteries.

  2. Linking glacially modified waters to catchment-scale subglacial discharge using autonomous underwater vehicle observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Laura A.; Straneo, Fiamma; Das, Sarah B.; Plueddemann, Albert J.; Kukulya, Amy L.; Morlighem, Mathieu

    2016-02-01

    Measurements of near-ice (autonomous underwater vehicle as close as 150 m from the ice-ocean interface of the Saqqarliup sermia-Sarqardleq Fjord system, West Greenland, with modeled and observed subglacial discharge locations and magnitudes. We find evidence of two main types of subsurface glacially modified water (GMW) with distinct properties and locations. The two GMW locations also align with modeled runoff discharged at separate locations along the grounded margin corresponding with two prominent subcatchments beneath Saqqarliup sermia. Thus, near-ice observations and subglacial discharge routing indicate that runoff from this glacier occurs primarily at two discrete locations and gives rise to two distinct glacially modified waters. Furthermore, we show that the location with the largest subglacial discharge is associated with the lighter, fresher glacially modified water mass. This is qualitatively consistent with results from an idealized plume model.

  3. Linking carbon and water cycles using stable isotopes across scales: progress and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Werner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis is a powerful tool for tracing biogeochemical processes in the carbon and water cycles. One particularly powerful approach is to employ multiple isotopes where the simultaneous assessment of the D/H,18O/16O and/or 13C/12C in different compounds provide a unique means to investigate the coupling of water and carbon fluxes at various temporal and spatial scales. Here, we present a research update on recent advances in our process-based understanding of the utilization of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen isotopes to lend insight into carbon and water cycling. We highlight recent technological developments and approaches, their strengths and methodological precautions with examples covering scales from minutes to centuries and from the leaf to the globe.

  4. Effect of hardening method and structure of linking bridges on strength of water glass moulding sands

    OpenAIRE

    Stachowicz, M.; K. Granat

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents examination results of the effect of four hardening methods on structure of linking bridges in sandmixes containing hydrated sodium silicate. Test pieces prepared of the moulding sands containing 2.5 % of a binder with molar module between 2.4 and 2.6 were hardened with carbon dioxide, dried traditionally in an oven and hardened with microwaves at 2.54 GHz or using a combination of the CO2 process and microwave heating. It was revealed that the hardening method influences s...

  5. Link between DOC in near surface peat and stream water in an upland catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joanna M; Lane, Stuart N; Chapman, Pippa J; Adamson, John K

    2008-10-15

    Hydrologic transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from peat soils may differ to organo-mineral soils in how they responded to changes in flow, because of differences in soil profile and hydrology. In well-drained organo-mineral soils, low flow is through the lower mineral layer where DOC is absorbed and high flow is through the upper organic layer where DOC is produced. DOC concentrations in streams draining organo-mineral soils typically increase with flow. In saturated peat soils, both high and low flows are through an organic layer where DOC is produced. Therefore, DOC in stream water draining peat may not increase in response to changes in flow as there is no switch in flow path between a mineral and organic layer. To verify this, we conducted a high-resolution monitoring study of soil and stream water at an upland peat catchment in northern England. Our data showed a strong positive correlation between DOC concentrations at -1 and -5 cm depth and stream water, and weaker correlations between concentrations at -20 to -50 cm depth and stream water. Although near surface organic material appears to be the key source of stream water DOC in both peat and organo-mineral soils, we observed a negative correlation between stream flow and DOC concentrations instead of a positive correlation as DOC released from organic layers during low and high flow was diluted by rainfall. The differences in DOC transport processes between peat and organo-mineral soils have different implications for our understanding of long-term changes in DOC exports. While increased rainfall may cause an increase in DOC flux from peat due to an increase in water volume, it may cause a decrease in concentrations. This response is contrary to expected changes in DOC exports from organo-mineral soils, where increase rainfall is likely to result in an increase in flux and concentration.

  6. Book of Abstracts of the XII Portuguese-Spanish Symposium on Plant Water Relations (2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Renato R. P.; Vaz, Margarida M.

    2014-01-01

    Contents PLENARY CONFERENCES AND THEMATIC CONFERENCES Molecular Mechanisms of Plant Adaptation to Drought Water Relations in the Irrigation Scheduling of Olive Orchards Physiological Limits for Plant-Based Water Stress Indicators Water Use in Montado Ecosystems Hydrological, Engineering and Physiological Approaches to Water Conservation From Leaf to Whole Plant Water Use Efficiency: Solving the Gaps Efficient Use of Water Under Mediterranean Conditions: Agronomic Too...

  7. Combining integrated models and participatory methods to quantify water and agricultural trade-offs linked to different rural development scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, David; Willaarts, Barbara; García, Ángel de Miguel; Tarquis, Ana Maria

    2017-04-01

    This study explores the water and agricultural tradeoffs linked to three different rural development scenarios in the Cega-Eresma-Adaja basin (CEA) in Central Spain. Agriculture is a key socioeconomic activity in CEA, and nearly 44% of the basin is devoted to croplands and pastures. Irrigated agriculture accounts for 12% of the cropland area and is currently using over 84% of available water resources. To define the three scenarios for CEA, we conducted a workshop with local stakeholders to infer how contrasting evolutions of EU agricultural, water and environmental policies could affect the local land use and agricultural management using participatory mapping techniques. The three scenarios reflect 1) a business as usual (BAU) rural development; 2) a land sharing strategy (LSH); and 3) a land sparing (LSP) situation. The integrated Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to model the changes in water use (hm^3/year) and agricultural productivity (ton/year) under each scenario. To account for changes in agricultural land use and management, the model integrates a large set of agricultural patterns obtained from combining high resolution remote sensing images (20m x 20m) for the years 2011-2015, agricultural productivity from survey by municipality and land use information obtained from the national map SIOSE2011 (1:50.000). Model calibration and sensitivity analysis were performed using SWAT-CUP/SUFI2 The period of the years 2005 to 2008 were used for parameter calibration and validation period extending between 2009 and 2014. The predicted daily streamflow presents a correlation coefficient of 0.76 and a NS coefficient of 0.81. The preliminary results reveal that under a BAU and a LSP scenario agricultural production and water demand will increase significantly (>25%) despite the improvements in water use efficiency and agricultural productivity. Under these scenarios, allocated water is likely to exceed the natural renewable water resources compromising the

  8. The link between water quality and tidal marshes in a highly impacted estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meire, Patrick; Maris, Tom; van Damme, Stefan; Jacobs, Sander; Cox, Tom; Struyf, Eric

    2010-05-01

    The Schelde estuary is one of the most heavily impacted estuaries in Europe. During several decades, untreated waste water from large cities (e.g. Brussels, Antwerp, Valenciennes, Lille) and industries was discharged in the river. As a result, the Schelde estuary has the reputation of being one of the most polluted estuaries in Europe. For a long time (approx. 1950 - 1995) all forms of higher life (macro-invertebrates and fish) were absent in the fresh and brackish parts of the estuary. Due to European legislation, a large part of the sewage water is now treated resulting in a significant recovery of water quality in the estuary. However, next to water quality, the estuary also suffered serious habitat losses during the last decades, mostly due to economic development and changing hydrological conditions causing more erosion. Over the last fifteen years, the management of the estuary has changed fundamentally. It is now more and more focused on the restoration of ecosystem services. In this presentation we will document the changes in water quality over the last 50 years and summarize recent work on the role of tidal marshes on water quality within the freshwater part of the Schelde estuary. Our results stress the important of taking into account ecosystem services and habitat restoration for long-term estuarine management. .After decades of high inorganic nutrient concentrations and recurring anoxia and hypoxia, we observed a paradoxical increase in chlorophyll-a concentrations with decreasing nutrient inputs, indicating a regime shift. Our results indicate that the recovery of a hypereutrophied systems towards a classical eutrophied state, needs the reduction of waste loads below certain thresholds. Paradoxically, phytoplankton production was inhibited by high ammonia or low oxygen concentrations. The system state change is accompanied by large fluctuations in oxygen concentrations. The improved water quality resulted in a remarkable recovery of different groups

  9. Drinking water and sanitation: progress in 73 countries in relation to socioeconomic indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Jeanne; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-02-01

    To assess progress in the provision of drinking water and sanitation in relation to national socioeconomic indicators. We used household survey data for 73 countries - collected between 2000 and 2012 - to calculate linear rates of change in population access to improved drinking water (n = 67) and/or sanitation (n = 61). To enable comparison of progress between countries with different initial levels of access, the calculated rates of change were normalized to fall between -1 and 1. In regression analyses, we investigated associations between the normalized rates of change in population access and national socioeconomic indicators: gross national income per capita, government effectiveness, official development assistance, freshwater resources, education, poverty, Gini coefficient, child mortality and the human development index. The normalized rates of change indicated that most of the investigated countries were making progress towards achieving universal access to improved drinking water and sanitation. However, only about a third showed a level of progress that was at least half the maximum achievable level. The normalized rates of change did not appear to be correlated with any of the national indicators that we investigated. In many countries, the progress being made towards universal access to improved drinking water and sanitation is falling well short of the maximum achievable level. Progress does not appear to be correlated with a country's social and economic characteristics. The between-country variations observed in such progress may be linked to variations in government policies and in the institutional commitment and capacity needed to execute such policies effectively.

  10. Links Between Flood Frequency and Annual Water Balance Behaviors: A Basis for Similarity and Regionalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jiali; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Guo, Shenglian; Liu, Pan; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2014-03-28

    This paper presents the results of a data based comparative study of several hundred catchments across continental United States belonging to the MOPEX dataset, which systematically explored the connection between the flood frequency curve and measures of mean annual water balance. Two different measures of mean annual water balance are used: (i) a climatic aridity index, AI, which is a measure of the competition between water and energy availability at the annual scale; and, (ii) baseflow index, BFI, the ratio of slow runoff to total runoff also at the annual time scale, reflecting the role of geology, soils, topography and vegetation. The data analyses showed that the aridity index, AI, has a first order control on both the mean and Cv of annual maximum floods. While mean annual flood decreases with increasing aridity, Cv increases with increasing aridity. BFI appeared to be a second order control on the magnitude and shape of the flood frequency curve. Higher BFI, meaning more subsurface flow and less surface flow leads to a decrease of mean annual flood whereas lower BFI leads to accumulation of soil moisture and increased flood magnitudes that arise from many events acting together. The results presented in this paper provide innovative means to delineate homogeneous regions within which the flood frequency curves can be assumed to be functionally similar. At another level, understanding the connection between annual water balance and flood frequency will be another building block towards developing comprehensive understanding of catchment runoff behavior in a holistic way.

  11. In vitro degradation of dermal sheep collagen cross-linked using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde damink, L.H.H.; Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; van Luyn, M.J.A.; van Wachem, P.B.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Feijen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    Bacterial collagenase was used to study the susceptibility of dermal sheep collagen (DSC) crosslinked with a mixture of the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (E/N-DSC) towards enzymatic degradation. Contrary to

  12. In vitro degradation of dermal sheep collagen cross-linked using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damink, LHHO; Dijkstra, PJ; vanLuyn, MJA; vanWachem, PB; Nieuwenhuis, P; Feijen, J

    Bacterial collagenase was used to study the susceptibility of dermal sheep collagen (DSC) cross-inked with a mixture of the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EIN-DSC) towards enzymatic degradation. Contrary to

  13. In vitro degradation of dermal sheep collagen cross-linked using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damink, LHHO; Dijkstra, PJ; vanLuyn, MJA; vanWachem, PB; Nieuwenhuis, P; Feijen, J

    1996-01-01

    Bacterial collagenase was used to study the susceptibility of dermal sheep collagen (DSC) cross-inked with a mixture of the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EIN-DSC) towards enzymatic degradation. Contrary to non-cross-

  14. In vitro degradation of dermal sheep collagen cross-linked using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, P.J.; Luyn, van M.J.A.; Wachem, van P.B.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Feijen, J.

    1996-01-01

    Bacterial collagenase was used to study the susceptibility of dermal sheep collagen (DSC) crosslinked with a mixture of the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (E/N-DSC) towards enzymatic degradation. Contrary to non-cross

  15. Comment on 'Water footprint of marine protein consumption—aquaculture's link to agriculture'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troell, M.; Metian, M.; Beveridge, M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Deutsch, L.

    2014-01-01

    In their article ‘Freshwater savings from marine protein consumption’ (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 014005), Gephart and her colleagues analyzed how consumption of marine animal protein rather than terrestrial animal protein leads to reduced freshwater allocation. They concluded that future water savi

  16. Linking Health Concepts in the Assessment and Evaluation of Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karney, Bryan W.; Filion, Yves R.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of health is not only a specific criterion for evaluation of water quality delivered by a distribution system but also a suitable paradigm for overall functioning of the hydraulic and structural components of the system. This article views health, despite its complexities, as the only criterion with suitable depth and breadth to allow…

  17. River temperature processes under contrasting riparian land cover: linking microclimate, heat exchange and water thermal dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, D. M.; Kantola, K.; Malcolm, I.

    2012-12-01

    River temperature influences strongly growth and survival in salmonid fish, which are often the target of river management strategies. Temperature is controlled by transfers of heat and water to/ from the river system, with land and water management modifying exchanges and consequently thermal regime. In the UK, fisheries managers are promoting riparian forest planting as a climate change adaption measure to reduce water temperature extremes. However, scientific understanding lags behind management and policy needs. Specifically, there is an urgent requirement to determine planting strategies that maximise expected benefits of riparian forest in terms of reduction in maximum water temperature. Scientific knowledge is necessary to underpin conceptual and deterministic models to inform management. To address this research gap, this paper analyses high resolution (15 minute) hydrometeorological data collected over a calendar year in the western Scottish Highlands (Loch Ard) to understand the controls and processes determining river temperature dynamics under open moorland (control), semi-natural woodland and commercial forest. The research programme aims: (1) to characterise spatial and temporal variability in riparian microclimate and stream water temperature regime across forest treatments; (2) to identify the hydrological, climatological and site-specific factors affecting stream temperature; (3) to estimate the energy balance at sites representative of each forest treatment and, thus, yield physical process understanding about dominant heat exchanges driving thermal variability; and (4) to use 1-3 to predict stream temperature sensitivity under different forestry and hydroclimatological scenarios. Results indicated that inter-treatment differences in mean and maximum daily water column temperature were ordered open > semi-natural > commercial during summer, but semi-natural > commercial > open during winter. Minimum water temperature was ordered commercial > semi

  18. Health-related Support Groups on the Internet: Linking Empirical Findings to Social Support and Computer-mediated Communication Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kevin B; Bell, Sally B; Wright, Kevin B; Bell, Sally B

    2003-01-01

    This literature review of research on health-related computer-mediated support groups links features of these groups to existing theory from the areas of social support and computer-mediated communication research. The article exams computer-mediated support groups as weak tie networks, focuses on how these support groups facilitate participant similarity and empathic support and identifies changes in supportive communication due to characteristics of the medium.

  19. Direct and indirect links between parenting styles, self-concealment (secrets), impaired control over drinking and alcohol-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Jessica D; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Corbin, William R; Gates, Jonathan R; Leeman, Robert F; Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Self-concealment reflects uncomfortable feelings, thoughts, and information people have about themselves that they avoid telling others (Larson & Chastain, 1990). According to Larson and Chastain (1990) these secrets range from the slightly embarrassing to the very distressing with an individual's most traumatic experiences often concealed. Parental attitudes including those involving self-disclosure are thought to be expressed in their choice of parenting style (Brand, Hatzinger, Beck, & Holsboer-Trachsler, 2009). The specific aim of this investigation was to examine the direct and indirect influences of parenting styles on self-concealment, impaired control over drinking (i.e. the inability to stop drinking when intended), alcohol use (quantity/frequency), and alcohol-related problems. A structural equation model with 419 (223 men, 196 women) university students was examined. Two and three path mediated effects were examined with the bias corrected bootstrap technique in Mplus. Having an authoritarian mother was directly linked to more self-concealment, while having an authoritative father was directly linked to less self-concealment. Higher levels of mother authoritarianism were indirectly linked to both increased alcohol use and alcohol-related problems through more self-concealment and more impaired control over drinking. Moreover, higher levels of father authoritativeness were indirectly linked to less alcohol use and alcohol-related problems through less self-concealment and less impaired control over drinking. These findings suggest that parenting styles influence vulnerabilities such as self-concealment in the impaired control over the drinking pathway to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. From microbes to water districts: Linking observations across scales to uncover the implications of riparian and channel management on water quality in an irrigated agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, A.; Cadenasso, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Interactions among runoff, riparian and stream ecosystems, and water quality remain uncertain in many settings, particularly those heavily impacted by human activities. For example, waterways in the irrigated agricultural landscape of California's Central Valley are seasonally disconnected from groundwater tables and are extensively modified by infrastructure and management. These conditions make the impact of riparian and channel management difficult to predict across scales, which hinders efforts to promote best management practices to improve water quality. We seek to link observations across catchment, reach, and patch scales to understand patterns of nitrate and turbidity in waterways draining irrigated cropland. Data was collected on 80 reaches spanning two water management districts. At the catchment scale, water districts implemented waterway and riparian management differently: one water district had a decentralized approach, allowing individual land owners to manage their waterway channels and banks, while the other had a centralized approach, in which land owners defer management to a district-run program. At the reach scale, riparian and waterway vegetation, geomorphic complexity, and flow conditions were quantified. Reach-scale management such as riparian planting projects and channel dredging frequency were also considered. At the patch scale, denitrification potential and organic matter were measured in riparian toe-slope soils and channel sediments, along with associated vegetation and geomorphic features. All factors were tested for their ability to predict water quality using generalized linear mixed effects models and the consistency of predictors within and across scales was evaluated. A hierarchy of predictors emerges: catchment-scale management regimes predict reach-scale geomorphic and vegetation complexity, which in turn predicts sediment denitrification potential - the patch-scale factor most associated with low nitrate. Similarly

  1. Absorbed Pb2+ and Cd2+ Ions in Water by Cross-Linked Starch Xanthate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-linked starch xanthate was prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylamide and sodium acrylate onto starch xanthate using potassium persulfate and sodium hydrogen sulfite initiating system and N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide as a cross-linker. As this kind of cross-linked potato starch xanthate can effectively absorb heavy metal ions, it was dispersed in aqueous solutions of divalent heavy metal ions (Pb2+ and Cd2+ to investigate their absorbency by the polymer. Factors that can influence absorbency were investigated, such as the ratio of matrix to monomers, the amount of initiator and cross-linker, pH, and the concentration of metal ions. Results were reached and conclusion was drawn that the best synthetic conditions for the polymer adsorbing Pb2+ and Cd2+ were as follows: the quality ratio of matrix to monomers was 1 : 12 and 1 : 11, the amount of initiator was 2.4% and 3.2% of matrix, and the amount of cross-linker was 12 mg and 13 mg. When the initial concentration of ions was 10 mg/L, the highest quantities of adsorption of Pb2+ and Cd2+ were 47.11 mg/g and 36.55 mg/g. Adsorption mechanism was discussed by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS test, and adsorption kinetic simulation.

  2. Water-Responsive Shape Recovery Induced Buckling in Biodegradable Photo-Cross-Linked Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) Hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvekar, Abhijit Vijay; Huang, Wei Min; Xiao, Rui; Wong, Yee Shan; Venkatraman, Subbu S; Tay, Kiang Hiong; Shen, Ze Xiang

    2017-02-21

    -responsive shape memory embolization plug for temporary vascular occlusion. The plug consists of a composite with a poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) core (loaded with radiopaque filler) and cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel outer layer. The device can be activated by body fluid (or water) after about 2 min of immersion in water. The whole occlusion process is completed within a few dozens of seconds. The underlying mechanism is water-responsive shape recovery induced buckling, which occurs in an expeditious manner within a short time period and does not require complete hydration of the whole hydrogel. In this paper, we experimentally and analytically investigate the water-activated shape recovery induced buckling in this biodegradable PEG hydrogel to understand the fundamentals in precisely controlling the buckling time. The molecular mechanism responsible for the water-induced SME in PEG hydrogel is also elucidated. The original diameter and amount of prestretching are identified as two influential parameters to tailor the buckling time between 1 and 4 min as confirmed by both experiments and simulation. The phenomenon reported here, chemically induced buckling via a combination of the SME and swelling, is generic, and the study reported here should be applicable to other water- and non-water-responsive gels.

  3. Measuring Jupiter's water abundance by Juno: the link between interior and formation models

    CERN Document Server

    Helled, Ravit

    2014-01-01

    The JUNO mission to Jupiter is planned to measure the water abundance in Jupiter's atmosphere below the cloud layer. This measurement is important because it can be used to reveal valuable information on Jupiter's origin and its composition. In this paper we discuss the importance of this measurement, the challenges in its interpretation, and address how it can be connected to interior and formation models of Jupiter.

  4. Identifying factors linked to the occurrence of alien gastropods in isolated woodland water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyra, Aneta; Strzelec, Małgorzata

    2014-03-01

    Biological invasions are a significant component of human-caused global change and is widely regarded as one of the main threats to natural biodiversity. Isolated anthropogenic water bodies created in the areas that are deprived of natural freshwater habitats allow the survival and reproduction of alien species on newly settled sites. They are often small with water level fluctuations causing frequent environmental disturbances. The colonisation success may be the result of the rate of their degradation. The aims of the study were to determine the environmental conditions that affect the existence of alien species of gastropods in this type of aquatic environment and to examine whether the occurrence of non-native species affects the community structure of the native species. This study made it possible to group woodland ponds according to the occurrence of the three invasive species in snail communities and discuss the environmental conditions present in these pond types. Analysis of water properties emphasised the distinctiveness of the selected pond types. In ponds of the Potamopyrgus antipodarum type, we found the highest values of some parameters mainly hardness, conductivity, and content of calcium and chlorides, in contrast with the Physella acuta type, which were characterised by the lowest values except for phosphates and nitrites. In the Ferrissia fragilis type, we found the highest nitrate content. Data on the occurrence of alien species in different water environments play an important role in actions which are taken to prevent new invasions and spread of non-native species as well as to reduce future impacts of invaders.

  5. Growth decline linked to warming-induced water limitation in hemi-boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiuchen; Liu, Hongyan; Guo, Dali; Anenkhonov, Oleg A; Badmaeva, Natalya K; Sandanov, Denis V

    2012-01-01

    Hemi-boreal forests, which make up the transition from temperate deciduous forests to boreal forests in southern Siberia, have experienced significant warming without any accompanying increase in precipitation during the last 80 years. This climatic change could have a profound impact on tree growth and on the stability of forest ecosystems in this region, but at present evidence for these impacts is lacking. In this study, we report a recent dramatic decline in the growth of hemi-boreal forests, based on ring width measurements from three dominant tree-species (Pinus sylvestris, Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii), sampled from eight sites in the region. We found that regional tree growth has become increasingly limited by low soil water content in the pre- and early-growing season (from October of the previous year to July of the current year) over the past 80 years. A warming-induced reduction in soil water content has also increased the climate sensitivity of these three tree species. Beginning in the mid-1980s, a clear decline in growth is evident for both the pine forests and the larch forests, although there are increasing trends in the proxy of soil water use efficiencies. Our findings are consistent with those from other parts of the world and provide valuable insights into the regional carbon cycle and vegetation dynamics, and should be useful for devising adaptive forest management strategies.

  6. Growth decline linked to warming-induced water limitation in hemi-boreal forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuchen Wu

    Full Text Available Hemi-boreal forests, which make up the transition from temperate deciduous forests to boreal forests in southern Siberia, have experienced significant warming without any accompanying increase in precipitation during the last 80 years. This climatic change could have a profound impact on tree growth and on the stability of forest ecosystems in this region, but at present evidence for these impacts is lacking. In this study, we report a recent dramatic decline in the growth of hemi-boreal forests, based on ring width measurements from three dominant tree-species (Pinus sylvestris, Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii, sampled from eight sites in the region. We found that regional tree growth has become increasingly limited by low soil water content in the pre- and early-growing season (from October of the previous year to July of the current year over the past 80 years. A warming-induced reduction in soil water content has also increased the climate sensitivity of these three tree species. Beginning in the mid-1980s, a clear decline in growth is evident for both the pine forests and the larch forests, although there are increasing trends in the proxy of soil water use efficiencies. Our findings are consistent with those from other parts of the world and provide valuable insights into the regional carbon cycle and vegetation dynamics, and should be useful for devising adaptive forest management strategies.

  7. Forecasting recreational water quality standard violations with a linked hydrologic-hydronamic modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronewold, A. D.; Ritzenthaler, A.; Fry, L. M.; Anderson, E. J.

    2012-12-01

    There is a clear need in the water resource and public health management communities to develop and test modeling systems which provide robust predictions of water quality and water quality standard violations, particularly in coastal communities. These predictions have the potential to supplement, or even replace, conventional human health protection strategies which (in the case of controlling public access to beaches, for example) are often based on day-old fecal indicator bacteria monitoring results. Here, we present a coupled modeling system which builds upon recent advancements in watershed-scale hydrological modeling and coastal hydrodynamic modeling, including the evolution of the Huron-Erie Connecting Waterways Forecasting System (HECWFS), developed through a partnership between NOAA's Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) and the University of Michigan Cooperative Institute for Limnology and Ecosystems Research (CILER). Our study is based on applying the modeling system to a popular beach in the metro-Detroit (Michigan, USA) area and implementing a routine shoreline monitoring program to help assess model forecasting skill. This research presents an important stepping stone towards the application of similar modeling systems in frequently-closed beaches throughout the Great Lakes region.

  8. Inter-relations between osteoarthritis and metabolic syndrome: A common link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Clanche, S; Bonnefont-Rousselot, D; Sari-Ali, E; Rannou, F; Borderie, D

    2016-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative disorder of the joint, principally occurring during aging, and characterized by a focal degradation of cartilage. It is the most prevalent rheumatic disease in industrialized countries and represents the second cause of disability in France. However, the etiology of OA remains unclear. There is only one cell type found in cartilage, chondrocyte, which is responsible for its repair and the synthesis of the elements of the extra-cellular matrix. A dysfunction of these cells results in an imbalance between repair and degradation in cartilage, leading to its destruction. Recently, a link between OA and metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been suggested, introducing a notion of metabolic OA, and a new vision of the disease. MetS is characterized by a cluster of factors (insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, visceral obesity), although there is still no clear definition of it. During the 20th century, MetS dramatically increased with changes in population lifestyle, becoming a major health issue in industrialized countries. MetS concerns 10-30% of the worldwide population, but is prevalent in 59% of OA patients. Patients with both OA and MetS have more severe symptoms, occurring sooner than in the general population. Indeed, OA is generally a disease concerning the population over 65 years old, but with an associated MetS the target population is around 50 years old. In this review, we will focus on common factors in OA and MetS, such as hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, mitochondrial dysfunction and hyperglycemia, linking one disease to the other. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  9. Age-Related Long-Term Functional Results after Riboflavin UV A Corneal Cross-Linking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporossi, Aldo; Mazzotta, Cosimo; Baiocchi, Stefano; Caporossi, Tomaso; Denaro, Rosario

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To report a comparative prospective long-term functional analysis after Riboflavin UV A corneal cross-linking (CXL) in three different age groups of patients affected by progressive keratoconus (KC). Methods. Functional analysis comprised paediatric patients (≤18 years) included 152 eyes (29.5%); intermediate group (19-26 years) 286 eyes (55.4%), and adults (≥27 years) 78 eyes (15.1%). CXL was performed according to the Siena protocol by using the Vega CBM (Caporossi-Baiocchi-Mazzotta) X linker (CSO, Florence, Italy) at Siena University by the same authors. Pre- and post-op examinations included UCVA, BSCVA, corneal topography, and surface aberrometry (CSO Eye Top, Florence, Italy), at 48 months followup. Results. At 48 months followup paediatrics, intermediate, and adult patients showed a mean gain in UCVA of +0.2, +0.14 and +0.12 Snellen lines. BSCVA gained by a mean of +0.21, +0.2, and +0.1 Snellen lines. K(max) was reduced by a mean value of -0.9 D, -0.6 D, and -0.5 D, respectively. Coma values improved by a mean of -0.45 μm, -0.91 μm, and -0.19 μm, respectively. Treatment ensured a long-term keratoconus stabilization in over 90% of treated patients. Conclusion. According to our long-term comparative results, epithelium-off Riboflavin UV A cross-linking should be the first choice therapy of progressive KC, particularly in paediatric age and patients under 26 years.

  10. Age-Related Long-Term Functional Results after Riboflavin UV A Corneal Cross-Linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Caporossi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report a comparative prospective long-term functional analysis after Riboflavin UV A corneal cross-linking (CXL in three different age groups of patients affected by progressive keratoconus (KC. Methods. Functional analysis comprised paediatric patients (≤18 years included 152 eyes (29.5%; intermediate group (19–26 years 286 eyes (55.4%, and adults (≥27 years 78 eyes (15.1%. CXL was performed according to the Siena protocol by using the Vega CBM (Caporossi-Baiocchi-Mazzotta X linker (CSO, Florence, Italy at Siena University by the same authors. Pre- and post-op examinations included UCVA, BSCVA, corneal topography, and surface aberrometry (CSO Eye Top, Florence, Italy, at 48 months followup. Results. At 48 months followup paediatrics, intermediate, and adult patients showed a mean gain in UCVA of +0.2, +0.14 and +0.12 Snellen lines. BSCVA gained by a mean of +0.21, +0.2, and +0.1 Snellen lines. Kmax was reduced by a mean value of −0.9 D, −0.6 D, and −0.5 D, respectively. Coma values improved by a mean of −0.45 μm, −0.91 μm, and −0.19 μm, respectively. Treatment ensured a long-term keratoconus stabilization in over 90% of treated patients. Conclusion. According to our long-term comparative results, epithelium-off Riboflavin UV A cross-linking should be the first choice therapy of progressive KC, particularly in paediatric age and patients under 26 years.

  11. Missing rings in Pinus halepensis – the missing link to relate the tree-ring record to extreme climatic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemen eNovak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate predictions for the Mediterranean Basin include increased temperatures, decreased precipitation, and increased frequency of extreme climatic events (ECE. These conditions are associated with decreased growth of trees and their increased vulnerability to pests and diseases. The anatomy of tree rings is responsive to these environmental conditions. Quantitatively, the width of a tree ring is largely determined by the rate and duration of cell division by the vascular cambium. In the Mediterranean climate, cambial cell division may occur throughout almost the entire year. Alternatively, cell division may stop during relatively cool and dry winters, only to resume in the same year with milder temperatures and increased availability of water. Under particularly adverse conditions, no xylem may be produced in parts of the stem, resulting in a missing ring (MR, which can link tree-ring anatomy to the occurrence of extreme events. A dendrochronological network of Pinus halepensis, a widespread tree species in the Mediterranean basin, was used to determine the relationship of MR to ECE. The network consisted of 113 sites throughout its distribution range. Binomial logistic regression analysis of 2595 MR series determined that MR increased in frequency with increased cambial age. Spatial analysis indicated that the geographic areas of southeastern Spain and northern Algeria contained the greatest frequency of MR. Further regression analysis indicated that the relationship of MR to total monthly precipitation and mean temperature was non-linear. In this first determination of climatic influences on MR, the formation of MR was most strongly associated with the combination of monthly mean temperature above 10°C from previous October till current February and total precipitation below 50 mm from previous September till current May. This conclusion is global and can be applied to every site across the distribution area. Rather than simply being a

  12. Data model and relational database design for the New Jersey Water-Transfer Data System (NJWaTr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, Steven

    2003-01-01

    The New Jersey Water-Transfer Data System (NJWaTr) is a database design for the storage and retrieval of water-use data. NJWaTr can manage data encompassing many facets of water use, including (1) the tracking of various types of water-use activities (withdrawals, returns, transfers, distributions, consumptive-use, wastewater collection, and treatment); (2) the storage of descriptions, classifications and locations of places and organizations involved in water-use activities; (3) the storage of details about measured or estimated volumes of water associated with water-use activities; and (4) the storage of information about data sources and water resources associated with water use. In NJWaTr, each water transfer occurs unidirectionally between two site objects, and the sites and conveyances form a water network. The core entities in the NJWaTr model are site, conveyance, transfer/volume, location, and owner. Other important entities include water resource (used for withdrawals and returns), data source, permit, and alias. Multiple water-exchange estimates based on different methods or data sources can be stored for individual transfers. Storage of user-defined details is accommodated for several of the main entities. Many tables contain classification terms to facilitate the detailed description of data items and can be used for routine or custom data summarization. NJWaTr accommodates single-user and aggregate-user water-use data, can be used for large or small water-network projects, and is available as a stand-alone Microsoft? Access database. Data stored in the NJWaTr structure can be retrieved in user-defined combinations to serve visualization and analytical applications. Users can customize and extend the database, link it to other databases, or implement the design in other relational database applications.

  13. Linking hydrology of traditional irrigation canals and socio-economic aspects of agricultural water use around Mt. Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimaro, Jerome; Scharsich, Valeska; Huwe, Bernd; Bogner, Christina

    2017-04-01

    Traditional irrigation network around Mt. Kilimanjaro has been an important resource for both ecosystem functioning and agricultural production. However, a number of irrigation furrows can no longer maintain their discharge throughout the year and their future sustainability is uncertain. The actual efforts to improve the water supply were unsuccessful. We attribute this failure to a lack of information about the actual causes and extent of the problem. We suppose that there is a strong link between the socio-economic aspects like institutional and community management of the furrows and conflicts about water use. Therefore, we conducted a study to determine the relationship between current hydrological patterns and socio-economic aspects of agricultural water use. We measured discharge at 11 locations along an altitudinal gradient on the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Additionally, we conducted focus group discussions with participants from 15 villages and key informants interviews (n = 15). We found that the mean discharge did not differ significantly between dry and rainy seasons (ANOVA, p = 0.17). The overall discharge pattern indicated that furrows located in lower altitude had higher mean monthly discharge rate of 65 l s-1 compared to 11.5 l s-1 at the source area of the canals. This is due to the convergence of canals downstream. 41% of furrows were seasonal, 22% dry and only 37% perennial. Despite of a seemingly better water resource availability downstream, water conflicts are a major challenge across the whole mountain communities. Key informants and group discussions reported poor management of water on the district level. The Rural Moshi and Hai District Councils operate on a top down approach that give less power to the local water management committees. However, the latter have been an important part of the traditional management system for decades. Since 1990, the district authorities are using 65% of springs from the catchment to abstract water

  14. Mechanistically linking age-related diseases and dietary carbohydrate via autophagy and the ubiquitin proteolytic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epidemiological data indicate that consuming diets that deliver sugar to the blood rapidly (called high glycemic index, GI) is associated with enhanced risk for age-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cataract and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). These debilities...

  15. Eating Right: Linking Food-Related Decision-Making Concepts from Neuroscience, Psychology, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucerain, Matthias; Fellows, Lesley K.

    2012-01-01

    This literature review uses four dimensions to classify and compare how food-related decision-making is conceptualized and experimentally assessed in neuroscience and other disciplines: (1) food-related decision-making other than the decision of "what" to eat that is part of each eating episode, (2) decision complexes other than the…

  16. Mercury in southeastern U.S. riverine fish populations linked to water body type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rypel, Andrew L; Arrington, D Albrey; Findlay, Robert H

    2008-07-15

    We compared Hg concentrations in fishes from the regulated Black Warrior River and the unregulated Sipsey River in west Alabama whose neighboring watersheds receive equivalent atmospheric Hg deposition. Average fish fillet Hg concentrations were 3-fold higher in the unregulated river compared to the regulated river. Between river differences in Hg fish concentrations likely originate from structural (e.g., species composition) and functional (e.g., energy flow pathways) differences between the two ecosystems. We tested the generality of these findings by comparing largemouth bass Hg concentrations among unregulated rivers (n=6) and reservoirs (n=11) throughout the southern Coastal Plain geologic region. ANCOVA revealed that at a given bass length, Hg concentrations were approximately 1.75 times higher in unregulated rivers compared to regulated rivers. Aerial deposition of Hg was not correlated to largemouth bass Hg concentrations. We suggest that the link between atmospheric Hg deposition and fish Hg concentrations is significantly modulated by the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems and this accounts for much of the variation in fish Hg concentrations among systems. Unregulated floodplain-rivers in the south have some of the highest fish Hg concentrations on record and should be intensely monitored to establish human consumption risks.

  17. Linking in Vitro Effects and Detected Organic Micropollutants in Surface Water Using Mixture-Toxicity Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Peta A; Ait-Aissa, Selim; Brack, Werner; Creusot, Nicolas; Denison, Michael S; Deutschmann, Björn; Hilscherová, Klára; Hollert, Henner; Krauss, Martin; Novák, Jiří; Schulze, Tobias; Seiler, Thomas-Benjamin; Serra, Helene; Shao, Ying; Escher, Beate I

    2015-12-15

    Surface water can contain countless organic micropollutants, and targeted chemical analysis alone may only detect a small fraction of the chemicals present. Consequently, bioanalytical tools can be applied complementary to chemical analysis to detect the effects of complex chemical mixtures. In this study, bioassays indicative of activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR), activation of the estrogen receptor (ER), adaptive stress responses to oxidative stress (Nrf2), genotoxicity (p53) and inflammation (NF-κB) and the fish embryo toxicity test were applied along with chemical analysis to water extracts from the Danube River. Mixture-toxicity modeling was applied to determine the contribution of detected chemicals to the biological effect. Effect concentrations for between 0 to 13 detected chemicals could be found in the literature for the different bioassays. Detected chemicals explained less than 0.2% of the biological effect in the PXR activation, adaptive stress response, and fish embryo toxicity assays, while five chemicals explained up to 80% of ER activation, and three chemicals explained up to 71% of AhR activation. This study highlights the importance of fingerprinting the effects of detected chemicals.

  18. Linking hydraulic properties of fire-affected soils to infiltration and water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, J.A.; Kinner, D.A.; Ubeda, X.

    2009-01-01

    Heat from wildfires can produce a two-layer system composed of extremely dry soil covered by a layer of ash, which when subjected to rainfall, may produce extreme floods. To understand the soil physics controlling runoff for these initial conditions, we used a small, portable disk infiltrometer to measure two hydraulic properties: (1) near-saturated hydraulic conductivity, Kf and (2) sorptivity, S(??i), as a function of initial soil moisture content, ??i, ranging from extremely dry conditions (??i capillarity, and adsorption in a transitional domain corresponding to extremely dry soil, and moreover, it may explain the observed non-linear behavior, and the critical soil-moisture threshold of water repellent soils. Laboratory measurements of Kf and S(??i) are the first for ash and fire-affected soil, but additional measurements are needed of these hydraulic properties for in situ fire-affected soils. They provide insight into water repellency behavior and infiltration under extremely dry conditions. Most importantly, they indicate how existing rainfall-runoff models can be modified to accommodate a possible two-layer system in extremely dry conditions. These modified models can be used to predict floods from burned watersheds under these initial conditions.

  19. Predictive Time Series Analysis Linking Bengal Cholera with Terrestrial Water Storage Measured from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Akanda, Ali; Unnikrishnan, Avinash; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Outbreaks of diarrheal diseases, including cholera, are related to floods and droughts in regions where water and sanitation infrastructure are inadequate or insufficient. However, availability of data on water scarcity and abundance in transnational basins, are a prerequisite for developing cholera forecasting systems. With more than a decade of terrestrial water storage (TWS) data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, conditions favorable for predicting cholera occurrence may now be determined. We explored lead–lag relationships between TWS in the Ganges–Brahmaputra–Meghna basin and endemic cholera in Bangladesh. Since bimodal seasonal peaks in cholera in Bangladesh occur during spring and autumn seasons, two separate logistical models between TWS and disease time series (2002–2010) were developed. TWS representing water availability showed an asymmetrical, strong association with cholera prevalence in the spring (τ = −0.53; P < 0.001) and autumn (τ = 0.45; P < 0.001) up to 6 months in advance. One unit (centimeter of water) decrease in water availability in the basin increased odds of above normal cholera by 24% (confidence interval [CI] = 20–31%; P < 0.05) in the spring, while an increase in regional water by 1 unit, through floods, increased odds of above average cholera in the autumn by 29% (CI = 22–33%; P < 0.05). PMID:26526921

  20. Links between human LINE-1 retrotransposons and hepatitis virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Tomoyuki

    2016-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for approximately 80% of liver cancers, the third most frequent cause of cancer mortality. The most prevalent risk factors for HCC are infections by hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus. Findings suggest that hepatitis virus-related HCC might be a cancer in which LINE-1 retrotransposons, often termed L1, activity plays a potential role. Firstly, hepatitis viruses can suppress host defense factors that also control L1 mobilization. Secondly, many recent studies also have indicated that hypomethylation of L1 affects the prognosis of HCC patients. Thirdly, endogenous L1 retrotransposition was demonstrated to activate oncogenic pathways in HCC. Fourthly, several L1 chimeric transcripts with host or viral genes are found in hepatitis virus-related HCC. Such lines of evidence suggest a linkage between L1 retrotransposons and hepatitis virus-related HCC. Here, I briefly summarize current understandings of the association between hepatitis virus-related HCC and L1. Then, I discuss potential mechanisms of how hepatitis viruses drive the development of HCC via L1 retrotransposons. An increased understanding of the contribution of L1 to hepatitis virus-related HCC may provide unique insights related to the development of novel therapeutics for this disease.

  1. The association between fluoride in drinking water and dental caries in Danish children. Linking data from health registers, environmental registers and administrative registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeskov, Lilli; Kristiansen, Eva; Bøggild, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Dent Oral Epidemiol 2010. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract - Objectives: To study the association between fluoride concentration in drinking water and dental caries in Danish children. Methods: The study linked registry data on fluoride concentration in drinking water over a 10-year period...

  2. Biomass Assessment. Assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy. Inventory and analysis of existing studies. Supporting document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.; Verweij, P. [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Banse, M.; Van Diepen, K.; Van Keulen, H.; Langeveld, H.; Meeusen, M.; Van de Ven, G.; Wester, F. [Wageningen UR, Wageningen (Netherlands); Alkemade, R.; Ten Brink, B.; Van den Born, G.J.; Van Oorschot, M.; Ros, J.; Smout, F.; Van Vuuren, D.; Van den Wijngaart, R. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency NMP, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Aiking, H. [Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Londo, M.; Mozaffarian, H.; Smekens, K. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Lysen, E. (ed.); Van Egmond, S. (ed.) [Utrecht Centre for Energy research UCE, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    This supporting document contains the result from the inventory phase of the biomass assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of global biomass potential estimates, focusing on the various factors affecting these potentials, such as food supplies, water use, biodiversity, energy demands and agro-economics.

  3. Linking hydraulic properties of fire-affected soils to infiltration and water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.; David Kinner,; Xavier Úbeda,

    2009-01-01

    Heat from wildfires can produce a two-layer system composed of extremely dry soil covered by a layer of ash, which when subjected to rainfall, may produce extreme floods. To understand the soil physics controlling runoff for these initial conditions, we used a small, portable disk infiltrometer to measure two hydraulic properties: (1) near-saturated hydraulic conductivity, Kf and (2) sorptivity, S(θi), as a function of initial soil moisture content, θi, ranging from extremely dry conditions (θi water repellency that influences Kf and S(θi).Values of Kf ranged from 4.5 × 10−3 to 53 × 10−3 cm s−1 for ash; from 0.93 × 10−3 to 130 × 10−3 cm s−1 for reference soils; and from 0.86 × 10−3 to 3.0 × 10−3 cm s−1, for soil unaffected by fire, which had the lowest values of Kf. Measurements indicated that S(θi) could be represented by an empirical non-linear function of θi with a sorptivity maximum of 0.18–0.20 cm s−0.5, between 0.03 and 0.08 cm3 cm−3. This functional form differs from the monotonically decreasing non-linear functions often used to represent S(θi) for rainfall–runoff modeling. The sorptivity maximum may represent the combined effects of gravity, capillarity, and adsorption in a transitional domain corresponding to extremely dry soil, and moreover, it may explain the observed non-linear behavior, and the critical soil-moisture threshold of water repellent soils. Laboratory measurements of Kf and S(θi) are the first for ash and fire-affected soil, but additional measurements are needed of these hydraulic properties for in situ fire-affected soils. They provide insight into water repellency behavior and infiltration under extremely dry conditions. Most importantly, they indicate how existing rainfall–runoff models can be modified to accommodate a possible two-layer system in extremely dry conditions. These modified models can be used to predict floods from burned watersheds

  4. The water footprint of Indonesian provinces related to the consumption of crop products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulsink, F.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Booij, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    National water use accounts are generally limited to statistics on water withdrawals in the different sectors of economy. They are restricted to "blue water accounts" related to production, thus excluding (a) "green" and "grey water accounts", (b) accounts of internal and international virtual water

  5. The water footprint of Indonesian provinces related to the consumption of crop products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulsink, F.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Booij, Martijn J.

    2010-01-01

    National water use accounts are generally limited to statistics on water withdrawals in the different sectors of economy. They are restricted to "blue water accounts" related to production, thus excluding (a) "green" and "grey water accounts", (b) accounts of internal and international virtual water

  6. Sexual orientation of trans adults is not linked to outcome of transition-related health care, but worth asking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, Timo O; Elaut, Els; Richards, Christina; Dekker, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of contemporary transition-related care at the outset of the 20th century, sexual orientation has ben considered to be closely connected with gender identity and the developmental trajectories of trans people. Specifically, health professionals have regarded the anticipated post-transitional heterosexual behaviour of trans adults as predictive of a good outcome of cross-sex hormones and gender-confirming surgeries. This article reviews the current literature according to the question of whether the sexual orientation of trans people is linked to outcome measures following transition-related interventions. A comprehensive review was undertaken using the Medline database, searching for empirical studies published between 2010 and 2015. Out of a total of 474 studies, only 10 studies reported a follow-up of trans adults and assessed sexual orientation in the study protocol at all. Sexual orientation was predominantly assessed as homosexual versus non-homosexual related to sex assigned at birth. Only one 1 of 10 follow-up studies found a significant association according to the outcome between groups differentiated by sexual orientation. Empirically there is no link between sexual orientation and outcome of transition-related health care for trans adults. In order to provide comprehensive health care, we recommend asking for sexual behaviours, attractions and identities, as well as for gender experiences and expressions; however, this knowledge should not drive, but simply inform, such comprehensive care.

  7. A geomatic methodology for spatio-temporal analysis of climatologic variables and water related diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, E.; Gómez Albores, M. A.; Díaz Delgado, C.

    2009-04-01

    The main objective of this research is to propose, by the way of geomatic developments, an integrated tool to analyze and model the spatio-temporal pattern of human diseases related to environmental conditions, in particular the ones that are linked to water resources. The geomatic developments follows four generic steps : requirement analysis, conceptual modeling, geomatic modeling and implementation (in Idrisi GIS software). A first development consists of the preprocessing of water, population and health data in order to facilitate the conversion and validation of tabular data into the required structure for spatio-temporal analysis. Three parallel developments follow : water balance, demographic state and evolution, epidemiological measures (morbidity and mortality rates, diseases burden). The new geomatic modules in their actual state have been tested on various regions of Mexico Republic (Lerma watershed, Chiapas state) focusing on diarrhea and vector borne diseases (dengue and malaria) and considering records over the last decade : a yearly as well as seasonal spreading trend can be observed in correlation with precipitation and temperature data. In an ecohealth perspective, the geomatic approach results particularly appropriate since one of its purposes is the integration of the various spatial themes implied in the study problem, environmental as anthropogenic. By the use of powerful spatial analysis functions, it permits the detection of spatial trends which, combined to the temporal evolution, can be of particularly use for example in climate change context, if sufficiently valid historical data can be obtain.

  8. Reactivity of the Bacteria-Water Interface: Linking Nutrient Availability to Bacteria-Metal Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowle, D. A.; Daughney, C. J.; Riley, J. L.

    2002-12-01

    Identifying and quantifying the controls on metal mobilities in geologic systems is critical in order to understand processes such as global element cycling, metal transport in near-surface water-rock systems, sedimentary diagenesis, and mineral formation. Bacteria are ubiquitous in near-surface water-rock systems, and numerous laboratory and field studies have demonstrated that bacteria can facilitate the formation and dissolution of minerals, and enhance or inhibit contaminant transport. However, despite the growing evidence that bacteria play a key role in many geologic processes in low temperature systems, our understanding of the influence of the local nutrient dynamics of the system of interest on bacteria-metal interactions is limited. Here we present data demonstrating the effectiveness of coupling laboratory experiments with geochemical modeling to isolate the effect of nutrient availability on bacterially mediated proton and metal adsorption reactions. Experimental studies of metal-bacteria interactions were conducted in batch reactors as a function of pH, and solid-solute interactions after growth in a variety of defined and undefined media. Media nutrient composition (C,N,P) was quantified before and after harvesting the cells. Surface complexation models (SCM) for the adsorption reactions were developed by combining sorption data with the results of acid-base titrations, and in some cases zeta potential titrations of the bacterial surface. Our results indicate a clear change in both buffering potential and metal binding capacity of the cell walls of Bacillus subtilis as a function of initial media conditions. Combining current studies with our past studies on the effects of growth phase and others work on temperature dependence on metal adsorption we hope to develop a holistic surface complexation model for quantifying bacterial effects on metal mass transfer in many geologic systems.

  9. Organic compounds in water extracts of coal: links to Balkan endemic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, S V M; Orem, W H; Tatu, C A; Lerch, H E; Szilagyi, D N

    2014-02-01

    The Pliocene lignite hypothesis is an environmental hypothesis that has been proposed to explain the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN). Aqueous leaching experiments were conducted on a variety of coal samples in order to simulate groundwater leaching of organic compounds, and to further test the role of the Pliocene lignite hypothesis in the etiology of BEN. Experiments were performed on lignite coal samples from endemic BEN areas in Romania and Serbia, and lignite and bituminous coals from nonendemic regions in Romania and the USA. Room temperature, hot water bath, and Soxhlet aqueous extraction experiments were conducted between 25 and 80 °C, and from 5 to 128 days in duration. A greater number of organic compounds and in higher concentrations were present in all three types of leaching experiments involving endemic area Pliocene lignite samples compared to all other coals examined. A BEN causing molecule or molecules may be among phenols, PAHs, benzenes, and/or lignin degradation compounds. The proposed transport pathway of the Pliocene lignite hypothesis for organic compound exposure from endemic area Pliocene lignite coals to well and spring drinking water, is likely. Aromatic compounds leached by groundwater from Pliocene lignite deposits in the vicinity of endemic BEN areas may play a role in the etiology of the disease. A better understanding of organic compounds leached by groundwater from Pliocene lignite deposits may potentially lead to the identification and implementation of effective strategies for the prevention of exposure to the causative agent(s) for BEN, and in turn, prevention of the disease.

  10. Linking Neighborhood Characteristics and Drug-Related Police Interventions: A Bayesian Spatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Marco

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of drug-related police interventions and the neighborhood characteristics influencing these spatial patterns. To this end, police officers ranked each census block group in Valencia, Spain (N = 552, providing an index of drug-related police interventions. Data from the City Statistics Office and observational variables were used to analyze neighborhood characteristics. Distance to the police station was used as the control variable. A Bayesian ecological analysis was performed with a spatial beta regression model. Results indicated that high physical decay, low socioeconomic status, and high immigrant concentration were associated with high levels of drug-related police interventions after adjustment for distance to the police station. Results illustrate the importance of a spatial approach to understanding crime.

  11. The genetics of water-use efficiency and its relation to growth in maritime pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marguerit, Elisa; Bouffier, Laurent; Chancerel, Emilie; Costa, Paolo; Lagane, Frédéric; Guehl, Jean-Marc; Plomion, Christophe; Brendel, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    To meet the increasing demand of wood biomass worldwide in the context of climate change, developing improved forest tree varieties for high productivity in water-limited conditions is becoming a major issue. This involves breeding for genotypes combining high growth and moderate water loss and thus high water-use efficiency (WUE). The present work provides original data about the genetics of intrinsic WUE (the ratio between net CO2 assimilation rate and stomatal conductance, also estimated by carbon isotope composition of plant material; δ13C) and its relation to growth in Pinus pinaster Ait. First, heritability for δ13C was estimated (0.29) using a 15-year-old progeny trial (Landes provenance), with no significant differences among three sites contrasting in water availability. High intersite correlations (0.63–0.91) and significant but low genotype–environment interactions were detected. Secondly, the genetic architectures of δ13C and growth were studied in a three-generation inbred pedigree, introducing the genetic background of a more-drought-adapted parent (Corsican provenance), at ages of 2 years (greenhouse) and 9 years (plantation). One of the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) identified in the field experiment, explaining 67% of the phenotypic variance, was also found among the QTLs detected in the greenhouse experiment, where it colocalized with QTLs for intrinsic WUE and stomatal conductance. This work was able to show that higher WUE was not genetically linked to less growth, allowing thus genetic improvement of water use. As far as is known, the heritability and QTL effects estimated here are based on the highest number of genotypes measured to date. PMID:24987014

  12. Variation in some quality attributes of Atlantic salmon fillets from aquaculture related to geographic origin and water temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Gine Ørnholt; Frosch, Stina; Jørgensen, Bo Munk

    2017-01-01

    It is well know that factors like fat content and texture affect the yield when making products from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The relation between these factors and other quality attributes like water holding capacity and protein content, however, has received limited attention. To enable...... an efficient use of the information gathered in the different links of the value chain, a deeper knowledge of the correlations between the various quality attributes and factors like the geographical origin of the salmon, the company and the water temperature of the fish farm, is needed. In the present study...... a multivariate approach was taken to investigate the variation in some quality parameters (fat, protein, texture, water holding capacity, weight) amongst salmon samples (n = 136) from Norwegian aquaculture in order to establish which parameters were accounting for most of the variation seen in relation...

  13. Linking Shared Organisational Context and Relational Capital through Unlearning: An Initial Empirical Investigation in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegarra-Navarro, Juan G.; Dewhurst, Frank W.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The environment provided by an organisation to facilitate learning and create knowledge has been defined as the shared organisational context. The value to an organisation of knowledge created by the shared organisational context is called intellectual capital, of which one key component is relational capital. The purpose of this paper is…

  14. Persistent Organic Pollutants and Concern Over the Link with Insulin Resistance Related Metabolic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafalou, Sara

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are mostly halogenated compounds tending to persist in the environment, enter into the food chain, and accumulate in fat mass of mammals due to their high lipophilicity. They include some organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Some of these chemicals were widely used in the past so that their residues can be detected in the human body, though their usage has been banned for years. POPs have been shown to perturb the health of biological systems in different ways evidenced by carcinogenicity and disrupting effects on endocrine, immune, and reproductive systems. There are many epidemiologic and experimental studies on the association of exposure to POPs with insulin resistance and related metabolic disorders like obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Inflammation as a known mechanism accompanying insulin resistance has also been shown to arise in insulin target tissues exposed to POPs. This review addresses the breast milk concentration of POPs in different regions of the world, synthesizes the current information on the association of POPs with insulin resistance related metabolic disorders, and discusses the inflammation as an involved mechanism. Considering high prevalence of insulin resistance related metabolic diseases and their relation with POPs, much need is felt regarding international and regional programs to not only limit their production and usage but eliminate these persistent pollutants from the environment.

  15. The User Interface: A Hypertext Model Linking Art Objects and Related Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moline, Judi

    This report presents a model combining the emerging technologies of hypertext and expert systems. Hypertext is relatively unexplored but promises an innovative approach to information retrieval. In contrast, expert systems have been used experimentally in many different application areas ranging from medical diagnosis to oil exploration. The…

  16. Linking functional and relational service quality to customer satisfaction and loyalty: differences between men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Rosa M; Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peiró, José M; Moliner, Carolina

    2010-04-01

    This study assessed differences between men and women in the association of perceptions of service quality with customer evaluations. Functional (efficiency with which the service is delivered) and relational (customers' emotional benefits, beyond the core performance, related to the social interaction of customers with employees) dimensions of service quality were measured as well as customer satisfaction and loyalty. The sample of 277 customers (191 men, 86 women), surveyed in 29 Mexican hotels, had a mean age of 38.1 yr. (SD=9.7) for men and 34.5 yr. (SD=11.0) for women. To be eligible for survey, customers had to have spent at least one night in the hotel in question. Analysis indicated that the women and men differed in the association of functional and relational dimensions of service quality with their satisfaction and loyalty. Functional service quality was higher for the men than the women, while relational service quality showed greater predictive power for women than for men, although these accounted for only 4% of the customers' satisfaction variance and 6% of the loyalty variance.

  17. Linking climate projections to performance: A yield-based decision scaling assessment of a large urban water resources system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sean W. D.; Marlow, David; Ekström, Marie; Rhodes, Bruce G.; Kularathna, Udaya; Jeffrey, Paul J.

    2014-04-01

    Despite a decade of research into climate change impacts on water resources, the scientific community has delivered relatively few practical methodological developments for integrating uncertainty into water resources system design. This paper presents an application of the "decision scaling" methodology for assessing climate change impacts on water resources system performance and asks how such an approach might inform planning decisions. The decision scaling method reverses the conventional ethos of climate impact assessment by first establishing the climate conditions that would compel planners to intervene. Climate model projections are introduced at the end of the process to characterize climate risk in such a way that avoids the process of propagating those projections through hydrological models. Here we simulated 1000 multisite synthetic monthly streamflow traces in a model of the Melbourne bulk supply system to test the sensitivity of system performance to variations in streamflow statistics. An empirical relation was derived to convert decision-critical flow statistics to climatic units, against which 138 alternative climate projections were plotted and compared. We defined the decision threshold in terms of a system yield metric constrained by multiple performance criteria. Our approach allows for fast and simple incorporation of demand forecast uncertainty and demonstrates the reach of the decision scaling method through successful execution in a large and complex water resources system. Scope for wider application in urban water resources planning is discussed.

  18. Spatial distribution mapping of drinking water fluoride levels in Karnataka, India: fluoride-related health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Chitta R; Shahnawaz, Khijmatgar; Kumari, Divya; Chowdhury, Avidyuti; Bedi, Raman; Lynch, Edward; Harding, Stewart; Grootveld, Martin

    2016-11-01

    (1) To estimate the concentrations of fluoride in drinking water throughout different zones and districts of the state of Karnataka. (2) To investigate the variation of fluoride concentration in drinking water from different sources, and its relationships to daily temperature and rainfall status in the regional districts. (3) To develop an updated fluoride concentration intensity map of the state of Karnataka, and to evaluate these data in the context of fluoride-related health effects such as fluorosis and their prevalence. Aqueous standard solutions of 10, 100 and 1,000 ppm fluoride (F(-)) were prepared with analytical grade Na(+)/F(-) and a buffer; TISAB II was incorporated in both calibration standard and analysis solutions in order to remove the potentially interfering effects of trace metal ions. This analysis was performed using an ion-selective electrode (ISE), and mean determination readings for n = 5 samples collected at each Karnataka water source were recorded. The F(-) concentration in drinking water in Karnataka state was found to vary substantially, with the highest mean values recorded being in the north-eastern zone (1.61 ppm), and the lowest in the south-western one (only 0.41 ppm). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that there were very highly significant 'between-zone' and 'between-districts-within-zones' sources of variation (p water source F(-) levels within this state. The southern part of Karnataka has low levels of F(-) in its drinking water, and may require fluoridation treatment in order to mitigate for dental caries and further ailments related to fluoride deficiency. However, districts within the north-eastern region have contrastingly high levels of fluoride, an observation which has been linked to dental and skeletal fluorosis. This highlights a major requirement for interventional actions in order to ensure maintenance of the recommended range of fluoride concentrations (0.8-1.5 ppm) in Karnataka's drinking water

  19. Linking Prenatal Androgens to Gender-Related Attitudes, Identity, and Activities: Evidence From Girls With Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endendijk, Joyce J; Beltz, Adriene M; McHale, Susan M; Bryk, Kristina; Berenbaum, Sheri A

    2016-10-01

    Key questions for developmentalists concern the origins of gender attitudes and their implications for behavior. We examined whether prenatal androgen exposure was related to gender attitudes, and whether and how the links between attitudes and gendered activity interest and participation were mediated by gender identity and moderated by hormones. Gender attitudes (i.e., gender-role attitudes and attitudes about being a girl), gender identity, and gender-typed activities were reported by 54 girls aged 10-13 years varying in degree of prenatal androgen exposure, including 40 girls with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (C-CAH) exposed to high prenatal androgens and 14 girls with non-classical (NC) CAH exposed to low, female-typical, prenatal androgens. Both girls with C-CAH and NC-CAH reported positive attitudes about being a girl and egalitarian gender attitudes, consistent with their female-typical gender identity. In contrast, girls with C-CAH had more male-typed activity interest and participation than girls with NC-CAH. Gender attitudes were linked to activities in both groups, with gender identity mediating the links. Specifically, gender-role attitudes and positive attitudes about being a girl were associated with feminine gender identity, which in turn was associated with decreased male-typed activity interests and participation, and increased female-typed activity interests. Our results are consistent with schema theories, with attitudes more closely associated with gender identity than with prenatal androgens.

  20. Linking low- to high-mass YSOs with Herschel-HIFI observations of water

    CERN Document Server

    Jose-Garcia, I San; van Dishoeck, E F; Kristensen, L E; van der Tak, F F S; Braine, J; Herpin, F; Johnstone, D; van Kempen, T A; Wyrowski, F

    2016-01-01

    Water probes the dynamics in young stellar objects (YSOs) effectively, especially shocks in molecular outflows. It is a key molecule for exploring whether the physical properties of low-mass protostars can be extrapolated to massive YSOs. As part of the WISH key programme, we investigate the dynamics and the excitation conditions of shocks along the outflow cavity wall as function of source luminosity. Velocity-resolved Herschel-HIFI spectra of the H2O 988, 752, 1097 GHz and 12CO J=10-9, 16-15 lines were analysed for 52 YSOs with bolometric luminosities (L_bol) ranging from 10^5 L_sun. The profiles of the H2O lines are similar, indicating that they probe the same gas. We see two main Gaussian emission components in all YSOs: a broad component associated with non-dissociative shocks in the outflow cavity wall (cavity shocks) and a narrow component associated with quiescent envelope material. More than 60% of the total integrated intensity of the H2O lines (L_H2O) comes from the cavity shock component. The H2O ...

  1. Linking Assessment to Decision Making in Water Resources Planning - Decision Making Frameworks and Case Study Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, D.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Simes, J.

    2015-12-01

    Climate assessments have become an accepted and commonly used component of long term water management and planning. There is substantial variation in the methods used in these assessments; however, managers and decision-makers have come to value their utility to identify future system limitations, and to evaluate future alternatives to ensure satisfactory system performance. A new set of decision-making frameworks have been proposed, including robust decision making (RDM), and decision scaling, that directly address the deep uncertainties found in both future climate, and non-climatic factors. Promising results have been obtained using these new frameworks, offering a more comprehensive understanding of future conditions leading to failures, and identification of measures to address these failures. Data and resource constraints have limited the use of these frameworks within the Bureau of Reclamation. We present here a modified framework that captures the strengths of previously proposed methods while using a suite of analysis tool that allow for a 'rapid climate assessment' to be performed. A scalable approach has been taken where more complex tools can be used if project resources allow. This 'rapid assessment' is demonstrated through two case studies on the Santa Ana and Colorado Rivers where previous climate assessments have been completed. Planning-level measures are used to compare how decision making is affected when using this new decision making framework.

  2. Background seismicity rate at subduction zones linked to slab-bending-related hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Tomoaki; Ide, Satoshi

    2015-09-01

    Tectonic properties strongly control variations in seismicity among subduction zones. In particular, fluid distribution in subduction zones influences earthquake occurrence, and it varies among subduction zones due to variations in fluid sources such as hydrated oceanic plates. However, the relationship between variations in fluid distribution and variations in seismicity among subduction zones is unclear. Here we divide Earth's subduction zones into 111 regions and estimate background seismicity rates using the epidemic type aftershock sequence model. We demonstrate that background seismicity rate correlates to the amount of bending of the incoming oceanic plate, which in turn is related to the hydration of oceanic plates via slab-bending-related faults. Regions with large bending may have high-seismicity rates because a strongly hydrated oceanic plate causes high pore fluid pressure and reduces the strength of the plate interface. We suggest that variations in fluid distribution can also cause variations in seismicity in subduction zones.

  3. Linking public relations processes and organizational effectiveness at a state health department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored a state health department's relationships with strategic constituencies from a public relations perspective. The relationships were explored within the theoretical framework of the Excellence Theory, the dominant paradigm in public research. Findings indicate application of the Excellence Theory has the potential to increase organizational effectiveness at public health entities. With respect to the case investigated, findings indicate that the state health department could increase its organizational effectiveness through the adoption of recommendations based on the Excellence Theory.

  4. Viruses as the causative agent related to 'dampness' and the missing link between allergen exposure and onset of allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersoug, Lars-Georg

    2005-01-01

    . The infectious effectiveness of respiratory viruses depends strongly on the environment where the viruses are spread. For respiratory viruses, survival and infectivity are dependent on temperature and relative humidity. A direct link between virus-induced inflammation and the asthmatogenic process has been...... proposed. Therefore, a more effective spreading of viral infections in damp indoor climates is likely to represent the main cause for the increased prevalence of asthma in these environments. Moreover, the incidence of viral infections is higher in patients with asthma compared with that in control...

  5. Linking Plant Water-Use Efficiency and Depth of Water Uptake to Field­-Level Productivity Under Surplus and Deficit Irrigation in Almond Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seely, T.; Shackel, K.; Silva, L. C. R.

    2016-12-01

    The impact of water stress on depth of water uptake, as well as water­-use efficiency (WUE) at the tree-level and field-level was examined in almond orchards under varying degrees of deficit and surplus irrigation treatments. Three different orchards, spanning a latitudinal gradient (35° to 39° N) were sampled during two growing seasons in the central valley of CA. The orchards encompass a range of climatic and edaphic conditions, providing an opportunity for comparisons of WUE and orchard yield under contrasting environmental conditions. In each orchard, the control treatment received 100% replacement of water lost to evapotranspiration (ET), while the surplus treatment received 110% and the deficit treatment received 70% replenishment of ET, the latter simulating conditions of water stress. Preliminary results based on the analysis of carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) in leaves throughout the 2015 and 2016 growing seasons, reveal a significant change in WUE in all three orchard sites, increasing up to 20% on average in the deficit irrigation treatment relative to controls. In contrast, trees growing under surplus irrigation had the lowest WUE across all orchard sites. The difference in WUE between surplus irrigated trees and control irrigated trees within each orchard was not always statistically significant. These physiological responses to levels of water availability were not reflected in field-level orchard productivity, which was highly variable across orchard sites and treatments. Additionally, analysis of oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δ2H) isotope ratios of stem, leaf, and soil water has been undertaken to determine the effect of water stress on the depth of root water uptake. The hypothesis that almond trees can effectively acclimate to water stress through higher WUE and deeper root water uptake compared to well-watered trees will be tested. This multi-scale, ecohydrological study will elucidate the impacts of drought on almond orchards, one of the most

  6. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development.

  7. The water footprint of Indonesian provinces related to the consumption of crop products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bulsink

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available National water use accounts are generally limited to statistics on water withdrawals in the different sectors of economy. They are restricted to "blue water accounts" related to production, thus excluding (a "green" and "grey water accounts", (b accounts of internal and international virtual water flows and (c water accounts related to consumption. This paper shows how national water-use accounts can be extended through an example for Indonesia. The study quantifies interprovincial virtual water flows related to trade in crop products and assesses the green, blue and grey water footprint related to the consumption of crop products per Indonesian province. The study shows that the average water footprint in Indonesia insofar related to consumption of crop products is 1131 m3/cap/yr, but provincial water footprints vary between 859 and 1895 m3/cap/yr. Java, the most water-scarce island, has a net virtual water import and the most significant external water footprint. This large external water footprint is relieving the water scarcity on this island. Trade will remain necessary to supply food to the most densely populated areas where water scarcity is highest (Java.

  8. Climate Change-Related Water Disasters' Impact on Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenema, Tener Goodwin; Thornton, Clifton P; Lavin, Roberta Proffitt; Bender, Annah K; Seal, Stella; Corley, Andrew

    2017-08-18

    Rising global temperatures have resulted in an increased frequency and severity of cyclones, hurricanes, and flooding in many parts of the world. These climate change-related water disasters (CCRWDs) have a devastating impact on communities and the health of residents. Clinicians and policymakers require a substantive body of evidence on which to base planning, prevention, and disaster response to these events. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature concerning the impact of CCRWDs on public health in order to identify factors in these events that are amenable to preparedness and mitigation. Ultimately, this evidence could be used by nurses to advocate for greater preparedness initiatives and inform national and international disaster policy. A systematic literature review of publications identified through a comprehensive search of five relevant databases (PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature [CINAHL], Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science) was conducted using a modified Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) approach in January 2017 to describe major themes and associated factors of the impact of CCRWDs on population health. Three major themes emerged: environmental disruption resulting in exposure to toxins, population susceptibility, and health systems infrastructure (failure to plan-prepare-mitigate, inadequate response, and lack of infrastructure). Direct health impact was characterized by four major categories: weather-related morbidity and mortality, waterborne diseases/water-related illness, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, and psychiatric/mental health effects. Scope and duration of the event are factors that exacerbate the impact of CCRWDs. Discussion of specific factors amenable to mitigation was limited. Flooding as an event was overrepresented in this analysis (60%), and the majority of the research reviewed was conducted in high-income or upper

  9. Construction of an integrated gene regulatory network link to stress-related immune system in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behdani, Elham; Bakhtiarizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2017-08-20

    The immune system is an important biological system that is negatively impacted by stress. This study constructed an integrated regulatory network to enhance our understanding of the regulatory gene network used in the stress-related immune system. Module inference was used to construct modules of co-expressed genes with bovine leukocyte RNA-Seq data. Transcription factors (TFs) were then assigned to these modules using Lemon-Tree algorithms. In addition, the TFs assigned to each module were confirmed using the promoter analysis and protein-protein interactions data. Therefore, our integrated method identified three TFs which include one TF that is previously known to be involved in immune response (MYBL2) and two TFs (E2F8 and FOXS1) that had not been recognized previously and were identified for the first time in this study as novel regulatory candidates in immune response. This study provides valuable insights on the regulatory programs of genes involved in the stress-related immune system.

  10. The rise of global health diplomacy: An interdisciplinary concept linking health and international relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattu, Vijay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Global health diplomacy (GHD) is relatively a very new field that has yet to be clearly defined and developed though there are various definitions given by different experts from foreign policy, global health, diplomacy, international relations, governance, and law. With the intensification of globalization and increasing gaps between countries, new and reemerging health threats such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Ebola, and Zika and a gradual rethinking on security concepts framed a new political context. The health problems addressed diplomatically have also become diverse ranging from neglected tropical diseases, infectious diseases, sale of unsafe, counterfeit drugs to brain drain crisis. We see that global health has become more diverse as the actors widened and also the interests appealing not only to the traditional humanitarian ideals associated with health but also to the principles grounded in national and global security. Recently, we are witnessing the increased priority given to the GHD because the issue of health is discussed by various actors outside the WHO to shape the global policy for health determinants. In fact, the area of health has become the part of UN Summit Diplomacy involving the G8, G20, BRICS, and the EU. The recent WHO Pandemic Influenza Framework, UN High Level Framework on Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control are some of the examples of long-term negotiation processes for agreements that took place.

  11. Climate change, water quality, and water-related diseases in the Mekong Delta Basin: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phung, Dung; Huang, Cunrui; Rutherford, Shannon; Chu, Cordia; Wang, Xiaoming; Nguyen, Minh

    2015-04-01

    Mekong Delta Basin (MDB) is vulnerable to extreme climate and hydrological events. The objectives of this review are to understand of water related health effects exacerbated by climate change and the gaps of knowledge on the relationships between climate conditions, water quality, and water-related diseases in the MDB. The findings indicate that a few studies with qualitative emphases on the relationships between climate and water quality have been conducted in MDB, and they are insufficient to describe the pattern of climate-disease relationship. The diseases caused by chemical contaminants in relation to changes of climate conditions are neglected in MDB. We suggest further studies to examine the influence of short-term variation of climate conditions on water quality and water-related diseases for the purpose of public health and medical prevention, and due to the trans-boundary nature of MDB, developing partnership in data sharing and research collaboration among MDBs countries should be prioritized. © 2015 APJPH.

  12. Modeling Water and Nutrient Transport through the Soil-Root-Canopy Continuum: Explicitly Linking the Below- and Above-Ground Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Quijano, J. C.; Drewry, D.

    2010-12-01

    Vegetation roots provide a fundamental link between the below ground water and nutrient dynamics and above ground canopy processes such as photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and energy balance. The “hydraulic architecture” of roots, consisting of the structural organization of the root system and the flow properties of the conduits (xylem) as well as interfaces with the soil and the above ground canopy, affect stomatal conductance thereby directly linking them to the transpiration. Roots serve as preferential pathways for the movement of moisture from wet to dry soil layers during the night, both from upper soil layer to deeper layers during the wet season (‘hydraulic descent’) and vice-versa (‘hydraulic lift’) as determined by the moisture gradients. The conductivities of transport through the root system are significantly, often orders of magnitude, larger than that of the surrounding soil resulting in movement of soil-moisture at rates that are substantially larger than that through the soil. This phenomenon is called hydraulic redistribution (HR). The ability of the deep-rooted vegetation to “bank” the water through hydraulic descent during wet periods for utilization during dry periods provides them with a competitive advantage. However, during periods of hydraulic lift these deep-rooted trees may facilitate the growth of understory vegetation where the understory scavenges the hydraulically lifted soil water. In other words, understory vegetation with relatively shallow root systems have access to the banked deep-water reservoir. These inter-dependent root systems have a significant influence on water cycle and ecosystem productivity. HR induced available moisture may support rhizosphere microbial and mycorrhizal fungi activities and enable utilization of heterogeneously distributed water and nutrient resources To capture this complex inter-dependent nutrient and water transport through the soil-root-canopy continuum we present modeling

  13. iSOIL: Interactions between soil related sciences - Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Peter; Werban, Ulrike; Sauer, Uta

    2010-05-01

    High-resolution soil property maps are one major prerequisite for the specific protection of soil functions and restoration of degraded soils as well as sustainable land use, water and environmental management. To generate such maps the combination of digital soil mapping approaches and remote as well as proximal soil sensing techniques is most promising. However, a feasible and reliable combination of these technologies for the investigation of large areas (e.g. catchments and landscapes) and the assessment of soil degradation threats is missing. Furthermore, there is insufficient dissemination of knowledge on digital soil mapping and proximal soil sensing in the scientific community, to relevant authorities as well as prospective users. As one consequence there is inadequate standardization of techniques. At the poster we present the EU collaborative project iSOIL within the 7th framework program of the European Commission. iSOIL focuses on improving fast and reliable mapping methods of soil properties, soil functions and soil degradation risks. This requires the improvement and integration of advanced soil sampling approaches, geophysical and spectroscopic measuring techniques, as well as pedometric and pedophysical approaches. The focus of the iSOIL project is to develop new and to improve existing strategies and innovative methods for generating accurate, high resolution soil property maps. At the same time the developments will reduce costs compared to traditional soil mapping. ISOIL tackles the challenges by the integration of three major components: (i)high resolution, non-destructive geophysical (e.g. Electromagnetic Induction EMI; Ground Penetrating Radar, GPR; magnetics, seismics) and spectroscopic (e.g., Near Surface Infrared, NIR) methods, (ii)Concepts of Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) and pedometrics as well as (iii)optimized soil sampling with respect to profound soil scientific and (geo)statistical strategies. A special focus of iSOIL lies on the

  14. Detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in environmental waters by PCR enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sails, A D; Bolton, F J; Fox, A J; Wareing, D R A; Greenway, D L A

    2002-03-01

    A PCR enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay was applied to the detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in environmental water samples after enrichment culture. Bacterial cells were concentrated from 69 environmental water samples by using filtration, and the filtrates were cultured in Campylobacter blood-free broth. After enrichment culture, DNA was extracted from the samples by using a rapid-boiling method, and the DNA extracts were used as a template in a PCR ELISA assay. A total of 51 samples were positive by either PCR ELISA or culture; of these, 43 were found to be positive by PCR ELISA and 43 were found to be positive by culture. Overall, including positive and negative results, 59 samples were concordant in both methods. Several samples were positive in the PCR ELISA assay but were culture negative; therefore, this assay may be able to detect sublethally damaged or viable nonculturable forms of campylobacters. The method is rapid and sensitive, and it significantly reduces the time needed for the detection of these important pathogens by 2 to 3 days.

  15. Human cell toxicogenomic analysis links reactive oxygen species to the toxicity of monohaloacetic acid drinking water disinfection byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pals, Justin; Attene-Ramos, Matias S.; Xia, Menghang; Wagner, Elizabeth D.; Plewa, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to drinking water disinfection byproducts has been linked to adverse health risks. The monohaloacetic acids (monoHAAs) are generated as byproducts during the disinfection of drinking water and are cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, and teratogenic. Iodoacetic acid toxicity was mitigated by antioxidants, suggesting the involvement of oxidative stress. Other monoHAAs may share a similar mode of action. Each monoHAA generated a significant concentration-response increase in the expression of a β-lactamase reporter under the control of the Antioxidant Response Element (ARE). The monoHAAs generated oxidative stress with a rank order of IAA > BAA >> CAA; this rank order was observed with other toxicological endpoints. Toxicogenomic analysis was conducted with a non-transformed human intestinal epithelial cell line (FHs 74 Int). Exposure to the monoHAAs altered the transcription levels of multiple oxidative stress responsive genes, indicating that each exposure generated oxidative stress. The transcriptome profiles showed an increase in TXNRD1 and SRXN1, suggesting peroxiredoxin proteins had been oxidized during monoHAA exposures. Three sources of reactive oxygen species were identified, the hypohalous acid generating peroxidase enzymes LPO and MPO, NADPH-dependent oxidase NOX5, and PTGS2 (COX-2) mediated arachidonic acid metabolism. Each monoHAA exposure caused an increase in COX-2 mRNA levels. These data provide a functional association between monoHAA exposure and adverse health outcomes such as oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer. PMID:24050308

  16. Broad-minded links cell cycle-related kinase to cilia assembly and hedgehog signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyuk Wan; Norman, Ryan X; Tran, John; Fuller, Kimberly P; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Eggenschwiler, Jonathan T

    2010-02-16

    Recent findings indicate that mammalian Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signal transduction occurs within primary cilia, although the cell biological mechanisms underlying both Shh signaling and ciliogenesis have not been fully elucidated. We show that an uncharacterized TBC domain-containing protein, Broad-minded (Bromi), is required for high-level Shh responses in the mouse neural tube. We find that Bromi controls ciliary morphology and proper Gli2 localization within the cilium. By use of a zebrafish model, we further show that Bromi is required for proper association between the ciliary membrane and axoneme. Bromi physically interacts with cell cycle-related kinase (CCRK), whose Chlamydomonas homolog regulates flagellar length. Biochemical and genetic interaction data indicate that Bromi promotes CCRK stability and function. We propose that Bromi and CCRK control the structure of the primary cilium by coordinating assembly of the axoneme and ciliary membrane, allowing Gli proteins to be properly activated in response to Shh signaling.

  17. Is butyrate the link between diet, intestinal microbiota and obesity-related metabolic diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahe, L K; Astrup, A; Larsen, L H

    2013-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that there is a connection between diet, intestinal microbiota, intestinal barrier function and the low-grade inflammation that characterizes the progression from obesity to metabolic disturbances, making dietary strategies to modulate the intestinal environment relevant. In this context, the ability of some Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria to produce the short-chain fatty acid butyrate is interesting. A lower abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria has been associated with metabolic risk in humans, and recent studies suggest that butyrate might have an anti-inflammatory potential that can alleviate obesity-related metabolic complications, possibly due to its ability to enhance the intestinal barrier function. Here, we review and discuss the potential of butyrate as an anti-inflammatory mediator in metabolic diseases, and the potential for dietary interventions increasing the intestinal availability of butyrate.

  18. Linking ground-water age and chemistry data along flow paths: Implications for trends and transformations of nitrate and pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Saad, David A.; Burow, Karen R.; Frick, Elizabeth A.; Puckett, Larry J.; Barbash, Jack E.

    2007-10-01

    Tracer-based ground-water ages, along with the concentrations of pesticides, nitrogen species, and other redox-active constituents, were used to evaluate the trends and transformations of agricultural chemicals along flow paths in diverse hydrogeologic settings. A range of conditions affecting the transformation of nitrate and pesticides (e.g., thickness of unsaturated zone, redox conditions) was examined at study sites in Georgia, North Carolina, Wisconsin, and California. Deethylatrazine (DEA), a transformation product of atrazine, was typically present at concentrations higher than those of atrazine at study sites with thick unsaturated zones but not at sites with thin unsaturated zones. Furthermore, the fraction of atrazine plus DEA that was present as DEA did not increase as a function of ground-water age. These findings suggest that atrazine degradation occurs primarily in the unsaturated zone with little or no degradation in the saturated zone. Similar observations were also made for metolachlor and alachlor. The fraction of the initial nitrate concentration found as excess N 2 (N 2 derived from denitrification) increased with ground-water age only at the North Carolina site, where oxic conditions were generally limited to the top 5 m of saturated thickness. Historical trends in fluxes to ground water were evaluated by relating the times of recharge of ground-water samples, estimated using chlorofluorocarbon concentrations, with concentrations of the parent compound at the time of recharge, estimated by summing the molar concentrations of the parent compound and its transformation products in the age-dated sample. Using this approach, nitrate concentrations were estimated to have increased markedly from 1960 to the present at all study sites. Trends in concentrations of atrazine, metolachlor, alachlor, and their degradates were related to the timing of introduction and use of these compounds. Degradates, and to a lesser extent parent compounds, were detected

  19. 75 FR 82066 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Company (Superstition System), CAP, Arizona: Proposed Amendment No. 1 to Arizona Water Company's... Superstition System. 26. Valley Utilities Water Company, CAP, Arizona: Proposed transfer of Valley Utilities...

  20. The role of aggression-related alcohol expectancies in explaining the link between alcohol and violent behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lening; Welte, John W; Wieczorek, William W

    2002-03-01

    Studies have demonstrated an acute effect of alcohol on violent behavior. A remaining issue is the motivation of some offenders for using alcohol before offending. A common explanation is based on the relationship between daily drinking habit and drinking before offending. Drawing upon the deviance disavowal assumption, the embolden hypothesis, and expectancy theories, the present study argues that alcohol may be used intentionally to promote or excuse the violent consequences of drinking. Using data from the 1993 Buffalo Longitudinal Study of Young Men, the present study examines the independent effect of aggression-related alcohol expectancies on drinking before offending and the interactive effect of aggression-related alcohol expectancies and daily alcohol consumption on drinking before offending. The results indicate a significant effect of aggression-related alcohol expectancies on alcohol use before offending. This supports the argument that drinking may be a means for carrying out violent acts. A significant interactive effect was found between aggression-related alcohol expectancies and daily alcohol consumption. "Heavy" daily alcohol consumption increased the likelihood of drinking before offending for individuals who had high aggression-related alcohol expectancies more than those who had low such expectancies. Aggression-related alcohol expectancies moderated the effect of daily drinking on drinking before offending. The implications of these findings are discussed for the link between alcohol and violence.

  1. Legionellaceae in the hospital water-supply. Epidemiological link with disease and evaluation of a method for control of nosocomial legionnaires' disease and Pittsburgh pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, M; Yu, V L; Stout, J; Goetz, A; Muder, R R; Taylor, F

    1983-08-06

    An epidemiological link was found between contamination of a hospital water-supply by Legionella pneumophila and by Pittsburgh pneumonia agent (PPA) and subsequent cases of nosocomial legionnaires' disease and Pittsburgh pneumonia. The extent of L pneumophila isolation from the water-supply paralleled the occurrence of disease. Whenever L pneumophila was isolated from more than 30% of ten selected water sites, nosocomial legionellosis occurred. The temperature of the hot water tanks was raised to 60-77 degrees C for 72 h, and water outlets were flushed for 30 min with hot water. A decline in numbers of L pneumophila and PPA in the water-supply was followed by a fall in the incidence of legionnaires' disease and Pittsburgh pneumonia. In addition, intermittent raising of the temperature in the hot water system decreased both the number of months in which disease occurred and the proportion of nosocomial pneumonias caused by these organisms.

  2. Trophic network model of exposed sandy coast: Linking continental and marine water ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razinkovas-Baziukas, Artūras; Morkūnė, Rasa; Bacevičius, Egidijus; Gasiūnaitė, Zita Rasuolė

    2017-08-01

    A macroscopic food web network for the exposed sandy coastal zone of the south-eastern Baltic Sea was reconstructed using ECOPATH software to assess the matter and energy balance in the ecosystem. The model incorporated 40 living functional groups representing the Baltic Sea coastal system of Lithuania during the first decade of 21rst century. The overall pedigree index of our model was relatively high (0.66) as much of the input data originated from the study area. The results indicate net heterotrophy of the coastal zone due to strong influences from the nearby river - lagoon system (Curonian Lagoon). The majority of fish species and waterbirds were present in the coastal system on a seasonal basis and their migrations contributed to heterotrophic conditions. Among fish, the freshwater stragglers possibly contribute to the reversal of flow in biomass and energy from the coastal zone to the river-lagoon system. Top predators such as breeding and wintering piscivorous waterbirds and large pike-perch were identified as keystone species. There was a clear negative balance for the biomass of small marine pelagic fishes such as smelt, sprat and Baltic herring which represent the main prey items in this system.

  3. Assessment of polygenic effects links primary open-angle glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Craig, Jamie E; Burdon, Kathryn P; Wang, Jie Jin; Vote, Brendan J; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; McAllister, Ian L; Isaacs, Timothy; Lake, Stewart; Mackey, David A; Constable, Ian J; Mitchell, Paul; Hewitt, Alex W; MacGregor, Stuart

    2016-05-31

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are leading causes of irreversible blindness. Several loci have been mapped using genome-wide association studies. Until very recently, there was no recognized overlap in the genetic contribution to AMD and POAG. At genome-wide significance level, only ABCA1 harbors associations to both diseases. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of POAG and AMD using genome-wide array data. We estimated the heritability for POAG (h(2)g = 0.42 ± 0.09) and AMD (h(2)g = 0.71 ± 0.08). Removing known loci for POAG and AMD decreased the h(2)g estimates to 0.36 and 0.24, respectively. There was evidence for a positive genetic correlation between POAG and AMD (rg = 0.47 ± 0.25) which remained after removing known loci (rg = 0.64 ± 0.31). We also found that the genetic correlation between sexes for POAG was likely to be less than 1 (rg = 0.33 ± 0.24), suggesting that differences of prevalence among genders may be partly due to heritable factors.

  4. LINKING MOTOR-RELATED BRAIN POTENTIALS AND VELOCITY PROFILES IN MULTI-JOINT ARM REACHING MOVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julià L Amengual

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of the movement related brain potentials (MRPBs needs accurate technical approaches to disentangle the specific patterns of bran activity during the preparation and execution of movements. During the last forty years, synchronizing the electromiographic activation (EMG of the muscle with the electrophysiological recordings (EEG has been commonly ussed for these purposes. However, new clinical approaches in the study of motor diseases and rehabilitation suggest the demand of new paradigms that might go further into the study of the brain activity associated with the kinematics of movement. As a response to this call, we have used a 3-D hand tracking system with the aim to record continuously the position of an ultrasonic sender located on the hand during the performance of multi-joint self-pace movements. We synchronized the time-series of position of velocity of the sender with the EEG recordings, obtaining specific patterns of brain activity as a function of the fluctuations of the kinematics during the natural movement performance. Additionally, the distribution of the brain activity during the preparation and execution phases of movement was similar that reported previously using the EMG, suggesting the validity of our technique. We claim that this paradigm could be usable in patients because of its simplicity and the potential knowledge that can be extracted from clinical protocols.

  5. Linking Mitochondria to Synapses: New Insights for Stress-Related Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Jeanneteau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain evolved cellular mechanisms for adapting synaptic function to energy supply. This is particularly evident when homeostasis is challenged by stress. Signaling loops between the mitochondria and synapses scale neuronal connectivity with bioenergetics capacity. A biphasic “inverted U shape” response to the stress hormone glucocorticoids is demonstrated in mitochondria and at synapses, modulating neural plasticity and physiological responses. Low dose enhances neurotransmission, synaptic growth, mitochondrial functions, learning, and memory whereas chronic, higher doses produce inhibition of these functions. The range of physiological effects by stress and glucocorticoid depends on the dose, duration, and context at exposure. These criteria are met by neuronal activity and the circadian, stress-sensitive and ultradian, stress-insensitive modes of glucocorticoid secretion. A major hallmark of stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders is the disrupted glucocorticoid rhythms and tissue resistance to signaling with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR. GR resistance could result from the loss of context-dependent glucocorticoid signaling mediated by the downregulation of the activity-dependent neurotrophin BDNF. The coincidence of BDNF and GR signaling changes glucocorticoid signaling output with consequences on mitochondrial respiration efficiency, synaptic plasticity, and adaptive trajectories.

  6. English language learners with reading-related LD: linking data from multiple sources to make eligibility determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Cheryl Y; Ortiz, Alba A; Robertson, Phyllis M; Kushner, Millicent I

    2006-01-01

    Results are reported for an exploratory study of eligibility decisions made for 21 Spanish-speaking English language learners (ELLs) with learning disabilities (LD) and no secondary disabilities who received special education support in reading. Eligibility determinations by an expert panel resulted in decisions that differed significantly from those of school multidisciplinary teams. The panel agreed that some students appeared to have reading-related LD (n = 5) but also identified students that they believed had disabilities, but not necessarily reading-related LD (n = 6). Another group of students (n = 10) had learning problems that the panel believed could be attributed to factors other than LD or for whom substantive additional data would be required to validate eligibility. Issues associated with referral, assessment, and eligibility determinations for ELLs are discussed, and recommendations for improving practice are offered, with an emphasis on the importance of linking data from multiple sources when deciding whether ELLs qualify for special education.

  7. Changes in the zonal propagation of El Niño-related SST anomalies: a possible link to the PDO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antico, Pablo L.; Barros, Vicente R.

    2017-07-01

    Long-term variability of El Niño (EN) cycle has been the topic of several studies, mainly because of its impacts on climate around the globe. This variability has been mainly described by changes in the intensity and frequency of EN events. In this study, interdecadal changes in the zonal evolution of EN-related sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) and their possible link with a well-known mode of Pacific interdecadal variability are analyzed. EN events are classified according to the sense of zonal propagation of SSTA along the equatorial Pacific during the period 1900-2012. As a result, two types of EN are defined: eastward-directed and westward-directed EN. It is found that EN-related SSTA preferably evolves to the east (west) during the warm (cold) phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Hence, this study offers new insights into the possible causes of long-term EN changes.

  8. Linking the chemical speciation of cerium to its bioavailability in water for a freshwater alga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Akl, Philippe; Smith, Scott; Wilkinson, Kevin J

    2015-08-01

    Over the past decade, researchers have begun to use metals of the lanthanide family for numerous applications, including liquid crystal display (LCD) screens, optical fibers, and laser technology. Unfortunately, little is presently known about their bioavailability or the mechanisms by which they might cause toxicity. The present study focuses on cerium (Ce), one of the most widely used lanthanides, and on validating the biotic ligand model as a means to predict Ce bioaccumulation. Short-term exposures to Ce were performed using the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, to better relate Ce bioavailability to its chemical speciation in solution. Maximum uptake fluxes (Jmax ) and affinity constants for the binding of Ce to the biological uptake sites (KS ) were established at pH 5.0 and pH 7.0. An apparent affinity constant of 1.8 × 10(7) M(-1) was observed at pH 5.0, with a larger value obtained at pH 7.0 (6 × 10(7) M(-1) ), albeit under conditions where equilibrium could not be confirmed. By evaluating Ce speciation using centrifugal ultrafiltration and single-particle inductively coupled plasma spectrometry, it could be concluded that very little (∼30%) Ce was truly dissolved at pH 7.0, with the majority of the metal being present in colloidal species. Speciation was also monitored by fluorescence to evaluate Ce complexation by natural organic matter (NOM). The presence of NOM decreased Ce bioaccumulation in line with free Ce concentrations. Finally, competition with calcium for the metal uptake sites was shown to result in a decrease in Ce uptake by C. reinhardtii.

  9. Phase state of ambient aerosol linked with water uptake and chemical aging in the southeastern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajunoja, Aki; Hu, Weiwei; Leong, Yu J.; Taylor, Nathan F.; Miettinen, Pasi; Palm, Brett B.; Mikkonen, Santtu; Collins, Don R.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Virtanen, Annele

    2016-09-01

    During the summer 2013 Southern Aerosol and Oxidant Study (SOAS) field campaign in a rural site in the southeastern United States, the effect of hygroscopicity and composition on the phase state of atmospheric aerosol particles dominated by the organic fraction was studied. The analysis is based on hygroscopicity measurements by a Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA), physical phase state investigations by an Aerosol Bounce Instrument (ABI) and composition measurements using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). To study the effect of atmospheric aging on these properties, an OH-radical oxidation flow reactor (OFR) was used to simulate longer atmospheric aging times of up to 3 weeks. Hygroscopicity and bounce behavior of the particles had a clear relationship showing higher bounce at elevated relative humidity (RH) values for less hygroscopic particles, which agrees well with earlier laboratory studies. Additional OH oxidation of the aerosol particles in the OFR increased the O : C and the hygroscopicity resulting in liquefying of the particles at lower RH values. At the highest OH exposures, the inorganic fraction starts to dominate the bounce process due to production of inorganics and concurrent loss of organics in the OFR. Our results indicate that at typical ambient RH and temperature, organic-dominated particles stay mostly liquid in the atmospheric conditions in the southeastern US, but they often turn semisolid when dried below ˜ 50 % RH in the sampling inlets. While the liquid phase state suggests solution behavior and equilibrium partitioning for the SOA particles in ambient air, the possible phase change in the drying process highlights the importance of thoroughly considered sampling techniques of SOA particles.

  10. The water footprint of Indonesian provinces related to the consumption of crop products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bulsink

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available National water use accounts are generally limited to statistics on water withdrawals in the different sectors of economy. They are restricted to "blue water accounts" related to production, thus excluding (a "green" and "grey water accounts", (b accounts of internal and international virtual water flows and (c water accounts related to consumption. This paper shows how national water-use accounts can be extended through an example for Indonesia. The study quantifies interprovincial virtual water flows related to trade in crop products and assesses the green, blue and grey water footprint related to the consumption of crop products per Indonesian province. The study shows that the average water footprint in Indonesia insofar related to consumption of crop products is 1131 m3/cap/yr, but provincial water footprints vary between 859 and 1895 m3/cap/yr. Java, the most water-scarce island, has a net virtual water import and the most significant external water footprint. This large external water footprint is releasing the water scarcity on this island. There are two alternative routes to reduce the overall water footprint of Indonesia. On the one hand, it may be reduced by promoting wise crop trade between provinces – i.e. trade from places with high to places with low water efficiency. On the other hand, the water footprint can be reduced by improving water efficiency in those places that currently have relatively low efficiency, which equalises production efficiencies and thus reduces the need for imports and enhances the opportunities for exports. In any case, trade will remain necessary to supply food to the most densely populated areas where water scarcity is highest (Java.

  11. The water footprint of Indonesian provinces related to the consumption of crop products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulsink, F.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Booij, M. J.

    2009-07-01

    National water use accounts are generally limited to statistics on water withdrawals in the different sectors of economy. They are restricted to "blue water accounts" related to production, thus excluding (a) "green" and "grey water accounts", (b) accounts of internal and international virtual water flows and (c) water accounts related to consumption. This paper shows how national water-use accounts can be extended through an example for Indonesia. The study quantifies interprovincial virtual water flows related to trade in crop products and assesses the green, blue and grey water footprint related to the consumption of crop products per Indonesian province. The study shows that the average water footprint in Indonesia insofar related to consumption of crop products is 1131 m3/cap/yr, but provincial water footprints vary between 859 and 1895 m3/cap/yr. Java, the most water-scarce island, has a net virtual water import and the most significant external water footprint. This large external water footprint is releasing the water scarcity on this island. There are two alternative routes to reduce the overall water footprint of Indonesia. On the one hand, it may be reduced by promoting wise crop trade between provinces - i.e. trade from places with high to places with low water efficiency. On the other hand, the water footprint can be reduced by improving water efficiency in those places that currently have relatively low efficiency, which equalises production efficiencies and thus reduces the need for imports and enhances the opportunities for exports. In any case, trade will remain necessary to supply food to the most densely populated areas where water scarcity is highest (Java).

  12. Energetics and water relations ofN amib desert rodents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water turnover rate is coupled with energy turnover rate for the Namib ... Body mass was measured daily to ± 0,01 g, for three weeks of water deprivation or until death. Per cent ..... deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) from North America.

  13. Water supplies in some rural communities around Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria: impact on water-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, A A

    2005-07-01

    Two traditional surface water sources and one piped supply around Calabar, Nigeria were examined to reveal the community water use patterns and the impact on water-related diseases. Using questionnaires, it was shown that some communities trekked long distances (up to 5 km) to reach their supply source. The quantity of water collected per day in each of the five rural sources was inadequate (approximately 6 buckets or 90 liters). The traditional water sources were not available all year round, forcing users to trek longer distances for alternative supplies. Only 4.4% of rural water users subjected them to any further treatment, such as boiling or filtration. Fetching water was the occupation of children; they were the worst hit by water-related diseases, such as diarrhea/ dysentery, stomachache, worms and scabies/craw-craw. About 84% of the respondents were dissatisfied with their water supplies. Deaths due to apparent water-related diseases occurred among 6.3% of respondents during the twelve months preceding the study. The overall impact was a loss of school hours/days, loss of labor and general discouragement. The community served with piped treated water fared better in all respects.

  14. Klamath River Water Quality and Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler Data from Link River Dam to Keno Dam, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Deas, Michael L.; Asbill, Jessica; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Butler, Kenna D.; Stewart, Marc A.; Wellman, Roy W.; Vaughn, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, Watercourse Engineering, and the Bureau of Reclamation began a project to construct and calibrate a water quality and hydrodynamic model of the 21-mile reach of the Klamath River from Link River Dam to Keno Dam. To provide a basis for this work, data collection and experimental work were planned for 2007 and 2008. This report documents sampling and analytical methods and presents data from the first year of work. To determine water velocities and discharge, a series of cross-sectional acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements were made on the mainstem and four canals on May 30 and September 19, 2007. Water quality was sampled weekly at five mainstem sites and five tributaries from early April through early November, 2007. Constituents reported here include field parameters (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, specific conductance); total nitrogen and phosphorus; particulate carbon and nitrogen; filtered orthophosphate, nitrite, nitrite plus nitrate, ammonia, organic carbon, iron, silica, and alkalinity; specific UV absorbance at 254 nm; phytoplankton and zooplankton enumeration and species identification; and bacterial abundance and morphological subgroups. The ADCP measurements conducted in good weather conditions in May showed that four major canals accounted for most changes in discharge along the mainstem on that day. Direction of velocity at measured locations was fairly homogeneous across the channel, while velocities were generally lowest near the bottom, and highest near surface, ranging from 0.0 to 0.8 ft/s. Measurements in September, made in windy conditions, raised questions about the effect of wind on flow. Most nutrient and carbon concentrations were lowest in spring, increased and remained elevated in summer, and decreased in fall. Dissolved nitrite plus nitrate and nitrite had a different seasonal cycle and were below detection or at low concentration in summer. Many nutrient and

  15. Stable isotope composition of land snail body water and its relation to environmental waters and shell carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfriend, Glenn A.; Magaritz, Mordeckai; Gat, Joel R.

    1989-12-01

    Day-to-day and within-day (diel) variations in δD and δ18O of the body water of the land snail, Theba pisana, were studied at a site in the southern coastal plain of Israel. Three phases of variation, which relate to isotopic changes in atmospheric water vapor, were distinguished: 1) on rain days, snail water becomes isotopically depleted approximately in the direction of the rain isotope values, but always less depleted in D as is atmospheric water vapor; 2) during the 1-3 days following a rain, the snail water becomes isotopically enriched along a line with slope persists until the next rain event. The isotopic variations can be explained by isotopic equilibration with atmospheric water vapor and/or uptake of dew derived therefrom. During the winter, when the snails are active, there is only very minor enrichment in 18O relative to equilibrium with water vapor or dew, apparently as a result of metabolic activity. But this enrichment becomes pronounced after long periods of inactivity. Within-day variation in body water isotopic composition is minor on non-rain days. Shell carbonate is enriched in 18O by ca. 1-2%. relative to equilibrium with body water. In most regions, the isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapor (or dew) is a direct function of that of rain. Because the isotopic composition of snail body water is related to that of atmospheric water vapor and the isotopic composition of shell carbonate in turn is related to that of body water, land snail shell carbonate 18O should provide a reliable indication of rainfall 18O. However, local environmental conditions and the ecological properties of the snail species must be taken into account.

  16. Incidence of lesions on Fungiidae corals in the eastern Red Sea is related to water temperature and coastal pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Furby, K.A.

    2014-07-01

    As sea surface temperatures rise and the global human population increases, large-scale field observations of marine organism health and water quality are increasingly necessary. We investigated the health of corals from the family Fungiidae using visual observations in relation to water quality and microbial biogeochemistry parameters along 1300 km of the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. At large scales, incidence of lesions caused by unidentified etiology showed consistent signs, increasing significantly from the northern to southern coast and positively correlated to annual mean seawater temperatures. Lesion abundance also increased to a maximum of 96% near the populous city of Jeddah. The presence of lesioned corals in the region surrounding Jeddah was strongly correlated with elevated concentrations of ammonium and changes in microbial communities that are linked to decreased water quality. This study suggests that both high seawater temperatures and nutrient pollution may play an indirect role in the formation of lesions on corals. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Incidence of lesions on Fungiidae corals in the eastern Red Sea is related to water temperature and coastal pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furby, K A; Apprill, A; Cervino, J M; Ossolinski, J E; Hughen, K A

    2014-07-01

    As sea surface temperatures rise and the global human population increases, large-scale field observations of marine organism health and water quality are increasingly necessary. We investigated the health of corals from the family Fungiidae using visual observations in relation to water quality and microbial biogeochemistry parameters along 1300 km of the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. At large scales, incidence of lesions caused by unidentified etiology showed consistent signs, increasing significantly from the northern to southern coast and positively correlated to annual mean seawater temperatures. Lesion abundance also increased to a maximum of 96% near the populous city of Jeddah. The presence of lesioned corals in the region surrounding Jeddah was strongly correlated with elevated concentrations of ammonium and changes in microbial communities that are linked to decreased water quality. This study suggests that both high seawater temperatures and nutrient pollution may play an indirect role in the formation of lesions on corals.

  18. Drought resistance of Ailanthus altissima: root hydraulics and water relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifilò, P; Raimondo, F; Nardini, A; Lo Gullo, M A; Salleo, S

    2004-01-01

    Drought resistance of Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle is a major factor underlying the impressively wide expansion of this species in Europe and North America. We studied the specific mechanism used by A. altissima to withstand drought by subjecting potted seedlings to four irrigation regimes. At the end of the 13-week treatment period, soil water potential was -0.05 MPa for well-watered control seedlings (W) and -0.4, -0.8 and -1.7 MPa for drought-stressed seedlings (S) in irrigation regimes S1, S2 and S3, respectively. Root and shoot biomass production did not differ significantly among the four groups. A progressively marked stomatal closure was observed in drought-stressed seedlings, leading to homeostasis of leaf water potential, which was maintained well above the turgor loss point. Root and shoot hydraulics were measured with a high-pressure flow meter. When scaled by leaf surface area, shoot hydraulic conductance did not differ among the treated seedlings, whereas root hydraulic conductance decreased by about 20% in S1 and S2 seedlings and by about 70% in S3 seedlings, with respect to the well-watered control value. Similar differences were observed when root hydraulic conductance was scaled by root surface area, suggesting that roots had become less permeable to water. Anatomical observations of root cross sections revealed that S3 seedlings had shrunken cortical cells and a multilayer endodermal-like tissue that probably impaired soil-to-root stele water transport. We conclude that A. altissima seedlings are able to withstand drought by employing a highly effective water-saving mechanism that involves reduced water loss by leaves and reduced root hydraulic conductance. This water-saving mechanism helps explain how A. altissima successfully competes with native vegetation.

  19. Neuroticism-related personality traits are related to symptom severity in patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder and to the serotonin transporter gene-linked polymorphism 5-HTTPLPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingnell, Malin; Comasco, Erika; Oreland, Lars; Fredrikson, Mats; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2010-10-01

    Neuroticism has been linked to a functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), with short-allele carriers being overrepresented among high-scorers on neuroticism. Studies evaluating neuroticism-related personality traits in relation to the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism among patients with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and are lacking. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PMDD and neuroticism-related personality traits, and secondly, to relate the personality trait scores of PMDD patients to experienced symptom severity and to the 5-HTTLPR short allele. Thirty PMDD patients and 55 asymptomatic healthy controls were included in the study. The Swedish Universities Scale of Personality was used to evaluate personality traits. Genotype analyses were available in 27 PMDD patients and 18 healthy controls. Women with PMDD displayed higher levels of neuroticism-related personality traits (psychic trait anxiety, somatic trait anxiety, embitterment, stress susceptibility and mistrust) than healthy controls, and these effects were most prominent in women with more severe luteal phase symptoms. Furthermore, PMDD patients with at least one copy of the short allele of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism scored higher on psychic trait anxiety and lack of assertiveness than PMDD patients who were homozygous for the long allele. PMDD patients who suffer from more severe luteal phase symptoms also display increased scores of neuroticism-related personality traits in comparison with healthy controls. Within the group of PMDD patients, differences in certain personality trait scores are associated with the short allele of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism.

  20. Water relations of cacti during desiccation: distribution of water in tissues. [Carnegiea gigantea; Ferocactus acanthodes; Opuntia basilaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcikowski, W.; Nobel, P.S.

    1984-03-01

    Three species of cacti survived an average stem water loss of 81%. Fractional water loss was greater from water-storage tissue than from the chlorenchyma, as documented at the cellular level by determining changes in cell volume and at the tissue level by determining relative water content of chlorenchyma and storage tissues. For Carnegiea gigantea and Ferocactus acanthodes, this differential loss of water resulted from a decrease in the moles of solute per cell for storage tissue; hence, less water was retained at a given osmotic pressure than for the chlorenchyma. Opuntia basilaris lost less water from the chlorenchyma during drought because of a greater initial osmotic pressure in the chlorenchyma than in the storage tissue. Greater retention of water in the chlorenchyma would result in less disruption of photosynthetic activity in these cacti during drought.

  1. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water and Related Land Resources... Principles and Requirements. SUMMARY: Section 2031 of the Water Resources Development Act of 2007 (Pub. L... Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation Studies'' (Principles and Guidelines),...

  2. Effects of global warming on floods and droughts and related water quality of rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, B.

    2006-01-01

    This review focuses on the effect of global warming on droughts, rainstorms and floods and related water quality of rivers. Relations of temperature, rainstorms and river discharges with water quality variables like water temperature, chemical concentrations and microbiological activity are discusse

  3. Virtual water trade of agri-food products: Evidence from italian-chinese relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamastra, Lucrezia; Miglietta, Pier Paolo; Toma, Pierluigi; De Leo, Federica; Massari, Stefania

    2017-12-01

    At global scale, the majority of world water withdrawal is for the agricultural sector, with differences among countries depending on the relevance of agri-food sector in the economy. Virtual water and water footprint could be useful to express the impact on the water resources of each production process and good with the objective to lead to a sustainable use of water at a global level. International trade could be connected to the virtual water flows, in fact through commodities importation, water poor countries can save their own water resources. The present paper focuses on the bilateral virtual water flows connected to the top ten agri-food products traded between Italy and China. Comparing the virtual water flow related to the top 10 agri-food products, the virtual water flow from Italy to China is bigger than the water flow in the opposite direction. Moreover, the composition of virtual water flows is different; Italy imports significant amounts of grey water from China, depending on the different environmental strategies adopted by the two selected countries. This difference could be also related to the fact that traded commodities are very different; the 91% of virtual water imported by Italy is connected to crops products, while the 95% of virtual water imported by China is related to the animal products. Considering national water saving and global water saving, appears that Italy imports virtual water from China while China exerts pressure on its water resources to supply the exports to Italy. This result at global scale implies a global water loss of 129.29millionm3 because, in general, the agri-food products are traded from the area with lower water productivity to the area with the higher water productivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Germination, seedling growth and relative water content of shoot in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... ... and higher levels of dry matter under water deficient condition (Manga and .... medium seeds with the increase of stress levels. The shoot length of .... It is important that drought resistance is characterized by small reduction ...

  5. The Violation of Stokes-Einstein Relation in Supercooled Water

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Sow-Hsin; Mallamace, Francesco; Mou, Chung-Yuan; Broccio, Matteo; Corsaro, Carmelo; Faraone, Antonio; Liu, Li

    2006-01-01

    By confining water in nanopores, so narrow that the liquid cannot freeze, it is possible to explore its properties well below its homogeneous nucleation temperature TH ~ 235 K. In particular, the dynamical parameters of water can be measured down to 180 K approaching the suggested glass transition temperature Tg ~ 165 K. Here we present experimental evidence, obtained from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Quasi-Elastic Neutron Scattering spectroscopies, of a well defined decoupling of transport...

  6. Predictive Time Series Analysis Linking Bengal Cholera with Terrestrial Water Storage Measured from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, Antarpreet; Akanda, Ali; Unnikrishnan, Avinash; Huq, Anwar; Colwell, Rita

    2015-12-01

    Outbreaks of diarrheal diseases, including cholera, are related to floods and droughts in regions where water and sanitation infrastructure are inadequate or insufficient. However, availability of data on water scarcity and abundance in transnational basins, are a prerequisite for developing cholera forecasting systems. With more than a decade of terrestrial water storage (TWS) data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, conditions favorable for predicting cholera occurrence may now be determined. We explored lead-lag relationships between TWS in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna basin and endemic cholera in Bangladesh. Since bimodal seasonal peaks in cholera in Bangladesh occur during spring and autumn seasons, two separate logistical models between TWS and disease time series (2002-2010) were developed. TWS representing water availability showed an asymmetrical, strong association with cholera prevalence in the spring (τ = -0.53; P cholera by 24% (confidence interval [CI] = 20-31%; P cholera in the autumn by 29% (CI = 22-33%; P < 0.05). © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. Paradigm Shift in Transboundary Water Management Policy: Linking Water Environment Energy and Food (weef) to Catchment Hydropolitics - Needs, Scope and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAI, S.; Wolf, A.; Sharma, N.; Tiwari, H.

    2015-12-01

    The incessant use of water due to rapid growth of population, enhanced agricultural and industrial activities, degraded environment and ecology will in the coming decades constrain the socioeconomic development of humans. To add on to the precarious situation, political boundaries rarely embrace hydrological boundaries of lakes, rivers, aquifers etc. Hydropolitics relate to the ability of geopolitical institutions to manage shared water resources in a politically sustainable manner, i.e., without tensions or conflict between political entities. Riparian hydropolitics caters to differing objectives, needs and requirements of states making it difficult to administer the catchment. The diverse riparian objectives can be merged to form a holistic catchment objective of sustainable water resources development and management. It can be proposed to make a paradigm shift in the present-day transboundary water policy from riparian hydropolitics (in which the focal point of water resources use is hinged on state's need) to catchment hydropolitics (in which the interest of the basin inhabitants are accorded primacy holistically over state interests) and specifically wherein the water, environment, energy and food (WEEF) demands of the catchment are a priority and not of the states in particular. The demands of the basin pertaining to water, food and energy have to be fulfilled, keeping the environment and ecology healthy in a cooperative political framework; the need for which is overwhelming. In the present scenario, the policy for water resources development of a basin is segmented into independent uncoordinated parts controlled by various riparians; whereas in catchment hydropolitics the whole basin should be considered as a unit. The riparians should compromise a part of national interest and work in collaboration on a joint objective which works on the principle of the whole as against the part. Catchment hydropolitics may find greater interest in the more than 250

  8. Human cell toxicogenomic analysis linking reactive oxygen species to the toxicity of monohaloacetic acid drinking water disinfection byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pals, Justin; Attene-Ramos, Matias S; Xia, Menghang; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Plewa, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Chronic exposure to drinking water disinfection byproducts has been linked to adverse health risks. The monohaloacetic acids (monoHAAs) are generated as byproducts during the disinfection of drinking water and are cytotoxic, genotoxic, mutagenic, and teratogenic. Iodoacetic acid toxicity was mitigated by antioxidants, suggesting the involvement of oxidative stress. Other monoHAAs may share a similar mode of action. Each monoHAA generated a significant concentration-response increase in the expression of a β-lactamase reporter under the control of the antioxidant response element (ARE). The monoHAAs generated oxidative stress with a rank order of iodoacetic acid (IAA) > bromoacetic acid (BAA) ≫ chloroacetic acid (CAA); this rank order was observed with other toxicological end points. Toxicogenomic analysis was conducted with a nontransformed human intestinal epithelial cell line (FHs 74 Int). Exposure to the monoHAAs altered the transcription levels of multiple oxidative stress responsive genes, indicating that each exposure generated oxidative stress. The transcriptome profiles showed an increase in thioredoxin reductase 1 (TXNRD1) and sulfiredoxin (SRXN1), suggesting peroxiredoxin proteins had been oxidized during monoHAA exposures. Three possible sources of reactive oxygen species were identified, the hypohalous acid generating peroxidase enzymes lactoperoxidase (LPO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent oxidase 5 (NOX5), and PTGS2 (COX-2) mediated arachidonic acid metabolism. Each monoHAA exposure caused an increase in COX-2 mRNA levels. These data provide a functional association between monoHAA exposure and adverse health outcomes such as oxidative stress, inflammation, and cancer.

  9. Critical body residues linked to octanol-water partitioning, organism composition, and LC50 QSARs: meta-analysis and model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, A Jan; Traas, Theo P; Huijbregts, Mark A J

    2005-05-01

    To protect thousands of species from thousands of chemicals released in the environment, various risk assessment tools have been developed. Here, we link quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for response concentrations in water (LC50) to critical concentrations in organisms (C50) by a model for accumulation in lipid or non-lipid phases versus water Kpw. The model indicates that affinity for neutral body components such as storage fat yields steep Kpw-Kow relationships, whereas slopes for accumulation in polar phases such as proteins are gentle. This pattern is confirmed by LC50 QSARs for different modes of action, such as neutral versus polar narcotics and organochlorine versus organophosphor insecticides. LC50 QSARs were all between 0.00002 and 0.2Kow(-1). After calibrating the model with the intercepts and, for the first time also, with the slopes of the LC50 QSARs, critical concentrations in organisms C50 are calculated and compared to an independent validation data set. About 60% of the variability in lethal body burdens C50 is explained by the model. Explanations for differences between estimated and measured levels for 11 modes of action are discussed. In particular, relationships between the critical concentrations in organisms C50 and chemical (Kow) or species (lipid content) characteristics are specified and tested. The analysis combines different models proposed before and provides a substantial extension of the data set in comparison to previous work. Moreover, the concept is applied to species (e.g., plants, lean animals) and substances (e.g., specific modes of action) that were scarcely studied quantitatively so far.

  10. Linking local riverbed flow patterns and pore-water chemistry to hydrogeologic and geomorphic features across scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, T. G.; Thornton, S.; Surridge, B.; Wainwright, J.

    2009-12-01

    The groundwater-surface water interface (GSI) is a critical environmental hotspot, a key area influencing the fate of carbon, nutrients and contaminants of surface and subsurface origin, and a zone of ecological importance. Policy seeking to mitigate issues relating to dissolved contaminants and to improve stream health, increasingly recognizes its significance, particularly in the context of integrated management of streams and aquifers. Techniques assessing riverbed flow and solute patterns are often limited to the local scale. When related to the multi-scale pattern of hydrogeologic and geomorphic features controlling stream, hyporheic and groundwater fluxes, they can improve larger scale predictions of flow and solute behaviour at the GSI. This study develops a conceptual model of riverbed flow and solute patterns, and tests it in a 4th order stream in the UK. It assesses the interaction between large scale subsurface flowpaths, driven by the distribution of bedrock outcrops, and the expansion and closure of alluvial deposits, and small-scale hyporheic flowpaths, driven by riffle-pool sequences. It uses two networks of riverbed mini-piezometers and multi-level samplers: network 1, across fifteen sites in a 7.2 km length of river in unconstrained (open alluvial valley), asymmetric (bedrock outcropping on one bank) and constrained (bedrock on both banks) contexts; and network 2, across six riffle-pool sequences in a 350-m reach, at the transition between asymmetric/unconstrained and constrained contexts. Subsurface flowpaths and stream-water infiltration were deduced by relating vertical exchange fluxes to stream and pore-water patterns of conservative natural tracers. Biogeochemical processes were highlighted using reactive natural tracers. At network 2, measurements of surface water profiles and riverbed coring were also undertaken, and dissolved metal concentrations in the first 15 cm of sediments assessed using gel probes. Network 1 was sampled twice. Monthly

  11. MINERAL WATER FROM SUPERMARKET VS. TAP WATER. SOME CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO INNOCUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian – Nicolae POPA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 15 Romanian brands of mineral water were purchased from hypermarket. For each of the 15 mineral waters were determined the content of nitrates, nitrites and pH. The data obtained were compared with the content of nitrates, nitrites and pH of the tap water collected in 15 locations in Bucharest, according to data released by the Apa Nova operator. The results showed that the mean of tap water pH in Bucharest, although slightly higher than the tested mineral waters pH, did not differ significantly from the mean of mineral waters pH, being situated in the alkaline domain. The mean content of nitrates in tap water in Bucharest, did not differ significantly from that of the tested mineral waters (t = 0.811. Nitrates content of tap water in Bucharest was significantly distinct less, as the pH was higher (r = 0.68**. Basically, the change in pH by one unit, lowers the amount of nitrate by 46%. Bucharest tap water nitrites content was significantly lower than that of tested mineral waters (0.005 mg/l to 0.0124; t = 2.674*. Basically, Bucharest tap water contained up to 2.5 times less nitrites than the nitrites mean of tested mineral waters.

  12. Modeling Water Resource Systems Accounting for Water-Related Energy Use, GHG Emissions and Water-Dependent Energy Generation in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Lund, J. R.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Medellin-Azuara, J.

    2015-12-01

    Most individual processes relating water and energy interdependence have been assessed in many different ways over the last decade. It is time to step up and include the results of these studies in management by proportionating a tool for integrating these processes in decision-making to effectively understand the tradeoffs between water and energy from management options and scenarios. A simple but powerful decision support system (DSS) for water management is described that includes water-related energy use and GHG emissions not solely from the water operations, but also from final water end uses, including demands from cities, agriculture, environment and the energy sector. Because one of the main drivers of energy use and GHG emissions is water pumping from aquifers, the DSS combines a surface water management model with a simple groundwater model, accounting for their interrelationships. The model also explicitly includes economic data to optimize water use across sectors during shortages and calculate return flows from different uses. Capabilities of the DSS are demonstrated on a case study over California's intertied water system. Results show that urban end uses account for most GHG emissions of the entire water cycle, but large water conveyance produces significant peaks over the summer season. Also the development of more efficient water application on the agricultural sector has increased the total energy consumption and the net water use in the basins.

  13. Uncertainty of Water-hammer Loads for Safety Related Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Chan; Yoon, Duk Joo [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LT., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, the basic methodology is base on ISO GUM (Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurements). For a given gas void volumes in the discharge piping, the maximum pressure of water hammer is defined in equation. From equation, uncertainty parameter is selected as U{sub s} (superficial velocity for the specific pipe size and corresponding area) of equation. The main uncertainty parameter (U{sub s}) is estimated by measurement method and Monte Carlo simulation. Two methods are in good agreement with the extended uncertainty. Extended uncertainty of the measurement and Monte Carlo simulation is 1.30 and 1.34 respectively in 95% confidence interval. In 99% confidence interval, the uncertainties are 1.95 and 1.97 respectively. NRC Generic Letter 2008-01 requires nuclear power plant operators to evaluate the possibility of noncondensable gas accumulation for the Emergency Core Cooling System. Specially, gas accumulation can result in system pressure transient in pump discharge piping at a pump start. Consequently, this evolves into a gas water, a water-hammer event and the force imbalances on the piping segments. In this paper, MCS (Monte Carlo Simulation) method is introduced in estimating the uncertainty of water hammer. The aim is to evaluate the uncertainty of the water hammer estimation results carried out by KHNP CRI in 2013.

  14. Globalisation of water resources: Global virtual water flows in relation to international crop trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.Y.; Hung, P.Q.

    2005-01-01

    The water that is used in the production process of a commodity is called the ‘virtual water’ contained in the commodity. International trade of commodities brings along international flows of virtual water. The objective of this paper is to quantify the volumes of virtual water flows between nation

  15. Assessing the relative efficiency of water companies in the English and Welsh water industry: a metafrontier approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Maziotis, Alexandros; Sala-Garrido, Ramon

    2015-11-01

    The assessment of relative efficiency of water companies is essential for managers and authorities. This is evident in the UK water sector where there are companies with different services such as water and sewerage companies (WaSCs) and water-only companies (WoCs). Therefore, it is a critical limitation to estimate a common production frontier for both types of companies, as it might lead to biased efficiency estimates. In this paper, a robust and reliable methodology, the metafrontier model, is applied to compare the efficiency of water companies providing different services. The results illustrate the superior performance of WaSCs compared to WoCs. It also confirms the presence of economies of scope in the UK water industry. The methodology and results of this study are of great interest for both regulators and water utility managers to make informed decisions.

  16. Status of water pollution in relation to industrialization in Rajasthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Ritu Singh; Pandey, Sonali; Bhadauria, Seema

    2017-04-06

    India is a large and densely populated country; its economy is largely agricultural. Making the best use of the country's manpower has always posed a challenge. Industrialization could become a dominant component of the economy and displace agriculture. Traditional livelihoods of occupational groups are threatened by the practice of disposing untreated industrial waste into rivers and bodies of water. These uncontrolled disposals impact local natural resources with negative long-term effects. Industrialization is the development of intellectual and financial trade that changes a predominantly rustic culture into a modern one. Many industrial units discharge wastewater locally without treatment. Many industries directly discharged their waste into lakes, rivers and ocean. Water contamination impacts the environment. Pesticides, chemical, waste oil and heavy metals are regularly transported into their waters. Humans and other living organisms can accumulate heavy metals from industrial discharges in their tissues. Industrial waste may be reactive, corrosive, flammable, or toxic. When untreated sewage is emptied into rivers, it causes diseases like typhoid, dysentery and cholera. Natural elements and plant supplements like nitrate and phosphates stimulate growth of algae on the water surface. The algae reduce the oxygen in the water and cause eutrophication. It is harmful to the water ecosystem. In Rajasthan proper, there are a number of sites bordering rivers and lakes where the pace of industrialization has proceeded far beyond the ability of regulators to establish and enforce meaningful limits on the amount of point source pollution permitted to the various industrial complexes, which include cement, chemical, fertilizer, textile, mining, quarrying, dyeing and printing facilities. The scale of the problem is obvious to the casual observer, but actual documentation of the total impact remains to be done.

  17. Quantitative variation in obesity-related traits and insulin precursors linked to the OB gene region on human chromosome 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggirala, R.; Stern, M.P.; Reinhart, L.J. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Despite the evidence that human obesity has strong genetic determinants, efforts at identifying specific genes that influence human obesity have largely been unsuccessful. Using the sibship data obtained from 32 low-income Mexican American pedigrees ascertained on a type II diabetic proband and a multipoint variance-components method, we tested for linkage between various obesity-related traits plus associated metabolic traits and 15 markers on human chromosome 7. We found evidence for linkage between markers in the OB gene region and various traits, as follows: D7S514 and extremity skinfolds (LOD = 3.1), human carboxypeptidase A1 (HCPA1) and 32,33-split proinsulin level (LOD = 4.2), and HCPA1 and proinsulin level (LOD = 3.2). A putative susceptibility locus linked to the marker D7S514 explained 56% of the total phenotypic variation in extremity skinfolds. Variation at the HCPA1 locus explained 64% of phenotypic variation in proinsulin level and {approximately}73% of phenotypic variation in split proinsulin concentration, respectively. Weaker evidence for linkage to several other obesity-related traits (e.g., waist circumference, body-mass index, fat mass by bioimpedance, etc.) was observed for a genetic location, which is {approximately}15 cM telomeric to OB. In conclusion, our study reveals that the OB region plays a significant role in determining the phenotypic variation of both insulin precursors and obesity-related traits, at least in Mexican Americans. 66 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Blau Syndrome-Related CARD15/NOD2 Mutations Are Not Linked to Idiopathic Uveitis in Spanish Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Rodríguez-Pérez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Uveitis is a clinical feature of the Blau syndrome, a disease linked to CARD15 (also referred to as NOD2 mutations. Three main mutations in this gene (R334W, R334Q and L469F have been reported as Blau syndrome risk factors, a disease that manifests uveitis as one of its clinical features. However, little is known on the involvement of this gene in idiopathic uveitis. We thus sought to determine the frequency of these Blau-related CARD15 mutations in a cohort of Spanish patients with idiopathic uveitis. To this aim, 110 patients with idiopathic uveitis, followed at the Department of Ophtalmology of a tertiary hospital (Hospital Universitario Alcalá de Henares, Madrid. Spain were enrolled. As a control population, 104 healthy subjects were used. DNA was extracted from blood samples and the Blau-related CARD15 mutations were analysed either by PCR-RFLP or direct DNA sequencing. None of the mutations studied was found in any of the individuals tested, whether diseased or healthy. It seems thus that Blau syndrome-related CARD15 mutations are not involved in idiopathic uveitis, a finding which allows us to suggest that the genetic aetiology of the idiopathic uveitis or the Blau-associated uveitis is different.

  19. The Relative Contribution of Non-Foliar Organs of Cotton to Yield and Related Physiological Characteristics Under Water Deifcit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yuan-yuan; ZHANG Ya-li; YI Xiao-ping; ZHAN Dong-xia; LUO Hong-hai; Chow Wah Soon; ZHANG Wang-feng

    2014-01-01

    Water deifcit is one of the most important causes of decreased yield in cultivated plants. Non-foliar green organs in cotton play an important role in yield formation at the late growth stage. Although better photosynthetic performance was observed in a non-foliar organ (bract) compared with leaves under water deifcit. However, the physiological response of each organ in cotton to water deifcit has not been comprehensively studied in relation to the water status and photosynthesis characteristics. We studied the maintenance of water status of each organ in cotton by measuring their relative water content, proline content and stomatal characteristics. Water deifcit signiifcantly decreased the surface area of each organ, but to a lesser extent in non-foliar organs. Our results showed that the relative contribution of biomass accumulation of non-foliar organs increased under water deifcit. Non-foliar organs (bracts and capsule wall) showed less ontogenetic decrease in O2 evolution capacity and in RuBPC activity (per dry weight) as well as better antioxidant systems than leaves at various days after anthesis. We conclude that the photosynthesis from non-foliar organs is important for increasing cotton yield especially under water deifcit conditions.

  20. Virtual water flows related to land use in an intensive agriculture in the Fergana Valley, Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipstein, A.; Schneider, K.; Breuer, L.; Frede, H. G.

    2009-04-01

    Due to low annual precipitation, agricultural production in Uzbekistan is depending on irrigation from the Syrdarya and Amudarya rivers to a great deal. One of the most important cash crops of the country is cotton. Current irrigation management leads to elevated groundwater levels, salinization of soils and to a degradation of soil and water resources. Through export of cotton and other crops, the problems related to water consumption and water management are transported beyond the producing country. The amount of water transported through production and export is referred to as virtual water. To distinguish between productive and unproductive partitioning of water flows, the terms green and blue water have been introduced. Information on virtual water flows due to crop production usually only exist on country level. To reduce uncertainties related to generalization, the effect of land management and environmental factors on the partitioning of water flows needs to be studied on smaller scales. The presented study analyzes water fluxes in an intensively used agricultural area in the Fergana Valley, Uzbekistan. The study aims to a) quantify crop specific water consumption in agricultural production under current management and b) analyze water use efficiency as subject to land use and irrigation management. Based on crop production, irrigation management and environmental conditions in the study area, virtual water flows will be calculated on the level of agricultural collectives (Water Users Associations). In a further step, the partitioning of green and blue water fluxes will be quantified. Alternative scenarios for improved water management will be analyzed in a model study.

  1. Relation between 183 GHz Water Vapor Line and Water Continuum Absorption Measured with FTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, S.; Matsuo, H.

    ve carried out Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) measurements of the millimeter and submillimeter-wave (100-1500 GHz or 3 mm - 200 micron) atmospheric opacity at Pampa la Bola, 4800 m above sea level in northern Chile on September 1997 and June 1998. Correlations between 220 GHz opacities and those of the center of submillimeter-wave windows were obtained using the entire data set, and good correlations were obtained except for the periods affected by the liquid water opacity component. We succeeded to separate the total opacity to water vapor and liquid water opacity components. The separated water vapor opacity component shows good correlation with the 183 GHz pure water vapor line opacity, which is also covered in the measured spectra, but the liquid water opacity component shows no correlation. Since the submillimeter-wave opacity is merely affected by the liquid water component, it may be better to use the submillimeter-wave opacity for the phase correction.

  2. Exponential increase of publications related to soil water repellency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.W.; Oostindie, K.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Soil water repellency is much more wide-spread than formerly thought. During the last decades, it has been a topic of study for soil scientists and hydrologists in at least 21 States of the USA, in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Chile, Congo, Nepal, India, Hong Kong, Taiwan, China

  3. Exponential increase of publications related to soil water repellency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.W.; Oostindie, K.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Soil water repellency is much more wide-spread than formerly thought. During the last decades, it has been a topic of study for soil scientists and hydrologists in at least 21 States of the USA, in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Chile, Congo, Nepal, India, Hong Kong, Taiwan,

  4. Relations between information, time, and value of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijs, S. V.; Galindo, L. C.

    2015-12-01

    This research uses with stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) as a tool to reveal economic information about managed water resources. An application to the operation of an example hydropower reservoir is presented. SDP explicitly balances the marginal value of water for immediate use and its expected opportunity cost of not having more water available for future use. The result of an SDP analysis is a steady state policy, which gives the optimal decision as a function of the state. A commonly applied form gives the optimal release as a function of the month, current reservoir level and current inflow to the reservoir. The steady state policy can be complemented with a real-time management strategy, that can depend on more real-time information. An information-theoretical perspective is given on how this information influences the value of water, and how to deal with that influence in hydropower reservoir optimization. This results in some conjectures about how the information gain from real-time operation could affect the optimal long term policy. Another issue is the sharing of increased benefits that result from this information gain in a multi-objective setting. It is argued that this should be accounted for in negotiations about an operation policy.

  5. Coastal circulation off Bombay in relation to waste water disposal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Josanto, V.; Sarma, R.V.

    1976 to 78. The water movements were mainly tide-induced and elliptical in nature, with the major axis more or less parallel to the coast. The currents were mainly towards the northeast at a bearing of approximately at 30 degrees during flood...

  6. Economic feasibility, cost and issues related to acquiring water right options to secure drought water supplies for Lahontan Valley Wetlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The focus of this study, prepared for The Nature Conservancy, is on the economic feasibility and issues related to implementing water supply option contracts to...

  7. On the interdisciplinary nature of water-related programs in American public universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Du, C. L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a research on the interdisciplinary nature of 167 water-related programs in 46 selected American public universities. Using keyword coding and Classification method, and the results show that water-related disciplines largely focus on environment, natural resources, engineering, ocean and agricultural studies, which are all applied disciplines. Moreover, water-related disciplines lay great emphasis on the interdisciplinary research and research platforms construction with the research fields of environment, natural resources and agricultural.

  8. Mid-IR water and silicate relation in protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonellini, S.; Bremer, J.; Kamp, I.; Riviere-Marichalar, P.; Lahuis, F.; Thi, W.-F.; Woitke, P.; Meijerink, R.; Aresu, G.; Spaans, M.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Mid-IR water lines from protoplanetary disks around T Tauri stars have a detection rate of 50%. Models have identified multiple physical properties of disks such as dust-to-gas mass ratio, dust size power law distribution, disk gas mass, disk inner radius, and disk scale height as potential explanations for the current detection rate. Aims: In this study, we aim to break degeneracies through constraints obtained from observations. We search for a connection between mid-IR water line fluxes and the strength of the 10 μm silicate feature. Methods: We analyze observed water line fluxes from three blends at 15.17, 17.22 and 29.85 μm published earlier and compute the 10 μm silicate feature strength from Spitzer spectra to search for possible trends. We use a series of published ProDiMo thermo-chemical models, to explore disk dust and gas properties, and also the effects of different central stars. In addition, we produced two standard models with different dust opacity functions, and one with a parametric prescription for the dust settling. Results: Our series of models that vary properties of the grain size distribution suggest that mid-IR water emission anticorrelates with the strength of the 10 μm silicate feature. The models also show that the increasing stellar bolometric luminosity simultaneously enhance the strength of this dust feature and the water lines fluxes. No correlation is found between the observed mid-IR water lines and the 10 μm silicate strength. Two-thirds of the targets in our sample show crystalline dust features, and the disks are mainly flaring. Our sample shows the same difference in the peak strength between amorphous and crystalline silicates that was noted in earlier studies, but our models do not support this intrinsic difference in silicate peak strength. Individual properties of our models are not able to reproduce the most extreme observations, suggesting that more complex dust properties (e.g., vertically changing) are

  9. Dishwashing water recycling system and related water quality standards for military use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Jared; Verbyla, Matthew E; Lee, Woo Hyoung; Randall, Andrew A; Amundsen, Ted J; Zastrow, Dustin J

    2015-10-01

    As the demand for reliable and safe water supplies increases, both water quality and available quantity are being challenged by population growth and climate change. Greywater reuse is becoming a common practice worldwide; however, in remote locations of limited water supply, such as those encountered in military installations, it is desirable to expand its classification to include dishwashing water to maximize the conservation of fresh water. Given that no standards for dishwashing greywater reuse by the military are currently available, the current study determined a specific set of water quality standards for dishwater recycling systems for U.S. military field operations. A tentative water reuse standard for dishwashing water was developed based on federal and state regulations and guidelines for non-potable water, and the developed standard was cross-evaluated by monitoring water quality data from a full-scale dishwashing water recycling system using an innovative electrocoagulation and ultrafiltration process. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) was also performed based on exposure scenarios derived from literature data. As a result, a specific set of dishwashing water reuse standards for field analysis (simple, but accurate) was finalized as follows: turbidity (reuse and will be expected to ensure that water quality is safe for field operations, but not so stringent that design complexity, cost, and operational and maintenance requirements will not be feasible for field use. In addition the parameters can be monitored using simple equipment in a field setting with only modest training requirements and real-time or rapid sample turn-around. This standard may prove useful in future development of civilian guidelines.

  10. Linking water and carbon fluxes in a Mediterranean oak woodland using a combined flux and ?18O partitioning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbert, M.; Piayda, A.; Costa e Silva, F.; Correia, A.; Pereira, J. S.; Cuntz, M.; Werner, C.

    2013-12-01

    Water is one of the key factors driving ecosystem productivity, especially in water-limited ecosystems, where global climate change is expected to intensify drought and alter precipitation patterns. One such ecosystem is the ';Montado', where two vegetation layers respond differently to drought: oak trees avoid drought due to their access to deeper soil layers and ground water while herbaceous plants, surviving the summer in the form of seeds. We aimed at 1) quantifying the impact of the understory herbaceous vegetation on ecosystem carbon and water fluxes throughout the year, 2) determining the driving environmental factors for evapotranspiration (ET) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and 3) disentangling how ET components of the ecosystem relate to carbon dioxide exchange. We present one year data set comparing modeled and measured stable oxygen isotope signatures (δ18O) of soil evaporation, confirming that the Craig and Gordon equation leads to good agreement with measured δ18O of evaporation (Dubbert et al. 2013). Partitioning ecosystem ET and NEE into its three sources revealed a strong contribution of soil evaporation (E) and herbaceous transpiration (T) to ecosystem ET during spring and fall. In contrast, soil respiration (R) and herbaceous net carbon gain contributed to a lesser amount to ecosystem NEE during spring and fall, leading to consistently smaller water use efficiencies (WUE) of the herbaceous understory compared to the cork-oaks. Here, we demonstrate that the ability to assess ET, NEE and WUE independent of soil evaporation dynamics enables the understanding of the mechanisms of the coupling between water and carbon fluxes and their responses to drought. Dubbert, M., Cuntz, M., Piayda, A., Maguas, C., Werner, C., 2013: Partitioning evapotranspiration - Testing the Craig and Gordon model with field measurements of oxygen isotope ratios of evaporative fluxes. J Hydrol. a) Oxygen isotope signatures of soil evaporation on bare soil plots calculated

  11. C1q/TNF-related protein 6 (CTRP6) links obesity to adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xia; Seldin, Marcus M; Little, Hannah C; Choy, Nicholas; Klonisch, Thomas; Wong, G William

    2017-09-08

    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, and metabolic regulators linking obesity to inflammation have therefore received much attention. Secreted C1q/TNF-related proteins (CTRPs) are one such group of regulators that regulate glucose and fat metabolism in peripheral tissues and modulate inflammation in adipose tissue. We have previously shown that expression of CTRP6 is up-regulated in leptin-deficient mice and, conversely, down-regulated by the anti-diabetic drug rosiglitazone. Here, we provide evidence for a novel role of CTRP6 in modulating both inflammation and insulin sensitivity. We found that in obese and diabetic humans and mouse models, CTRP6 expression was markedly up-regulated in adipose tissue and that stromal vascular cells, such as macrophages, are a major CTRP6 source. Overexpressing mouse or human CTRP6 impaired glucose disposal in peripheral tissues in response to glucose and insulin challenge in wild-type mice. Conversely, Ctrp6 gene deletion improved insulin action and increased metabolic rate and energy expenditure in diet-induced obese mice. Mechanistically, CTRP6 regulates local inflammation and glucose metabolism by targeting macrophages and adipocytes, respectively. In cultured macrophages, recombinant CTRP6 dose-dependently up-regulated the expression and production of TNF-α. Conversely, CTRP6 deficiency reduced circulating inflammatory cytokines and pro-inflammatory macrophages in adipose tissue. CTRP6-overexpressing mice or CTRP6-treated adipocytes had reduced insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake. In contrast, loss of CTRP6 enhanced insulin-stimulated Akt activation in adipose tissue. Together, these results establish CTRP6 as a novel metabolic/immune regulator linking obesity to adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Release of drinking water contaminants and odor impacts caused by green building cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plumbing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Keven M; Stenson, Alexandra C; Dey, Rajarashi; Whelton, Andrew J

    2014-12-15

    Green buildings are increasingly being plumbed with crosslinked polyethylene (PEX) potable water pipe. Tap water quality was investigated at a six month old plumbing system and chemical and odor quality impacts of six PEX pipe brands were examined. Eleven PEX related contaminants were found in the plumbing system; one regulated (toluene) and several unregulated: Antioxidant degradation products, resin solvents, initiator degradation products, or manufacturing aides. Water chemical and odor quality was monitored for new PEX-a, -b and -c pipes with (2 mg/L free chlorine) and without disinfectant over 30 days. Odor and total organic carbon (TOC) levels decreased for all pipes, but odor remained greater than the USA's Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) secondary maximum contaminant level. Odors were not attributed to known odorants ethyl-tert-butyl ether (ETBE) or methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Free chlorine caused odor levels for PEX-a1 pipe to increase from 26 to 75 threshold odor number (TON) on day 3 and affected the rate at which TOC changed for each brand over 30 days. As TOC decreased, the ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm increased. Pipes consumed as much as 0.5 mg/L as Cl2 during each 3 day stagnation period. Sixteen organic chemicals were identified, including toluene, pyridine, methylene trichloroacetate and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. Some were also detected during the plumbing system field investigation. Six brands of PEX pipes sold in the USA and a PEX-a green building plumbing system impacted chemical and drinking water odor quality.

  13. Occurrence of human enteric viruses at freshwater beaches during swimming season and its link to water inflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Soo; Lee, Cheonghoon; Marion, Jason; Wang, Qiuhong; Saif, Linda; Lee, Jiyoung

    2014-02-15

    Human enteric viruses are significant etiological agents for many recreational waterborne illnesses. The occurrence and density of human enteric viruses such as human adenovirus (HAdV), human enterovirus (HEnV), and human norovirus genogroups I/II (HNoV GI/GII) were investigated using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) at freshwater beaches along with monitoring fecal indicators and environmental parameters. During the 2009 swimming season, water samples were collected from three inland freshwater beaches in Ohio, USA. Of the total samples, 40% (26/65) and 17% (11/65) were positive for HAdV and HEnV respectively, but HNoV GI/GII were not detected. There was no significant association among the detected human enteric viruses (HAdV and HEnV) and fecal bacteria indicators (Escherichia coli and Bacteroides) by Spearman correlation and principal component analyses. Logistic regression analysis also revealed that the odds of finding HAdV or HEnV was not influenced by levels of fecal bacteria indicators. However, there was a 14-fold increase in the odds of HEnV detection for each 1-log increase in daily water inflow (m(3)/s) into freshwater beach reservoirs (adjusted odds ratio=14.2; 95% confidence interval=1.19-171). In summary, the viral occurrence at the freshwater beaches was not readily explained by the levels of fecal bacteria indicators, but appeared to be more related to water reservoir inflows. These results suggest that hydrological data must be considered in future epidemiology efforts aimed at characterizing beach water safety.

  14. Relating Water Quality and Age in Drinking Water Distribution Systems Using Self-Organising Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Mirjam Blokker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and managing water quality in drinking water distribution system is essential for public health and wellbeing, but is challenging due to the number and complexity of interacting physical, chemical and biological processes occurring within vast, deteriorating pipe networks. In this paper we explore the application of Self Organising Map techniques to derive such understanding from international data sets, demonstrating how multivariate, non-linear techniques can be used to identify relationships that are not discernible using univariate and/or linear analysis methods for drinking water quality. The paper reports on how various microbial parameters correlated with modelled water ages and were influenced by water temperatures in three drinking water distribution systems.

  15. Are the metabolomic responses to folivory of closely related plant species linked to macroevolutionary and plant-folivore coevolutionary processes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; Hódar, José A. [Grupo de Ecología Terrestre, Departamento de Biología Animal y Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada Spain; Sardans, Jordi [CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; Kyle, Jennifer E. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; Kim, Young-Mo [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; Oravec, Michal [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bĕlidla 4a CZ-603 00 Brno Czech Republic; Urban, Otmar [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bĕlidla 4a CZ-603 00 Brno Czech Republic; Guenther, Alex [Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine California 92697 USA; Peñuelas, Josep [CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain

    2016-06-02

    The debate whether the coevolution of plants and insects or macroevolutionary processes (phylogeny) is the main driver determining the arsenal of molecular defensive compounds of plants remains unresolved. Attacks by herbivorous insects affect not only the composition of defensive compounds in plants but the entire metabolome (the set of molecular metabolites), including defensive compounds. Metabolomes are the final products of genotypes and are directly affected by macroevolutionary processes, so closely related species should have similar metabolomic compositions and may respond in similar ways to attacks by folivores. We analyzed the elemental compositions and metabolomes of needles from Pinus pinaster, P. nigra and P. sylvestris to determine if these closely related Pinus species with different coevolutionary histories with the caterpillars of the processionary moth respond similarly to attacks by this lepidopteran. All pines had different metabolomes and metabolic responses to herbivorous attack. The metabolomic variation among the pine species and the responses to folivory reflected their macroevolutionary relationships, with P. pinaster having the most divergent metabolome. The concentrations of phenolic metabolites were generally not higher in the attacked trees, which had lower concentrations of terpenes, suggesting that herbivores avoid individuals with high concentrations of terpenes. Our results suggest that macroevolutionary history plays important roles in the metabolomic responses of these pine species to folivory, but plant-insect coevolution probably constrains those responses. Combinations of different evolutionary factors and trade-offs are likely responsible for the different responses of each species to folivory, which is not necessarily exclusively linked to plant-insect coevolution.

  16. Linking carbon-water- and nitrogen fluxes at forest ecosystems throughout Europe with a coupled soil-vegetation process model "LandscapeDNDC"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Herrera, Saul; Grote, Rüdiger; Haas, Edwin; Kiese, Ralf; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    Forest ecosystems in Europe play a key role in the emission reduction commitment agreed in the Kyoto Protocol for mitigating climatic change. Forest ecological functioning and potential services (such as carbon sequestration) are a matter of debate for policy decision makers resulting from the need of identifying affordable strategies for forest management and exploitation against climate change. Forest ecosystem functioning and the linkages governing carbon-, water- and nitrogen fluxes at site scale was evaluated for three dominant tree species (Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica) grown on 10 different sites across Europe. We did answer in particular the following questions: a) is LandscapeDNDC able to represent NEE, GPP, TER and ET fluxes for dominant forest types in Europe at different sites with only a species specific parameterization? b) What is the relation between carbon input into the ecosystem and on the emission of carbon and nitrogen from the forest soil? Furthermore we analyzed the interaction between carbon-, nitrogen-, and water cycle, in particular the dependence of gaseous fluxes on water and litter availability. LandscapeDNDC is a process based model that integrates modules for carbon, nitrogen and water cycling within terrestrial ecosystems (i.e. forest) on the site and regional scale. Biosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere processes in forest ecosystems are linked by daily time step integration of the microclimate, water cycle, soil biogeochemistry and tree physiology and dimensional growth modules which balances all three aforementioned cycles. All processes and state variables are considered in a vertically structured one dimensional vertical column that reaches from rooting depth (more than 1 m depth) to the uppermost canopy layer. LandscapeDNDC was tested against long term (about 10 years) field data. The capability of the applied model for reproducing daily derived GPP and TER was accompanied by a high statistical precision (r

  17. Operational limitations of light water reactors relating to fuel performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, H S

    1976-07-01

    General aspects of fuel performance for typical Boiling and Pressurized Water Reactors are presented. Emphasis is placed on fuel failures in order to make clear important operational limitations. A discussion of fuel element designs is first given to provide the background information for the subsequent discussion of several fuel failure modes that have been identified. Fuel failure experiences through December 31, 1974, are summarized. The operational limitations that are required to mitigate the effects of fuel failures are discussed.

  18. Operational limitations of light water reactors relating to fuel performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, H S

    1976-07-01

    General aspects of fuel performance for typical Boiling and Pressurized Water Reactors are presented. Emphasis is placed on fuel failures in order to make clear important operational limitations. A discussion of fuel element designs is first given to provide the background information for the subsequent discussion of several fuel failure modes that have been identified. Fuel failure experiences through December 31, 1974, are summarized. The operational limitations that are required to mitigate the effects of fuel failures are discussed.

  19. THE CHANGE OF CHEMICAL QUALITY OF CARP POUNDS OUTGOING WATER IN RELATION TO INFLOW WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Fašaić

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Carp pounds are considered one of the contaminators of open waters. Such situation was the motive for carrying out the research of changes in the outgoing water from a pond compared to the water flowing into ponds on the fish-farming »Jelas« near Slavonski Brod. The research was carried out in the period 1989-1995, in spring, summer and autumn on the fish production of 500-1000 kg/ha-1 and fish nutrition with cereals. Following chemical parameters were researched: 02, unbound C02, alkalinity (CaC03, CaHC03, pH, permanganat number (KMn04. BPK5, total dry waste, suspended substance, NH4+, N03- and PO43-. On the basis of received analytic values, it was concluded that the water may be categorized in I-II quality class according to the quantity if 02, consumption of KMn04, NH4+, N03-, PO43- and dry waste in the feeding and drainage canal and in the III-IV quality class according to the BPK5 and suspended substance. An occasional marked decrease of the quantity of 02, NH4+, N03- and PO43- and alkalinity of water was stated in the outgoding water compared to the inflow water. The BPK5 and suspended substance increased in the outgoing water compared to the inflow water. After the variant of the most important inflow and outgoing chemical parameters in the water was analyzed, it was stated that there emerged no significant changes (P>O.Ol, P>0.05. The changes of outgoing water from fish-farming “Jelas” were not significant in the research period and they had no significant influence on the change of the recipient water.

  20. The Soil Characteristic Curve at Low Water Contents: Relations to Specific Surface Area and Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resurreccion, Augustus; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per;

    Accurate description of the soil-water retention curve (SWRC) at low water contents is important for simulating water dynamics, plant-water relations, and microbial processes in surface soil. Soil-water retention at soil-water matric potential of less than -10 MPa, where adsorptive forces dominate...... that measurements by traditional pressure plate apparatus generally overestimated water contents at -1.5 MPa (plant wilting point). The 41 soils were classified into four textural classes based on the so-called Dexter index n (= CL/OC), and the Tuller-Or (TO) general scaling model describing the water film...... thickness at a given soil-water matric potential (low organic soils with n > 10, the estimated SA from the dry soil-water retention was in good agreement with the SA measured using ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (SA_EGME). A strong relationship between the ratio...

  1. Opportunistic pathogens relative to physicochemical factors in water storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bahry, S N; Elshafie, A E; Victor, R; Mahmoud, I Y; Al-Hinai, J A

    2011-06-01

    Household water in Oman, as well as in other countries in the region, is stored in tanks placed on house roofs that can be subjected to physicochemical factors which can promote microbial growth, including pathogens and opportunistic pathogens which pose health risks. Water samples were collected from 30 houses in a heavily populated suburb of Muscat. The tanks used were either glass reinforced plastic (GRP), polyethylene or galvanised iron (GI). Heterotrophic bacteria, coliforms, faecal coliforms and iron sulphur bacteria varied significantly in the three tanks. Yeast and mould count showed significant variations. Isolation of Aeromonas spp., fluorogenic and pathogenic Pseudomonas, Pasteurella, Salmonella, Serratia and Tatumella, and Yersinia and Legionella in biofilms varied in the three tanks. The fungi isolates in the three tanks were Penicillium, Cladosporium and Aspergillus. Nephelometric turbidity unit, threshold odour number and free chlorine varied significantly in the three tanks. True colour unit values did not show a significant difference; however, GRP tanks had algae, autotrophic and pigmented microorganisms. In addition, GI tanks had sediments and corrosion. The results of this investigation are important to evaluate the status of the present household water tanks in countries with high annual temperatures, which may affect public health.

  2. Ion Chromatographic Analyses of Sea Waters, Brines and Related Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Gros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the ion chromatographic methods for the analyses of natural waters with high ionic strength. At the beginning a natural diversity in ionic composition of waters is highlighted and terminology clarified. In continuation a brief overview of other review articles of potential interest is given. A review of ion chromatographic methods is organized in four sections. The first section comprises articles focused on the determination of ionic composition of water samples as completely as possible. The sections—Selected Anions, Selected Cations and Metals—follow. The most essential experimental conditions used in different methods are summarized in tables for a rapid comparison. Techniques encountered in the reviewed articles comprise: direct determinations of ions in untreated samples with ion- or ion-exclusion chromatography, or electrostatic ion chromatography; matrix elimination with column-switching; pre-concentration with a chelation ion chromatography and purge-and-trap pre-concentration. Different detection methods were used: non-suppressed conductometric or suppressed conductometric, direct spectrometric or spectrometric after a post-column derivetization, and inductively coupled plasma in combination with optical emission or mass spectrometry.

  3. The association between fluoride in drinking water and dental caries in Danish children. Linking data from health registers, environmental registers and administrative registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeskov, Lilli; Kristiansen, Eva; Bøggild, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Kirkeskov L, Kristiansen E, Bøggild H, von Platen-Hallermund F, Sckerl H, Carlsen A, Larsen MJ, Poulsen S. The association between fluoride in drinking water and dental caries in Danish children. Linking data from health registers, environmental registers and administrative registers. Community...... Dent Oral Epidemiol 2010. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract - Objectives: To study the association between fluoride concentration in drinking water and dental caries in Danish children. Methods: The study linked registry data on fluoride concentration in drinking water over a 10-year period...... with data on dental caries from the Danish National Board of Health database on child dental health for 5-year-old children born in 1989 and 1999, and for 15-year-old children born in 1979 and 1989. The number of children included in the cohorts varied between 41.000 and 48.000. Logistic regression was used...

  4. Ultraviolet-B radiation induced cross-linking improves physical properties of cold- and warm-water fish gelatin gels and films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoni, Caio G; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J; Chiou, Bor-Sen; Bilbao-Sainz, Cristina; Bechtel, Peter J; McHugh, Tara H

    2012-09-01

    Cold- and warm-water fish gelatin granules were exposed to ultraviolet-B radiation for doses up to 29.7 J/cm(2). Solutions and films were prepared from the granules. Gel electrophoresis and refractive index were used to examine changes in molecular weight of the samples. Also, the gel strength and rheological properties of the solutions as well as the tensile and water vapor barrier properties of the films were characterized. SDS-PAGE and refractive index results indicated cross-linking of gelatin chains after exposure to radiation. Interestingly, UV-B treated samples displayed higher gel strengths, with cold- and warm-water fish gelatin having gel strength increases from 1.39 to 2.11 N and from 7.15 to 8.34 N, respectively. In addition, both gelatin samples exhibited an increase in viscosity for higher UV doses. For gelatin films, the cold-water fish gelatin samples made from irradiated granules showed greater tensile strength. In comparison, the warm-water gelatin films made from irradiated granules had lower tensile strength, but better water vapor barrier properties. This might be due to the UV induced cross-linking in warm-water gelatin that disrupted helical structures.

  5. 76 FR 57740 - Program Requirement Revisions Related to the Public Water System Supervision Programs for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... AGENCY Program Requirement Revisions Related to the Public Water System Supervision Programs for the... the process of revising their respective approved Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) programs to meet the requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). The State of Rhode Island has...

  6. 78 FR 25267 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-30

    ... AGENCY Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water... research on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources from April 30, 2013... research to examine the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. The...

  7. 77 FR 36001 - Draft Report Assessing Rural Water Activities and Related Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Draft Report Assessing Rural Water Activities and Related Programs AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The draft Rural Water Assessment Report reviews the status of the Bureau of Reclamation's rural potable water projects and its plan for...

  8. Biomass production, photosynthesis, and leaf water relations of Spartina alterniflora under moderate water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessini, Kamel; Ghandour, Mohamed; Albouchi, Ali; Soltani, Abdelaziz; Werner, Koyro Hans; Abdelly, Chedly

    2008-05-01

    The perennial smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora, has been successfully introduced in salty ecosystems for revegetation or agricultural use. However, it remains unclear whether it can be introduced in arid ecosystems. The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological response of this species to water deficiency in a climate-controlled greenhouse. The experiment consisted of two levels of irrigation modes, 100 and 50% field capacities (FC). Although growth, photosynthesis, and stomatal conductance of plants with 50% FC were reduced at 90 days from the start of the experiment, all of the plants survived. The water-stressed plants exhibited osmotic adjustment and an increase in the maximum elastic modulus that is assumed to be effective to enhance the driving force for water extraction from the soil with small leaf water loss. An increase in the water use efficiency was also found in the water-stressed plants, which could contribute to the maintenance of leaf water status under drought conditions. It can be concluded that S. alterniflora has the capacity to maintain leaf water status and thus survive in arid environment.

  9. The links between health-related behaviors and life satisfaction in elderly individuals who prefer institutional living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ay Serap M

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Life satisfaction among residents of institutions is becoming an important issue in a rapidly aging population. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the links between life satisfaction and health-related behaviors amongst functionally independent elderly people who prefer institutional living in İstanbul, Turkey. Methods The socio-demographic characteristics, health-related behaviors, leisure-time activities and fall histories of 133 residents of an institution in Istanbul were assessed by a structured questionnaire during face-to-face interviews. A validated life-satisfaction index questionnaire (LSI-A was completed. Results The mean age of the study group was 73.9 ± 8.0 (range 60–90 years. Within the group, 22.6% had never married and 14.3% had university degrees. The majority (71.4% were in the low income bracket. The overall mean LSI-A score was 20.3 ± 5.9. Participants who declared moderate/high income levels had a significantly higher mean LSI-A score than those in the low-income bracket (p = 0.009. Multivariate analysis of the data suggested that leisure-time activities and participation in regular physical activities are significant predictors of LSI-A scores (R2: 0.112; p = 0.005 and p = 0.02, respectively. Conclusion The findings imply that regular physical activity and leisure-time activities are significantly related to life satisfaction among residents in institutions. Participation in physical activity and leisure-time activity programs may help to improve the life satisfaction of elderly people living in institutions.

  10. Neon-20 depth-dose relations in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Bidasaria, H. B.; Schimmerling, W.; Wong, M.; Howard, J.

    1984-01-01

    The dose from heavy ion beams has been calculated using a one-dimensional transport theory and evaluated for 670 MeV/amu 20 Ne beams in water. The result is presented so as to be applicable to arbitrary ions for which the necessary interaction data are known. The present evaluation is based on thar Silberg-Tsao fragmentation parameters augmented with light fragment production from intranuclear cascades, recently calculated nuclear absorption cross sections, and evaluated stopping power data. Comparison with recent experimental data obtained at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory reveals the need for more accurate fragmentation data.

  11. Assessing changes in availability of land and water for food (1960-2050) : An analysis linking food demand and available resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibarrola Rivas, M. J.; Nonhebel, S.

    2016-01-01

    Future global food demand will require more land and water. We group the global population into six Gross Domestic Product groups and study changes in the availability of land and water for food in relation to demographic and nutrition transition theories. We show large differences in land and water

  12. Assessing changes in availability of land and water for food (1960-2050) : An analysis linking food demand and available resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibarrola Rivas, M. J.; Nonhebel, S.

    Future global food demand will require more land and water. We group the global population into six Gross Domestic Product groups and study changes in the availability of land and water for food in relation to demographic and nutrition transition theories. We show large differences in land and water

  13. Paying for water-related forest services: a survey on Italian payment mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secco L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the state of implementation of one of the most relevant mechanisms of payments for environmental services (PES in the forestry sector: the systems of payments for water-related forest services. Three water services with economic relevance are analyzed with reference to the Italian context: hydropower generation, tap-water supply and mineral water use by industry. Using the consolidated definition of PES as a basis for the analysis and considering the regulatory framework on water, we compared the three water-related services to describe the strengths and weaknesses in environmental services provision. From the analysis we deduced that pure PES schemes do not exist in the water sector in Italy, while PES-like schemes driven by public authorities have a relatively long and consolidated tradition, but need to be better oriented and more widely implemented in order to compensate the providers of the services.

  14. Water-Related Power Plant Curtailments: An Overview of Incidents and Contributing Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCall, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Water temperatures and water availability can affect the reliable operations of power plants in the United States. Data on water-related impacts on the energy sector are not consolidated and are reported by multiple agencies. This study provides an overview of historical incidents where water resources have affected power plant operations, discusses the various data sources providing information, and creates a publicly available and open access database that contains consolidated information about water-related power plant curtailment and shut down incidents. Power plants can be affected by water resources if incoming water temperatures are too high, water discharge temperatures are too high, or if there is not enough water available to operate. Changes in climate have the potential to exacerbate uncertainty over water resource availability and temperature. Power plant impacts from water resources include curtailment of generation, plant shut downs, and requests for regulatory variances. In addition, many power plants have developed adaptation approaches to reducing the potential risks of water-related issues by investing in new technologies or developing and implementing plans to undertake during droughts or heatwaves. This study identifies 42 incidents of water-related power plant issues from 2000-2015, drawing from a variety of different datasets. These incidents occur throughout the U.S. and affect coal and nuclear plants that use once-through, recirculating, and pond cooling systems. In addition, water temperature violations reported to the Environmental Protection Agency are also considered, with 35 temperature violations noted from 2012-2015. In addition to providing some background information on incidents, this effort has also created an open access database on the Open Energy Information platform that contains information about water-related power plant issues that can be updated by users.

  15. Microbial Community Structure in Relation to Water Quality in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks Bay is a shallow, microtidal, eutrophic sub-estuary of Mobile Bay, AL. High watershed nutrient inputs to the estuary contribute to a eutrophic condition characterized by frequent summertime diel-cycling hypoxia and dissolved oxygen (DO) oversaturation. Spatial and seasonal variability of microbial communities that contribute to estuarine ecosystem metabolism were characterized using high-throughput DNA sequencing. Surface water samples were collected from spring to fall at three sites along a transect of Weeks Bay from the Fish River to Mobile Bay. Water samples were analyzed for physiochemical properties and were also filtered onto Sterivex filters for DNA extraction. Genes for 16S rRNA and 18S rRNA were amplified and sequenced according to Earth Microbiome Project protocols. Sequences were assembled into contigs and clustered into OTUs with mothur using the Silva database. The prokaryotes were dominated by Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Spartobacteria, whereas the eukaryotes were dominated by Bacillariophyta (diatoms). Multivariate statistical analysis of microbial community composition and environmental data showed that Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota were clustered by season. BEST analysis by station showed that prokaryotic community structure was associated with salinity and CDOM (Rho=0.924), whereas eukaryotic community structure was most associated with salinity (Rho=0.846). Prokaryotic community structure within seasons was associated with six

  16. Water relations in untreated and modified wood under brown-rot and white-rot decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybring, Emil Engelund

    2017-01-01

    One key requisite for fungal decay of wood is water within cell walls. While several reviews have focused on the mechanistic relationship between water and decay of wood, this study is the first review of water relations of decayed wood material. Based on a vast compilation of experimental data...... from several literature sources, the water relations of untreated and modified wood decayed by brown-rot and white-rot fungi are examined. The aim is to investigate to what extent observations and assumptions regarding brown-rot and white-rot decay can explain changes in water relations observed during...... and after decay. Although the available experimental data for modified wood is scarce, it indicates that brown-rot and white-rot decay of non-resistant modified wood occurs by similar degradation mechanisms with similar effects on water relations as for untreated wood. From simplistic, mathematical...

  17. Going against the flow: A critical analysis of virtual water trade in the context of India's National River Linking Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verma, Shilp; Kampman, Doeke A.; Zaag, van der Pieter; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2007-01-01

    Virtual water trade has been promoted as a tool to address national and regional water scarcity. In the context of international (food) trade, this concept has been applied with a view to optimize the flow of commodities considering the water endowments of nations. The concept states that water-rich

  18. Temporal coupled mode theory linking to surface-wave dispersion relations in near-field electromagnetic heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Hideo; Fan, Shanhui

    2016-11-01

    We provide a detailed discussion of the use of coupled mode theory to describe near-field heat transfer. We consider a simple physical model system of coupled harmonic oscillators with each oscillator maintaining at a different temperature, where heat transfer between the oscillators can be analytically treated from first-principles using the Newton's equation and the fluctuation dissipation theorem. Applying a slowly varying envelope approximation to the Newton's equation, we derive a coupled mode theory formalism. We then apply this coupled mode theory formalism in the study of the near-field heat transfer between either silicon carbide plates or between two graphene sheets. The coupled mode theory provides a quantitative link between the dispersion relation of the coupled system and the heat transfer, and agrees with exact numerical results over all range of wavevectors. To obtain such complete agreement, the key observation here is that one should include the frequency shift, that is, the frequency of the individual mode used in the coupled mode theory should be different from the frequency of the mode of an isolated structure. Finally, we show that the coupled mode theory can be applied even when more than two modes are involved in the heat transfer. As an example, we extend our formalism to the near-field heat transfer in a four-layer graphene structure.

  19. Differentiation of water-related traits in terrestrial and epiphytic Cymbidium species

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Epiphytes that grow in the canopies of tropical and subtropical forests experience different water regimes when compared with terrestrial plants. However, the differences in adaptive strategies between epiphytic and terrestrial plants with respect to plant water relations remain poorly understood. To understand how water-related traits contrast between epiphytic and terrestrial growth forms within the Cymbidium (Orchidaceae), we assessed leaf anatomy, hydraulics, and physiology of seven terre...

  20. New Relations of Water Saturation’s Calculus from Well Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malureanu Ion

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The saturation in water or hydrocarbon is an important petrophysical parameter used for the evaluation of oil and gas reservoirs. It represents the amount of hydrocarbons in a reservoir. There are many relations to determine the water saturation from well logs by using the physical properties of rocks. The accurate determination of the hydrocarbon formation or the water saturation is given by the accuracy of the parameters used for calculating and by the relations used.

  1. Linking nitrifying biofilm characteristics and nitrification performance in moving-bed biofilm reactors for polluted raw water pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuangfu; Wang, Yayi; He, Weitao; Xing, Meiyan; Wu, Min; Yang, Jian; Gao, Naiyun; Sheng, Guangyao; Yin, Daqiang; Liu, Shanhu

    2013-10-01

    Biofilm physiology was characterized by four biofilm constituents, i.e., polysaccharides, proteins (PN), humic-like substances and phospholipids (PL), for the first time to explore the relationships between biofilm characteristics and nitrification performance in moving-bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) designed for pretreatment of polluted raw surface water for potable supply. The biofilm compositions depended highly on the balance of microbial decay and nitrification processes. The increased ammonia loading greatly regulated the community structure, promoting the dominance of nitrifiers and their proportions in the nitrifying biofilm. Nitrification rate and activity correlated linearly with the fractions of volatile solids (VS), PN and PL, which were related to nitrification processes in the biofilm. The specific biofilm activity demonstrated an exponential-asymptotic relationship with ratios of PN/VS and PL/VS. Thus, analyzing biofilm characteristics can be valid for estimating nitrification performance in MBBRs, and may offer engineers with basis to optimize MBBR design and operation.

  2. Targeting and valuing conservation investments in support of a water fund: linking upstream land management with downstream services in the Upper Tana catchment, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, B. P.; Droogers, P.; Hunink, J.; Vogl, A.; Wolny, S.

    2014-12-01

    We apply an integrated modeling framework to both target and value watershed management interventions in the Upper Tana watershed, which provides municipal water, irrigation water, and hydropower services to Nairobi and surrounding areas. The analysis begins by applying an index model approach that incorporates existing land use and land surface characteristics to prioritize the type and location of conservation investments in different subbasins, subject to budget constraints and stakeholder concerns (Resource Investment Optimization System -- RIOS). We then run the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) using the RIOS-identified investment scenarios to produce spatially explicit scenarios that simulate changes in water yield and suspended sediment. Finally, we link those biophysical outputs to monetary and non-monetary human well-being metrics for multiple benefit streams, including: Reduced water treatment costs, increased hydropower production, and crop yield benefits for upstream farmers in the conservation area. The viability of a payment for watershed services scheme is discussed, with attention to the various components of value assessed and to dependencies on water management approaches. While other studies have examined links between land use and the provision of hydrologic services, this study is novel in that it presents an integrated analysis that targets interventions in a decision context and then relies on calibrated, process-based, biophysical models to demonstrate the return on those investments considering multiple (and sometimes competing) hydrological services, doing so at a sub-annual time-scale.

  3. Energy Reliability Related to Water Availability under Climate Extremes in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, R. C.; Scanlon, B. R.; Duncan, I.; Young, M.; Wolaver, B. D.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding linkages between water and energy is critical during climate extremes, particularly droughts. With 40% reduction in per capita water storage since the 1980s, Texas is much more vulnerable to droughts now than in the past. Texas experienced the most extreme one year drought on record in 2011, with 60% reduction in precipitation and 40% reduction in reservoir storage relative to the long term mean. Power plants in Texas rely almost entirely on surface water for cooling. We evaluated water requirements for power plants based on fuel types and cooling technologies to assess their vulnerability to future droughts. Water demand was estimated for electricity generation using multiple sources, including Energy Information Agency, Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, and Texas Water Development Board. The following analysis reflects 2010 data; however, 2011 data will be analyzed as soon as they are made available. Analysis of 2010 data showed that Texas generated 411 million MWHr of electricity, mostly from natural gas (46%), coal (37%), nuclear (10%), and renewables (7%). Approximately 70% of net electricity generation in 2010 required water for cooling. Water consumption for electricity generation totaled 0.6 km3, which represents 3% of the states total water consumption in 2010 (22 km3). Water withdrawals totaled 28 km3; however, 97% of this water is returned to the system. Water consumption varies with fuel source (coal, natural gas, nuclear, renewables) and cooling system technology (once-through, pond, and recirculating tower). Coal plants accounted for the majority of water consumption in 2010, followed by natural gas, nuclear, and other. Water consumption varied by cooling system technology, with ponds accounting for most water consumption, followed by recirculating towers, and once-through cooling systems. The vulnerability of the different systems to drought was examined with water requirements for withdrawal and consumption relative to water

  4. Assessing brain structural associations with working memory related brain patterns in schizophrenia and healthy controls using linked independent component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Lycke Brandt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ is a psychotic disorder with significant cognitive dysfunction. Abnormal brain activation during cognitive processing has been reported, both in task-positive and task-negative networks. Further, structural cortical and subcortical brain abnormalities have been documented, but little is known about how task-related brain activation is associated with brain anatomy in SZ compared to healthy controls (HC. Utilizing linked independent component analysis (LICA, a data-driven multimodal analysis approach, we investigated structure–function associations in a large sample of SZ (n = 96 and HC (n = 142. We tested for associations between task-positive (fronto-parietal and task-negative (default-mode brain networks derived from fMRI activation during an n-back working memory task, and brain structural measures of surface area, cortical thickness, and gray matter volume, and to what extent these associations differed in SZ compared to HC. A significant association (p < .05, corrected for multiple comparisons was found between a component reflecting the task-positive fronto-parietal network and another component reflecting cortical thickness in fronto-temporal brain regions in SZ, indicating increased activation with increased thickness. Other structure–function associations across, between and within groups were generally moderate and significant at a nominal p-level only, with more numerous and stronger associations in SZ compared to HC. These results indicate a complex pattern of moderate associations between brain activation during cognitive processing and brain morphometry, and extend previous findings of fronto-temporal brain abnormalities in SZ by suggesting a coupling between cortical thickness of these brain regions and working memory-related brain activation.

  5. Ground Water Redox Zonation near La Pine, Oregon: Relation to River Position within the Aquifer-Riparian Zone Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Stephen R.; Morgan, David S.; Orzol, Leonard L.; Polette, Danial J.

    2007-01-01

    peripheral zones, whereas older, typically more reduced ground water tends to discharge closer to the center of the river corridor. Such distributions of redox state reflect ground-water movement and geochemical evolution at the aquifer-scale. Redox state of ground water undergoes additional modification as ground water nears discharge points in or adjacent to rivers, where riparian zone processes can be important. Lateral erosion of river systems away from the center of the flood plain can decrease or even eliminate interactions between ground water and reducing riparian zone sediments. Thus, ground water redox patterns in near-river sediments appear to reflect the position of a river within the riparian zone/aquifer continuum. Spatial heterogeneity of redox conditions near the river/aquifer boundary (that is, near the riverbed) makes it difficult to extrapolate transect-scale findings to a precise delineation of the oxic-suboxic boundary in the near-river environment of the entire study area. However, the understanding of relations between near-river redox state and proximity to riparian zone edges provides a basis for applying these results to the study-area scale, and could help guide management efforts such as nitrogen-reduction actions or establishment of Total Maximum Daily Load criteria. Coupling the ground-water redox-based understanding of river vulnerability with ground-water particle-tracking-based characterization of connections between upgradient recharge areas and receiving rivers demonstrates one means of linking effects of potential nitrate loads at the beginning of ground-water flow paths with river vulnerability.

  6. Ground Water Redox Zonation near La Pine, Oregon: Relation to River Position within the Aquifer-Riparian Zone Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Stephen R.; Morgan, David S.; Orzol, Leonard L.; Polette, Danial J.

    2007-01-01

    peripheral zones, whereas older, typically more reduced ground water tends to discharge closer to the center of the river corridor. Such distributions of redox state reflect ground-water movement and geochemical evolution at the aquifer-scale. Redox state of ground water undergoes additional modification as ground water nears discharge points in or adjacent to rivers, where riparian zone processes can be important. Lateral erosion of river systems away from the center of the flood plain can decrease or even eliminate interactions between ground water and reducing riparian zone sediments. Thus, ground water redox patterns in near-river sediments appear to reflect the position of a river within the riparian zone/aquifer continuum. Spatial heterogeneity of redox conditions near the river/aquifer boundary (that is, near the riverbed) makes it difficult to extrapolate transect-scale findings to a precise delineation of the oxic-suboxic boundary in the near-river environment of the entire study area. However, the understanding of relations between near-river redox state and proximity to riparian zone edges provides a basis for applying these results to the study-area scale, and could help guide management efforts such as nitrogen-reduction actions or establishment of Total Maximum Daily Load criteria. Coupling the ground-water redox-based understanding of river vulnerability with ground-water particle-tracking-based characterization of connections between upgradient recharge areas and receiving rivers demonstrates one means of linking effects of potential nitrate loads at the beginning of ground-water flow paths with river vulnerability.

  7. Tropical Ocean Evaporation/SST Sensitivity and It's Link to Water and Energy Budget Variations During ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Marshall, Susan; Oglesby, Robert; Roads, John; Sohn, Byung-Ju; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The continuing debate over feedback mechanisms governing tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and tropical climate in general has highlighted the diversity of potential checks and balances within the climate system. Competing feedbacks due to changes in surface evaporation, water vapor, and cloud long- and shortwave radiative properties each may serve critical roles in stabilizing or destabilizing the climate system. It is also intriguing that even those climate variations having origins internal to the climate system - changes in ocean heat transport for example, apparently require complementary equilibrating effects by changes in atmospheric energy fluxes. Perhaps the best observational evidence of this is the relatively invariant nature of tropically averaged net radiation exiting the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) as measured by broadband satellite sensors over the past two decades. Thus, analyzing how these feedback mechanisms are operating within the context of current interannual variability may offer considerable insight for anticipating future climate change. In this paper we focus primarily on interannual variations of ocean evaporative fluxes and their significance for coupled water and energy cycles within the tropical climate system. In particular, we use both the da Silva estimates of surface fluxes (based on the Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Data Set, COADS) and numerical simulations from several global climate models to examine evaporation sensitivity to perturbations in SST associated with warm and cold ENSO events. The specific questions we address are as follows: (1) What recurring patterns of surface wind and humidity anomalies are present during ENSO and how do they combine to yield systematic evaporation anomalies?, (2) What is the resulting tropical ocean mean evaporation-SST sensitivity associated with this climate perturbation?, and (3) What role does this evaporation play in tropical heat and water balance over tropical oceanic regions? We

  8. Data Model and Relational Database Design for Highway Runoff Water-Quality Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.; Tessler, Steven

    2001-01-01

    A National highway and urban runoff waterquality metadatabase was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration as part of the National Highway Runoff Water-Quality Data and Methodology Synthesis (NDAMS). The database was designed to catalog available literature and to document results of the synthesis in a format that would facilitate current and future research on highway and urban runoff. This report documents the design and implementation of the NDAMS relational database, which was designed to provide a catalog of available information and the results of an assessment of the available data. All the citations and the metadata collected during the review process are presented in a stratified metadatabase that contains citations for relevant publications, abstracts (or previa), and reportreview metadata for a sample of selected reports that document results of runoff quality investigations. The database is referred to as a metadatabase because it contains information about available data sets rather than a record of the original data. The database contains the metadata needed to evaluate and characterize how valid, current, complete, comparable, and technically defensible published and available information may be when evaluated for application to the different dataquality objectives as defined by decision makers. This database is a relational database, in that all information is ultimately linked to a given citation in the catalog of available reports. The main database file contains 86 tables consisting of 29 data tables, 11 association tables, and 46 domain tables. The data tables all link to a particular citation, and each data table is focused on one aspect of the information collected in the literature search and the evaluation of available information. This database is implemented in the Microsoft (MS) Access database software because it is widely used within and outside of government and is familiar to many

  9. Virtual water trade patterns in relation to environmental and socioeconomic factors: a case study for Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouchane, Hatem; Krol, Maarten; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2016-04-01

    Water scarcity is among the main problems faced by many societies. Growing water demands put increasing pressure on local water resources, especially in water-short countries. Virtual water trade can play a key role in filling the gap between local demands and supply. This study aims to analyze the changes in virtual water trade of Tunisia in relation to environmental and socio-economic factors such as GDP, irrigated land, precipitation, population and water scarcity. The water footprint is estimated using Aquacrop for six crops over the period 1981-2010 at daily basis and a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minutes. Virtual water trade is quantified at yearly basis. Regression models are used to investigate changes in virtual water trade in relation to various environmental and socio-economic factors. The explaining variables are selected in order to help understanding the trend and the inter-annual variability of the net virtual water import; GDP, population and irrigated land are hypothesized to explain the trend, and precipitation and water scarcity to explain variability. The selected crops are divided into three baskets. The first basket includes the two most imported crops, which are mainly rain-fed (wheat and barley). The second basket contains the two most exported crops, which are both irrigated and rain-fed (olives and dates). In the last basket we find the two highest economic blue water productive crops, which are mainly irrigated (tomatoes and potatoes). The results show the impact of each factor on net virtual water import of the selected crops during the period 1981-2010. Keywords: Virtual water, trade patterns, Aquacrop, Tunisia, water scarcity, water footprint.

  10. Relation of Root Growth of Rice Seedling with Nutrition and Water Use Efficiency Under Different Water Supply Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Bing-song; JIANG De-an; WU Ping; WENG Xiao-yan; LU Qing; WANG Ni-yan

    2006-01-01

    Water deficiency is one of the primary yield-limiting factors in rice. In plants, the nutrition and water use efficiency depend on root growth efficiency under different water supply conditions (WSC). Three rice genotypes, Azucena (an upland japonica),IR1552 (a lowland indica) and Jia 9522 (a lowland japonica), were grown under different WSC with 0 cm (submerged), 40 cm and 80cm groundwater levels below the soil surface to investigate the root parameters, water use efficiency, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium contents, net photosynthetic rate and transpiration rate of the rice plant. The relative parameters were defined as the ratio of the parameters under submerged conditions (0 cm groundwater level below soil surface) to these under upland conditions (40 cm and 80 cm groundwater levels below soil surface). The results indicated that different genotypes showed different relative root parameters and relative nutrition content and water use efficiency under different WSC. The length and number of adventitious root are more important than seminal root length in water and nutrition uptake, and maintaining the grain yield and increasing dry matter,but the adventitious root number could not be served as an index for screening drought-resistant genotypes. Furthermore, different drought-resistant genotypes have been also found, and Azucena was resistant to drought, IR1552 sensitive to drought and Jia 9522neither sensitive nor resistant to drought.

  11. Linked data management

    CERN Document Server

    Hose, Katja; Schenkel, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Linked Data Management presents techniques for querying and managing Linked Data that is available on today’s Web. The book shows how the abundance of Linked Data can serve as fertile ground for research and commercial applications. The text focuses on aspects of managing large-scale collections of Linked Data. It offers a detailed introduction to Linked Data and related standards, including the main principles distinguishing Linked Data from standard database technology. Chapters also describe how to generate links between datasets and explain the overall architecture of data integration systems based on Linked Data. A large part of the text is devoted to query processing in different setups. After presenting methods to publish relational data as Linked Data and efficient centralized processing, the book explores lookup-based, distributed, and parallel solutions. It then addresses advanced topics, such as reasoning, and discusses work related to read-write Linked Data for system interoperation. Desp...

  12. The water relations of two evergreen tree species in a karst savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinning, Susanne

    2008-12-01

    The ecohydrology of karst has not received much attention, despite the disproportionally large contribution of karst aquifers to freshwater supplies. Karst savannas, like many savannas elsewhere, are encroached by woody plants, with possibly negative consequences on aquifer recharge. However, the role of savanna tree species in hydrological processes remains unclear, not least because the location and water absorption zones of tree roots in the spatially complex subsurface strata are unknown. This study examined the water sources and water relations of two savanna trees, Quercus fusiformis (Small) and Juniperus ashei (Buchholz) in the karst region of the eastern Edwards Plateau, Texas (USA). Stable isotope analysis of stem water revealed that both species took up evaporatively enriched water during the warm season, suggesting a relatively shallow water source in the epikarst, the transition zone between soil and bedrock. Q. fusiformis had consistently higher predawn water potentials than J. ashei during drought, and thus was probably deeper-rooted and less capable of maintaining gas exchange at low water potentials. Although the water potential of both species recovered after drought-breaking spring and summer rain events, associated shifts in stem water isotope ratios did not indicate significant uptake of rainwater from the shallow soil. A hypothesis is developed to explain this phenomenon invoking a piston-flow mechanism that pushes water stored in macropores into the active root zones of the trees. Epikarst structure varied greatly with parent material and topography, and had strong effects on seasonal fluctuations in plant water status. The study suggests that tree species of the Edwards Plateau do not commonly reduce aquifer recharge by tapping directly into perched water tables, but more likely by reducing water storage in the epikarst. A more general conclusion is that models of savanna water relations based on Walter's two-layer model may not apply

  13. Plasticity in leaf-level water relations of tropical rainforest trees in response to experimental drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Oliver; Meir, Patrick; Rowland, Lucy; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Lola; Vasconcelos, Steel Silva; de Oliveira, Alex Antonio Ribeiro; Ferreira, Leandro; Christoffersen, Bradley; Nardini, Andrea; Mencuccini, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    The tropics are predicted to become warmer and drier, and understanding the sensitivity of tree species to drought is important for characterizing the risk to forests of climate change. This study makes use of a long-term drought experiment in the Amazon rainforest to evaluate the role of leaf-level water relations, leaf anatomy and their plasticity in response to drought in six tree genera. The variables (osmotic potential at full turgor, turgor loss point, capacitance, elastic modulus, relative water content and saturated water content) were compared between seasons and between plots (control and through-fall exclusion) enabling a comparison between short- and long-term plasticity in traits. Leaf anatomical traits were correlated with water relation parameters to determine whether water relations differed among tissues. The key findings were: osmotic adjustment occurred in response to the long-term drought treatment; species resistant to drought stress showed less osmotic adjustment than drought-sensitive species; and water relation traits were correlated with tissue properties, especially the thickness of the abaxial epidermis and the spongy mesophyll. These findings demonstrate that cell-level water relation traits can acclimate to long-term water stress, and highlight the limitations of extrapolating the results of short-term studies to temporal scales associated with climate change.

  14. Water Education: An e-learning platform for water-related competence development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Arvin, Erik; Ucendo, Inmaculada Maria Buendia

    2011-01-01

    The Danish water sector is in dire need for competence development to accommodate the changes in Danish water governance (decentralisation,privatisation and larger entities) and the implementation of relevant EuropeanUnion (EU) directives. In parallel, the number of international students enrolled...... in the two-year MSc programme in Environmental Engineering at DTU Environmentor visiting in short-term stays is increasing. Since these students come with awide range of different backgrounds there is a clear need for adaptation and development of the existing courses. In response to these needs...

  15. Oral health-related quality of life is linked with subjective well-being and depression in early old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Alexander Jochen; Danner, Daniel; Schmitt, Marina; Nitschke, Ina; Rammelsberg, Peter; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2011-10-01

    Although a body of research has targeted predictors of well-being and depression in old age, the consideration of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) as a predictor of these major psychosocial endpoints has been rare in the previous literature. The objective of this study was to test whether OHRQoL is associated with well-being and depression, after controlling for relevant confounders; also, the mediating role of subjective health, a major predictor of both well-being and depression, has been explored. OHRQoL was measured by two commonly used assessment instruments, the geriatric oral health assessment index (GOHAI) and oral health impact profile (OHIP); well-being was assessed by the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) and depression by the self-rating depression scale (SDS). We used a subsample of 197 participants from the older cohort (1930-1932) of the Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Adult Development. Regression models and structural equations modeling (SEM) were used for the test for study variable relationships. Both GOHAI and OHIP revealed significant associations to both PGCMS and SDS at the bivariate level. In regression analyses considering gender, household situation, subjective health, and both OHRQoL indicators, only OHIP remained a significant predictor of well-being and depression. In addition, supportive evidence for a mediating role of subjective health regarding the linkage between OHRQoL and an overall latent construct of well-being was found in the SEM analysis. In conclusion, OHRQoL is significantly linked with well-being and depression in old age, while subjective health is able to mediate the relationship. The generally underrated role of OHRQoL with respect to well-being and depression in late adulthood deserves more attention.

  16. Relations of surface-water quality to streamflow in the Raritan River basin, New Jersey, water years 1976-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Debra E.; Hunchak-Kariouk, Kathryn; Hickman, R. Edward

    1999-01-01

    Relations of water quality to streamflow were determined for 18 water-quality constituents at 21 surface-water stations within the drainage area of the Raritan River Basin for water years 1976-93. Surface-water-quality and streamflow data were evaluated for trends (through time) in constituent concentrations during high and low flows, and relations between constituent concentration and streamflow, and between constituent load and streamflow, were determined. Median concentrations were calculated for the entire period of study (water years 1976-93) and for the last 5 years of the period of study (water years 1989-93) to determine whether any large variation in concentration exists between the two periods. Medians also were used to determine the seasonal Kendall’s tau statistic, which was then used to evaluate trends in concentrations during high and low flows. Trends in constituent concentrations during high and low flows were evaluated to determine whether the distribution of the observations changes through time for intermittent (nonpoint storm runoff) or constant (point sources and ground water) sources, respectively. Highand low-flow trends in concentrations were determined for some constituents at 13 of the 21 water-quality stations; 8 stations have insufficient data to determine trends. Seasonal effects on the relations of concentration to streamflow are evident for 16 of the 18 constituents. Negative slopes of relations of concentration to streamflow, which indicate a decrease in concentration at high flows, predominate over positive slopes because of the dilution of instream concentrations by storm runoff. The slopes of the regression lines of load to streamflow were determined in order to show the relative contributions to the instream load from constant (point sources and ground water) and intermittent sources (storm runoff). Greater slope values indicate larger contributions from storm runoff to instream load, which most likely indicate an increased

  17. Littoral zones in shallow lakes. Contribution to water quality in relation to water level regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sollie, S.

    2007-01-01

    Littoral zones with emergent vegetation are very narrow or even lacking in Dutch shallow lakes due to a combination of changed water level regime and unfavorable shore morphometry. These zones are important as a habitat for plants and animals, increasing species diversity. It has also been demonstra

  18. Littoral zones in shallow lakes. Contribution to water quality in relation to water level regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sollie, S.

    2007-01-01

    Littoral zones with emergent vegetation are very narrow or even lacking in Dutch shallow lakes due to a combination of changed water level regime and unfavorable shore morphometry. These zones are important as a habitat for plants and animals, increasing species diversity. It has also been

  19. 75 FR 42774 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... contract actions will be accomplished through long-term renewal contracts pursuant to Public Law 102-575.... Contract will provide for an amount not to exceed 15,000 acre-feet annually authorized by Public Law 101... rights under Public Law 101-618; Nevada and California: Contract for the storage of non-Federal water in...

  20. Virtual water trade patterns in relation to environmental and socioeconomic factors: A case study for Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouchane, Hatem; Krol, Maarten S; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2017-09-13

    Growing water demands put increasing pressure on local water resources, especially in water-short countries. Virtual water trade can play a key role in filling the gap between local demand and supply of water-intensive commodities. This study aims to analyse the dynamics in virtual water trade of Tunisia in relation to environmental and socio-economic factors such as GDP, irrigated land, precipitation, population and water scarcity. The water footprint of crop production is estimated using AquaCrop for six crops over the period 1981-2010. Net virtual water import (NVWI) is quantified at yearly basis. Regression models are used to investigate dynamics in NVWI in relation to the selected factors. The results show that NVWI during the study period for the selected crops is not influenced by blue water scarcity. NVWI correlates in two alternative models to either population and precipitation (model I) or to GDP and irrigated area (model II). The models are better in explaining NVWI of staple crops (wheat, barley, potatoes) than NVWI of cash crops (dates, olives, tomatoes). Using model I, we are able to explain both trends and inter-annual variability for rain-fed crops. Model II performs better for irrigated crops and is able to explain trends significantly; no significant relation is found, however, with variables hypothesized to represent inter-annual variability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03

    ) and type of plant (nuclear vs. fossil fuel). This is accomplished in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, the nature of any compacts or agreements that give priority to users (i.e., which users must stop withdrawing water first) is examined. This is examined on a regional or watershed basis, specifically for western water rights, and also as a function of federal and state water management programs. Chapter 5 presents the findings and conclusions of this study. In addition to the above, a related intent of this study is to conduct preliminary modeling of how lowered surface water levels could affect generating capacity and other factors at different regional power plants. If utility managers are forced to take some units out of service or reduce plant outputs, the fuel mix at the remaining plants and the resulting carbon dioxide emissions may change. Electricity costs and other factors may also be impacted. Argonne has conducted some modeling based on the information presented in the database described in Chapter 2 of this report. A separate report of the modeling effort has been prepared (Poch et al. 2009). In addition to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet, this modeling also includes an evaluation of power production of hydroelectric facilities. The focus of this modeling is on those power plants located in the western United States.

  2. Untreated sleep-disordered breathing: links to aging-related decline in sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Djonlagic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increasing age is associated with a decline in cognition and motor skills, while at the same time exacerbating one's risk of developing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. OSA-related cognitive deficits are highly prevalent and can affect various memory systems including overnight memory consolidation on a motor sequence task. Thus, the aim of our study was to examine the effect of aging on sleep-dependent motor memory consolidation in patients with and without OSA. METHODS: We studied 44 patients (19-68 years who had been referred by a physician for a baseline polysomnography (PSG evaluation. Based on their PSG, patients were assigned either to the OSA group (AHI>5/h, or control (Non-OSA group (AHI<5/h. All subjects performed the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT and the Motor Sequence Learning Task (MST in the evening and again in the morning after their PSG. RESULTS: Despite similar learning in the evening, OSA subjects showed significantly less overnight improvement on the MST, both for immediate (OSA -2.7% ± 2.8% vs. controls 12.2% ± 3.5%; p = 0.002 and plateau improvement (OSA 4.9% ± 2.3% vs. controls 21.1%± 4.0%; p = 0.001. Within the OSA group, there was a significant negative correlation between overnight MST improvement and age (r(2 = 0.3; p = 0.01, an effect that was not observed in the Non-OSA group (r(2 = 0.08; p = 0.23. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with previous research, healthy sleepers demonstrated a higher degree of sleep-dependent overnight improvement on the MST, an effect not mitigated by increasing age. However, the presence of untreated obstructive sleep apnea is associated with an aging-related cognitive deficit, otherwise not present in individuals without OSA. As other research has linked the presence of OSA to a higher likelihood of developing dementia, future studies are necessary to examine if the inhibition of memory consolidation is tied to the onset of neurodegenerative disease.

  3. Remote Estimation of Leaf and Canopy Water Content in Winter Wheat with Different Vertical Distribution of Water-Related Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishi Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the vertical distribution of gravimetric water content (GWC, relative water content (RWC, and equivalent water thickness (EWT in winter wheat during heading and early ripening stages, and evaluated the position of leaf number at which Vegetation Indexes (VIs can best retrieve canopy water-related properties of winter wheat. Results demonstrated that the vertical distribution of these properties followed a near-bell-shaped curve with the highest values at the intermediate leaf position. GWC of the top three or four leaves during the heading stage and the top two or three leaves during the early ripening stage can represent the GWC of the whole canopy, but the RWC and EWT of the whole canopy should be calculated based on the top four leaves. At leaf level, the analysis demonstrated strong relationships between EWT and VIs for the top leaf layer, but for GWCD, GWCF, and RWC, the strongest relationships with VIs were found in the intermediate leaf layers. At canopy level, VIs provided the most accurate estimation of GWCfor the top three or four leaves. Water absorption-based VIs could estimate canopy EWT of winter wheat for the top four leaves, but the suitable bands sensitive to water absorptions should be carefully selected for the studied species.

  4. Water-Related Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Subsequently on Public Health: A Review for Generalists with Particular Reference to Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Toqeer; Scholz, Miklas; Al-Faraj, Furat; Niaz, Wajeeha

    2016-01-01

    Water-related impacts due to change in climatic conditions ranging from water scarcity to intense floods and storms are increasing in developing countries like Pakistan. Water quality and waterborne diseases like hepatitis, cholera, typhoid, malaria and dengue fever are increasing due to chaotic urbanization, industrialization, poor hygienic conditions, and inappropriate water management. The morbidity rate is high due to lack of health care facilities, especially in developing countries. Organizations linked to the Government of Pakistan (e.g., Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Climate Change, Planning and Development, Ministry of Forest, Irrigation and Public Health, Pakistan Meteorological Department, National Disaster Management, Pakistan Agricultural Research Centre, Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources, and Global Change Impact Study Centre), United Nation organizations, provincial government departments, non-governmental organizations (e.g., Global Facility and Disaster Reduction), research centers linked to universities, and international organizations (International Institute for Sustainable Development, Food and Agriculture, Global Climate Fund and World Bank) are trying to reduce the water-related impacts of climate change, but due to lack of public awareness and health care infrastructure, the death rate is steadily increasing. This paper critically reviews the scientific studies and reports both at national and at international level benefiting generalists concerned with environmental and public health challenges. The article underlines the urgent need for water conservation, risk management, and the development of mitigation measures to cope with the water-related impacts of climate change on agriculture and subsequently on public health. Novel solutions and bioremediation methods have been presented to control environmental pollution and to promote awareness among the scientific community. The focus is on diverse strategies to handle

  5. Water-Related Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Subsequently on Public Health: A Review for Generalists with Particular Reference to Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toqeer Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water-related impacts due to change in climatic conditions ranging from water scarcity to intense floods and storms are increasing in developing countries like Pakistan. Water quality and waterborne diseases like hepatitis, cholera, typhoid, malaria and dengue fever are increasing due to chaotic urbanization, industrialization, poor hygienic conditions, and inappropriate water management. The morbidity rate is high due to lack of health care facilities, especially in developing countries. Organizations linked to the Government of Pakistan (e.g., Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Climate Change, Planning and Development, Ministry of Forest, Irrigation and Public Health, Pakistan Meteorological Department, National Disaster Management, Pakistan Agricultural Research Centre, Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources, and Global Change Impact Study Centre, United Nation organizations, provincial government departments, non-governmental organizations (e.g., Global Facility and Disaster Reduction, research centers linked to universities, and international organizations (International Institute for Sustainable Development, Food and Agriculture, Global Climate Fund and World Bank are trying to reduce the water-related impacts of climate change, but due to lack of public awareness and health care infrastructure, the death rate is steadily increasing. This paper critically reviews the scientific studies and reports both at national and at international level benefiting generalists concerned with environmental and public health challenges. The article underlines the urgent need for water conservation, risk management, and the development of mitigation measures to cope with the water-related impacts of climate change on agriculture and subsequently on public health. Novel solutions and bioremediation methods have been presented to control environmental pollution and to promote awareness among the scientific community. The focus is on diverse

  6. Water-Related Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Subsequently on Public Health: A Review for Generalists with Particular Reference to Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Toqeer; Scholz, Miklas; Al-Faraj, Furat; Niaz, Wajeeha

    2016-10-27

    Water-related impacts due to change in climatic conditions ranging from water scarcity to intense floods and storms are increasing in developing countries like Pakistan. Water quality and waterborne diseases like hepatitis, cholera, typhoid, malaria and dengue fever are increasing due to chaotic urbanization, industrialization, poor hygienic conditions, and inappropriate water management. The morbidity rate is high due to lack of health care facilities, especially in developing countries. Organizations linked to the Government of Pakistan (e.g., Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Climate Change, Planning and Development, Ministry of Forest, Irrigation and Public Health, Pakistan Meteorological Department, National Disaster Management, Pakistan Agricultural Research Centre, Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources, and Global Change Impact Study Centre), United Nation organizations, provincial government departments, non-governmental organizations (e.g., Global Facility and Disaster Reduction), research centers linked to universities, and international organizations (International Institute for Sustainable Development, Food and Agriculture, Global Climate Fund and World Bank) are trying to reduce the water-related impacts of climate change, but due to lack of public awareness and health care infrastructure, the death rate is steadily increasing. This paper critically reviews the scientific studies and reports both at national and at international level benefiting generalists concerned with environmental and public health challenges. The article underlines the urgent need for water conservation, risk management, and the development of mitigation measures to cope with the water-related impacts of climate change on agriculture and subsequently on public health. Novel solutions and bioremediation methods have been presented to control environmental pollution and to promote awareness among the scientific community. The focus is on diverse strategies to handle

  7. City-scale analysis of water-related energy identifies more cost-effective solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ka Leung; Kenway, Steven J; Lant, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    Energy and greenhouse gas management in urban water systems typically focus on optimising within the direct system boundary of water utilities that covers the centralised water supply and wastewater treatment systems, despite a greater energy influence by the water end use. This work develops a cost curve of water-related energy management options from a city perspective for a hypothetical Australian city. It is compared with that from the water utility perspective. The curves are based on 18 water-related energy management options that have been implemented or evaluated in Australia. In the studied scenario, the cost-effective energy saving potential from a city perspective (292 GWh/year) is far more significant than that from a utility perspective (65 GWh/year). In some cases, for similar capital cost, if regional water planners invested in end use options instead of utility options, a greater energy saving potential at a greater cost-effectiveness could be achieved in urban water systems. For example, upgrading a wastewater treatment plant for biogas recovery at a capital cost of $27.2 million would save 31 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $63/MWh, while solar hot water system rebates at a cost of $28.6 million would save 67 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $111/MWh. Options related to hot water use such as water-efficient shower heads, water-efficient clothes washers and solar hot water system rebates are among the most cost-effective city-scale opportunities. This study demonstrates the use of cost curves to compare both utility and end use options in a consistent framework. It also illustrates that focusing solely on managing the energy use within the utility would miss substantial non-utility water-related energy saving opportunities. There is a need to broaden the conventional scope of cost curve analysis to include water-related energy and greenhouse gas at the water end use, and to value their management from a city perspective. This

  8. Peach water relations, gas exchange, growth and shoot mortality under water deficit in semi-arid weather conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Rahmati

    Full Text Available In this study the sensitivity of peach tree (Prunus persica L. to three water stress levels from mid-pit hardening until harvest was assessed. Seasonal patterns of shoot and fruit growth, gas exchange (leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration as well as carbon (C storage/mobilization were evaluated in relation to plant water status. A simple C balance model was also developed to investigate sink-source relationship in relation to plant water status at the tree level. The C source was estimated through the leaf area dynamics and leaf photosynthesis rate along the season. The C sink was estimated for maintenance respiration and growth of shoots and fruits. Water stress significantly reduced gas exchange, and fruit, and shoot growth, but increased fruit dry matter concentration. Growth was more affected by water deficit than photosynthesis, and shoot growth was more sensitive to water deficit than fruit growth. Reduction of shoot growth was associated with a decrease of shoot elongation, emergence, and high shoot mortality. Water scarcity affected tree C assimilation due to two interacting factors: (i reduction in leaf photosynthesis (-23% and -50% under moderate (MS and severe (SS water stress compared to low (LS stress during growth season and (ii reduction in total leaf area (-57% and -79% under MS and SS compared to LS at harvest. Our field data analysis suggested a Ψstem threshold of -1.5 MPa below which daily net C gain became negative, i.e. C assimilation became lower than C needed for respiration and growth. Negative C balance under MS and SS associated with decline of trunk carbohydrate reserves--may have led to drought-induced vegetative mortality.

  9. Peach water relations, gas exchange, growth and shoot mortality under water deficit in semi-arid weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Mitra; Davarynejad, Gholam Hossein; Génard, Michel; Bannayan, Mohammad; Azizi, Majid; Vercambre, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    In this study the sensitivity of peach tree (Prunus persica L.) to three water stress levels from mid-pit hardening until harvest was assessed. Seasonal patterns of shoot and fruit growth, gas exchange (leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration) as well as carbon (C) storage/mobilization were evaluated in relation to plant water status. A simple C balance model was also developed to investigate sink-source relationship in relation to plant water status at the tree level. The C source was estimated through the leaf area dynamics and leaf photosynthesis rate along the season. The C sink was estimated for maintenance respiration and growth of shoots and fruits. Water stress significantly reduced gas exchange, and fruit, and shoot growth, but increased fruit dry matter concentration. Growth was more affected by water deficit than photosynthesis, and shoot growth was more sensitive to water deficit than fruit growth. Reduction of shoot growth was associated with a decrease of shoot elongation, emergence, and high shoot mortality. Water scarcity affected tree C assimilation due to two interacting factors: (i) reduction in leaf photosynthesis (-23% and -50% under moderate (MS) and severe (SS) water stress compared to low (LS) stress during growth season) and (ii) reduction in total leaf area (-57% and -79% under MS and SS compared to LS at harvest). Our field data analysis suggested a Ψstem threshold of -1.5 MPa below which daily net C gain became negative, i.e. C assimilation became lower than C needed for respiration and growth. Negative C balance under MS and SS associated with decline of trunk carbohydrate reserves--may have led to drought-induced vegetative mortality.

  10. Postfire soil water repellency in piñon-juniper woodlands: Extent, severity, and thickness relative to ecological site characteristics and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvirzdin, Daniel L; Roundy, Bruce A; Barney, Nicholas S; Petersen, Steven L; Anderson, Val J; Madsen, Matthew D

    2017-07-01

    Wildfires can create or intensify water repellency in soil, limiting the soil's capacity to wet and retain water. The objective of this research was to quantify soil water repellency characteristics within burned piñon-juniper woodlands and relate this information to ecological site characteristics. We sampled soil water repellency across forty-one 1,000 m(2) study plots within three major wildfires that burned in piñon-juniper woodlands. Water repellency was found to be extensive-present at 37% of the total points sampled-and strongly related to piñon-juniper canopy cover. Models developed for predicting SWR extent and severity had R(2)adj values of 0.67 and 0.61, respectively; both models included piñon-juniper canopy cover and relative humidity the month before the fire as coefficient terms. These results are important as they suggest that postfire water repellency will increase in the coming years as infilling processes enhance piñon-juniper canopy cover. Furthermore, reductions in relative humidity brought about by a changing climate have the potential to link additively with infilling processes to increase the frequency and intensity of wildfires and produce stronger water repellency over a greater spatial extent. In working through these challenges, land managers can apply the predictive models developed in this study to prioritize fuel control and postfire restoration treatments.

  11. Linking Environmental Research and Practice: Lessons From The Integration of Climate Science and Water Management in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, D. B.; Rice, J.; Woodhouse, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Efforts to better connect scientific research with people and organizations involved in environmental decision making are receiving increased interest and attention. Some of the challenges we currently face, however—including complex questions associated with climate change—present unique challenges because of their scale and scope. Focused research on the intersections between environment and society has provided substantial insight into dynamics of large-scale environmental change and the related impacts on people, natural resources, and ecosystems, yet our ability to connect this research to real-world decision making remains limited. Addressing these complex environmental problems requires broad cooperation between scientists and those who may apply research results in decision making, but there are few templates for guiding the growing number of scientists and practitioners now engaging in this kind of cooperative work. This presentation will offer a set of heuristics for carrying out collaborative work between scientists and practitioners. These heuristics were derived from research that examined the direct experiences of water resources professionals and climate researchers who have been working to integrate science and practice.

  12. Historical development of crop-related water footprints and inter-regional virtual water flows within China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, La; Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2015-04-01

    China is facing water-related challenges, including an uneven distribution of water resources, both temporally and spatially, and an increasing competition over the limited water resources among different sectors. This issue has been widely researched and was finally included into the National Plan 2011 (the 2011 No. 1 Document by the State Council of China). However, there is still lack of information on how population growth and rapid urbanization have affected the water resources in China over the last decades. The current study aims at investigating (i) the intra-annual variation of green and blue water footprints (WFs) of crop production in China over the period 1978-2009 at a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc-minute; (ii) the yearly virtual water (VW) balances of 31 provinces within China, related water savings for the country, as well as the VW flows among eight economic regions resulting from inter-regional crop trade over the same period; and (iii) the development of the WF related to crop consumption by Chinese consumers. Results show that, over the period 1978-2009, the total WF related to crop production within China increased by only 4%), but regional changes were significant. From the 1980s to the 2000s, the shift of the cropping centre from the South to the North resulted in an increase of about 16% in the blue WF and 19% in the green WF in the North and a reduction of the blue and green WF in the South by 11% and 3%, respectively. China as a whole was a net virtual water importer related to crop trade, thus saving domestic water resources. China's inter-regional crop trade generated a blue water 'loss' annually by transferring crops from provinces with relatively low crop water productivity to provinces with relatively high productivity. Over the decades, the original VW flow from the South coastal region to the Northeast was reversed. Rice was the all-time dominant crop in the inter-regional VW flows (accounting for 34% in 2009), followed by wheat

  13. Water Retention Curve and Relative Permeability for Gas Production from Hydrate-Bearing Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahabadi, N.; Dai, S.; Seol, Y.; Jang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Water retention curve (soil water characteristic curve SWCC) and relative permeability equations are important to determine gas and water production for gas hydrate development. However, experimental studies to determine fitting parameters of those equations are not available in the literature. The objective of this research is to obtain reliable parameters for capillary pressure functions and relative permeability equations applicable to hydrate dissociation and gas production. In order to achieve this goal, (1) micro X-ray Computer Tomography (CT) is used to scan the specimen under 10MPa effective stress, (2) a pore network model is extracted from the CT image, (3) hydrate dissociation and gas expansion are simulated in the pore network model, (4) the parameters for the van Genuchten-type soil water characteristic curve and relative permeability equation during gas expansion are suggested. The research outcome will enhance the ability of numerical simulators to predict gas and water production rate.

  14. Relating tropical ocean clouds to moist processes using water vapor isotope measurements

    OpenAIRE

    J. Lee; Worden, J.; D. Noone; K. Bowman; A. Eldering; A. LeGrande; Li, J.-L. F.; Schmidt, G; Sodemann, H.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the co-variations of tropospheric water vapor, its isotopic composition and cloud types and relate these distributions to tropospheric mixing and distillation models using satellite observations from the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) over the summertime tropical ocean. Interpretation of these process distributions must take into account the sensitivity of the TES isotope and water vapor measurements to variations in cloud, water, and temperature amount. Consequently...

  15. Water stress induced breakdown of carbon-water relations: indicators from diurnal FLUXNET patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jacob; Carvalhais, Nuno; Migliavacca, Mirco; Reichstein, Markus; Jung, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Understanding of terrestrial carbon and water cycles is currently hampered by an uncertainty in how to capture the large variety of plant responses to drought across climates, ecological strategies, and environments. In FLUXNET, many sites do not uniformly report the ancillary variables needed to study drought response physiology such as soil moisture, sap flux, or species composition. In this sense, the use of diurnal patters to derive clues on ecosystem water limitation responses at a daily resolution from an existing dataset could prove valuable, if nothing less than a benchmark to test current hypotheses. To this end, we propose two data-driven indicators derived directly from the eddy covariance data and based on expected physiological responses to hydraulic and non-stomatal limitations. Hydraulic limitations are proxied using the normalized diurnal centroid, which measures the degree to which the flux of ET is shifted toward the morning. Non-stomatal limitations are characterized by the Diurnal Water:Carbon Index (DWCI), which measures the degree of coupling between daily ET and GPP fluxes. Globally, we found significantly high frequencies of morning shifted days in dry/Mediterranean climates and savanna plant functional types (PFT), whereas high frequencies of decoupling were found in dry climates and grassland/savanna PFTs. Overall, both the diurnal centroid and DWCI were associated with high net radiation and low latent energy. Using three water use efficiency (WUE) models, we found the mean difference between expected and observed WUE to be 0.09 to -0.23 umol/mmol and -0.42 to -0.49 umol/mmol for decoupled and morning shifted days respectively, indicating an increase in WUE associated with the metrics that the models were unable to capture. Furthermore we discuss the application of diurnal centroid and DWCI to methods of evapotranspiration partitioning and estimation of ecosystem isohydricity.

  16. Growth, water relations and photosynthesis of seedlings and resprouts after fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Adelaide S.; Rego, Francisco C.; Correia, Otília A.

    2005-05-01

    Seasonal patterns of growth, water relations, photosynthesis and leaf characteristics were compared between obligate seeders ( Cistus monspeliensis and Cistus ladanifer) and resprouters ( Arbutus unedo and Pistacia lentiscus) from the first to the second year after fire. We hypothesized that seedlings would be more water-limited than resprouts due to their shallower root systems. Regarding water use strategies, Cistus species are drought semi-deciduous and A. unedo and P. lentiscus are evergreen sclerophylls, therefore, comparisons were based on the relative deviation from mature conspecific plants. Seedlings and resprouts had higher shoot elongation and leaf production than mature plants, and over an extended period. Differences from mature plants were larger in resprouts, with two-fold transpiration, leaf conductance and photosynthesis in late spring/early summer. Seedlings of C. monspeliensis exhibited higher transpiration and leaf conductance than mature plants, while those of C. ladanifer only exhibited higher water potential. Growth increments and ameliorated water relations and photosynthesis after fire were attributed to an increase in water and nutrient availability. The small differences in water relations and photosynthesis between seedlings and mature conspecifics are in accordance with the prediction of seedlings experiencing higher water limitation than resprouts. We attribute these results to differences in root systems: resprouters benefited from an increase in root/shoot ratios and the presence of deep roots whereas Cistus seedlings relied on very shallow roots, which cannot provide assess to deep water during summer. Nevertheless, seedlings did not show evidence of experiencing a more severe water limitation than mature conspecifics, which we attributed to the presence of efficient mechanisms of avoiding and tolerating water stress. The results are discussed in relation to post-fire demography of seeders and resprouters in Mediterranean

  17. Water-related environmental control requirements at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J C; Johnson, L D

    1980-09-01

    Water use and waste water production, water pollution control technology requirements, and water-related limitations to their design and commercialization are identified at municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion systems. In Part I, a summary of conclusions and recommendations provides concise statements of findings relative to water management and waste water treatment of each of four municipal solid waste-to-energy conversion categories investigated. These include: mass burning, with direct production of steam for use as a supplemental energy source; mechanical processing to produce a refuse-derived fuel (RDF) for co-firing in gas, coal or oil-fired power plants; pyrolysis for production of a burnable oil or gas; and biological conversion of organic wastes to methane. Part II contains a brief description of each waste-to-energy facility visited during the subject survey showing points of water use and wastewater production. One or more facilities of each type were selected for sampling of waste waters and follow-up tests to determine requirements for water-related environmental controls. A comprehensive summary of the results are presented. (MCW)

  18. Differentiation of water-related traits in terrestrial and epiphytic Cymbidium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Bao eZhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytes that grow in the canopies of tropical and subtropical forests experience different water regimes when compared with terrestrial plants. However, the differences in adaptive strategies between epiphytic and terrestrial plants with respect to plant water relations remain poorly understood. To understand how water-related traits contrast between epiphytic and terrestrial growth forms within the Cymbidium (Orchidaceae, we assessed leaf anatomy, hydraulics, and physiology of seven terrestrial and 13 epiphytic species using a common garden experiment. Compared with terrestrial species, epiphytic species had higher values for leaf mass per unit area (LMA, leaf thickness (LT, epidermal thickness, saturated water content (SWC and the time required to dry saturated leaves to 70% relative water content (T70. However, vein density (Dvein, stomatal density (SD, and photosynthetic capacity (Amax did not differ significantly between the two forms. T70 was positively correlated with LT, LMA, and SWC, and negatively correlated with stomatal index (SI. Amax showed positive correlations with SD and SI, but not with Dvein. Vein density was marginally correlated with SD, and significantly correlated with SI. Overall, epiphytic orchids exhibited substantial ecophysiological differentiations from terrestrial species, with the former type showing trait values indicative of greater drought tolerance and increased water storage capacity. The ability to retain water in the leaves plays a key role in maintaining a water balance in those epiphytes. Therefore, the process of transpiration depends less upon the current substrate water supply and enables epiphytic Cymbidium species to adapt more easily to canopy habitats.

  19. Relation Matrix of Water Exchange for Sea Bays and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jian; TAO Jian-hua

    2006-01-01

    Water exchange is an important hydrodynamic character of sea bays, and it is the basis for the study of the environmental capacity of sea bays. In this paper, a relation matrix is set up to describe the interaction among different areas of a sea bay, and to predict the water quality of those areas. The relation matrix is calculated based on the numerical results from a water quality model. This method is applied to the study of water exchange and the prediction of water quality of the Bohai Sea. The Bohai Sea is divided into five areas, and the effect of seasonal wind is taken into consideration. The results show a) the relation matrix can be used to study the water exchange among different areas and predict water quality of different areas at the respective characteristic time, b) the reduction of pollutant is dependent on both water exchange and initial distribution of the pollutant, and c) the half-life time of the pollutant is longer than the half-exchange time of the sea water.

  20. Differentiation of water-related traits in terrestrial and epiphytic Cymbidium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Bao; Dai, Yan; Hao, Guang-You; Li, Jia-Wei; Fu, Xue-Wei; Zhang, Jiao-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Epiphytes that grow in the canopies of tropical and subtropical forests experience different water regimes when compared with terrestrial plants. However, the differences in adaptive strategies between epiphytic and terrestrial plants with respect to plant water relations remain poorly understood. To understand how water-related traits contrast between epiphytic and terrestrial growth forms within the Cymbidium (Orchidaceae), we assessed leaf anatomy, hydraulics, and physiology of seven terrestrial and 13 epiphytic species using a common garden experiment. Compared with terrestrial species, epiphytic species had higher values for leaf mass per unit area (LMA), leaf thickness (LT), epidermal thickness, saturated water content (SWC) and the time required to dry saturated leaves to 70% relative water content (T70). However, vein density (Dvein), stomatal density (SD), and photosynthetic capacity (Amax) did not differ significantly between the two forms. T70 was positively correlated with LT, LMA, and SWC, and negatively correlated with stomatal index (SI). Amax showed positive correlations with SD and SI, but not with Dvein. Vein density was marginally correlated with SD, and significantly correlated with SI. Overall, epiphytic orchids exhibited substantial ecophysiological differentiations from terrestrial species, with the former type showing trait values indicative of greater drought tolerance and increased water storage capacity. The ability to retain water in the leaves plays a key role in maintaining a water balance in those epiphytes. Therefore, the process of transpiration depends less upon the current substrate water supply and enables epiphytic Cymbidium species to adapt more easily to canopy habitats.

  1. Design and operation problems related to water curtain system for underground water-sealed oil storage caverns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongkui Li; Baoqi Lu; Jing Zou; Bin Xu; Zhizeng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The underground water-sealed storage technique is critically important and generally accepted for the national energy strategy in China. Although several small underground water-sealed oil storage caverns have been built in China since the 1970s, there is still a lack of experience for large-volume underground storage in complicated geological conditions. The current design concept of water curtain system and the technical instruction for system operation have limitations in maintaining the stability of surrounding rock mass during the construction of the main storage caverns, as well as the long-term stability. Although several large-scale underground oil storage projects are under construction at present in China, the design concepts and construction methods, especially for the water curtain system, are mainly based on the ideal porosity medium flow theory and the experiences gained from the similar projects overseas. The storage projects currently constructed in China have the specific features such as huge scale, large depth, multiple-level arrangement, high seepage pressure, complicated geological conditions, and high in situ stresses, which are the challenging issues for the stability of the storage caverns. Based on years’ experiences obtained from the first large-scale (millions of cubic meters) underground water-sealed oil storage project in China, some design and operation problems related to water curtain system during project construction are discussed. The drawbacks and merits of the water curtain system are also presented. As an example, the conventional concept of“filling joints with water”is widely used in many cases, as a basic concept for the design of the water curtain system, but it is immature. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the conventional concept are pointed out, with respect to the long-term stability as well as the safety of construction of storage caverns. Finally, new concepts and principles for design and

  2. Design and operation problems related to water curtain system for underground water-sealed oil storage caverns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongkui Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The underground water-sealed storage technique is critically important and generally accepted for the national energy strategy in China. Although several small underground water-sealed oil storage caverns have been built in China since the 1970s, there is still a lack of experience for large-volume underground storage in complicated geological conditions. The current design concept of water curtain system and the technical instruction for system operation have limitations in maintaining the stability of surrounding rock mass during the construction of the main storage caverns, as well as the long-term stability. Although several large-scale underground oil storage projects are under construction at present in China, the design concepts and construction methods, especially for the water curtain system, are mainly based on the ideal porosity medium flow theory and the experiences gained from the similar projects overseas. The storage projects currently constructed in China have the specific features such as huge scale, large depth, multiple-level arrangement, high seepage pressure, complicated geological conditions, and high in situ stresses, which are the challenging issues for the stability of the storage caverns. Based on years' experiences obtained from the first large-scale (millions of cubic meters underground water-sealed oil storage project in China, some design and operation problems related to water curtain system during project construction are discussed. The drawbacks and merits of the water curtain system are also presented. As an example, the conventional concept of “filling joints with water” is widely used in many cases, as a basic concept for the design of the water curtain system, but it is immature. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the conventional concept are pointed out, with respect to the long-term stability as well as the safety of construction of storage caverns. Finally, new concepts and principles

  3. Determining Regional Sensitivity to Energy-Related Water Withdrawals in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, A.; Brauman, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Minnesota has abundant freshwater resources, yet concerns about water-impacts of energy and mining development are increasing. Statewide, total annual water withdrawals have increased, and, in some watersheds, withdrawals make up a large fraction of available water. The energy and mining sectors play a critical role in determining water availability, as water is used to irrigate biofuel feedstock crops, cool thermoelectric plants, and process and transport fuels and iron ore. We evaluated the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Water and Reporting System (MPARS) dataset (1988-2014) to identify regions where energy and mining-related water withdrawals are high or where they are increasing. The energy and mining sectors account for over 65 percent of total water extractions in Minnesota, but this percentage is greater in some regions. In certain southern and northeastern Minnesota watersheds, these extractions account for 90 percent of total water demand. Sensitivity to these demands is not dependent on total water demand alone, and is also not uniform among watersheds. We identified and evaluated factors influencing sensitivity, including population, extraction type (surface water or groundwater), percentage of increased demand, and whether withdrawals are consumptive or not. We determined that southern Minnesota is particularly sensitive to increased water demands, because of growing biofuel and sand extraction industries (the products of which are used in hydraulic fracturing). In the last ten years, ethanol production in Minnesota has increased by 440 percent, and over fifteen refineries (each with a capacity over 1.1 billion gallons), have been built. These users primarily extract from surface water bodies within a few watersheds, compromising local supplies. As these energy-related industries continue to grow, so will the demand for freshwater resources. Determining regional sensitivity to increased demands will allow policy-makers to manage the

  4. Evaluation of the relation between groundwater pollution and the pollutant load on surface waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, P.; Roest, C.W.J.

    1996-01-01

    The importance of the relation between groundwater and surface water is demonstrated by the impact of water quality standards on permissible nitrogen losses at farm level. The effects of the intended fertilization reduction measures on agricultural production justify a thorough examination of the

  5. Statistical relation between particle contaminations in ultra pure water and defects generated by process tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wali, F.; Knotter, D. Martin; Wortelboer, Ronald; Mud, Auke

    2007-01-01

    Ultra pure water supplied inside the Fab is used in different tools at different stages of processing. Data of the particles measured in ultra pure water was compared with the defect density on wafers processed on these tools and a statistical relation is found Keywords— Yield, defect density,

  6. Dynamics of leaf water relations components in co-occurring iso- and anisohydric conifer species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick Meinzer; David Woodruff; Danielle Marias; Katherine McCulloh; Sanna Sevanto

    2014-01-01

    Because iso- and anisohydric species differ in stomatal regulation of the rate and magnitude of fluctuations in shoot water potential, they may be expected to show differences in the plasticity of their shoot water relations components, but explicit comparisons of this nature have rarely been made. We subjected excised shoots of co-occurring anisohydric Juniperus...

  7. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational...

  8. Algal massive growth in relation to water quality and salinity at Damietta, north of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Ibraheem Deyab

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To relate the proliferation and dominance of certain algal species at the Damietta and its relation to water quality. Methods: Water and algal biomass were bimonthly sampled from five selected sites at Damietta Province, Egypt during 2012. Algae were identified and quantified. Waters, algae and sediment were analyzed. Results: The physicochemical properties of water showed limited seasonal but substantial local variation. The high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus and turbidity of water pointed to marked eutrophication, which could enhance massive algal growth. The temporal fluctuation in temperature, exposure to industrial and domestic sewage and salinity results in succession between blooming algal species. Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris alternated in a moderately saline water and Oscillatoria agardhii and Mougeotia scalaris in a fresh water body during summer and winter respectively. Likewise, Microcystis aureginosa and Ulva lactuca alternated in a moderately saline site during autumn and summer respectively. Cladophora albida dominated a fish pond of brackish water and Dunaliella salina dominated the most saline water over the whole period of study. Conclusions: Growth of the predominant algal species is correlated to water quality. These species are of considerable nutritive value, with moderate contents of protein, carbohydrate, macronutrients and micronutrients, which evaluates them for usage as food (green and macroalgae, fodder or bio-fertilizer (cyanophytes.

  9. Algal massive growth in relation to water quality and salinity at Damietta, north of Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed Ali Ibraheem Deyab; Taha Mohamed El-Katony

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To relate the proliferation and dominance of certain algal species at the Damietta and its relation to water quality. Methods: Water and algal biomass were bimonthly sampled from five selected sites at Damietta Province, Egypt during 2012. Algae were identified and quantified. Waters, algae and sediment were analyzed. Results:The physicochemical properties of water showed limited seasonal but substantial local variation. The high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus and turbidity of water pointed to marked eutrophication, which could enhance massive algal growth. The temporal fluctuation in temperature, exposure to industrial and domestic sewage and salinity results in succession between blooming algal species. Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris alternated in a moderately saline water and Oscillatoria agardhii and Mougeotia scalaris in a fresh water body during summer and winter respectively. Likewise, Microcystis aureginosa and Ulva lactuca alternated in a moderately saline site during autumn and summer respectively. Cladophora albida dominated a fish pond of brackish water and Dunaliella salina dominated the most saline water over the whole period of study. Conclusions:Growth of the predominant algal species is correlated to water quality. These species are of considerable nutritive value, with moderate contents of protein, carbohydrate, macronutrients and micronutrients, which evaluates them for usage as food (green and macroalgae), fodder or bio-fertilizer (cyanophytes).

  10. Water-sediment flow models for river reaches sediment related pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Briti Sundar; Choudhury, Parthasarathi

    2012-07-01

    Hybrid water-sediment flow models for river reaches have been for predicting sediment and sediment related pollutions in water courses. The models are developed by combining sediment rating model and the Muskingum model applicable for a reach. The models incorporate sediment concentration and water discharge variables for a river reach; allow defining downstream sediment rating curve in terms of upstream water discharges. The model is useful in generating sediment concentration graph for a station having no water discharge records. The hybrid models provide forecasting forms that can be used to forecast downstream sediment concentration/water discharges 2kx time unit ahead. The forecasting models are useful for applications in real time namely, in the real time management of sediment related pollution in water courses and in issuing flood warning. Integration of sediment rating model and the Muskingum model increases model parameters and nonlinearity requiring efficient estimation technique for parameter identification. To identify parameters in the hybrid models genetic algorithm (GA) based optimization technique can be used. The new model relies on the Muskingum model, obey continuity requirement and the parameters can be used in the Muskingum model with water discharges to estimate/predict downstream water discharge values. The proposed model formulations are demonstrated for simulating and forecasting sediment concentration and water discharges in the Mississippi River Basin, USA. Model parameters are estimated using non-dominated sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II). Model results show satisfactory model performances.

  11. River basins as social-ecological systems: linking levels of societal and ecosystem water metabolism in a semiarid watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Cabello

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available River basin modeling under complexity requires analytical frameworks capable of dealing with the multiple scales and dimensions of environmental problems as well as uncertainty in the evolution of social systems. Conceptual and methodological developments can now be framed using the wide socio-eco-hydrological approach. We add hierarchy theory into the mix to discuss the conceptualization of river basins as complex, holarchic social-ecological systems. We operationalize the social-ecological systems water metabolism framework in a semiarid watershed in Spain, and add the governance dimension that shapes human-environment reciprocity. To this purpose, we integrate an eco-hydrological model with the societal metabolism accounting scheme for land use, human activity, and water use. We explore four types of interactions: between societal organization and water uses/demands, between ecosystem organization and their water requirements/supplies, between societal metabolism and aquatic ecosystem health, and between water demand and availability. Our results reveal a metabolic pattern of a high mountain rural system striving to face exodus and agricultural land abandonment with a multifunctional economy. Centuries of social-ecological evolution shaping waterscapes through traditional water management practices have influenced the eco-hydrological functioning of the basin, enabling adaptation to aridity. We found a marked spatial gradient on water supply, use pattern, and impact on water bodies from the head to the mouth of the basin. Management challenges posed by the European water regulatory framework as a new driver of social-ecological change are highlighted.

  12. Links between purchase location and stable isotope ratios of bottled water, soda, and beer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesson, Lesley A; Valenzuela, Luciano O; O'Grady, Shannon P; Cerling, Thure E; Ehleringer, James R

    2010-06-23

    This study investigated the impact of purchase location on the stable isotope ratios of beverages by measuring the delta(2)H and delta(18)O values of bottled water, soda, beer, and tap water collected across the contiguous United States. Measured beverage delta(2)H and delta(18)O values generally fit the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL), suggesting region-of-origin information is recorded in beverage water. Tap water delta(2)H and delta(18)O values were strongly correlated with the stable isotope ratios of bottled water and soda purchased in the same location. Beer water delta(2)H and delta(18)O values were also correlated with tap water, although not as strongly. Variability in delta(2)H and delta(18)O values among beverages purchased at a single location ranged from 2 to 41 per thousand and from 0.3 to 5.2 per thousand, respectively, but was generally moderate in most locations. It was concluded that the isotopic composition of local tap water is a reasonable proxy for consumers' fluid intake in most U.S. cities.

  13. Elevated carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide of type I collagen in alcoholic cirrhosis: relation to liver and kidney function and bone metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Hansen, M; Hillingso, J

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The carboxy terminal cross linked telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) has been put forward as a marker of bone resorption. Patients with alcoholic liver disease may have osteodystrophy. AIMS: To assess circulating and regional concentrations of ICTP in relation to liver dysfunction...

  14. Mouse model of SCN5A-linked hereditary Lenegre's disease - Age-related conduction slowing and myocardial fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Royer, A; van Veen, TAB; Le Bouter, S; Marionneau, C; Griol-Charhbili, [No Value; Leoni, AL; Steenman, M; van Rijen, HVM; Demolombe, S; Goddard, CA; Richer, C; Escoubet, B; Jarry-Guichard, T; Colledge, WH; Gros, D; de Bakker, JMT; Grace, AA; Escande, D; Charpentier, F

    2005-01-01

    Background-We have previously linked hereditary progressive cardiac conduction defect (hereditary Lenegre's disease) to a loss-of-function mutation in the gene encoding the main cardiac Na+ channel, SCN5A. In the present study, we investigated heterozygous Scn5a-knockout mice (Scn5a(+/-) mice) as a

  15. Links between Local Language Competence and Peer Relations among Swiss and Immigrant Children: The Mediating Role of Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Grunigen, Renate; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Perren, Sonja; Alsaker, Francoise D.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this investigation was to evaluate a model in which children's social behaviors, including prosocial behavior, setting limits, and social withdrawal, were hypothesized to mediate the links between local language competence (LLC) and peer acceptance and victimization. Longitudinal data were collected via teacher and peer reports…

  16. Gains from trans-boundary water quality management in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems: a case study for the Minho region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebeling, P. C.; Brito, A. G.; Rocha, J.; Alves, H.; Mamede, J.

    2012-04-01

    Worldwide, aquatic and coastal ecosystems are affected by point and diffuse source water pollution originating from rural, urban and industrial land uses in catchments, even though these ecosystems are of vital importance from an environmental and economic perspective. Integrated Catchment and Coastal Zone Management (ICCZM) specifically takes into account this inherent relationship between terrestrial land use, surface and ground water pollution, aquatic and coastal ecosystem state, and associated environmental values. To warrant sustainable regional economic development, we need to balance the marginal costs from terrestrial water pollution abatement and the associated marginal benefits from aquatic and coastal resource appreciation. In doing so, however, we need to differentiate between intra- and trans-boundary catchments because benefactors and beneficiaries from water quality improvement are not one and the same. In trans-boundary catchments, private (national) welfare maximizing rates of water quality improvement differ across nations as benefits from water quality improvement generally accrue to one nation while the costs are paid by multiple nations. While approaches for water quality management in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems are fairly recent though existent, water quality management in trans-boundary catchments poses additional challenges. The objective of this paper is to develop and apply a deterministic optimal control approach that allows us to explore private and social welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems. For a case study of the Minho region in the Iberian Peninsula, we estimate nation-specific water pollution abatement cost (based on management practice adoption) and benefit (based on aquatic and coastal environmental values) functions, to determine as well as compare private (national) and social (trans-national) welfare maximizing rates of water

  17. Relative Abundance and the Relationships between Aniline,Phenol and Catechol Degraders in Fresh Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MasaoNasu; NevilGOONEWARDENA; 等

    1993-01-01

    Relative abundance and relationships between aniline,phenol and catechol degraders were investigated in unpolluted and polluted fresh waters in Osaka prefectur,Japan,Phenol and catechol degraders were found more frequently compared to aniline degraders.The results indicate that these degraders were more abundant in polluted waters than in unpolluted waters.Aniline degraders isolated from the Ina River water showed a higher capability of degrading catechol than phenol.Analysis on sequence homology among these three kinds of degraders indicated a possible relationship between aniline degraders and certain strains of both catechol and phenol degraders.

  18. Chloride absorption in salt-sensitive Carrizo citrange and salt-tolerant Cleopatra mandarin citrus rootstocks is linked to water use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, José Luís; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; Talon, Manuel

    2003-02-01

    In this work, seedlings of two citrus rootstocks, the salt-tolerant Cleopatra mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan.) and the salt-sensitive Carrizo citrange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osb. x Poncirus trifoliata [L.] Raf.) were used to study the relationship between chloride and water uptake. The results indicated that net chloride uptake rates in both genotypes were alike and decreased linearly with the time of salinity exposure, although they were more rapidly reduced in the tolerant genotype. In each rootstock, chloride uptake rates paralleled the decreases in transpiration rates. When transpiration was modified, concomitant changes in leaf Cl(-) concentrations were observed. There was a high positive correlation between total chloride content per plant and total water absorbed. In addition, the data indicate that the tolerant genotype "excluded" more chloride, i.e. it absorbed lower amounts of chloride per volume of water. Cleopatra also possessed a less efficient root system for water uptake and a higher shoot-to-root ratio. The results show that, overall, chloride absorption is linked to water use and that further tolerance in Cleopatra is mostly conferred by superior root resistance to Cl(-) uptake. Therefore, it is proposed that chloride absorption and, hence, salt tolerance in citrus depends to a great extent upon water use.

  19. Stable Isotope Studies of Crop Carbon and Water Relations: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Cong-zhi; ZHANG Jia-bao; ZHAO Bing-zi; ZHANG Hui; HUANG Ping

    2009-01-01

    Crop carbon and water relations research is important in the studies of water saving agriculture,breeding program,and energy and material cycles in soil plant atmosphere continuum (SPAC).The purpose of this paper is to review the current state of knowledge on stable isotopes of carbon,oxygen,and hydrogen in the research of crop carbon and water relations,such as carbon isotope discrimination (△13C) during carbon fixation process by photosynthesis,application of △13C in crop water use efficiency (WUE) and breeding programs,oxygen isotope enrichment during leaf water transpiration,CO2 fixation by photosynthesis and release by respiration,application of hydrogen isotope composition (δD) and oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) for determination of water source used by a crop,stable isotope coupling Keeling plot for investigating the carbon and water flux in ecosystem,energy and material cycle in SPAC and correlative integrative models on stable isotope.These aspects contain most of the stable isotope researches on crop carbon and water relations which have been widely explored internationally while less referred in China.Based on the reviewed literatures,some needs for future research are suggested.

  20. Identifying mismatches between institutional perceptions of water-related risk drivers and water management strategies in three river basin areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Aleksi; Juhola, Sirkku; Monge Monge, Adrián; Käkönen, Mira; Kanninen, Markku; Nygren, Anja

    2017-07-01

    Water-related risks and vulnerabilities are driven by variety of stressors, including climate and land use change, as well as changes in socio-economic positions and political landscapes. Hence, water governance, which addresses risks and vulnerabilities, should target multiple stressors. We analyze the institutional perceptions of the drivers and strategies for managing water-related risks and vulnerabilities in three regionally important river basin areas located in Finland, Mexico, and Laos. Our analysis is based on data gathered through participatory workshops and complemented by qualitative content analysis of relevant policy documents. The identified drivers and proposed risk reduction strategies showed the multidimensionality and context-specificity of water-related risks and vulnerabilities across study areas. Most of the identified drivers were seen to increase risks, but some of the drivers were positive trends, and drivers also included also policy instruments that can both increase or decrease risks. Nevertheless, all perceived drivers were not addressed with suggested risk reduction strategies. In particular, most of the risk reduction strategies were incremental adjustments, although many of the drivers classified as most important were large-scale trends, such as climate change, land use changes and increase in foreign investments. We argue that there is a scale mismatch between the identified drivers and suggested strategies, which questions the opportunity to manage the drivers by single-scale incremental adjustments. Our study suggests that for more sustainable risk and vulnerability reduction, the root causes of water-related risks and vulnerabilities should be addressed through adaptive multi-scale governance that carefully considers the context-specificity and the multidimensionality of the associated drivers and stressors.

  1. Experimental study on the relation between the water content of surface soil and the acoustic wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to investigate the relation between the water content changing of surface soil and micro-quake recorded before earthquakes, we carried out a simulation experiment in laboratory. Its purpose is to explore whether the acoustic wave generated by micro-fracturing before earthquake are able to change water content of surface soil, so as to understand the relation between thermal anomaly in the remote sensing image got from the seismogenic area and the coming earthquake. The result of the experiment shows that when the acoustic wave enters into the surface soil the water content here increases on the background of decreasing due to natural evaporation. In the meantime, temperature here decreases.

  2. Selected coal-related ground-water data, Wasatch Plateau-Book Cliffs area, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumsion, C.T.

    1979-01-01

    The Wasatch Plateau-Book Cliffs area in east-central Utah consists of about 8,000 square miles within the upper Colorado River drainage system. Coal production in the area is expected to increase from 8 million tons to as much as 30 million tons annually within the next 10 years. Most sources of water supply will be subjected to possible contamination and increased demands by coal-related municipal and industrial growth in the area. The report presents a compilation of coal-related ground-water data from many unpublished sources for the use of local and regional water planners and users. The report includes generalized stratigraphic sections and hydrologic characteristics of rocks in the Wasatch Plateau-Book Cliffs area , records of selected test holes and water wells, logs of selected test holes and water wells, water levels in selected wells, records of selected springs, records of ground-water discharge from selected mines, and chemical analyses of water from selected test holes, water wells, springs, and mines. (Kosco-USGS)

  3. Relations between vegetation and water level in alkaline fen ecosystems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch Johansen, Ole; Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Ejrnæs, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    is proved to be a significant limiting factor for species diversity in wetlands, which should be considered along with the fertility in order to access the habitat quality. The study provides new insight in the water level preferences for GWDTEs which is highly needed in the management and assessment......, management and conservation of fens are constrained by limited knowledge on the relations between vegetation and measurable hydrological conditions. This study investigates the relations between vegetation and water level dynamics in groundwater dependent wetlands in Denmark. A total of 35 wetland sites...... Indicator scores of moisture, pH and nutrients were calculated for each site. The water level correlates with the number of typical fen species of vascular plants, whereas bryophytes are closer connected to the stable water level conditions provided by groundwater seepage. The water level variability...

  4. Water hardness in relation to cadium accumulation and microscopic signs of cardiovascular disease in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elinder, C G; Jonsson, L; Sternström, T; Piscator, M; Linnman, L

    1980-01-01

    The hardness of drinking water (i.e., the sum of calcium and magnesium concentrations) has been related to cadmium concentration in kidney cortex and to microscopic signs of arteriosclerosis and focal myocardial fibrosis in 50 Swedish horses slaughtered for meat production. A significant negative correlation was found between water hardness and cadmium concentrations in kidney cortex. This indicates that horses living in soft water areas are more inclined to accumulate cadmium from the general environment. Microscopic changes in the aorta and myocardium were approximately 2 times as frequent in horses that drank soft water compared to horses that drank hard water. The differences were, however, not statistically significant. It is concluded that horses are well suited for studies of the "water factor".

  5. Hydrochemical reactions and origin of offshore relatively fresh pore water from core samples in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Hiu Tung; Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    2016-06-01

    The existence of relatively fresh pore water offshore has been well recognised over the globe but studies on the chemistry of the pore water from offshore geological formations are extremely limited. This study aims to characterize the hydrochemistry of the submarine groundwater body in Hong Kong. It looks into the major ion concentrations and the stable isotopic compositions of pore water extracted from core samples from an offshore 42.30-m vibrocore in the southwestern Hong Kong waters. A minimum Cl- level of about one-third of that in typical seawater was noted in the terrestrial sediments, suggesting the presence of offshore relatively fresh water. Unexpectedly high NH4+ levels are attributed to organic matter decomposition in the terrestrial sediments. The leaching of shells due to exposure of marine sediments at sea-level low stands raises the Mg2+ and Ca2+ concentrations. Base Exchange Indices show weak cation exchange reactions in which Na+ and K+ are released while Mg2+ and Ca2+ are adsorbed. Isotopic compositions of pore water reveal that the low-salinity water is probably the relic water sequestered in fluvial systems during relative sea-level low stands. Cores properly stored in a freezer for a long time has been used to study the pore water chemistry. For the first time, this study introduces an approach to correct the measured data by considering the possible evaporation effect during the transportation and storage of the samples. Corrections for evaporation were applied to the major ion concentrations and the stable isotopic compositions of pore water measured. It is found that the corrections determined by the Cl- mass balance approach are more reliable. The corrected measurements give more reasonable observations and hence allow sensible conclusions on the hydrochemical reactions and the origin of pore water.

  6. An approach to link water resource management with landscape art to enhance its aesthetic appeal, ecological utility and social benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Anita; Sen, Somnath; Paul, Saikat Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Landscape art or land art is the discourse of scientific application of artistic skill to integrate man-made structures with the natural landscape for planning, design, management, preservation and rehabilitation of natural and built environment. It does beautification of the landscape enhancing its utility for habitats. Availability of water with acceptable quality is crucial for economic growth, social peace and equality and of course for environmental sustainability. Development of new and growth of existing urban and suburban units are obvious. It postulates the increase of population density and percent of the impervious area in an urban unit. The demand for water is increasing with progressive concentration of population, the volume and velocity of surface runoff increase and the travel time decreases. At the same time, an increase in the volume of gray water not only contaminate water bodies, it also reduces the quantity of available freshwater transforming a portion of blue and green water to gray one and would intensify the pressure on water resources of the area. Therefore, to meet the incremental pressure of demand for and pollution of water collection, treatment and reuse of wastewater, both sewage and storm water, are on the requirement to improve urban water security. People must be concerned not to stifle urban lives with concrete; rather must provide all basic amenities for achieving a higher standard of life than the previous one with the essence of natural green spaces. The objective of the study is to propose a conceptual design and planning guidelines for developing urban and suburban drainage network and reuse of surface runoff and sewage water utilizing less used natural water bodies, such as paleo-channels or lakes or moribund channels as retention or detention basin. In addition to wastewater management, the proposal serves to promote the aesthetics of environmental engagement, ecological utility and restoration of moribund channels

  7. Causes of Domestic Water Consumption Trends in the City of Alicante: Exploring the Links between the Housing Bubble, the Types of Housing and the Socio-Economic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro-Francisco Morote

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The European Mediterranean coastline has experienced major tourism-related urbanization since 1960. This is a dynamic that has led to increased spending on water consumption for urban and tourism-related uses. The objective of this paper is to define and to analyze how domestic water consumption in the city of Alicante evolved between 2000 and 2013. Real billing figures for individual households were analyzed according to the type of housing and the income level of the occupants. The conclusions drawn show that consumption fell over the period studied, and that there are different patterns in water expenditure depending on the type of housing and the inhabitants.

  8. Seasonal variations in degradation of tributyltin in the Brest Naval Harbour waters in relation to water temperature and insolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumery, C J; Michel, P

    2001-02-01

    Changes of the concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) and its degradation products were monitored in Brest naval harbour waters from September 1993 to December 1997. But for some exceptional values, the levels of contamination were more or less the same during the four year study period. Dibutyltin (DBT) concentrations showed seasonal variations, and these are discussed in relation with the seasonal changes of water temperature and the total number of sunlight hours preceding sampling dates. The extent of the phase shift between the peaks of DBT concentrations and the sunlight hours is much higher than the residence time of waters in the study zone, suggesting that photolysis is unlikely to be an important factor in the degradation of TBT.

  9. Influence of soil, plant and meteorological factors on water relations and yield in Hevea brasiliensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G. Gururaja; Rao, P. Sanjeeva; Rajagopal, R.; Devakumar, A. S.; Vijayakumar, K. R.; Sethuraj, M. R.

    1990-09-01

    Influence of factors governing the soil-plantatmosphere system on components of water relations and yield was studied in two clones of rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, viz. RRII 105 and RRII 118. Clonal variations were evident in yield and yield components and associated physiological parameters in response to soil moisture status and meteorological factors. Observations made during different seasons indicatedvariations in yield are attributed to differences in plugging index and initial flow rates, to the major yield components and also variations in components of water relations as influenced by meteorological factors. Among the two clones, RRII 105 was found to be fairly drought tolerant compared to RRII 118. RRII 105 was found to respond well to dry weather through higher stomatal resistances, higher leaf water potentials, lowered transpirational water loss and lower relative transpiration ratios, while RRII 118 was susceptible to stress situations.

  10. Scandinavian links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiessen, Christian Wichmann; Knowles, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    centres, one joins more thinly populated regions, and the last one links peripheral areas. Two of them (The Great Belt Link and the Oresund Link) have been constructed and are in full operation. The third (the Fehmarnbelt Link) has been decided 2008 on bilateral government level. The three links...

  11. Water use by black wattle (Acacia mearnsii): implications for the link between removal of invading trees and catchment streamflow response

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dye, P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews relevant available information on rates of total evaporation from black waffle and from grasslands and fynbos shrublands. These data provide an indication of the likely change in catchment water yield following invasion...

  12. Evaluation of CDOM sources and their links with water quality in the lakes of Northeast China using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Song, Kaishan; Wen, Zhidan; Fang, Chong; Shang, Yingxin; Lv, Lili

    2017-07-01

    The spatial distributions of the fluorescence intensities Fmax for chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) components, the fluorescence indices (FI370 and FI310) and their correlations with water quality of 19 lakes in the Songhua River Basin (SHRB) across semiarid regions of Northeast China were examined with the data collected in September 2012 and 2015. The 19 lakes were divided into two groups according to EC (threshold value = 800 μS cm-1): fresh water (N = 13) and brackish water lakes (N = 6). The fluorescent characteristics of CDOM in the 19 lakes were investigated using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (EEM) coupled with parallel factor (PARAFAC) and multivariate analysis. Two humic-like components (C1 and C3), one tryptophan-like component (C2), and one tyrosine-like component (C4) were identified by PARAFAC. The component C4 was not included in subsequent analyses due to the strong scatter in some colloidal water samples from brackish water lakes. The correlations between Fmax for the three EEM-PARAFAC extracted CDOM components C1-C3, the fluorescence indices (FI370 and FI310) and the water quality parameters (i.e., TN, TP, Chl-a, pH, EC, turbidity (Turb) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) were determined by redundancy analysis (RDA). The results of RDA analysis showed that spatial variation in land cover, pollution sources, and salinity/EC gradients in water quality affected Fmax for the fluorescent components C1-C3 and the fluorescence indices (FI370 and FI310). Further examination indicated that the CDOM fluorescent components and the fluorescence indices (FI370 and FI310) did not significantly differ (t-test, p > 0.05) in fresh water (N = 13) and brackish water lakes (N = 6). There was a difference in the distribution of the average Fmax for the CDOM fluorescent components between C1 to C3 from agricultural sources and urban wastewater sources in hypereutrophic brackish water lakes. The Fmax for humic-like components C1 and

  13. Why Seedlings Die: Linking Carbon and Water Limitations to Mechanisms of Mortality During Establishment in Conifer Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, K.; Germino, M. J.; Kueppers, L. M.; Mitton, J.; Castanha, C.

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND Recent ecophysiological studies aimed at explaining adult tree mortality during drought have examined the carbon (C)-exhaustion compared to the hydraulic-failure hypotheses for death. Prolonged drought leads to durations of stomatal closure (and thus limited C gain), which could result in long periods of negative C balance and fatal reductions in whole-plant C reserves (i.e., available non-structural carbohydrates ["NSC"]). Alternatively, C reserves may not decrease much but could become increasingly inaccessible to sink tissues in long dry-periods due to impediments to translocation of photosynthate (e.g., through disruption of hydrostatic pressure flow in phloem). As C reserves decline or become inaccessible, continued maintenance respiration has been hypothesized to lead to exhaustion of NSC after extended durations of drought, especially in isohydric plant species. On the other hand, hydraulic failure (e.g., catastrophic xylem embolisms) during drought may be the proximate cause of death, occurring before true C starvation occurs. Few studies have investigated specifically the mechanism(s) of tree death, and no published studies that we know of have quantified changes in NSC during mortality. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND HYPOTHESES We conducted two studies that investigated whole-tree and tissue-specific C relations (photosynthetic C gain, respiration, dry-mass gain, and NSC pools) in Pinus flexilis seedlings during the initial establishment phase, which is characterized by progressive drought during summer. We measured survival, growth and biomass allocation, and C-balance physiology (photosynthetic C-gain and chlorophyll fluorescence, respiration C-use, and NSC concentrations) from germination to mortality. We hypothesized that 1) stomatal and biochemical limitations to C gain would constrain seedling survival (through inadequate seasonal C-balance), as has been shown for conifer seedlings near alpine treeline; 2) hydraulic constraints (embolisms and

  14. Cholera outbreak linked with lack of safe water supply following a tropical cyclone in Pondicherry, India, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrick, Tony; Ponnaiah, Manickam; Murhekar, Manoj V; Jayaraman, Yuvaraj; David, Joseph K; Vadivoo, Selvaraj; Joshua, Vasna

    201