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Sample records for water relations link

  1. Linking carbon and water relations to drought-induced mortality in Pinus flexilis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Keith; Germino, Matthew J; Kueppers, Lara M; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Mitton, Jeffry

    2015-07-01

    Survival of tree seedlings at high elevations has been shown to be limited by thermal constraints on carbon balance, but it is unknown if carbon relations also limit seedling survival at lower elevations, where water relations may be more important. We measured and modeled carbon fluxes and water relations in first-year Pinus flexilis seedlings in garden plots just beyond the warm edge of their natural range, and compared these with dry-mass gain and survival across two summers. We hypothesized that mortality in these seedlings would be associated with declines in water relations, more so than with carbon-balance limitations. Rather than gradual declines in survivorship across growing seasons, we observed sharp, large-scale mortality episodes that occurred once volumetric soil-moisture content dropped below 10%. By this point, seedling water potentials had decreased below -5 MPa, seedling hydraulic conductivity had decreased by 90% and seedling hydraulic resistance had increased by >900%. Additionally, non-structural carbohydrates accumulated in aboveground tissues at the end of both summers, suggesting impairments in phloem-transport from needles to roots. This resulted in low carbohydrate concentrations in roots, which likely impaired root growth and water uptake at the time of critically low soil moisture. While photosynthesis and respiration on a leaf area basis remained high until critical hydraulic thresholds were exceeded, modeled seedling gross primary productivity declined steadily throughout the summers. At the time of mortality, modeled productivity was insufficient to support seedling biomass-gain rates, metabolism and secondary costs. Thus the large-scale mortality events that we observed near the end of each summer were most directly linked with acute, episodic declines in plant hydraulic function that were linked with important changes in whole-seedling carbon relations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved

  2. Water relations link carbon and oxygen isotope discrimination to phloem sap sugar concentration in eucalyptus globulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernusak, L.A.; Farquhar, G.D.; Arthur, D.J; Pate, J.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The carbon isotope ratio of phloem sap sugars has been previously observed to correlate strongly with the phloem sap sugar concentration in Eucalyptus globulus. We hypothesized that the correspondence between these two parameters results from co-linearity in their responses to variation in plant water potential. Carbon isotope discrimination is expected to decrease with decreasing plant water potential due to the influence of stomatal conductance on the ratio of intercellular to ambient CO 2 , concentrations (c 1 /c a ). Conversely, we expected the phloem sap sugar concentration to increase with decreasing plant water potential, thereby maintaining positive turgor pressure within the sieve tubes. The study comprised 40 individual Eucalyptus globulus trees growing in three plantations situated on opposing ends of a rainfall gradient in southwestern Australia. A strong correlation was observed between the carbon isotope ratio in phloem sap sugars and phloem sap sugar concentration. Carbon isotope discrimination correlated positively with shoot water potential, whereas phloem sap sugar concentration correlated negatively with shoot water potential. The relationship between carbon isotope discrimination measured in phloem sap sugars collected from the stem and c 1 /c a measured instantaneously on subtending leaves was close to that theoretically predicted. Accordingly, a strong, negative relationship was observed between instantaneous c 1 /c a and the phloem sap sugar concentration. Oxygen isotope discrimination in phloem sap sugars also correlated strongly with phloem sap sugar concentration. A theoretical model suggested that the observed variation in stomatal conductance was sufficient to account for the variation observed in oxygen isotope discrimination across the study. Results strongly support the contention that water relations form a mechanistic link between phloem sap sugar concentration and both instantaneous and integrated measures of the

  3. Milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a tool to investigate ovarian cyclicity of water buffaloes in relation to body condition score and milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Turgish A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Application of assisted reproductive technologies in buffaloes is limited to some extent by farmers’ inability to detect oestrus because of its poor expression. The present study aimed at investigating reliability of a milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to assess the ovarian cyclicity during post partum, oestrus and post-breeding periods in water buffaloes. Methods Progesterone concentrations were measured by an ELISA in milk of 23 postpartum buffaloes in relation to oestrus, pregnancy, body condition score (BCS and milk production. Two milk samples were taken at 10 days intervals, every month starting from day 30 and continued to day 150 post partum. BCS and milk production were recorded during sample collection. Milk samples from bred buffaloes were collected at Day 0 (day of breeding, Days 10–12 and Days 22–24. Defatted milk was preserved at −80°C until analysis. Pregnancy was confirmed by palpation per rectum on Days 70–90. Results Seventeen buffaloes had 47 ovulatory cycles, one to four in each, 13 were detected in oestrus once (28 % oestrus detection rate. Progesterone concentration ≥1 ng/ml in one of the two 10-day-interval milk samples reflected ovulation and corpus luteum formation. The intervals between calving to first luteal activity and to first detected oestrus varied from 41 to 123 days (n = 17 and 83 to 135 (n = 13 days, respectively. Eight buffaloes were bred in the course of the study and seven were found pregnant. These buffaloes had a progesterone profile of low (P P  Conclusions Milk progesterone ELISA is a reliable tool for monitoring ovarian cyclicity and good BCS may be an indicator of resuming cyclicity in water buffalo.

  4. Milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a tool to investigate ovarian cyclicity of water buffaloes in relation to body condition score and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banu, Turgish A; Shamsuddin, Mohammed; Bhattacharjee, Jayonta; Islam, Mohammad F; Khan, Saiful I; Ahmed, Jalal U

    2012-05-03

    Application of assisted reproductive technologies in buffaloes is limited to some extent by farmers' inability to detect oestrus because of its poor expression. The present study aimed at investigating reliability of a milk progesterone enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to assess the ovarian cyclicity during post partum, oestrus and post-breeding periods in water buffaloes. Progesterone concentrations were measured by an ELISA in milk of 23 postpartum buffaloes in relation to oestrus, pregnancy, body condition score (BCS) and milk production. Two milk samples were taken at 10 days intervals, every month starting from day 30 and continued to day 150 post partum. BCS and milk production were recorded during sample collection. Milk samples from bred buffaloes were collected at Day 0 (day of breeding), Days 10-12 and Days 22-24. Defatted milk was preserved at -80°C until analysis. Pregnancy was confirmed by palpation per rectum on Days 70-90. Seventeen buffaloes had 47 ovulatory cycles, one to four in each, 13 were detected in oestrus once (28 % oestrus detection rate). Progesterone concentration ≥1 ng/ml in one of the two 10-day-interval milk samples reflected ovulation and corpus luteum formation. The intervals between calving to first luteal activity and to first detected oestrus varied from 41 to 123 days (n = 17) and 83 to 135 (n = 13) days, respectively. Eight buffaloes were bred in the course of the study and seven were found pregnant. These buffaloes had a progesterone profile of low (progesterone ELISA is a reliable tool for monitoring ovarian cyclicity and good BCS may be an indicator of resuming cyclicity in water buffalo.

  5. Water service delivery - the weakest link

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available as strong as its weakest link at the time. • An integrated system …. Water and the poverty trap Poor level of water services Disease and sickness Spread of HIV/AIDS High cost for provision of household water and sanitation Limited employment... opportunities Education problems Skills deficiencies Loss of dignity POVERTY POOR WATER SUPPLY POOR SANITATION The poverty trap The poverty trap – Eastern Cape Eastern Cape Provincial “End of Term” Report (2009): • 7 out of 10 people in Eastern...

  6. Spatial distribution of water supply reliability and critical links of water supply to crucial water consumers under an earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yu; Au, S.-K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a process to characterize spatial distribution of water supply reliability among various consumers in a water system and proposes methods to identify critical links of water supply to crucial water consumers under an earthquake. Probabilistic performance of water supply is reflected by the probability of satisfying consumers' water demand, Damage Consequence Index (DCI) and Upgrade Benefit Index (UBI). The process is illustrated using a hypothetical water supply system, where direct Monte Carlo simulation is used for estimating the performance indices. The reliability of water supply to consumers varies spatially, depending on their respective locations in the system and system configuration. The UBI is adopted as a primary index in the identification of critical links for crucial water consumers. A pipe with a relatively large damage probability is likely to have a relatively large UBI, and hence, to be a critical link. The concept of efficient frontier is employed to identify critical links of water supply to crucial water consumers. It is found that a group of links that have the largest UBI individually do not necessarily have the largest group UBI, or be the group of critical links

  7. Linking water treatment practices and fish welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zubiaurre, Claire; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Peracetic acids can be used as sanitizers to control water quality in aquaculture systems. As an alternative to formalin, chloramine-T or copper sulphate, PAA has strong anti-microbial effects, degrades quickly and is relatively safe to use. Its mode of action and associated rapid decay can make....... Supportive enzymatic, biochemical and physiological biomarkers can be used along with gill and epidermal histological measures to evaluate the effects on water treatment regimens. The ultimate goal is to define the therapeutic window where fish welfare is not compromised.PAA is among the few disinfectants...

  8. Linking smallholder agriculture and water to household food security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linking smallholder agriculture and water to household food security and nutrition. ... Promoting household food security and reducing malnutrition rates of a growing population with the same amount of water is ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  9. Linking flow, water quality and potential effects on aquatic biota ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Linking the potential effects of altered water quality on aquatic biota, that may result from a change in the flow (discharge) regime, is an essential step in the maintenance of riverine ecological functioning. Determination of the environmental flow requirement of a river (as well as other activities, such as classifying the ...

  10. Steam-water relative permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambusso, W.; Satik, C.; Home, R.N. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A set of relative permeability relations for simultaneous flow of steam and water in porous media have been measured in steady state experiments conducted under the conditions that eliminate most errors associated with saturation and pressure measurements. These relations show that the relative permeabilities for steam-water flow in porous media vary approximately linearly with saturation. This departure from the nitrogen/water behavior indicates that there are fundamental differences between steam/water and nitrogen/water flows. The saturations in these experiments were measured by using a high resolution X-ray computer tomography (CT) scanner. In addition the pressure gradients were obtained from the measurements of liquid phase pressure over the portions with flat saturation profiles. These two aspects constitute a major improvement in the experimental method compared to those used in the past. Comparison of the saturation profiles measured by the X-ray CT scanner during the experiments shows a good agreement with those predicted by numerical simulations. To obtain results that are applicable to general flow of steam and water in porous media similar experiments will be conducted at higher temperature and with porous rocks of different wetting characteristics and porosity distribution.

  11. A vital link: water and vegetation in the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gerten

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the interplay of water, carbon and vegetation dynamics fundamentally links some global trends in the current and conceivable future Anthropocene, such as cropland expansion, freshwater use, and climate change and its impacts. Based on a review of recent literature including geographically explicit simulation studies with the process-based LPJmL global biosphere model, it demonstrates that the connectivity of water and vegetation dynamics is vital for water security, food security and (terrestrial ecosystem dynamics alike. The water limitation of net primary production of both natural and agricultural plants – already pronounced in many regions – is shown to increase in many places under projected climate change, though this development is partially offset by water-saving direct CO2 effects. Natural vegetation can to some degree adapt dynamically to higher water limitation, but agricultural crops usually require some form of active management to overcome it – among them irrigation, soil conservation and eventually shifts of cropland to areas that are less water-limited due to more favourable climatic conditions. While crucial to secure food production for a growing world population, such human interventions in water–vegetation systems have, as also shown, repercussions on the water cycle. Indeed, land use changes are shown to be the second-most important influence on the terrestrial water balance in recent times. Furthermore, climate change (warming and precipitation changes will in many regions increase irrigation demand and decrease water availability, impeding rainfed and irrigated food production (if not CO2 effects counterbalance this impact – which is unlikely at least in poorly managed systems. Drawing from these exemplary investigations, some research perspectives on how to further improve our knowledge of human–water–vegetation interactions in the Anthropocene are outlined.

  12. Linking water and carbon cycles through salinity observed from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, X.; Liu, W. T.

    2017-12-01

    The association of ocean surface salinity in global hydrological cycle and climate change has been traditionally studied through the examination of its tendency and advection as manifestation of ocean's heat and water fluxes with the atmosphere. The variability of surface heat and water fluxes are linked to top of atmosphere radiation, whose imbalance is the main cause of global warming. Besides the link of salinity to greenhouse warming through water balance, this study will focus on the effect of changing salinity on carbon dioxide flux between the ocean and the atmosphere. We have built statistical models to estimate the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and ocean acidification (in terms of total alkalinity and pH) using spacebased data. PCO2 is a critical parameter governing ocean as source and sink of the accumulated greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. The exchange also causes ocean acidification, which is detrimental to marine lives and ecology. Before we had sufficient spacebased salinity measurements coincident with in situ pCO2 measurement, we trained our statistical models to use satellite sea surface temperature and chlorophyll, with one model using salinity climatology and the other without. We found significant differences between the two models in regions of strong water input through river discharge and surface water flux. The pCO2 output follows the seasonal salinity advection of the Amazon outflow. The seasonal salinity advection between Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea are followed by change of pCO2 and total alkalinity. At shorter time scales, the signatures of rain associated with intraseasonal organized convection of summer monsoon can be detected. We have observed distribution agreement of among pCO2, surface salinity, and surface water flux for variation from a few days to a few years under the Pacific ITCZ; the agreement varies slightly with season and longitudes and the reason is under study.

  13. Water, energy, and climate change: what's the link? | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2013-01-31

    Jan 31, 2013 ... Related articles ... researchers have found changes in weather patterns and in the intensity of extreme weather events are resulting in the erosion of lo ... Water management and food security in vulnerable regions of China.

  14. Prospective Links between Social Anxiety and Adolescent Peer Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillfors, Maria; Persson, Stefan; Willen, Maria; Burk, William J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines bi-directional links between social anxiety and multiple aspects of peer relations (peer acceptance, peer victimization, and relationship quality) in a longitudinal sample of 1528 adolescents assessed twice with one year between (754 females and 774 males; M = 14.7 years of age). Lower levels of peer acceptance predicted…

  15. Linking economic water use, freshwater ecosystem impacts, and virtual water trade in a Great Lakes watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubako, S. T.; Ruddell, B. L.; Mayer, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of human water uses and economic pressures on freshwater ecosystems is of growing interest for water resource management worldwide. This case study for a water-rich watershed in the Great Lakes region links the economic pressures on water resources as revealed by virtual water trade balances to the nature of the economic water use and the associated impacts on the freshwater ecosystem. A water accounting framework that combines water consumption data and economic data from input output tables is applied to quantify localized virtual water imports and exports in the Kalamazoo watershed which comprises ten counties. Water using economic activities at the county level are conformed to watershed boundaries through land use-water use relationships. The counties are part of a region implementing the Michigan Water Withdrawal Assessment Process, including new regulatory approaches for adaptive water resources management under a riparian water rights framework. The results show that at local level, there exists considerable water use intensity and virtual water trade balance disparity among the counties and between water use sectors in this watershed. The watershed is a net virtual water importer, with some counties outsourcing nearly half of their water resource impacts, and some outsourcing nearly all water resource impacts. The largest virtual water imports are associated with agriculture, thermoelectric power generation and industry, while the bulk of the exports are associated with thermoelectric power generation and commercial activities. The methodology is applicable to various spatial levels ranging from the micro sub-watershed level to the macro Great Lakes watershed region, subject to the availability of reliable water use and economic data.

  16. Linking electricity and water models to assess electricity choices at water-relevant scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, S; Rogers, J; Macknick, J; Lopez, A; Yates, D; Flores-Lopez, F

    2012-01-01

    Hydrology/water management and electricity generation projections have been modeled separately, but there has been little effort in intentionally and explicitly linking the two sides of the water–energy nexus. This paper describes a platform for assessing power plant cooling water withdrawals and consumption under different electricity pathways at geographic and time scales appropriate for both electricity and hydrology/water management. This platform uses estimates of regional electricity generation by the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) as input to a hydrologic and water management model—the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) system. In WEAP, this electricity use represents thermoelectric cooling water withdrawals and consumption within the broader, regional water resource context. Here we describe linking the electricity and water models, including translating electricity generation results from ReEDS-relevant geographies to the water-relevant geographies of WEAP. The result of this analysis is water use by the electric sector at the regional watershed level, which is used to examine the water resource implications of these electricity pathways. (letter)

  17. Aggregating land use quantity and intensity to link water quality in upper catchment of Miyun Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, E.

    2015-12-01

    Land use is closely related to hydrological and biochemical processes influencing the water quality. Quantifying relationship between both of them can help effectively manage land use to improve water quality. Previous studies majorly utilized land use quantity as an indicator to link water quality parameters, which lacked an insight to the influence of land use intensity. Taking upper catchment of Miyun Reservoir as a case study, we proposed a method of aggregating land use quantity and intensity to build a new land use indicator and investigated its explanation empower on water quality. Six nutrient concentrations from 52 sub-watersheds covering the whole catchment were used to characterize spatial distributions of water eutrophication. Based on spatial techniques and empirical conversion coefficients, combined remote sensing with socio-economic statistical data, land use intensity was measured and mapped visually. Then the new land use indicator was calculated and linked to nutrient concentrations by Pearson correlation coefficients. Results demonstrated that our new land use indicator incorporating intensity information can quantify the potential different nutrients exporting abilities from land uses. Comparing to traditional indicators only characterized by land use quantity, most Pearson correlation coefficients between new indicator and water nutrient concentrations increased. New information enhanced the explanatory power of land use on water nutrient concentrations. Then it can help better understand the impact of land use on water quality and guide land use management for supporting decision making.

  18. The Energy-Water Nexus: Managing the Links between Energy and Water for a Sustainable Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Karen; Petit, Carine

    2010-05-01

    Water and energy are both indispensable inputs to modern economies but currently both resources are under threat owing to the impacts of an ever-increasing population and associated demand, unsustainable practices in agriculture and manufacturing, and the implications of a changing climate. However, it is where water and energy rely on each other that pose the most complex challenges for policy-makers. Water is needed for mining coal, drilling oil, refining gasoline, and generating and distributing electricity; and, conversely, vast amounts of energy are needed to pump, transport, treat and distribute water, particularly in the production of potable water through the use of desalination plants and waste water treatment plants. Despite the links, and the urgency in both sectors for security of supply, in existing policy frameworks energy and water policies are developed largely in isolation from one another. Worse still, some policies designed to encourage alternative energy supplies give little thought to the resultant consequences on water resources, and, similarly, policies designed to secure water supplies pay little attention to the resultant consequences on energy use. The development of new technologies presents both opportunities and challenges for managing the energy-water nexus but a better understanding of the links between energy and water is essential in any attempt to formulate policies for more resilient and adaptable societies. The energy-water nexus must be adequately integrated into policy and decision-making or governments run the risk of contradicting their efforts, and therefore failing in their objectives, in both sectors. A series of COST Exploratory Workshops, drawing on on-going research in the energy-water nexus from a number of international teams, identified the implications of the energy-water nexus on the development of (i) energy policies (ii) water resource management policies and (iii) climate adaptation and mitigation policies. A

  19. Water resources planning in a strategic context: Linking the water sector to the national economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Peter; Hurst, Christopher; Harshadeep, Nagaraja

    1993-07-01

    In many parts of the developing world investment in water resources takes a large proportion of the available public investment funds. As the conflicts for funds between the water and other sectors become more severe, the traditional ways of analyzing and planning water investments has to move away from project-by-project (or even a river basin-by-river basin) approaches to include the relationships of water investments to other sectors and to overall national development policies. Current approaches to water resources investments are too narrow. There is a need for ways to expand the strategic thinking of water sector managers. This paper develops a water resources planning methodology with the primary objective of giving insights into the linking of water sector investments and macroeconomic policies. The model optimizes the present value of investments for water resources development, while embedding a macroeconomic model into the framework to allow for an examination of the interactions between water investments, the growth in the agricultural sector, and the performance of the overall economy. A case study of Bangladesh is presented which shows how strategic thinking could lead to widely differing implications for water investments than would conventional water resources systems planning models.

  20. Linking land use with pesticides in Dutch surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van't, Zelfde M T; Tamis, W L M; Vijver, M G; De Snoo, G R

    2012-01-01

    Compared with other European countries The Netherlands has a relatively high level of pesticide consumption, particularly in agriculture. Many of the compounds concerned end up in surface waters. Surface water quality is routinely monitored and numerous pesticides are found to be present in high concentrations, with various standards being regularly exceeded. Many standards-breaching pesticides exhibit regional patterns that can be traced back to land use. These patterns have been statistically analysed by correlating surface area per land use category with standards exceedance per pesticide, thereby identifying numerous significant correlations with respect to breaches of both the ecotoxicological standard (Maximum Tolerable Risk, MTR) and the drinking water standard. In the case of the MTR, greenhouse horticulture, floriculture and bulb-growing have the highest number as well as percentage of standard-breaching pesticides, despite these market segments being relatively small in terms of area cropped. Cereals, onions, vegetables, perennial border plants and pulses are also associated with many pesticides that exceed the drinking water standard. When a correction is made for cropped acreage, cereals and potatoes also prove to be a major contributor to monitoring sites where the MTR standard is exceeded. Over the period 1998-2006 the land-use categories with the most and highest percentage of standards-exceeding pesticides (greenhouse horticulture, bulb-growing and flower cultivation) showed an increase in the percentage of standards-exceeding compounds.

  1. Glacier surge mechanism based on linked cavity configuration of the basal water conduit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamb, Barclay

    1987-08-01

    viscous heat dissipation in the flow of water through the orifices is treated in detail under the assumption of local heat transfer, which guarantees that the heating effects are not underestimated. This treatment brings to light a melting-stability parameter Ξ that provides a measure of the influence of viscous heating on orifice cavitation, similar but distinct for step and wave orifices. Orifice shapes and the amounts of roof meltback are determined by Ξ. When Ξ ≳ 1, so that the system is "viscous-heating-dominated," the orifices are unstable against rapid growth in response to a modest increase in water pressure or in orifice size over their steady state values. This growth instability is somewhat similar to the jökulhlaup-type instability of tunnels, which are likewise heating-dominated. When Ξ ≲ 1, the orifices are stable against perturbations of modest to even large size. Stabilization is promoted by high sliding velocity ν, expressed in terms of a ν-½ and ν-1 dependence of Ξ for step and wave cavities. The relationships between basal water pressure and water flux transmitted by linked cavity models of step and wave orifice type are calculated for an empirical relation between water pressure and sliding velocity and for a particular, reasonable choice of system parameters. In all cases the flux is an increasing function of the water pressure, in contrast to the inverse flux-versus-pressure relation for tunnels. In consequence, a linked cavity system can exist stably as a system of many interconnected conduits distributed across the glacier bed, in contrast to a tunnel system, which must condense to one or at most a few main tunnels. The linked cavity model gives basal water pressures much higher than the tunnel model at water fluxes ≳1 m3/s if the bed roughness features that generate the orifices have step heights or wave amplitudes less than about 0.1 m. The calculated basal water pressure of the particular linked cavity models evaluated is about 2

  2. Scotland's Water Map: Understanding water sector links to support decision making for the Hydro Nation Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Ruth E.; Gilmour, Daniel; Duffy, Alison; Isaacs, John; Stojanovic, Vladeta; O'Keeffe, Juliette; Blackwood, David

    2015-04-01

    The value of Scotland's water and sewerage market is projected to grow to £1.24bn by 2016/17. Developing future opportunities must take place alongside maintaining current service provision; however the demand on water and waste water services is constantly evolving. An integrated approach to water management requires an understanding of complex interactions that exist between key actors in the sector to allow water management strategies to exploit inter-sectorial links. Successful integrated analysis of the water sector in Scotland will support management activities key to responding to the Hydro Nation themes of 1) Governance and international development 2) Environmental protection 3) Economic opportunities 4) Research development. In order to deliver on these objectives an approach is required to capture and communicate the scope and scale of the water sector and its interconnectedness. The methodology required to determine scope, scale and interconnectedness of water sector involved the identification and application of an appropriate range of techniques from the Information and Knowledge Management disciplines combined with the Information Visualisation field. Scope and scale of the water sector was identified by a desk based study and this data was visualized using a geographic map. Sector interconnectedness was determined by interviewing key actors. The interviews identified the stakeholders associated with information flows, and the purpose of the information transfer through Reporting/Managing (R/M), Influence and Information sharing (I) or Control (C) activities. Primary information flows were also scored with respect to importance against the 4 key Hydro Nation agenda themes. Many organisations were identified who interact within Scotland's water sector including the Scottish Government and Ministers, the Regulators (WICS, DWQR, SEPA), Scottish Water (core and non-core functions), plus many other stakeholders ranging from research institutions to

  3. The water relations of mycorrhiza

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyton, L.

    1982-01-01

    The wettability of the surface of ectotrophic beech mycorrhiza roots which did not have any radiating hyphae, was much less than a non-mycorrhizal root epidermis. The mycorrhizal sheath has a lower permeability to the flow of water than the uninfected root. The mycorrhizal roots absorbed water more rapidly than non-mycorrhizal roots. Possible explanations for this unusual phenomenon were (1) the development of a lower water potential in water stressed mycorrhizal roots, (2) accummulation of absorbed water in the sheath and (3) a higher permeability of the sheath to incoming than outgoing water. A study with endotrophic red clover plants confirmed that infection markedly increased growth and P uptake. This was accompanied by a reduction in the root/shoot ratio. This could be explained by a faster recovery of stressed mycorrhizal plants when water was restored because they were more efficient in taking up water. Experiments with tritiated water (THO) were initiated but consistent values for conductivity were not obtained. (author)

  4. Linking carbon and water limitations to drought-induced mortality of Pinus flexilis seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Keith; Germino, Matthew J.; Kueppers, Lara M.; Domec, Jean-Christophe; Mitton, Jeffry

    2015-01-01

    Survival of tree seedlings at high elevations has been shown to be limited by thermal constraints on carbon balance, but it is unknown if carbon relations also limit seedling survival at lower elevations, where water relations may be more important. We measured and modeled carbon fluxes and water relations in first-year Pinus flexilis seedlings in garden plots just beyond the warm edge of their natural range, and compared these with dry-mass gain and survival across two summers. We hypothesized that mortality in these seedlings would be associated with declines in water relations, more so than with carbon-balance limitations. Rather than gradual declines in survivorship across growing seasons, we observed sharp, large-scale mortality episodes that occurred once volumetric soil-moisture content dropped below 10%. By this point, seedling water potentials had decreased below −5 MPa, seedling hydraulic conductivity had decreased by 90% and seedling hydraulic resistance had increased by >900%. Additionally, non-structural carbohydrates accumulated in aboveground tissues at the end of both summers, suggesting impairments in phloem-transport from needles to roots. This resulted in low carbohydrate concentrations in roots, which likely impaired root growth and water uptake at the time of critically low soil moisture. While photosynthesis and respiration on a leaf area basis remained high until critical hydraulic thresholds were exceeded, modeled seedling gross primary productivity declined steadily throughout the summers. At the time of mortality, modeled productivity was insufficient to support seedling biomass-gain rates, metabolism and secondary costs. Thus the large-scale mortality events that we observed near the end of each summer were most directly linked with acute, episodic declines in plant hydraulic function that were linked with important changes in whole-seedling carbon relations.

  5. AFLP marker linked to water-stress-tolerant bulks in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Altinkut

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP assay is an efficient method for the identification of molecular markers, useful in the improvement of numerous crop species. Bulked Segregant Analysis (BSA was used to identify AFLP markers associated with water-stress tolerance in barley, as this would permit rapid selection of water-stress tolerant genotypes in breeding programs. AFLP markers linked to water-stress tolerance was identified in two DNA pools (tolerant and sensitive, which were established using selected F2 individuals resulting from a cross between water-stress-tolerant and sensitive barley parental genotypes, based on their paraquat (PQ tolerance, leaf size, and relative water content (RWC. All these three traits were previously shown to be associated with water-stress tolerance in segregating F2 progeny of the barley cross used in a previous study. AFLP analysis was then performed on these DNA pools, using 40 primer pairs to detect AFLP fragments that are present/absent, respectively, in the two pools and their parental lines. One separate AFLP fragment, which was present in the tolerant parent and in the tolerant bulk, but absent in the sensitive parent and in the sensitive bulk, was identified. Polymorphism of the AFLP marker was tested among tolerant and sensitive F2 individuals. The presence of this marker that is associated with water-stress tolerance will greatly enhance selection for paraquat and water-stress tolerant genotypes in future breeding programs.

  6. To trade or not to trade: Link prediction in the virtual water network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuninetti, Marta; Tamea, Stefania; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2017-12-01

    In the international trade network, links express the (temporary) presence of a commercial exchange of goods between any two countries. Given the dynamical behaviour of the trade network, where links are created and dismissed every year, predicting the link activation/deactivation is an open research question. Through the international trade network of agricultural goods, water resources are 'virtually' transferred from the country of production to the country of consumption. We propose a novel methodology for link prediction applied to the network of virtual water trade. Starting from the assumption of having links between any two countries, we estimate the associated virtual water flows by means of a gravity-law model using country and link characteristics as drivers. We consider the links with estimated flows higher than 1000 m3/year as active links, while the others as non-active links. Flows traded along estimated active links are then re-estimated using a similar but differently-calibrated gravity-law model. We were able to correctly model 84% of the existing links and 93% of the non-existing links in year 2011. It is worth to note that the predicted active links carry 99% of the global virtual water flow; hence, missed links are mainly those where a minimum volume of virtual water is exchanged. Results indicate that, over the period from 1986 to 2011, population, geographical distances between countries, and agricultural efficiency (through fertilizers use) are the major factors driving the link activation and deactivation. As opposed to other (network-based) models for link prediction, the proposed method is able to reconstruct the network architecture without any prior knowledge of the network topology, using only the nodes and links attributes; it thus represents a general method that can be applied to other networks such as food or value trade networks.

  7. Links between climate change, water-table depth, and water chemistry in a mineralized mountain watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Andrew H.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Caine, Jonathan S.; Todd, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that climate change is causing rising solute concentrations in mountain lakes and streams. These changes may be more pronounced in mineralized watersheds due to the sensitivity of sulfide weathering to changes in subsurface oxygen transport. Specific causal mechanisms linking climate change and accelerated weathering rates have been proposed, but in general remain entirely hypothetical. For mineralized watersheds, a favored hypothesis is that falling water tables caused by declining recharge rates allow an increasing volume of sulfide-bearing rock to become exposed to air, thus oxygen. Here, we test the hypothesis that falling water tables are the primary cause of an increase in metals and SO4 (100-400%) observed since 1980 in the Upper Snake River (USR), Colorado. The USR drains an alpine watershed geologically and climatologically representative of many others in mineralized areas of the western U.S. Hydrologic and chemical data collected from 2005 to 2011 in a deep monitoring well (WP1) at the top of the USR watershed are utilized. During this period, both water table depths and groundwater SO4 concentrations have generally increased in the well. A numerical model was constructed using TOUGHREACT that simulates pyrite oxidation near WP1, including groundwater flow and oxygen transport in both saturated and unsaturated zones. The modeling suggests that a falling water table could produce an increase in metals and SO4 of a magnitude similar to that observed in the USR (up to 300%). Future water table declines may produce limited increases in sulfide weathering high in the watershed because of the water table dropping below the depth of oxygen penetration, but may continue to enhance sulfide weathering lower in the watershed where water tables are shallower. Advective air (oxygen) transport in the unsaturated zone caused by seasonally variable recharge and associated water table fluctuations was found to have little influence on pyrite

  8. Cross-linking of dermal sheep collagen using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damink, LHHO; Dijkstra, PJ; vanLuyn, MJA; vanWachem, PB; Nieuwenhuis, P; Feijen, J

    A cross-linking method for collagen-based biomaterials was developed using the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC). Cross-linking using EDC involves the activation of carboxylic acid groups to give O-acylisourea groups, which form cross-links

  9. Cross-linking of dermal sheep collagen using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde damink, L.H.H.; Olde Damink, L.H.H.; Dijkstra, Pieter J.; van Luyn, M.J.A.; van Wachem, P.B.; Nieuwenhuis, P.; Feijen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    A cross-linking method for collagen-based biomaterials was developed using the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC). Cross-linking using EDC involves the activation of carboxylic acid groups to give O-acylisourea groups, which form cross-links

  10. Cross-linking of wheat gluten using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tropini, V.; Lens, J.P.; Mulder, W.J.; Silvestre, F.

    2000-01-01

    Wheat gluten was cross-linked using water-soluble 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide HCl (EDC). To enhance cross-linking, N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) was added to the reaction mixture. The cross-linking efficiency was evaluated by the decrease in the amount of amino groups, the solubility

  11. Linking xylem water storage with anatomical parameters in five temperate tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupa, Radek; Plavcová, Lenka; Gloser, Vít; Jansen, Steven

    2016-06-01

    The release of water from storage compartments to the transpiration stream is an important functional mechanism that provides the buffering of sudden fluctuations in water potential. The ability of tissues to release water per change in water potential, referred to as hydraulic capacitance, is assumed to be associated with the anatomy of storage tissues. However, information about how specific anatomical parameters determine capacitance is limited. In this study, we measured sapwood capacitance (C) in terminal branches and roots of five temperate tree species (Fagus sylvatica L., Picea abies L., Quercus robur L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Tilia cordata Mill.). Capacitance was calculated separately for water released mainly from capillary (CI; open vessels, tracheids, fibres, intercellular spaces and cracks) and elastic storage compartments (CII; living parenchyma cells), corresponding to two distinct phases of the moisture release curve. We found that C was generally higher in roots than branches, with CI being 3-11 times higher than CII Sapwood density and the ratio of dead to living xylem cells were most closely correlated with C In addition, the magnitude of CI was strongly correlated with fibre/tracheid lumen area, whereas CII was highly dependent on the thickness of axial parenchyma cell walls. Our results indicate that water released from capillary compartments predominates over water released from elastic storage in both branches and roots, suggesting the limited importance of parenchyma cells for water storage in juvenile xylem of temperate tree species. Contrary to intact organs, water released from open conduits in our small wood samples significantly increased CI at relatively high water potentials. Linking anatomical parameters with the hydraulic capacitance of a tissue contributes to a better understanding of water release mechanisms and their implications for plant hydraulics. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights

  12. Hydrology, water resources and the epidemiology of water-related diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Mari, Lorenzo

    2017-10-01

    Water-borne and water-based diseases are infections in which the causative agent (or one of its hosts) spends at least part of its lifecycle in water [1]. They still represent a major threat to human health, especially in the developing world. As an example, diarrhoea, commonly linked to water-borne diseases like cholera, is responsible for the death of about 525,000 children under five every year (out of nearly 1.7 billion cases globally), thus representing one of the leading causes of death among infants and children in low-income countries [2]. A wide range of micro- (protozoa, bacteria, viruses, algae) and macro-parasites (mostly flatworms and roundworms) is associated with water-borne and water-based diseases. Infection is generally caused by ingestion of, or exposure to, contaminated water, and is thus tightly linked to water excess, scarcity, availability or quality. More broadly, the term water-related diseases may also include vector-borne infections in which the ecology of the vector population is closely related to the presence of environmental water. This is the case, for instance, of mosquitoes acting as vectors of deadly diseases like malaria, dengue fever and yellow fever. Malaria alone exacted a toll of 429,000 deaths in 2015 (out of 212 million cases globally), according to the latest WHO estimates [3].

  13. Living waters: Linking cultural knowledge, ecosystem services, and wilderness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda Moon Stumpff

    2013-01-01

    American Indian tribes value pristine water sources that often originate in wilderness areas to support provisioning and cultural benefits. Based on interviews with four traditional leaders, this article focuses on the concept of living waters in ways that connect ecosystem service benefits to wilderness. Cultural knowledge connects indigenous water stewardship and...

  14. Water and energy link in the cities of the future - achieving net zero carbon and pollution emissions footprint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, V

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the link between water conservation, reclamation, reuse and energy use as related to the goal of achieving the net zero carbon emission footprint in future sustainable cities. It defines sustainable ecocities and outlines quantitatively steps towards the reduction of energy use due to water and used water flows, management and limits in linear and closed loop water/stormwater/wastewater management systems. The three phase water energy nexus diagram may have a minimum inflection point beyond which reduction of water demand may not result in a reduction of energy and carbon emissions. Hence, water conservation is the best alternative solution to water shortages and minimizing the carbon footprint. A marginal water/energy chart is developed and proposed to assist planners in developing future ecocities and retrofitting older communities to achieve sustainability.

  15. Calibration of Linked Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Model for Santa Margarita Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    was used to drive the transport and water quality kinetics for the simulation of 2007–2009. The sand berm, which controlled the opening/closure of...TECHNICAL REPORT 3015 July 2016 Calibration of Linked Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Model for Santa Margarita Lagoon Final Report Pei...Linked Hydrodynamic and Water Quality Model for Santa Margarita Lagoon Final Report Pei-Fang Wang Chuck Katz Ripan Barua SSC Pacific James

  16. Linking ceragenins to water-treatment membranes to minimize biofouling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Feng, Yanshu (Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah); Savage, Paul B. (Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah); Pollard, Jacob (Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah); Branda, Steven S.; Goeres, Darla (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Buckingham-Meyer, Kelli (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Stafslien, Shane (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Marry, Christopher; Jones, Howland D. T.; Lichtenberger, Alyssa; Kirk, Matthew F.; McGrath, Lucas K. (LMATA, Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-01-01

    Ceragenins were used to create biofouling resistant water-treatment membranes. Ceragenins are synthetically produced antimicrobial peptide mimics that display broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. While ceragenins have been used on bio-medical devices, use of ceragenins on water-treatment membranes is novel. Biofouling impacts membrane separation processes for many industrial applications such as desalination, waste-water treatment, oil and gas extraction, and power generation. Biofouling results in a loss of permeate flux and increase in energy use. Creation of biofouling resistant membranes will assist in creation of clean water with lower energy usage and energy with lower water usage. Five methods of attaching three different ceragenin molecules were conducted and tested. Biofouling reduction was observed in the majority of the tests, indicating the ceragenins are a viable solution to biofouling on water treatment membranes. Silane direct attachment appears to be the most promising attachment method if a high concentration of CSA-121a is used. Additional refinement of the attachment methods are needed in order to achieve our goal of several log-reduction in biofilm cell density without impacting the membrane flux. Concurrently, biofilm forming bacteria were isolated from source waters relevant for water treatment: wastewater, agricultural drainage, river water, seawater, and brackish groundwater. These isolates can be used for future testing of methods to control biofouling. Once isolated, the ability of the isolates to grow biofilms was tested with high-throughput multiwell methods. Based on these tests, the following species were selected for further testing in tube reactors and CDC reactors: Pseudomonas ssp. (wastewater, agricultural drainage, and Colorado River water), Nocardia coeliaca or Rhodococcus spp. (wastewater), Pseudomonas fluorescens and Hydrogenophaga palleronii (agricultural drainage), Sulfitobacter donghicola, Rhodococcus fascians, Rhodobacter

  17. Links between river water acidity, land use and hydrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, T.; Celebi, A.; Kloeve, B. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Water Resources and Environmental Eng. Lab.], Email: tuomas.saarinen@oulu.fi

    2013-11-01

    In western Finland, acid leaching to watercourses is mainly due to drainage of acid sulphate (As) soils. This study examined how different land-use and land-cover types affect water acidity in the northwestern coastal region of Finland, which has abundant drained AS soils and peatlands. Sampling conducted in different hydrological conditions in studied river basins revealed two different catchment types: catchments dominated by drained forested peatlands and catchments used by agriculture. Low pH and high electric conductivity (EC) were typical in rivers affected by agriculture. In rivers dominated by forested peatlands and wetlands, EC was considerably lower. During spring and autumn high runoff events, water quality was poor and showed large spatial variation. Thus it is important to ensure that in river basin status assessment, sampling is carried out in different hydrological situations and in also water from some tributaries is sampled. (orig.)

  18. Cassava productivity linked to potassium's influence on water use efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezui, K.S.; Franke, A.C.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Giller, K.E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of field studies conducted in Togo (Djakakope and Sevekpota) to assess the effect of potassium (K) on cassava yield, water use efficiency (WUE) and transpiration as affected by nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability under rainfed conditions. It was shown that an

  19. Relating water and air flow characteristics in coarse granular materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Rune Røjgaard; Canga, Eriona; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm

    2013-01-01

    Water pressure drop as a function of velocity controls w 1 ater cleaning biofilter operation 2 cost. At present this relationship in biofilter materials must be determined experimentally as no 3 universal link between pressure drop, velocity and filter material properties have been established. 4...... Pressure drop - velocity in porous media is much simpler and faster to measure for air than for water. 5 For soils and similar materials, observations show a strong connection between pressure drop – 6 velocity relations for air and water, indicating that water pressure drop – velocity may be estimated 7...... from air flow data. The objective of this study was, therefore, to investigate if this approach is valid 8 also for coarse granular biofilter media which usually consists of much larger particles than soils. In 9 this paper the connection between the pressure drop – velocity relationships for air...

  20. Water linked 3D coordination polymers: Syntheses, structures and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Suryabhan, E-mail: sbs.bhu@gmail.com; Bhim, Anupam

    2016-12-15

    Three new coordination polymers (CPs) based on Cd and Pb, [Cd(OBA)(μ-H{sub 2}O)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}1, [Pb(OBA)(μ-H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}2 [where OBA=4,4’-Oxybis(benzoate)] and [Pb(SDBA)(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n}.1/4DMF 3 (SDBA=4,4’-Sulfonyldibenzoate), have been synthesized and characterized. The single crystal structural studies reveal that CPs 1 and 2 have three dimensional structure. A water molecule bridges two metal centres which appears to the responsible for the dimensionality increase from 2D to 3D. Compound 3 has a supramolecular 3D structure involving water molecule and hydrogen bonds. A structural transformation is observed when 3 was heated at 100 °C or kept in methanol, forming [Pb(SDBA)]{sub n}4. Compound 4 is used as supporting matrix for palladium nanoparticles, PdNPs@4. The PdNPs@4 exhibits good catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) in the presence of NaBH{sub 4} at room temperature. Luminescence studies revealed that all CPs could be an effective sensor for nitroaromatic explosives. - Graphical abstract: Three new CPs based on Cd and Pb, have been synthesized and characterized. A water molecule bridges two metal centres which appears to the responsible for the dimensionality increase from 2D to 3D. One of the CP is used as supporting matrix for palladium nanoparticles, PdNPs@4. The PdNPs@4 exhibits good catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. Luminescence studies shown that all CPs could be an effective sensor for nitroaromatic explosives. - Highlights: • Three new CPs based on Cd and Pb, have been synthesized and characterized. • A water molecule bridges two metal centres which appears to the responsible for the dimensionality increase from 2D to 3D. • One of the CP is used as supporting matrix for palladium nanoparticles, PdNPs@4. • Luminescence studies shown that all CPs could be an effective sensor for nitroaromatic explosives.

  1. The properties of water in swollen cross-linked polystyrene sulfo acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagarin, A. N.; Tokmachev, M. G.; Kovaleva, S. S.; Ferapontov, N. B.

    2008-11-01

    The properties of water in polystyrene sulfo acid gels with various cross-linking degrees were studied by optical volumetry and dynamic desorption porosimetry. The isotherms of water desorption obtained by dynamic desorption porosimetry coincided with isopiestic isotherms, which allowed this method to be recommended for the determination of the amount of water in polymer gels. Joint optical volumetry and dynamic desorption porosimetry studies showed that the interphase boundary in the cross-liked hydrophilic polymer-water system did not coincide with the visible gel boundary, because gels were two-phase systems, which contained water of two types, “free” and “bound.” The influence of the degree of polymer cross-linking on the amounts and properties of water of the two types was studied. It was shown that constants of water distribution in the polymer could be calculated from the dynamic desorption porosimetry data.

  2. Water linked 3D coordination polymers: Syntheses, structures and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Suryabhan; Bhim, Anupam

    2016-12-01

    Three new coordination polymers (CPs) based on Cd and Pb, [Cd(OBA)(μ-H2O)(H2O)]n1, [Pb(OBA)(μ-H2O)]n2 [where OBA=4,4'-Oxybis(benzoate)] and [Pb(SDBA)(H2O)]n.1/4DMF 3 (SDBA=4,4'-Sulfonyldibenzoate), have been synthesized and characterized. The single crystal structural studies reveal that CPs 1 and 2 have three dimensional structure. A water molecule bridges two metal centres which appears to the responsible for the dimensionality increase from 2D to 3D. Compound 3 has a supramolecular 3D structure involving water molecule and hydrogen bonds. A structural transformation is observed when 3 was heated at 100 °C or kept in methanol, forming [Pb(SDBA)]n4. Compound 4 is used as supporting matrix for palladium nanoparticles, PdNPs@4. The PdNPs@4 exhibits good catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to 4-aminophenol (4-AP) in the presence of NaBH4 at room temperature. Luminescence studies revealed that all CPs could be an effective sensor for nitroaromatic explosives.

  3. Estimates of Leaf Relative Water Content from Optical Polarization Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, R. P.; Vanderbilt, V. C.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    2017-12-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plant canopies remains a long term goal of remote sensing research. Existing approaches to remotely sensing canopy water status, such as the Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) and the Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT), have limitations. The CWSI, based upon remotely sensing canopy radiant temperature in the thermal infrared spectral region, does not work well in humid regions, requires estimates of the vapor pressure deficit near the canopy during the remote sensing over-flight and, once stomata close, provides little information regarding the canopy water status. The EWT is based upon the physics of water-light interaction in the 900-2000nm spectral region, not plant physiology. Our goal, development of a remote sensing technique for estimating plant water status based upon measurements in the VIS/NIR spectral region, would potentially provide remote sensing access to plant dehydration physiology - to the cellular photochemistry and structural changes associated with water deficits in leaves. In this research, we used optical, crossed polarization filters to measure the VIS/NIR light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, for 78 corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) leaves having relative water contents (RWC) between 0.60 and 0.98. Our results show that as RWC decreases R increases while T decreases. Our results tie R and T changes in the VIS/NIR to leaf physiological changes - linking the light scattered out of the drying leaf interior to its relative water content and to changes in leaf cellular structure and pigments. Our results suggest remotely sensing the physiological water status of a single leaf - and perhaps of a plant canopy - might be possible in the future.

  4. A Link between Mothers' Disciplinary Strategies and Children's Relational Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Marlene J.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the association between maternal disciplinary strategies and children's level of relational aggression, and then compares these associations with those found with overt aggression. Eighty-two 4th graders (aged 9-11 years) completed peer nomination measures of relational and overt aggression, and their mothers completed a…

  5. Emotional Intelligence and Its Link to Public Relations Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Timothy Lent

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the ethics chapters in five introduction-to-public relations textbooks and the codes of ethics of four major public relations associations contained within those chapters to determine the prevalence of language that either uses the same terms Daniel Goleman employs for his 25 competencies of emotional…

  6. Linking the effects of land use change with water quality and discharge :an integrated approach

    OpenAIRE

    Fauss, Lynn Michael

    1992-01-01

    Hydrologic and water-quality equilibria are greatly affected by changing land use. This study presents a methodology that integrates the use of remote sensing, geographical information systems (GIS) and water-quality modeling. Archived aerial photography proved to be a valuable source of historical land use data. GIS technology was used to compile and analyze spatial data. A comprehensive watershed model was used to link the effects of land use change to water quali...

  7. Links between the Philippines and Spain: migration and bilateral relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelia Pe-Pua

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the implications which Spanish policy regarding foreign workers has on the living and working conditions of the Filipino community in Spain. The author pays special attention to bilateral relations between the Philippines and Spain in issues suchas Spanish investment in the Philippines, the trade balance between the two countries and labour relations. In conclusion the article considers the necessity of reaching a bilateral labour agreement which would be beneficial to both countries and which at the same time would improve the working conditions and the integration of Philippine nationals living in Spain.

  8. Farmer Perceptions of Conflict Related to Water in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Marcantonio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between climate change, water scarcity, and conflict is still debated. Much of the existing work relating resource scarcity to conflict has involved regional-scale analysis linking instances of violent outbreaks to environmental conditions. But how do individual farmers in Africa define conflict? Do they perceive that conflict will change as a function of water scarcity, and, if so, how? Here, we address these questions by surveying farmers in southern Zambia in 2015, where we asked respondents to define conflict, assessed their perceptions of past and future conflict, as well as perceptions of rainfall and water availability. We find that the majority of our respondents (75% think of conflict as misunderstandings or disagreements between people and that 91% of our sample has experienced past conflict, 70% expect to experience future conflict, and 58% expect to experience future physical violent conflict. When asked about the sources of conflict, respondents mainly mention land grabbing, crop damage by animals, and politics rather than water related issues. However, we find a significant relationship between perceptions of future rainfall decreasing and future physical violent conflict. These results imply that even though respondents do not think water scarcity is a direct source of conflict, the perception of decreased rain in the future is significantly related to the perception that future conflict and future physical violent conflict will occur.

  9. Possible Links among Mirror Neurons and Genes Related to Autism

    OpenAIRE

    MOCHIZUKI, Mai; 望月,麻衣

    2016-01-01

    Autism includes many neurodevelopmental disorders and defi cits in communication. Althoughresearchers have considered various origins, the onset mechanism is still not clear. The aim ofthis article is to provide some clues for interaction of autism with mirror neuronal and geneticfactors. First, the impact of neural brain cells considered to infl uence autism will be discussedwith reference to mirror neurons. Then, the discussion will move to genes related to autism.Consequently, it is argued...

  10. LINK BETWEEN SKELETAL RELATIONS AND ROOT RESORPTION IN ORTHODONTIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Teodora Preoteasa

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available External root resorption is one of the possible complications of the orthodontic treatment, severe cases presenting a higher frequency. The aim of the present study was to test the existence of a relation between the severity of root resorption and the sagittal or vertical skeletal relations. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a group of 55 patients with fixed orthodontic devices, applied bimaxillarily for at least 6 months. The sample presented mostly mild or moderate apical root resorption, with an average value of 1.31 mm (standard deviation 0.60. Patients with abnormal sagittal skeletal relations presented a more severe root resorption compared to those with a normal pattern. The tendency towards more severe external root resorption was also noticed in cases with mandibular clockwise rotation and hiperdivergent facial pattern. A good knowledge on the variables associated to severe root resorption is essential for the identification of the high risk patients, as well as for the selection of the best suited treatment alternative in terms of low probability of root resorption occurrence.

  11. Conservation of Water and Related Land Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Lynton K.

    1984-04-01

    The author was quite clear about the purpose of this book and clearly achieved his intent. In his preface, the author states, “The purpose of this book is to acquaint the reader with a broad understanding of the topics relevant to the management of the nation's water and related land resources.” The book is a product of the author's 20 years of work as a teacher, consultant, researcher, and student of watershed management and hydrology and has served as a text for a course entitled Soil and Water Conservation, which the author has taught at the State University of New York, College of Environmental Science and Forestry at Syracuse, New York. But it was also written with the intent to be of use “to informal students of water and land related resources on the national level as well.” The objectives of Black's course at Syracuse and its larger purpose define the scope of the book which, again in the author's words, have been “(1) to acquaint students with principles of soil and water conservation; (2) to stimulate an appreciation for an integrated, comprehensive approach to land management; (3) to illustrate the influence of institutional, economic, and cultural forces on the practice of soil and water conservation; and (4) to provide information, methods, and techniques by which soil and water conservation measures are applied to land, as well as the basis for predicting and evaluating results.” The book is written in straightforward nontechnical language and provides the reader with a set of references, a table of cases, a list of abbreviations, and an adequate index. It impresses this reviewer as a very well edited piece of work.

  12. Cell protein cross-linking by erbstatin and related compounds | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The scheme depicts a possible mechanism of cross-linking by erbstatin and related analogues. A mechanism of action is proposed which involves initial oxidation to reactive quinone intermediates that subsequently cross-link protein nucleophiles via multiple 1,4-Michael-type additions. Similar alkylation of protein by protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as herbimycin A, has

  13. Advances in the ROBLINKS project on long-range shallow-water robust acoustic communciation links

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzen, M.B. van; Walree, P.A. van; Cano, D.; Passerieux, J-M.; Waldhorst, A.; Weber, R.

    2000-01-01

    Within the ROBLINKS project waveforms and algorithms have been developed to establish robust underwater acoustic communication links with high data rates in shallow water. To evaluate the signalling schemes, a wide range of experiments has been performed during a sea trial that has been held in May

  14. Linking poverty levels to water resource use and conflicts in rural Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madulu, Ndalahwa F.

    Water scarcity is an important environmental constraint to development. Water availability is closely linked to human welfare and health by affecting nutrition status and quantity of drinking water especially for the poor. It has impacts on household labour because of the time and energy spent in obtaining it. These problems are more keenly felt among the poor households and in the agricultural subsistence economy. In many areas, the demand for water has been increasing due to rapid population growth, economic development, and climatic change. Water scarcity also stimulates social conflicts between various water users: individuals, communities, industries, livestock, wildlife, agriculture etc. Consequently, local communities have evolved strategies for coping with water stress and drought. These strategies include use of various sources of water, inaction to strict bye-laws regarding the use of water, crop diversification, wage labour, and possibly seasonal migration. The available strategies are likely to vary from one area to another. Some of these actions have measurable longterm demographic consequences, particularly if water stress is severe or repetitive. Although most governments and donor organizations often put much emphasis on the provision of water for drinking purposes, there is clear evidence that the supply of water for other uses has equal importance especially among rural communities. This observation suggests that putting too much emphasis on drinking water needs, addresses a rather insignificant part of the problem of water resources and biases the range of solutions which are likely to be proposed for perceived shortages. The presence of other water uses necessitates the provision of multi-purpose water sources that can serve a number of contrasting functions. This demand-responsive approach can enable the local communities and the poor households to choose the type of services they require on the basis of perceived needs and their ability to

  15. Exploring the link between meteorological drought and streamflow to inform water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennard, Amy; Macdonald, Neil; Hooke, Janet

    2015-04-01

    Drought indicators are an under-used metric in UK drought management. Standardised drought indicators offer a potential monitoring and management tool for operational water resource management. However, the use of these metrics needs further investigation. This work uses statistical analysis of the climatological drought signal based on meteorological drought indicators and observed streamflow data to explore the link between meteorological drought and hydrological drought to inform water resource management for a single water resource region. The region, covering 21,000 km2 of the English Midlands and central Wales, includes a variety of landscapes and climatological conditions. Analysis of the links between meteorological drought and hydrological drought performed using streamflow data from 'natural' catchments indicates a close positive relationship between meteorological drought indicators and streamflow, enhancing confidence in the application of drought indicators for monitoring and management. However, many of the catchments in the region are subject to modification through impoundments, abstractions and discharge. Therefore, it is beneficial to explore how climatological drought signal propagates into managed hydrological systems. Using a longitudinal study of catchments and sub-catchments that include natural and modified river reaches the relationship between meteorological and hydrological drought is explored. Initial statistical analysis of meteorological drought indicators and streamflow data from modified catchments shows a significantly weakened statistical relationship and reveals how anthropogenic activities may alter hydrological drought characteristics in modified catchments. Exploring how meteorological drought indicators link to streamflow across the water supply region helps build an understanding of their utility for operational water resource management.

  16. Managing coopetition through horizontal supply chain relations : Linking dyadic and network levels of analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, Miriam M.

    2011-01-01

    A growing research stream has expanded the level of analysis beyond single buyer-supplier relations to the network, including supplier-supplier relations. These supplier-supplier relations may constitute a missing link between the traditional analysis of the dyadic and the network level of analysis

  17. Managing coopetition through horizontal supply chain relations : Linking dyadic and network levels of analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, Miriam M.

    A growing research stream has expanded the level of analysis beyond single buyer-supplier relations to the network, including supplier-supplier relations. These supplier-supplier relations may constitute a missing link between the traditional analysis of the dyadic and the network level of analysis

  18. Linking Spatial Variations in Water Quality with Water and Land Management using Multivariate Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yongshan; Qian, Yun; Migliaccio, Kati White; Li, Yuncong; Conrad, Cecilia

    2014-03-01

    Most studies using multivariate techniques for pollution source evaluation are conducted in free-flowing rivers with distinct point and nonpoint sources. This study expanded on previous research to a managed "canal" system discharging into the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, where water and land management is the single most important anthropogenic factor influencing water quality. Hydrometric and land use data of four drainage basins were uniquely integrated into the analysis of 25 yr of monthly water quality data collected at seven stations to determine the impact of water and land management on the spatial variability of water quality. Cluster analysis (CA) classified seven monitoring stations into four groups (CA groups). All water quality parameters identified by discriminant analysis showed distinct spatial patterns among the four CA groups. Two-step principal component analysis/factor analysis (PCA/FA) was conducted with (i) water quality data alone and (ii) water quality data in conjunction with rainfall, flow, and land use data. The results indicated that PCA/FA of water quality data alone was unable to identify factors associated with management activities. The addition of hydrometric and land use data into PCA/FA revealed close associations of nutrients and color with land management and storm-water retention in pasture and citrus lands; total suspended solids, turbidity, and NO + NO with flow and Lake Okeechobee releases; specific conductivity with supplemental irrigation supply; and dissolved O with wetland preservation. The practical implication emphasizes the importance of basin-specific land and water management for ongoing pollutant loading reduction and ecosystem restoration programs. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Acanthamoeba Species Keratitis in a Soft Contact Lens Wearer Molecularly Linked to Well Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Mubareka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba species keratitis has been associated with soft contact lens wear. In the present report, an epidemiological link was established between the patient's isolate and well water from the home using molecular methods. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case in Canada where such a link has been established. Primary care practitioners and specialists, including ophthalmologists and infectious diseases specialists, must maintain a high degree of clinical suspicion in soft contact lens wearers with keratitis unresponsive to conventional topical and systemic treatment.

  20. A linked hydrodynamic and water quality model for the Salton Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, E.G.; Schladow, S.G.; Perez-Losada, J.; Robertson, Dale M.

    2008-01-01

    A linked hydrodynamic and water quality model was developed and applied to the Salton Sea. The hydrodynamic component is based on the one-dimensional numerical model, DLM. The water quality model is based on a new conceptual model for nutrient cycling in the Sea, and simulates temperature, total suspended sediment concentration, nutrient concentrations, including PO4-3, NO3-1 and NH4+1, DO concentration and chlorophyll a concentration as functions of depth and time. Existing water temperature data from 1997 were used to verify that the model could accurately represent the onset and breakup of thermal stratification. 1999 is the only year with a near-complete dataset for water quality variables for the Salton Sea. The linked hydrodynamic and water quality model was run for 1999, and by adjustment of rate coefficients and other water quality parameters, a good match with the data was obtained. In this article, the model is fully described and the model results for reductions in external phosphorus load on chlorophyll a distribution are presented. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  1. Water-Food-Nutrition-Health Nexus: Linking Water to Improving Food, Nutrition and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe; Chibarabada, Tendai; Modi, Albert

    2016-01-06

    Whereas sub-Saharan Africa's (SSA) water scarcity, food, nutrition and health challenges are well-documented, efforts to address them have often been disconnected. Given that the region continues to be affected by poverty and food and nutrition insecurity at national and household levels, there is a need for a paradigm shift in order to effectively deliver on the twin challenges of food and nutrition security under conditions of water scarcity. There is a need to link water use in agriculture to achieve food and nutrition security outcomes for improved human health and well-being. Currently, there are no explicit linkages between water, agriculture, nutrition and health owing to uncoordinated efforts between agricultural and nutrition scientists. There is also a need to develop and promote the use of metrics that capture aspects of water, agriculture, food and nutrition. This review identified nutritional water productivity as a suitable index for measuring the impact of a water-food-nutrition-health nexus. Socio-economic factors are also considered as they influence food choices in rural communities. An argument for the need to utilise the region's agrobiodiversity for addressing dietary quality and diversity was established. It is concluded that a model for improving nutrition and health of poor rural communities based on the water-food-nutrition-health nexus is possible.

  2. Water-Food-Nutrition-Health Nexus: Linking Water to Improving Food, Nutrition and Health in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafadzwanashe Mabhaudhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Whereas sub-Saharan Africa’s (SSA water scarcity, food, nutrition and health challenges are well-documented, efforts to address them have often been disconnected. Given that the region continues to be affected by poverty and food and nutrition insecurity at national and household levels, there is a need for a paradigm shift in order to effectively deliver on the twin challenges of food and nutrition security under conditions of water scarcity. There is a need to link water use in agriculture to achieve food and nutrition security outcomes for improved human health and well-being. Currently, there are no explicit linkages between water, agriculture, nutrition and health owing to uncoordinated efforts between agricultural and nutrition scientists. There is also a need to develop and promote the use of metrics that capture aspects of water, agriculture, food and nutrition. This review identified nutritional water productivity as a suitable index for measuring the impact of a water-food-nutrition-health nexus. Socio-economic factors are also considered as they influence food choices in rural communities. An argument for the need to utilise the region’s agrobiodiversity for addressing dietary quality and diversity was established. It is concluded that a model for improving nutrition and health of poor rural communities based on the water-food-nutrition-health nexus is possible.

  3. Interactive Links between Relational Aggression, Theory of Mind, and Moral Disengagement among Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Constantinos M.; Voulgaridou, Ioanna; Mandrali, Marianna; Parousidou, Chrysoula

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible interactive links between theory of mind (ToM), moral disengagement and relational aggression, using a moderated mediation analysis, with gender as a moderator, in a sample of 120 Greek preadolescents. Results indicated that relational aggression was significantly positively associated with moral…

  4. Bauhinia forficata Link authenticity using flavonoids profile: relation with their biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreres, Federico; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel; Vinholes, Juliana; Silva, Sara T; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B

    2012-09-15

    HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS(n) was used to ascertain the authenticity of two certified and two commercial Bauhinia forficata Link samples. Different flavonoids profiles were obtained, involving 39 compounds. Just kaempferol-3-O-(2-rhamnosyl)rutinoside was found in all analysed samples. Five compounds were common to the certified samples of B. forficata Link and B. forficata Link subsp. pruinosa (Vogel) Fortunato & Wunderlin, being kaempferol derivatives the most representative ones. The phenolic composition of B. forficata Link subsp. pruinosa (Vogel) Fortunato & Wunderlin is described herein for the first time, accounting for eight compounds, while 10 new compounds were identified in B. forficata Link. Commercial B. forficata Link showed higher contents of quercetin derivatives, in addition to the presence of myricetin derivatives and flavonoids-(galloyl)glycosides, for which the MS fragmentation pattern is reported for the first time. B. forficata Link and the two commercial samples were able to inhibit α-glucosidase, with EC(50) values lower than that found for acarbose. Mild effects on cholinesterases were observed with the certified samples, while commercial ones were more effective. The same behaviour was observed concerning the scavenging of DPPH, nitric oxide and superoxide radicals. The presence of high contents of quercetin derivatives in commercial samples seems to directly influence their biological properties. The differences between phenolic profiles and their relation with the authenticity of commercial samples are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhancing Resilience to Water-Related Impacts of Climate Change ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Enhancing Resilience to Water-Related Impacts of Climate Change in Uganda's ... technologies (ICTs) can be used to help communities address water stress. ... This work will support the Uganda Ministry of Water and Environment's efforts to ...

  6. Linking levels of societal and ecosystems metabolism of water in a Mediterranean watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, V.

    2014-12-01

    Water resources degradation is a complex environmental problem that involves multiple dimensions and scales of analysis. The Socio-Ecological Systems Water Metabolism has been proposed as a general holistic framework to deal with integrated analysis of water use sustainability (Madrid and Giampietro 2014). The innovation of the approach is that it sets the research focus beyond the classical supply-demand modeling to societal integrity and ecosystems integrity. To do so, it integrates quantitative grammars of water use (relating water exchange to societal and ecosystems organization) and qualitative methods (discourse analysis). This work presents the first case study focused at a river basin extent: the Upper Andarax, in South-East Spain. Water metabolism is indicated at multiple levels for ecosystems and society. To deal with the interfaces among them, relational indicators of water exploitation, water use and impact over ecosystems are used alongside policies and narratives analysis.While being a rather not intensively exploited river basin (year Water Exploitation Index~0.3 blue water,~0.15 green water), impacts over water bodies are yet important (periodic aquifer overdraft, biological degradation of the river) especially during dry season. Perceived mayor problems of water sustainability are generated by the not integration of different policies at European, national and regional scales: while the water authority establishes a compulsory reduction over water withdrawal to attend environmental flows, agricultural markets force to raise productivity increasing water demands. Adaptation strategies are divided among irrigation efficiency improvement and a reorientation of the economy towards touristic activities. Both of them entail specific trade-offs to be deemed. Aquifer-river interactions and climate change impacts are yet mayor research challenges.

  7. A Linked Hydro-Economic Model to Examine the Effects of Water Policy on Rural Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneta, M. P.; Torres, M.; Vosti, S. A.; Wallender, W. W.; Howitt, R.; Rodrigues, L. N.; Bassoi, L. H.; Pfeiffer, L.; Young, J.

    2006-12-01

    The sustainable intensification of small-scale agriculture is a necessary condition for reducing rural poverty in developing countries. Increasing the amount of irrigated cropland and the economic efficiency of irrigation are two key components of most intensification strategies. Improved access to water generally increases farm income but richer farmers use a disproportionate share of the available water, decreasing the chances of poor farmers to meet their water needs. Furthermore, water and poverty have strong spatial components that have so far been neglected in water planning. In that sense, too little is known about the short and long term hydrological effects, especially the externality effects of changes in on-farm water use and its implications to nearby farmers. To address this gap in knowledge, a spatially distributed and transient description of changes in surface and groundwater allocation under different agricultural management scenarios is needed. We propose a hydro-economic model providing a realistic spatio-temporal description of the linkages between the economic and hydrologic subsystems. This hydro-economic model is composed of a basin-level 3D spatially distributed transient hydrologic model (MOD-HMS) and a farm-level, spatially distributed agricultural production model. Both models are explicitly linked through the boundary conditions of the hydrologic model. The linkage will account for the spatial and temporal impact of different crop mixes, irrigation techniques and groundwater pumpage on water availability at farm level to assess the effects of policy action on the hydro-economic components of the system.

  8. Borax cross-linked guar gum hydrogels as potential adsorbents for water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombare, Nandkishore; Jha, Usha; Mishra, Sumit; Siddiqui, M Z

    2017-07-15

    With the aim to explore new adsorbents for water purification, guar gum based hydrogels were synthesized by cross-linking with borax at different percentage. The cross-linking was confirmed through characterization by FTIR spectroscopy, SEM morphology, thermal studies and water absorption capacity. To examine the adsorption/absorption performance of different grades of hydrogels, their flocculation efficiency was studied in kaolin suspension at different pH by standard jar test procedure. The flocculation efficiency of the test materials was compared with the commercially used coagulant, alum and also residues of Al and K left in the treated water were comparatively studied. The synthesized hydrogels were also tested for their efficiency of removing Aniline Blue dye by UV-vis spectrophotometer study. The best grade hydrogel outperformed alum, at extremely low concentration and also showed dye removing efficiency up to 94%. The single step synthesized green products thus exhibited great potential as water purifying agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Plant water relations I: uptake and transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plants, like all living things, are mostly water. Water is the matrix of life, and its availability determines the distribution and productivity of plants on earth. Vascular plants evolved structures that enable them to transport water long distances with little input of energy, but the hollow trach...

  10. Dehydration of an ethanol/water azeotrope through alginate-DNA membranes cross-linked with metal ions by pervaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uragami, Tadashi; Banno, Masashi; Miyata, Takashi

    2015-12-10

    To obtain high dehydration membranes for an ethanol/water azeotrope, dried blend membranes prepared from mixtures of sodium alginate (Alg-Na) and sodium deoxyribonucleate (DNA-Na) were cross-linked by immersing in a methanol solution of CaCl2 or MaCl2. In the dehydration of an ethanol/water azeotropic mixture by pervaporation, the effects of immersion time in methanol solution of CaCl2 or MaCl2 on the permeation rate and water/ethanol selectivity through Alg-DNA/Ca(2+) and Alg-DNA/Mg(2+) cross-linked membranes were investigated. Alg-DNA/Mg(2+) cross-linked membrane immersed for 12h in methanol solution of MaCl2 exhibited the highest water/ethanol selectivity. This results from depressed swelling of the membranes by formation of a cross-linked structure. However, excess immersion in solution containing cross-linker led to an increase in the hydrophobicity of cross-linked membrane. Therefore, the water/ethanol selectivity of Alg-DNA/Mg(2+) cross-linked membranes with an excess immersion in cross-linking solution was lowered. The relationship between the structure of Alg-DNA/Ca(2+) and Alg-DNA/Mg(2+) cross-linked membranes and their permeation and separation characteristics during pervaporation of an ethanol/water azeotropic mixture is discussed in detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Legionnaires' Disease acquired within the homes of two patients: link to the home water supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, J.E.; Yu, V.L.; Muraca, P.

    1987-01-01

    Two patients with sporadic community-acquired legionnaires' disease are described. Legionella pneumophila was isolated from sputum specimens, and seroconversion of antibody titers was demonstrated for both patients. Legionella pneumophila was also recovered from the residential water supply of both patients. In each case, the serogroup of the environmental organism matched that of the infecting organism. In one patient, serogroup 3 was isolated - a rare cause of legionnaires' disease, and in the second case, monoclonal antibody testing confirmed that the serogroup 1 organisms isolated from sputum and residential water supply samples were identical. The incubation period of legionnaires' disease is presumed to be up to two weeks. Because of medical problems, both patients had been confined to their homes for the entire two weeks before the onset of symptoms. This is the first report that links acquisition of community-acquired legionnaires' disease to contaminated water supplies within the homes of susceptible patients

  12. Problems especially relating to sea water condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, Raymond.

    1975-01-01

    Sea water forms a nearly unlimited cold source well adapted to the open circuit cooling of large nuclear power plants. As a counter-part, its physico-chemical and biological characteristics generally require complicated arrangements for preventing: - first, the sea water to enter accidentally, especially as a consequence of corrosions and erosion-corrosions. Indeed, certain materials used in modern plants very badly suffer any introduction of salted water into the cycle steam-water mixture: - secondly, damaging the flow conditions of the cooling water (increase in friction coefficients, restriction of passage cross sections, blocking) and heat exchange parameters (resisting deposits, circulation troubles...) [fr

  13. Testing links between childhood positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes through a randomized controlled intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witvliet, M.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Cuijpers, P.; Koot, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors used a randomized controlled trial to explore the link between having positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes in 758 children followed from kindergarten to the end of 2nd grade. Children were randomly assigned to the Good Behavior Game (GBG), a universal

  14. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the anthropogenic marker isolithocholic acid in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldofski, Stefanie; Hoffmann, Holger; Lehmann, Andreas; Breitfeld, Stefan; Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Schneider, Rudolf J

    2016-11-01

    Bile acids are promising chemical markers to assess the pollution of water samples with fecal material. This study describes the optimization and validation of a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the bile acid isolithocholic acid (ILA). The quantification range of the optimized assay was between 0.09 and 15 μg/L. The assay was applied to environmental water samples. Most studies until now were focused on bile acid fractions in the particulate phase of water samples. In order to avoid tedious sample preparation, we undertook to evaluate the dynamics and significance of ILA levels in the aqueous phase. Very low concentrations in tap and surface water samples made a pre-concentration step necessary for this matrix as well as for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent. Mean recoveries for spiked water samples were between 97% and 109% for tap water and WWTP influent samples and between 102% and 136% for WWTP effluent samples. 90th percentiles of intra-plate and inter-plate coefficients of variation were below 10% for influents and below 20% for effluents and surface water. ILA concentrations were quantified in the range of 33-72 μg/L in influent, 21-49 ng/L in effluent and 18-48 ng/L in surface water samples. During wastewater treatment the ILA levels were reduced by more than 99%. ILA concentrations of influents determined by ELISA and LC-MS/MS were in good agreement. However, findings in LC-ELISA experiments suggest that the true ILA levels in concentrated samples are lower due to interfering effects of matrix compounds and/or cross-reactants. Yet, the ELISA will be a valuable tool for the performance check and comparison of WWTPs and the localization of fecal matter input into surface waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Precipitation isotopes link regional climate patterns to water supply in a tropical mountain forest, eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Martha A.; Murphy, Sheila F.

    2014-05-01

    Like many mountainous areas in the tropics, watersheds in the Luquillo Mountains of eastern Puerto Rico have abundant rainfall and stream discharge and provide much of the water supply for the densely populated metropolitan areas nearby. Projected changes in regional temperature and atmospheric dynamics as a result of global warming suggest that water availability will be affected by changes in rainfall patterns. It is essential to understand the relative importance of different weather systems to water supply to determine how changes in rainfall patterns, interacting with geology and vegetation, will affect the water balance. To help determine the links between climate and water availability, stable isotope signatures of precipitation from different weather systems were established to identify those that are most important in maintaining streamflow and groundwater recharge. Precipitation stable isotope values in the Luquillo Mountains had a large range, from fog/cloud water with δ2H, δ18O values as high as +12 ‰, -0.73 ‰ to tropical storm rain with values as low as -127 ‰, -16.8 ‰. Temporal isotope values exhibit a reverse seasonality from those observed in higher latitude continental watersheds, with higher isotopic values in the winter and lower values in the summer. Despite the higher volume of convective and low-pressure system rainfall, stable isotope analyses indicated that under the current rainfall regime, frequent trade -wind orographic showers contribute much of the groundwater recharge and stream base flow. Analysis of rain events using 20 years of 15 -minute resolution data at a mountain station (643 m) showed an increasing trend in rainfall amount, in agreement with increased precipitable water in the atmosphere, but differing from climate model projections of drying in the region. The mean intensity of rain events also showed an increasing trend. The determination of recharge sources from stable isotope tracers indicates that water supply

  16. Differential growth responses to water balance of coexisting deciduous tree species are linked to wood density in a Bolivian tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendivelso, Hooz A; Camarero, J Julio; Royo Obregón, Oriol; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Toledo, Marisol

    2013-01-01

    A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs). There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability.

  17. Differential growth responses to water balance of coexisting deciduous tree species are linked to wood density in a Bolivian tropical dry forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooz A Mendivelso

    Full Text Available A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs. There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability.

  18. Differential Growth Responses to Water Balance of Coexisting Deciduous Tree Species Are Linked to Wood Density in a Bolivian Tropical Dry Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendivelso, Hooz A.; Camarero, J. Julio; Royo Obregón, Oriol; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Toledo, Marisol

    2013-01-01

    A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs). There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability. PMID:24116001

  19. Changes in water consumption linked to heavy news media coverage of extreme climatic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Kimberly J; Ajami, Newsha K

    2017-10-01

    Public awareness of water- and drought-related issues is an important yet relatively unexplored component of water use behavior. To examine this relationship, we first quantified news media coverage of drought in California from 2005 to 2015, a period with two distinct droughts; the later drought received unprecedentedly high media coverage, whereas the earlier drought did not, as the United States was experiencing an economic downturn coinciding with a historic presidential election. Comparing this coverage to Google search frequency confirmed that public attention followed news media trends. We then modeled single-family residential water consumption in 20 service areas in the San Francisco Bay Area during the same period using geospatially explicit data and including news media coverage as a covariate. Model outputs revealed the factors affecting water use for populations of varying demographics. Importantly, the models estimated that an increase of 100 drought-related articles in a bimonthly period was associated with an 11 to 18% reduction in water use. Then, we evaluated high-resolution water consumption data from smart meters, known as advanced metering infrastructure, in one of the previously modeled service areas to evaluate breakpoints in water use trends. Results demonstrated that whereas nonresidential commercial irrigation customers responded to changes in climate, single-family residential customers decreased water use at the fastest rate following heavy drought-related news media coverage. These results highlight the need for water resource planners and decision makers to further consider the importance of effective, internally and externally driven, public awareness and education in water demand behavior and management.

  20. Water chemistry-related activities at the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.; Onufriev, V.

    2005-01-01

    Water chemistry activities and publications in the past are listed. IAEA Coordinated Research Programmes, WWER-1000 SG water chemistry database, materials issues TM in Vienna, TC workshops and attendance of international meetings, publications. There is a list of IAEA publications related to water chemistry and corrosion. Finally water chemistry activities planned for 2006-2008 are detailed. (N.T.)

  1. Relative tracking control of constellation satellites considering inter-satellite link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakoor, M.; Amozegary, F.; Bakhtiari, M.; Daneshjou, K.

    2017-11-01

    In this article, two main issues related to the large-scale relative motion of satellites in the constellation are investigated to establish the Inter Satellite Link (ISL) which means the dynamic and control problems. In the section related to dynamic problems, a detailed and effective analytical solution is initially provided for the problem of satellite relative motion considering perturbations. The direct geometric method utilizing spherical coordinates is employed to achieve this solution. The evaluation of simulation shows that the solution obtained from the geometric method calculates the relative motion of the satellite with high accuracy. Thus, the proposed analytical solution will be applicable and effective. In the section related to control problems, the relative tracking control system between two satellites will be designed in order to establish a communication link between the satellites utilizing analytical solution for relative motion of satellites with respect to the reference trajectory. Sliding mode control approach is employed to develop the relative tracking control system for body to body and payload to payload tracking control. Efficiency of sliding mode control approach is compared with PID and LQR controllers. Two types of payload to payload tracking control considering with and without payload degree of freedom are designed and suitable one for practical ISL applications is introduced. Also, Fuzzy controller is utilized to eliminate the control input in the sliding mode controller.

  2. 75 FR 42774 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water- Related Contract Actions AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... region in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michelle Kelly, Water...

  3. 76 FR 44948 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water- Related Contract Actions AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michelle Kelly, Water and Environmental...

  4. Sedimentary noise and sea levels linked to land-ocean water exchange and obliquity forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingsong; Hinnov, Linda A; Huang, Chunju; Ogg, James G

    2018-03-08

    In ancient hothouses lacking ice sheets, the origins of large, million-year (myr)-scale sea-level oscillations remain a mystery, challenging current models of sea-level change. To address this mystery, we develop a sedimentary noise model for sea-level changes that simultaneously estimates geologic time and sea level from astronomically forced marginal marine stratigraphy. The noise model involves two complementary approaches: dynamic noise after orbital tuning (DYNOT) and lag-1 autocorrelation coefficient (ρ 1 ). Noise modeling of Lower Triassic marine slope stratigraphy in South China reveal evidence for global sea-level variations in the Early Triassic hothouse that are anti-phased with continental water storage variations in the Germanic Basin. This supports the hypothesis that long-period (1-2 myr) astronomically forced water mass exchange between land and ocean reservoirs is a missing link for reconciling geological records and models for sea-level change during non-glacial periods.

  5. Water relations of woody perennial plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A. Shackel

    2007-09-01

    Significance and impact of study: SWP as a standard method for quantifying water stress in grapevine and other crops will aid research in the development of reliable management practices to improve crop productivity and quality.

  6. Ecosystem-groundwater interactions under changing land uses: Linking water, salts, and carbon across central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbagy, E. G.; Nosetto, M. D.; Santoni, C. S.; Jackson, R. B.

    2007-05-01

    Although most ecosystems display a one-way connection with groundwater based on the regulation of deep water drainage (recharge), this link can become reciprocal when the saturated zone is shallow and plants take up groundwater (discharge). In what context is the reciprocal link most likely? How is it affected by land use changes? Has it consequences on salt and carbon cycling? We examine these questions across a precipitation gradient in the Pampas and Espinal of Argentina focusing on three vegetation change situations (mean annual rainfall): afforestation of humid (900-1300 mm) and subhumid grassland (700-900 mm/yr of rainfall), annual cultivation of subhumid grasslands (700-800 mm/yr), and annual cultivation of semiarid forests (500-700 mm). Humid and subhumid grasslands have shallow (measurements. Groundwater contributions enhance carbon uptake in plantations compared to grasslands as suggested by aboveground biomass measurements and satellite vegetation indexes from sites with and without access to groundwater. Where rainfall is 15 m deep) and recharge under natural conditions is null. The establishment of crops, however, triggers the onset of recharge, as evidenced by vadose zones getting wetter and leached of atmospheric chloride. Cropping may cause water table raises leading to a two-way coupling of ecosystems and groundwater in the future, as it has been documented for similar settings in Australia and the Sahel. In the Pampas land use change interacts with groundwater consumption leading to higher carbon uptake (humid and subhumid grasslands) and salt accumulation (subhumid grasslands). In the Espinal (semiarid forest) land use change currently involves a one-way effect on groundwater recharge that may switch to a reciprocal connection if regional water table raises occur. Neglecting the role of groundwater in flat sedimentary plains can obscure our understanding of carbon and salt cycling and curtail our attempts to sustain soil and water resources under

  7. Seasonal changes in plant-water relations influence patterns of leaf display in Miombo woodlands: evidence of water conservative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinya, Royd; Malhi, Yadvinder; Brown, Nick D; Fisher, Joshua B; Brodribb, Timothy; Aragão, Luiz E O C

    2018-06-15

    Water availability has frequently been linked to seasonal leaf display in seasonally dry ecosystems, but there have been few ecohydrological investigations of this link. Miombo woodland is a dominant seasonally dry tropical forest ecosystem type in southern Africa; however, there are few data on the relationship between seasonal dynamics in plant-water relations and patterns of leaf display for Miombo woodland. Here we investigate this relationship among nine key Miombo woodland tree species differing in drought tolerance ability and leaf phenology. Results of this study showed that seasonal patterns of leaf phenology varied significantly with seasonal changes in stem water relations among the nine species. Leaf shedding coincided with the attainment of seasonal minimum stem water potential. Leaf flush occurred following xylem rehydration at the peak of the dry season suggesting that endogenous plant factors play a pivotal role in seasonal leaf display in this forest type. Drought-tolerant deciduous species suffered significantly higher seasonal losses in xylem hydraulic conductivity than the drought-intolerant semi-evergreen tree species (P water stress in seasonally dry tropical forests selects for water conservative traits that protect the vulnerable xylem transport system. Therefore, seasonal rhythms in xylem transport dictate patterns of leaf display in seasonally dry tropical forests.

  8. Coastal circulation off Bombay in relation to waste water disposal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Josanto, V.; Sarma, R.V.

    Flow patterns in the coastal waters of Bombay were studied using recording current meters, direct reading current meters, floats and dye in relation to the proposed waste water disposal project of the Municipal Corporation of Greater Bombay from...

  9. Global gray water footprint and water pollution levels related to anthropogenic nitrogen loads to fresh water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2015-01-01

    This is the first global assessment of nitrogen-related water pollution in river basins with a specification of the pollution by economic sector, and by crop for the agricultural sector. At a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc minute, we estimate anthropogenic nitrogen (N) loads to freshwater,

  10. Inter-firm relations in SME clusters and the link to marketing performance

    OpenAIRE

    Lamprinopoulou, C.; Tregear, A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – Networks are increasingly recognised as being important to successful marketing amongst small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Thepurpose of this study is to investigate the structure and content of network relations amongst SME clusters, and explore the link to marketing performance.Design/methodology/approach – Following a review of the literature on SME networks and marketing performance, case study analysis isperformed on four SME clusters in the Greek agrifood sector.Findin...

  11. Evaluation of yield and water-level relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushman, R.L.; Purtymun, W.D.

    1975-10-01

    Yield and water relations in the Los Alamos supply wells were evaluated because of the increasing demand for water. Water-level declines were extrapolated for 10 yr, to 1983, on the basis of past records. On the basis of current pumpage, the extrapolations indicate that nonpumping water levels in individual wells will decline from 10 to 30 ft. Well characteristics were compiled to provide an individual history of each well, and recommendations for improving water production are presented

  12. Dwelling on it may make it worse: the links between relational victimization, relational aggression, rumination, and depressive symptoms in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Lindsay C; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Crick, Nicki R

    2014-08-01

    Although there is considerable evidence that relational victimization is associated with depressive symptoms in youth, our understanding about the mechanisms by which victimization and depressive symptoms are linked is limited. The current study explored ruminating about victimization experiences as a potential mechanism that might contribute to an understanding of the association between relational victimization and depressive symptoms. We also tested the specificity of the proposed models by controlling for and testing parallel models of a highly related behavior: relational aggression. A sample of 499 adolescents from sixth through eighth grades participated. Teacher reports were used to assess relational victimization and relational aggression. Self-reports were used to assess depressive symptoms and rumination. The results showed that rumination partially mediated the association between relational victimization and depressive symptoms. No moderation effect was found. In contrast, rumination moderated the association between relational aggression and depressive symptoms. Specifically, relational aggression was associated with depressive symptoms for those adolescents who were also ruminators. Thus, ruminating about victimization experiences appears to be an important mechanism that functions differently for relational aggression and relational victimization in conferring risk for depressive symptoms. The findings offer important practical implications for those working with adolescents and also lay the groundwork for future research.

  13. Reliving emotional personal memories: affective biases linked to personality and sex-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkova, Ekaterina; Dolcos, Sanda; Dolcos, Florin

    2012-06-01

    Although available evidence suggests that the emotional valence and recollective properties of autobiographical memories (AMs) may be influenced by personality- and sex-related differences, overall these relationships remain poorly understood. The present study investigated these issues by comparing the effect of general personality traits (extraversion and neuroticism) and specific traits linked to emotion regulation (ER) strategies (reappraisal and suppression) on the retrieval of emotional AMs and on the associated postretrieval emotional states, in men and women. First, extraversion predicted recollection of positive AMs in both men and women, whereas neuroticism predicted the proportion of negative AMs in men and the frequency of rehearsing negative AMs in women. Second, reappraisal predicted positive AMs in men, and suppression predicted negative AMs in women. Third, while reliving of positive memories had an overall indirect effect on postretrieval positive mood through extraversion, reliving of negative AMs had a direct effect on postretrieval negative mood, which was linked to inefficient engagement of suppression in women. Our findings suggest that personality traits associated with positive affect predict recollection of positive AMs and maintenance of a positive mood, whereas personality traits associated with negative affect, along with differential engagement of habitual ER strategies in men and women, predict sex-related differences in the recollection and experiencing of negative AMs. These findings provide insight into the factors that influence affective biases in reliving AMs, and into their possible link to sex-related differences in the susceptibility to affective disorders.

  14. Hybrid Multidimensional Relational and Link Analytical Knowledge Discovery for Law Enforcement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Gillen, David S.; Burke, John S.; Critchlow, Terence J.; Damante, Matt; Fernandes, Robert

    2008-08-01

    The challenges facing the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) require not only multi-dimensional, but also multi-scale data analysis. In particular, the ability to seamlessly move from summary information, such as trends, into detailed analysis of individual entities, while critical for law enforcement, typically requires manually transferring information among multiple tools. Such time-consuming and error prone processes significantly hamper the analysts' ability to quickly explore data and identify threats. As part of a DHS Science and Technology effort, we have been developing and deploying for Immigration and Customs Enforcement the CubeLink system integrating information between relational data cubes and link analytical semantic graphs. In this paper we describe CubeLink in terms of the underlying components, their integration, and the formal mapping from multidimensional data analysis into link analysis. In so doing, we provide a formal basis for one particular form of automatic schema-ontology mapping from OLAP data cubes to semantic graphs databases, and point the way towards future ``intelligent'' OLAP data cubes equipped with meta-data about their dimensional typing.

  15. Multiple Brain Markers are Linked to Age-Related Variation in Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Trey; Schultz, Aaron P.; Rieckmann, Anna; Mormino, Elizabeth C.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Buckner, Randy L.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related alterations in brain structure and function have been challenging to link to cognition due to potential overlapping influences of multiple neurobiological cascades. We examined multiple brain markers associated with age-related variation in cognition. Clinically normal older humans aged 65–90 from the Harvard Aging Brain Study (N = 186) were characterized on a priori magnetic resonance imaging markers of gray matter thickness and volume, white matter hyperintensities, fractional anisotropy (FA), resting-state functional connectivity, positron emission tomography markers of glucose metabolism and amyloid burden, and cognitive factors of processing speed, executive function, and episodic memory. Partial correlation and mediation analyses estimated age-related variance in cognition shared with individual brain markers and unique to each marker. The largest relationships linked FA and striatum volume to processing speed and executive function, and hippocampal volume to episodic memory. Of the age-related variance in cognition, 70–80% was accounted for by combining all brain markers (but only ∼20% of total variance). Age had significant indirect effects on cognition via brain markers, with significant markers varying across cognitive domains. These results suggest that most age-related variation in cognition is shared among multiple brain markers, but potential specificity between some brain markers and cognitive domains motivates additional study of age-related markers of neural health. PMID:25316342

  16. Inter-Basin Water Transfer Impact Assessment on Environment of Pennar to Cauvery Link Canal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, S. V. J. S. S.; Prakasa Rao, B. S.; Niranjan, K.

    2016-07-01

    Owing to its striking differences in its climatic conditions, India is frequently facing with extremities such as heavy rain fall in some regions where as some other regions endure little rainfall. The regions receiving heavy precipitation are facing floods resulting in huge amount of water runs into the sea. Contrarily, the regions, without adequate rainfall are suffering from persistent droughts. To overcome such disparities in the distribution of water, National Water Development Agency (NWDA) put a proposal to transfer water through link canals between rivers. The current study is limited to two river basins, Pennar and Cauvery. The present study is confined to Pennar (somasila) to Cauvery (Grand Anicut) whose length is 483 km. The study consist of10 km. buffer on either side of the canal and it occupies 17,215.68 sq. km. out of these 10,105.96 sq.km.is proposed command area which falls in Chittoor, Chengalpattu, North Arcott and South Arcott districts. Using IRS-P6, LISS-III data the characteristics of the rocks, lineaments, drainage, settlements and land use/land cover are mapped for better analysis and the environmental impact. The study indicated that Current fallow land of 5340.14 km2 and 6307.98 km2 of cropland will be brought under cultivation which is more than what is NWDA estimated land that will be benefited. The canal will provide water for irrigation and drinking to 4597 villages and 244 villages to be rehabilitated. 119 culverts/canal bridges and 24 aqueducts have to be constructed across the canal.

  17. A cluster of cases of nosocomial legionnaires disease linked to a contaminated hospital decorative water fountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmore, Tara N; Stock, Frida; White, Margaret; Bordner, MaryAnn; Michelin, Angela; Bennett, John E; Murray, Patrick R; Henderson, David K

    2009-08-01

    Nosocomial outbreaks of Legionnaires disease have been linked to contaminated water in hospitals. Immunocompromised patients are particularly vulnerable and, when infected, have a high mortality rate. We report the investigation of a cluster of cases of nosocomial pneumonia attributable to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 that occurred among patients on our stem cell transplantation unit. We conducted a record review to identify common points of potential exposure, followed by environmental and water sampling for Legionella species from those sources. We used an air sampler to in an attempt to detect aerosolized Legionella and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to compare clinical and environmental isolates. The most likely sources identified were the water supply in the patients' rooms and a decorative fountain in the radiation oncology suite. Samples from the patients' rooms did not grow Legionella species. Cultures of the fountain, which had been restarted 4 months earlier after being shut off for 5 months, yielded L. pneumophila serogroup 1. The isolates from both patients and the fountain were identical by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Both patients developed pneumonia within 10 days of completing radiation therapy, and each reported having observed the fountain at close range. Both patients' infections were identified early and treated promptly, and both recovered. This cluster was caused by contamination of a decorative fountain despite its being equipped with a filter and ozone generator. Fountains are a potential source of nosocomial Legionnaires disease despite standard maintenance and sanitizing measures. In our opinion, fountains present unacceptable risk in hospitals serving immunocompromised patients.

  18. Incorporation of covariates in simultaneous localization of two linked loci using affected relative pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Kung-Yee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many dichotomous traits for complex diseases are often involved more than one locus and/or associated with quantitative biomarkers or environmental factors. Incorporating these quantitative variables into linkage analysis as well as localizing two linked disease loci simultaneously could therefore improve the efficiency in mapping genes. We extended the robust multipoint Identity-by-Descent (IBD approach with incorporation of covariates developed previously to simultaneously estimate two linked loci using different types of affected relative pairs (ARPs. Results We showed that the efficiency was enhanced by incorporating a quantitative covariate parametrically or non-parametrically while localizing two disease loci using ARPs. In addition to its help in identifying factors associated with the disease and in improving the efficiency in estimating disease loci, this extension also allows investigators to account for heterogeneity in risk-ratios for different ARPs. Data released from the collaborative study on the genetics of alcoholism (COGA for Genetic Analysis Workshop 14 (GAW 14 were used to illustrate the application of this extended method. Conclusions The simulation studies and example illustrated that the efficiency in estimating disease loci was demonstratively enhanced by incorporating a quantitative covariate and by using all relative pairs while mapping two linked loci simultaneously.

  19. Future land-use related water demand in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Tamara; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Cameron, D. Richard

    2016-01-01

    Water shortages in California are a growing concern amidst ongoing drought, earlier spring snowmelt, projected future climate warming, and currently mandated water use restrictions. Increases in population and land use in coming decades will place additional pressure on already limited available water supplies. We used a state-and-transition simulation model to project future changes in developed (municipal and industrial) and agricultural land use to estimate associated water use demand from 2012 to 2062. Under current efficiency rates, total water use was projected to increase 1.8 billion cubic meters(+4.1%) driven primarily by urbanization and shifts to more water intensive crops. Only if currently mandated 25% reductions in municipal water use are continuously implemented would water demand in 2062 balance to water use levels in 2012. This is the first modeling effort of its kind to examine regional land-use related water demand incorporating historical trends of both developed and agricultural land uses.

  20. Genetic and biochemical analysis reveals linked QTLs determining natural variation for fruit post-harvest water loss in pepper (Capsicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovsky-Sarid, Sigal; Borovsky, Yelena; Faigenboim, Adi; Parsons, Eugene P; Lohrey, Gregory T; Alkalai-Tuvia, Sharon; Fallik, Elazar; Jenks, Matthew A; Paran, Ilan

    2017-02-01

    Molecular markers linked to QTLs controlling post-harvest fruit water loss in pepper may be utilized to accelerate breeding for improved shelf life and inhibit over-ripening before harvest. Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important vegetable crop world-wide. However, marketing is limited by the relatively short shelf life of the fruit due to water loss and decay that occur during prolonged storage. Towards breeding pepper with reduced fruit post-harvest water loss (PWL), we studied the genetic, physiological and biochemical basis for natural variation of PWL. We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of fruit PWL in multiple generations of an interspecific cross of pepper, which resulted in the identification of two linked QTLs on chromosome 10 that control the trait. We further developed near-isogenic lines (NILs) for characterization of the QTL effects. Transcriptome analysis of the NILs allowed the identification of candidate genes associated with fruit PWL-associated traits such as cuticle biosynthesis, cell wall metabolism and fruit ripening. Significant differences in PWL between the NILs in the immature fruit stage, differentially expressed cuticle-associated genes and differences in the content of specific chemical constituents of the fruit cuticle, indicated a likely influence of cuticle composition on the trait. Reduced PWL in the NILs was associated with delayed over-ripening before harvest, low total soluble solids before storage, and reduced fruit softening after storage. Our study enabled a better understanding of the genetic and biological processes controlling natural variation in fruit PWL in pepper. Furthermore, the genetic materials and molecular markers developed in this study may be utilized to breed peppers with improved shelf life and inhibited over-ripening before harvest.

  1. Linking water management to spatial development: impact from EU to local level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaap, van der W.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    The co-operation between water managers and spatial planners depends heavily on its basic element: competing interests. Aspects that shapes the co-operation and define its effectiveness are language (discipline related jargon), contracts, trust, personal competences, policy tuning & policy

  2. Linking Flow Regime and Water Quality in Rivers: a Challenge to Adaptive Catchment Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christer Nilsson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Water quality describes the physicochemical characteristics of the water body. These vary naturally with the weather and with the spatiotemporal variation of the water flow, i.e., the flow regime. Worldwide, biota have adapted to the variation in these variables. River channels and their riparian zones contain a rich selection of adapted species and have been able to offer goods and services for sustaining human civilizations. Many human impacts on natural riverine environments have been destructive and present opportunities for rehabilitation. It is a big challenge to satisfy the needs of both humans and nature, without sacrificing one or the other. New ways of thinking, new policies, and institutional commitment are needed to make improvements, both in the ways water flow is modified in rivers by dam operations and direct extractions, and in the ways runoff from adjacent land is affected by land-use practices. Originally, prescribed flows were relatively static, but precepts have been developed to encompass variation, specifically on how water could be shared over the year to become most useful to ecosystems and humans. A key aspect is how allocations of water interact with physicochemical variation of water. An important applied question is how waste releases and discharge can be managed to reduce ecological and sanitary problems that might arise from inappropriate combinations of flow variation and physicochemical characteristics of water. We review knowledge in this field, provide examples on how the flow regime and the water quality can impact ecosystem processes, and conclude that most problems are associated with low-flow conditions. Given that reduced flows represent an escalating problem in an increasing number of rivers worldwide, managers are facing enormous challenges.

  3. Relation between water chemistry and operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.F. de.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the relation between chemistry/radiochemistry and operational safety, the technics bases for chemical and radiochemical parameters and an analysis of the Annual Report of Angra I Operation and OSRAT Mission report to 1989 in this area too. Furthermore it contains the transcription of the technical Specifications related to the chemistry and radiochemistry for Angra I. (author)

  4. Assessment of the water quality parameters in relation to fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical indices of water body changed seasonally and this necessitated an investigation to assess the water quality parameters of Osinmo reservoir in relation to its fish species. The water quality parameters were measured using standard methods. Results obtained show that the reservoir is alkaline in nature with ...

  5. Water relations of Eucalyptus nitens x Eucalyptus grandis : is there ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water relations of Eucalyptus nitens x Eucalyptus grandis : is there interclonal variation in response to experimentally imposed water stress? ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... However, water stress reduced shoot hydraulic conductance and stem hydraulic conductivity with significant interclonal effects.

  6. Estimating the Relative Water Content of Single Leaves from Optical Polarization Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long-term goals of remote sensing research. For monitoring canopy water status, existing approaches such as the Crop Water Stress Index and the Equivalent Water Thickness have limitations. The CWSI does not work well in humid regions, requires estimates of the vapor pressure deficit near the canopy during the remote sensing over-flight and, once stomata close, provides little information regarding the canopy water status. The EWI is based upon the physics of water-light interaction, not plant physiology. In this research, we applied optical polarization techniques to monitor the VISNIR light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both changed nonlinearly as each leaf dried, R increasing and T decreasing. Our results tie changes in the VISNIR R and T to leaf physiological changes linking the light scattered out of the drying leaf interior to its relative water content and to changes in leaf cellular structure and pigments. Our results suggest remotely sensing the physiological water status of a single leaf and perhaps of a plant canopy might be possible in the future. However, using our approach to estimate the water status of a leaf does not appear possible at present, because our results display too much variability that we do not yet understand.

  7. Linking marine resources to ecotonal shifts of water uptake by terrestrial dune vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaver, Tara L; Sternberg, Leonel L da S

    2006-09-01

    As evidence mounts that sea levels are rising, it becomes increasingly important to understand the role of ocean water within terrestrial ecosystem dynamics. Coastal sand dunes are ecosystems that occur on the interface of land and sea. They are classic ecotones characterized by zonal distribution of vegetation in response to strong gradients of environmental factors from the ocean to the inland. Despite the proximity of the dune ecosystem to the ocean, it is generally assumed that all vegetation utilizes only freshwater and that water sources do not change across the ecotone. Evidence of ocean water uptake by vegetation would redefine the traditional interpretation of plant-water relations in the dune ecosystem and offer new ideas for assessing maritime influences on function and spatial distribution of plants across the dune. The purpose of this study was to identify sources of water (ocean, ground, and rain) taken up by vegetation using isotopic analysis of stem water and to evaluate water uptake patterns at the community level based on the distribution and assemblage of species. Three coastal dune systems located in southern Florida, USA, and the Bahamian bank/platform system were investigated. Plant distributions across the dune were zonal for 61-94% of the 18 most abundant species at each site. Species with their highest frequency on the fore dune (nearest the ocean) indicate ocean water uptake as evidenced by delta 18O values of stem water. In contrast, species most frequent in the back dune show no evidence of ocean water uptake. Analysis of species not grouped by frequency, but instead sampled along a transect from the ocean toward the inland, indicates that individuals from the vegetation assemblage closest to the ocean had a mixed water-harvesting strategy characterized by plants that may utilize ocean, ground-, and/or rainwater. In contrast, the inland vegetation relies mostly on rainwater. Our results show evidence supporting ocean water use by dune

  8. Linking R&D Activities with Teaching: Water Quality Monitoring in Aquaculture as a Remote Laboratory Proxy for Environmental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Borges

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a system for on-line study purposes and for demonstrative operation of water quality monitoring based on previous full-scale trials in a commercial aquaculture facility under the scope of a R&D project. This system is still under development, and was designed for sharing resources in R&D activities and later in distance learning blended courses. An application developed in LabVIEW is responsible for receiving information from physical and chemical data (water level, flow, oxygen, temperature, pH, ORP and CO2 through a hardware interface. The acquired data are recorded in a Microsoft Access database that can be locally queried as desired. An IP camera allows students to observe the system in real-time. Students can log into the system and follow the real-time variations of a specific water quality parameter and the synergetic effects of these changes on the levels of other constituents. The water tanks contain no living beings in order to allow free adjustments of the parameters under study. The system description, data and remote access link is integrated in a basic course available in a Moodle® server. The goal of this course is to provide a stimulating interdisciplinary environment to a diverse group of undergraduate students, where critical research questions related to water are addressed. This system, unique in the area concerning with our knowledge, intends to contribute also to students’ training on data monitoring and analysis; and to nourish analytical skills and creativity of future scientists by encouraging potential graduate students to go further. Finally, this system allows the students to be familiar with the use of some new information technologies.

  9. Membrane fouling mechanism transition in relation to feed water composition

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Darli Theint

    2014-12-01

    The impact of secondary effluent wastewater from the Eastern Treatment Plant (ETP), Melbourne, Australia, before and after ion exchange (IX) treatment and polyaluminium chlorohydrate (PACl) coagulation, on hydrophobic polypropylene (PP) and hydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane fouling was studied. Laboratory fouling tests were operated over 3-5 days with regular, intermittent backwash. During the filtration with PP membranes, organic rejection data indicated that humic adsorption on hydrophobic PP membrane occurred during the first 24h of filtration and contributed to fouling for both raw wastewater and pre-treated wastewaters. However, after the first 24h of filtration the contribution of humic substances to fouling diminished and biopolymers that contribute to cake layer development became more prominent in their contribution to the fouling rate. For PVDF membranes, the per cent removal of humic substances from both raw wastewater and pre-treated wastewaters was very small as indicated by no change in UV254 from the feed to the permeate over the filtration period, even during the early stages of filtration. This suggested that the hydrophobic PP membrane adsorbed humic substances while the hydrophilic PVDF membrane did not. The highest mass of biopolymer removal by each PVDF membrane was from ETP water followed by PACl and IX treated water respectively. This was possibly due to differences in the backwashing efficiency linked to the filter cake contributed by biopolymers. Hydraulic backwashing was more effective during the later stages of filtration for the ETP water compared to IX and PACl treated waters, indicating that the filter cake contributed by ETP biopolymers was more extensively removed by hydraulic backwashing. It was proposed that humic substances may act to stabilise biopolymers in solution and that removing humics substances by coagulation or IX results in greater adhesive forces between the biopolymers and membrane/filter cake

  10. Dually cross-linked single network poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels with superior mechanical properties and water absorbency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ming; Liu, Yi-Tao; Liu, Xiao-Ying; Shi, Fu-Kuan; Zhang, Li-Qin; Zhu, Mei-Fang; Xie, Xu-Ming

    2016-06-28

    Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) hydrogels with superior mechanical properties, based on a single network structure with dual cross-linking, are prepared by one-pot free radical polymerization. The network structure of the PAA hydrogels is composed of dual cross-linking: a dynamic and reversible ionic cross-linking among the PAA chains enabled by Fe(3+) ions, and a sparse covalent cross-linking enabled by a covalent cross-linker (Bis). Under deformation, the covalently cross-linked PAA chains remain intact to maintain their original configuration, while the Fe(3+)-enabled ionic cross-linking among the PAA chains is broken to dissipate energy and then recombined. It is found that the mechanical properties of the PAA hydrogels are significantly influenced by the contents of covalent cross-linkers, Fe(3+) ions and water, which can be adjusted within a substantial range and thus broaden the applications of the hydrogels. Meanwhile, the PAA hydrogels have excellent recoverability based on the dynamic and reversible ionic cross-linking enabled by Fe(3+) ions. Moreover, the swelling capacity of the PAA hydrogels is as high as 1800 times in deionized water due to the synergistic effects of ionic and covalent cross-linkings. The combination of balanced mechanical properties, efficient recoverability, high swelling capacity and facile preparation provides a new method to obtain high-performance hydrogels.

  11. Modeling stomatal conductance in the earth system: linking leaf water-use efficiency and water transport along the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonan, G. B.; Williams, M.; Fisher, R. A.; Oleson, K. W.

    2014-09-01

    The Ball-Berry stomatal conductance model is commonly used in earth system models to simulate biotic regulation of evapotranspiration. However, the dependence of stomatal conductance (gs) on vapor pressure deficit (Ds) and soil moisture must be empirically parameterized. We evaluated the Ball-Berry model used in the Community Land Model version 4.5 (CLM4.5) and an alternative stomatal conductance model that links leaf gas exchange, plant hydraulic constraints, and the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum (SPA). The SPA model simulates stomatal conductance numerically by (1) optimizing photosynthetic carbon gain per unit water loss while (2) constraining stomatal opening to prevent leaf water potential from dropping below a critical minimum. We evaluated two optimization algorithms: intrinsic water-use efficiency (ΔAn /Δgs, the marginal carbon gain of stomatal opening) and water-use efficiency (ΔAn /ΔEl, the marginal carbon gain of transpiration water loss). We implemented the stomatal models in a multi-layer plant canopy model to resolve profiles of gas exchange, leaf water potential, and plant hydraulics within the canopy, and evaluated the simulations using leaf analyses, eddy covariance fluxes at six forest sites, and parameter sensitivity analyses. The primary differences among stomatal models relate to soil moisture stress and vapor pressure deficit responses. Without soil moisture stress, the performance of the SPA stomatal model was comparable to or slightly better than the CLM Ball-Berry model in flux tower simulations, but was significantly better than the CLM Ball-Berry model when there was soil moisture stress. Functional dependence of gs on soil moisture emerged from water flow along the soil-to-leaf pathway rather than being imposed a priori, as in the CLM Ball-Berry model. Similar functional dependence of gs on Ds emerged from the ΔAn/ΔEl optimization, but not the ΔAn /gs optimization. Two parameters (stomatal efficiency and root hydraulic

  12. Fruit response to water-scarcity and biochemical changes : Water relations and biochemical changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, P.; Galindo Egea, Alejandro; Collado-González, J.; Medina, S.; Corell, M.; Memmi, H.; Girón, I.F.; Centeno, A.; Martín-Palomo, M.J.; Cruz, Z.N.; Carbonell-Barrachina, A.A.; Hernandez, F.; Torrecillas, A.; Moriana, A.; Pérez-López, D.; Garcia Tejero, Ivan Francisco; Duran Zuazo, Victor Hugo

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to give a general idea of the fruit response to water-scarcity conditions, paying special attention to fruit water relations modification and fruit composition changes, which are key for fruit quality. The strengths and weaknesses of fruit water relations measurement

  13. 40 CFR 230.52 - Water-related recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 230.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING SECTION... Effects on Human Use Characteristics § 230.52 Water-related recreation. (a) Water-related recreation.... canoeing and sight-seeing. (b) Possible loss of values: One of the more important direct impacts of dredged...

  14. Performance of adaptive DD-OFDM multicore fiber links and its relation with intercore crosstalk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Tiago M F; Luís, Ruben S; Puttnam, Benjamin J; Cartaxo, Adolfo V T; Awaji, Yoshinari; Wada, Naoya

    2017-07-10

    Adaptive direct-detection (DD) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is proposed to guarantee signal quality over time in weakly-coupled homogenous multicore fiber (MCFs) links impaired by stochastic intercore crosstalk (ICXT). For the first time, the received electrical power of the ICXT and the performance of the adaptive DD-OFDM MCF link are experimentally monitored quasi-simultaneously over a 210 hour period. Experimental results show that the time evolution of the error vector magnitude due to the ICXT can be suitably estimated from the normalized power of the detected crosstalk. The detected crosstalk results from the beating between the carrier in the test core and ICXT originating from the carrier and modulated signal from interfering core. The results show that the operation of DD-OFDM systems employing fixed modulation can be severely impaired by the presence of ICXT that may unpredictable vary in both power and frequency. The system may suffer from deleterious impact of moderate ICXT levels over a time duration of several hours or from peak ICXT levels occurring over a number of minutes. Such power fluctuations can lead to large variations in bit error ratio (BER) for static modulation schemes. Here, we show that BER fluctuations may be minimized by the use of adaptive modulation techniques and that in particular, the adaptive OFDM is a viable solution to guarantee link quality in MCF-based systems. An experimental model of an adaptive DD-OFDM MCF link shows an average throughput of 12 Gb/s that represents a reduction of only 9% compared to the maximum throughput measured without ICXT and an improvement of 23% relative to throughput obtained with static modulation.

  15. Extreme diving behaviour in devil rays links surface waters and the deep ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Thorrold, Simon R.

    2014-07-01

    Ecological connections between surface waters and the deep ocean remain poorly studied despite the high biomass of fishes and squids residing at depths beyond the euphotic zone. These animals likely support pelagic food webs containing a suite of predators that include commercially important fishes and marine mammals. Here we deploy pop-up satellite archival transmitting tags on 15 Chilean devil rays (Mobula tarapacana) in the central North Atlantic Ocean, which provide movement patterns of individuals for up to 9 months. Devil rays were considered surface dwellers but our data reveal individuals descending at speeds up to 6.0 ms-1 to depths of almost 2,000 m and water temperatures <4 C. The shape of the dive profiles suggests that the rays are foraging at these depths in deep scattering layers. Our results provide evidence of an important link between predators in the surface ocean and forage species occupying pelagic habitats below the euphotic zone in ocean ecosystems. 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  16. Physiological Plasticity to Water Flow Habitat in the Damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus: Linking Phenotype to Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binning, Sandra A.; Ros, Albert F. H.; Nusbaumer, David; Roche, Dominique G.

    2015-01-01

    The relationships among animal form, function and performance are complex, and vary across environments. Therefore, it can be difficult to identify morphological and/or physiological traits responsible for enhancing performance in a given habitat. In fishes, differences in swimming performance across water flow gradients are related to morphological variation among and within species. However, physiological traits related to performance have been less well studied. We experimentally reared juvenile damselfish, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, under different water flow regimes to test 1) whether aspects of swimming physiology and morphology show plastic responses to water flow, 2) whether trait divergence correlates with swimming performance and 3) whether flow environment relates to performance differences observed in wild fish. We found that maximum metabolic rate, aerobic scope and blood haematocrit were higher in wave-reared fish compared to fish reared in low water flow. However, pectoral fin shape, which tends to correlate with sustained swimming performance, did not differ between rearing treatments or collection sites. Maximum metabolic rate was the best overall predictor of individual swimming performance; fin shape and fish total length were 3.3 and 3.7 times less likely than maximum metabolic rate to explain differences in critical swimming speed. Performance differences induced in fish reared in different flow environments were less pronounced than in wild fish but similar in direction. Our results suggest that exposure to water motion induces plastic physiological changes which enhance swimming performance in A. polyacanthus. Thus, functional relationships between fish morphology and performance across flow habitats should also consider differences in physiology. PMID:25807560

  17. Hydraulically Induced Seismicity in South-Eastern Brazil Linked to Water Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convers, J.; Assumpcao, M.; Barbosa, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    While hydraulic stimulus on seismic activity is most commonly associated with hydraulic fracturing processes, we find in SE Brazil a rare case of seismicity influenced by hydraulic stimulation linked to seasonal rain and water wells in a farming area. These are thought to be the main factors influencing the seasonal seismicity activity in Jurupema, a farming town located in the interior of the state of Sao Paulo, southern Brazil. With temporary seismic station deployments during 2016 and 2017, we analyze the seismicity in this area, its temporal and spatial distribution, and its association with the drilling of ground water wells in this particular area. In a region where water wells are often drilled to provide irrigation for farming, these are often perforated down to about 100 m depth, penetrating below the uppermost sandstone rock layer ( 50 m) into a fractured basaltic rock layer, reaching the confined aquifer within it. While the wells are constantly pumped during the dry season, during the course of the rainy season (when these are not being used), a possible infiltration into the confined basaltic aquifer, from both the rainwater and the upper sandstone aquifer, adds changes to the pore pressure of the fractured rock, and modifies the tectonic pre-stress conditions, to facilitate stress release mechanisms in pre-existing faults and cracks. With our temporary seismic station deployments, we not only examine the seismicity in this region during both 2016 and 2017, but we additionally compare its characteristics to the nearby Bebedouro case in an apparent induced seismic case of analogous source, and seismic activity with magnitudes up to 2.9 occurring between 2005 and 2010.

  18. Tuvan-Mongolian relations and links under the People’s Republic of Tuva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubov K. Hertek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the links and relations between Tuva and Mongolia during the two decades of People’s Republic of Tuva (1921-1944. Although some aspects of these relations have been studied by a number of Russian, Mongolian and Chinese scholars, they have so far failed to outline their general tendencies. In this article, we aim to study the Tuvan-Mongolian relations in the PRT period in the light of new archival materials, which will help us trace the main stages of their development and characterize the specific features of each stage. The first stage (1921-1925 opens with the establishment of Tuvan statehood and its non-recognition by Mongolia. Tuvan lamas and noyons retained their links to the highest-profile Mongolian clergy and the rulers of Mongolian aimags in the borderlands. The second stage (1926–1929 begins with the changes in leadership of both states, which led to PRT being officially recognized by the Mongolian People’s Republic. The recognition was followed by signing a Treaty of Friendship between the two states and the restoration of cultural links, given that traditional culture and the Mongolian written language still prevailed in Tuva. We have reconstructed a full list of Tuvan diplomatic envoys in Mongolia and Mongolian envoys in Tuva. The third stage (1930–1944 was marked by the victory of the political left in both Tuva and Mongolia. The new leaders of both states had been educated in Moscow, in Communist University of the Toilers of the East. This helped establish what was deemed ‘truly revolutionary mutual relations’ and build up an interparty network. Indirectly, it also helped enhance economic, trade and cultural links. Our study was based, among other sources, on archival documents from the State Archive of the Republic of Tuva, the research archive of Tuva Institute for Humanities and Applied Socioeconomic Studies, and some published sources from the Mongolian Ministry of Foreign Affairs’ archive

  19. Cancer-related inflammation, the seventh hallmark of cancer: links to genetic instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colotta, Francesco; Allavena, Paola; Sica, Antonio; Garlanda, Cecilia; Mantovani, Alberto

    2009-07-01

    Inflammatory conditions in selected organs increase the risk of cancer. An inflammatory component is present also in the microenvironment of tumors that are not epidemiologically related to inflammation. Recent studies have begun to unravel molecular pathways linking inflammation and cancer. In the tumor microenvironment, smoldering inflammation contributes to proliferation and survival of malignant cells, angiogenesis, metastasis, subversion of adaptive immunity, reduced response to hormones and chemotherapeutic agents. Recent data suggest that an additional mechanism involved in cancer-related inflammation (CRI) is induction of genetic instability by inflammatory mediators, leading to accumulation of random genetic alterations in cancer cells. In a seminal contribution, Hanahan and Weinberg [(2000) Cell, 100, 57-70] identified the six hallmarks of cancer. We surmise that CRI represents the seventh hallmark.

  20. Significant Features of Warm Season Water Vapor Flux Related to Heavy Rainfall and Draught in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Koji; Iseri, Yoshihiko; Jinno, Kenji

    2009-11-01

    In this study, our objective is to reveal complicated relationships between spatial water vapor inflow patterns and heavy rainfall activities in Kyushu located in the western part of Japan, using the outcomes of pattern recognition of water vapor inflow, based on the Self-Organizing Map. Consequently, it could be confirmed that water vapor inflow patterns control the distribution and the frequency of heavy rainfall depending on the direction of their fluxes and the intensity of Precipitable water. Historically serious flood disasters in South Kyushu in 1993 were characterized by high frequency of the water vapor inflow patterns linking to heavy rainfall. On the other hand, severe draught in 1994 was characterized by inactive frontal activity that do not related to heavy rainfall.

  1. Gastrointestinal illness linked to incidents in drinking water distribution networks in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säve-Söderbergh, Melle; Bylund, John; Malm, Annika; Simonsson, Magnus; Toljander, Jonas

    2017-10-01

    During recent years, knowledge gaps on drinking water-related gastrointestinal illness have been identified, especially for non-epidemic cases. Pathogen contamination of drinking water during distribution has been suggested to contribute to these cases, but the risk factors are not yet fully understood. During 2014-2015, we conducted an epidemiological study in five municipalities in Sweden, to assess whether incidents in the drinking water distribution system influence the risk of gastrointestinal illness. Telephone interviews were conducted in the affected areas and in reference areas 7-14 days after a reported incident. Symptoms of gastrointestinal illness occurring during the period were documented for each household member. The results showed a significantly elevated risk of vomiting and acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) in the affected areas, compared to the reference areas (OR vom.  = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.2-3.3; OR AGI  = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2-3.0). Certain conditions, or risk factors, during the incidents, such as sewage and drinking water pipelines at the same level in the trench, were associated with an elevated risk of AGI and vomiting. Safety measures taken during repair work, like flushing, were also associated with an elevated risk of AGI and vomiting. These results show that incidents in the drinking water distribution network contribute to endemic gastrointestinal illness, especially AGI and vomiting, and that external pathogen contamination of the drinking water is a likely cause of these cases of gastrointestinal illness. The results also indicate that safety measures used today may not be sufficient for eliminating the risk of gastrointestinal illness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Linking fish tolerance to water quality criteria for the assessment of environmental flows: A practical method for streamflow regulation and pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Changsen; Yang, Shengtian; Liu, Junguo; Liu, Changming; Hao, Fanghua; Wang, Zhonggen; Zhang, Huitong; Song, Jinxi; Mitrovic, Simon M; Lim, Richard P

    2018-05-15

    The survival of aquatic biota in stream ecosystems depends on both water quantity and quality, and is particularly susceptible to degraded water quality in regulated rivers. Maintenance of environmental flows (e-flows) for aquatic biota with optimum water quantity and quality is essential for sustainable ecosystem services, especially in developing regions with insufficient stream monitoring of hydrology, water quality and aquatic biota. Few e-flow methods are available that closely link aquatic biota tolerances to pollutant concentrations in a simple and practical manner. In this paper a new method was proposed to assess e-flows that aimed to satisfy the requirements of aquatic biota for both the quantity and quality of the streamflow by linking fish tolerances to water quality criteria, or the allowable concentration of pollutants. For better operation of water projects and control of pollutants discharged into streams, this paper presented two coefficients for streamflow adjustment and pollutant control. Assessment of e-flows in the Wei River, the largest tributary of the Yellow River, shows that streamflow in dry seasons failed to meet e-flow requirements. Pollutant influx exerted a large pressure on the aquatic ecosystem, with pollutant concentrations much higher than that of the fish tolerance thresholds. We found that both flow velocity and water temperature exerted great influences on the pollutant degradation rate. Flow velocity had a much greater influence on pollutant degradation than did the standard deviation of flow velocity. This study provides new methods to closely link the tolerance of aquatic biota to water quality criteria for e-flow assessment. The recommended coefficients for streamflow adjustment and pollutant control, to dynamically regulate streamflow and control pollutant discharge, are helpful for river management and ecosystems rehabilitation. The relatively low data requirement also makes the method easy to use efficiently in developing

  3. Dynamic and inertial controls on forest carbon-water relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, T.; Silva, L.; Horwath, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    This study fuses theory, empirical measurements, and statistical models to evaluate multiple processes controlling coupled carbon-water cycles in forest ecosystems. A series of latitudinal and altitudinal transects across the California Sierra Nevada was used to study the effects of climatic and edaphic gradients on intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) - CO2 fixed per unit of water lost via transpiration - of nine dominant trees species. Transfer functions were determined between leaf, litter, and soil organic matter stable isotope ratios of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen, revealing causal links between the physiological performance of tree species and stand-level estimations of productivity and water balance. Our results show that species iWUE is governed both by leaf traits (24% of the variation) and edaphic properties, such as parent material and soil development (3% and 12% of the variation, respectively). We show that soil properties combined with isotopic indicators can be used to explain constraints over iWUE by regulating water and nutrient availability across elevation gradients. Based on observed compositional shifts likely driven by changing climates in the region, encroachment of broad leaf trees could lead to an 80% increase in water loss via transpiration for each unit of CO2 fixed in Sierra mixed conifer zones. A combination of field-based, laboratory, and remote sensed data provide a useful framework for differentiating the effect of multiple controls of carbon and water cycles in temperate forest ecosystems.

  4. Association of water spectral indices with plant and soil water relations in contrasting wheat genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Mario; Reynolds, Matthew P; Klatt, Arthur R

    2010-07-01

    Spectral reflectance indices can be used to estimate the water status of plants in a rapid, non-destructive manner. Water spectral indices were measured on wheat under a range of water-deficit conditions in field-based yield trials to establish their relationship with water relations parameters as well as available volumetric soil water (AVSW) to indicate soil water extraction patterns. Three types of wheat germplasm were studied which showed a range of drought adaptation; near-isomorphic sister lines from an elite/elite cross, advanced breeding lines, and lines derived from interspecific hybridization with wild relatives (synthetic derivative lines). Five water spectral indices (one water index and four normalized water indices) based on near infrared wavelengths were determined under field conditions between the booting and grain-filling stages of crop development. Among all water spectral indices, one in particular, which was denominated as NWI-3, showed the most consistent associations with water relations parameters and demonstrated the strongest associations in all three germplasm sets. NWI-3 showed a strong linear relationship (r(2) >0.6-0.8) with leaf water potential (psi(leaf)) across a broad range of values (-2.0 to -4.0 MPa) that were determined by natural variation in the environment associated with intra- and inter-seasonal affects. Association observed between NWI-3 and canopy temperature (CT) was consistent with the idea that genotypes with a better hydration status have a larger water flux (increased stomatal conductance) during the day. NWI-3 was also related to soil water potential (psi(soil)) and AVSW, indicating that drought-adapted lines could extract more water from deeper soil profiles to maintain favourable water relations. NWI-3 was sufficiently sensitive to detect genotypic differences (indicated by phenotypic and genetic correlations) in water status at the canopy and soil levels indicating its potential application in precision

  5. Ecology, Religious Practices and Identities Related to Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia García, Ángeles

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts arising around the management of water are frequently resolved through a continuous process of symbolic or material appropriation of those places where the control, distribution and selection of water poses problems. The case of hermitages devoted to the Virgin Mary which serve as a crucial axis for the symbolic resolution of earthly conflicts, as is the case of those related to the administrative borders between neighbouring villages, is a constant. The link between the cult of the Virgin Mary and water shows the existence of more or less explicit interests of a part of the population in using symbolic control to achieve real and material domination through the construction of identity models, both locally and on a wider scale. A certain kind of knowledge is used to generate a social practice which, in turn, is transformed into ideology. Beliefs are thus linked to both economic and ecological factors, as well as to other referents of social organization. The religious practices associated with miraculous springs promote a certain way of thinking: springs, rivers and wells are not exclusively natural objects, rather they are fundamental mental maps of the social and environmental context.

    Los conflictos generados a partir de la gestión sobre el agua se han resuelto mediante un continuado proceso de apropiación simbólica o material de los lugares en los que el control, distribución y selección de las aguas planteaba problemas. La situación de las ermitas marianas como eje de resolución simbólica de conflictos terrenales, como los derivados de los litigios por límites entre pueblos, es una constante reiterada. La vinculación entre culto mariano y agua pone de manifiesto la existencia de intereses más o menos implícitos de una parte de la población que utiliza el dominio de los símbolos como instrumento de dominación real a través de la construcción de modelos identitarios locales o microcomarcales. Un cierto tipo

  6. Predicting future US water yield and ecosystem productivity by linking an ecohydrological model to WRF dynamically downscaled climate projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Sun; Ge Sun; Erika Cohen Mack; Steve McNulty; Peter Caldwell; K. Duan; Y. Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying the potential impacts of climate change on water yield and ecosystem productivity (i.e., carbon balances) is essential to developing sound watershed restoration plans, and climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies. This study links an ecohydrological model (Water Supply and Stress Index, WaSSI) with WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting Model)...

  7. 75 FR 82066 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water- Related Contract Actions AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... CONTACT: Michelle Kelly, Water and Environmental Services Division, Bureau of Reclamation, P.O. Box 25007...

  8. 76 FR 73674 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water- Related Contract Actions AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... INFORMATION CONTACT: Michelle Kelly, Water and Environmental Resources Division, Bureau of Reclamation, P.O...

  9. 76 FR 60527 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water- Related Contract Actions AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... CONTACT: Michelle Kelly, Water and Environmental Resources Division, Bureau of Reclamation, P.O. Box 25007...

  10. Water-related planning and design at energy firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbey, D.; Lucero, F.

    1980-11-01

    Water related planning and design at energy firms are examined. By identifying production alternatives and specifying the cost of these alternatives under a variety of conditions, one gains insight into the future pattern of water use in the energy industry and the response of industry to water-related regulation. In Part II, the three principal decisions of industry that affect water allocation are reviewed: where to build plants, where to get water, and how much water to use. The cost of water use alternatives is reviewed. Part III presents empirical data to substantiate the inferences derived from engineering/economic analysis. The source of water, type of cooling system, and pattern of discharge for electric plants constructed during the 1970s or projected to come on line in this decade are reported. In the 1970s in the US, there was a trend away from once-through cooling toward use of evaporative cooling. Freshwater, as a source of supply, and discharge of effluent were standard practice. In the 1980s, almost all new capacity in the states and basins surveyed will use evaporative cooling. It is pointed out that a thorough understanding of industrial water use economics and water markets is a precursor to successful regulation

  11. The biophysical link between climate, water, and vegetation in bioenergy agro-ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, Justin E.; Davis, Sarah C.; Georgescu, Matei; Hussain, Mir Zaman; Miller, Jesse; Nesbitt, Stephen W.; VanLoocke, Andy; Bernacchi, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Land use change for bioenergy feedstocks is likely to intensify as energy demand rises simultaneously with increased pressure to minimize greenhouse gas emissions. Initial assessments of the impact of adopting bioenergy crops as a significant energy source have largely focused on the potential for bioenergy agroecosystems to provide global-scale climate regulating ecosystem services via biogeochemical processes. Such as those processes associated with carbon uptake, conversion, and storage that have the potential to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). However, the expansion of bioenergy crops can also lead to direct biophysical impacts on climate through water regulating services. Perturbations of processes influencing terrestrial energy fluxes can result in impacts on climate and water across a spectrum of spatial and temporal scales. Here, we review the current state of knowledge about biophysical feedbacks between vegetation, water, and climate that would be affected by bioenergy-related land use change. The physical mechanisms involved in biophysical feedbacks are detailed, and interactions at leaf, field, regional, and global spatial scales are described. Locally, impacts on climate of biophysical changes associated with land use change for bioenergy crops can meet or exceed the biogeochemical changes in climate associated with rising GHG's, but these impacts have received far less attention. Realization of the importance of ecosystems in providing services that extend beyond biogeochemical GHG regulation and harvestable yields has led to significant debate regarding the viability of various feedstocks in many locations. The lack of data, and in some cases gaps in knowledge associated with biophysical and biochemical influences on land–atmosphere interactions, can lead to premature policy decisions. - Highlights: • The physical basis for biophysical impacts of expanding bioenergy agroecosystems on climate and water is described. • We

  12. Physical Activity and Telomere Biology: Exploring the Link with Aging-Related Disease Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Ludlow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of several age-related diseases as well as with increased longevity in both rodents and humans. Though these associations are well established, evidence of the molecular and cellular factors associated with reduced disease risk and increased longevity resulting from physical activity is sparse. A long-standing hypothesis of aging is the telomere hypothesis: as a cell divides, telomeres shorten resulting eventually in replicative senescence and an aged phenotype. Several reports have recently associated telomeres and telomere-related proteins to diseases associated with physical inactivity and aging including cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Interestingly several reports have also shown that longer telomeres are associated with higher physical activity levels, indicating a potential mechanistic link between physical activity, reduced age-related disease risk, and longevity. The primary purpose of this review is to discuss the potential importance of physical activity in telomere biology in the context of inactivity- and age-related diseases. A secondary purpose is to explore potential mechanisms and important avenues for future research in the field of telomeres and diseases associated with physical inactivity and aging.

  13. Water relations of cucumber, tomato, and sweet pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behboudian, M.H.

    1977-01-01

    The ever increasing importance of water as a critical resource for agricultural production has encouraged more research on water relations in recent years. Most attention has been paid to field crops and less information is available for horticultural crops, especially vegetables. The

  14. Data model and relational database design for the New England Water-Use Data System (NEWUDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, Steven

    2001-01-01

    The New England Water-Use Data System (NEWUDS) is a database for the storage and retrieval of water-use data. NEWUDS can handle data covering many facets of water use, including (1) tracking various types of water-use activities (withdrawals, returns, transfers, distributions, consumptive-use, wastewater collection, and treatment); (2) the description, classification and location of places and organizations involved in water-use activities; (3) details about measured or estimated volumes of water associated with water-use activities; and (4) information about data sources and water resources associated with water use. In NEWUDS, each water transaction occurs unidirectionally between two site objects, and the sites and conveyances form a water network. The core entities in the NEWUDS model are site, conveyance, transaction/rate, location, and owner. Other important entities include water resources (used for withdrawals and returns), data sources, and aliases. Multiple water-exchange estimates can be stored for individual transactions based on different methods or data sources. Storage of user-defined details is accommodated for several of the main entities. Numerous tables containing classification terms facilitate detailed descriptions of data items and can be used for routine or custom data summarization. NEWUDS handles single-user and aggregate-user water-use data, can be used for large or small water-network projects, and is available as a stand-alone Microsoft? Access database structure. Users can customize and extend the database, link it to other databases, or implement the design in other relational database applications.

  15. Germination, seedling growth and relative water content of shoot in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-18

    Aug 18, 2008 ... (mg), root : shoot length (R:S) ratio, and relative water content of shoot (RWC, %) were investigated in this study. The results ... seedlings may provide an advantage by allowing access ... Residual chlorine was eliminated by.

  16. Elevated carbon dioxide: impacts on soil and plant water relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirkham, M. B

    2011-01-01

    .... Focusing on this critical issue, Elevated Carbon Dioxide: Impacts on Soil and Plant Water Relations presents research conducted on field-grown sorghum, winter wheat, and rangeland plants under elevated CO2...

  17. College drinking behaviors: mediational links between parenting styles, impulse control, and alcohol-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2006-06-01

    Mediational links between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), impulsiveness (general control), drinking control (specific control), and alcohol use and abuse were tested. A pattern-mixture approach (for modeling non-ignorable missing data) with multiple-group structural equation models with 421 (206 female, 215 male) college students was used. Gender was examined as a potential moderator of parenting styles on control processes related to drinking. Specifically, the parent-child gender match was found to have implications for increased levels of impulsiveness (a significant mediator of parenting effects on drinking control). These findings suggest that a parent with a permissive parenting style who is the same gender as the respondent can directly influence control processes and indirectly influence alcohol use and abuse.

  18. Water Related Health Problems in Central Asia—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakir Bekturganov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper provides an extensive literature review on water related health issues in Central Asia. Even though the per capita amount of available freshwater is substantial in all Central Asian states the uneven distribution in time and space creates problems for water availability. Due to this, the Central Asian economies are developing under increasing water deficiency. The degradation of water supply systems and sewage treatment plants is often severe leading to potentially high water loss rates and inadequate accessibility to safe water supply. In this context, rural areas are the most affected. Low tariffs in combination with absent metering and low collection rates for water fees mean that operation and maintenance costs for basic services of water supply and sanitation are not covered. Unsafe water supply contains both microbiological and non-microbiological contaminants. Helminthiasis and intestinal protozoa infections are of considerable public health importance in Central Asia. Agricultural and industrial pollution is especially affecting downstream areas of Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers. In large areas copper, zinc, and chromium concentrations in water exceed maximum permissible concentration. Thus, there is an urgent need to strengthen the environmental monitoring system. Small-scale water supply and sanitation systems need to be developed in line with more efficient public spending on these.

  19. Recreation Value of Water to Wetlands in the San Joaquin Valley: Linked Multinomial Logit and Count Data Trip Frequency Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Michael; Loomis, John

    1992-10-01

    The recreational benefits from providing increased quantities of water to wildlife and fisheries habitats is estimated using linked multinomial logit site selection models and count data trip frequency models. The study encompasses waterfowl hunting, fishing and wildlife viewing at 14 recreational resources in the San Joaquin Valley, including the National Wildlife Refuges, the State Wildlife Management Areas, and six river destinations. The economic benefits of increasing water supplies to wildlife refuges were also examined by using the estimated models to predict changing patterns of site selection and overall participation due to increases in water allocations. Estimates of the dollar value per acre foot of water are calculated for increases in water to refuges. The resulting model is a flexible and useful tool for estimating the economic benefits of alternative water allocation policies for wildlife habitat and rivers.

  20. Testing links between childhood positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes through a randomized controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvliet, Miranda; van Lier, Pol A C; Cuijpers, Pim; Koot, Hans M

    2009-10-01

    In this study, the authors used a randomized controlled trial to explore the link between having positive peer relations and externalizing outcomes in 758 children followed from kindergarten to the end of 2nd grade. Children were randomly assigned to the Good Behavior Game (GBG), a universal classroom-based preventive intervention, or a control condition. Children's acceptance by peers, their number of mutual friends, and their proximity to others were assessed annually through peer ratings. Externalizing behavior was annually rated by teachers. Reductions in children's externalizing behavior and improvements in positive peer relations were found among GBG children, as compared with control-group children. Reductions in externalizing behavior appeared to be partly mediated by the improvements in peer acceptance. This mediating role of peer acceptance was found for boys only. The results suggest that positive peer relations are not just markers, but they are environmental mediators of boys' externalizing behavior development. Implications for research and prevention are discussed. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. WWER water chemistry related to fuel cladding behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kysela, J; Zmitko, M [Nuclear Research Inst. plc., Rez (Czech Republic); Vrtilkova, V [Nuclear Fuel Inst., Prague (Czech Republic)

    1997-02-01

    Operational experience in WWER primary water chemistry and corrosion related to the fuel cladding is reviewed. Insignificant corrosion of fuel cladding was found which is caused by good corrosion resistance of Zr1Nb material and relatively low coolant temperature at WWER-440 reactor units. The differences in water chemistry control is outlined and an attention to the question of compatibility of Zircaloys with WWER water chemistry is given. Some results of research and development in field of zirconium alloy corrosion behaviour are discussed. Experimental facility for in-pile and out-of-pile cladding material corrosion testing is shown. (author). 14 refs, 5 figs, 3 tabs.

  2. Relative transport of water (H2O) and tritiated water (HTO) across cellulose acetate (CA) membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhakar, S.; Misra, B.M.; Ramani, M.P.S.

    1986-01-01

    The relative transport characteristics of water (H 2 O) and tritiated water (HTO) were evaluated through cellulose acetate membranes under osmosis, reverse osmosis and pervaporation. The results indicate that the relative transport is independent of the process. The anamolous observations under osmotic conditions are explained. (orig.)

  3. Water relations, thallus structure and photosynthesis in Negev Desert lichens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, R. J. Jr; Friedmann, E. I.

    1990-01-01

    The role of lichen thallus structure in water relations and photosynthesis was studied in Ramalina maciformis (Del.) Bory and Teloschistes lacunosus (Rupr.) Sav. Water-vapour adsorption and photosynthesis are dependent upon thallus integrity and are significantly lower in crushed thalli. Cultured phycobiont (Trebouxia sp.) cells are capable of photosynthesis over the same relative humidity range (> 80% RH) as are intact lichens. Thus, water-vapour adsorption by the thallus and physiological adaptation of the phycobiont contribute to the ability of these lichens to photosynthesize in an arid environment. Despite differences in their anatomical structure and water-uptake characteristics, their CO2 incorporation is similar. The two lichens use liquid water differently and they occupy different niches.

  4. Availability and quality of water related to western energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    Much of the nation's energy resources is contained in seven states of the western United States. Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Montana, and North Dakota contain 40% of the nation's coal and 90% of its uranium and shale oil. Although rich in energy resources, these states are chronically deficient in water. Coal mining and subsequent land reclamation require relatively small amounts of water. Plans that require large quantities of water to transport and convert the coal to energy include the operation of coal-slurry pipelines, thermal-electric power generation, and coal gasification. Production of oil from shale by conventional mining techniques may require about three or four unit volumes of water for each unit volume of shale oil produced. Nearly half of this water would be needed to reestablish vegetation on waste material. In-situ extraction of oil would require substantially less water. Extracting and processing uranium require relatively small amounts of water. There may be problems of the quality of local groundwater where solution mining is practiced and where uranium ore is removed from water-saturated rocks that are then exposed to oxidation. Estimates of amounts of water required to support the development of western energy resources are highly variable and depend on the conversion technology, the level of anticipated development, and the quality of the water required by any given use or process. Conservative estimates exceed 2000 cu hm/year by the year 2000. Although water supplies in the amounts anticipated as being needed for energy development are available within the seven states, their availability locally may depend on satisfying environmental objections, modifying legal and institutional arrangements that presently control water distribution and use, and constructing additional reservoirs and distribution systems

  5. Sagittal synostosis in X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets and related diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currarino, Guido [Texas Scottish Rite Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2007-08-15

    The recent observations of two new cases of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets associated with premature closure of the sagittal suture prompted a review of similar cases seen in this institution. To review the clinical records and skull radiographs of 28 children with hypophosphatemic rickets in order to investigate the frequency and type of craniosynostosis and other cranial vault changes seen in these conditions and to review the literature for relevant findings. Clinical and imaging records were reviewed on 28 patients with hypophosphatemic rickets, all younger than 18 years. Most patients had X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets and a few had autosomal-dominant hypophosphatemic rickets or were non-familial cases. Of the 28 patients, 13 had sagittal synostosis. Dolichocephaly was present in ten patients. The configuration of the cranial vault in some of these ten patients with dolichocephaly varied somewhat from that seen in nonsyndromic sagittal synostosis. In one patient, a Chiari I malformation was demonstrated by MRI. In another patient with increased intracranial pressure the sagittal suture closure was associated with lambdoidal synostosis. Dolichocephaly was not present in three patients, suggesting that the synostosis started later than in the other patients, probably in the second year of life, a period of slower brain growth than in the first year. The two patients in this group of three showed thickening and sclerosis of the cranial vault of uncertain etiology. There is an increased risk of sagittal synostosis in hypophosphatemic rickets and related diseases in children. The appearance of the cranial vault in this type of synostosis can vary from that seen in nonsyndromic synostosis. In this setting, careful clinical and imaging follow-up is warranted. (orig.)

  6. Sagittal synostosis in X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets and related diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currarino, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The recent observations of two new cases of X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets associated with premature closure of the sagittal suture prompted a review of similar cases seen in this institution. To review the clinical records and skull radiographs of 28 children with hypophosphatemic rickets in order to investigate the frequency and type of craniosynostosis and other cranial vault changes seen in these conditions and to review the literature for relevant findings. Clinical and imaging records were reviewed on 28 patients with hypophosphatemic rickets, all younger than 18 years. Most patients had X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets and a few had autosomal-dominant hypophosphatemic rickets or were non-familial cases. Of the 28 patients, 13 had sagittal synostosis. Dolichocephaly was present in ten patients. The configuration of the cranial vault in some of these ten patients with dolichocephaly varied somewhat from that seen in nonsyndromic sagittal synostosis. In one patient, a Chiari I malformation was demonstrated by MRI. In another patient with increased intracranial pressure the sagittal suture closure was associated with lambdoidal synostosis. Dolichocephaly was not present in three patients, suggesting that the synostosis started later than in the other patients, probably in the second year of life, a period of slower brain growth than in the first year. The two patients in this group of three showed thickening and sclerosis of the cranial vault of uncertain etiology. There is an increased risk of sagittal synostosis in hypophosphatemic rickets and related diseases in children. The appearance of the cranial vault in this type of synostosis can vary from that seen in nonsyndromic synostosis. In this setting, careful clinical and imaging follow-up is warranted. (orig.)

  7. Gender-specific mediational links between parenting styles, parental monitoring, impulsiveness, drinking control, and alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; King, Kevin M; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Ulloa, Emilio C; Moses, Jennifer M Filson

    2011-03-01

    Recently, it has been suggested that traits may dynamically change as conditions change. One possible mechanism that may influence impulsiveness is parental monitoring. Parental monitoring reflects a knowledge regarding one's offspring's whereabouts and social connections. The aim of this investigation was to examine potential gender-specific parental influences to impulsiveness (general behavioral control), control over one's own drinking (specific behavioral control), and alcohol-related problems among individuals in a period of emerging adulthood. Direct and mediational links between parenting styles (permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative), parental monitoring, impulsiveness, drinking control, and alcohol-related problems were investigated. A multiple-group, SEM model with (316 women, 265 men) university students was examined. In general, the overall pattern among male and female respondents was distinct. For daughters, perceptions of a permissive father were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems through lower levels of monitoring by fathers and more impulsive symptoms. Perceptions of an authoritative father were also indirectly linked to fewer impulsive symptoms through higher levels of monitoring by fathers among daughters. For men, perceptions of a permissive mother were indirectly linked to more alcohol-related problems through lower levels of monitoring by mothers and more impulsive symptoms. For sons, perceptions of mother authoritativeness were indirectly linked to fewer alcohol-related problems through more monitoring by mothers and fewer impulsive symptoms. Monitoring by an opposite-gender parent mediated the link between parenting styles (i.e., permissive, authoritative) on impulsiveness.

  8. Shame and Alienation Related to Child Maltreatment: Links to Symptoms Across Generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock Fenerci, Rebecca L; DePrince, Anne P

    2017-11-20

    The current study investigated associations between appraisals of shame and alienation related to mothers' own experiences of child maltreatment and symptoms across generations-in mothers themselves as well as their toddler/preschool-aged children. Mothers who survived maltreatment (N = 113) with a child between the ages of 2 and 5 were recruited to participate in an online study on Maternal Coping, Attachment and Health. Mother participants completed a series of questionnaires, including those that asked about posttrauma appraisals of their own maltreatment experiences as well as their child's and their own mental health symptoms. When taking into account other posttrauma appraisals (e.g., fear, betrayal, anger, self-blame), maternal shame and alienation were both significantly associated with maternal trauma-related distress (a composite of anxiety, PTSD, dissociation, and depressive symptoms). Maternal shame was also significantly linked to child internalizing symptoms and externalizing symptoms. Lower levels of fear and higher levels of betrayal were associated with externalizing symptoms as well. Maternal trauma-related distress mediated the relationship between maternal shame and child externalizing symptoms, and partially mediated the relationship between shame and internalizing symptoms. This study is the first of its kind to examine the role of posttrauma appraisals among mother survivors of maltreatment as they relate to symptoms in their young children. Although additional research is necessary, findings suggest that mothers' posttrauma appraisals, such as shame, could be a relevant factor in the early social-emotional development of survivors' children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Linking families and facilities for care at birth: What works to avert intrapartum-related deaths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anne CC; Lawn, Joy E.; Cousens, Simon; Kumar, Vishwajeet; Osrin, David; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Wall, Steven N.; Nandakumar, Allyala K.; Syed, Uzma; Darmstadt, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Delays in receiving effective care during labor and at birth may be fatal for the mother and fetus, contributing to 2 million annual intrapartum stillbirths and intrapartum-related neonatal deaths each year. Objective We present a systematic review of strategies to link families and facilities, including community mobilization, financial incentives, emergency referral and transport systems, prenatal risk screening, and maternity waiting homes. Results There is moderate quality evidence that community mobilization with high levels of community engagement can increase institutional births and significantly reduce perinatal and early neonatal mortality. Meta-analysis showed a doubling of skilled birth attendance and a 35% reduction in early neonatal mortality. However, no data are available on intrapartum-specific outcomes. Evidence is limited, but promising, that financial incentive schemes and community referral/transport systems may increase rates of skilled birth attendance and emergency obstetric care utilization; however, impact on mortality is unknown. Current evidence for maternity waiting homes and risk screening is low quality. Conclusions Empowering communities is an important strategy to reduce the large burden of intrapartum complications. Innovations are needed to bring the poor closer to obstetric care, such as financial incentives and cell phone technology. New questions need to be asked of “old” strategies such as risk screening and maternity waiting homes. The effect of all of these strategies on maternal and perinatal mortality, particularly intrapartum-related outcomes, requires further evaluation. PMID:19815201

  10. Synaptic Effects of Dopamine Breakdown and Their Relation to Schizophrenia-Linked Working Memory Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Bolton

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is the ability to hold information “online” over a time delay in order to perform a task. This kind of memory is encoded in the brain by persistent neural activity that outlasts the presentation of a stimulus. Patients with schizophrenia perform poorly in working memory tasks that require the brief memory of a target location in space. This deficit indicates that persistent neural activity related to spatial locations may be impaired in the disease. At the circuit level, many studies have shown that NMDA receptors and the dopamine system are involved in both schizophrenia pathology and working memory-related persistent activity. In this Hypothesis and Theory article, we examine the possible connection between NMDA receptors, the dopamine system, and schizophrenia-linked working memory deficits. In particular, we focus on the dopamine breakdown product homocysteine (HCY, which is consistently elevated in schizophrenia patients. Our previous studies have shown that HCY strongly reduces the desensitization of NMDA currents. Here, we show that HCY likely affects NMDA receptors in brain regions that support working memory; this is because these areas favor dopamine breakdown over transport to clear dopamine from synapses. Finally, within the context of two NMDA-based computational models of working memory, we suggest a mechanism by which HCY could give rise to the working memory deficits observed in schizophrenia patients.

  11. Identification of technical guidance related to ground water monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogelsberger, R.R.; Smith, E.D.; Broz, M.; Wright, J.C. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Monitoring of ground water quality is a key element of ground water protection and is mandated by several federal and state laws concerned with water quality or waste management. Numerous regulatory guidance documents and technical reports discuss various aspects of ground water monitoring, but at present there is no single source of guidance on procedures and practices for ground water monitoring. This report is intended to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) officials and facility operating personnel in identifying sources of guidance for developing and implementing ground water monitoring programs that are technically sound and that comply with applicable regulations. Federal statutes and associated regulations were reviewed to identify requirements related to ground water monitoring, and over 160 documents on topics related to ground water monitoring were evaluated for their technical merit, their utility as guidance for regulatory compliance, and their relevance to DOE's needs. For each of 15 technical topics involved in ground water monitoring, the report presents (1) a review of federal regulatory requirements and representative state requirements, (2) brief descriptions of the contents and merits of available guidance documents and technical references, and (3) recommendations of the guidance documents or other technical resources that appear to be most appropriate for use in DOE's monitoring activities. The contents of the report are applicable to monitoring activities involving both radioactive and nonradioactive substances. The main sources of regulatory requirements considered in the report are the Atomic Energy Act (including the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, Toxic Substances Control Act, and Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

  12. Identification of technical guidance related to ground water monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogelsberger, R.R.; Smith, E.D.; Broz, M.; Wright, J.C. Jr.

    1987-05-01

    Monitoring of ground water quality is a key element of ground water protection and is mandated by several federal and state laws concerned with water quality or waste management. Numerous regulatory guidance documents and technical reports discuss various aspects of ground water monitoring, but at present there is no single source of guidance on procedures and practices for ground water monitoring. This report is intended to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) officials and facility operating personnel in identifying sources of guidance for developing and implementing ground water monitoring programs that are technically sound and that comply with applicable regulations. Federal statutes and associated regulations were reviewed to identify requirements related to ground water monitoring, and over 160 documents on topics related to ground water monitoring were evaluated for their technical merit, their utility as guidance for regulatory compliance, and their relevance to DOE's needs. For each of 15 technical topics involved in ground water monitoring, the report presents (1) a review of federal regulatory requirements and representative state requirements, (2) brief descriptions of the contents and merits of available guidance documents and technical references, and (3) recommendations of the guidance documents or other technical resources that appear to be most appropriate for use in DOE's monitoring activities. The contents of the report are applicable to monitoring activities involving both radioactive and nonradioactive substances. The main sources of regulatory requirements considered in the report are the Atomic Energy Act (including the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act, Safe Drinking Water Act, Toxic Substances Control Act, and Federal Water Pollution Control Act

  13. Ground water security and drought in Africa: linking availability, access, and demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calow, Roger C; Macdonald, Alan M; Nicol, Alan L; Robins, Nick S

    2010-01-01

    Drought in Africa has been extensively researched, particularly from meteorological, agricultural, and food security perspectives. However, the impact of drought on water security, particularly ground water dependent rural water supplies, has received much less attention. Policy responses have concentrated on food needs, and it has often been difficult to mobilize resources for water interventions, despite evidence that access to safe water is a serious and interrelated concern. Studies carried out in Ghana, Malawi, South Africa, and Ethiopia highlight how rural livelihoods are affected by seasonal stress and longer-term drought. Declining access to food and water is a common and interrelated problem. Although ground water plays a vital role in buffering the effects of rainfall variability, water shortages and difficulties in accessing water that is available can affect domestic and productive water uses, with knock-on effects on food consumption and production. Total depletion of available ground water resources is rarely the main concern. A more common scenario is a spiral of water insecurity as shallow water sources fail, additional demands are put on remaining sources, and mechanical failures increase. These problems can be planned for within normal development programs. Water security mapping can help identify vulnerable areas, and changes to monitoring systems can ensure early detection of problems. Above all, increasing the coverage of ground water-based rural water supplies, and ensuring that the design and siting of water points is informed by an understanding of hydrogeological conditions and user demand, can significantly increase the resilience of rural communities to climate variability.

  14. Coping with gravity: the foliar water relations of giant sequoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cameron B; Reese Næsborg, Rikke; Dawson, Todd E

    2017-10-01

    In tall trees, the mechanisms by which foliage maintains sufficient turgor pressure and water content against height-related constraints remain poorly understood. Pressure-volume curves generated from leafy shoots collected crown-wide from 12 large Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindley) J. Buchholz (giant sequoia) trees provided mechanistic insights into how the components of water potential vary with height in tree and over time. The turgor loss point (TLP) decreased with height at a rate indistinguishable from the gravitational potential gradient and was controlled by changes in tissue osmotica. For all measured shoots, total relative water content at the TLP remained above 75%. This high value has been suggested to help leaves avoid precipitous declines in leaf-level physiological function, and in giant sequoia was controlled by both tissue elasticity and the balance of water between apoplasm and symplasm. Hydraulic capacitance decreased only slightly with height, but importantly this parameter was nearly double in value to that reported for other tree species. Total water storage capacity also decreased with height, but this trend essentially disappeared when considering only water available within the typical range of water potentials experienced by giant sequoia. From summer to fall measurement periods we did not observe osmotic adjustment that would depress the TLP. Instead we observed a proportional shift of water into less mobile apoplastic compartments leading to a reduction in hydraulic capacitance. This collection of foliar traits allows giant sequoia to routinely, but safely, operate close to its TLP, and suggests that gravity plays a major role in the water relations of Earth's largest tree species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Geochemistry of water in relation to cardiovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Relations between trace and major element chemistry of drinking water and cardiovascular diseases are reviewed and documented. Several aspects of the problem, related both to the pathway that drinking water takes to man and to its transit through man, are reviewed. Several steps in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease that could be affected by water factors were explored. There is little evidence bearing on the contribution from drinking water to human tissue levels of cadmium, chromium, or zinc. Copper and magnesium levels of tissues may be related to drinking water, but confirmatory evidence is needed. Lead levels in blood and other tissues are most certainly affected by lead levels in drinking water in areas where these levels are unusually elevated. There is little evidence that relatively low levels of lead are toxic to the cardiovascular system, except for the causation of cardiomyopathy. The protective action of selenium and zinc applies mainly to cadmium toxicity. The mode of the protective action of silicon, if any, is unclear at present. Some epidemiological associations between the cadmium level or cadmium:zinc ratio and cardiovascular disease have been reported, but are contradictory. Some epidemiological support exists for a protective effect by selenium; results for zinc are equivocal. Interactions within the human system involving calcium and selected trace elements might be very important for the cardiovascular system. Review of the epidemiological literature indicates that there may be a water factor associated with cardiovascular disease. Its effects, if any, must be very weak in comparison with the effects of known risk factors. The reported inverse relationship between mortality from cardiovascular diseases and hardness of local drinking water supplies appears to be considerably less distinctive in small regional studies. (ERB)

  16. Improvement in, or relating to, waste-waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossley, T.J.

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for eliminating impurities consisting of fluorides, ammonia and uranium traces from waste waters. That method eliminates fluorides through precipitating alkaline earth fluoride, ammonia through evaporation and the excess alkaline earth metal through passing over an ion exchange resin. The water resulting from such a treatment contains but uranium traces and is suitable for re-cycling. The method can be applied to the treatment of waste waters resulting from the preparation of ammonium di-uranate from uranium hexafluoride [fr

  17. Water relations and keeping-quality of cut Gerbera flowers

    OpenAIRE

    Meeteren, van, U.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the internal water relations,of ageing Gerbera inflorescences and their consequence on keepingquality of cut inflorescences. As in all parts of this paper, the term "flower" will be used to describe an inflorescence with its supporting stem.A great problem during vase-life of cut Gerbera flowers is ',stem break", a sudden bending of the stem. As described in part 1, this phenomenon was caused by a water shortage in the flower. The water-stress ...

  18. Aerodynamic and related hydrodynamic studies using water facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    Related problems, experiences and advancements in aeronautical and maritime fluid dynamics through the use of water facilities are reviewed. In recent years there has been an increasing use of water facilities for aerodynamic investigations. These include water tunnels, towing channels, and stationary tanks. Examples include basic research problems as well as flow fields around fighter aircraft, inlet flows, recirculation flow patterns associated with VTOL, ramjet simulation, etc., and, in general, 3-D flows with vortices or separated regimes as prominent features. The Symposium was organized to provide an appropriate forum for the exchange of information within the aeronautical and maritime fluid dynamics community.

  19. Simulated nutrient dissolution of Asian aerosols in various atmospheric waters: Potential links to marine primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingyan; Bi, Yanfeng; Zhang, Guosen; Liu, Sumei; Zhang, Jing; Xu, Zhaomeng; Ren, Jingling; Zhang, Guiling

    2017-09-01

    To probe the bioavailability and environmental mobility of aerosol nutrient elements (N, P, Si) in atmospheric water (rainwater, cloud and fog droplets), ten total suspended particulate (TSP) samples were collected at Fulong Mountain, Qingdao from prevailing air mass trajectory sources during four seasons. Then, a high time-resolution leaching experiment with simulated non-acidic atmospheric water (non-AAW, Milli-Q water, pH 5.5) and subsequently acidic atmospheric water (AAW, hydrochloric acid solution, pH 2) was performed. We found that regardless of the season or source, a monotonous decreasing pattern was observed in the dissolution of N, P and Si compounds in aerosols reacted with non-AAW, and the accumulated dissolved curves of P and Si fit a first-order kinetic model. No additional NO3- + NO2- dissolved out, while a small amount of NH4+ in Asian dust (AD) samples was released in AAW. The similar dissolution behaviour of P and Si from non-AAW to AAW can be explained by the Transition State Theory. The sources of aerosols related to various minerals were the natural reasons that affected the amounts of bioavailable phosphorus and silicon in aerosols (i.e., solubility), which can be explained by the dissolution rate constant of P and Si in non-AAW with lower values in mineral aerosols. The acid/particle ratio and particle/liquid ratio also have a large effect on the solubility of P and Si, which was implied by Pearson correlation analysis. Acid processing of aerosols may have great significance for marine areas with limited P and Si and post-acidification release increases of 1.1-10-fold for phosphorus and 1.2-29-fold for silicon. The decreasing mole ratio of P and Si in AAW indicates the possibility of shifting from a Si-limit to a P-limit in aerosols in the ocean, which promotes the growth of diatoms prior to other algal species.

  20. EU-Russia Relations Regarding Water Resources in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Likhacheva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Central Asia, the water deficit and water-energy problem have been one of among the most acute and conflict-ridden challenges for the sustainable development of the region and for regional security. Key trade and investment partners, including Russia and the European Union, could play a considerable role in influencing this issue, due to the long-lasting status quo, the inability to find a solution through intra-regional dialogue and the region’s rising dependence on foreign trade. Indeed, water-related interactions between Russia and the EU have been developing in a complementary manner. The EU possesses new technologies and its members have access to long-term capital markets, while Russia carries influence through providing security, regulating migration and holding a favourable political position for offering mediation services to the republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. This article examines EU-Russia relations regarding water issues in Central Asia over the medium term. By analyzing cooperative and non-cooperative strategies used by the major stakeholders in the water conflict (the five republics and the third parties of Russia and the EU, it confirms the continuous complementary character of EU and Russian activities in this context. Russia will take responsibility for moderating the principal questions (as with the construction of big dams such as Rogunor Kambarata, as they relate to the provision of security guarantees. The EU will act through providing support for water companies from small and medium-sized enterprises, and promoting the European Water Initiative principles and by developing its investment policy. The intersection of interests is possible when if Russia will attracts an independent arbiter, such as an actor available to provide guarantees related to the values of professional objectivism, human rights support and environment protection. These issues inevitably arise with

  1. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pretto, Laura; Acreman, Stephen; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Mohankumar, Suresh K.; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall), higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports. PMID:26646896

  2. Link between Work-Related Prosocial Orientation and Professional Capability of Employees: A Preliminary Exploratory Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Adamska-Chudzińska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the link between work-related prosocial orientation of organizations and professional capabilities of employees suggesting that the prosocial orientation impacts the level of professional capability and proactive engagement. The article applies three main methods: literature studies, in-depth questionnaire surveys and multi-person method of assessment. The applied sub-measures for both leading constructs were formed and collinearity was tested using linear correlation coefficient. In prosocial environments psychological predispositions as essential aspects of personality and determinants of human behaviour, activate and stimulate professional activity. The implementation of a prosocial orientation leads to significant growth in professional capability and can influence employees’ entrepreneurial behaviour. An important aspect of employee proactive behaviour is building an internal policy based on prosocial mechanisms. Effective stimulation of prosocial and proactive attitudes and actions requires the creation of an environment where activities are realized alongside social values and with respect for individual personal determinants of activity. Considerations and findings presented in the paper contribute to the area of determinants of effective and lasting proactive employee development. The use of the multi-person method can be considered valuable in behavioural research in entrepreneurship.

  3. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Pretto

    Full Text Available Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall, higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports.

  4. The Link between Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Relation to Atmospheric Haze Pollution in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pretto, Laura; Acreman, Stephen; Ashfold, Matthew J; Mohankumar, Suresh K; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary haze episodes caused by seasonal forest fires have become a recurrent phenomenon in Southeast Asia, with serious environmental, economic, and public health implications. Here we present a cross-sectional survey conducted among people in Kuala Lumpur and surrounds to assess the links between knowledge, attitudes, and practices in relation to the transboundary haze episodes. Of 305 respondents, 125 were amateur athletes participating in a duathlon event and the remainder were surveyed in an inner-city shopping mall. Across the whole sample, people who possessed more factual information about the haze phenomenon showed significantly higher levels of concern. Duathletes were more knowledgeable than non-duathletes and also more concerned about the negative effects of haze, especially on health. For all people who regularly practice outdoor sports (including people interviewed at the shopping mall), higher levels of knowledge and concerned attitudes translated into a greater likelihood of engaging in protective practices, such as cancelling their outdoor training sessions, while those with greater knowledge were more likely to check the relevant air pollution index on a daily basis. Our results indicate that the provision of accurate and timely information about air quality to residents will translate into beneficial practices, at least among particularly exposed individuals, such as amateur athletes who regularly practice outdoor sports.

  5. DIA1R is an X-linked gene related to Deleted In Autism-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhari Aziz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDS are frequently occurring disorders diagnosed by deficits in three core functional areas: social skills, communication, and behaviours and/or interests. Mental retardation frequently accompanies the most severe forms of ASDs, while overall ASDs are more commonly diagnosed in males. Most ASDs have a genetic origin and one gene recently implicated in the etiology of autism is the Deleted-In-Autism-1 (DIA1 gene. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a bioinformatics-based approach, we have identified a human gene closely related to DIA1, we term DIA1R (DIA1-Related. While DIA1 is autosomal (chromosome 3, position 3q24, DIA1R localizes to the X chromosome at position Xp11.3 and is known to escape X-inactivation. The gene products are of similar size, with DIA1 encoding 430, and DIA1R 433, residues. At the amino acid level, DIA1 and DIA1R are 62% similar overall (28% identical, and both encode signal peptides for targeting to the secretory pathway. Both genes are ubiquitously expressed, including in fetal and adult brain tissue. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Examination of published literature revealed point mutations in DIA1R are associated with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR and DIA1R deletion is associated with syndromes with ASD-like traits and/or XLMR. Together, these results support a model where the DIA1 and DIA1R gene products regulate molecular traffic through the cellular secretory pathway or affect the function of secreted factors, and functional deficits cause disorders with ASD-like symptoms and/or mental retardation.

  6. Moderate water stress affects tomato leaf water relations in dependence on the nitrogen supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, A.L.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Garcia-Sanchez, F.; Nicolas, N.; Martinez, V.

    2007-01-01

    The responses of water relations, stomatal conductance (g(s)) and growth parameters of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Royesta) plants to nitrogen fertilisation and drought were studied. The plants were subjected to a long-term, moderate and progressive water stress by adding 80 % of the

  7. Urban Stormwater Quality: Linking Pesticide Variability To Our Sustainable Water Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippy, M.; Deletic, A.; Gernjak, W.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change and global population growth demand creative, multidisciplinary, and multi-benefit approaches for sustaining adequate fresh water resources and protecting ecosystem health. Currently, a driving factor of aquatic ecosystem degradation (stormwater) is also one of the largest untapped urban freshwater resources. This suggests that ecosystem protection and potable water security might both be achieved via treating and capturing stormwater for human use (e.g., potable substitution). The viability of such a scheme, however, depends on 1) initial stormwater quality (e.g., the contaminants present and their associated human/environmental health risks), 2) the spatial and temporal variability of contaminants in stormwater, and 3) the capacity of existing technologies to treat those contaminants to fit for purpose standards. Here we present results from a four year study of urban stormwater conducted across ten catchments and four states in Australia that addresses these three issues relative to stormwater pesticides. In total, 19 pesticides were detected across all sites and times. In general, pesticide concentrations were lower than has been reported in other countries, including the United States, Canada and Europe. This is reflected in few exceedences of public health (< 1%) and aquatic ecosystem standards (0% for invertebrates and fish, < 1% for algae and plants). Interestingly, pesticide patterns were found to be stable across seasons, and years, but varied across catchments. These catchment-specific fingerprints may reflect preferential commercial product use, as they map closely to co-occurrence patterns in registered Australian products. Importantly, the presence of catchment-specific pesticide variability has clear management implications; namely, urban stormwater must be managed at the catchment level and target local contaminant suites in order to best achieve desired human use and environmental protection standards.

  8. WATER SUPPLY AND ITS RELATION TO DIARRHOEAL DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kishore

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: As per WHO estimates, 80% of all the diseases in developing countries including India are related to unsafe drinking water and poor sanitation. Water pollution is invariably high in community wells. As such, incidence of diarrhoeal diseases is more in the rural set up and can be partly attributed to this. About 40% of the population does not have access to safe drinking water. Objective: To establish a relationship between water supply and incidence of diarrhoeal diseases. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Sawli village, District Samudrapur (Maharashtra. The study group comprised of 75 under five children, selected by simple random sampling. Data was collected on a pre-designed questionnaire by interviewing the mothers and was analyzed using an appropriate statistical package. Results: Prevalence ofdiarrhoea was found out to be 71 %. only 8% ofthe children who were exclusively breast-fed had any episode of diarrhea. Incidence of diarrhea was high in cases that were drawing water from open wells i.e. 65.3%. Only 28.5% cases reported diarrhea and were drawing water from sanitaiy wells as against 80.32% who took water from insanitary welts. About 45.33% mothers had wrong beliefs about thecauses of diarrhea. ORSwas used in only 30.66% of the cases as a treatment modality. Conclusions: Diarrhoeal incidence was significantly high in children below 3 years of age, prevalence was least in exclusively breast fed

  9. A Reflectance Model for Relatively Clear and Turbid Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Tiwari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Accurate modeling of spectral remote sensing reflectance (Rrs is of great interest for ocean colour studies in highly turbid and relatively clear waters. In this work a semianalytical model that simulates the spectral curves of remote sensing reflectance of these waters is developed based on the inherent optical properties (IOPs and f and Q factors. For accommodating differences in the optical properties of the water and accounting for their directional variations, IOPs and f and Q factors are derived as a function of phytoplankton pigments, suspended sediments and solar zenith angle. Results of this model are compared with in-situ bio-optical data collected at 83 stations encompassing highly turbid/relatively cleared waters of the South Sea of Korea. Measured and modeled remote sensing reflectances agree favorably in both magnitude and spectral shape, with considerably low errors (mean relative error MRE -0.0327; root mean square error RMSE 0.205, bias -0.0727 and slope 1.15 and correlation coefficient R2 0.74. These results suggest that the new model has the ability to reproduce measured reflectance values and has potentially profound implications for remote sensing of complex waters in this region.

  10. Compartmentalization Technologies via Self-Assembly and Cross-Linking of Amphiphilic Random Block Copolymers in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mayuko; Terashima, Takaya; Matsumoto, Kazuma; Takenaka, Mikihito; Sawamoto, Mitsuo

    2017-05-31

    Orthogonal self-assembly and intramolecular cross-linking of amphiphilic random block copolymers in water afforded an approach to tailor-make well-defined compartments and domains in single polymer chains and nanoaggregates. For a double compartment single-chain polymer, an amphiphilic random block copolymer bearing hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and hydrophobic dodecyl, benzyl, and olefin pendants was synthesized by living radical polymerization (LRP) and postfunctionalization; the dodecyl and benzyl units were incorporated into the different block segments, whereas PEG pendants were statistically attached along a chain. The copolymer self-folded via the orthogonal self-assembly of hydrophobic dodecyl and benzyl pendants in water, followed by intramolecular cross-linking, to form a single-chain polymer carrying double yet distinct hydrophobic nanocompartments. A single-chain cross-linked polymer with a chlorine terminal served as a globular macroinitiator for LRP to provide an amphiphilic tadpole macromolecule comprising a hydrophilic nanoparticle and a hydrophobic polymer tail; the tadpole thus self-assembled into multicompartment aggregates in water.

  11. Coastal upwelling linked to toxic Pseudo-nitzschia australis blooms in Los Angeles coastal waters, 2005-2007

    KAUST Repository

    Schnetzer, Astrid; Jones, Burton; Schaffner, Rebecca A.; Cetinić, Ivona; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Miller, Peter E.; Seubert, Erica L.; Caron, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms dominated by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. have become a perennial but variable event within surface waters near the greater Los Angeles area. Toxic blooms during spring seasons from 2005 to 2007 varied strongly in their overall toxicity and duration. Differences in bloom dynamics were linked to differences in storm-induced river discharge following episodic rain events and coastal upwelling, both major coastal processes that led to the injection of nutrients into coastal surface waters. Heavy river runoff during early 2005, a record-rainfall year, favored a phytoplankton community mainly comprised of algal taxa other than Pseudo-nitzschia. The spring bloom during 2005 was associated with low domoic acid surface concentrations and minor contributions of (mainly) P. delicatissima to the diatom assemblage. In contrast, highly toxic P. australis-dominated blooms during spring seasons of 2006 and 2007 were linked to strong upwelling events. River discharge quotas in 2006 and 2007, in contrast to 2005, fell well below annual averages for the region. Surface toxin levels were linked to colder, more saline (i.e. upwelled) water over the 3-year study, but no such consistent relationship between domoic acid levels and other physiochemical parameters, such as macronutrient concentrations or nutrient ratios, was observed. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  12. Coastal upwelling linked to toxic Pseudo-nitzschia australis blooms in Los Angeles coastal waters, 2005-2007

    KAUST Repository

    Schnetzer, Astrid

    2013-06-10

    Harmful algal blooms dominated by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. have become a perennial but variable event within surface waters near the greater Los Angeles area. Toxic blooms during spring seasons from 2005 to 2007 varied strongly in their overall toxicity and duration. Differences in bloom dynamics were linked to differences in storm-induced river discharge following episodic rain events and coastal upwelling, both major coastal processes that led to the injection of nutrients into coastal surface waters. Heavy river runoff during early 2005, a record-rainfall year, favored a phytoplankton community mainly comprised of algal taxa other than Pseudo-nitzschia. The spring bloom during 2005 was associated with low domoic acid surface concentrations and minor contributions of (mainly) P. delicatissima to the diatom assemblage. In contrast, highly toxic P. australis-dominated blooms during spring seasons of 2006 and 2007 were linked to strong upwelling events. River discharge quotas in 2006 and 2007, in contrast to 2005, fell well below annual averages for the region. Surface toxin levels were linked to colder, more saline (i.e. upwelled) water over the 3-year study, but no such consistent relationship between domoic acid levels and other physiochemical parameters, such as macronutrient concentrations or nutrient ratios, was observed. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  13. Study on the Workspace of a 6-DOF Parallel Topology Robot Related to Binary Link Lengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin-Octavian Miclosina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study on the workspace of a parallel topology robot with the structure FP3+6•SPS+MP3. The variable parameters are the binary link lengths, from both upper and lower levels, and the driving kinematical joint strokes. The workspace boundary is determined by SolidWorks software simulations. For different binary link lengths, workspace volume is determined and sections through the workspace are presented.

  14. On the relation between water pools and water holding capacity in cod muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Jørgensen, Bo

    2004-01-01

    Low-field 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxations were measured on muscle, minced muscle and centrifuged mince from cod that had been treated under various frozen and chill storage conditions. By using multi-way chemometrics, uni-exponential profiles were obtained, from which the transverse...... relaxation times (T2-values) and the water pool sizes (m- values) were determined. Three pools of water were identified with the different relaxation times and m-values in the centrifuged samples reflecting the removal of loosely bound water. The m-values and the full NMR-signal decays were correlated to two...... measures of water holding capacity (WHC) in a way that WHC related to the original water content could be predicted well for the whole and the minced muscle. The centrifuged samples gave optimal predictions of WHC related to the dry matter content, probably because the centrifuged samples are similar...

  15. A conceptual model for the analysis of multi-stressors in linked groundwater-surface water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaandorp, Vince P; Molina-Navarro, Eugenio; Andersen, Hans E; Bloomfield, John P; Kuijper, Martina J M; de Louw, Perry G B

    2018-06-15

    Groundwater and surface water are often closely coupled and are both under the influence of multiple stressors. Stressed groundwater systems may lead to a poor ecological status of surface waters but to date no conceptual framework to analyse linked multi-stressed groundwater - surface water systems has been developed. In this paper, a framework is proposed showing the effect of groundwater on surface waters in multiple stressed systems. This framework will be illustrated by applying it to four European catchments, the Odense, Denmark, the Regge and Dinkel, Netherlands, and the Thames, UK, and by assessing its utility in analysing the propagation or buffering of multi-stressors through groundwater to surface waters in these catchments. It is shown that groundwater affects surface water flow, nutrients and temperature, and can both propagate stressors towards surface waters and buffer the effect of stressors in space and time. The effect of groundwater on drivers and states depends on catchment characteristics, stressor combinations, scale and management practises. The proposed framework shows how groundwater in lowland catchments acts as a bridge between stressors and their effects within surface waters. It shows water managers how their management areas might be influenced by groundwater, and helps them to include this important, but often overlooked part of the water cycle in their basin management plans. The analysis of the study catchments also revealed a lack of data on the temperature of both groundwater and surface water, while it is an important parameter considering future climate warming. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. The Coordination Dynamics of Observational Learning: Relative Motion Direction and Relative Phase as Informational Content Linking Action-Perception to Action-Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, John J

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of this chapter is to merge together the visual perception perspective of observational learning and the coordination dynamics theory of pattern formation in perception and action. Emphasis is placed on identifying movement features that constrain and inform action-perception and action-production processes. Two sources of visual information are examined, relative motion direction and relative phase. The visual perception perspective states that the topological features of relative motion between limbs and joints remains invariant across an actor's motion and therefore are available for pickup by an observer. Relative phase has been put forth as an informational variable that links perception to action within the coordination dynamics theory. A primary assumption of the coordination dynamics approach is that environmental information is meaningful only in terms of the behavior it modifies. Across a series of single limb tasks and bimanual tasks it is shown that the relative motion and relative phase between limbs and joints is picked up through visual processes and supports observational learning of motor skills. Moreover, internal estimations of motor skill proficiency and competency are linked to the informational content found in relative motion and relative phase. Thus, the chapter links action to perception and vice versa and also links cognitive evaluations to the coordination dynamics that support action-perception and action-production processes.

  17. Variations of DOM quality in inflows of a drinking water reservoir: linking of van Krevelen diagrams with EEMF spectra by rank correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzsprung, Peter; von Tümpling, Wolf; Hertkorn, Norbert; Harir, Mourad; Büttner, Olaf; Bravidor, Jenny; Friese, Kurt; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2012-05-15

    Elevated concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) such as humic substances in raw water pose significant challenges during the processing of the commercial drinking water supplies. This is a relevant issue in Saxony, Central East Germany, and many other regions worldwide, where drinking water is produced from raw waters with noticeable presence of chromophoric DOM (CDOM), which is assumed to originate from forested watersheds in spring regions of the catchment area. For improved comprehension of DOM molecular composition, the seasonal and spatial variations of humic-like fluorescence and elemental formulas in the catchment area of the Muldenberg reservoir were recorded by excitation emission matrix fluorescence (EEMF) and ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS). The Spearman rank correlation was applied to link the EEMF intensities with exact molecular formulas and their corresponding relative mass peak abundances. Thereby, humic-like fluorescence could be allocated to the pool of oxygen-rich and relatively unsaturated components with stoichiometries similar to those of tannic acids, which are suspected to have a comparatively high disinfection byproduct formation potential associated with the chlorination of raw water. Analogous relationships were established for UV absorption at 254 nm (UV(254)) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and compared to the EEMF correlation.

  18. Ecohydrology of managed ecosystems: Linking rainfall unpredictability, agronomic performance, and sustainable water use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico, Giulia; Porporato, Amilcare

    2014-05-01

    The field of ecohydrology, traditionally focusing on natural ecosystems, can offer the necessary quantitative tools to assess and compare the sustainability of agriculture across climates, soil types, crops, and irrigation strategies, including rainfall unpredictability. In particular, irrigation is one of the main strategies to enhance and stabilize agricultural productivity, but represents a cost in terms of often scarce water resources. Here, the sustainability of irrigated and rainfed agriculture is assessed by means of water productivity (defined as the ratio between yield and total supplied water), yields, water requirements, and their variability. These indicators are quantified using a probabilistic description of the soil water balance and crop development. Employing this framework, we interpret changes in water productivity as total water input is altered, in two staple crops (maize and wheat) grown under different soils, climates, and irrigation strategies. Climate change scenarios are explored by using the same approach and altering the rainfall statistics. For a given irrigation strategy, intermediate rainfall inputs leads to the highest variability in yield and irrigation water requirement - it is under these conditions that water management is most problematic. When considering the contrasting needs of limiting water requirements while ensuring adequate yields, micro-irrigation emerges as the most sustainable strategy at the field level, although consideration should be given to its profitability and long-term environmental implications.

  19. Dealing with Drought: Decoupling Climatic and Management-Related Drivers of Water Conservation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemati, A.; Rippy, M.; Grant, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    As global populations grow, cities in drought prone regions of the world such as California and South East Australia are faced with escalating water scarcity and water security challenges. The management approaches geared towards addressing these challenges are diverse. Given the myriad of possible approaches and the tendency to apply them in combination, successful management actions can be difficult to identify. Background climactic variability further complicates the story, making transfer of management lessons from one drought stressed region to another difficult. Here we use Melbourne, a city of 4.3 million people in South East Australia that recently faced and overcame a > 10 year "Millennium" drought, as a test case for evaluating the relative importance of various management-related and climactic factors in driving reductions in municipal water consumption (~60% in 12 years). Our analysis suggests that Melbourne's declining municipal consumption cannot be explained by potable substitution alone, as reductions in municipal consumption were not matched by increased use of alternative sources (e.g., urban rain or recycled water). Thus, water conservation behavior (not source switching) may be responsible for the majority of demand reduction in Melbourne. Interestingly, while voluntary or mandatory water restrictions appear to have substantially altered the rate of change of consumption near the end of Melbourne's Millennium drought (e.g., forcing a period of intense conservation), overall conservation behavior precedes these restrictions. This suggests that other rapidly implemented (and hither too unquantified) management approaches such as advertising or newspapers may have driven water conservation behavior early in the drought. Climatic factors, particularly precipitation may also have influenced conservation behavior; changes in precipitation were significantly positively correlated with changes in water consumption at a lag of 18 months. Similar

  20. Afloat in a Boat: Linking Land Use / Land Cover to the Spatial Evolution of Water Quality along a Blackwater Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, J.; Vose, J. M.; Nichols, E. G.; Jass, T. L.; Emanuel, R. E.; McRae, J.

    2016-12-01

    Water quality and land use/land cover (LULC) are linked intimately in many watersheds, although exact relationships are often nonlinear and sometimes complex. Together with watershed topography, LULC can affect water quality in various ways. As such, attributing water quality characteristics to LULC variations (either in space or time) can be difficult. Many studies seek to understand these relationships from a Eulerian reference frame, which typically involves many samples or observations through time at a fixed location. Here we explore an alternative approach to understanding relationships between LULC and water quality that relies on a Lagrangian, or moving, reference frame, in which the effects of LULC and watershed topography on water quality can be observed through a different lens. We studied three reaches of the Lumber River, a blackwater stream in North Carolina's Coastal Plain, to assess relationships between LULC and water quality in a watershed that is a patchwork of agriculture, forests, wetlands and developed land. Our study combines spatially intensive water quality measurements (temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH and nitrate concentration), collected by boat, with geospatial analyses of LULC to understand influences on the spatial evolution of reach-scale water quality. In particular, we investigate relationships between spatial patterns in nitrate and the changing spatial characteristics of the watershed integrated at sampling points along each reach. We also assess relationships between nitrate and other water quality variables, such as pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen to better understand the potential role of in-stream nutrient processing in observed spatial patterns. This work has implications for the regulation and management of agriculture, wetlands, and forests in a region that has long struggled to balance agriculture, a major economic driver, with water quality, a major concern for recreation and cultural

  1. Water Relations, Gas Exchange, and Nutrient Response to a Long Term Constant Water Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Wade L.; Goldstein, Guillermo; Dreschel, Thomas W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Sager, John C.; Knott, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Wheat plants (Triticum aestivum) were grown for 43 days in a micro-porous tube nutrient delivery system. Roots were unable to penetrate the microporous tube, but grew on the surface and maintained capillary contact with the nutrient solution on the inside of the tube through the 5-micron pores of the porous tube. Water potential in the system was controlled at -0.4, -0.8, and -3.0 kPa by adjusting the applied pressure (hydrostatic head) to the nutrient solution flowing through the microporous tubes. A relatively small decrease in applied water potential from -0.4 to -3.0 kPa resulted in a 34% reduction of shoot growth but only a moderate reduction in the midday leaf water potential from -1.3 to -1.7 MPa. Carbon dioxide assimilation decreased and water use efficiency increased with the more negative applied water potentials, while intercellular CO2 concentration remained constant. This was associated with a decrease in stomatal conductance to water vapor from 1.90 to 0.98 mol/(sq m sec) and a decrease in total apparent hydraulic conductance from 47 to 12 (micro)mol/(sec MPa). Although the applied water potentials were in the -0.4 to -3.0 kPa range, the actual water potential perceived by the plant roots appeared to be in the range of -0.26 to -0.38 MPa as estimated by the leaf water potential of bagged plants. The amount of K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, and B accumulated with each unit of transpired water increased as the applied water potential became less negative. The increase in accumulation ranged from 1.4-fold for K to 2.2-fold for B. The physiological responses observed in this study in response to small constant differences in applied water potentials were much greater than expected from either the applied water potential or the observed plant water potential. Even though the micro-porous tube may not represent natural conditions and could possibly introduce morphological and physiological artifacts, it enables a high degree of control of water potential that

  2. Community Knowledge about Water: Who Has Better Knowledge and Is This Associated with Water-Related Behaviors and Support for Water-Related Policies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela J Dean

    Full Text Available Sustainable approaches to water management require broad community acceptance of changes in policy, practice and technology, which in turn, requires an engaged community. A critical first step in building an engaged community is to identify community knowledge about water management, an issue rarely examined in research. To address this, we surveyed a representative sample of Australian adults (n = 5172. Knowledge was assessed using 15 questions about impact of household activities on waterways, the urban water cycle, and water management. This survey also examined demographics, psychosocial characteristics, exposure to water-related information, and water-related behaviors and policy support. Participants correctly answered a mean of 8.0 questions (Range 0-15. Most respondents knew that household actions can reduce water use and influence waterway health, whereas less than one third correctly identified that domestic wastewater is treated prior to entering waterways, urban stormwater is not treated, and that these are carried via different pipes. Higher water knowledge was associated with older age, higher education and living in non-urban areas. Poorer water knowledge was associated with speaking a language other than English in the home. Garden size, experience of water restrictions, satisfaction, waterway use for swimming, and certain information sources were also associated with knowledge. Greater water knowledge was associated with adoption of water-saving and pollution-reduction behaviors, and support for both alternative water sources and raingardens. These findings confirm the importance of community knowledge, and identify potential subgroups who may require additional targeting to build knowledge and support for water management initiatives.

  3. Community Knowledge about Water: Who Has Better Knowledge and Is This Associated with Water-Related Behaviors and Support for Water-Related Policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Angela J; Fielding, Kelly S; Newton, Fiona J

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable approaches to water management require broad community acceptance of changes in policy, practice and technology, which in turn, requires an engaged community. A critical first step in building an engaged community is to identify community knowledge about water management, an issue rarely examined in research. To address this, we surveyed a representative sample of Australian adults (n = 5172). Knowledge was assessed using 15 questions about impact of household activities on waterways, the urban water cycle, and water management. This survey also examined demographics, psychosocial characteristics, exposure to water-related information, and water-related behaviors and policy support. Participants correctly answered a mean of 8.0 questions (Range 0-15). Most respondents knew that household actions can reduce water use and influence waterway health, whereas less than one third correctly identified that domestic wastewater is treated prior to entering waterways, urban stormwater is not treated, and that these are carried via different pipes. Higher water knowledge was associated with older age, higher education and living in non-urban areas. Poorer water knowledge was associated with speaking a language other than English in the home. Garden size, experience of water restrictions, satisfaction, waterway use for swimming, and certain information sources were also associated with knowledge. Greater water knowledge was associated with adoption of water-saving and pollution-reduction behaviors, and support for both alternative water sources and raingardens. These findings confirm the importance of community knowledge, and identify potential subgroups who may require additional targeting to build knowledge and support for water management initiatives.

  4. Size effect related to damping caused by water submersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    An important effect of water submersion on the dynamic response of a structure is the increase in effective damping. The dynamic response of submerged structures is of interest in the nuclear power industry for reasons of operational safety during seismic and other dynamic excitations. In this paper, the added damping contribution that results from the viscosity of water and the dependence of the contribution on structural size are examined. Other factors considered are the applicable range of viscous damping with respect to displacement amplitude and, as far as damping is concerned, how far neighboring members must be from each other to respond as if in open water. An expression is derived for relating the damping value to structural size. Estimated added-damping values for representative fuel elements, fuel bundles, and main steam-pressure-relief-valve lines are given based on our derived expression for added damping

  5. Reactive and Proactive Subtypes of Relational and Physical Aggression in Middle Childhood: Links to Concurrent and Longitudinal Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2010-01-01

    Peer aggression in children is a serious issue that school psychologists often encounter on a daily basis. To develop a better understanding of aggression, it is important to look at specific subtypes of aggression and how they are related to adjustment difficulties. Past research has examined the links between reactive and proactive physical…

  6. Learning with LinkedIn: Students' Perceptions of Incorporating Subject-Related Blogging in an International Marketing Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan, Nataliya; Khodabandehloo, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to report the results of implementation of blogging within a LinkedIn discussion group in an international marketing course for a multicultural group of students focusing on the students' perceptions of the subject-related blogging. Design/Methodology/ Approach: This study adopts a qualitative approach; data have been…

  7. Relational Regulation Theory : A New Approach to Explain the Link Between Perceived Social Support and Mental Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakey, Brian; Orehek, Edward

    Perceived support is consistently linked to good mental health, which is typically explained as resulting from objectively supportive actions that buffer stress. Yet this explanation has difficulty accounting for the often-observed main effects between support and mental health. Relational

  8. The Broader Context of Relational Aggression in Adolescent Romantic Relationships: Predictions from Peer Pressure and Links to Psychosocial Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schad, Megan M.; Szwedo, David E.; Antonishak, Jill; Hare, Amanda; Allen, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    The broader context of relational aggression in adolescent romantic relationships was assessed by considering the ways such aggression emerged from prior experiences of peer pressure and was linked to concurrent difficulties in psychosocial functioning. Longitudinal, multi-reporter data were obtained from 97 adolescents and their best friends at…

  9. Linking habitat selection to fitness-related traits in herbivores: the role of the energy landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan A. Long; R. T. Bowyer; Warren P. Porter; Paul Mathewson; Kevin L. Monteith; Scott L. Findholt; Brian L. Dick; John G. Kie

    2016-01-01

    Animals may partially overcome environmental constraints on fitness by behaviorally adjusting their exposure to costs and supplies of energy. Few studies, however, have linked spatiotemporal variation in the energy landscape to behaviorally mediated measures of performance that ostensibly influence individual fitness. We hypothesized that strength of selection by North...

  10. First Detection of Water Ice and Organics on an Asteroid: A Possible Link to the Origin of Earth's Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrove, Kelsey D.; Campins, H.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Howell, E. S.; Kelley, M. S.; Licandro, J.; Mothédiniz, T.; Fernández, Y.; Ziffer, J.

    2010-05-01

    We report the detection of water ice and organics on the surface of asteroid 24 Themis. Our rotationally-resolved infrared (2-4 µm) spectra of this asteroid indicate that the ice and organics are widespread on its surface. The spectral difference with other asteroids observed in the same manner, makes 24 Themis unique so far. Our identification of water ice and organic compounds on this asteroid agrees with independent results (Rivkin and Emery 2010). At first glance, the presence of any surface ice on 24 Themis, particularly over a significant fraction of its surface, is puzzling because of the instability for exposed water ice at Themis's heliocentric distance ( 3.2 AU). Nevertheless, there are several possible sources for this unstable ice and identifying them is likely to be diagnostic of other processes on primitive asteroids. The presence of water ice on 24 Themis supports the idea that ice sublimation drives the cometary activity in two small members of the Themis dynamical family, labeled "Main Belt comets” by Hsieh and Jewitt (2006). It also helps to address other relevant questions, such as, how abundant is water ice in the outer asteroid belt and where was the "snow” line when the solar system formed? The answers to these questions could transform current views of primitive asteroids, delivery of water and organic molecules to Earth, and models of Solar System formation. This research was published in the April 29, 2010 issue of the journal Nature. Hargrove and Campins are visiting astronomers at the Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), which is operated by the University of Hawaii under Cooperative Agreement no. NCC 5-538 with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration

  11. The cross-linking influence of electromagnetic radiation on water-soluble polyacrylan compositions with biopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Grabowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of examinations of the cross-linking influence of electromagnetic radiation - in a microwave range – on polyacrylancompositions with biopolymers, are presented in the hereby paper. The cross-linking process of the tested compositions was determined on the basis of the FT-IR spectroscopic methods. It was shown that microwave operations can lead to the formation of new cross-linkedstructures with strong covalent bonds. The adsorption process and formation of active centres in polymer molecules as well as in highsilica sand were found due to microwave radiations. In this process hydroxyl groups (-OH - present in a polymer - and silane groups (Si- O-H - present in a matrix - are mainly taking part. Spectroscopic and strength tests performed for the system: biopolymer binding agent – matrix indicate that the microwave radiation can be applied for hardening moulding sands with biopolymer binders.

  12. Estrogen-related receptor gamma disruption of source water and drinking water treatment processes extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Jiang, Weiwei; Rao, Kaifeng; Ma, Mei; Wang, Zijian; Kumaran, Satyanarayanan Senthik

    2011-01-01

    Environmental chemicals in drinking water can impact human health through nuclear receptors. Additionally, estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are vulnerable to endocrine-disrupting effects. To date, however, ERR disruption of drinking water potency has not been reported. We used ERRgamma two-hybrid yeast assay to screen ERRgamma disrupting activities in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) located in north China and in source water from a reservoir, focusing on agonistic, antagonistic, and inverse agonistic activity to 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT). Water treatment processes in the DWTP consisted of pre-chlorination, coagulation, coal and sand filtration, activated carbon filtration, and secondary chlorination processes. Samples were extracted by solid phase extraction. Results showed that ERRgamma antagonistic activities were found in all sample extracts, but agonistic and inverse agonistic activity to 4-OHT was not found. When calibrated with the toxic equivalent of 4-OHT, antagonistic effluent effects ranged from 3.4 to 33.1 microg/L. In the treatment processes, secondary chlorination was effective in removing ERRgamma antagonists, but the coagulation process led to significantly increased ERRgamma antagonistic activity. The drinking water treatment processes removed 73.5% of ERRgamma antagonists. To our knowledge, the occurrence of ERRgamma disruption activities on source and drinking water in vitro had not been reported previously. It is vital, therefore, to increase our understanding of ERRy disrupting activities in drinking water.

  13. Extreme diving behaviour in devil rays links surface waters and the deep ocean

    KAUST Repository

    Thorrold, Simon R.; Afonso, Pedro; Fontes, Jorge; Braun, Camrin D.; Santos, Ricardo S.; Skomal, Gregory B.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological connections between surface waters and the deep ocean remain poorly studied despite the high biomass of fishes and squids residing at depths beyond the euphotic zone. These animals likely support pelagic food webs containing a suite

  14. Linking otolith microchemistry and surface water contamination from natural gas mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, David H; Zelanko, Paula M; Gagnon, Joel E; Horwitz, Richard J; Galbraith, Heather S; Velinsky, David J

    2018-09-01

    Unconventional natural gas drilling and the use of hydraulic fracturing technology have expanded rapidly in North America. This expansion has raised concerns of surface water contamination by way of spills and leaks, which may be sporadic, small, and therefore difficult to detect. Here we explore the use of otolith microchemistry as a tool for monitoring surface water contamination from generated waters (GW) of unconventional natural gas drilling. We exposed Brook Trout in the laboratory to three volumetric concentrations of surrogate generated water (SGW) representing GW on day five of drilling. Transects across otolith cross-sections were analyzed for a suite of elements by LA-ICP-MS. Brook Trout exposed to a 0.01-1.0% concentration of SGW for 2, 15, and 30 days showed a significant (p waters and provide support for the use of this technique in natural habitats. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of how trace elements in fish otoliths may be used to monitor for surface water contamination from GW. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reflexive Land and Water Management in Iran: Linking Technology, Governance and Culture. Part 1: Land and Water Management Paradigms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balali, M.R.; Keulartz, F.W.J.; Korthals, M.J.J.A.A.

    2011-01-01

    In order to examine the possibilities for sustainable land and water management in Iran, this research was carried out with two types of research and their combinations, i.e. theoretical and empirical research during 2005- 2009. In the theoretical part, which is the scope of this paper, the

  16. Volcanic flows versus water- and ice-related outburst deposits in eastern Hellas: A comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, M.; Hauber, E.; Stephan, K.; Jaumann, R.

    2018-06-01

    Hellas Planitia is one of the major topographic sinks on Mars for the deposition of any kind of sediments. We report on our observations of sheet deposits in the eastern part of the basin that are apparently related to the Dao Vallis outflow channel. The deposits have lobate flow fronts and a thickness of a few decameters. Despite their generally smooth surface, some distinctive textures and patterns can be identified, such as longitudinal lineations, distributive channels, and polygons. We compared these deposits to other sheet deposits on Mars and tested three hypotheses of their origin: volcanic flows as well as water- and ice-related mass wastings. Despite some similarities to volcanic sheet flows on Mars, we found several morphological characteristics that are not known for sheet lava flows; for example conically arranged lineations and channel systems very similar to fluvial incisions. We also reject an ice-related formation similar to terrestrial rock-ice avalanches, as there is no sufficient relief energy to explain their extent and location. A water-related origin appears most consistent with our observations, and we favor an emplacement by fluvially-driven mass wasting processes, e.g., debris flows. Assuming a water-related origin, we calculated the amount of water that would be required to deposit such large sedimentary bodies for different flow types. Our calculations show a large range of possible water volumes, from 64 to 2,042 km³, depending on the specific flow mechanism. The close link to Dao Vallis makes these deposits a unique place to study the deposition of outflow channel sediments, as the deposits of other outflow channels on Mars, such as those around Chryse Planitia, are mostly buried by younger sediments and volcanic flows.

  17. Analysis of Health Indicators in Two Rural Communities on the Colombian Caribbean Coast: Poor Water Supply and Education Level Are Associated with Water-Related Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Díaz, María Stephany; Mora-García, Gustavo José; Salguedo-Madrid, Germán Israel; Alario, Ángelo; Gómez-Camargo, Doris Esther

    2017-11-01

    Water-related diseases are closely linked with drinking water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) indicators, socioeconomic status, education level, or dwelling's conditions. Developing countries exhibit a particular vulnerability to these diseases, especially rural areas and urban slums. This study assessed socioeconomic features, WASH indicators, and water-related diseases in two rural areas of the Colombian Caribbean coast. Most of this population did not finish basic education (72.3%, N = 159). Only one of the communities had a water supply (aqueduct), whereas the other received water via an adapted tanker ship. No respondents reported sewage services; 92.7% ( N = 204) had garbage service. Reported cases of diarrhea were associated with low education levels ( P = 2.37 × 10 -9 ) and an unimproved drinking water supply ( P = 0.035). At least one fever episode was reported in 20% ( N = 44) of dwellings, but the cases were not related to any indicator. The Aedes/ House index (percentage of houses that tested positive for Aedes larvae and/or pupae) was 69%, the container index (percentage of water-holding containers positive for Aedes larvae or pupae) 29.4%, and the Breteau index (number of positive containers per 100 houses in a specific location) was three positive containers per 100 inspected houses. The presence of positive containers was associated with the absence of a drinking water supply ( P = 0.04). The community with poorer health indicators showed greater health vulnerability conditions for acquisition of water-related diseases. In summary, water supply and educational level were the main factors associated with the presence of water-related diseases in both communities.

  18. Viruses as the causative agent related to 'dampness' and the missing link between allergen exposure and onset of allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hersoug, Lars-Georg

    2005-01-01

    concentration and symptoms indicate a missing link between allergen exposure and onset of asthma. Respiratory viruses have been identified in up to 85% cases of asthma or exacerbations of asthma. The missing link between respiratory diseases and humid indoor climates could therefore be attributed to viruses....... The infectious effectiveness of respiratory viruses depends strongly on the environment where the viruses are spread. For respiratory viruses, survival and infectivity are dependent on temperature and relative humidity. A direct link between virus-induced inflammation and the asthmatogenic process has been...... subjects. Therefore, a humid indoor climate could also represent a higher risk for persons already sensitized to one or more allergens. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: In epidemiological studies where the relationship between moisture in the indoor climate, respiratory symptoms and exposure to allergens...

  19. Relative frequencies and significance of faecal coliforms as indicators related to water temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auban, E G; Ripolles, A A; Domarco, M J

    1983-01-01

    The faecal coliforms at different sites of a hypereutrophic lake near Valencia (Albufera) were identified and their relative amounts established along an annual cycle. Using lauryl tryptose broth at 35 degrees C, followed by incubation at 44.4 degrees C in 2% brilliant green bile, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae are practically the only coliforms present. A positive correlation was found between the water temperature and the relative amount of these two coliforms: K. pneumoniae predominates at high water temperatures, whereas E. coli shows preponderance during the cold period. The role of K. pneumoniae as the only faecal indicator under the circumstances described in the work is emphasized and discussed.

  20. Linking climate change to water provision: greywater treatment by constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qomariyah, S.; Ramelan, AH; Setyono, P.; Sobriyah

    2018-03-01

    Climate change has been felt to take place in Indonesia, causing the temperature to increase, additional drought with more moisture evaporates from rivers, lakes, and other bodies of water, and intense rainfall in a shorter rainy season. One of the major concerns is the risk of severe drought leading to water shortages. It will affect water supply and agriculture yields. As a country extremely vulnerable to the climate change, Indonesia must adapt to the serious environmental issues. This paper aims to offer an effort of water provision by recycling and reusing of greywater applying constructed wetland systems. The treated greywater is useful as water provision for non-consumptive uses. A recent experiment was conducted on a household yard using a single horizontal subsurface flow type of constructed wetland. The experiments demonstrated that the constructed wetland systems reduced effectively the pollutants of TSS, BOD, COD, and detergent to the level that are compliant with regulatory standards. The constructed wetland has been established for almost two years however the system still works properly.

  1. Linking seasonal surface water dynamics with methane emissions and export from small, forested wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondula, K. L.; Palmer, M.

    2017-12-01

    One of the biggest uncertainties about global methane sources and sinks is attributed to uncertainties regarding wetland area and its dynamics. This is exacerbated by confusion over the role of small, shallow water bodies like Delmarva bay wetlands that could be categorized as both wetlands and ponds. These small inland water bodies are often poorly quantified due to their size, closed forest canopies, and inter- and intra-annual variability in surface water extent. We are studying wetland-rich areas on the Delmarva Peninsula in the U.S. mid-Atlantic to address this uncertainty at the scale of individual wetland ecosystems ( 1m depth). We estimated the size and temporal variability of the methane emissions source area by combining these measurements with daily estimates of the extent of surface water inundation derived from water level monitoring and a high-resolution digital elevation model. This knowledge is critical for informing land use decisions (e.g. restoring wetlands specifically for climate mitigation), the jurisdiction of environmental policies in the US, and for resolving major outstanding discrepancies in our understanding of the global methane budget.

  2. Modeling Sustainability of Water, Environment, Livelihood, and Culture in Traditional Irrigation Communities and Their Linked Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Boykin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity, land use conversion and cultural and ecosystem changes threaten the way of life for traditional irrigation communities of the semi-arid southwestern United States. Traditions are strong, yet potential upheaval is great in these communities that rely on acequia irrigation systems. Acequias are ancient ditch systems brought from the Iberian Peninsula to the New World over 400 years ago; they are simultaneously gravity flow water delivery systems and shared water governance institutions. Acequias have survived periods of drought and external shocks from changing economics, demographics, and resource uses. Now, climate change and urbanization threaten water availability, ecosystem functions, and the acequia communities themselves. Do past adaptive practices hold the key to future sustainability, or are new strategies required? To explore this issue we translated disciplinary understanding into a uniform format of causal loop diagrams to conceptualize the subsystems of the entire acequia-based human-natural system. Four subsystems are identified in this study: hydrology, ecosystem, land use/economics, and sociocultural. Important linkages between subsystems were revealed as well as variables indicating community cohesion (e.g., total irrigated land, intensity of upland grazing, mutualism. Ongoing work will test the conceptualizations with field data and modeling exercises to capture tipping points for non-sustainability and thresholds for sustainable water use and community longevity.

  3. Epidemicity thresholds for water-borne and water-related diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, Lorenzo; Casagrandi, Renato; Rinaldo, Andrea; Gatto, Marino

    2018-06-14

    Determining the conditions that favor pathogen establishment in a host community is key to disease control and eradication. However, focusing on long-term dynamics alone may lead to an underestimation of the threats imposed by outbreaks triggered by short-term transient phenomena. Achieving an effective epidemiological response thus requires to look at different timescales, each of which may be endowed with specific management objectives. In this work we aim to determine epidemicity thresholds for some prototypical examples of water-borne and water-related diseases, a diverse family of infections transmitted either directly through water infested with pathogens or by vectors whose lifecycles are closely associated with water. From a technical perspective, while conditions for endemicity are determined via stability analysis, epidemicity thresholds are defined through generalized reactivity analysis, a recently proposed method that allows the study of the short-term instability properties of ecological systems. Understanding the drivers of water-borne and water-related disease dynamics over timescales that may be relevant to epidemic and/or endemic transmission is a challenge of the utmost importance, as large portions of the developing world are still struggling with the burden imposed by these infections. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Developmental Links Between Children's Working Memory and their Social Relations with Teachers and Peers in the Early School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wilde, Amber; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the developmental links between children's working memory development and their relations with teachers and peers across 2 years of kindergarten and early elementary school. Kindergarten and first grade children, N = 1109, 50% boys, were followed across 2 school-years. Children were assessed across 3 waves, in the fall and spring of the first school-year (within school-year), and finally in the spring of the second school-year. Working memory was assessed using a visuo-spatial working memory task. The developmental links between working memory and child-reported teacher-child relationship quality (warmth and conflict) and peer-nominated likeability and friendedness were assessed using autoregressive cross-lagged models. Lower working memory scores were related to increases in teacher-child conflict and decreases in teacher-child warmth one school-year later, in addition to decreases in likeability by peers within the same school-year. Conversely, teacher-child conflict was negatively associated with the development of working memory across the studied period. Path estimates between working memory and social relational factors were similar for boys and girls. Findings show developmental links between working memory and social-relational factors and vice versa. These results suggest that children's working memory development can be fostered through pro-social relations with teachers in early elementary school children.

  5. Method of cross-linking polyvinyl alcohol and other water soluble resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillipp, W. H.; May, C. E.; Hsu, L. C.; Sheibley, D. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A self supporting sheet structure comprising a water soluble, noncrosslinked polymer such as polyvinyl alcohol which is capable of being crosslinked by reaction with hydrogen atom radicals and hydroxyl molecule radicals is contacted with an aqueous solution having a pH of less than 8 and containing a dissolved salt in an amount sufficient to prevent substantial dissolution of the noncrosslinked polymer in the aqueous solution. The aqueous solution is then irradiated with ionizing radiation to form hydrogen atom radicals and hydroxyl molecule radicals and the irradiation is continued for a time sufficient to effect crosslinking of the water soluble polymer to produce a water insoluble polymer sheet structure. The method has particular application in the production of battery separators and electrode envelopes for alkaline batteries.

  6. Effects of soil water depletion on the water relations in tropical kudzu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaucto Bellarmino de Pereira-Netto

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Tropical kudzu (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth., Leguminosae: Faboideae is native to the humid Southeastern Asia. Tropical kudzu has potential as a cover crop in regions subjected to dryness. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of soil water depletion on leaflet relative water content (RWC, stomatal conductance (g and temperature (T L in tropical kudzu. RWC of waterstressed plants dropped from 96 to 78%, following a reduction in SWC from 0.25 to 0.17 g (H2O.g (dry soil-1.Stomatal conductance of stressed plants decreased from 221 to 98 mmol.m-2.s-1, following the reduction in soil water content (SWC. The day after re-irrigation, g of water stressed plants was 15% lower than g of unstressed plants. Differences in T L between waterstressed and unstressed plants (deltaT L rose linearly from 0.1 to 2.2ºC following progressive water deficit. RWC and T L of waterstressed plants paralled RWC and T L of unstressed plants the day after reirrigation. The strong decrease in SWC found in this study only induced moderate water stress in tropical kudzu. In addition, tropical kudzu recover rapidly from the induced water stress after the re-irrigation.

  7. Link between DOC in near surface peat and stream water in an upland catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joanna M; Lane, Stuart N; Chapman, Pippa J; Adamson, John K

    2008-10-15

    Hydrologic transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from peat soils may differ to organo-mineral soils in how they responded to changes in flow, because of differences in soil profile and hydrology. In well-drained organo-mineral soils, low flow is through the lower mineral layer where DOC is absorbed and high flow is through the upper organic layer where DOC is produced. DOC concentrations in streams draining organo-mineral soils typically increase with flow. In saturated peat soils, both high and low flows are through an organic layer where DOC is produced. Therefore, DOC in stream water draining peat may not increase in response to changes in flow as there is no switch in flow path between a mineral and organic layer. To verify this, we conducted a high-resolution monitoring study of soil and stream water at an upland peat catchment in northern England. Our data showed a strong positive correlation between DOC concentrations at -1 and -5 cm depth and stream water, and weaker correlations between concentrations at -20 to -50 cm depth and stream water. Although near surface organic material appears to be the key source of stream water DOC in both peat and organo-mineral soils, we observed a negative correlation between stream flow and DOC concentrations instead of a positive correlation as DOC released from organic layers during low and high flow was diluted by rainfall. The differences in DOC transport processes between peat and organo-mineral soils have different implications for our understanding of long-term changes in DOC exports. While increased rainfall may cause an increase in DOC flux from peat due to an increase in water volume, it may cause a decrease in concentrations. This response is contrary to expected changes in DOC exports from organo-mineral soils, where increase rainfall is likely to result in an increase in flux and concentration.

  8. Vocal cord dysfunction related to water-damaged buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kristin J; Fink, Jordan N; Vasudev, Monica; Piacitelli, Chris; Kreiss, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) is the intermittent paradoxical adduction of the vocal cords during respiration, resulting in variable upper airway obstruction. Exposure to damp indoor environments is associated with adverse respiratory health outcomes, including asthma, but its role in the development of VCD is not well described. We describe the spectrum of respiratory illness in occupants of 2 water-damaged office buildings. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conducted a health hazard evaluation that included interviews with managers, a maintenance officer, a remediation specialist who had evaluated the 2 buildings, employees, and consulting physicians. In addition, medical records and reports of building evaluations were reviewed. Diagnostic evaluations for VCD had been conducted at the Asthma and Allergy Center of the Medical College of Wisconsin. Two cases of VCD were temporally related to occupancy of water-damaged buildings. The patients experienced cough, chest tightness, dyspnea, wheezing, and hoarseness when in the buildings. Spirometry was normal. Methacholine challenge did not show bronchial hyperreactivity but did elicit symptoms of VCD and inspiratory flow-volume loop truncation. Direct laryngoscopy revealed vocal cord adduction during inspiration. Coworkers developed upper and lower respiratory symptoms; their diagnoses included sinusitis and asthma, consistent with recognized effects of exposure to indoor dampness. Building evaluations provided evidence of water damage and mold growth. VCD can occur with exposure to water-damaged buildings and should be considered in exposed patients with asthma-like symptoms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Absorbing aerosols at high relative humidity: linking hygroscopic growth to optical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Michel Flores

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major uncertainties in the understanding of Earth's climate system is the interaction between solar radiation and aerosols in the atmosphere. Aerosols exposed to high humidity will change their chemical, physical, and optical properties due to their increased water content. To model hydrated aerosols, atmospheric chemistry and climate models often use the volume weighted mixing rule to predict the complex refractive index (RI of aerosols when they interact with high relative humidity, and, in general, assume homogeneous mixing. This study explores the validity of these assumptions. A humidified cavity ring down aerosol spectrometer (CRD-AS and a tandem hygroscopic DMA (differential mobility analyzer are used to measure the extinction coefficient and hygroscopic growth factors of humidified aerosols, respectively. The measurements are performed at 80% and 90%RH at wavelengths of 532 nm and 355 nm using size-selected aerosols with different degrees of absorption; from purely scattering to highly absorbing particles. The ratio of the humidified to the dry extinction coefficients (fRHext(%RH, Dry is measured and compared to theoretical calculations based on Mie theory. Using the measured hygroscopic growth factors and assuming homogeneous mixing, the expected RIs using the volume weighted mixing rule are compared to the RIs derived from the extinction measurements.

    We found a weak linear dependence or no dependence of fRH(%RH, Dry with size for hydrated absorbing aerosols in contrast to the non-monotonically decreasing behavior with size for purely scattering aerosols. No discernible difference could be made between the two wavelengths used. Less than 7% differences were found between the real parts of the complex refractive indices derived and those calculated using the volume weighted mixing rule, and the imaginary parts had up to a 20% difference. However, for substances with growth factor less than 1

  10. The link between water quality and tidal marshes in a highly impacted estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meire, Patrick; Maris, Tom; van Damme, Stefan; Jacobs, Sander; Cox, Tom; Struyf, Eric

    2010-05-01

    The Schelde estuary is one of the most heavily impacted estuaries in Europe. During several decades, untreated waste water from large cities (e.g. Brussels, Antwerp, Valenciennes, Lille) and industries was discharged in the river. As a result, the Schelde estuary has the reputation of being one of the most polluted estuaries in Europe. For a long time (approx. 1950 - 1995) all forms of higher life (macro-invertebrates and fish) were absent in the fresh and brackish parts of the estuary. Due to European legislation, a large part of the sewage water is now treated resulting in a significant recovery of water quality in the estuary. However, next to water quality, the estuary also suffered serious habitat losses during the last decades, mostly due to economic development and changing hydrological conditions causing more erosion. Over the last fifteen years, the management of the estuary has changed fundamentally. It is now more and more focused on the restoration of ecosystem services. In this presentation we will document the changes in water quality over the last 50 years and summarize recent work on the role of tidal marshes on water quality within the freshwater part of the Schelde estuary. Our results stress the important of taking into account ecosystem services and habitat restoration for long-term estuarine management. .After decades of high inorganic nutrient concentrations and recurring anoxia and hypoxia, we observed a paradoxical increase in chlorophyll-a concentrations with decreasing nutrient inputs, indicating a regime shift. Our results indicate that the recovery of a hypereutrophied systems towards a classical eutrophied state, needs the reduction of waste loads below certain thresholds. Paradoxically, phytoplankton production was inhibited by high ammonia or low oxygen concentrations. The system state change is accompanied by large fluctuations in oxygen concentrations. The improved water quality resulted in a remarkable recovery of different groups

  11. Combining integrated models and participatory methods to quantify water and agricultural trade-offs linked to different rural development scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, David; Willaarts, Barbara; García, Ángel de Miguel; Tarquis, Ana Maria

    2017-04-01

    This study explores the water and agricultural tradeoffs linked to three different rural development scenarios in the Cega-Eresma-Adaja basin (CEA) in Central Spain. Agriculture is a key socioeconomic activity in CEA, and nearly 44% of the basin is devoted to croplands and pastures. Irrigated agriculture accounts for 12% of the cropland area and is currently using over 84% of available water resources. To define the three scenarios for CEA, we conducted a workshop with local stakeholders to infer how contrasting evolutions of EU agricultural, water and environmental policies could affect the local land use and agricultural management using participatory mapping techniques. The three scenarios reflect 1) a business as usual (BAU) rural development; 2) a land sharing strategy (LSH); and 3) a land sparing (LSP) situation. The integrated Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to model the changes in water use (hm^3/year) and agricultural productivity (ton/year) under each scenario. To account for changes in agricultural land use and management, the model integrates a large set of agricultural patterns obtained from combining high resolution remote sensing images (20m x 20m) for the years 2011-2015, agricultural productivity from survey by municipality and land use information obtained from the national map SIOSE2011 (1:50.000). Model calibration and sensitivity analysis were performed using SWAT-CUP/SUFI2 The period of the years 2005 to 2008 were used for parameter calibration and validation period extending between 2009 and 2014. The predicted daily streamflow presents a correlation coefficient of 0.76 and a NS coefficient of 0.81. The preliminary results reveal that under a BAU and a LSP scenario agricultural production and water demand will increase significantly (>25%) despite the improvements in water use efficiency and agricultural productivity. Under these scenarios, allocated water is likely to exceed the natural renewable water resources compromising the

  12. Are nitrate exports in stream water linked to nitrogen fluxes in decomposing foliar litter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn B. Piatek; Mary Beth. Adams

    2011-01-01

    The central hardwood forest receives some of the highest rates of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, which results in nitrate leaching to surface waters. Immobilization of N in foliar litter during litter decomposition represents a potential mechanism for temporal retention of atmospherically deposited N in forest ecosystems. When litter N dynamics switch to the N-...

  13. Biodiversity links above and below the marine sediment-water interface that may influence community stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Austen, M.C.; Lambshead, P.J.D.; Hutchings, P.; Boucher, G.; Snelgrove, P.V.R.; Heip, C.H.R.; King, G.; Koike, I.; Smith, C.

    2002-01-01

    Linkages across the sediment-water interface (SWI) between biodiversity and community stability appear to exist but are very poorly studied. Processes by which changes in biodiversity could affect stability on the other side of the SWI include carbon transfer during feeding, decomposition of organic

  14. In vitro degradation of dermal sheep collagen cross-linked using a water-soluble carbodiimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damink, LHHO; Dijkstra, PJ; vanLuyn, MJA; vanWachem, PB; Nieuwenhuis, P; Feijen, J

    Bacterial collagenase was used to study the susceptibility of dermal sheep collagen (DSC) cross-inked with a mixture of the water-soluble carbodiimide 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EIN-DSC) towards enzymatic degradation. Contrary to

  15. Comment on 'Water footprint of marine protein consumption—aquaculture's link to agriculture'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troell, M.; Metian, M.; Beveridge, M.; Verdegem, M.C.J.; Deutsch, L.

    2014-01-01

    In their article ‘Freshwater savings from marine protein consumption’ (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 014005), Gephart and her colleagues analyzed how consumption of marine animal protein rather than terrestrial animal protein leads to reduced freshwater allocation. They concluded that future water

  16. UV radiation and natural fluorescence linked primary production in Antarctic waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.; KrishnaKumari, L.; Bhattathiri, P.M.A.; Chandramohan, D.

    Primary productivity and chlorophyll values have been measured using an underwater profiling radiometer for the first time in the waters around Indian Antarctic Station (70°46'S & 11°44'E) in the summer of 1994. The profiles include natural...

  17. Linking Health Concepts in the Assessment and Evaluation of Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karney, Bryan W.; Filion, Yves R.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of health is not only a specific criterion for evaluation of water quality delivered by a distribution system but also a suitable paradigm for overall functioning of the hydraulic and structural components of the system. This article views health, despite its complexities, as the only criterion with suitable depth and breadth to allow…

  18. Analytical Estimation of Water-Oil Relative Permeabilities through Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saboorian-Jooybari Hadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Modeling multiphase flow through fractures is a key issue for understanding flow mechanism and performance prediction of fractured petroleum reservoirs, geothermal reservoirs, underground aquifers and carbon-dioxide sequestration. One of the most challenging subjects in modeling of fractured petroleum reservoirs is quantifying fluids competition for flow in fracture network (relative permeability curves. Unfortunately, there is no standard technique for experimental measurement of relative permeabilities through fractures and the existing methods are very expensive, time consuming and erroneous. Although, several formulations were presented to calculate fracture relative permeability curves in the form of linear and power functions of flowing fluids saturation, it is still unclear what form of relative permeability curves must be used for proper modeling of flow through fractures and consequently accurate reservoir simulation. Basically, the classic linear relative permeability (X-type curves are used in almost all of reservoir simulators. In this work, basic fluid flow equations are combined to develop a new simple analytical model for water-oil two phase flow in a single fracture. The model gives rise to simple analytic formulations for fracture relative permeabilities. The model explicitly proves that water-oil relative permeabilities in fracture network are functions of fluids saturation, viscosity ratio, fluids density, inclination of fracture plane from horizon, pressure gradient along fracture and rock matrix wettability, however they were considered to be only functions of saturations in the classic X-type and power (Corey [35] and Honarpour et al. [28, 29] models. Eventually, validity of the proposed formulations is checked against literature experimental data. The proposed fracture relative permeability functions have several advantages over the existing ones. Firstly, they are explicit functions of the parameters which are known for

  19. Suspected X-linked facial dysmorphia and growth retardation in related Labrador retriever puppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierks, C; Hoffmann, H; Heinrich, F; Hellige, M; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Distl, O

    2017-02-01

    Seven male Labrador retriever puppies from four different litters were identified with a brachycephalic-like face and skull, associated with low birth weight, severe growth retardation, and reduced abilities to crawl and suckle, which were not compatible with survival. Excessive doming of the cranium, brachygnathia superior and inferior, and an abnormally opened fontanelle were found in all affected puppies by computed tomography and at post-mortem examination. Pedigree analysis supported an X-linked recessive mode of inheritance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Exergy analysis of a system using a chemical heat pump to link a supercritical water-cooled nuclear reactor and a thermochemical water splitting cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granovskii, M.; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M. A.; Pioro, I

    2007-01-01

    The power generation efficiency of nuclear plants is mainly determined by the permissible temperatures and pressures of the nuclear reactor fuel and coolants. These parameters are limited by materials properties and corrosion rates and their effect on nuclear reactor safety. The advanced materials for the next generation of CANDU reactors, which employ steam as a coolant and heat carrier, permit the increased steam parameters (outlet temperature up to 625 degree C and pressure of about 25 MPa). Supercritical water-cooled (SCW) nuclear power plants are expected to increase the power generation efficiency from 35 to 45%. Supercritical water-cooled nuclear reactors can be linked to thermochemical water splitting cycles for hydrogen production. An increased steam temperature from the nuclear reactor makes it also possible to utilize its energy in thermochemical water splitting cycles. These cycles are considered by many as one of the most efficient ways to produce hydrogen from water and to have advantages over traditional low-temperature water electrolysis. However, even lower temperature water splitting cycles (Cu-Cl, UT-3, etc.) require a heat supply at the temperatures over 550-600 degree C. A sufficient increase in the heat transfer from the nuclear reactor to a thermochemical water splitting cycle, without jeopardizing nuclear reactor safety, might be effectively achieved by application of a heat pump which increases the temperature the heat supplied by virtue of a cyclic process driven by mechanical or electrical work. A high temperature chemical heat pump which employs the reversible catalytic methane conversion reaction is proposed. The reaction shift from exothermic to endothermic and back is achieved by a change of the steam concentration in the reaction mixture. This heat pump, coupled with a SCW nuclear plant on one side and thermochemical water splitting cycle on the other, increases the temperature level of the 'nuclear' heat and, thus, the intensity of

  1. Effects of phase transformation of steam-water relative permeabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, A.K.

    1986-03-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental study of steam-water relative permeabilities (RPs) was carried out. First, an experimental study of two-phase concurrent flow of steam and water was conducted and a set of RP curves was obtained. These curves were compared with semi-empirical and experimental results obtained by other investigators for two-phase, two-component flow (oil/gas; gas/water; gas/oil). It was found that while the wetting phase RPs were in good agreement, RPs for the steam phase were considerably higher than the non-wetting phase RPs in two-component systems. This enhancement of steam RP is attributed to phase transformation effects at the pore level in flow channels. The effects of phase transformation were studied theoretically. This study indicates that there are two separate mechanisms by which phase transformation affects RP curves: (1) Phase transformation is converging-diverging flow channels can cause an enhancement of steam phase RP. In a channel dominated by steam a fraction of the flowing steam condenses upstream from the constriction, depositing its latent heat of condensation. This heat is conducted through the solid grains around the pore throat, and evaporation takes place downstream from it. Therefore, for a given bulk flow quality; a smaller fraction of steam actually flows through the throat segments. This pore-level effect manifests itself as relative permeability enhancement on a macroscopic level; and (2) phase transformation along the interface of a stagnant phase and the phase flowing around it controls the irreducible phase saturation. Therefore, the irreducible phase saturation in steam-water flow will depend, among other factors, on the boundary conditions of the flow.

  2. Linking hard and soft traits: Physiology, morphology and anatomy interact to determine habitat affinities to soil water availability in herbaceous dicots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belluau, Michaël; Shipley, Bill

    2018-01-01

    Species' habitat affinities along environmental gradients should be determined by a combination of physiological (hard) and morpho-anatomical (soft) traits. Using a gradient of soil water availability, we address three questions: How well can we predict habitat affinities from hard traits, from soft traits, and from a combination of the two? How well can we predict species' physiological responses to drought (hard traits) from their soft traits? Can we model a causal sequence as soft traits → hard traits → species distributions? We chose 25 species of herbaceous dicots whose affinities for soil moisture have already been linked to 5 physiological traits (stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis measured at soil field capacity, water use efficiency, stomatal conductance and soil water potential measured when leaves begin to wilt). Under controlled conditions in soils at field capacity, we measured five soft traits (leaf dry matter content, specific leaf area, leaf nitrogen content, stomatal area, specific root length). Soft traits alone were poor predictors (R2 = 0.129) while hard traits explained 48% of species habitat affinities. Moreover, hard traits were significantly related to combinations of soft traits. From a priori biological knowledge and hypothesized ecological links we built a path model showing a sequential pattern soft traits → hard traits → species distributions and accounting for 59.6% (p = 0.782) of habitat wetness. Both direct and indirect causal relationships existed between soft traits, hard traits and species' habitat preferences. The poor predictive abilities of soft traits alone were due to the existence of antagonistic and synergistic direct and indirect effects of soft traits on habitat preferences mediated by the hard traits. To obtain a more realistic model applicable to a population level, it has to be tested in an experiment including species competition for water supply.

  3. Absorbed Pb2+ and Cd2+ Ions in Water by Cross-Linked Starch Xanthate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-linked starch xanthate was prepared by graft copolymerization of acrylamide and sodium acrylate onto starch xanthate using potassium persulfate and sodium hydrogen sulfite initiating system and N,N′-methylenebisacrylamide as a cross-linker. As this kind of cross-linked potato starch xanthate can effectively absorb heavy metal ions, it was dispersed in aqueous solutions of divalent heavy metal ions (Pb2+ and Cd2+ to investigate their absorbency by the polymer. Factors that can influence absorbency were investigated, such as the ratio of matrix to monomers, the amount of initiator and cross-linker, pH, and the concentration of metal ions. Results were reached and conclusion was drawn that the best synthetic conditions for the polymer adsorbing Pb2+ and Cd2+ were as follows: the quality ratio of matrix to monomers was 1 : 12 and 1 : 11, the amount of initiator was 2.4% and 3.2% of matrix, and the amount of cross-linker was 12 mg and 13 mg. When the initial concentration of ions was 10 mg/L, the highest quantities of adsorption of Pb2+ and Cd2+ were 47.11 mg/g and 36.55 mg/g. Adsorption mechanism was discussed by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS test, and adsorption kinetic simulation.

  4. Novel indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method to detect Total E. coli in water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Na; He Miao; Shi Hanchang

    2007-01-01

    In order to establish ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) method to detect Total E. coli in water environment, E. coli multi-characters antigens in water environment were prepared according to the characters of kinds of E. coli serotypes, including antigen of whole cell, antigen of disrupted whole cell, somatic antigen, flagellar antigen and fimbrial antigen. Total E. coli polyclonal antibodies were obtained from the New Zealand rabbits immunized with these five antigens, respectively. Antibodies generated in this research are with high titers and good purity, can conjugate with antigens, specifically, stably and strongly. Indirect ELISA shows the titers of antibody of whole cell and antibody of disrupted whole cell are both over 1 x 10 5 . The cross-reactivity of the antibody is from 12 to 30% which indicate the specificity of the antibody against Total E. coli. Based on these antibodies, we established indirect ELISA method to detect Total E. coli in water environment. The matrix effects were studied and the results show that there is no significant influence by all the factors. The ELISA result shows that the detection limitation could be 10 4 CFU (colony forming units) L -1 . The indirect ELISA method developed in this study is well suited for Total E. coli analysis in real water samples as a rapid screen method

  5. Enhancement of water retention by cross-linked carboxymethylcellulose through polystyrene grafting or γ irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, S.S.; Perlin, A.S.

    1975-01-01

    The absorbency and retention characteristics of crosslinked carboxymethylcellulose (CLCMC) with respect to water and saline can be substantially improved by two different treatments. One treatment involves γ-radioinduced grafting of polystyrene onto fibers of CLCMC. At a critical level of grafting (approximately 25 percent) the retentive capacity of the fibers is almost doubled. Particularly noteworthy is the sharp increase that follows an initial drop in retentivity. It is concluded the polystyrene becomes associated preferentially with residual ordered regions of the CLCMC macromolecule, through the localization of free radicals in these regions. A second means for enhancing the water and saline retention value of CLCMC, consists of subjecting the material to gamma irradiation from a 60 Co source. Dosages used have ranged from 1.0 to 4.8 megarads (MR), depending on the degree of substitution of the initial carboxymethylcellulose. (JGB)

  6. Linking quantitative microbial risk assessment and epidemiological data: informing safe drinking water trials in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enger, Kyle S; Nelson, Kara L; Clasen, Thomas; Rose, Joan B; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2012-05-01

    Intervention trials are used extensively to assess household water treatment (HWT) device efficacy against diarrheal disease in developing countries. Using these data for policy, however, requires addressing issues of generalizability (relevance of one trial in other contexts) and systematic bias associated with design and conduct of a study. To illustrate how quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) can address water safety and health issues, we analyzed a published randomized controlled trial (RCT) of the LifeStraw Family Filter in the Congo. The model accounted for bias due to (1) incomplete compliance with filtration, (2) unexpected antimicrobial activity by the placebo device, and (3) incomplete recall of diarrheal disease. Effectiveness was measured using the longitudinal prevalence ratio (LPR) of reported diarrhea. The Congo RCT observed an LPR of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.61, 1.14). Our model predicted LPRs, assuming a perfect placebo, ranging from 0.50 (2.5-97.5 percentile: 0.33, 0.77) to 0.86 (2.5-97.5 percentile: 0.68, 1.09) for high (but not perfect) and low (but not zero) compliance, respectively. The calibration step provided estimates of the concentrations of three pathogen types (modeled as diarrheagenic E. coli, Giardia, and rotavirus) in drinking water, consistent with the longitudinal prevalence of reported diarrhea measured in the trial, and constrained by epidemiological data from the trial. Use of a QMRA model demonstrated the importance of compliance in HWT efficacy, the need for pathogen data from source waters, the effect of quantifying biases associated with epidemiological data, and the usefulness of generalizing the effectiveness of HWT trials to other contexts. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  7. Identifying factors linked to the occurrence of alien gastropods in isolated woodland water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyra, Aneta; Strzelec, Małgorzata

    2014-03-01

    Biological invasions are a significant component of human-caused global change and is widely regarded as one of the main threats to natural biodiversity. Isolated anthropogenic water bodies created in the areas that are deprived of natural freshwater habitats allow the survival and reproduction of alien species on newly settled sites. They are often small with water level fluctuations causing frequent environmental disturbances. The colonisation success may be the result of the rate of their degradation. The aims of the study were to determine the environmental conditions that affect the existence of alien species of gastropods in this type of aquatic environment and to examine whether the occurrence of non-native species affects the community structure of the native species. This study made it possible to group woodland ponds according to the occurrence of the three invasive species in snail communities and discuss the environmental conditions present in these pond types. Analysis of water properties emphasised the distinctiveness of the selected pond types. In ponds of the Potamopyrgus antipodarum type, we found the highest values of some parameters mainly hardness, conductivity, and content of calcium and chlorides, in contrast with the Physella acuta type, which were characterised by the lowest values except for phosphates and nitrites. In the Ferrissia fragilis type, we found the highest nitrate content. Data on the occurrence of alien species in different water environments play an important role in actions which are taken to prevent new invasions and spread of non-native species as well as to reduce future impacts of invaders.

  8. Growth decline linked to warming-induced water limitation in hemi-boreal forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuchen Wu

    Full Text Available Hemi-boreal forests, which make up the transition from temperate deciduous forests to boreal forests in southern Siberia, have experienced significant warming without any accompanying increase in precipitation during the last 80 years. This climatic change could have a profound impact on tree growth and on the stability of forest ecosystems in this region, but at present evidence for these impacts is lacking. In this study, we report a recent dramatic decline in the growth of hemi-boreal forests, based on ring width measurements from three dominant tree-species (Pinus sylvestris, Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii, sampled from eight sites in the region. We found that regional tree growth has become increasingly limited by low soil water content in the pre- and early-growing season (from October of the previous year to July of the current year over the past 80 years. A warming-induced reduction in soil water content has also increased the climate sensitivity of these three tree species. Beginning in the mid-1980s, a clear decline in growth is evident for both the pine forests and the larch forests, although there are increasing trends in the proxy of soil water use efficiencies. Our findings are consistent with those from other parts of the world and provide valuable insights into the regional carbon cycle and vegetation dynamics, and should be useful for devising adaptive forest management strategies.

  9. Growth decline linked to warming-induced water limitation in hemi-boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiuchen; Liu, Hongyan; Guo, Dali; Anenkhonov, Oleg A; Badmaeva, Natalya K; Sandanov, Denis V

    2012-01-01

    Hemi-boreal forests, which make up the transition from temperate deciduous forests to boreal forests in southern Siberia, have experienced significant warming without any accompanying increase in precipitation during the last 80 years. This climatic change could have a profound impact on tree growth and on the stability of forest ecosystems in this region, but at present evidence for these impacts is lacking. In this study, we report a recent dramatic decline in the growth of hemi-boreal forests, based on ring width measurements from three dominant tree-species (Pinus sylvestris, Larix sibirica and Larix gmelinii), sampled from eight sites in the region. We found that regional tree growth has become increasingly limited by low soil water content in the pre- and early-growing season (from October of the previous year to July of the current year) over the past 80 years. A warming-induced reduction in soil water content has also increased the climate sensitivity of these three tree species. Beginning in the mid-1980s, a clear decline in growth is evident for both the pine forests and the larch forests, although there are increasing trends in the proxy of soil water use efficiencies. Our findings are consistent with those from other parts of the world and provide valuable insights into the regional carbon cycle and vegetation dynamics, and should be useful for devising adaptive forest management strategies.

  10. Linking plant functional trait plasticity and the large increase in forest water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrotheodoros, Theodoros; Pappas, Christoforos; Molnar, Peter; Burlando, Paolo; Keenan, Trevor F.; Gentine, Pierre; Gough, Christopher M.; Fatichi, Simone

    2017-09-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations are expected to enhance photosynthesis and reduce stomatal conductance, thus increasing plant water use efficiency. A recent study based on eddy covariance flux observations from Northern Hemisphere forests showed a large increase in inherent water use efficiency (IWUE). Here we used an updated version of the same data set and robust uncertainty quantification to revisit these contemporary IWUE trends. We tested the hypothesis that the observed IWUE increase could be attributed to interannual trends in plant functional traits, potentially triggered by environmental change. We found that IWUE increased by 1.3% yr-1, which is less than previously reported but still larger than theoretical expectations. Numerical simulations with the Tethys-Chloris ecosystem model using temporally static plant functional traits cannot explain this increase. Simulations with plant functional trait plasticity, i.e., temporal changes in model parameters such as specific leaf area and maximum Rubisco capacity, match the observed trends in IWUE. Our results show that trends in plant functional traits, equal to 1.0% yr-1, can explain the observed IWUE trends. Thus, at decadal or longer time scales, trait plasticity could potentially influence forest water, carbon, and energy fluxes with profound implications for both the monitoring of temporal changes in plant functional traits and their representation in Earth system models.

  11. Linking community-based monitoring to water policy: Perceptions of citizen scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Tyler; Cohen, Alice

    2018-05-05

    This paper examines the relationships between Community-Based Water Monitoring (CBM) and government-led water initiatives. Drawing on a cross-Canada survey of over one hundred organizations, we explore the reasons why communities undertake CBM, the monitoring protocols they follow, and the extent to which CBM program members feel their findings are incorporated into formal (i.e., government-led) decision-making processes. Our results indicate that despite following standardized and credible monitoring protocols, fewer than half of CBM organizations report that their data is being used to inform water policy at any level of government. Moreover, respondents report higher rates of cooperation and data-sharing between CBM organizations themselves than between CBM organizations and their respective governments. These findings are significant, because many governments continue to express support for CBM. We explore the barriers between CBM data collection and government policy, and suggest that structural barriers include lack of multi-year funding, inconsistent protocols, and poor communication. More broadly, we argue that the distinction between formal and informal programming is unclear, and that addressing known CBM challenges will rely on a change in perception: CBM cannot simply be a less expensive alternative to government-driven data collection. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Adolescents' and mothers' conflict management constellations: Links with individual and relational functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Missotten, L.; Luyckx, Koen; Vanhalst, J.; Nelemans, S.A.; Branje, S.J.T.

    2017-01-01

    In the present multi-informant study, we examined dyadic combinations of adolescent and maternal conflict management styles through stepwise latent class analysis. We investigated how these dyadic conflict classes related to adolescents' and mothers' perceptions of individual and relational

  13. Direct and indirect links between parenting styles, self-concealment (secrets), impaired control over drinking and alcohol-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Jessica D; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Corbin, William R; Gates, Jonathan R; Leeman, Robert F; Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Self-concealment reflects uncomfortable feelings, thoughts, and information people have about themselves that they avoid telling others (Larson & Chastain, 1990). According to Larson and Chastain (1990) these secrets range from the slightly embarrassing to the very distressing with an individual's most traumatic experiences often concealed. Parental attitudes including those involving self-disclosure are thought to be expressed in their choice of parenting style (Brand, Hatzinger, Beck, & Holsboer-Trachsler, 2009). The specific aim of this investigation was to examine the direct and indirect influences of parenting styles on self-concealment, impaired control over drinking (i.e. the inability to stop drinking when intended), alcohol use (quantity/frequency), and alcohol-related problems. A structural equation model with 419 (223 men, 196 women) university students was examined. Two and three path mediated effects were examined with the bias corrected bootstrap technique in Mplus. Having an authoritarian mother was directly linked to more self-concealment, while having an authoritative father was directly linked to less self-concealment. Higher levels of mother authoritarianism were indirectly linked to both increased alcohol use and alcohol-related problems through more self-concealment and more impaired control over drinking. Moreover, higher levels of father authoritativeness were indirectly linked to less alcohol use and alcohol-related problems through less self-concealment and less impaired control over drinking. These findings suggest that parenting styles influence vulnerabilities such as self-concealment in the impaired control over the drinking pathway to alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The impacts of neutralized acid mine drainage contaminated water on the expression of selected endocrine-linked genes in juvenile Mozambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus exposed in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truter, Johannes Christoff; va Wyk, Johannes Hendrik; Oberholster, Paul Johan; Botha, Anna-Maria

    2014-02-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a global environmental concern due to detrimental impacts on river ecosystems. Little is however known regarding the biological impacts of neutralized AMD on aquatic vertebrates despite excessive discharge into watercourses. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the endocrine modulatory potential of neutralized AMD, using molecular biomarkers in the teleost fish Oreochromis mossambicus in exposure studies. Surface water was collected from six locations downstream of a high density sludge (HDS) AMD treatment plant and a reference site unimpacted by AMD. The concentrations of 28 elements, including 22 metals, were quantified in the exposure water in order to identify potential links to altered gene expression. Relatively high concentrations of manganese (~ 10mg/l), nickel (~ 0.1mg/l) and cobalt (~ 0.03 mg/l) were detected downstream of the HDS plant. The expression of thyroid receptor-α (trα), trβ, androgen receptor-1 (ar1), ar2, glucocorticoid receptor-1 (gr1), gr2, mineralocorticoid receptor (mr) and aromatase (cyp19a1b) was quantified in juvenile fish after 48 h exposure. Slight but significant changes were observed in the expression of gr1 and mr in fish exposed to water collected directly downstream of the HDS plant, consisting of approximately 95 percent neutralized AMD. The most pronounced alterations in gene expression (i.e. trα, trβ, gr1, gr2, ar1 and mr) was associated with water collected further downstream at a location with no other apparent contamination vectors apart from the neutralized AMD. The altered gene expression associated with the "downstream" locality coincided with higher concentrations of certain metals relative to the locality adjacent to the HDS plant which may indicate a causative link. The current study provides evidence of endocrine disruptive activity associated with neutralized AMD contamination in regard to alterations in the expression of key genes linked to the thyroid, interrenal and

  15. From microbes to water districts: Linking observations across scales to uncover the implications of riparian and channel management on water quality in an irrigated agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, A.; Cadenasso, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Interactions among runoff, riparian and stream ecosystems, and water quality remain uncertain in many settings, particularly those heavily impacted by human activities. For example, waterways in the irrigated agricultural landscape of California's Central Valley are seasonally disconnected from groundwater tables and are extensively modified by infrastructure and management. These conditions make the impact of riparian and channel management difficult to predict across scales, which hinders efforts to promote best management practices to improve water quality. We seek to link observations across catchment, reach, and patch scales to understand patterns of nitrate and turbidity in waterways draining irrigated cropland. Data was collected on 80 reaches spanning two water management districts. At the catchment scale, water districts implemented waterway and riparian management differently: one water district had a decentralized approach, allowing individual land owners to manage their waterway channels and banks, while the other had a centralized approach, in which land owners defer management to a district-run program. At the reach scale, riparian and waterway vegetation, geomorphic complexity, and flow conditions were quantified. Reach-scale management such as riparian planting projects and channel dredging frequency were also considered. At the patch scale, denitrification potential and organic matter were measured in riparian toe-slope soils and channel sediments, along with associated vegetation and geomorphic features. All factors were tested for their ability to predict water quality using generalized linear mixed effects models and the consistency of predictors within and across scales was evaluated. A hierarchy of predictors emerges: catchment-scale management regimes predict reach-scale geomorphic and vegetation complexity, which in turn predicts sediment denitrification potential - the patch-scale factor most associated with low nitrate. Similarly

  16. Linking hydrology of traditional irrigation canals and socio-economic aspects of agricultural water use around Mt. Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimaro, Jerome; Scharsich, Valeska; Huwe, Bernd; Bogner, Christina

    2017-04-01

    Traditional irrigation network around Mt. Kilimanjaro has been an important resource for both ecosystem functioning and agricultural production. However, a number of irrigation furrows can no longer maintain their discharge throughout the year and their future sustainability is uncertain. The actual efforts to improve the water supply were unsuccessful. We attribute this failure to a lack of information about the actual causes and extent of the problem. We suppose that there is a strong link between the socio-economic aspects like institutional and community management of the furrows and conflicts about water use. Therefore, we conducted a study to determine the relationship between current hydrological patterns and socio-economic aspects of agricultural water use. We measured discharge at 11 locations along an altitudinal gradient on the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. Additionally, we conducted focus group discussions with participants from 15 villages and key informants interviews (n = 15). We found that the mean discharge did not differ significantly between dry and rainy seasons (ANOVA, p = 0.17). The overall discharge pattern indicated that furrows located in lower altitude had higher mean monthly discharge rate of 65 l s-1 compared to 11.5 l s-1 at the source area of the canals. This is due to the convergence of canals downstream. 41% of furrows were seasonal, 22% dry and only 37% perennial. Despite of a seemingly better water resource availability downstream, water conflicts are a major challenge across the whole mountain communities. Key informants and group discussions reported poor management of water on the district level. The Rural Moshi and Hai District Councils operate on a top down approach that give less power to the local water management committees. However, the latter have been an important part of the traditional management system for decades. Since 1990, the district authorities are using 65% of springs from the catchment to abstract water

  17. Age-related degradation of boiling water reactor vessel internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Shah, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory performed an assessment of the aging of the reactor internals in boiling water reactors (BWRs), and identified the unresolved technical issues related to the degradation of these components. The overall life-limiting mechanism is intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). Irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking, fatigue, and thermal aging embrittlement are other potential degradation mechanisms. Several failures in BWR internals have been caused by a combination of factors such as environment, high residual or preload stresses, and flow-induced vibration. The ASME Code Section XI in-service inspection requirements are insufficient for detecting aging-related degradation at many locations in reactor internals. Many of the potential locations for IGSCC or fatigue are not accessible for inspection. (orig.)

  18. Evidence on dynamic effects in the water content – water potential relation of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    static and dynamic moisture storage data and the more pronounced was the corresponding dynamic hysteresis. The paper thus provides clear experimental evidence on dynamic effects in the water content – water potential relation of building materials. By that, data published by previous authors as Topp et......Hygrothermal simulation has become a widely applied tool for the design and assessment of building structures under possible indoor and outdoor climatic conditions. One of the most important prerequisites of such simulations is reliable material data. Different approaches exist here to derive...... the required material functions, i.e. the moisture storage characteristic and the liquid water conductivity, from measured basic properties. The current state of the art in material modelling as well as the corresponding transport theory implies that the moisture transport function is unique...

  19. Global hydrobelts: improved reporting scale for water-related issues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybeck, M.; Kummu, M.; Dürr, H. H.

    2012-08-01

    Questions related to water such as its availability, water needs or stress, or management, are mapped at various resolutions at the global scale. They are reported at many scales, mostly along political or continental boundaries. As such, they ignore the fundamental heterogeneity of the hydroclimate and the natural boundaries of the river basins. Here, we describe the continental landmasses according to eight global-scale hydrobelts strictly limited by river basins, defined at a 30' (0.5°) resolution. The belts were defined and delineated, based primarily on the annual average temperature (T) and runoff (q), to maximise interbelt differences and minimise intrabelt variability. The belts were further divided into 29 hydroregions based on continental limits. This new global puzzle defines homogeneous and near-contiguous entities with similar hydrological and thermal regimes, glacial and postglacial basin histories, endorheism distribution and sensitivity to climate variations. The Mid-Latitude, Dry and Subtropical belts have northern and southern analogues and a general symmetry can be observed for T and q between them. The Boreal and Equatorial belts are unique. The hydroregions (median size 4.7 Mkm2) contrast strongly, with the average q ranging between 6 and 1393 mm yr-1 and the average T between -9.7 and +26.3 °C. Unlike the hydroclimate, the population density between the North and South belts and between the continents varies greatly, resulting in pronounced differences between the belts with analogues in both hemispheres. The population density ranges from 0.7 to 0.8 p km-2 for the North American Boreal and some Australian hydroregions to 280 p km-2 for the Asian part of the Northern Mid-Latitude belt. The combination of population densities and hydroclimate features results in very specific expressions of water-related characteristics in each of the 29 hydroregions. Our initial tests suggest that hydrobelt and hydroregion divisions are often more

  20. The Work–Home Interface : Linking Work-Related Wellbeing and Volunteer Work

    OpenAIRE

    Brauchli, Rebecca; Peeters, Maria C W; van Steenbergen, Elianne F.; Wehner, Theo; Hämmig, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    An abundance of research shows the benefits of participation in volunteer work for individuals, employers and the society as a whole. However, relatively little is known about the precursors of volunteer work. In this study, we aim to fill this gap by investigating to what extent work-related well-being can function as a driver of volunteer work. Moreover, building on the Conservations of Resources Theory (Hobfoll,), we propose that the relationship between work-related well-being (burnout an...

  1. Missing rings in Pinus halepensis – the missing link to relate the tree-ring record to extreme climatic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemen eNovak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate predictions for the Mediterranean Basin include increased temperatures, decreased precipitation, and increased frequency of extreme climatic events (ECE. These conditions are associated with decreased growth of trees and their increased vulnerability to pests and diseases. The anatomy of tree rings is responsive to these environmental conditions. Quantitatively, the width of a tree ring is largely determined by the rate and duration of cell division by the vascular cambium. In the Mediterranean climate, cambial cell division may occur throughout almost the entire year. Alternatively, cell division may stop during relatively cool and dry winters, only to resume in the same year with milder temperatures and increased availability of water. Under particularly adverse conditions, no xylem may be produced in parts of the stem, resulting in a missing ring (MR, which can link tree-ring anatomy to the occurrence of extreme events. A dendrochronological network of Pinus halepensis, a widespread tree species in the Mediterranean basin, was used to determine the relationship of MR to ECE. The network consisted of 113 sites throughout its distribution range. Binomial logistic regression analysis of 2595 MR series determined that MR increased in frequency with increased cambial age. Spatial analysis indicated that the geographic areas of southeastern Spain and northern Algeria contained the greatest frequency of MR. Further regression analysis indicated that the relationship of MR to total monthly precipitation and mean temperature was non-linear. In this first determination of climatic influences on MR, the formation of MR was most strongly associated with the combination of monthly mean temperature above 10°C from previous October till current February and total precipitation below 50 mm from previous September till current May. This conclusion is global and can be applied to every site across the distribution area. Rather than simply being a

  2. Drinking water and sanitation: progress in 73 countries in relation to socioeconomic indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Jeanne; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-02-01

    To assess progress in the provision of drinking water and sanitation in relation to national socioeconomic indicators. We used household survey data for 73 countries - collected between 2000 and 2012 - to calculate linear rates of change in population access to improved drinking water (n = 67) and/or sanitation (n = 61). To enable comparison of progress between countries with different initial levels of access, the calculated rates of change were normalized to fall between -1 and 1. In regression analyses, we investigated associations between the normalized rates of change in population access and national socioeconomic indicators: gross national income per capita, government effectiveness, official development assistance, freshwater resources, education, poverty, Gini coefficient, child mortality and the human development index. The normalized rates of change indicated that most of the investigated countries were making progress towards achieving universal access to improved drinking water and sanitation. However, only about a third showed a level of progress that was at least half the maximum achievable level. The normalized rates of change did not appear to be correlated with any of the national indicators that we investigated. In many countries, the progress being made towards universal access to improved drinking water and sanitation is falling well short of the maximum achievable level. Progress does not appear to be correlated with a country's social and economic characteristics. The between-country variations observed in such progress may be linked to variations in government policies and in the institutional commitment and capacity needed to execute such policies effectively.

  3. Effect of Water Deficit on Water Relations, Photosynthesis and Osmolytes Accumulation of Salvia leriifolia Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dashti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of water deficit (WD stress on water relations and some physiological characteristics of Salvia leriifolia Bench., a greenhouse experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with three replications. Irrigation treatments were fully irrigated as control (-0.035 MPa, mild stress (-0.138 MPa, moderate stress (-0.516 MPa and severe stress (-1.92 MPa. One set of stressed plants were kept constantly in different levels of matric potentials and the other set (Recovery treatments irrigated to maximum water holding capacity after soil water was depleted in each stress level. Measured parameters were leaf relative water content (LRWC, membrane stability index (MSI, prolin and soluble carbohydrates content, gas exchange parameters, Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency (WUEi and Intrinsic Gas Exchange Efficiency (GEEi. The results showed that LRWC and MSI in control plants significantly (P≤0.05 were lower than mild stress but decreased 17.3% and 21% respectively in severe stress compared to control. Soluble carbohydrates content was increased with increasing WD levels but it was only significant with control plants. There was strong negative correlation between LRWC and proline content (r= -0.99***, therefore leaves proline content increased twice (1023 nmol per g fresh weight at -1.92 Mpa compared to control. Results also indicated that gas exchange parameters were not significantly difference in mild WD against control but with decreasing soil matric potential to -1.92 Mpa, net photosynthesis rate (A, transpiration rate and stomatal conductance (gs decreased 52, 62 and 75 % respectively. In contrast WUEi and GEE increased 35 and 92% respectively.

  4. ECP measurements in the BWR-1 water loop relative to water composition changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kus, P.; Vsolak, R.; Kysela, J., E-mail: ksp@ujv.cz [Nuclear Research Inst. Rez plc, Husinec - Rez (Czech Republic); Hanawa, S.; Nakamura, T.; Uchida, S., E-mail: hanawa.satoshi@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the usage of ECP sensors in nuclear power plants. ECP sensors were tested using the LVR-15 reactor at the Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (NRI) in the Czech Republic. The experiment took place on the BWR-1 loop, which was designed for investigating the behaviour of structural materials and radioactivity transport under BWR conditions. The BWR-1 loop facilitates irradiation experiments within a wide range of operating parameters (max. pressure of 10 MPa, max. temperature of 573 K and a neutron flux of 1.0* 10{sup 18} n/m{sup 2}s). This study involves the measurement of electrochemical potential (ECP). Corrosion potential is the main parameter for monitoring of water composition changes in nuclear power plants (NPP). The electrochemical potentials of stainless steel were measured under high temperatures in a test loop (BWR-1) under different water composition conditions. Total neutron flux was ∼10{sup -3} to ∼10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2}s (>0.1 MeV) at a temperature of 560K, neutral pH, and water resistivity of 18.2 MOhm. ECP sensor response related to changes in water composition was monitored. Switching from NWC (normal water conditions) to HWC (hydrogen water conditions) was controlled using oxygen dosage. Water chemistry was monitored approx. 50 meters from the active channel. The active channel temperature was maintained within a range of 543 - 561 K from the start of irradiation for the entire duration of the experiment. A total of 24 reference electrodes composed of platinum (Pt), silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) and a zircon membrane containing silver oxide (Ag{sub 2}O) powder were installed inside the active channel of the LVR-15 test reactor. The active channel (Field tube) was divided into four zones, with each zone containing six sensors. A mathematical radiolysis code model was created in cooperation with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. (author)

  5. Dark personality traits and impulsivity among adolescents : Differential links to problem behaviors and family relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubas, Judith Semon; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan M.; van Aken, Marcel A.G.

    2017-01-01

    Research on how dark personality traits develop and relate to risky behaviors and family relations during adolescence is scarce. This study used a person-oriented approach to examine (a) whether distinct groups of adolescents could be identified based on their developmental profiles of

  6. The Work–Home Interface : Linking Work-Related Wellbeing and Volunteer Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brauchli, Rebecca; Peeters, Maria C W; van Steenbergen, Elianne F.; Wehner, Theo; Hämmig, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    An abundance of research shows the benefits of participation in volunteer work for individuals, employers and the society as a whole. However, relatively little is known about the precursors of volunteer work. In this study, we aim to fill this gap by investigating to what extent work-related

  7. Relational Aggression in Peer and Dating Relationships: Links to Psychological and Behavioral Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy E.; Crooks, Claire V.; Wolfe, David A.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the contribution of relational aggression in adolescents' peer and dating relationships to their psychological and behavioral adjustment. In the Fall and again four months later, 1279 (646 female) grade 9 students reported on relational aggression perpetration and victimization in their romantic and peer relationships,…

  8. Decay of Iconic Memory Traces Is Related to Psychometric Intelligence: A Fixed-Links Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert; Rammsayer, Thomas H.; Schweizer, Karl; Troche, Stefan J.

    2010-01-01

    Several memory processes have been examined regarding their relation to psychometric intelligence with the exception of sensory memory. This study examined the relation between decay of iconic memory traces, measured with a partial-report task, and psychometric intelligence, assessed with the Berlin Intelligence Structure test, in 111…

  9. Linking hydraulic properties of fire-affected soils to infiltration and water repellency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.; Kinner, David A.; Úbeda, Xavier

    2009-12-01

    SummaryHeat from wildfires can produce a two-layer system composed of extremely dry soil covered by a layer of ash, which when subjected to rainfall, may produce extreme floods. To understand the soil physics controlling runoff for these initial conditions, we used a small, portable disk infiltrometer to measure two hydraulic properties: (1) near-saturated hydraulic conductivity, K f and (2) sorptivity, S( θ i), as a function of initial soil moisture content, θ i, ranging from extremely dry conditions ( θ i ash, reference soils, soils unaffected by fire, and fire-affected soils. Each has a different degrees of water repellency that influences K f and S( θ i). Values of K f ranged from 4.5 × 10 -3 to 53 × 10 -3 cm s -1 for ash; from 0.93 × 10 -3 to 130 × 10 -3 cm s -1 for reference soils; and from 0.86 × 10 -3 to 3.0 × 10 -3 cm s -1, for soil unaffected by fire, which had the lowest values of K f. Measurements indicated that S( θ i) could be represented by an empirical non-linear function of θ i with a sorptivity maximum of 0.18-0.20 cm s -0.5, between 0.03 and 0.08 cm 3 cm -3. This functional form differs from the monotonically decreasing non-linear functions often used to represent S( θ i) for rainfall-runoff modeling. The sorptivity maximum may represent the combined effects of gravity, capillarity, and adsorption in a transitional domain corresponding to extremely dry soil, and moreover, it may explain the observed non-linear behavior, and the critical soil-moisture threshold of water repellent soils. Laboratory measurements of K f and S( θ i) are the first for ash and fire-affected soil, but additional measurements are needed of these hydraulic properties for in situ fire-affected soils. They provide insight into water repellency behavior and infiltration under extremely dry conditions. Most importantly, they indicate how existing rainfall-runoff models can be modified to accommodate a possible two-layer system in extremely dry conditions. These

  10. Reactivity of the Bacteria-Water Interface: Linking Nutrient Availability to Bacteria-Metal Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowle, D. A.; Daughney, C. J.; Riley, J. L.

    2002-12-01

    Identifying and quantifying the controls on metal mobilities in geologic systems is critical in order to understand processes such as global element cycling, metal transport in near-surface water-rock systems, sedimentary diagenesis, and mineral formation. Bacteria are ubiquitous in near-surface water-rock systems, and numerous laboratory and field studies have demonstrated that bacteria can facilitate the formation and dissolution of minerals, and enhance or inhibit contaminant transport. However, despite the growing evidence that bacteria play a key role in many geologic processes in low temperature systems, our understanding of the influence of the local nutrient dynamics of the system of interest on bacteria-metal interactions is limited. Here we present data demonstrating the effectiveness of coupling laboratory experiments with geochemical modeling to isolate the effect of nutrient availability on bacterially mediated proton and metal adsorption reactions. Experimental studies of metal-bacteria interactions were conducted in batch reactors as a function of pH, and solid-solute interactions after growth in a variety of defined and undefined media. Media nutrient composition (C,N,P) was quantified before and after harvesting the cells. Surface complexation models (SCM) for the adsorption reactions were developed by combining sorption data with the results of acid-base titrations, and in some cases zeta potential titrations of the bacterial surface. Our results indicate a clear change in both buffering potential and metal binding capacity of the cell walls of Bacillus subtilis as a function of initial media conditions. Combining current studies with our past studies on the effects of growth phase and others work on temperature dependence on metal adsorption we hope to develop a holistic surface complexation model for quantifying bacterial effects on metal mass transfer in many geologic systems.

  11. Large-scale Water-related Innovative Renewable Energy Projects and the Water Framework Directive : Legal Issues and Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, S.R.W.

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses two legal issues that relate to the conflict between the interest of protecting water quality under the Water Framework Directive (WFD), versus the interest of promoting the use of innovative water-related renewable energy, with regard to the quota in the Renewable Energy

  12. Reading-Related Causal Attributions for Success and Failure: Dynamic Links With Reading Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijters, Jan C; Tsujimoto, Kimberley C; Boada, Richard; Gottwald, Stephanie; Hill, Dina; Jacobson, Lisa A; Lovett, Maureen W; Mahone, E Mark; Willcutt, Erik G; Wolf, Maryanne; Bosson-Heenan, Joan; Gruen, Jeffrey R

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the relation among reading skills and attributions, naming speed, and phonological awareness across a wide range of reading skill. Participants were 1,105 school-age children and youths from two understudied populations: African Americans and Hispanic Americans. Individual assessments of children ranging in age from 8 to 15 years were conducted for reading outcomes, cognitive and linguistic predictors of reading, and attributions for success and failure in reading situations. Quantile regressions were formulated to estimate these relations across the full skill span of each outcome. Reading-related attributions predicted contextual word recognition, sight word and decoding fluency, and comprehension skills. Attributions to ability in success situations were positively related to each outcome across the full span. On three reading outcomes, this relation strengthened at higher skill levels. Attributions to effort in success situations were consistently and negatively related to all reading outcomes. The results provide evidence that the strength of the relation between reading and attributions varies according to reading skill levels, with the strongest evidence for ability-based attributions in situations of reading success.

  13. Biomass Assessment. Assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy. Inventory and analysis of existing studies. Supporting document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.; Verweij, P.; Banse, M.; Van Diepen, K.; Van Keulen, H.; Langeveld, H.; Meeusen, M.; Van de Ven, G.; Wester, F.; Alkemade, R.; Ten Brink, B.; Van den Born, G.J.; Van Oorschot, M.; Ros, J.; Smout, F.; Van Vuuren, D.; Van den Wijngaart, R.; Aiking, H.; Londo, M.; Mozaffarian, H.; Smekens, K.; Lysen, E.

    2008-01-01

    This supporting document contains the result from the inventory phase of the biomass assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of global biomass potential estimates, focusing on the various factors affecting these potentials, such as food supplies, water use, biodiversity, energy demands and agro-economics

  14. Projecting water yield and ecosystem productivity across the United States by linking an ecohydrological model to WRF dynamically downscaled climate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanlei Sun; Ge Sun; Erika Cohen Mack; Steve McNulty; Peter V. Caldwell; Kai Duan; Yang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the potential impacts of climatechange on water yield and ecosystem productivity is essential to developing sound watershed restoration plans, andecosystem adaptation and mitigation strategies. This study links an ecohydrological model (Water Supply and StressIndex, WaSSI) with WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting Model) using dynamically downscaled...

  15. Dolichol related intermediates involved in N-linked gloycoprotein synthesis in Drosophila Kc cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagami, H.; Chap, R.; Rivero, M.; Lennarz, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to study the regulation of the biosynthesis of dolichyl phosphate (Dol-P) in embryonic cells. Using embryonic Drosophila Kc cells which are known to lack the squalene-cholesterol branch of polyisoprenoid biosynthetic pathway, the authors labeled the cells in suspension culture for 4 hrs with [5- 3 H]mevalonic acid. After harvesting the cells, the incorporated radioactive lipids were extracted with CHCl 3 /CH 3 OH (2/1). Analysis of the extract by a combination of several methods consisting of ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, gel filtration on Fractogel TSK-HW 40, and silica gel thin layer chromatography revealed that the extract contained coenzyme Q, farnesol, dolichol (Dol), Dol-P, and dolichol-linked sugar (Dol-P-Sugar). In a pulse-chase experiment the metabolism of these intermediates was measured for various times up to 30 hrs. The amount of radioactivity in Dol slightly increased with the chase time, while that in Dol-P decreased. The amount of radioactive Dol-P-Sugar remained unchanged. These results suggest that the de novo end product in dolichol biosynthesis is Dol-P and that the level of Dol-P can be controlled by varying the rate of de novo biosynthesis and by dephosphorylation. The authors are now investigating the effect of ecdysone, the molting hormone, on the level of these intermediates and on incorporation of sugars into glycoproteins

  16. Framing Mechanisms Linking HIV-Related Stigma, Adherence to Treatment, and Health Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Abigail M.; Weiser, Sheri D.; Johnson, Mallory O.; Rice, Whitney S.; Turan, Janet M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a conceptual framework that highlights how unique dimensions of individual-level HIV-related stigma (perceived community stigma, experienced stigma, internalized stigma, and anticipated stigma) might differently affect the health of those living with HIV. HIV-related stigma is recognized as a barrier to both HIV prevention and engagement in HIV care, but little is known about the mechanisms through which stigma leads to worse health behaviors or outcomes. Our conceptual framework posits that, in the context of intersectional and structural stigmas, individual-level dimensions of HIV-related stigma operate through interpersonal factors, mental health, psychological resources, and biological stress pathways. A conceptual framework that encompasses recent advances in stigma science can inform future research and interventions aiming to address stigma as a driver of HIV-related health. PMID:28426316

  17. Uranium contaminated drinking water linked to leukaemia-Revisiting a case study from South Africa taking alternative exposure pathways into account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winde, Frank; Erasmus, Ewald; Geipel, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents results of a follow-up to an earlier study which established a geospatial link between naturally elevated uranium (U) levels in borehole water and haematological abnormalities in local residents serving as a proxy for leukaemia prevalent in the area. While the original study focussed on drinking water only, this paper also explores alternative exposure pathways including the inhalation of dust and the food chain. U-levels in grass and tissue of sheep generally reflect U-levels in nearby borehole water and exceed background concentrations by 20 to nearly 500 times. U-levels in sheep tissue increase with age of the animal. Wool showed the highest U-concentration followed by other non-consumable tissue such as hooves, teeth and bones. Lower levels occur in edible parts such as meat and inner organs. The U-deposition rate in wool is several orders of magnitudes higher than in bone as a known target organ. Wool is an easy-to-sample non-invasive bioindicator for U-levels in meat. Depending on the original water content, dried samples show up to 5 times higher U-levels than identical fresh material. Contaminated drinking water is the main exposure pathway for farm residents resulting in U-uptake rates exceeding the WHO's tolerable daily intake (TDI) limit by up to 900%. This is somewhat mitigated by the fact that U-speciation is dominated by a neutral calcium-uranyl-carbonate complex of relatively low toxicity. Commercially available household filters are able to significantly reduce U-levels in well water and are thus recommended as a short-term intervention. Based on average consumption rates sheep meat, as local staple food, accounts for 34% of the TDI for U. Indoor levels of radon should be monitored, too, since it is linked to both, U and leukaemia. With elevated U-levels being present in other geological formations across South Africa boreholes in these areas should be surveyed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Links between human LINE-1 retrotransposons and hepatitis virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Tomoyuki

    2016-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounts for approximately 80% of liver cancers, the third most frequent cause of cancer mortality. The most prevalent risk factors for HCC are infections by hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus. Findings suggest that hepatitis virus-related HCC might be a cancer in which LINE-1 retrotransposons, often termed L1, activity plays a potential role. Firstly, hepatitis viruses can suppress host defense factors that also control L1 mobilization. Secondly, many recent studies also have indicated that hypomethylation of L1 affects the prognosis of HCC patients. Thirdly, endogenous L1 retrotransposition was demonstrated to activate oncogenic pathways in HCC. Fourthly, several L1 chimeric transcripts with host or viral genes are found in hepatitis virus-related HCC. Such lines of evidence suggest a linkage between L1 retrotransposons and hepatitis virus-related HCC. Here, I briefly summarize current understandings of the association between hepatitis virus-related HCC and L1. Then, I discuss potential mechanisms of how hepatitis viruses drive the development of HCC via L1 retrotransposons. An increased understanding of the contribution of L1 to hepatitis virus-related HCC may provide unique insights related to the development of novel therapeutics for this disease.

  19. Data model and relational database design for the New Jersey Water-Transfer Data System (NJWaTr)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, Steven

    2003-01-01

    The New Jersey Water-Transfer Data System (NJWaTr) is a database design for the storage and retrieval of water-use data. NJWaTr can manage data encompassing many facets of water use, including (1) the tracking of various types of water-use activities (withdrawals, returns, transfers, distributions, consumptive-use, wastewater collection, and treatment); (2) the storage of descriptions, classifications and locations of places and organizations involved in water-use activities; (3) the storage of details about measured or estimated volumes of water associated with water-use activities; and (4) the storage of information about data sources and water resources associated with water use. In NJWaTr, each water transfer occurs unidirectionally between two site objects, and the sites and conveyances form a water network. The core entities in the NJWaTr model are site, conveyance, transfer/volume, location, and owner. Other important entities include water resource (used for withdrawals and returns), data source, permit, and alias. Multiple water-exchange estimates based on different methods or data sources can be stored for individual transfers. Storage of user-defined details is accommodated for several of the main entities. Many tables contain classification terms to facilitate the detailed description of data items and can be used for routine or custom data summarization. NJWaTr accommodates single-user and aggregate-user water-use data, can be used for large or small water-network projects, and is available as a stand-alone Microsoft? Access database. Data stored in the NJWaTr structure can be retrieved in user-defined combinations to serve visualization and analytical applications. Users can customize and extend the database, link it to other databases, or implement the design in other relational database applications.

  20. Linking air and water transport in intact soils to macropore characteristics inferred from X-ray computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katuwal, S.; Nørgaard, Trine; Møldrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    Soil macropores often control fluid flow and solute transport, and quantification of macropore characteristics including their variability in space and time are essential to predict soil hydraulic and hydrogeochemical functions. In this study, measurements of air and solute transport properties...... and direct macropore visualization by X-ray CT scanning were carried out on 17 large (19-cm diam.; 20-cm length) undisturbed soil columns sampled across a field site (Silstrup, Denmark) with natural gradients in texture and density. Air permeability (ka) at in-situ water content and -20 hPa of matric......-porosity, suggesting that density is the main control of functional soil structure and gas and solute transport at the Silstrup site. Linking gas transport and chemical tracer experiments with X-ray CT based visualization and quantification of macro-porosity was found to be a powerful method to understand field scale...

  1. Current-phase relation of a Bose-Einstein condensate flowing through a weak link

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piazza, F.; Smerzi, A.; Collins, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the current-phase relation of a Bose-Einstein condensate flowing through a repulsive square barrier by solving analytically the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation. The barrier height and width fix the current-phase relation j(δφ), which tends to j∼cos(δφ/2) for weak barriers and to the Josephson sinusoidal relation j∼sin(δφ) for strong barriers. Between these two limits, the current-phase relation depends on the barrier width. In particular, for wide-enough barriers, we observe two families of multivalued current-phase relations. Diagrams belonging to the first family, already known in the literature, can have two different positive values of the current at the same phase difference. The second family, new to our knowledge, can instead allow for three different positive currents still corresponding to the same phase difference. Finally, we show that the multivalued behavior arises from the competition between hydrodynamic and nonlinear-dispersive components of the flow, the latter due to the presence of a soliton inside the barrier region.

  2. Sexual orientation of trans adults is not linked to outcome of transition-related health care, but worth asking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieder, Timo O; Elaut, Els; Richards, Christina; Dekker, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of contemporary transition-related care at the outset of the 20th century, sexual orientation has ben considered to be closely connected with gender identity and the developmental trajectories of trans people. Specifically, health professionals have regarded the anticipated post-transitional heterosexual behaviour of trans adults as predictive of a good outcome of cross-sex hormones and gender-confirming surgeries. This article reviews the current literature according to the question of whether the sexual orientation of trans people is linked to outcome measures following transition-related interventions. A comprehensive review was undertaken using the Medline database, searching for empirical studies published between 2010 and 2015. Out of a total of 474 studies, only 10 studies reported a follow-up of trans adults and assessed sexual orientation in the study protocol at all. Sexual orientation was predominantly assessed as homosexual versus non-homosexual related to sex assigned at birth. Only one 1 of 10 follow-up studies found a significant association according to the outcome between groups differentiated by sexual orientation. Empirically there is no link between sexual orientation and outcome of transition-related health care for trans adults. In order to provide comprehensive health care, we recommend asking for sexual behaviours, attractions and identities, as well as for gender experiences and expressions; however, this knowledge should not drive, but simply inform, such comprehensive care.

  3. Uveodermatologic lymphoma in two young related Portuguese water dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escanilla, Natàlia; Leiva, Marta; Ordeix, Laura; Peña, Teresa

    2012-09-01

    Canine lymphoma (CL) is one of the most common forms of spontaneous canine neoplasia. Improved understanding of the genetic and environmental factors associated with CL may provide benefits for the study of non-Hodgkin's and Hodgkin's lymphoma in humans. Uveodermatologic lymphoma is reported in a single household of Portuguese water dog, and the etiology is discussed. A 1-year-old female intact Portuguese water dog was referred to the Ophthalmology Service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the Autonomous University of Barcelona because of acute blepharospasm of the right eye in association with a multinodular dermatosis. Physical and ophthalmological examination and a complete diagnostic work-up, including skin and ocular histopathology and immunohistochemistry, were performed. Three months prior, in Galicia (Spain), 1200 km away from Barcelona, a male dog of the same litter showed very similar oculodermatological clinical signs and skin histopathology, and immunohistochemistry were obtained. The clinical diagnoses were anterior exudative uveitis, iridal masses, and secondary glaucoma. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed a nonepitheliotropic lymphoma rich in B cell in dog 1 and rich in T cell in dog 2. It is proposed that an underlying genetic predisposition could have played a role in the development of lymphoma in these two young related dogs. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  4. The User Interface: A Hypertext Model Linking Art Objects and Related Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moline, Judi

    This report presents a model combining the emerging technologies of hypertext and expert systems. Hypertext is relatively unexplored but promises an innovative approach to information retrieval. In contrast, expert systems have been used experimentally in many different application areas ranging from medical diagnosis to oil exploration. The…

  5. Linking Shared Organisational Context and Relational Capital through Unlearning: An Initial Empirical Investigation in SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cegarra-Navarro, Juan G.; Dewhurst, Frank W.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The environment provided by an organisation to facilitate learning and create knowledge has been defined as the shared organisational context. The value to an organisation of knowledge created by the shared organisational context is called intellectual capital, of which one key component is relational capital. The purpose of this paper is…

  6. Influence of relative humidity on radiosensitivity of Aspergillus flavus Link. infecting cocoa beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoako-Atta, B.; Odamtten, G.T.; Appiah, V.

    1981-01-01

    The first part of this paper deals with the moisture sorption isotherms of dried cocoa beans under different relative humidities of 55, 65, 75, 85 or 95%. The second part evaluates the effects of relative humidity (RH), initial moisture content (m.c.) of cocoa beans, and different radiation exposure doses (0, 250, 350, 450, 500 or 550 krad) on Aspergillus flavus spore inoculated cocoa beans kept in fixed RH environmental chamber of 75 or 85% RH post-irradiation for forty days. The results discussed suggest that the m.c. of beans increased from an initial level of 6.4% to 7, 7.8 and 8.9% at 55, 65, and 75% respectively, after a storage period of 6-8 days. However, beans stored under 85% or 95% RH continued to absorb moisture from their respective environments indefinitely during the 64-day storage period. Furthermore, the ambient relative humidity to which the beans are subjected before or after irradiation significantly affect the radiosensitivity of toxigenic A. flavus; the differences in such radiosensitivity are influenced by either the available moisture or the initial m.c. of the beans to the inoculum. The authors conclude from their study that high environmental RH increased the radio-resistance of A. flavus spores making it difficult to establish a radiation decontamination level of practical value under a tropical environment with high ambient relative humidity. (author)

  7. Linking functional and relational service quality to customer satisfaction and loyalty: differences between men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hernández, Rosa M; Martínez-Tur, Vicente; Peiró, José M; Moliner, Carolina

    2010-04-01

    This study assessed differences between men and women in the association of perceptions of service quality with customer evaluations. Functional (efficiency with which the service is delivered) and relational (customers' emotional benefits, beyond the core performance, related to the social interaction of customers with employees) dimensions of service quality were measured as well as customer satisfaction and loyalty. The sample of 277 customers (191 men, 86 women), surveyed in 29 Mexican hotels, had a mean age of 38.1 yr. (SD=9.7) for men and 34.5 yr. (SD=11.0) for women. To be eligible for survey, customers had to have spent at least one night in the hotel in question. Analysis indicated that the women and men differed in the association of functional and relational dimensions of service quality with their satisfaction and loyalty. Functional service quality was higher for the men than the women, while relational service quality showed greater predictive power for women than for men, although these accounted for only 4% of the customers' satisfaction variance and 6% of the loyalty variance.

  8. Reading-Related Causal Attributions for Success and Failure: Dynamic Links with Reading Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frijters, Jan C.; Tsujimoto, Kimberley C.; Boada, Richard; Gottwald, Stephanie; Hill, Dina; Jacobson, Lisa A.; Lovett, Maureen W.; Mahone, E. Mark; Willcutt, Erik G.; Wolf, Maryanne; Bosson-Heenan, Joan; Gruen, Jeffrey R.

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the relation among reading skills and attributions, naming speed, and phonological awareness across a wide range of reading skill. Participants were 1,105 school-age children and youths from two understudied populations: African Americans and Hispanic Americans. Individual assessments of children ranging in age from…

  9. Longitudinal Pathways Linking Child Maltreatment, Emotion Regulation, Peer Relations, and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante

    2010-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinal relations among child maltreatment, emotion regulation, peer acceptance and rejection, and psychopathology. Methods: Data were collected on 215 maltreated and 206 nonmaltreated children (ages 6-12 years) from low-income families. Children were evaluated by camp counselors on emotion…

  10. Evaporative water loss, relative water economy and evaporative partitioning of a heterothermic marsupial, the monito del monte (Dromiciops gliroides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Philip C; Cooper, Christine E; Nespolo, Roberto F

    2012-08-15

    We examine here evaporative water loss, economy and partitioning at ambient temperatures from 14 to 33°C for the monito del monte (Dromiciops gliroides), a microbiotheriid marsupial found only in temperate rainforests of Chile. The monito's standard evaporative water loss (2.58 mg g(-1) h(-1) at 30°C) was typical for a marsupial of its body mass and phylogenetic position. Evaporative water loss was independent of air temperature below thermoneutrality, but enhanced evaporative water loss and hyperthermia were the primary thermal responses above the thermoneutral zone. Non-invasive partitioning of total evaporative water loss indicated that respiratory loss accounted for 59-77% of the total, with no change in respiratory loss with ambient temperature, but a small change in cutaneous loss below thermoneutrality and an increase in cutaneous loss in and above thermoneutrality. Relative water economy (metabolic water production/evaporative water loss) increased at low ambient temperatures, with a point of relative water economy of 15.4°C. Thermolability had little effect on relative water economy, but conferred substantial energy savings at low ambient temperatures. Torpor reduced total evaporative water loss to as little as 21% of normothermic values, but relative water economy during torpor was poor even at low ambient temperatures because of the relatively greater reduction in metabolic water production than in evaporative water loss. The poor water economy of the monito during torpor suggests that negative water balance may explain why hibernators periodically arouse to normothermia, to obtain water by drinking or via an improved water economy.

  11. Linking public relations processes and organizational effectiveness at a state health department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored a state health department's relationships with strategic constituencies from a public relations perspective. The relationships were explored within the theoretical framework of the Excellence Theory, the dominant paradigm in public research. Findings indicate application of the Excellence Theory has the potential to increase organizational effectiveness at public health entities. With respect to the case investigated, findings indicate that the state health department could increase its organizational effectiveness through the adoption of recommendations based on the Excellence Theory.

  12. Dark personality traits and impulsivity among adolescents: Differential links to problem behaviors and family relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubas, Judith Semon; Baams, Laura; Doornwaard, Suzan M; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2017-10-01

    Research on how dark personality traits develop and relate to risky behaviors and family relations during adolescence is scarce. This study used a person-oriented approach to examine (a) whether distinct groups of adolescents could be identified based on their developmental profiles of callous-unemotional (CU), grandiose manipulative (GM), and dysfunctional impulsivity (DI) traits and (b) whether these groups differ in their problem behaviors and parent-adolescent relationship quality. Latent class growth analyses on 4-wave data of 1,131 Dutch adolescents revealed 3 personality profiles: (1) a dark impulsive group (13.9%), with high scores on all 3 traits (CU, GM, and DI) that were stable over time; (2) an impulsive group (26.1%), with high and increasing levels of impulsivity and relatively low scores on CU and GM; and (3) and a low risk group (60.0%), with relatively low levels on all 3 personality characteristics, with impulsivity decreasing over time. Compared with adolescents in the low risk group, adolescents in the dark impulsive and impulsive groups reported higher initial levels of substance use, sexual risk behaviors, permissive sexual attitudes, parent-adolescent conflict, and lower parent-adolescent satisfaction, as well as greater increases in sexual risk behavior over time. Compared with adolescents in the impulsive group, those in the dark impulsive group showed the highest levels of risk behaviors. Hence, dark personality traits coupled with impulsivity may be indicative of an earlier and more severe trajectory of problem behaviors that may differ from the trajectory of youth who are only impulsive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Physical Activity and Telomere Biology: Exploring the Link with Aging-Related Disease Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew T. Ludlow; Stephen M. Roth

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of several age-related diseases as well as with increased longevity in both rodents and humans. Though these associations are well established, evidence of the molecular and cellular factors associated with reduced disease risk and increased longevity resulting from physical activity is sparse. A long-standing hypothesis of aging is the telomere hypothesis: as a cell divides, telomeres shorten resulting eventually in replicative senescence and...

  14. Medical Care Tasks among Spousal Dementia Caregivers: Links to Care-Related Sleep Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenick, Courtney A; Leggett, Amanda N; Maust, Donovan T; Kales, Helen C

    2018-05-01

    Medical care tasks are commonly provided by spouses caring for persons living with dementia (PLWDs). These tasks reflect complex care demands that may interfere with sleep, yet their implications for caregivers' sleep outcomes are unknown. The authors evaluated the association between caregivers' medical/nursing tasks (keeping track of medications; managing tasks such as ostomy care, intravenous lines, or blood testing; giving shots/injections; and caring for skin wounds/sores) and care-related sleep disturbances. A retrospective analysis of cross-sectional data from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study and National Study of Caregiving was conducted. Spousal caregivers and PLWDs/proxies were interviewed by telephone at home. The U.S. sample included 104 community-dwelling spousal caregivers and PLWDs. Caregivers reported on their sociodemographic and health characteristics, caregiving stressors, negative caregiving relationship quality, and sleep disturbances. PLWDs (or proxies) reported on their health conditions and sleep problems. Caregivers who performed a higher number of medical/nursing tasks reported significantly more frequent care-related sleep disturbances, controlling for sociodemographic and health characteristics, caregiving stressors, negative caregiving relationship quality, and PLWDs' sleep problems and health conditions. Post hoc tests showed that wound care was independently associated with more frequent care-related sleep disturbances after accounting for the other medical/nursing tasks and covariates. Spousal caregivers of PLWDs who perform medical/nursing tasks may be at heightened risk for sleep disturbances and associated adverse health consequences. Interventions to promote the well-being of both care partners may benefit from directly addressing caregivers' needs and concerns about their provision of medical/nursing care. Copyright © 2018 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  15. Modeling Water and Nutrient Transport through the Soil-Root-Canopy Continuum: Explicitly Linking the Below- and Above-Ground Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Quijano, J. C.; Drewry, D.

    2010-12-01

    Vegetation roots provide a fundamental link between the below ground water and nutrient dynamics and above ground canopy processes such as photosynthesis, evapotranspiration and energy balance. The “hydraulic architecture” of roots, consisting of the structural organization of the root system and the flow properties of the conduits (xylem) as well as interfaces with the soil and the above ground canopy, affect stomatal conductance thereby directly linking them to the transpiration. Roots serve as preferential pathways for the movement of moisture from wet to dry soil layers during the night, both from upper soil layer to deeper layers during the wet season (‘hydraulic descent’) and vice-versa (‘hydraulic lift’) as determined by the moisture gradients. The conductivities of transport through the root system are significantly, often orders of magnitude, larger than that of the surrounding soil resulting in movement of soil-moisture at rates that are substantially larger than that through the soil. This phenomenon is called hydraulic redistribution (HR). The ability of the deep-rooted vegetation to “bank” the water through hydraulic descent during wet periods for utilization during dry periods provides them with a competitive advantage. However, during periods of hydraulic lift these deep-rooted trees may facilitate the growth of understory vegetation where the understory scavenges the hydraulically lifted soil water. In other words, understory vegetation with relatively shallow root systems have access to the banked deep-water reservoir. These inter-dependent root systems have a significant influence on water cycle and ecosystem productivity. HR induced available moisture may support rhizosphere microbial and mycorrhizal fungi activities and enable utilization of heterogeneously distributed water and nutrient resources To capture this complex inter-dependent nutrient and water transport through the soil-root-canopy continuum we present modeling

  16. The water footprint of Indonesian provinces related to the consumption of crop products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulsink, F.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Booij, Martijn J.

    2010-01-01

    National water use accounts are generally limited to statistics on water withdrawals in the different sectors of economy. They are restricted to "blue water accounts" related to production, thus excluding (a) "green" and "grey water accounts", (b) accounts of internal and international virtual water

  17. The missing link: Mothers’ neural response to infant cry related to infant attachment behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Ablow, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses a gap in the attachment literature by investigating maternal neural response to cry related to infant attachment classifications and behaviors. Twenty-two primiparous mothers and their 18-month old infants completed the Strange Situation Procedure (SS) to elicit attachment behaviors. During a separate functional MRI session, mothers were exposed to their own infant’s cry sound, as well as an unfamiliar infant’s cry and control sound. Maternal neural response to own infant cry related to both overall attachment security and specific infant behaviors. Mothers of less secure infants maintained greater activation to their cry in left parahippocampal and amygdala regions and the right posterior insula. consistent with a negative schematic response bias. Mothers of infants exhibiting more avoidant or contact maintaining behaviors during the SS showed diminished response across left prefrontal, parietal, and cerebellar areas involved in attentional processing and cognitive control. Mothers of infants exhibiting more disorganized behavior showed reduced response in bilateral temporal and subcallosal areas relevant to social cognition and emotion regulation. No differences by attachment classification were found. Implications for attachment transmission models are discussed. PMID:22982277

  18. The missing link: mothers' neural response to infant cry related to infant attachment behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Ablow, Jennifer C

    2012-12-01

    This study addresses a gap in the attachment literature by investigating maternal neural response to cry related to infant attachment classifications and behaviors. Twenty-two primiparous mothers and their 18-month old infants completed the Strange Situation (SS) procedure to elicit attachment behaviors. During a separate functional MRI session, mothers were exposed to their own infant's cry sound, as well as an unfamiliar infant's cry and control sound. Maternal neural response to own infant cry related to both overall attachment security and specific infant behaviors. Mothers of less secure infants maintained greater activation to their cry in left parahippocampal and amygdala regions and the right posterior insula consistent with a negative schematic response bias. Mothers of infants exhibiting more avoidant or contact maintaining behaviors during the SS showed diminished response across left prefrontal, parietal, and cerebellar areas involved in attentional processing and cognitive control. Mothers of infants exhibiting more disorganized behavior showed reduced response in bilateral temporal and subcallosal areas relevant to social cognition and emotion regulation. No differences by attachment classification were found. Implications for attachment transmission models are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The missing link between sleep disorders and age-related dementia: recent evidence and plausible mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Zhong, Rujia; Li, Song; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; Le, Weidong

    2017-05-01

    Sleep disorders are among the most common clinical problems and possess a significant concern for the geriatric population. More importantly, while around 40% of elderly adults have sleep-related complaints, sleep disorders are more frequently associated with co-morbidities including age-related neurodegenerative diseases and mild cognitive impairment. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated that disturbed sleep may not only serve as the consequence of brain atrophy, but also contribute to the pathogenesis of dementia and, therefore, significantly increase dementia risk. Since the current therapeutic interventions lack efficacies to prevent, delay or reverse the pathological progress of dementia, a better understanding of underlying mechanisms by which sleep disorders interact with the pathogenesis of dementia will provide possible targets for the prevention and treatment of dementia. In this review, we briefly describe the physiological roles of sleep in learning/memory, and specifically update the recent research evidence demonstrating the association between sleep disorders and dementia. Plausible mechanisms are further discussed. Moreover, we also evaluate the possibility of sleep therapy as a potential intervention for dementia.

  20. On the link between column density distribution and density scaling relation in star formation regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltchev, Todor; Donkov, Sava; Stanchev, Orlin

    2017-07-01

    We present a method to derive the density scaling relation ∝ L^{-α} in regions of star formation or in their turbulent vicinities from straightforward binning of the column-density distribution (N-pdf). The outcome of the method is studied for three types of N-pdf: power law (7/5≤α≤5/3), lognormal (0.7≲α≲1.4) and combination of lognormals. In the last case, the method of Stanchev et al. (2015) was also applied for comparison and a very weak (or close to zero) correlation was found. We conclude that the considered `binning approach' reflects rather the local morphology of the N-pdf with no reference to the physical conditions in a considered region. The rough consistency of the derived slopes with the widely adopted Larson's (1981) value α˜1.1 is suggested to support claims that the density-size relation in molecular clouds is indeed an artifact of the observed N-pdf.

  1. Construction of an integrated gene regulatory network link to stress-related immune system in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behdani, Elham; Bakhtiarizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2017-10-01

    The immune system is an important biological system that is negatively impacted by stress. This study constructed an integrated regulatory network to enhance our understanding of the regulatory gene network used in the stress-related immune system. Module inference was used to construct modules of co-expressed genes with bovine leukocyte RNA-Seq data. Transcription factors (TFs) were then assigned to these modules using Lemon-Tree algorithms. In addition, the TFs assigned to each module were confirmed using the promoter analysis and protein-protein interactions data. Therefore, our integrated method identified three TFs which include one TF that is previously known to be involved in immune response (MYBL2) and two TFs (E2F8 and FOXS1) that had not been recognized previously and were identified for the first time in this study as novel regulatory candidates in immune response. This study provides valuable insights on the regulatory programs of genes involved in the stress-related immune system.

  2. The rise of global health diplomacy: An interdisciplinary concept linking health and international relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattu, Vijay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Global health diplomacy (GHD) is relatively a very new field that has yet to be clearly defined and developed though there are various definitions given by different experts from foreign policy, global health, diplomacy, international relations, governance, and law. With the intensification of globalization and increasing gaps between countries, new and reemerging health threats such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome, Ebola, and Zika and a gradual rethinking on security concepts framed a new political context. The health problems addressed diplomatically have also become diverse ranging from neglected tropical diseases, infectious diseases, sale of unsafe, counterfeit drugs to brain drain crisis. We see that global health has become more diverse as the actors widened and also the interests appealing not only to the traditional humanitarian ideals associated with health but also to the principles grounded in national and global security. Recently, we are witnessing the increased priority given to the GHD because the issue of health is discussed by various actors outside the WHO to shape the global policy for health determinants. In fact, the area of health has become the part of UN Summit Diplomacy involving the G8, G20, BRICS, and the EU. The recent WHO Pandemic Influenza Framework, UN High Level Framework on Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, and the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control are some of the examples of long-term negotiation processes for agreements that took place.

  3. Variation in some quality attributes of Atlantic salmon fillets from aquaculture related to geographic origin and water temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Gine Ørnholt; Frosch, Stina; Jørgensen, Bo Munk

    2017-01-01

    an efficient use of the information gathered in the different links of the value chain, a deeper knowledge of the correlations between the various quality attributes and factors like the geographical origin of the salmon, the company and the water temperature of the fish farm, is needed. In the present study......It is well know that factors like fat content and texture affect the yield when making products from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). The relation between these factors and other quality attributes like water holding capacity and protein content, however, has received limited attention. To enable...... a multivariate approach was taken to investigate the variation in some quality parameters (fat, protein, texture, water holding capacity, weight) amongst salmon samples (n = 136) from Norwegian aquaculture in order to establish which parameters were accounting for most of the variation seen in relation...

  4. iSOIL: Interactions between soil related sciences - Linking geophysics, soil science and digital soil mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Peter; Werban, Ulrike; Sauer, Uta

    2010-05-01

    High-resolution soil property maps are one major prerequisite for the specific protection of soil functions and restoration of degraded soils as well as sustainable land use, water and environmental management. To generate such maps the combination of digital soil mapping approaches and remote as well as proximal soil sensing techniques is most promising. However, a feasible and reliable combination of these technologies for the investigation of large areas (e.g. catchments and landscapes) and the assessment of soil degradation threats is missing. Furthermore, there is insufficient dissemination of knowledge on digital soil mapping and proximal soil sensing in the scientific community, to relevant authorities as well as prospective users. As one consequence there is inadequate standardization of techniques. At the poster we present the EU collaborative project iSOIL within the 7th framework program of the European Commission. iSOIL focuses on improving fast and reliable mapping methods of soil properties, soil functions and soil degradation risks. This requires the improvement and integration of advanced soil sampling approaches, geophysical and spectroscopic measuring techniques, as well as pedometric and pedophysical approaches. The focus of the iSOIL project is to develop new and to improve existing strategies and innovative methods for generating accurate, high resolution soil property maps. At the same time the developments will reduce costs compared to traditional soil mapping. ISOIL tackles the challenges by the integration of three major components: (i)high resolution, non-destructive geophysical (e.g. Electromagnetic Induction EMI; Ground Penetrating Radar, GPR; magnetics, seismics) and spectroscopic (e.g., Near Surface Infrared, NIR) methods, (ii)Concepts of Digital Soil Mapping (DSM) and pedometrics as well as (iii)optimized soil sampling with respect to profound soil scientific and (geo)statistical strategies. A special focus of iSOIL lies on the

  5. Intergration in community relations: water shortage and social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The topography of the environment; few boreholes/wells; lack of pipe-borne water; lack of maintenance of boreholes; increase in population; and lack of projection for the future constitute reasons responsible for water shortage. On the other hand, disrupting queue; giving preference to friends to fetch water at the expense of ...

  6. Growing inter-Asian connections: Links, rivalries, and challenges in South Korean–Central Asian relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Fumagalli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The geopolitical context, which emerged from the collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, combined with Korea's growing economic prowess, enabled greater dynamism and diversification in Seoul's foreign policy-making. Growing pressure from energy-intensive economies coupled with new developments and investment in logistics and infrastructure has brought different parts of the Eurasian landmass closer together in recent years. Inter-Asian connections are especially growing. This article uses the case of deepening relations between Korea and the post-Soviet Central Asian republics as a vantage point to reflect on one such example of unfolding Asian inter-connectedness. In addition it sees Seoul's engagement in the region as a fitting example of Korea's broader ambitions to assert itself as a global economic player. The article shows that Korea's policy toward Central Asia has been primarily driven by energy needs and is defined by pragmatism. It finds that the economic dimension of the relationship has greatly overshadowed other aspects such as politics and security. In its pursuit of closer ties with the region Seoul has sought to turn structural weaknesses into added value and has attempted to develop a distinctive, non-threatening profile built around the lack of a political baggage and geopolitical ambitions, and the desire to share its experience of formerly impoverished turned leading economy. In turn, Central Asia's selective integration in the world economy has continued, also thanks to its ties with Korea. The Central Asian republics welcomed the opportunity to diversify their foreign relations, the sources of foreign investment and export routes. At the same time the opaque business environment, a leadership succession, which cannot be postponed for much longer, and Seoul's “no-strings attached” approach expose Korea to some risks as regime stability might not last forever.

  7. The links between healthy, problematic, and addicted Internet use regarding comorbidities and self-concept-related characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leménager, Tagrid; Hoffmann, Sabine; Dieter, Julia; Reinhard, Iris; Mann, Karl; Kiefer, Falk

    2018-03-01

    Background Addicted Internet users present with higher rates of comorbidities, e.g., attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depressive, and anxiety disorders. In addition, deficits in self-concept-related characteristics were found in addicted Internet gamers and social network users. The aim of this study was to examine the links between healthy, problematic, and addicted Internet use regarding comorbidities and self-concept-related characteristics. The association between recently developed ADHD-like symptoms without an underlying diagnosis and addictive Internet use was also examined. Methods n = 79 healthy controls, n = 35 problematic, and n = 93 addicted Internet users were assessed for comorbidities, social and emotional competencies, body image, self-esteem, and perceived stress. Apart from an ADHD-diagnosis, recently developed ADHD-like symptoms were also assessed. Results Addicted users showed more self-concept-related deficits and higher rates of comorbidities with ADHD, depressive, and anxiety disorders. Addicted and problematic users showed similarities in the prevalence of cluster B personality disorders and decreased levels of characteristics related to emotional intelligence. Participants with recently developed ADHD-like symptoms scored higher in lifetime and current severity of Internet use compared with those without ADHD symptoms. Addicted participants with recently developed ADHD symptoms showed higher lifetime Internet use severity compared with those without any symptoms. Conclusions Our findings indicate that cluster B personality disorders and premorbid problems in emotional intelligence might present a link between problematic and addictive Internet use. Furthermore, the findings provide a first indication that addictive Internet use is related to ADHD-like symptoms. Symptoms of ADHD should therefore be assessed against the background of possible addicted Internet use.

  8. Spatial distribution mapping of drinking water fluoride levels in Karnataka, India: fluoride-related health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Chitta R; Shahnawaz, Khijmatgar; Kumari, Divya; Chowdhury, Avidyuti; Bedi, Raman; Lynch, Edward; Harding, Stewart; Grootveld, Martin

    2016-11-01

    (1) To estimate the concentrations of fluoride in drinking water throughout different zones and districts of the state of Karnataka. (2) To investigate the variation of fluoride concentration in drinking water from different sources, and its relationships to daily temperature and rainfall status in the regional districts. (3) To develop an updated fluoride concentration intensity map of the state of Karnataka, and to evaluate these data in the context of fluoride-related health effects such as fluorosis and their prevalence. Aqueous standard solutions of 10, 100 and 1,000 ppm fluoride (F - ) were prepared with analytical grade Na + /F - and a buffer; TISAB II was incorporated in both calibration standard and analysis solutions in order to remove the potentially interfering effects of trace metal ions. This analysis was performed using an ion-selective electrode (ISE), and mean determination readings for n = 5 samples collected at each Karnataka water source were recorded. The F - concentration in drinking water in Karnataka state was found to vary substantially, with the highest mean values recorded being in the north-eastern zone (1.61 ppm), and the lowest in the south-western one (only 0.41 ppm). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that there were very highly significant 'between-zone' and 'between-districts-within-zones' sources of variation (p water source F - levels within this state. The southern part of Karnataka has low levels of F - in its drinking water, and may require fluoridation treatment in order to mitigate for dental caries and further ailments related to fluoride deficiency. However, districts within the north-eastern region have contrastingly high levels of fluoride, an observation which has been linked to dental and skeletal fluorosis. This highlights a major requirement for interventional actions in order to ensure maintenance of the recommended range of fluoride concentrations (0.8-1.5 ppm) in Karnataka's drinking water

  9. Linking Excessive Heat with Daily Heat-Related Mortality over the Coterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Crosson, William L.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, extreme heat is the most deadly weather-related hazard. In the face of a warming climate and urbanization, which contributes to local-scale urban heat islands, it is very likely that extreme heat events (EHEs) will become more common and more severe in the U.S. This research seeks to provide historical and future measures of climate-driven extreme heat events to enable assessments of the impacts of heat on public health over the coterminous U.S. We use atmospheric temperature and humidity information from meteorological reanalysis and from Global Climate Models (GCMs) to provide data on past and future heat events. The focus of research is on providing assessments of the magnitude, frequency and geographic distribution of extreme heat in the U.S. to facilitate public health studies. In our approach, long-term climate change is captured with GCM outputs, and the temporal and spatial characteristics of short-term extremes are represented by the reanalysis data. Two future time horizons for 2040 and 2090 are compared to the recent past period of 1981- 2000. We characterize regional-scale temperature and humidity conditions using GCM outputs for two climate change scenarios (A2 and A1B) defined in the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES). For each future period, 20 years of multi-model GCM outputs are analyzed to develop a 'heat stress climatology' based on statistics of extreme heat indicators. Differences between the two future and the past period are used to define temperature and humidity changes on a monthly time scale and regional spatial scale. These changes are combined with the historical meteorological data, which is hourly and at a spatial scale (12 km) much finer than that of GCMs, to create future climate realizations. From these realizations, we compute the daily heat stress measures and related spatially-specific climatological fields, such as the mean annual number of days above certain thresholds of maximum and minimum air

  10. Link between Motor Competence and Health Related Fitness in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Luz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined motor competence (MC behavior in 6- to 14-year-old children, and investigated the differences in health-related fitness (HRF between high and low MC groups, according to sex and age. A sample of 564 children (288 males participated in this study, divided into three age groups (6–8 years; 9–11 years; 12–14 years. Total MC and its three components (stability, locomotor, and manipulative were assessed with a quantitative instrument. HRF was evaluated using a maximal multistage 20-m shuttle-run test and the handgrip test. Participants were divided into tertiles according to their MC level and high and low MC groups were analyzed. Overall, MC increased across age groups for both sexes, but boys presented better results than girls. The high MC group outperformed their low MC peers in all HRF variables, independent of their age group. Although cardiovascular fitness increased with age for both the high and low MC groups, the differences between these groups were greater in older children compared to younger children, within the study age range. The findings suggest that MC interventions should be considered as an important strategy to enhance HRF, and girls at a young age should be a priority target.

  11. Link between Motor Competence and Health Related Fitness in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Carlos; Cordovil, Rita; Almeida, Gabriela; Rodrigues, Luis P

    2017-06-15

    This study examined motor competence (MC) behavior in 6- to 14-year-old children, and investigated the differences in health-related fitness (HRF) between high and low MC groups, according to sex and age. A sample of 564 children (288 males) participated in this study, divided into three age groups (6⁻8 years; 9⁻11 years; 12⁻14 years). Total MC and its three components (stability, locomotor, and manipulative) were assessed with a quantitative instrument. HRF was evaluated using a maximal multistage 20-m shuttle-run test and the handgrip test. Participants were divided into tertiles according to their MC level and high and low MC groups were analyzed. Overall, MC increased across age groups for both sexes, but boys presented better results than girls. The high MC group outperformed their low MC peers in all HRF variables, independent of their age group. Although cardiovascular fitness increased with age for both the high and low MC groups, the differences between these groups were greater in older children compared to younger children, within the study age range. The findings suggest that MC interventions should be considered as an important strategy to enhance HRF, and girls at a young age should be a priority target.

  12. Linking Mitochondria to Synapses: New Insights for Stress-Related Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Jeanneteau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain evolved cellular mechanisms for adapting synaptic function to energy supply. This is particularly evident when homeostasis is challenged by stress. Signaling loops between the mitochondria and synapses scale neuronal connectivity with bioenergetics capacity. A biphasic “inverted U shape” response to the stress hormone glucocorticoids is demonstrated in mitochondria and at synapses, modulating neural plasticity and physiological responses. Low dose enhances neurotransmission, synaptic growth, mitochondrial functions, learning, and memory whereas chronic, higher doses produce inhibition of these functions. The range of physiological effects by stress and glucocorticoid depends on the dose, duration, and context at exposure. These criteria are met by neuronal activity and the circadian, stress-sensitive and ultradian, stress-insensitive modes of glucocorticoid secretion. A major hallmark of stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders is the disrupted glucocorticoid rhythms and tissue resistance to signaling with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR. GR resistance could result from the loss of context-dependent glucocorticoid signaling mediated by the downregulation of the activity-dependent neurotrophin BDNF. The coincidence of BDNF and GR signaling changes glucocorticoid signaling output with consequences on mitochondrial respiration efficiency, synaptic plasticity, and adaptive trajectories.

  13. LINKING MOTOR-RELATED BRAIN POTENTIALS AND VELOCITY PROFILES IN MULTI-JOINT ARM REACHING MOVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julià L Amengual

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of the movement related brain potentials (MRPBs needs accurate technical approaches to disentangle the specific patterns of bran activity during the preparation and execution of movements. During the last forty years, synchronizing the electromiographic activation (EMG of the muscle with the electrophysiological recordings (EEG has been commonly ussed for these purposes. However, new clinical approaches in the study of motor diseases and rehabilitation suggest the demand of new paradigms that might go further into the study of the brain activity associated with the kinematics of movement. As a response to this call, we have used a 3-D hand tracking system with the aim to record continuously the position of an ultrasonic sender located on the hand during the performance of multi-joint self-pace movements. We synchronized the time-series of position of velocity of the sender with the EEG recordings, obtaining specific patterns of brain activity as a function of the fluctuations of the kinematics during the natural movement performance. Additionally, the distribution of the brain activity during the preparation and execution phases of movement was similar that reported previously using the EMG, suggesting the validity of our technique. We claim that this paradigm could be usable in patients because of its simplicity and the potential knowledge that can be extracted from clinical protocols.

  14. Membrane-Based Separation of Phenol/Water Mixtures Using Ionically and Covalently Cross-Linked Ethylene-Methacrylic Acid Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mixa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane-based separation of phenol/water mixtures with concentrations of phenol between 3 wt% and 8 wt% in the feed has been performed with nonmodified as well as cross-linked ethylene-methacrylic acid (E-MAA copolymers with different amounts of methacrylic acid. As cross-linking agents, aluminium acetyl acetonate, which leads to ionically cross-linked membranes, and 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-phenylene diamine and glycerine digycidether, leading to covalently cross-linked membranes, have been used. Generally, it was found that with increasing phenol content in the feed, the total flux is increasing whereas the enrichment factor is decreasing. Using nonmodified membranes with higher methacrylic acid monomer content in the polymer, lower fluxes and higher enrichment factors were observed. Investigation of different cross-linked membranes showed that with high phenol concentration in the feed, ionic cross-linking seems to be very promising. Furthermore, variation of feed temperature shows that ionically cross-linked membranes reached higher fluxes as well as higher enrichment factors at elevated temperatures. The temperature-dependent data were fitted based on an Arrhenius-type equation, and activation energies for the permeation of phenol and water through the membrane were calculated.

  15. Dehydration of an azeotrope of ethanol/water by sodium carboxymethylcellulose membranes cross-linked with organic or inorganic cross-linker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available To control the swelling of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMCNa membranes, mixtures of CMCNa and glutaraldehyde (GA and mixtures of CMCNa as an organic component and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS as an inorganic component were prepared, and CMCNa/GA cross-linked membranes and CMCNa/TEOS hybrid membranes were formed. In the separation of an ethanol/water azeotrope by pervaporation (PV, the effects of the GA or TEOS content on the water/ethanol selectivity and permeability of these CMCNa/GA cross-linked and CMCNa/TEOS hybrid membranes were investigated. Cross-linked and hybrid membranes containing up to 10 wt% GA or 10 wt% TEOS exhibited higher water/ethanol selectivity than CMCNa membrane without any cross-linker. This resulted from both increased density and depressed swelling of the membranes by the formation of a cross-linked structure. The relationship between the structure of the CMCNa/GA cross-linked membranes and CMCNa/TEOS hybrid membranes and their permeation and separation characteristics for an ethanol/water azeotrope during PV is discussed in detail.

  16. Regorafenib-induced hypothyroidism and cancer-related fatigue: is there a potential link?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pani, Fabiana; Massidda, Matteo; Pusceddu, Valeria; Puzzoni, Marco; Massa, Elena; Madeddu, Clelia; Scartozzi, Mario; Mariotti, Stefano

    2017-07-01

    Thyroid dysfunction has been reported during Regorafenib (Reg) administration, but no detailed study is presently available. Prospective, observational cohort study. Patients with documented metastatic colorectal cancer and progression of disease during or within 3 months after the last standard therapy, with no evidence and history of previous thyroid disease were enrolled. Twenty-five consecutive patients were evaluated before and 8-50 weeks after initiating Reg therapy by monthly clinical, ultrasound and laboratory (thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (fT4), antithyroglobulin (TgAb) and antithyroid peroxidase (TPOAb)) evaluation. Thirteen/25 patients (52%) became hypothyroid (TSH: 12.5 ± 4.01 IU/L, range: 4.6-22.0) within 5 months of therapy. TPOAb became detectable (99-155 IU/mL) in 2/25 (8%) patients. Thyroid volume progressively decreased (from 8.6  ±  2.2 mL to 4.9 ± 2.4 mL after 5 months of Reg therapy, P  hypothyroidism (43 weeks) than in those remaining euthyroid (17 weeks, P  hypothyroidism severity and reversed after levothyroxine therapy (L-T4). Reg rapidly causes hypothyroidism in about 50% of patients and in a minority of them also triggers thyroid autoimmunity. Reg-induced hypothyroidism was strictly related to fatigue, easily reversed by L-T4 administration and associated to longer survival. These results suggest that prompt recognition of hypothyroidism in patients with severe fatigue may prevent unnecessary Reg dose reduction or withdrawal. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  17. Osteomalacia: the missing link in the pathogenesis of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, Alberto; Saia, Giorgia; Bettini, Giordana; Tronchet, Anita; Totola, Andrea; Bedogni, Giorgio; Tregnago, Paolo; Valenti, Maria Teresa; Bertoldo, Francesco; Ferronato, Giuseppe; Nocini, Pier Francesco; Blandamura, Stella; Dalle Carbonare, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a well-documented adverse event from treatment with nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (NBPs). During a preliminary histomorphometric study aimed at assessing the rate of bone remodeling in the jaws of patients with surgically resected BRONJ, we found a defect of bone mineralization (unpublished data). We hypothesized that osteomalacia could be a risk factor for BRONJ in patients taking NBPs. Therefore, we looked for static and dynamic histomorphometric evidence of osteomalacia in biopsies from subjects with and without BRONJ. This case-control study used histomorphometric analysis of bone specimens of patients using NBPs (22 patients with BRONJ and 21 patients without BRONJ) who required oral surgical interventions for the treatment/prevention of osteonecrosis. Patients were given tetracycline hydrochloride according to a standardized protocol before taking bone biopsies from their jaws. Biopsies with evidence of osteomyelitis or necrosis at histology were excluded from the study. Osteomalacia was defined as a mineralization lag time >100 days, a corrected mean osteoid thickness >12.5 mm, and an osteoid volume >10%. In all, 77% of patients with BRONJ were osteomalacic compared with 5% of patients without BRONJ, according to histomorphometry. Because osteomalacia was found almost exclusively in NBP users with BRONJ, this is likely to be a generalized process in which the use of NBPs further deteriorates mechanisms of bone repair. Osteomalacia represents a new and previously unreported risk factor for disease development. This finding may contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease and help with the development of strategies to increase the safety of NBP administration.

  18. Linking land use changes to surface water quality variability in Lake Victoria: some insights from remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugo, R. M.; Limaye, A. S.; Nyaga, J. W.; Farah, H.; Wahome, A.; Flores, A.

    2016-12-01

    The water quality of inland lakes is largely influenced by land use and land cover changes within the lake's catchment. In Africa, some of the major land use changes are driven by a number of factors, which include urbanization, intensification of agricultural practices, unsustainable farm management practices, deforestation, land fragmentation and degradation. Often, the impacts of these factors are observable on changes in the land cover, and eventually in the hydrological systems. When the natural vegetation cover is reduced or changed, the surface water flow patterns, water and nutrient retention capacities are also changed. This can lead to high nutrient inputs into lakes, leading to eutrophication, siltation and infestation of floating aquatic vegetation. To assess the relationship between land use and land cover changes in part of the Lake Victoria Basin, a series of land cover maps were derived from Landsat imagery. Changes in land cover were identified through change maps and statistics. Further, the surface water chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity were derived from MODIS-Aqua data for Lake Victoria. Chlrophyll-a and turbidity are good proxy indicators of nutrient inputs and siltation respectively. The trends in chlorophyll-a and turbidity concentrations were analyzed and compared to the land cover changes over time. Certain land cover changes related to agriculture and urban development were clearly identifiable. While these changes might not be solely responsible for variability in chlrophyll-a and turbidity concentrations in the lake, they are potentially contributing factors to this problem. This work illustrates the importance of addressing watershed degradation while seeking to solve water quality related problems.

  19. Climate Change-Related Water Disasters' Impact on Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenema, Tener Goodwin; Thornton, Clifton P; Lavin, Roberta Proffitt; Bender, Annah K; Seal, Stella; Corley, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Rising global temperatures have resulted in an increased frequency and severity of cyclones, hurricanes, and flooding in many parts of the world. These climate change-related water disasters (CCRWDs) have a devastating impact on communities and the health of residents. Clinicians and policymakers require a substantive body of evidence on which to base planning, prevention, and disaster response to these events. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature concerning the impact of CCRWDs on public health in order to identify factors in these events that are amenable to preparedness and mitigation. Ultimately, this evidence could be used by nurses to advocate for greater preparedness initiatives and inform national and international disaster policy. A systematic literature review of publications identified through a comprehensive search of five relevant databases (PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature [CINAHL], Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science) was conducted using a modified Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) approach in January 2017 to describe major themes and associated factors of the impact of CCRWDs on population health. Three major themes emerged: environmental disruption resulting in exposure to toxins, population susceptibility, and health systems infrastructure (failure to plan-prepare-mitigate, inadequate response, and lack of infrastructure). Direct health impact was characterized by four major categories: weather-related morbidity and mortality, waterborne diseases/water-related illness, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, and psychiatric/mental health effects. Scope and duration of the event are factors that exacerbate the impact of CCRWDs. Discussion of specific factors amenable to mitigation was limited. Flooding as an event was overrepresented in this analysis (60%), and the majority of the research reviewed was conducted in high-income or upper

  20. Carbonate compensation depth: relation to carbonate solubility in ocean waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yaakov, S; Ruth, E; Kaplan, I R

    1974-05-31

    In situ calcium carbonate saturometry measurements suggest that the intermediate water masses of the central Pacific Ocean are close to saturation with resppect to both calcite and local carbonate sediment. The carbonate compensation depth, located at about 3700 meters in this area, appears to represent a depth above which waters are essentially saturated with respect to calcite and below which waters deviate toward undersaturation with respect to calcite.

  1. Secondary circuit water chemistry and related problems with SG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatov, V; Ivanov, V [Balakovo Nuclear Power Plant (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    Necessity for SG feed water and blowdown systems modernization Balakovo NPP steam generators PGV-1000M was identified at Units with VVER-1000 during commissioning separational, thermo-hydraulic and thermo-chemical testings. It was discovered, that in zone of 'hot' header coolant salt concentration (concentration of dissolved salts) was almost 2 times more, than salt concentration in blowdown water. A number of chemical testings was performed to investigate and optimize salts distribution in water volume of PGV-1000. (R.P.)

  2. Secondary circuit water chemistry and related problems with SG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, V.; Ivanov, V.

    2001-01-01

    Necessity for SG feed water and blowdown systems modernization Balakovo NPP steam generators PGV-1000M was identified at Units with VVER-1000 during commissioning separational, thermo-hydraulic and thermo-chemical testings. It was discovered, that in zone of 'hot' header coolant salt concentration (concentration of dissolved salts) was almost 2 times more, than salt concentration in blowdown water. A number of chemical testings was performed to investigate and optimize salts distribution in water volume of PGV-1000. (R.P.)

  3. Ion Chromatographic Analyses of Sea Waters, Brines and Related Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Gros

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the ion chromatographic methods for the analyses of natural waters with high ionic strength. At the beginning a natural diversity in ionic composition of waters is highlighted and terminology clarified. In continuation a brief overview of other review articles of potential interest is given. A review of ion chromatographic methods is organized in four sections. The first section comprises articles focused on the determination of ionic composition of water samples as com...

  4. Plant–Water Relations (1): Uptake and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Summary Plants, like all living things, are mostly water. Water is the matrix of life, and its availability determines the distribution and productivity of plants on earth. Vascular plants evolved structures that enable them to transport water long distances with little input of energy, but the hollow tracheary elements are just one of many adaptations that enable plants to cope with a very dry atmosphere. This lecture examines the physical laws that govern water uptake and transport, the biological properties of cells and plant tissues that facilitate it, and the strategies that enable plants to survive in diverse environments

  5. Peach Water Relations, Gas Exchange, Growth and Shoot Mortality under Water Deficit in Semi-Arid Weather Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmati, Mitra; Davarynejad, Gholam Hossein; G?nard, Michel; Bannayan, Mohammad; Azizi, Majid; Vercambre, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    In this study the sensitivity of peach tree (Prunus persica L.) to three water stress levels from mid-pit hardening until harvest was assessed. Seasonal patterns of shoot and fruit growth, gas exchange (leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration) as well as carbon (C) storage/mobilization were evaluated in relation to plant water status. A simple C balance model was also developed to investigate sink-source relationship in relation to plant water status at the tree level. The...

  6. Water-stress-induced breakdown of carbon-water relations: indicators from diurnal FLUXNET patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jacob A.; Carvalhais, Nuno; Migliavacca, Mirco; Reichstein, Markus; Jung, Martin

    2018-04-01

    Understanding of terrestrial carbon and water cycles is currently hampered by an uncertainty in how to capture the large variety of plant responses to drought. In FLUXNET, the global network of CO2 and H2O flux observations, many sites do not uniformly report the ancillary variables needed to study drought response physiology. To this end, we outline two data-driven indicators based on diurnal energy, water, and carbon flux patterns derived directly from the eddy covariance data and based on theorized physiological responses to hydraulic and non-stomatal limitations. Hydraulic limitations (i.e. intra-plant limitations on water movement) are proxied using the relative diurnal centroid (CET*), which measures the degree to which the flux of evapotranspiration (ET) is shifted toward the morning. Non-stomatal limitations (e.g. inhibitions of biochemical reactions, RuBisCO activity, and/or mesophyll conductance) are characterized by the Diurnal Water-Carbon Index (DWCI), which measures the degree of coupling between ET and gross primary productivity (GPP) within each day. As a proof of concept we show the response of the metrics at six European sites during the 2003 heat wave event, showing a varied response of morning shifts and decoupling. Globally, we found indications of hydraulic limitations in the form of significantly high frequencies of morning-shifted days in dry/Mediterranean climates and savanna/evergreen plant functional types (PFTs), whereas high frequencies of decoupling were dominated by dry climates and grassland/savanna PFTs indicating a prevalence of non-stomatal limitations in these ecosystems. Overall, both the diurnal centroid and DWCI were associated with high net radiation and low latent energy typical of drought. Using three water use efficiency (WUE) models, we found the mean differences between expected and observed WUE to be -0.09 to 0.44 µmol mmol-1 and -0.29 to -0.40 µmol mmol-1 for decoupled and morning-shifted days, respectively, compared

  7. Contrasting extremes in water-related stresses determine species survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomeus, R. P.; Witte, J. P. M.; van Bodegom, P. M.; van Dam, J. C.; Aerts, R.

    2012-04-01

    In temperate climates, soil moisture, in concert with nutrient availability and soil acidity, is the most important environmental filter in determining local plant species composition, as it determines the availability of both oxygen and water to plant roots. These resources are indispensable for meeting the physiological demands of plants. Especially the occurrence of both excessive dry and wet moisture conditions at a particular site has strong implications for the survival of species, because plants need traits that allow them to respond to such counteracting conditions. However, adapting to one stress may go at the cost of the other, i.e. there exists a trade-off in the tolerance for wet conditions and the tolerance for dry conditions. Until now, both large-scale (global) and plot-scale effects of soil moisture conditions on plant species composition have mostly been investigated through indirect environmental measures, which do not include the key soil physical and plant physiological processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Moreover, researchers only determined effects of one of the water-related stresses, i.e. either oxygen or drought stress. In order to quantify both oxygen and drought stress with causal measures, we focused on interacting meteorological, soil physical, microbial, and plant physiological processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. We simulated these plant stresses with a novel, process-based approach, incorporating in detail the interacting processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere interface. High variability and extremes in resource availability can be highly detrimental to plant species ('you can only die once'). We show that co-occurrence of oxygen and drought stress reduces the percentage of specialists within a vegetation plot. The percentage of non-specialists within a vegetation plot, however, decreases significantly with increasing stress as long as only one of the stresses prevails, but increases significantly with an

  8. Paradigm Shift in Transboundary Water Management Policy: Linking Water Environment Energy and Food (weef) to Catchment Hydropolitics - Needs, Scope and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAI, S.; Wolf, A.; Sharma, N.; Tiwari, H.

    2015-12-01

    The incessant use of water due to rapid growth of population, enhanced agricultural and industrial activities, degraded environment and ecology will in the coming decades constrain the socioeconomic development of humans. To add on to the precarious situation, political boundaries rarely embrace hydrological boundaries of lakes, rivers, aquifers etc. Hydropolitics relate to the ability of geopolitical institutions to manage shared water resources in a politically sustainable manner, i.e., without tensions or conflict between political entities. Riparian hydropolitics caters to differing objectives, needs and requirements of states making it difficult to administer the catchment. The diverse riparian objectives can be merged to form a holistic catchment objective of sustainable water resources development and management. It can be proposed to make a paradigm shift in the present-day transboundary water policy from riparian hydropolitics (in which the focal point of water resources use is hinged on state's need) to catchment hydropolitics (in which the interest of the basin inhabitants are accorded primacy holistically over state interests) and specifically wherein the water, environment, energy and food (WEEF) demands of the catchment are a priority and not of the states in particular. The demands of the basin pertaining to water, food and energy have to be fulfilled, keeping the environment and ecology healthy in a cooperative political framework; the need for which is overwhelming. In the present scenario, the policy for water resources development of a basin is segmented into independent uncoordinated parts controlled by various riparians; whereas in catchment hydropolitics the whole basin should be considered as a unit. The riparians should compromise a part of national interest and work in collaboration on a joint objective which works on the principle of the whole as against the part. Catchment hydropolitics may find greater interest in the more than 250

  9. Energetics and water relations ofN amib desert rodents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and the possible effects of advective fog on the water balance of the .... Table 2 Energy balance of Namib desert rodents in the laboratory on a diet of air-dried bird seed and with, and with, ad lib water. .... responding mercury thermometer.

  10. Nitrates in drinking water: relation with intensive livestock production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giammarino, M; Quatto, P

    2015-01-01

    An excess of nitrates causes environmental pollution in receiving water bodies and health risk for human, if contaminated water is source of drinking water. The directive 91/676/ CEE [1] aims to reduce the nitrogen pressure in Europe from agriculture sources and identifies the livestock population as one of the predominant sources of surplus of nutrients that could be released in water and air. Directive is concerned about cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry and their territorial loads, but it does not deal with fish farms. Fish farms effluents may contain pollutants affecting ecosystem water quality. On the basis of multivariate statistical analysis, this paper aims to establish what types of farming affect the presence of nitrates in drinking water in the province of Cuneo, Piedmont, Italy. In this regard, we have used data from official sources on nitrates in drinking water and data Arvet database, concerning the presence of intensive farming in the considered area. For model selection we have employed automatic variable selection algorithm. We have identified fish farms as a major source of nitrogen released into the environment, while pollution from sheep and poultry has appeared negligible. We would like to emphasize the need to include in the "Nitrate Vulnerable Zones" (as defined in Directive 91/676/CEE [1]), all areas where there are intensive farming of fish with open-system type of water use. Besides, aquaculture open-system should be equipped with adequate downstream system of filtering for removing nitrates in the wastewater.

  11. Relation between chlorine with the quality of crude water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Fang Yee; Mohd Pauzi Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    Chlorine as disinfection agent in drinking water was used widely since it was successfully been practiced in drinking water in Jersey City, 1908. Mostly, water treatment plants in Malaysia were using chlorine as disinfection agent to kill pathogen and contaminated materials that can be dangerous to consumer. Because of chlorine was a strongly disinfection agent, it also can react with another chemical components such as manganese, hydrogen, sulfides, ammonia and phenol in water. These reactions happen very fast, and chlorine will not react as disinfection agent unless all the organic and inorganic substitution presented in water reacts with chlorine. These reactions between components will increase demand of chlorine in water. The demand of chlorine in water must be filled before the free radical chlorine occurred. These free radical chlorine will decay into hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion that so important in disinfection process to kill pathogens and pollutants in water. Most of water treatment plant to maintain free chlorine up to 0.2 mg/ L in distribution system to consumer. These researches involved determination of parameters that can be trusted to react with the chlorine in nine sampling station along Semenyih River and four stations in water treatment plants. These parameters were determined from ammonia, cyanides, sulfides, phenol, phosphorus, nitrite, manganese, iron and sum of organic carbons. Overall, these researches concluded that ammonia and sum of organic carbons were the most compounds that react with the chlorine to produce tryhalometane and chloramines. Besides that, the concentration of cyanides compounds, sulfide, phenol, phosphorus, nitrite, manganese and iron also decrease after the chlorination process. Results can used to evaluate demanding levels of chlorine in Semenyih River. (author)

  12. Current status of regulatory aspects relating to water chemistry in Japanese NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, water chemistry of cooling water is carefully monitored and controlled to keep integrity of structures, systems and components, and to reduce occupational radiation exposures. As increasing demand for advanced application of light water cooled reactors, water chemistry control plays more important roles on plant reliability. The road maps on R and D for water chemistry of nuclear power systems have been proposed along with promotion of R and D related water chemistry in Japan. In academic and engineering societies, non-governmental standards for water chemistry are going to be established. In the present paper, recent trends of water chemistry in Japan have been surveyed. The effects of water chemistry on plant safety and radiation exposures have been discussed. In addition, possible contributions of regulation regarding water chemistry control have been confirmed. Major water chemistry regulatory aspects relating to reactor safety and radiation safety are also outlined in this paper. (author)

  13. Incidence of lesions on Fungiidae corals in the eastern Red Sea is related to water temperature and coastal pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Furby, K.A.

    2014-07-01

    As sea surface temperatures rise and the global human population increases, large-scale field observations of marine organism health and water quality are increasingly necessary. We investigated the health of corals from the family Fungiidae using visual observations in relation to water quality and microbial biogeochemistry parameters along 1300 km of the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. At large scales, incidence of lesions caused by unidentified etiology showed consistent signs, increasing significantly from the northern to southern coast and positively correlated to annual mean seawater temperatures. Lesion abundance also increased to a maximum of 96% near the populous city of Jeddah. The presence of lesioned corals in the region surrounding Jeddah was strongly correlated with elevated concentrations of ammonium and changes in microbial communities that are linked to decreased water quality. This study suggests that both high seawater temperatures and nutrient pollution may play an indirect role in the formation of lesions on corals. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Incidence of lesions on Fungiidae corals in the eastern Red Sea is related to water temperature and coastal pollution

    KAUST Repository

    Furby, K.A.; Apprill, A.; Cervino, J.M.; Ossolinski, J.E.; Hughen, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    As sea surface temperatures rise and the global human population increases, large-scale field observations of marine organism health and water quality are increasingly necessary. We investigated the health of corals from the family Fungiidae using visual observations in relation to water quality and microbial biogeochemistry parameters along 1300 km of the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. At large scales, incidence of lesions caused by unidentified etiology showed consistent signs, increasing significantly from the northern to southern coast and positively correlated to annual mean seawater temperatures. Lesion abundance also increased to a maximum of 96% near the populous city of Jeddah. The presence of lesioned corals in the region surrounding Jeddah was strongly correlated with elevated concentrations of ammonium and changes in microbial communities that are linked to decreased water quality. This study suggests that both high seawater temperatures and nutrient pollution may play an indirect role in the formation of lesions on corals. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Potential Effects of a Water Market on Enhancing Water Productivity and Reducing Water-Related Conflicts in Fars Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Zibaei

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for water and the declining trend in renewable water resources in most regions has led to serious limitations on water availability calling for the sustainable management of the harvestable resources. This has, in turn, encouraged most planners in the water sector to focus on demand management. A number of tools are already available for realizing water demand management goals; one such tool is establishing a water market. The present study is designed and implemented in two stages to investigate the role of a water market in water resources management. In the first stage, the creation of a water market at the farm and basin levels is simulated using a mathematical planning model. The second stage involves the investigation of the combined effects of the water market and water extraction rationing policies. It is found that rationing policies lead to reduced extractions from groundwater resources. The two-stage random cluster sampling method is used to collect the required data. Pilot villages are selected based on the data obtained from the first sampling stage. Pilot farms are then selected in the second stage based on water availability in each place. The input-output data, quantities of available water, and any other data required are finally collected through interviews with local farmers. Results reveal that the volume of exchanged water accounts for 9.5% of the total water consumed and the average improvement gained in farmers’ income ranges from 15 to as high as 42%. This clearly provides enough incentives for the farmers to enter the water market. Like all other water saving policies and measures, establishing a water market might increase consumption, contrary to the national objectives, in the absence of proper supplementary preventive measures. Thus, a second scenario is designed to investigate the combined effects of both water extraction rationing and water marketing. According to this scenario, the total

  16. Relation between ground water and surface water in the Hillsborough River basin, west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolansky, R.M.; Thompson, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    The relation between groundwater and surface water in the Hillsborough River basin was defined through the use of: seismic-reflection profiling along selected reaches of the Hillsborough River, and evaluation of streamflow, rainfall, groundwater levels, water quality, and geologic data. Major municipal well fields in the basin are Morris Bridge and Cypress Creek where an averages of 15.3 and 30.0 million gal/day (mgd), respectively, were pumped in 1980. Mean annual rainfall for the study area is 53.7 inches. Average rainfall for 1980, determined from eight rainfall stations, was 49.7 inches. Evapotranspiration, corrected for the 5% of the basin that is standing water, was 35.7 in/year. The principal geohydrologic units in the basin are the surficial aquifer, the intermediate aquifer and confining beds, the Upper Floridan aquifer, the middle confining unit, and the Lower Floridan aquifer. Total pumpage of groundwater in 1980 was 98.18 mgd. The surficial aquifer and the intermediate aquifer are not used for major groundwater supply in the basin. Continuous marine seismic-reflection data collected along selected reaches of the Hillsborough River were interpreted to define the riverbed profile, the thickness of surficial deposits, and the top of persistent limestone. Major areas of groundwater discharge near the Hillsborough River and its tributaries are the wetlands adjacent to the river between the Zephyrhills gaging stations and Fletcher Avenue and the wetlands adjacent to Cypress Creek. An estimated 20 mgd seeps upward from the Upper Floridan aquifer within those wetland areas. The runoff/sq mi is greater at the Zephyrhills station than at Morris Bridge. However, results of groundwater flow models and potentiometric-surface maps indicate that groundwater is flowing upward along the Hillsborough River between the Zephyrhills gage and the Morris Bridge gage. This upward leakage is lost to evapotranspiration. An aquifer test conducted in 1978 at the Morris Bridge well

  17. Comparative water relation of three varieties of Hibiscus cannabinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... Choosing the proper variety with the most growth rate and biomass content is a ... plants of each varieties were cultivated in completely randomized design under .... The interaction of CO2 and temperatures with water.

  18. Water and Agriculture: a relation that needs to change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, R.

    2015-01-01

    In the top ten of the global risks in terms of impact analysed, from the 2015 World Economic Forum's Global Risks Report, the ' water crisis' is in first place as intensity of impact: that's understandable because from water depends not only the life on the Earth but also many of the economic activities. For this reason it is essential protect water and to use it in a way more and more efficient and sustainable. The Technical Unit models, methods and technologies for environmental assessments of ENEA works since several years in the field of water resource management. It is in this context that ENEA has patented a biological system for removing phosphorus from wastewater, which is presented here schematically. [it

  19. Estimating water equivalent snow depth from related meteorological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyaert, L.T.; LeDuc, S.K.; Strommen, N.D.; Nicodemus, M.L.; Guttman, N.B.

    1980-05-01

    Engineering design must take into consideration natural loads and stresses caused by meteorological elements, such as, wind, snow, precipitation and temperature. The purpose of this study was to determine a relationship of water equivalent snow depth measurements to meteorological variables. Several predictor models were evaluated for use in estimating water equivalent values. These models include linear regression, principal component regression, and non-linear regression models. Linear, non-linear and Scandanavian models are used to generate annual water equivalent estimates for approximately 1100 cooperative data stations where predictor variables are available, but which have no water equivalent measurements. These estimates are used to develop probability estimates of snow load for each station. Map analyses for 3 probability levels are presented

  20. Quantitative variation in obesity-related traits and insulin precursors linked to the OB gene region on human chromosome 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggirala, R.; Stern, M.P.; Reinhart, L.J. [Univ. of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States)] [and others

    1996-09-01

    Despite the evidence that human obesity has strong genetic determinants, efforts at identifying specific genes that influence human obesity have largely been unsuccessful. Using the sibship data obtained from 32 low-income Mexican American pedigrees ascertained on a type II diabetic proband and a multipoint variance-components method, we tested for linkage between various obesity-related traits plus associated metabolic traits and 15 markers on human chromosome 7. We found evidence for linkage between markers in the OB gene region and various traits, as follows: D7S514 and extremity skinfolds (LOD = 3.1), human carboxypeptidase A1 (HCPA1) and 32,33-split proinsulin level (LOD = 4.2), and HCPA1 and proinsulin level (LOD = 3.2). A putative susceptibility locus linked to the marker D7S514 explained 56% of the total phenotypic variation in extremity skinfolds. Variation at the HCPA1 locus explained 64% of phenotypic variation in proinsulin level and {approximately}73% of phenotypic variation in split proinsulin concentration, respectively. Weaker evidence for linkage to several other obesity-related traits (e.g., waist circumference, body-mass index, fat mass by bioimpedance, etc.) was observed for a genetic location, which is {approximately}15 cM telomeric to OB. In conclusion, our study reveals that the OB region plays a significant role in determining the phenotypic variation of both insulin precursors and obesity-related traits, at least in Mexican Americans. 66 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water... the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related... Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land...

  2. Virtual water trade of agri-food products: Evidence from italian-chinese relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamastra, Lucrezia; Miglietta, Pier Paolo; Toma, Pierluigi; De Leo, Federica; Massari, Stefania

    2017-12-01

    At global scale, the majority of world water withdrawal is for the agricultural sector, with differences among countries depending on the relevance of agri-food sector in the economy. Virtual water and water footprint could be useful to express the impact on the water resources of each production process and good with the objective to lead to a sustainable use of water at a global level. International trade could be connected to the virtual water flows, in fact through commodities importation, water poor countries can save their own water resources. The present paper focuses on the bilateral virtual water flows connected to the top ten agri-food products traded between Italy and China. Comparing the virtual water flow related to the top 10 agri-food products, the virtual water flow from Italy to China is bigger than the water flow in the opposite direction. Moreover, the composition of virtual water flows is different; Italy imports significant amounts of grey water from China, depending on the different environmental strategies adopted by the two selected countries. This difference could be also related to the fact that traded commodities are very different; the 91% of virtual water imported by Italy is connected to crops products, while the 95% of virtual water imported by China is related to the animal products. Considering national water saving and global water saving, appears that Italy imports virtual water from China while China exerts pressure on its water resources to supply the exports to Italy. This result at global scale implies a global water loss of 129.29millionm3 because, in general, the agri-food products are traded from the area with lower water productivity to the area with the higher water productivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimating relations between temperature, relative humidity as independed variables and selected water quality parameters in Lake Manzala, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan A.H. Sallam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt, Lake Manzala is the largest and the most productive lake of northern coastal lakes. In this study, the continuous measurements data of the Real Time Water Quality Monitoring stations in Lake Manzala were statistically analyzed to measure the regional and seasonal variations of the selected water quality parameters in relation to the change of air temperature and relative humidity. Simple formulas are elaborated using the DataFit software to predict the selected water quality parameters of the Lake including pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Turbidity, and Chlorophyll as a function of air temperature, relative humidity and quantities and qualities of the drainage water that discharge into the lake. An empirical positive relation was found between air temperature and the relative humidity and pH, EC and TDS and negative relation with DO. There is no significant effect on the other two parameters of turbidity and chlorophyll.

  4. Are leaf physiological traits related to leaf water isotopic enrichment in restinga woody species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNO H.P. ROSADO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During plant-transpiration, water molecules having the lighter stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen evaporate and diffuse at a faster rate through the stomata than molecules having the heavier isotopes, which cause isotopic enrichment of leaf water. Although previous models have assumed that leaf water is well-mixed and isotopically uniform, non-uniform stomatal closure, promoting different enrichments between cells, and different pools of water within leaves, due to morpho-physiological traits, might lead to inaccuracies in isotopic models predicting leaf water enrichment. We evaluate the role of leaf morpho-physiological traits on leaf water isotopic enrichment in woody species occurring in a coastal vegetation of Brazil known as restinga. Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope values of soil, plant stem and leaf water and leaf traits were measured in six species from restinga vegetation during a drought and a wet period. Leaf water isotopic enrichment relative to stem water was more homogeneous among species during the drought in contrast to the wet period suggesting convergent responses to deal to temporal heterogeneity in water availability. Average leaf water isotopic enrichment relative to stem water during the drought period was highly correlated with relative apoplastic water content. We discuss this observation in the context of current models of leaf water isotopic enrichment as a function of the Péclet effect. We suggest that future studies should include relative apoplastic water content in isotopic models.

  5. Are leaf physiological traits related to leaf water isotopic enrichment in restinga woody species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado, Bruno H P; De Mattos, Eduardo A; Sternberg, Leonel Da S L

    2013-09-01

    During plant-transpiration, water molecules having the lighter stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen evaporate and diffuse at a faster rate through the stomata than molecules having the heavier isotopes, which cause isotopic enrichment of leaf water. Although previous models have assumed that leaf water is well-mixed and isotopically uniform, non-uniform stomatal closure, promoting different enrichments between cells, and different pools of water within leaves, due to morpho-physiological traits, might lead to inaccuracies in isotopic models predicting leaf water enrichment. We evaluate the role of leaf morpho-physiological traits on leaf water isotopic enrichment in woody species occurring in a coastal vegetation of Brazil known as restinga. Hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope values of soil, plant stem and leaf water and leaf traits were measured in six species from restinga vegetation during a drought and a wet period. Leaf water isotopic enrichment relative to stem water was more homogeneous among species during the drought in contrast to the wet period suggesting convergent responses to deal to temporal heterogeneity in water availability. Average leaf water isotopic enrichment relative to stem water during the drought period was highly correlated with relative apoplastic water content. We discuss this observation in the context of current models of leaf water isotopic enrichment as a function of the Péclet effect. We suggest that future studies should include relative apoplastic water content in isotopic models.

  6. Release of drinking water contaminants and odor impacts caused by green building cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) plumbing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Keven M; Stenson, Alexandra C; Dey, Rajarashi; Whelton, Andrew J

    2014-12-15

    Green buildings are increasingly being plumbed with crosslinked polyethylene (PEX) potable water pipe. Tap water quality was investigated at a six month old plumbing system and chemical and odor quality impacts of six PEX pipe brands were examined. Eleven PEX related contaminants were found in the plumbing system; one regulated (toluene) and several unregulated: Antioxidant degradation products, resin solvents, initiator degradation products, or manufacturing aides. Water chemical and odor quality was monitored for new PEX-a, -b and -c pipes with (2 mg/L free chlorine) and without disinfectant over 30 days. Odor and total organic carbon (TOC) levels decreased for all pipes, but odor remained greater than the USA's Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) secondary maximum contaminant level. Odors were not attributed to known odorants ethyl-tert-butyl ether (ETBE) or methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE). Free chlorine caused odor levels for PEX-a1 pipe to increase from 26 to 75 threshold odor number (TON) on day 3 and affected the rate at which TOC changed for each brand over 30 days. As TOC decreased, the ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm increased. Pipes consumed as much as 0.5 mg/L as Cl2 during each 3 day stagnation period. Sixteen organic chemicals were identified, including toluene, pyridine, methylene trichloroacetate and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. Some were also detected during the plumbing system field investigation. Six brands of PEX pipes sold in the USA and a PEX-a green building plumbing system impacted chemical and drinking water odor quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. MINERAL WATER FROM SUPERMARKET VS. TAP WATER. SOME CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO INNOCUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian – Nicolae POPA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 15 Romanian brands of mineral water were purchased from hypermarket. For each of the 15 mineral waters were determined the content of nitrates, nitrites and pH. The data obtained were compared with the content of nitrates, nitrites and pH of the tap water collected in 15 locations in Bucharest, according to data released by the Apa Nova operator. The results showed that the mean of tap water pH in Bucharest, although slightly higher than the tested mineral waters pH, did not differ significantly from the mean of mineral waters pH, being situated in the alkaline domain. The mean content of nitrates in tap water in Bucharest, did not differ significantly from that of the tested mineral waters (t = 0.811. Nitrates content of tap water in Bucharest was significantly distinct less, as the pH was higher (r = 0.68**. Basically, the change in pH by one unit, lowers the amount of nitrate by 46%. Bucharest tap water nitrites content was significantly lower than that of tested mineral waters (0.005 mg/l to 0.0124; t = 2.674*. Basically, Bucharest tap water contained up to 2.5 times less nitrites than the nitrites mean of tested mineral waters.

  8. Modeling Water Resource Systems Accounting for Water-Related Energy Use, GHG Emissions and Water-Dependent Energy Generation in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escriva-Bou, A.; Lund, J. R.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Medellin-Azuara, J.

    2015-12-01

    Most individual processes relating water and energy interdependence have been assessed in many different ways over the last decade. It is time to step up and include the results of these studies in management by proportionating a tool for integrating these processes in decision-making to effectively understand the tradeoffs between water and energy from management options and scenarios. A simple but powerful decision support system (DSS) for water management is described that includes water-related energy use and GHG emissions not solely from the water operations, but also from final water end uses, including demands from cities, agriculture, environment and the energy sector. Because one of the main drivers of energy use and GHG emissions is water pumping from aquifers, the DSS combines a surface water management model with a simple groundwater model, accounting for their interrelationships. The model also explicitly includes economic data to optimize water use across sectors during shortages and calculate return flows from different uses. Capabilities of the DSS are demonstrated on a case study over California's intertied water system. Results show that urban end uses account for most GHG emissions of the entire water cycle, but large water conveyance produces significant peaks over the summer season. Also the development of more efficient water application on the agricultural sector has increased the total energy consumption and the net water use in the basins.

  9. River ice implications related to water power production in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asvall, R.P. [Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, Oslo (Norway). Hydrology Dept.

    2009-07-01

    Nearly 99 per cent of the electricity produced in Norway is based on water power. While the period of large power development is over, the current focus lies in developing small hydroelectric power plants. A new market based energy law was implemented in Norway in 1991 to achieve more efficient use of electricity production by means of market forces. Since water regulation influences ice conditions in lakes and rivers, this paper focused on the implications of changes in ice conditions. In Norway, the expected changes in ice conditions are taken into account when issuing permits for water regulations and schemes for water discharge because some waterways are used as winter roads. Follow-up includes both close and long term observations and measurements. The impact of variable price on power was also discussed, with particular reference to ice conditions in cases where water discharge occurs on rivers. This paper summarized selected ice problems and how they have been handled. The paper also included a summary of anticipated climatic changes relevant to ice conditions.

  10. River ice implications related to water power production in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asvall, R.P.

    2009-01-01

    Nearly 99 per cent of the electricity produced in Norway is based on water power. While the period of large power development is over, the current focus lies in developing small hydroelectric power plants. A new market based energy law was implemented in Norway in 1991 to achieve more efficient use of electricity production by means of market forces. Since water regulation influences ice conditions in lakes and rivers, this paper focused on the implications of changes in ice conditions. In Norway, the expected changes in ice conditions are taken into account when issuing permits for water regulations and schemes for water discharge because some waterways are used as winter roads. Follow-up includes both close and long term observations and measurements. The impact of variable price on power was also discussed, with particular reference to ice conditions in cases where water discharge occurs on rivers. This paper summarized selected ice problems and how they have been handled. The paper also included a summary of anticipated climatic changes relevant to ice conditions.

  11. Uncertainty of Water-hammer Loads for Safety Related Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Chan; Yoon, Duk Joo [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LT., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this study, the basic methodology is base on ISO GUM (Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurements). For a given gas void volumes in the discharge piping, the maximum pressure of water hammer is defined in equation. From equation, uncertainty parameter is selected as U{sub s} (superficial velocity for the specific pipe size and corresponding area) of equation. The main uncertainty parameter (U{sub s}) is estimated by measurement method and Monte Carlo simulation. Two methods are in good agreement with the extended uncertainty. Extended uncertainty of the measurement and Monte Carlo simulation is 1.30 and 1.34 respectively in 95% confidence interval. In 99% confidence interval, the uncertainties are 1.95 and 1.97 respectively. NRC Generic Letter 2008-01 requires nuclear power plant operators to evaluate the possibility of noncondensable gas accumulation for the Emergency Core Cooling System. Specially, gas accumulation can result in system pressure transient in pump discharge piping at a pump start. Consequently, this evolves into a gas water, a water-hammer event and the force imbalances on the piping segments. In this paper, MCS (Monte Carlo Simulation) method is introduced in estimating the uncertainty of water hammer. The aim is to evaluate the uncertainty of the water hammer estimation results carried out by KHNP CRI in 2013.

  12. The association between fluoride in drinking water and dental caries in Danish children. Linking data from health registers, environmental registers and administrative registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeskov, Lilli; Kristiansen, Eva; Bøggild, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Kirkeskov L, Kristiansen E, Bøggild H, von Platen-Hallermund F, Sckerl H, Carlsen A, Larsen MJ, Poulsen S. The association between fluoride in drinking water and dental caries in Danish children. Linking data from health registers, environmental registers and administrative registers. Community...... Dent Oral Epidemiol 2010. (c) 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract - Objectives: To study the association between fluoride concentration in drinking water and dental caries in Danish children. Methods: The study linked registry data on fluoride concentration in drinking water over a 10-year period...... with data on dental caries from the Danish National Board of Health database on child dental health for 5-year-old children born in 1989 and 1999, and for 15-year-old children born in 1979 and 1989. The number of children included in the cohorts varied between 41.000 and 48.000. Logistic regression was used...

  13. Water Education: An e-learning platform for water-related competence development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Arvin, Erik; Ucendo, Inmaculada Maria Buendia

    2011-01-01

    The Danish water sector is in dire need for competence development to accommodate the changes in Danish water governance (decentralisation,privatisation and larger entities) and the implementation of relevant EuropeanUnion (EU) directives. In parallel, the number of international students enrolled......, DTUEnvironment has created an e-learning platform called Water Education (WatEdu) scheduled to be operational in 2011....

  14. Globalisation of water resources: International virtual water flows in relation to international crop trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Hung, P.Q.

    2005-01-01

    The water that is used in the production process of a commodity is called the ‘virtual water’ contained in the commodity. International trade of commodities brings along international flows of virtual water. The objective of this paper is to quantify the volumes of virtual water flows between

  15. The Missing Link: the Role of Floodplain Tie Channels in Connecting Off River Water Bodies to Lowland Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, J. C.; Dietrich, W. E.; Day, G.

    2005-05-01

    Along lowland river systems across the globe the exchange of water, sediment, carbon, nutrients and biota between main stem rivers and off-river water bodies (ORWB) is facilitated by the presence of stable secondary channels referred to here as tie channels. Sixty five percent of the ORWB along the middle Fly River in Papua New Guinea connect to the river through such channels. A similar percentage of the 37 ORWB located between Baton Rouge and Memphis on the lower Mississippi River at one time were linked to the river by tie or batture (as they are locally known) channels. Levee construction and other alterations aimed at flood control or navigation on the Mississippi have left only a handful of lakes connected to the river, of these, most are heavily altered by dredging or other modifications. Tie channels were also once common along major tributaries to the Mississippi, such as the Red River. In the much less disturbed Alaskan environment, tie channels are still common, especially along Birch Creek and the Koyukuk and Black rivers. Our studies on the Mississippi River, in Alaska and in Papua New Guinea indicate that tie channels possess a common channel form that is stable and self-maintaining for hundreds to possibly a thousand years. Tie channels exhibit narrow width to depth ratios (~ 5.5) and consistently scale in cross-sectional dimensions to the size of the lake into which they flow. Variations in river and lake stage drive flow bi-directionally through tie channels. A local high or sill in the bed of tie channels controls the degree and duration of connection between the river and ORWB, with many lakes becoming isolated during periods of low stage. The life-span of a tie channel depends on the rate of sediment loading to the ORWB. Our research indicates that this rate directly corresponds to the sediment loading in the main stem river. Along the Fly River, for example, a 5 to 7 fold increase in the river sediment load has resulted increases of 6 to 17

  16. Water-energy nexus for urban water systems: A comparative review on energy intensity and environmental impacts in relation to global water risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mengshan; Keller, Arturo A.; Chiang, Pen-Chi; Den, Walter; Wang, Hongtao; Hou, Chia-Hung; Wu, Jiang; Wang, Xin; Yan, Jinyue

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •This study quantifies the nexus as energy intensity and greenhouse gas potential. •Baseline water stress and return flow ratio are identified as water risks. •Source water accessibility significantly contributes to variations in the nexus. •Water risks have little impact on the nexus of wastewater systems. •Study on the nexus is suggested to be conducted at regional levels. -- Abstract: The importance of the interdependence between water and energy, also known as the water-energy nexus, is well recognized. The water-energy nexus is typically characterized in resource use efficiency terms such as energy intensity. This study aims to explore the quantitative results of the nexus in terms of energy intensity and environmental impacts (mainly greenhouse gas emissions) on existing water systems within urban water cycles. We also characterized the influence of water risks on the water-energy nexus, including baseline water stress (a water quantity indicator) and return flow ratio (a water quality indicator). For the 20 regions and 4 countries surveyed (including regions with low to extremely high water risks that are geographically located in Africa, Australia, Asia, Europe, and North America), their energy intensities were positively related to the water risks. Regions with higher water risks were observed to have relatively higher energy and GHG intensities associated with their water supply systems. This mainly reflected the major influence of source water accessibility on the nexus, particularly for regions requiring energy-intensive imported or groundwater supplies, or desalination. Regions that use tertiary treatment (for water reclamation or environmental protection) for their wastewater treatment systems also had relatively higher energy and GHG emission intensities, but the intensities seemed to be independent from the water risks. On-site energy recovery (e.g., biogas or waste heat) in the wastewater treatment systems offered a great

  17. Ultraviolet-B radiation induced cross-linking improves physical properties of cold- and warm-water fish gelatin gels and films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoni, Caio G; Avena-Bustillos, Roberto J; Chiou, Bor-Sen; Bilbao-Sainz, Cristina; Bechtel, Peter J; McHugh, Tara H

    2012-09-01

    Cold- and warm-water fish gelatin granules were exposed to ultraviolet-B radiation for doses up to 29.7 J/cm(2). Solutions and films were prepared from the granules. Gel electrophoresis and refractive index were used to examine changes in molecular weight of the samples. Also, the gel strength and rheological properties of the solutions as well as the tensile and water vapor barrier properties of the films were characterized. SDS-PAGE and refractive index results indicated cross-linking of gelatin chains after exposure to radiation. Interestingly, UV-B treated samples displayed higher gel strengths, with cold- and warm-water fish gelatin having gel strength increases from 1.39 to 2.11 N and from 7.15 to 8.34 N, respectively. In addition, both gelatin samples exhibited an increase in viscosity for higher UV doses. For gelatin films, the cold-water fish gelatin samples made from irradiated granules showed greater tensile strength. In comparison, the warm-water gelatin films made from irradiated granules had lower tensile strength, but better water vapor barrier properties. This might be due to the UV induced cross-linking in warm-water gelatin that disrupted helical structures. Journal of Food Science copy; 2012 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  18. Status of water pollution in relation to industrialization in Rajasthan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Ritu Singh; Pandey, Sonali; Bhadauria, Seema

    2017-09-26

    India is a large and densely populated country; its economy is largely agricultural. Making the best use of the country's manpower has always posed a challenge. Industrialization could become a dominant component of the economy and displace agriculture. Traditional livelihoods of occupational groups are threatened by the practice of disposing untreated industrial waste into rivers and bodies of water. These uncontrolled disposals impact local natural resources with negative long-term effects. Industrialization is the development of intellectual and financial trade that changes a predominantly rustic culture into a modern one. Many industrial units discharge wastewater locally without treatment. Many industries directly discharged their waste into lakes, rivers and ocean. Water contamination impacts the environment. Pesticides, chemical, waste oil and heavy metals are regularly transported into their waters. Humans and other living organisms can accumulate heavy metals from industrial discharges in their tissues. Industrial waste may be reactive, corrosive, flammable, or toxic. When untreated sewage is emptied into rivers, it causes diseases like typhoid, dysentery and cholera. Natural elements and plant supplements like nitrate and phosphates stimulate growth of algae on the water surface. The algae reduce the oxygen in the water and cause eutrophication. It is harmful to the water ecosystem. In Rajasthan proper, there are a number of sites bordering rivers and lakes where the pace of industrialization has proceeded far beyond the ability of regulators to establish and enforce meaningful limits on the amount of point source pollution permitted to the various industrial complexes, which include cement, chemical, fertilizer, textile, mining, quarrying, dyeing and printing facilities. The scale of the problem is obvious to the casual observer, but actual documentation of the total impact remains to be done.

  19. Are the metabolomic responses to folivory of closely related plant species linked to macroevolutionary and plant-folivore coevolutionary processes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas-Ubach, Albert [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; Hódar, José A. [Grupo de Ecología Terrestre, Departamento de Biología Animal y Ecología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, 18071 Granada Spain; Sardans, Jordi [CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; Kyle, Jennifer E. [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; Kim, Young-Mo [Biological Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington 99354 USA; Oravec, Michal [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bĕlidla 4a CZ-603 00 Brno Czech Republic; Urban, Otmar [Global Change Research Centre, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Bĕlidla 4a CZ-603 00 Brno Czech Republic; Guenther, Alex [Department of Earth System Science, University of California, Irvine California 92697 USA; Peñuelas, Josep [CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain; CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-CSIC-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08913 Catalonia Spain

    2016-06-02

    The debate whether the coevolution of plants and insects or macroevolutionary processes (phylogeny) is the main driver determining the arsenal of molecular defensive compounds of plants remains unresolved. Attacks by herbivorous insects affect not only the composition of defensive compounds in plants but the entire metabolome (the set of molecular metabolites), including defensive compounds. Metabolomes are the final products of genotypes and are directly affected by macroevolutionary processes, so closely related species should have similar metabolomic compositions and may respond in similar ways to attacks by folivores. We analyzed the elemental compositions and metabolomes of needles from Pinus pinaster, P. nigra and P. sylvestris to determine if these closely related Pinus species with different coevolutionary histories with the caterpillars of the processionary moth respond similarly to attacks by this lepidopteran. All pines had different metabolomes and metabolic responses to herbivorous attack. The metabolomic variation among the pine species and the responses to folivory reflected their macroevolutionary relationships, with P. pinaster having the most divergent metabolome. The concentrations of phenolic metabolites were generally not higher in the attacked trees, which had lower concentrations of terpenes, suggesting that herbivores avoid individuals with high concentrations of terpenes. Our results suggest that macroevolutionary history plays important roles in the metabolomic responses of these pine species to folivory, but plant-insect coevolution probably constrains those responses. Combinations of different evolutionary factors and trade-offs are likely responsible for the different responses of each species to folivory, which is not necessarily exclusively linked to plant-insect coevolution.

  20. EU-Russia Relations Regarding Water Resources in Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Likhacheva

    2014-01-01

    In Central Asia, the water deficit and water-energy problem have been one of among the most acute and conflict-ridden challenges for the sustainable development of the region and for regional security. Key trade and investment partners, including Russia and the European Union, could play a considerable role in influencing this issue, due to the long-lasting status quo, the inability to find a solution through intra-regional dialogue and the region’s rising dependence on foreign trade. Indeed,...

  1. 78 FR 72109 - Quarterly Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... continues negotiations on an operations, maintenance and replacement transfer contract with the Navajo... Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions AGENCY: Bureau of... individual contract actions may be published in the Federal Register and in newspapers of general circulation...

  2. 78 FR 46365 - Quarterly Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ..., Colorado, New Mexico, Texas, Utah, and Wyoming: Contracts for extraordinary maintenance and replacement... Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions AGENCY: Bureau of... individual contract actions may be published in the Federal Register and in newspapers of general circulation...

  3. 78 FR 72111 - Quarterly Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ...: Reclamation continues negotiations on an operations, maintenance and replacement transfer contract with the... Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions AGENCY: Bureau of... individual contract actions may be published in the Federal Register and in newspapers of general circulation...

  4. Do Smooth Waters Run Deep? Alcohol Intoxication and the Effects of Water Consumption on Driving-Related Cognitions and Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaanjaars, N.L.; Spijkerman, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study tested the effect of the combined use of alcohol and water on driving-related cognitions and behavior. Seventy-four female students performed a driving simulator task after having consumed alcohol or a placebo. Additionally, half of the participants consumed 0.5 liter of water. It

  5. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Modeling residential water and related energy, carbon footprint and costs in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Lund, Jay R.; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We model residential water use and related energy and GHG emissions in California. • Heterogeneity in use, spatial variability and water and energy rates are accounted. • Outdoor is more than 50% of water use but 80% of energy is used by faucet + shower. • Variability in water and energy prices affects willingness to adopt conservation. • Targeting high-use hoses and joint conservation policies are effective strategies. - Abstract: Starting from single-family household water end-use data, this study develops an end-use model for water-use and related energy and carbon footprint using probability distributions for parameters affecting water consumption in 10 local water utilities in California. Monte Carlo simulations are used to develop a large representative sample of households to describe variability in use, with water bills for each house for different utility rate structures. The water-related energy consumption for each household realization was obtained using an energy model based on the different water end-uses, assuming probability distributions for hot-water-use for each appliance and water heater characteristics. Spatial variability is incorporated to account for average air and household water inlet temperatures and price structures for each utility. Water-related energy costs are calculated using averaged energy price for each location. CO 2 emissions were derived from energy use using emission factors. Overall simulation runs assess the impact of several common conservation strategies on household water and energy use. Results show that single-family water-related CO 2 emissions are 2% of overall per capita emissions, and that managing water and energy jointly can significantly reduce state greenhouse gas emissions

  7. Preference for tap, bottled, and recycled water: Relations to PTC taste sensitivity and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Daniel; Gauvain, Mary; Z Reisz; Arthur, Isaac; Story, S Drew

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated people's preferences for different water sources and factors that predict such preferences using a blind taste test. Water preferences of 143 participants for one name-brand bottled water, one groundwater-sourced tap water, and one indirect potable reuse (IDR) water were assessed. For predictors of water preference, we measured each participant's PTC taste sensitivity and assessed two personality traits (Neuroticism, Openness to Experience). We also explored participants' descriptions of each water source. Results indicate a preference for water treated with Reverse Osmosis (RO) (bottled and IDR water) over groundwater-sourced water, which had higher pH levels and lower concentrations of Ca and HCO 3 - . PTC taste sensitivity did not predict preferences, while Openness to Experience and Neuroticism predicted preference for IDR water. Positive relations between Openness to Experience and preferences for bottled and IDR water were moderated by gender and were stronger among females. Participants described water primarily by its taste and texture. Findings suggest that (1) tap water treated by RO is equally preferable to some bottled water, (2) personality traits may affect water preferences, and (3) prior findings of gender differences in preferences for bottled water may reflect personality characteristics. Efforts to increase acceptance for sustainable water alternatives, such as IDR, may be more successful by assuring consumers about taste and addressing personality traits that encourage or inhibit use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exponential increase of publications related to soil water repellency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, L.W.; Oostindie, K.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Soil water repellency is much more wide-spread than formerly thought. During the last decades, it has been a topic of study for soil scientists and hydrologists in at least 21 States of the USA, in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Chile, Congo, Nepal, India, Hong Kong, Taiwan,

  9. Virtual water flows related to land use in an intensive agriculture in the Fergana Valley, Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klipstein, A.; Schneider, K.; Breuer, L.; Frede, H. G.

    2009-04-01

    Due to low annual precipitation, agricultural production in Uzbekistan is depending on irrigation from the Syrdarya and Amudarya rivers to a great deal. One of the most important cash crops of the country is cotton. Current irrigation management leads to elevated groundwater levels, salinization of soils and to a degradation of soil and water resources. Through export of cotton and other crops, the problems related to water consumption and water management are transported beyond the producing country. The amount of water transported through production and export is referred to as virtual water. To distinguish between productive and unproductive partitioning of water flows, the terms green and blue water have been introduced. Information on virtual water flows due to crop production usually only exist on country level. To reduce uncertainties related to generalization, the effect of land management and environmental factors on the partitioning of water flows needs to be studied on smaller scales. The presented study analyzes water fluxes in an intensively used agricultural area in the Fergana Valley, Uzbekistan. The study aims to a) quantify crop specific water consumption in agricultural production under current management and b) analyze water use efficiency as subject to land use and irrigation management. Based on crop production, irrigation management and environmental conditions in the study area, virtual water flows will be calculated on the level of agricultural collectives (Water Users Associations). In a further step, the partitioning of green and blue water fluxes will be quantified. Alternative scenarios for improved water management will be analyzed in a model study.

  10. Exploring the links between water, sanitation and hygiene and disability; Results from a case-control study in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuper, Hannah; Mactaggart, Islay; White, Sian; Dionicio, Carlos; Cañas, Rafael; Naber, Jonathan; Polack, Sarah; Biran, Adam

    2018-01-01

    To assess the Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) access and appropriateness of people with disabilities compared to those without, in Guatemala. A case-control study was conducted, nested within a national survey. The study included 707 people with disabilities, and 465 age- and sex-matched controls without disabilities. Participants reported on WASH access at the household and individual level. A sub-set of 121 cases and 104 controls completed a newly designed, in-depth WASH questionnaire. Households including people with disabilities were more likely to use an improved sanitation facility compared to control households (age-sex-adjusted OR: 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.5), but otherwise there were no differences in WASH access at the household level. At the individual level, people with disabilities reported greater difficulties in relation to sanitation (mean score 26.2, SD 26.5) and hygiene access and quality (mean 30.7, SD 24.2) compared to those without disabilities (15.5, 21.7, p<0.001; 22.4, 19.1, p<0.01). There were no differences in different aspects of water collection between people with and without disabilities in this context where over 85% of participants had water piped into their dwelling. Among people with disabilities, older adults were more likely to experience difficulties in hygiene and sanitation than younger people with disabilities. People with disabilities in Guatemala experience greater difficulties in accessing sanitation facilities and practicing hygienic behaviours than their peers without disabilities. More data collection is needed using detailed tools to detect these differences, highlight which interventions are needed, and to allow assessment of their effectiveness.

  11. Going against the flow: A critical analysis of virtual water trade in the context of India's National River Linking Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verma, Shilp; Kampman, Doeke A.; van der Zaag, Pieter; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2008-01-01

    Virtual water trade has been promoted as a tool to address national and regional water scarcity. In the context of international (food) trade, this concept has been applied with a view to optimize the flow of commodities considering the water endowments of nations. The concept states that water-rich

  12. Soil ciliate bioassay for the pore water habitat. A missing link between microflora and earthworm testing in soil toxicity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthold, A. [Lab. for Ecotoxicology, Univ. of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Jakl, T. [Chemicals Policy Unit, Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management, Vienna (Austria)

    2002-07-01

    Background, Scope and Goal. The chemical, pesticide and biocide legislation of the European Union assembles a variety of bioassays. Among the ecotoxicological tests involved, the testing strategy for the aquatic compartment builds up on three tests reflecting the main trophic levels (algae, Daphnia, fish). For the soil compartment at least one trophic level for a basic food chain is missing, namely between microflora and earthworms. Protozoa are an ideal missing link as they were shown to be the most prominent faunal contributors to nutrient cycling in soil ecosystems and as they represent the lacking first level consumers as well as the highly diverse microfauna. As protozoa inhabit the soil pore water, they can serve as direct indicators for the solved and thus bioavailable portion of xenobiotics. In order to widen the spectrum of available toxicity tests for a meaningful effect assessment for the soil compartment, a test with the soil ciliate Colpoda inflata (Ciliophora, Protozoa), introduced by Pratt et al. (1997), was improved. Methods. The novel improvements comprise a substantially refined inoculation and counting procedure, as well as the adaptation to yeast as a nutritional source. The test was designed to be rapid and easy to perform, in order to have both a higher degree of standardisation and reproducibility, as well as to be in compliance with international test guidelines. Results and Discussion. Five test substances, cadmium chloride, potassium dichromate, acetone, atrazine, and metolachlor, were used in single-compound, static, short-term exposure (24 h, 48 h) tests to examine the effect on the population growth of C. inflata. The median effective concentrations (EC50) were 0.17 to 0.26 mg/l for Cd, 34 to 63 mg/l for Cr, >3000 mg/l for acetone, 91-112 mg/l for atrazine and 83-119 mg/l for metolachlor. The equilibrium partitioning approach was used to extrapolate the results to total soil exposure and thus enable a sensitivity comparison to

  13. Salt water and its relation to fresh ground water in Harris County, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winslow, Allen G.; Doyel, William Watson; Wood, L.A.

    1957-01-01

    Harris County, in the West Gulf Coastal Plain in southeastern Texas, has one of the heaviest concentrations of ground-water withdrawal in the United States. Large quantities of water are pumped to meet the requirements of the rapidly growing population, for industry, and for rice irrigation. The water is pumped from artesian wells which tap a thick series of sands ranging in age from Miocene (?) to Pleistocene.

  14. Photosynthesis and water relations of mature and resprout chaparral vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, S.J.; Oechel, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Photosynthesis, leaf conductance, and water potential were measured in the field over time, on mature (ca. 34 years) and resprouts of Arctostaphylos glandulosa Eastw., Quercus dumosa nutt., and Adenostoma fasciculatum H and A. The experimental site is within the US Forest Service's Laguna-Morena Demonstration area of the Cleveland National Forest in southern California. It is characterized as a mixed chaparral community located on an east-facing slope at ca. 1400-meter elevation. Plots of the mature vegetation were marked off (250 meters wide, 675 meters long) and the aboveground biomass removed by either handclearing or controlled burning. Measurements were typically made from sunrise to sunset. A null balance porometer, Sholander pressure bomb, and carbon-14 dioxide were utilized to measure leaf conductance, water potential, and carbon dioxide uptake, respectively

  15. Early outbreak detection by linking health advice line calls to water distribution areas retrospectively demonstrated in a large waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Bjelkmar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the winter and spring of 2011 a large outbreak of cryptosporidiosis occurred in Skellefteå municipality, Sweden. This study summarizes the outbreak investigation in terms of outbreak size, duration, clinical characteristics, possible source(s and the potential for earlier detection using calls to a health advice line. Methods The investigation included two epidemiological questionnaires and microbial analysis of samples from patients, water and other environmental sources. In addition, a retrospective study based on phone calls to a health advice line was performed by comparing patterns of phone calls between different water distribution areas. Results Our analyses showed that approximately 18,500 individuals were affected by a waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Skellefteå in 2011. This makes it the second largest outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Europe to date. Cryptosporidium hominis oocysts of subtype IbA10G2 were found in patient and sewage samples, but not in raw water or in drinking water, and the initial contamination source could not be determined. The outbreak went unnoticed to authorities for several months. The analysis of the calls to the health advice line provides strong indications early in the outbreak that it was linked to a particular water treatment plant. Conclusions We conclude that an earlier detection of the outbreak by linking calls to a health advice line to water distribution areas could have limited the outbreak substantially.

  16. Operational limitations of light water reactors relating to fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.S.

    1976-07-01

    General aspects of fuel performance for typical Boiling and Pressurized Water Reactors are presented. Emphasis is placed on fuel failures in order to make clear important operational limitations. A discussion of fuel element designs is first given to provide the background information for the subsequent discussion of several fuel failure modes that have been identified. Fuel failure experiences through December 31, 1974, are summarized. The operational limitations that are required to mitigate the effects of fuel failures are discussed

  17. Water chemistry related problems in captive power plant of Heavy Water Plant [Manuguru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasada Rao, G.; Mohapatra, C.

    2000-01-01

    This study is intended to improve the power generating capacity of Turbo Generator-3 in CPP. It was observed that steam flow through TG-3 was not as per rated; however there were no abnormal vibrations. After stopping and opening the turbine, deposits were found on turbine blade. Turbine blade scales were analysed for all the stages, HP, middle, LP, casings. Boiler drum water, feed water, DM water, filter water chemistry were studied. LP blade scale mainly consists of silica, whereas HP blade scale consists of iron oxide, sodium phosphate, silica etc. It was concluded that less generating capacity of power was because of scaling on turbine blade. (author)

  18. Ion Chromatographic Analyses of Sea Waters, Brines and Related Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Gros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the ion chromatographic methods for the analyses of natural waters with high ionic strength. At the beginning a natural diversity in ionic composition of waters is highlighted and terminology clarified. In continuation a brief overview of other review articles of potential interest is given. A review of ion chromatographic methods is organized in four sections. The first section comprises articles focused on the determination of ionic composition of water samples as completely as possible. The sections—Selected Anions, Selected Cations and Metals—follow. The most essential experimental conditions used in different methods are summarized in tables for a rapid comparison. Techniques encountered in the reviewed articles comprise: direct determinations of ions in untreated samples with ion- or ion-exclusion chromatography, or electrostatic ion chromatography; matrix elimination with column-switching; pre-concentration with a chelation ion chromatography and purge-and-trap pre-concentration. Different detection methods were used: non-suppressed conductometric or suppressed conductometric, direct spectrometric or spectrometric after a post-column derivetization, and inductively coupled plasma in combination with optical emission or mass spectrometry.

  19. Exploring the links between transient water inputs and glacier velocity in a small temperate glacier in southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavner, M.; Habermann, M.; Hood, E. W.; Fatland, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    Glaciers along the Gulf of Alaska are thinning and retreating rapidly. An important control on the rate at which ice is being lost is basal motion because higher glacier velocities increase the rate at which ice is delivered to ablation zones. Recent research has focused on understanding the effects of sub-glacial water storage on glacier basal motion. In this study, we examined two seasons of the effect of hydrologic controls (from large rainfall events as well as a glacier lake outburst floods) on the velocity of the Lemon Creek Glacier in southeastern Alaska. Lemon Creek Glacier is a moderately sized (~16~km2) temperate glacier at the margin of the Juneau Icefield. An ice-marginal lake forms at the head of the glacier and catastrophically drains once or twice every melt season. We have instrumented the glacier with two meteorological stations: one at the head of the glacier near the ice-marginal lake and another several kilometers below the terminus. These stations measure temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, incoming solar radiation and wind speed and direction. Lake stage in the ice-marginal lake was monitored with a pressure transducer. In addition, Lemon Creek was instrumented with a water quality sonde at the location of a US Geological Survey gaging station approximately 3 km downstream from the glacier terminus. The sonde provides continuous measurements of water temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and conductivity. Finally, multiple Trimble NetRS dual frequency, differential GPS units were deployed on the glacier along the centerline of the glacier. All of the instruments were run continuously from May-September 2008 and May-September 2009 and captured threee outburst floods associated with the ice-marginal lake drainage as well as several large (>3~cm) rainfall events associated with frontal storms off of the Gulf of Alaska in late summer. Taken together, these data allow us to test the hypothesis that water inputs which overwhelm

  20. The Soil Characteristic Curve at Low Water Contents: Relations to Specific Surface Area and Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resurreccion, Augustus; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    Accurate description of the soil-water retention curve (SWRC) at low water contents is important for simulating water dynamics, plant-water relations, and microbial processes in surface soil. Soil-water retention at soil-water matric potential of less than -10 MPa, where adsorptive forces dominate...... that measurements by traditional pressure plate apparatus generally overestimated water contents at -1.5 MPa (plant wilting point). The 41 soils were classified into four textural classes based on the so-called Dexter index n (= CL/OC), and the Tuller-Or (TO) general scaling model describing the water film...... thickness at a given soil-water matric potential ( 10, the estimated SA from the dry soil-water retention was in good agreement with the SA measured using ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (SA_EGME). A strong relationship between the ratio...

  1. Tropical Ocean Evaporation/SST Sensitivity and It's Link to Water and Energy Budget Variations During ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Franklin R.; Marshall, Susan; Oglesby, Robert; Roads, John; Sohn, Byung-Ju; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The continuing debate over feedback mechanisms governing tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and tropical climate in general has highlighted the diversity of potential checks and balances within the climate system. Competing feedbacks due to changes in surface evaporation, water vapor, and cloud long- and shortwave radiative properties each may serve critical roles in stabilizing or destabilizing the climate system. It is also intriguing that even those climate variations having origins internal to the climate system - changes in ocean heat transport for example, apparently require complementary equilibrating effects by changes in atmospheric energy fluxes. Perhaps the best observational evidence of this is the relatively invariant nature of tropically averaged net radiation exiting the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) as measured by broadband satellite sensors over the past two decades. Thus, analyzing how these feedback mechanisms are operating within the context of current interannual variability may offer considerable insight for anticipating future climate change. In this paper we focus primarily on interannual variations of ocean evaporative fluxes and their significance for coupled water and energy cycles within the tropical climate system. In particular, we use both the da Silva estimates of surface fluxes (based on the Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere Data Set, COADS) and numerical simulations from several global climate models to examine evaporation sensitivity to perturbations in SST associated with warm and cold ENSO events. The specific questions we address are as follows: (1) What recurring patterns of surface wind and humidity anomalies are present during ENSO and how do they combine to yield systematic evaporation anomalies?, (2) What is the resulting tropical ocean mean evaporation-SST sensitivity associated with this climate perturbation?, and (3) What role does this evaporation play in tropical heat and water balance over tropical oceanic regions? We

  2. Linked data management

    CERN Document Server

    Hose, Katja; Schenkel, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Linked Data Management presents techniques for querying and managing Linked Data that is available on today’s Web. The book shows how the abundance of Linked Data can serve as fertile ground for research and commercial applications. The text focuses on aspects of managing large-scale collections of Linked Data. It offers a detailed introduction to Linked Data and related standards, including the main principles distinguishing Linked Data from standard database technology. Chapters also describe how to generate links between datasets and explain the overall architecture of data integration systems based on Linked Data. A large part of the text is devoted to query processing in different setups. After presenting methods to publish relational data as Linked Data and efficient centralized processing, the book explores lookup-based, distributed, and parallel solutions. It then addresses advanced topics, such as reasoning, and discusses work related to read-write Linked Data for system interoperation. Desp...

  3. Propagation of errors from a null balance terahertz reflectometer to a sample's relative water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjiloucas, S; Walker, G C; Bowen, J W; Zafiropoulos, A

    2009-01-01

    The THz water content index of a sample is defined and advantages in using such metric in estimating a sample's relative water content are discussed. The errors from reflectance measurements performed at two different THz frequencies using a quasi-optical null-balance reflectometer are propagated to the errors in estimating the sample water content index.

  4. 78 FR 18562 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Requirements for Water... ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources Implementation... Secretary of the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and...

  5. Socioeconomic impact indicators relating to water and hydrological policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Lorca, A.

    2009-01-01

    The work approaches one of the principal problematic ones in order the development of the arid, semiarid and sub humid dry regions, since it is the case of the land management and in I make concrete of that of hydrological management. For it, one presents an offer of design and construction of indicators, from the conceptual perspective of the sustainability, to evaluate the values corresponding to the socioeconomic productivity of the water, in order to motivate the public action in case of the territorial policies in general and sectorial especially. (Author) 4 refs.

  6. Materials removal by water jets with high relative velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schikorr, W.

    1986-01-01

    By way of introduction approaches to the systematic apprehension of the material removal by water jets up to 1000 bar are made. In drilling experiments the effects of jet dynamic are studied, using the controlled disintegration of the jet. Using model-layer-systems the removal of layers by the 'natural' disintegrating fluid-jet is examined. The mechanisms of material removal and the consequences on the praxis of cleaning are discussed. A concept to measure specially the effects of the dynamic jet components is developed. In conclusion aspects of progress in this methods of material removal are discussed. (orig.) [de

  7. Neon-20 depth-dose relations in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Bidasaria, H. B.; Schimmerling, W.; Wong, M.; Howard, J.

    1984-05-01

    The dose from heavy ion beams has been calculated using a one-dimensional transport theory and evaluated for 670 MeV/amu 20 Ne beams in water. The result is presented so as to be applicable to arbitrary ions for which the necessary interaction data are known. The present evaluation is based on thar Silberg-Tsao fragmentation parameters augmented with light fragment production from intranuclear cascades, recently calculated nuclear absorption cross sections, and evaluated stopping power data. Comparison with recent experimental data obtained at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory reveals the need for more accurate fragmentation data.

  8. Water-Related Power Plant Curtailments: An Overview of Incidents and Contributing Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCall, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Macknick, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Water temperatures and water availability can affect the reliable operations of power plants in the United States. Data on water-related impacts on the energy sector are not consolidated and are reported by multiple agencies. This study provides an overview of historical incidents where water resources have affected power plant operations, discusses the various data sources providing information, and creates a publicly available and open access database that contains consolidated information about water-related power plant curtailment and shut-down incidents. Power plants can be affected by water resources if incoming water temperatures are too high, water discharge temperatures are too high, or if there is not enough water available to operate. Changes in climate have the potential to exacerbate uncertainty over water resource availability and temperature. Power plant impacts from water resources include curtailment of generation, plant shut-downs, and requests for regulatory variances. In addition, many power plants have developed adaptation approaches to reducing the potential risks of water-related issues by investing in new technologies or developing and implementing plans to undertake during droughts or heatwaves. This study identifies 42 incidents of water-related power plant issues from 2000-2015, drawing from a variety of different datasets. These incidents occur throughout the U.S., and affect coal and nuclear plants that use once-through, recirculating, and pond cooling systems. In addition, water temperature violations reported to the Environmental Protection Agency are also considered, with 35 temperature violations noted from 2012-2015. In addition to providing some background information on incidents, this effort has also created an open access database on the Open Energy Information platform that contains information about water-related power plant issues that can be updated by users.

  9. pH-induced inversion of water-in-oil emulsions to oil-in-water high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) using core cross-linked star (CCS) polymer as interfacial stabilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qijing; Deng, Xiaoyong; An, Zesheng

    2014-06-01

    A pH-responsive core cross-linked star (CCS) polymer containing poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) arms was used as an interfacial stabilizer for emulsions containing toluene (80 v%) and water (20 v%). In the pH range of 12.1-9.3, ordinary water-in-oil emulsions were formed. Intermediate multiple emulsions of oil-in-water-in-oil and water-in-oil-in-water were formed at pH 8.6 and 7.5, respectively. Further lowering the pH resulted in the formation of gelled high internal phase emulsions of oil-in-water type in the pH range of 6.4-0.6. The emulsion behavior was correlated with interfacial tension, conductivity and configuration of the CCS polymer at different pH. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. 78 FR 21969 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-12

    ... refurbishment of certain motors and pumps at the Senator Wash Pump-Generating Facility--Supplement No. 2, to... 2; Act of October 30, 2000 (Pub. L. 106- 392). 23. El Paso County Water Improvement District No. 1...

  11. Activation of a PGC-1-related Coactivator (PRC)-dependent Inflammatory Stress Program Linked to Apoptosis and Premature Senescence*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleyzer, Natalie; Scarpulla, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    PGC-1-related coactivator (PRC), a growth-regulated member of the PGC-1 coactivator family, contributes to the expression of the mitochondrial respiratory apparatus. PRC also orchestrates a robust response to metabolic stress by promoting the expression of multiple genes specifying inflammation, proliferation, and metabolic reprogramming. Here, we demonstrate that this PRC-dependent stress program is activated during apoptosis and senescence, two major protective mechanisms against cellular dysfunction. Both PRC and its targets (IL1α, SPRR2D, and SPRR2F) were rapidly induced by menadione, an agent that promotes apoptosis through the generation of intracellular oxidants. Menadione-induced apoptosis and the PRC stress program were blocked by the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. The PRC stress response was also activated by the topoisomerase I inhibitor 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), an inducer of premature senescence in tumor cells. Cells treated with SN-38 displayed morphological characteristics of senescence and express senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. In contrast to menadione, the SN-38 induction of the PRC program occurred over an extended time course and was antioxidant-insensitive. The potential adaptive function of the PRC stress response was investigated by treating cells with meclizine, a drug that promotes glycolytic energy metabolism and has been linked to cardio- and neuroprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Meclizine increased lactate production and was a potent inducer of the PRC stress program, suggesting that PRC may contribute to the protective effects of meclizine. Finally, c-MYC and PRC were coordinately induced under all conditions tested, implicating c-MYC in the biological response to metabolic stress. The results suggest a general role for PRC in the adaptive response to cellular dysfunction. PMID:23364789

  12. Possible Link Between Stress-related Factors and Altered Body Composition in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Barnali Ray; Chowdhury, Olivia; Saha, Sudip Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Stress is an invisible factor affecting modern day living and is strongly associated with many disease pathogenesis including polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in women. PCOS is the most frequent endocrinological disorder that affects women of reproductive age, leading to metabolic dysfunction and body composition alterations. Salivary amylase and cortisol are major stress mediators that have been implicated in PCOS. However, their role in altering body composition in PCOS is yet to be deciphered. The present study aimed at understanding the relation between stress-associated factors and alterations in body composition among PCOS patients. This study enrolled a total of 100 patients (PCOS) and 60 age-matched controls. The female patients were of ages between 13 and 30 years. Standard assay kits were used to evaluate the α-amylase activity and cortisol level in saliva. The participants were chosen on the basis of the Rotterdam American Society for Reproductive Medicine/European Society of Human Reproduction criteria. Saliva was collected from each participant as per the protocol of Salimetrics, USA. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20 for Windows. The quantitative variables are described as mean ± standard deviation. P stress scenario in their system. Moreover, overweight PCOS participants reflected higher amylase activity than the lean patients participants. Pulse rate, body mass index (BMI), visceral adiposity, and waist-hip ratio (WHR) was considerably higher in the PCOS patients participants compared to controls. A significant correlation could be drawn between the α-amylase activity and BMI or WHR, respectively, among PCOS patients. These observations indicate a strong link between the stress marker and alterations in the body composition parameters of PCOS patients participants. Higher prevalence of stress in PCOS patients participants has a critical role in their altered body composition.

  13. Energy-Water-Land Nexus: The relative contributions of climate and human systems on global water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Chen, M.; Turner, S. W. D.; Graham, N. T.; Vernon, C. R.; Li, X.; Kim, S. H.; Link, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    There is a growing consensus that energy, water, and land systems are interconnected and should be analyzed as such. New tools are required to represent the interactions between population, economic growth, energy, land, and water resources in a dynamically evolving system. Here we use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) to investigate the relative contributions of climate and human systems on water scarcity regionally and globally under a wide range of scenarios. The model accounts for a variety of human activities, including changing demands for water for agriculture, power generation, industry, and public supply. We find that these activities exert a larger influence on water scarcity than climate in 93% of river basins globally. This work highlights the importance of accounting for human activities in hydrologic modeling applications and how they may change under different pathways of how land use and agricultural systems, energy systems, and economies may evolve in the future.

  14. Data Model and Relational Database Design for Highway Runoff Water-Quality Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granato, Gregory E.; Tessler, Steven

    2001-01-01

    A National highway and urban runoff waterquality metadatabase was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration as part of the National Highway Runoff Water-Quality Data and Methodology Synthesis (NDAMS). The database was designed to catalog available literature and to document results of the synthesis in a format that would facilitate current and future research on highway and urban runoff. This report documents the design and implementation of the NDAMS relational database, which was designed to provide a catalog of available information and the results of an assessment of the available data. All the citations and the metadata collected during the review process are presented in a stratified metadatabase that contains citations for relevant publications, abstracts (or previa), and reportreview metadata for a sample of selected reports that document results of runoff quality investigations. The database is referred to as a metadatabase because it contains information about available data sets rather than a record of the original data. The database contains the metadata needed to evaluate and characterize how valid, current, complete, comparable, and technically defensible published and available information may be when evaluated for application to the different dataquality objectives as defined by decision makers. This database is a relational database, in that all information is ultimately linked to a given citation in the catalog of available reports. The main database file contains 86 tables consisting of 29 data tables, 11 association tables, and 46 domain tables. The data tables all link to a particular citation, and each data table is focused on one aspect of the information collected in the literature search and the evaluation of available information. This database is implemented in the Microsoft (MS) Access database software because it is widely used within and outside of government and is familiar to many

  15. Tracking Water, C, N, and P by Linking Local Scale Soil Hydrologic and Biogeochemical Features to Watershed Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghatdoost, A.; Mohanty, B.; Huang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The biogeochemical cycles of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) have many contemporary significance due to their critical roles in determining the structure and function of ecosystems. The objectives of our study is to find out temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of soil physical, chemical, and biological properties and their interaction with C, N, and P cycles in the soil for different land covers and weather conditions. The study is being conducted at three locations within Texas Water Observatory (TWO), including Riesel (USDA-ARS experimental watersheds), Texas A&M Agrilife Research Farm, and Danciger forest in Texas. Soil physical, hydraulic, chemical (total C, total N, total P, pH, EC, redox potential, N-NO3-, N-NH4+, PO42-, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Mn, and Alox and Feox), and microbiological (Microbial biomass C, N, and P, PLFA analysis, enzymatic activity) properties are being measured in the top 30 cm of the soil profile. Our preliminary data shows that biogeochemical processes would be more profound in the areas with higher temperature and precipitation as these factors stimulate microbial activity and thus influence C, N, and P cycles. Also concentrations of C and N are greater in woodlands relative to remnant grasslands as a consequence of the greater above- and below-ground productivity of woodlands relative to remnant grasslands. We hypothesize that finer soil textures have more organic matter, microbial population, and reactive surfaces for chemicals than coarse soils, as described in some recent literature. However, the microbial activity may not be active in fine textured soils as organic materials may be sorbed to clay surfaces or protected from decomposing organisms. We also expect reduced condition in saturated soils which will decrease carbon mineralization while increase denitrification and alkalinity in the soil. Spatio-temporal data with initial evaluation of biogeochemical factors/processes for different land covers will be presented.

  16. Job-related doses in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnuer, K.

    1993-01-01

    The Treaty of 1957 establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, (EURATOM) was an essential prerequisite for the development of a strong nuclear industry in Europe. Among other things the Treaty provides that the Community shall lay down Basic Safety Standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the dangers arising from ionizing radiation and ensure that they are applied. Following adoption of the Council Directive of 1980, the European Commission defined the basic principles of Justification, Optimization and Limitation to be applied in order to ensure the greatest possible protection of workers and the general public. Subsequently the Commission took initiatives in order to find ways of implementing these three basic principles in practical radiation protection. In 1980 the Commission in close collaboration with the leading nuclear power station operators, set up its own system of 'occupational radiation dose statistics from light water reactors operating in Western Europe'. This was designed for PWRs and BWRs, and the Commission benefited from the experience of neighbouring non-EC countries such as Sweden, Finland, Switzerland and Spain (not yet a member) operating nuclear power stations made by different manufacturers. The paper provides some general information on developments and trends in collective and individual doses to workers in nuclear power stations, based on a unique European databank of approximately 1000 operating reactor years. 9 figs

  17. Linking Environmental Research and Practice: Lessons From The Integration of Climate Science and Water Management in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, D. B.; Rice, J.; Woodhouse, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Efforts to better connect scientific research with people and organizations involved in environmental decision making are receiving increased interest and attention. Some of the challenges we currently face, however—including complex questions associated with climate change—present unique challenges because of their scale and scope. Focused research on the intersections between environment and society has provided substantial insight into dynamics of large-scale environmental change and the related impacts on people, natural resources, and ecosystems, yet our ability to connect this research to real-world decision making remains limited. Addressing these complex environmental problems requires broad cooperation between scientists and those who may apply research results in decision making, but there are few templates for guiding the growing number of scientists and practitioners now engaging in this kind of cooperative work. This presentation will offer a set of heuristics for carrying out collaborative work between scientists and practitioners. These heuristics were derived from research that examined the direct experiences of water resources professionals and climate researchers who have been working to integrate science and practice.

  18. River basins as social-ecological systems: linking levels of societal and ecosystem water metabolism in a semiarid watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Cabello

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available River basin modeling under complexity requires analytical frameworks capable of dealing with the multiple scales and dimensions of environmental problems as well as uncertainty in the evolution of social systems. Conceptual and methodological developments can now be framed using the wide socio-eco-hydrological approach. We add hierarchy theory into the mix to discuss the conceptualization of river basins as complex, holarchic social-ecological systems. We operationalize the social-ecological systems water metabolism framework in a semiarid watershed in Spain, and add the governance dimension that shapes human-environment reciprocity. To this purpose, we integrate an eco-hydrological model with the societal metabolism accounting scheme for land use, human activity, and water use. We explore four types of interactions: between societal organization and water uses/demands, between ecosystem organization and their water requirements/supplies, between societal metabolism and aquatic ecosystem health, and between water demand and availability. Our results reveal a metabolic pattern of a high mountain rural system striving to face exodus and agricultural land abandonment with a multifunctional economy. Centuries of social-ecological evolution shaping waterscapes through traditional water management practices have influenced the eco-hydrological functioning of the basin, enabling adaptation to aridity. We found a marked spatial gradient on water supply, use pattern, and impact on water bodies from the head to the mouth of the basin. Management challenges posed by the European water regulatory framework as a new driver of social-ecological change are highlighted.

  19. Sustainable Water Management in the Tourism Economy: Linking the Mediterranean’s Traditional Rainwater Cisterns to Modern Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Enriquez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Communities on islands with mass-tourism, like Santorini, rely on vast quantities of water to develop the local economy. Today’s inhabitants of Santorini have largely abandoned the traditional cisterns that were used to sustain the island’s pre-modern civilizations in favor of water obtained from desalinization, ship deliveries, and well withdrawals. In June 2016, Cornell University researchers worked with the Water and Sewage Authority of Thera (DEYATH to assess the viability of improving sustainability and water efficiency by restoring traditional rainwater harvesting and storage cisterns. The team surveyed five cisterns, held meetings with water authority staff and mayoral leadership, conducted interviews with local tourism stakeholders, and coordinated with Global Water Partnership-Mediterranean. One conclusion was that cisterns could be rehabilitated as decentralized storage reservoirs and integrated into the island’s centralized water systems, or alternatively, serve as educational and cultural spaces used to communicate the importance of water to residents and tourists. The research findings highlight how multi-stakeholder partnerships could assist local authorities with developing new water management initiatives to foster more sustainable models of tourism development.

  20. Safety problems relating to plutonium recycling in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, C.; Frison, J.M.; Mercier, J.P.; Revais, J.P

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the specific nature, as regards safety, of the mixed oxide (MOX) fuel cycle, with the exception of safety problems relating to the operation of nuclear power plants. These specific characteristics are due mainly to the presence of plutonium in fresh fuel and to the higher plutonium and transuranic element content in spent fuel assemblies. The fuel cycle steps analysed here are the transport of plutonium oxide, the manufacture of MOX fuel assemblies, the transport of fresh and spent fuel assemblies and the processing of spent fuel assemblies. (author) [fr

  1. Safety problems relating to plutonium recycling in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, C.; Frison, J.M.; Mercier, J.P.; Revais, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the specific nature, as regards safety, of the mixed oxide (MOX) fuel cycle, with the exception of safety problems relating to the operation of nuclear power plants. These specific characteristics are due mainly to the presence of plutonium in fresh fuel and to the higher plutonium and transuranic element content in spent fuel assemblies. The fuel cycle steps analysed here are the transport of plutonium oxide, the manufacture of MOX fuel assemblies, the transport of fresh and spent fuel assemblies and the processing of spent fuel assemblies

  2. Plasticity in leaf-level water relations of tropical rainforest trees in response to experimental drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Oliver; Meir, Patrick; Rowland, Lucy; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Lola; Vasconcelos, Steel Silva; de Oliveira, Alex Antonio Ribeiro; Ferreira, Leandro; Christoffersen, Bradley; Nardini, Andrea; Mencuccini, Maurizio

    2016-07-01

    The tropics are predicted to become warmer and drier, and understanding the sensitivity of tree species to drought is important for characterizing the risk to forests of climate change. This study makes use of a long-term drought experiment in the Amazon rainforest to evaluate the role of leaf-level water relations, leaf anatomy and their plasticity in response to drought in six tree genera. The variables (osmotic potential at full turgor, turgor loss point, capacitance, elastic modulus, relative water content and saturated water content) were compared between seasons and between plots (control and through-fall exclusion) enabling a comparison between short- and long-term plasticity in traits. Leaf anatomical traits were correlated with water relation parameters to determine whether water relations differed among tissues. The key findings were: osmotic adjustment occurred in response to the long-term drought treatment; species resistant to drought stress showed less osmotic adjustment than drought-sensitive species; and water relation traits were correlated with tissue properties, especially the thickness of the abaxial epidermis and the spongy mesophyll. These findings demonstrate that cell-level water relation traits can acclimate to long-term water stress, and highlight the limitations of extrapolating the results of short-term studies to temporal scales associated with climate change. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Children and Nature: Linking Accessibility of Natural Environments and Children’s Health-Related Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Tillmann

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of research suggests that increasing children’s nature interactions can have positive benefits for their health-related quality of life (HRQOL; however, researchers have yet to examine how geographical context influences this relationship. The purpose of this study was to examine individual-level and environmental factors that are associated with HRQOL of children from different geographical contexts. Data were collected for 851 children from 34 elementary schools in Ontario, Canada. The natural environments around each child’s home were computed using geospatial analyses in a geographic information system. Natural environment measures were combined with HRQOL and the demographics from child surveys to be used in a series of step-wise linear regression models. These models explored the relationship between children’s HRQOL and the natural environment in urban/suburban and rural populations. In addition to important individual-level determinants, the findings revealed that characteristics of the natural environment, including the amount of greenness, park, and water, show significant relationships in the urban/suburban population. Interpersonal variables were the key predictors of HRQOL in the rural population. Where children live influences relationships between nature and HRQOL. These findings have implications for policymakers, health practitioners, educators, and parents in the design and the promotion of nature for children’s HRQOL.

  4. Littoral zones in shallow lakes. Contribution to water quality in relation to water level regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sollie, S.

    2007-01-01

    Littoral zones with emergent vegetation are very narrow or even lacking in Dutch shallow lakes due to a combination of changed water level regime and unfavorable shore morphometry. These zones are important as a habitat for plants and animals, increasing species diversity. It has also been

  5. Impact of drought on U.S. steam electric power plant cooling water intakes and related water resource management issues.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmell, T. A.; Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-04-03

    ) and type of plant (nuclear vs. fossil fuel). This is accomplished in Chapter 3. In Chapter 4, the nature of any compacts or agreements that give priority to users (i.e., which users must stop withdrawing water first) is examined. This is examined on a regional or watershed basis, specifically for western water rights, and also as a function of federal and state water management programs. Chapter 5 presents the findings and conclusions of this study. In addition to the above, a related intent of this study is to conduct preliminary modeling of how lowered surface water levels could affect generating capacity and other factors at different regional power plants. If utility managers are forced to take some units out of service or reduce plant outputs, the fuel mix at the remaining plants and the resulting carbon dioxide emissions may change. Electricity costs and other factors may also be impacted. Argonne has conducted some modeling based on the information presented in the database described in Chapter 2 of this report. A separate report of the modeling effort has been prepared (Poch et al. 2009). In addition to the U.S. steam electric power plant fleet, this modeling also includes an evaluation of power production of hydroelectric facilities. The focus of this modeling is on those power plants located in the western United States.

  6. Macro-Micro Feedback Links of Water Management in South Africa : CGE Analyses of Selected Policy Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, R.; Thurlow, J.; Roe, T.; Diao, X.; Chumi., S.; Tsur, Y.

    2008-01-01

    The pressure on an already stressed water situation in South Africa is predicted to increase significantly under climate change, plans for large industrial expansion, observed rapid urbanization, and government programs to provide access to water to millions of previously excluded people. The present study employed a general equilibrium approach to examine the economy-wide impacts of selec...

  7. Possible link between stress-related factors and altered body composition in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnali Ray Basu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress is an invisible factor affecting modern day living and is strongly associated with many disease pathogenesis including polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS in women. PCOS is the most frequent endocrinological disorder that affects women of reproductive age, leading to metabolic dysfunction and body composition alterations. Salivary amylase and cortisol are major stress mediators that have been implicated in PCOS. However, their role in altering body composition in PCOS is yet to be deciphered. Aim: The present study aimed at understanding the relation between stress-associated factors and alterations in body composition among PCOS patients. Design: This study enrolled a total of 100 patients (PCOS and 60 age-matched controls. The female patients were of ages between 13 and 30 years. Materials and Methods: Standard assay kits were used to evaluate the α-amylase activity and cortisol level in saliva. The participants were chosen on the basis of the Rotterdam American Society for Reproductive Medicine/European Society of Human Reproduction criteria. Saliva was collected from each participant as per the protocol of Salimetrics, USA. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 20 for Windows. The quantitative variables are described as mean ± standard deviation. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Increased salivary cortisol level and α-amylase activity were seen in the PCOS population as compared to age-matched controls suggesting patients a sustained stress scenario in their system. Moreover, overweight PCOS participants reflected higher amylase activity than the lean patients participants. Pulse rate, body mass index (BMI, visceral adiposity, and waist-hip ratio (WHR was considerably higher in the PCOS patients participants compared to controls. A significant correlation could be drawn between the α-amylase activity and BMI or WHR, respectively, among PCOS patients. These observations

  8. MgADP-induced changes in the structure of myosin S1 near the ATPase-related thiol SH1 probed by cross-linking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekharan, K.N.; Mayadevi, M.; Agarwal, R.; Burke, M.

    1990-01-01

    The structural consequence of MgADP binding at the vicinity of the ATPase-related thiol SH1 (Cys-707) have been examined by subjecting myosin subfragment 1, premodified at SH2 (Cys-697) with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), to reaction with the bifunctional reagent p-phenylenedimaleimide (pPDM) in the presence and absence of MgADP. By monitoring the changes in the Ca 2+ -ATPase activity as a function of reaction time, it appears that the reagent rapidly modifies SH1 irrespective of whether MgADP is present or not. In the absence of nucleotide, only extremely low levels of cross-linking to the 50-kDa middle segment of S1 can be detected, while in the presence of MgADP substantial cross-linking to this segment is observed. A similar cross-link is also formed if MgADP is added subsequent to the reaction of the SH2-NEM-premodified S1 with pPDM in the absence of nucleotide. Isolation of the labeled tryptic peptide from the cross-linked adduct formed with [ 14 C]pPDM, and subsequent partial sequence analyses, indicates that the cross-link is made from SH1 to Cys-522. Moreover, it appears that this cross-link results in the trapping of MgADP in this S1 species. These data suggest that the binding of MgADP results in a change in the structure of S1 in the vicinity of the SH1 thiol relative to the 50-kDa domain which enables Cys-522 to adopt the appropriate configuration to enable it to be cross-linked to SH1 by pPDM

  9. Gains from trans-boundary water quality management in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems: a case study for the Minho region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebeling, P. C.; Brito, A. G.; Rocha, J.; Alves, H.; Mamede, J.

    2012-04-01

    Worldwide, aquatic and coastal ecosystems are affected by point and diffuse source water pollution originating from rural, urban and industrial land uses in catchments, even though these ecosystems are of vital importance from an environmental and economic perspective. Integrated Catchment and Coastal Zone Management (ICCZM) specifically takes into account this inherent relationship between terrestrial land use, surface and ground water pollution, aquatic and coastal ecosystem state, and associated environmental values. To warrant sustainable regional economic development, we need to balance the marginal costs from terrestrial water pollution abatement and the associated marginal benefits from aquatic and coastal resource appreciation. In doing so, however, we need to differentiate between intra- and trans-boundary catchments because benefactors and beneficiaries from water quality improvement are not one and the same. In trans-boundary catchments, private (national) welfare maximizing rates of water quality improvement differ across nations as benefits from water quality improvement generally accrue to one nation while the costs are paid by multiple nations. While approaches for water quality management in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems are fairly recent though existent, water quality management in trans-boundary catchments poses additional challenges. The objective of this paper is to develop and apply a deterministic optimal control approach that allows us to explore private and social welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems. For a case study of the Minho region in the Iberian Peninsula, we estimate nation-specific water pollution abatement cost (based on management practice adoption) and benefit (based on aquatic and coastal environmental values) functions, to determine as well as compare private (national) and social (trans-national) welfare maximizing rates of water

  10. Water-Related Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Subsequently on Public Health: A Review for Generalists with Particular Reference to Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toqeer Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water-related impacts due to change in climatic conditions ranging from water scarcity to intense floods and storms are increasing in developing countries like Pakistan. Water quality and waterborne diseases like hepatitis, cholera, typhoid, malaria and dengue fever are increasing due to chaotic urbanization, industrialization, poor hygienic conditions, and inappropriate water management. The morbidity rate is high due to lack of health care facilities, especially in developing countries. Organizations linked to the Government of Pakistan (e.g., Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Climate Change, Planning and Development, Ministry of Forest, Irrigation and Public Health, Pakistan Meteorological Department, National Disaster Management, Pakistan Agricultural Research Centre, Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources, and Global Change Impact Study Centre, United Nation organizations, provincial government departments, non-governmental organizations (e.g., Global Facility and Disaster Reduction, research centers linked to universities, and international organizations (International Institute for Sustainable Development, Food and Agriculture, Global Climate Fund and World Bank are trying to reduce the water-related impacts of climate change, but due to lack of public awareness and health care infrastructure, the death rate is steadily increasing. This paper critically reviews the scientific studies and reports both at national and at international level benefiting generalists concerned with environmental and public health challenges. The article underlines the urgent need for water conservation, risk management, and the development of mitigation measures to cope with the water-related impacts of climate change on agriculture and subsequently on public health. Novel solutions and bioremediation methods have been presented to control environmental pollution and to promote awareness among the scientific community. The focus is on diverse

  11. Water-Related Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture and Subsequently on Public Health: A Review for Generalists with Particular Reference to Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Toqeer; Scholz, Miklas; Al-Faraj, Furat; Niaz, Wajeeha

    2016-10-27

    Water-related impacts due to change in climatic conditions ranging from water scarcity to intense floods and storms are increasing in developing countries like Pakistan. Water quality and waterborne diseases like hepatitis, cholera, typhoid, malaria and dengue fever are increasing due to chaotic urbanization, industrialization, poor hygienic conditions, and inappropriate water management. The morbidity rate is high due to lack of health care facilities, especially in developing countries. Organizations linked to the Government of Pakistan (e.g., Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Climate Change, Planning and Development, Ministry of Forest, Irrigation and Public Health, Pakistan Meteorological Department, National Disaster Management, Pakistan Agricultural Research Centre, Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources, and Global Change Impact Study Centre), United Nation organizations, provincial government departments, non-governmental organizations (e.g., Global Facility and Disaster Reduction), research centers linked to universities, and international organizations (International Institute for Sustainable Development, Food and Agriculture, Global Climate Fund and World Bank) are trying to reduce the water-related impacts of climate change, but due to lack of public awareness and health care infrastructure, the death rate is steadily increasing. This paper critically reviews the scientific studies and reports both at national and at international level benefiting generalists concerned with environmental and public health challenges. The article underlines the urgent need for water conservation, risk management, and the development of mitigation measures to cope with the water-related impacts of climate change on agriculture and subsequently on public health. Novel solutions and bioremediation methods have been presented to control environmental pollution and to promote awareness among the scientific community. The focus is on diverse strategies to handle

  12. Effect of cross-linking of interfacial sodium caseinate by natural processing on the oxidative stability of oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoon, Pui Yeu; Paul, Lake N; Burgner, John W; San Martin-Gonzalez, M Fernanda; Narsimhan, Ganesan

    2014-04-02

    This study investigated how enzymatic cross-linking of interfacial sodium caseinate and emulsification, via high-pressure homogenization, influenced the intrinsic oxidative stability of 4% (w/v) menhaden oil-in-water emulsions stabilized by 1% (w/v) caseinate at pH 7. Oil oxidation was monitored by the ferric thiocyanate perioxide value assay. Higher homogenization pressure resulted in improved intrinsic emulsion oxidative stability, which is attributed to increased interfacial cross-linking as indicated by higher weighted average sedimentation coefficients of interfacial protein species (from 11.2 S for 0 kpsi/0.1 MPa to 18 S for 20 kpsi/137.9 MPa). Moderate dosage of transglutaminase at 0.5-1.0 U/mL emulsion enhanced intrinsic emulsion oxidative stability further, despite a contradictory reduction in the antioxidant property of cross-linked caseinate as tested by the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assay. This implied the prominent role of cross-linked interfacial caseinate as a physical barrier for oxygen transfer, hence its efficacy in retarding oil oxidation.

  13. Links between Local Language Competence and Peer Relations among Swiss and Immigrant Children: The Mediating Role of Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Grunigen, Renate; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky; Perren, Sonja; Alsaker, Francoise D.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this investigation was to evaluate a model in which children's social behaviors, including prosocial behavior, setting limits, and social withdrawal, were hypothesized to mediate the links between local language competence (LLC) and peer acceptance and victimization. Longitudinal data were collected via teacher and peer reports…

  14. Relative positions of the hydroxyl and water vapor astrophysical masers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mader, G.L.

    1975-01-01

    The 22 GHz H 2 O and the 1.6 GHz OH emission from W3(OH), W49N, W51 and VY Canis Majoris were simultaneously observed with a very long baseline interferometer (VLBI) in order to accurately determine the relative positions of these masering regions in each source. By observing the OH and H 2 O emission simultaneously, the effects of frequency standard instability and of the troposphere were eliminated and the effects of the ionosphere were minimized. The observing and data reduction techniques as well as the modifications to existing equipment and the construction of new equipment are described. The OH observations include the 1665-MHz line in both left and right circular polarization in W49N and W3(OH), the 1667-MHz RCP line in W3(OH), the 1667-MHz LCP line in W49N, and the 1665-MHz LCP line in W51. VY CMa was observed at 1667-MHz RCP and 1612-MHz LCP

  15. Drought Resilience of Water Supplies for Shale Gas Extraction and Related Power Generation in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, R. C.; Scanlon, B. R.; Nicot, J. P.; Uhlman, K.

    2014-12-01

    There is considerable concern about water availability to support energy production in Texas, particularly considering that many of the shale plays are in semiarid areas of Texas and the state experienced the most extreme drought on record in 2011. The Eagle Ford shale play provides an excellent case study. Hydraulic fracturing water use for shale gas extraction in the play totaled ~ 12 billion gallons (bgal) in 2012, representing ~7 - 10% of total water use in the 16 county play area. The dominant source of water is groundwater which is not highly vulnerable to drought from a recharge perspective because water is primarily stored in the confined portion of aquifers that were recharged thousands of years ago. Water supply drought vulnerability results primarily from increased water use for irrigation. Irrigation water use in the Eagle Ford play was 30 billion gallons higher in the 2011 drought year relative to 2010. Recent trends toward increased use of brackish groundwater for shale gas extraction in the Eagle Ford also reduce pressure on fresh water resources. Evaluating the impacts of natural gas development on water resources should consider the use of natural gas in power generation, which now represents 50% of power generation in Texas. Water consumed in extracting the natural gas required for power generation is equivalent to ~7% of the water consumed in cooling these power plants in the state. However, natural gas production from shale plays can be overall beneficial in terms of water resources in the state because natural gas combined cycle power generation decreases water consumption by ~60% relative to traditional coal, nuclear, and natural gas plants that use steam turbine generation. This reduced water consumption enhances drought resilience of power generation in the state. In addition, natural gas combined cycle plants provide peaking capacity that complements increasing renewable wind generation which has no cooling water requirement. However, water

  16. Water tubing-related injuries treated in US emergency departments, 1991-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinsimer, Kevin R; Nelson, Nicolas G; Roberts, Kristin J; McKenzie, Lara B

    2013-02-01

    The objective was to describe the patterns and mechanisms of water tubing-related injuries treated in U.S. emergency departments. The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System was used to examine cases of water tubing-related injuries. Sample weights were used to calculate national estimates of water tubing-related injuries. Analyses were conducted in 2010. From 1991-2009 an estimated 69,471 injuries were treated in US emergency departments for water tubing-related injuries. The annual number of cases increased 250% over the 19-year study period (P tubing-related injuries differ for children and adults. Research is needed to determine how best to reduce these injuries.

  17. Electrochemical potential measurements in boiling water reactors; relation to water chemistry and stress corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indig, M.E.; Cowan, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    Electrochemical potential measurements were performed in operating boiling water reactors to determine the range of corrosion potentials that exist from cold standby to full power operation and the relationship of these measurements to reactor water chemistry. Once the corrosion potentials were known, experiments were performed in the laboratory under electrochemical control to determine potentials and equivalent dissolved oxygen concentrations where intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) would and would not occur on welded Type-304 stainless steel. At 274 0 C, cracking occurred at potentials that were equivalent to dissolved oxygen concentration > 40 to 50 ppb. With decreasing temperature, IGSCC became more difficult and only severely sensitized stainless steel would crack. Recent in-reactor experiments combined with the previous laboratory data, have shown that injection of small concentrations of hydrogen during reactor operation can cause a significant decrease in corrosion potential which should cause immunity to IGSCC. (author)

  18. Peach water relations, gas exchange, growth and shoot mortality under water deficit in semi-arid weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Mitra; Davarynejad, Gholam Hossein; Génard, Michel; Bannayan, Mohammad; Azizi, Majid; Vercambre, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    In this study the sensitivity of peach tree (Prunus persica L.) to three water stress levels from mid-pit hardening until harvest was assessed. Seasonal patterns of shoot and fruit growth, gas exchange (leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration) as well as carbon (C) storage/mobilization were evaluated in relation to plant water status. A simple C balance model was also developed to investigate sink-source relationship in relation to plant water status at the tree level. The C source was estimated through the leaf area dynamics and leaf photosynthesis rate along the season. The C sink was estimated for maintenance respiration and growth of shoots and fruits. Water stress significantly reduced gas exchange, and fruit, and shoot growth, but increased fruit dry matter concentration. Growth was more affected by water deficit than photosynthesis, and shoot growth was more sensitive to water deficit than fruit growth. Reduction of shoot growth was associated with a decrease of shoot elongation, emergence, and high shoot mortality. Water scarcity affected tree C assimilation due to two interacting factors: (i) reduction in leaf photosynthesis (-23% and -50% under moderate (MS) and severe (SS) water stress compared to low (LS) stress during growth season) and (ii) reduction in total leaf area (-57% and -79% under MS and SS compared to LS at harvest). Our field data analysis suggested a Ψstem threshold of -1.5 MPa below which daily net C gain became negative, i.e. C assimilation became lower than C needed for respiration and growth. Negative C balance under MS and SS associated with decline of trunk carbohydrate reserves--may have led to drought-induced vegetative mortality.

  19. An approach to link water resource management with landscape art to enhance its aesthetic appeal, ecological utility and social benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Anita; Sen, Somnath; Paul, Saikat Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Landscape art or land art is the discourse of scientific application of artistic skill to integrate man-made structures with the natural landscape for planning, design, management, preservation and rehabilitation of natural and built environment. It does beautification of the landscape enhancing its utility for habitats. Availability of water with acceptable quality is crucial for economic growth, social peace and equality and of course for environmental sustainability. Development of new and growth of existing urban and suburban units are obvious. It postulates the increase of population density and percent of the impervious area in an urban unit. The demand for water is increasing with progressive concentration of population, the volume and velocity of surface runoff increase and the travel time decreases. At the same time, an increase in the volume of gray water not only contaminate water bodies, it also reduces the quantity of available freshwater transforming a portion of blue and green water to gray one and would intensify the pressure on water resources of the area. Therefore, to meet the incremental pressure of demand for and pollution of water collection, treatment and reuse of wastewater, both sewage and storm water, are on the requirement to improve urban water security. People must be concerned not to stifle urban lives with concrete; rather must provide all basic amenities for achieving a higher standard of life than the previous one with the essence of natural green spaces. The objective of the study is to propose a conceptual design and planning guidelines for developing urban and suburban drainage network and reuse of surface runoff and sewage water utilizing less used natural water bodies, such as paleo-channels or lakes or moribund channels as retention or detention basin. In addition to wastewater management, the proposal serves to promote the aesthetics of environmental engagement, ecological utility and restoration of moribund channels

  20. Historical development of crop-related water footprints and inter-regional virtual water flows within China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, La; Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2015-04-01

    China is facing water-related challenges, including an uneven distribution of water resources, both temporally and spatially, and an increasing competition over the limited water resources among different sectors. This issue has been widely researched and was finally included into the National Plan 2011 (the 2011 No. 1 Document by the State Council of China). However, there is still lack of information on how population growth and rapid urbanization have affected the water resources in China over the last decades. The current study aims at investigating (i) the intra-annual variation of green and blue water footprints (WFs) of crop production in China over the period 1978-2009 at a spatial resolution of 5 by 5 arc-minute; (ii) the yearly virtual water (VW) balances of 31 provinces within China, related water savings for the country, as well as the VW flows among eight economic regions resulting from inter-regional crop trade over the same period; and (iii) the development of the WF related to crop consumption by Chinese consumers. Results show that, over the period 1978-2009, the total WF related to crop production within China increased by only 4%), but regional changes were significant. From the 1980s to the 2000s, the shift of the cropping centre from the South to the North resulted in an increase of about 16% in the blue WF and 19% in the green WF in the North and a reduction of the blue and green WF in the South by 11% and 3%, respectively. China as a whole was a net virtual water importer related to crop trade, thus saving domestic water resources. China's inter-regional crop trade generated a blue water 'loss' annually by transferring crops from provinces with relatively low crop water productivity to provinces with relatively high productivity. Over the decades, the original VW flow from the South coastal region to the Northeast was reversed. Rice was the all-time dominant crop in the inter-regional VW flows (accounting for 34% in 2009), followed by wheat

  1. City-scale analysis of water-related energy identifies more cost-effective solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Ka Leung; Kenway, Steven J; Lant, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    Energy and greenhouse gas management in urban water systems typically focus on optimising within the direct system boundary of water utilities that covers the centralised water supply and wastewater treatment systems, despite a greater energy influence by the water end use. This work develops a cost curve of water-related energy management options from a city perspective for a hypothetical Australian city. It is compared with that from the water utility perspective. The curves are based on 18 water-related energy management options that have been implemented or evaluated in Australia. In the studied scenario, the cost-effective energy saving potential from a city perspective (292 GWh/year) is far more significant than that from a utility perspective (65 GWh/year). In some cases, for similar capital cost, if regional water planners invested in end use options instead of utility options, a greater energy saving potential at a greater cost-effectiveness could be achieved in urban water systems. For example, upgrading a wastewater treatment plant for biogas recovery at a capital cost of $27.2 million would save 31 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $63/MWh, while solar hot water system rebates at a cost of $28.6 million would save 67 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $111/MWh. Options related to hot water use such as water-efficient shower heads, water-efficient clothes washers and solar hot water system rebates are among the most cost-effective city-scale opportunities. This study demonstrates the use of cost curves to compare both utility and end use options in a consistent framework. It also illustrates that focusing solely on managing the energy use within the utility would miss substantial non-utility water-related energy saving opportunities. There is a need to broaden the conventional scope of cost curve analysis to include water-related energy and greenhouse gas at the water end use, and to value their management from a city perspective. This

  2. High temperature electrochemistry related to light water reactor corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, Gabor; Kerner, Zsolt; Balog, Janos; Schiller, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The present work deals with corrosion problems related to conditions which prevail in a WWER primary circuit. We had a two-fold aim: (A) electrochemical methods were applied to characterise the hydrothermally produced oxides of the cladding material (Zr-1%Nb) of nuclear fuel elements used in Russian made power reactors of WWER type, and (B) a number of possible reference electrodes were investigated with a view to high temperature applications. (A) Test specimens made of the cladding material, Zr-1%Nb, were immersed into an autoclave, filled with an aqueous solution typical to a WWER primary circuit, and were treated for different periods of time up to 28 weeks. The electrode potentials were measured and electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) were taken regularly both as a function of oxidation time and temperature. This rendered information on the overall kinetics of oxide growth. By combining in situ and ex situ impedance measurements, with a particular view of the temperature dependence of EIS, we concluded that the high frequency region of impedance spectra is relevant to the presence of oxide layer on the alloy. This part of the spectra was treated in terms of a parallel CPE||R ox equivalent circuit (CPE denoting constant phase element, R ox ohmic resistor). The CPE element was understood as a dispersive resistance in terms of the continuous time random walk theory by Scher and Lax. This enabled us to tell apart electrical conductance and oxide growth with a model of charge transfer and recombination within the oxide layer as rate determining steps. (B) Three types of reference electrodes were tested within the framework of the LIRES EU5 project: (i) external Ag/AgCl, (ii) Pt/Ir alloy and (iii) Pd(Pt) double polarised active electrode. The most stable of the electrodes was found to be the Pt/Ir one. The Ag/AgCl electrode showed good stability after an initial period of some days, while substantial drifts were found for the Pd(Pt) electrode. EIS spectra of the

  3. Growth, water relations and photosynthesis of seedlings and resprouts after fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Adelaide S.; Rego, Francisco C.; Correia, Otília A.

    2005-05-01

    Seasonal patterns of growth, water relations, photosynthesis and leaf characteristics were compared between obligate seeders ( Cistus monspeliensis and Cistus ladanifer) and resprouters ( Arbutus unedo and Pistacia lentiscus) from the first to the second year after fire. We hypothesized that seedlings would be more water-limited than resprouts due to their shallower root systems. Regarding water use strategies, Cistus species are drought semi-deciduous and A. unedo and P. lentiscus are evergreen sclerophylls, therefore, comparisons were based on the relative deviation from mature conspecific plants. Seedlings and resprouts had higher shoot elongation and leaf production than mature plants, and over an extended period. Differences from mature plants were larger in resprouts, with two-fold transpiration, leaf conductance and photosynthesis in late spring/early summer. Seedlings of C. monspeliensis exhibited higher transpiration and leaf conductance than mature plants, while those of C. ladanifer only exhibited higher water potential. Growth increments and ameliorated water relations and photosynthesis after fire were attributed to an increase in water and nutrient availability. The small differences in water relations and photosynthesis between seedlings and mature conspecifics are in accordance with the prediction of seedlings experiencing higher water limitation than resprouts. We attribute these results to differences in root systems: resprouters benefited from an increase in root/shoot ratios and the presence of deep roots whereas Cistus seedlings relied on very shallow roots, which cannot provide assess to deep water during summer. Nevertheless, seedlings did not show evidence of experiencing a more severe water limitation than mature conspecifics, which we attributed to the presence of efficient mechanisms of avoiding and tolerating water stress. The results are discussed in relation to post-fire demography of seeders and resprouters in Mediterranean

  4. Design and operation problems related to water curtain system for underground water-sealed oil storage caverns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongkui Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The underground water-sealed storage technique is critically important and generally accepted for the national energy strategy in China. Although several small underground water-sealed oil storage caverns have been built in China since the 1970s, there is still a lack of experience for large-volume underground storage in complicated geological conditions. The current design concept of water curtain system and the technical instruction for system operation have limitations in maintaining the stability of surrounding rock mass during the construction of the main storage caverns, as well as the long-term stability. Although several large-scale underground oil storage projects are under construction at present in China, the design concepts and construction methods, especially for the water curtain system, are mainly based on the ideal porosity medium flow theory and the experiences gained from the similar projects overseas. The storage projects currently constructed in China have the specific features such as huge scale, large depth, multiple-level arrangement, high seepage pressure, complicated geological conditions, and high in situ stresses, which are the challenging issues for the stability of the storage caverns. Based on years' experiences obtained from the first large-scale (millions of cubic meters underground water-sealed oil storage project in China, some design and operation problems related to water curtain system during project construction are discussed. The drawbacks and merits of the water curtain system are also presented. As an example, the conventional concept of “filling joints with water” is widely used in many cases, as a basic concept for the design of the water curtain system, but it is immature. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the conventional concept are pointed out, with respect to the long-term stability as well as the safety of construction of storage caverns. Finally, new concepts and principles

  5. Evaluation of CDOM sources and their links with water quality in the lakes of Northeast China using fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Song, Kaishan; Wen, Zhidan; Fang, Chong; Shang, Yingxin; Lv, Lili

    2017-07-01

    The spatial distributions of the fluorescence intensities Fmax for chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) components, the fluorescence indices (FI370 and FI310) and their correlations with water quality of 19 lakes in the Songhua River Basin (SHRB) across semiarid regions of Northeast China were examined with the data collected in September 2012 and 2015. The 19 lakes were divided into two groups according to EC (threshold value = 800 μS cm-1): fresh water (N = 13) and brackish water lakes (N = 6). The fluorescent characteristics of CDOM in the 19 lakes were investigated using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (EEM) coupled with parallel factor (PARAFAC) and multivariate analysis. Two humic-like components (C1 and C3), one tryptophan-like component (C2), and one tyrosine-like component (C4) were identified by PARAFAC. The component C4 was not included in subsequent analyses due to the strong scatter in some colloidal water samples from brackish water lakes. The correlations between Fmax for the three EEM-PARAFAC extracted CDOM components C1-C3, the fluorescence indices (FI370 and FI310) and the water quality parameters (i.e., TN, TP, Chl-a, pH, EC, turbidity (Turb) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) were determined by redundancy analysis (RDA). The results of RDA analysis showed that spatial variation in land cover, pollution sources, and salinity/EC gradients in water quality affected Fmax for the fluorescent components C1-C3 and the fluorescence indices (FI370 and FI310). Further examination indicated that the CDOM fluorescent components and the fluorescence indices (FI370 and FI310) did not significantly differ (t-test, p > 0.05) in fresh water (N = 13) and brackish water lakes (N = 6). There was a difference in the distribution of the average Fmax for the CDOM fluorescent components between C1 to C3 from agricultural sources and urban wastewater sources in hypereutrophic brackish water lakes. The Fmax for humic-like components C1 and

  6. Why Seedlings Die: Linking Carbon and Water Limitations to Mechanisms of Mortality During Establishment in Conifer Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, K.; Germino, M. J.; Kueppers, L. M.; Mitton, J.; Castanha, C.

    2012-12-01

    BACKGROUND Recent ecophysiological studies aimed at explaining adult tree mortality during drought have examined the carbon (C)-exhaustion compared to the hydraulic-failure hypotheses for death. Prolonged drought leads to durations of stomatal closure (and thus limited C gain), which could result in long periods of negative C balance and fatal reductions in whole-plant C reserves (i.e., available non-structural carbohydrates ["NSC"]). Alternatively, C reserves may not decrease much but could become increasingly inaccessible to sink tissues in long dry-periods due to impediments to translocation of photosynthate (e.g., through disruption of hydrostatic pressure flow in phloem). As C reserves decline or become inaccessible, continued maintenance respiration has been hypothesized to lead to exhaustion of NSC after extended durations of drought, especially in isohydric plant species. On the other hand, hydraulic failure (e.g., catastrophic xylem embolisms) during drought may be the proximate cause of death, occurring before true C starvation occurs. Few studies have investigated specifically the mechanism(s) of tree death, and no published studies that we know of have quantified changes in NSC during mortality. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND HYPOTHESES We conducted two studies that investigated whole-tree and tissue-specific C relations (photosynthetic C gain, respiration, dry-mass gain, and NSC pools) in Pinus flexilis seedlings during the initial establishment phase, which is characterized by progressive drought during summer. We measured survival, growth and biomass allocation, and C-balance physiology (photosynthetic C-gain and chlorophyll fluorescence, respiration C-use, and NSC concentrations) from germination to mortality. We hypothesized that 1) stomatal and biochemical limitations to C gain would constrain seedling survival (through inadequate seasonal C-balance), as has been shown for conifer seedlings near alpine treeline; 2) hydraulic constraints (embolisms and

  7. Differentiation of water-related traits in terrestrial and epiphytic Cymbidium species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Bao eZhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Epiphytes that grow in the canopies of tropical and subtropical forests experience different water regimes when compared with terrestrial plants. However, the differences in adaptive strategies between epiphytic and terrestrial plants with respect to plant water relations remain poorly understood. To understand how water-related traits contrast between epiphytic and terrestrial growth forms within the Cymbidium (Orchidaceae, we assessed leaf anatomy, hydraulics, and physiology of seven terrestrial and 13 epiphytic species using a common garden experiment. Compared with terrestrial species, epiphytic species had higher values for leaf mass per unit area (LMA, leaf thickness (LT, epidermal thickness, saturated water content (SWC and the time required to dry saturated leaves to 70% relative water content (T70. However, vein density (Dvein, stomatal density (SD, and photosynthetic capacity (Amax did not differ significantly between the two forms. T70 was positively correlated with LT, LMA, and SWC, and negatively correlated with stomatal index (SI. Amax showed positive correlations with SD and SI, but not with Dvein. Vein density was marginally correlated with SD, and significantly correlated with SI. Overall, epiphytic orchids exhibited substantial ecophysiological differentiations from terrestrial species, with the former type showing trait values indicative of greater drought tolerance and increased water storage capacity. The ability to retain water in the leaves plays a key role in maintaining a water balance in those epiphytes. Therefore, the process of transpiration depends less upon the current substrate water supply and enables epiphytic Cymbidium species to adapt more easily to canopy habitats.

  8. Determining the potential link between irrigation water quality and the microbiological quality of onions by phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Escherichia coli isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Plessis, Erika M; Duvenage, Francois; Korsten, Lise

    2015-04-01

    The potential transfer of human pathogenic bacteria present in irrigation water onto fresh produce was investigated, because surface water sources used for irrigation purposes in South Africa have increasingly been reported to be contaminated with enteric bacterial pathogens. A microbiological analysis was performed of a selected river in Limpopo Province, South Africa, that is often contaminated with raw sewage from municipal sewage works and overhead irrigated onions produced on a commercial farm. Counts of Escherichia coli, coliforms, aerobic bacteria, fungi, and yeasts and the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes were determined. Identities of bacterial isolates from irrigation water and onions were confirmed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry, PCR, and biochemical tests. To establish a potential link between the microbiological quality of the irrigation source and the onions, the E. coli isolates from both were subjected to antibiotic resistance, virulence gene, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR analyses. River water E. coli counts exceeded South African Department of Water Affairs and World Health Organization irrigation water guidelines. Counts of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, fungi, and yeasts of onions from the market were acceptable according to Department of Health Directorate, Food Control, South Africa, microbiological guidelines for ready-to-eat fresh fruits and vegetables. E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and L. monocytogenes were not detected in onions, whereas only Salmonella was detected in 22% of water samples. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and PCR identification of E. coli isolates from water and onions correlated. Of the 45 E. coli isolates from water and onions, 42.2% were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Virulence genes eae, stx1, and stx2 were detected in 2.2, 6.6, and 2.2% of the E. coli isolates

  9. Linking the Diffusion of Water in Compacted Clays at Two Different Time Scales: Tracer Through-Diffusion and QENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juranyi, Fanni; Gonzalez Sanchez, Fatima; Gimmi, Thomas; Bestel, Martina; Van Loon, Luc; Diamond, Larryn W.

    2013-01-01

    Observable water diffusion processes in clays and their parameters depend on the spatial- and time-scale of the measurement. Comparing the diffusion coefficients of quasielastic neutron scattering and tracer through-diffusion, 'chemical' and 'geometrical' effects can be distinguished and quantified. Results for montmorillonite and illite in the Na- and Ca- form illustrate this very well. Swelling clays such as montmorillonite are especially interesting because of the interlayer water. This water is confined in form of few layers such that the diffusion occurs essentially in 2D. Furthermore the ratio of interlayer- and external- (macro-pore) water changes as a function of bulk dry density and degree of water saturation. Therefore it is of interest to describe the diffusion process using these parameters. Finally, the activation energy of the diffusion should be equal for both methods assuming that the geometrical factor does not depend on temperature. For the montmorillonites this was not the case, which might also indicate that the main processes on the two scales are different. We conclude that the geometrical factor and the electrostatic constraint can be determined from a comparison of the diffusion coefficients measured by the two different techniques: quasielastic neutron scattering and tracer through diffusion. Furthermore, activation energies obtained at the two scales are similar for clays having no interlayer water. For montmorillonite the activation energy values are different. Further investigations are required to clarify the reason. (authors)

  10. Causes of Domestic Water Consumption Trends in the City of Alicante: Exploring the Links between the Housing Bubble, the Types of Housing and the Socio-Economic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro-Francisco Morote

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The European Mediterranean coastline has experienced major tourism-related urbanization since 1960. This is a dynamic that has led to increased spending on water consumption for urban and tourism-related uses. The objective of this paper is to define and to analyze how domestic water consumption in the city of Alicante evolved between 2000 and 2013. Real billing figures for individual households were analyzed according to the type of housing and the income level of the occupants. The conclusions drawn show that consumption fell over the period studied, and that there are different patterns in water expenditure depending on the type of housing and the inhabitants.

  11. Algal massive growth in relation to water quality and salinity at Damietta, north of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Ibraheem Deyab

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To relate the proliferation and dominance of certain algal species at the Damietta and its relation to water quality. Methods: Water and algal biomass were bimonthly sampled from five selected sites at Damietta Province, Egypt during 2012. Algae were identified and quantified. Waters, algae and sediment were analyzed. Results: The physicochemical properties of water showed limited seasonal but substantial local variation. The high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus and turbidity of water pointed to marked eutrophication, which could enhance massive algal growth. The temporal fluctuation in temperature, exposure to industrial and domestic sewage and salinity results in succession between blooming algal species. Spirulina platensis and Chlorella vulgaris alternated in a moderately saline water and Oscillatoria agardhii and Mougeotia scalaris in a fresh water body during summer and winter respectively. Likewise, Microcystis aureginosa and Ulva lactuca alternated in a moderately saline site during autumn and summer respectively. Cladophora albida dominated a fish pond of brackish water and Dunaliella salina dominated the most saline water over the whole period of study. Conclusions: Growth of the predominant algal species is correlated to water quality. These species are of considerable nutritive value, with moderate contents of protein, carbohydrate, macronutrients and micronutrients, which evaluates them for usage as food (green and macroalgae, fodder or bio-fertilizer (cyanophytes.

  12. Towards the harmonization of water-related policies for managing drought risks across the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampragou, E.; Apostolaki, S.; Manoli, E.; Froebrich, J.; Assimacopoulos, D.

    2011-01-01

    Drought is recognized as a major issue in the EU, particularly in the Mediterranean region, posing risks to the environment as well as to local and regional economies. The EU policy on water management is continuously evolving, particularly in relation to water scarcity and drought. Starting with

  13. 48 CFR 952.223 - Clauses related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety, and drug-free workplace. 952.223 Section 952.223 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CLAUSES AND... related to environment, energy and water efficiency, renewable energy technologies, occupational safety...

  14. Statistical relation between particle contaminations in ultra pure water and defects generated by process tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wali, F.; Knotter, D. Martin; Wortelboer, Ronald; Mud, Auke

    2007-01-01

    Ultra pure water supplied inside the Fab is used in different tools at different stages of processing. Data of the particles measured in ultra pure water was compared with the defect density on wafers processed on these tools and a statistical relation is found Keywords— Yield, defect density,

  15. 78 FR 31521 - Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related Land Resources...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water... the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles and Guidelines for Water and Related.... L. 110-114) directed the Secretary of the Army to revise the ``Economic and Environmental Principles...

  16. Can net photosynthesis and water relations provide a clue on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Net photosynthesis, sap flow density (SFD) and water use efficiency (WUE) were measured in a Quercus suber forest in north Tunisia in an attempt to explain the forest decline. In general, sap flow was positively related to light intensity and water loss, indicating that high light intensities can increase the SFD up to the ...

  17. 75 FR 8697 - Notice of Availability of Class Deviation; Disputes Resolution Procedures Related to Clean Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9115-1] Notice of Availability of Class Deviation; Disputes Resolution Procedures Related to Clean Water and Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (CWSRF and DWSRF...: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: This document provides notice of...

  18. Dynamics of leaf water relations components in co-occurring iso- and anisohydric conifer species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick Meinzer; David Woodruff; Danielle Marias; Katherine McCulloh; Sanna Sevanto

    2014-01-01

    Because iso- and anisohydric species differ in stomatal regulation of the rate and magnitude of fluctuations in shoot water potential, they may be expected to show differences in the plasticity of their shoot water relations components, but explicit comparisons of this nature have rarely been made. We subjected excised shoots of co-occurring anisohydric Juniperus...

  19. Plant-water relations and productivity of date palm (Phoenix dactyliferaL.) Cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Khalifah, N.S.; Khan, P.R.

    2006-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the plant-water relation and itseffect on chlorophyll content and productivity in six date palm cultivars.Growth and yield of date palm cultivars differed at the expense of same levelof relative water content. Maktoomi showed a significantly higher leafletarea coupled with a higher amount of chlorophyll pigments that led to higheryield per tree. Koweriah recorded a poor yield by having significantly lowerchlorophyll content and leaflet area. Relative Water Content (RWC) had noeffect on the fruit quality. Correlation among the relative water content,chlorophyll content, leaf specific mass and yield was also analyzed. Most ofthe pairs of parameters exhibited a highly significant correlation for thesix cultivars. Apart from physiological parameters, the effect of malepollinator with suitable combination of female variety had a great effect onthe fruit set and yield of date palm. (author)

  20. Exploring links between water quality and E. coli O157:H7 survival potential in well waters from a rural area of southern Changchun City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Meiyue; Li, Jiahang; Liu, Xiaodan; Li, Huiru; Zhang, Rui; Ma, Jincai

    2018-04-01

    Waterborne infectious disease outbreak associated with well water contamination is a worldwide public health issue, especially for rural areas in developing countries. In the current study, we characterized 20 well water samples collected from a rural area of southern Changchun city, China, and investigated the survival potential of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in those water samples. The results showed that nitrate and ammonia concentrations in some well water samples exceed the corresponding China drinking water standards, indicating potential contamination by local agricultural farms. Our results also revealed that the average survival time (ttd) of E. coli O157:H7 in all well water samples was 30.09 days, with shortest and longest ttd being 17.95 and 58.10 days, respectively. The ttds were significantly correlated with pH and the ratio of total nitrogen to total phosphorus. In addition, it was found that the shape parameter (p) and first decimal reduction parameter (δ) were negatively (P well water, suggesting that this pathogen could constitute a great public health risk.

  1. Links Between the Deep Western Boundary Current, Labrador Sea Water Formation and Export, and the Meridional Overturning Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Paul G.; Kulan, Nilgun

    2010-05-01

    Based on an isopyncal analysis of historical data, 3-year overlapping triad fields of objectively analysed temperature and salinity are produced for the Labrador Sea, covering 1949-1999. These fields are then used to spectrally nudge an eddy-permitting ocean general circulation model of the sub-polar gyre, otherwise forced by inter annually varying surface forcing based upon the Coordinated Ocean Reference Experiment (CORE). High frequency output from the reanalysis is used to examine Labrador Sea Water formation and its export. A number of different apprpoaches are used to estimate Labrador Sea Water formation, including an instanteous kinematic approach to calculate the annual rate of water mass subduction at a given density range. Historical transports are computed along sections at 53 and 56N for several different water masses for comparison with recent observations, showing a decline in the stength of the deep western boundary current with time. The variability of the strength of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) from the reanalysis is also examined in both depth and density space. Linkages between MOC variability and water mass formation variability is considered.

  2. Uranium Speciation in Drinking Water from Drilled Wells in Southern Finland and Its Potential Links to Health Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prat, O.; Vercouter, Th.; Ansoborlo, E.; Fichet, P.; Perret, P.; Kurttio, P.; Salonen, L.

    2009-01-01

    Exceptionally high concentrations of natural uranium have been found in drinking water originating from drilled wells in Southern Finland. However, no clear clinical symptoms have been observed among the exposed population. Hence a question arose as to whether uranium speciation could be one reason for the lack of significant adverse health effects. Uranium species were determined using time-resolved laser-induced-fluorescence-spectroscopy. We performed multi-element chemical analyses in these water samples, and predictive calculations were carried out using up-to-date thermodynamic data. The results indicated good agreement between measurements and modeling. The low toxicity of Finnish bedrock water may be due to the predominance of two calcium dependent species, Ca 2 UO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 (aq) and CaUO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 2- , whose non toxicity for cells has been described previously. This interdisciplinary study describes chemical speciation of drinking water with elevated uranium concentrations and the potential consequence on health. From these results, it appears that modeling could be used for a better understanding of uranium toxicity of drinking water in the event of contamination. (authors)

  3. Water relations and photosynthesis in the cryptoendolithic microbial habitat of hot and cold deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, R. J. Jr; Friedmann, E. I.

    1990-01-01

    Two cryptoendolithic microbial communities, lichens in the Ross Desert of Antarctica and cyanobacteria in the Negev Desert, inhabit porous sandstone rocks of similar physical structure. Both rock types adsorb water vapor by physical mechanisms unrelated to biological processes. Yet the two microbial communities respond differently to water stress: cryptoendolithic lichens begin to photosynthesize at a matric water potential of -46.4 megaPascals (MPa) [70% relative humidity (RH) at 8 degrees C], resembling thallose desert lichens. Cryptoendolithic cyanobacteria, like other prokaryotes, photosynthesize only at very high matric water potentials [> -6.9 MPa, 90% RH at 20 degrees C].

  4. THE RELATION BETWEEN RESUDUE CHLOR QUANTITY AND WATER RELATED DISEASES IN AYDIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Didem EVCI

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The correlation between the residue chlor quantity in water sampled in different points of Aydin province in 2004 and the incidence of infections via water (diarrhea, thyphoid fever, amoebic and bacillary dysentery is studied. Materials and Methods: A retrospective definitive study is performed during June-July 2005. Results: 924 physical and chemical analysis are performed in 2004. In winter season, the mean residue chlor was 0,57±0,10 mg/lt; there were 310 diarrhea cases and a bacillary dysentery case. In summer season, the mean residue chlor was 0,46±0,13 mg/lt; there were 529 diarrhea cases and an amoebic dysentery. Both seasons determined that there was a negative correlation between diarrhea and the residue chlor quantity and there was a poor connection between them and it was statistically unsignificant (for winter r= -0,242, p=0,224; for summer r= -0,148, p=0,480 Conclusion: However there is no determined, expressive connection between diarrhea cases and residue chlor quantity it was seen that as the residue chlor quantity evaluated, the diarrhea cases were reduced. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(1.000: 1-7

  5. [Usefulness of local health reports to link the incidence rate of diarrhea with the quality of drinking water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Alvarez, María S; Moraña, Liliana B; Salusso, María M; Gil, José; Seghezzo, Lucas

    2018-03-20

    In this study, we analyzed the reports of the health care center located in Vaqueros (Salta, Argentina) over an 8-month period. Moreover, we determined the concentration of Escherichia coli and Giardia spp. cysts in samples from four different drinking water sources. A statistical relationship between water quality and cases of diarrhea could not be found. However, using an odds ratio calculation, it was possible to determine that one of the studied drinking water systems acts as a protection factor in cases of diarrhea. The present work provides useful information for planning preventive measures by the local health system. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Linking diverse nutrient patterns to different water masses within anticyclonic eddies in the upwelling system off Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranga José, Yonss; Dietze, Heiner; Oschlies, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Ocean eddies can both trigger mixing (during their formation and decay) and effectively shield water encompassed from being exchanged with ambient water (throughout their lifetimes). These antagonistic effects of eddies complicate the interpretation of synoptic snapshots typically obtained by ship-based oceanographic measurement campaigns. Here we use a coupled physical-biogeochemical model to explore biogeochemical dynamics within anticyclonic eddies in the eastern tropical South Pacific Ocean. The goal is to understand the diverse biogeochemical patterns that have been observed at the subsurface layers of the anticyclonic eddies in this region. Our model results suggest that the diverse subsurface nutrient patterns within eddies are associated with the presence of water masses of different origins at different depths.

  7. Identifying mismatches between institutional perceptions of water-related risk drivers and water management strategies in three river basin areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Aleksi; Juhola, Sirkku; Monge Monge, Adrián; Käkönen, Mira; Kanninen, Markku; Nygren, Anja

    2017-07-01

    Water-related risks and vulnerabilities are driven by variety of stressors, including climate and land use change, as well as changes in socio-economic positions and political landscapes. Hence, water governance, which addresses risks and vulnerabilities, should target multiple stressors. We analyze the institutional perceptions of the drivers and strategies for managing water-related risks and vulnerabilities in three regionally important river basin areas located in Finland, Mexico, and Laos. Our analysis is based on data gathered through participatory workshops and complemented by qualitative content analysis of relevant policy documents. The identified drivers and proposed risk reduction strategies showed the multidimensionality and context-specificity of water-related risks and vulnerabilities across study areas. Most of the identified drivers were seen to increase risks, but some of the drivers were positive trends, and drivers also included also policy instruments that can both increase or decrease risks. Nevertheless, all perceived drivers were not addressed with suggested risk reduction strategies. In particular, most of the risk reduction strategies were incremental adjustments, although many of the drivers classified as most important were large-scale trends, such as climate change, land use changes and increase in foreign investments. We argue that there is a scale mismatch between the identified drivers and suggested strategies, which questions the opportunity to manage the drivers by single-scale incremental adjustments. Our study suggests that for more sustainable risk and vulnerability reduction, the root causes of water-related risks and vulnerabilities should be addressed through adaptive multi-scale governance that carefully considers the context-specificity and the multidimensionality of the associated drivers and stressors.

  8. Link Climate Effects to Surface Water Quality and Drinking Water Plant Adaptation - A Update on Hydroclimatic Province and WTP-ccam Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key points in this presentation are: (1) How and why hydroclimatic province can help precipitation projection for water program engineering and management, (2) Implications of initial research results and planned further monitoring / research activities, (3) Five adaptation t...

  9. Missing Rings in Pinus halepensis – The Missing Link to Relate the Tree-Ring Record to Extreme Climatic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Klemen; de Luis, Martin; Saz, Miguel A.; Longares, Luis A.; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Raventós, Josep; Čufar, Katarina; Gričar, Jožica; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Piovesan, Gianluca; Rathgeber, Cyrille B. K.; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Smith, Kevin T.

    2016-01-01

    Climate predictions for the Mediterranean Basin include increased temperatures, decreased precipitation, and increased frequency of extreme climatic events (ECE). These conditions are associated with decreased tree growth and increased vulnerability to pests and diseases. The anatomy of tree rings responds to these environmental conditions. Quantitatively, the width of a tree ring is largely determined by the rate and duration of cell division by the vascular cambium. In the Mediterranean climate, this division may occur throughout almost the entire year. Alternatively, cell division may cease during relatively cool and dry winters, only to resume in the same calendar year with milder temperatures and increased availability of water. Under particularly adverse conditions, no xylem may be produced in parts of the stem, resulting in a missing ring (MR). A dendrochronological network of Pinus halepensis was used to determine the relationship of MR to ECE. The network consisted of 113 sites, 1,509 trees, 2,593 cores, and 225,428 tree rings throughout the distribution range of the species. A total of 4,150 MR were identified. Binomial logistic regression analysis determined that MR frequency increased with increased cambial age. Spatial analysis indicated that the geographic areas of south-eastern Spain and northern Algeria contained the greatest frequency of MR. Dendroclimatic regression analysis indicated a non-linear relationship of MR to total monthly precipitation and mean temperature. MR are strongly associated with the combination of monthly mean temperature from previous October till current February and total precipitation from previous September till current May. They are likely to occur with total precipitation lower than 50 mm and temperatures higher than 5°C. This conclusion is global and can be applied to every site across the distribution area. Rather than simply being a complication for dendrochronology, MR formation is a fundamental response of trees

  10. Missing Rings in Pinus halepensis - The Missing Link to Relate the Tree-Ring Record to Extreme Climatic Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Klemen; de Luis, Martin; Saz, Miguel A; Longares, Luis A; Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Raventós, Josep; Čufar, Katarina; Gričar, Jožica; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Piovesan, Gianluca; Rathgeber, Cyrille B K; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Smith, Kevin T

    2016-01-01

    Climate predictions for the Mediterranean Basin include increased temperatures, decreased precipitation, and increased frequency of extreme climatic events (ECE). These conditions are associated with decreased tree growth and increased vulnerability to pests and diseases. The anatomy of tree rings responds to these environmental conditions. Quantitatively, the width of a tree ring is largely determined by the rate and duration of cell division by the vascular cambium. In the Mediterranean climate, this division may occur throughout almost the entire year. Alternatively, cell division may cease during relatively cool and dry winters, only to resume in the same calendar year with milder temperatures and increased availability of water. Under particularly adverse conditions, no xylem may be produced in parts of the stem, resulting in a missing ring (MR). A dendrochronological network of Pinus halepensis was used to determine the relationship of MR to ECE. The network consisted of 113 sites, 1,509 trees, 2,593 cores, and 225,428 tree rings throughout the distribution range of the species. A total of 4,150 MR were identified. Binomial logistic regression analysis determined that MR frequency increased with increased cambial age. Spatial analysis indicated that the geographic areas of south-eastern Spain and northern Algeria contained the greatest frequency of MR. Dendroclimatic regression analysis indicated a non-linear relationship of MR to total monthly precipitation and mean temperature. MR are strongly associated with the combination of monthly mean temperature from previous October till current February and total precipitation from previous September till current May. They are likely to occur with total precipitation lower than 50 mm and temperatures higher than 5°C. This conclusion is global and can be applied to every site across the distribution area. Rather than simply being a complication for dendrochronology, MR formation is a fundamental response of trees

  11. Relations between vegetation and water level in groundwater dependent terrestrial ecosystems (GWDTEs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch Johansen, Ole; Andersen, Dagmar Kappel; Ejrnæs, Rasmus

    2018-01-01

    , management and conservation of fens are constrained by limited knowledge on the relations between vegetation and measurable hydrological conditions. This study investigates the relations between vegetation and water level dynamics in groundwater dependent wetlands in Denmark. A total of 35 wetland sites...... across Denmark were included in the study. The sites represent a continuum of wetlands with respect to vegetation and hydrological conditions. Water level was measured continuously using pressure transducers at each site. Metrics expressing different hydrological characteristics, such as mean water level...... and low and high water level periods, were calculated based on the water level time series. A complete plant species list was recorded in plots covering 78.5 m2 at each site. Community metrics such as total number of species and the number of bryophytes were generated from the species lists and Ellenberg...

  12. Linking of FRAP-T, FRAPCON and RELAP-4 codes for transient analysis and accidents of light water reactors fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra Neto, A.; Silva, A.T. e; Sabundjian, G.; Freitas, R.L.; Neves Conti, T. das.

    1991-09-01

    The computer codes FRAP-T, FRAPCON and RELAP-4 have been linked for the fuel rod behavior analysis under transients and hypothetical accidents in light water reactors. The results calculated by thermal hydraulic code RELAP-4 give input in file format into the transient fuel analysis code FRAP-T. If the effect of fuel burnup is taken into account, the fuel performance code FRAPCON should provide the initial steady state data for thhe transient analysis. With the thermal hydraulic boundary conditions provided by RELAP-4 (MOD3), FRAP-T6 is used to analyse pressurized water reactor fuel rod behavior during the blowdown phase under large break loss of coolant accident conditions. Two cases have been analysed: without and with initialization from FRAPCON-2 steady state data. (author)

  13. Linking air and water transport in intact soils to macro-porosity by combining laboratory measurements and X-ray Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katuwal, Sheela; Norgaard, Trine; Møldrup, Per

    -porosity (R2 = 0.80 for air permeability: R2= 0.61 for 5% arrival time) and macro-porosity of the restricting layer (R2=0.83 for air permeability: R2= 0.71 for 5% arrival time) over air-filled porosity and all the correlations were positive. The high positive correlation these air and water transport...... functions with macro-porosity stressed the importance of continuity and tortuosity of pores in air, water and solute flow and transport through the soils. Negative correlations of air permeability, 5% arrival time of tracer and macro-porosity were obtained with bulk density whereas with other soil physical......With an objective to link the hydraulic properties of soil with the soil structural properties, air permeability and 5% arrival time of a conservative tracer was measured for large undisturbed soil columns from the same agricultural field. The same soil columns were scanned with a medical scanner...

  14. Current knowledge and future research directions to link soil health and water conservation in the Ogallala Aquifer region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ogallala Aquifer is one of the largest freshwater aquifers in the world. It acts as a valuable resource in agriculture, animal production, and public water supplies across eight Great Plains states. However, with high irrigation demand, low recharge rates across most of the region, and extreme c...

  15. Exploring industry specific social welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement in linked terrestrial and marine ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roebeling, P.C.; Hendrix, E.M.T.; Grieken, van M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are severely affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments, while these ecosystems are of vital importance from an environmental as well as an economic perspective. To warrant sustainable economic development of coastal regions, we need to balance the marginal

  16. Ecosystem engineering creates a direct nutritional link between 600-m deep cold-water coral mounds and surface productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetaert, K.; Mohn, C.; Rengstorf, A.; Grehan, A.; Van Oevelen, D.

    2016-01-01

    Cold-water corals (CWCs) form large mounds on the seafloor that are hotspots of biodiversity in the deep sea, but it remains enigmatic how CWCs can thrive in this food-limited environment. Here, we infer from model simulations that the interaction between tidal currents and CWC-formed mounds induces

  17. Water use by black wattle (Acacia mearnsii): implications for the link between removal of invading trees and catchment streamflow response

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dye, P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available vegetation covers. Author’s review shows that very high rates of total evaporation are possible from dense infestations of black waffle occurring in riparian zones, where there are no soil water deficits through the year. Annual total evaporation from...

  18. The links between global carbon, water and nutrient cycles in an urbanizing world — the case of coastal eutrophication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Hofstra, N.; Ivens, W.; Löhr, A.; Strokal, M.; Wijnen, van J.

    2013-01-01

    The natural cycles of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and water have been disturbed substantially by human activities. Urbanizing coastal drainage basins and large river deltas are located at the interface of freshwater and coastal components of the larger earth system and the process of

  19. A linked lake system beneath Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica reveals an efficient mechanism for subglacial water flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B. E.; Gourmelen, N.; Huth, A.; Joughin, I. R.

    2016-12-01

    In this presentation we show the results of a multi-sensor survey of a system of subglacial lakes beneath Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica. This is the first substantial active (meaning draining or filling on annual time scales) lake system detected under the fast-flowing glaciers of the Amundsen Coast. Altimetry data show that over the 2013 calendar year, four subglacial lakes drained, essentially simultaneously, with the bulk of the drainage taking place over the course the first three months of the year. The largest of the lakes appears to have drained around 3.7 km3 of water, with the others each draining less than 1 km3. The high-resolution radar surveys conducted in this area by NASA's IceBridge program allow detailed analysis of the subglacial hydrologic potential, which shows that the potential map in this area is characterized by small closed basins that should not, under the common assumption that water flow is directed down the gradient of the hydropotential, allow long-range water transport. The lakes' discharge demonstrates that, at least in some cases, water can flow out of apparently closed hydropotential basins. Combining a basal-flow routing map with a map of basal melt production suggests that the largest drainage event could recur as often as every 22 years, provided that overflow or leakage of mapped hydropotential basins allows melt water transport to refill the lake. An analysis of ice-surface speed records both around the lakes and at the Thwaites grounding line shows small changes in ice speed, but none clearly associated with the drainage event, suggesting that, at least in this area where subglacial melt is abundant, the addition of further water to the subglacial hydrologic system need not have any significant effect on ice flow. It is likely that the main impact of the lake system on the glacier is that as an efficient mechanism to remove meltwater from the system, it drains water that would otherwise flow through less efficient

  20. The relative stabilities of cyclic dicationic derivatives of diphosphanes with three (3P) or four (4P) linked phosphorus atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashforth, Rachel; Boyall, Alice J; Coffer, Philippa K; Dillon, Keith B; Goeta, Andrés E; Howard, Judith A K; Kenwright, Alan M; Probert, Michael R; Shepherd, Helena J; Thompson, Amber L

    2012-01-28

    Reaction of a diphosphane with a chlorophosphane in the presence of SnCl(2) or AlCl(3) leads to the formation of dicationic heterocycles with three (3P) or four (4P) linked phosphorus atoms. Some 3P derivatives with small alkyl substituents may also be prepared by direct alkylation of cyclic triphosphenium ions. Several new species were prepared in solution, some of which were isolated and characterised by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Investigations into the factors favouring formation of 3P or 4P species are described.

  1. Linking River Basin Modifications and Rural Soil and Water Management Practices in Tropical Deltas to Sea Level Rise Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, K. G.; Brondizio, E.; Roy, K.; Syvitski, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The increased vulnerability of deltaic communities to coastal flooding as a result of upstream engineering has been acknowledged for decades. What has received less attention is the sensitivity of deltas to the interactions between river basin modifications and local scale cultivation and irrigation. Combined with reduced river and sediment discharge, soil and water management practices in coastal areas may exacerbate the risk of tidal flooding, erosion of arable land, and salinization of soils and groundwater associated with sea level rise. This represents a cruel irony to smallholder subsistence farmers whose priorities are food, water and economic security, rather than sustainability of the environment. Such issues challenge disciplinary approaches and require integrated social-biophysical models able to understand and diagnose these complex relationships. This study applies a new conceptual framework to define the relevant social and physical units operating on the common pool resources of climate, water and sediment in the Bengal Delta (Bangladesh). The new framework will inform development of a nested geospatial analysis and a coupled model to identify multi-scale social-biophysical feedbacks associated with smallholder soil and water management practices, coastal dynamics, basin modification, and climate vulnerability in tropical deltas. The framework was used to create household surveys for collecting data on climate perceptions, land and water management, and governance. Test surveys were administered to rural farmers in 14 villages during a reconnaissance visit to coastal Bangladesh. Initial results demonstrate complexity and heterogeneity at the local scale in both biophysical conditions and decision-making. More importantly, the results illuminate how national and geopolitical-level policies scale down to impact local-level environmental and social stability in communities already vulnerable to coastal flooding. Here, we will discuss components of the

  2. Beyond the Dams: Linking Rural Smallholder Soil and Water Management Practices in Tropical Deltas to Sea Level Rise Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, K. G.; Syvitski, J. P.; Brondizio, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    The increased vulnerability of deltaic communities to coastal flooding as a result of upstream engineering has been acknowledged for decades. What has received less attention is the sensitivity of deltas to the interactions of river basin modifications and cultivation and irrigation in their coastal regions, particularly in tropical deltas. Embanking, tilling, and crop or stock choice all affect the movement of sediment and water on deltas. Combined with reduced river and sediment discharge, soil and water management practices in coastal areas may in fact exacerbate the risk of tidal flooding, erosion of arable land, and salinization of soils and groundwater associated with sea level rise. Thus exists a cruel irony to smallholder subsistence farmers whose priorities are food, water and economic security, rather than sustainability of the regional environment. Such issues challenge disciplinary approaches and require integrated social-biophysical models able to understand and diagnose these complex relationships. The complementary Institutional Analysis and Development and SocioEcological Systems frameworks are applied to the southwestern Bengal Delta (Bangladesh). The method helps to define the relevant social and physical units operating on the common pool of environmental resources, those of climate, water and sediment. The conceptual frameworks are designed to inform development of a nested geospatial analysis and a dynamic coupled model to identify the social-biophysical feedbacks associated with smallholder soil and water management practices, coastal dynamics, and climate vulnerability in rural Bangladesh. Our presentation will discuss components of the conceptual frameworks and will introduce a bi-directional pilot study designed for obtaining and disseminating information about environmental change to farmers in southwest Bangladesh with potential application to rural farming communities in other tropical deltas.

  3. Electron beam absorption in solid and in water phantoms: depth scaling and energy-range relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosswendt, B.; Roos, M.

    1989-01-01

    In electron dosimetry energy parameters are used with values evaluated from ranges in water. The electron ranges in water may be deduced from ranges measured in solid phantoms. Several procedures recommended by national and international organisations differ both in the scaling of the ranges and in the energy-range relations for water. Using the Monte Carlo method the application of different procedures for electron energies below 10 MeV is studied for different phantom materials. It is shown that deviations in the range scaling and in the energy-range relations for water may accumulate to give energy errors of several per cent. In consequence energy-range relations are deduced for several solid phantom materials which enable a single-step energy determination. (author)

  4. diurnal and seasonal water relations of the desert phreatophyte prosopis-glandulosa (honey mesquite) in the Sonoran Desert of California

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, E. T.; Sharifi, M. R.; Rundel, P. W.; Jarrell, W. M.; Virginia, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Diurnal and Seasonal water relations were monitored in a population of Prosopis glandulosa var. torreyana in the Sonoran Desert of southern California. Prosopis glandulosa at this research site acquired its water from a ground water source 4-6 m deep. Measurements of diurnal and seasonal cycles of aboveground environmental conditions, soil moisture, and soil water potential (to 6 m depth) were taken to ascertain environmental water availability and water stress. Leaf water potential, leaf con...

  5. Water Resources Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untitled Document  Search Welcome to the University of Hawai'i at Manoa Water Resources Research Center At WRRC we concentrate on addressing the unique water and wastewater management problems and issues elsewhere by researching water-related issues distinctive to these areas. We are Hawaii's link in a network

  6. Thermodynamic analysis of the use a chemical heat pump to link a supercritical water-cooled nuclear reactor and a thermochemical water-splitting cycle for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granovskii, Mikhail; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.; Pioro, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Increases in the power generation efficiency of nuclear power plants (NPPs) are mainly limited by the permissible temperatures in nuclear reactors and the corresponding temperatures and pressures of the coolants in reactors. Coolant parameters are limited by the corrosion rates of materials and nuclear-reactor safety constraints. The advanced construction materials for the next generation of CANDU reactors, which employ supercritical water (SCW) as a coolant and heat carrier, permit improved 'steam' parameters (outlet temperatures up to 625degC and pressures of about 25 MPa). An increase in the temperature of steam allows it to be utilized in thermochemical water splitting cycles to produce hydrogen. These methods are considered by many to be among the most efficient ways to produce hydrogen from water and to have advantages over traditional low-temperature water electrolysis. However, even lower temperature water splitting cycles (Cu-Cl, UT-3, etc.) require an intensive heat supply at temperatures higher than 550-600degC. A sufficient increase in the heat transfer from the nuclear reactor to a thermochemical water splitting cycle, without jeopardizing nuclear reactor safety, might be effectively achieved by application of a heat pump, which increases the temperature of the heat supplied by virtue of a cyclic process driven by mechanical or electrical work. Here, a high-temperature chemical heat pump, which employs the reversible catalytic methane conversion reaction, is proposed. The reaction shift from exothermic to endothermic and back is achieved by a change of the steam concentration in the reaction mixture. This heat pump, coupled with the second steam cycle of a SCW nuclear power generation plant on one side and a thermochemical water splitting cycle on the other, increases the temperature of the 'nuclear' heat and, consequently, the intensity of heat transfer into the water splitting cycle. A comparative preliminary thermodynamic analysis is conducted of

  7. Empirical Relations for Optical Attenuation Prediction from Liquid Water Content of Fog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Khan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous measurements of the liquid water content (LWC and optical attenuation have been analyzed to predict optical attenuation caused by fog particles. Attenuation has been measured at two different wavelengths, 830 nm and 1550 nm, across co-located links. Five months measured data have been processed to assess power-law empirical models, which estimate optical attenuation from the LWC. The proposed models are compared with other published models and are demonstrated to perform sufficiently well to predict optical attenuation if the LWC values are available.

  8. Water quality analysis and its relation to the scaling and corrosion tendency in an open water cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaini Hamzah; Halimah Abdul Ghani; Masitah Alias

    2008-01-01

    The problem of scaling and corrosion are common phenomena in a water cooling system especially the open cooling system. This study was carried out in Temenggor dam with an objective to check the water quality at the intake and tailrace of the hydro power plant. In-situ measurement and laboratory analysis on the water samples were carried out. Seven parameters were measured in-situ for example temperature, pH, specific conductivity, dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solid (TDS), turbidity, and chlorine concentration. The water samples were collected using water sampler at three locations near the intake area at surface, and at the interval of one meter up to three meter depth. Two locations at the tailrace also were collected in the same pattern. These samples were brought back to the laboratory in UiTM, Shah Alam for further analysis. Laboratory analysis includes alkalinity, Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ and Fe 2+ concentrations, and total suspended solid (TSS). From the results, the LSI, RSI and PSI were calculated to predict the scaling and corrosion tendency. The index shows strong tendency for corrosion to take place in the cooling system as the related factors supported it. (author)

  9. A framework for the quantitative assessment of climate change impacts on water-related activities at the basin scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Anghileri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available While quantitative assessment of the climate change impact on hydrology at the basin scale is quite addressed in the literature, extension of quantitative analysis to impact on the ecological, economic and social sphere is still limited, although well recognized as a key issue to support water resource planning and promote public participation. In this paper we propose a framework for assessing climate change impact on water-related activities at the basin scale. The specific features of our approach are that: (i the impact quantification is based on a set of performance indicators defined together with the stakeholders, thus explicitly taking into account the water-users preferences; (ii the management policies are obtained by optimal control techniques, linking stakeholder expectations and decision-making; (iii the multi-objective nature of the management problem is fully preserved by simulating a set of Pareto-optimal management policies, which allows for evaluating not only variations in the indicator values but also tradeoffs among conflicting objectives. The framework is demonstrated by application to a real world case study, Lake Como basin (Italy. We show that the most conflicting water-related activities within the basin (i.e. hydropower production and agriculture are likely to be negatively impacted by climate change. We discuss the robustness of the estimated impacts to the climate natural variability and the approximations in modeling the physical system and the socio-economic system, and perform an uncertainty analysis of several sources of uncertainty. We demonstrate that the contribution of natural climate uncertainty is rather remarkable and that, among different modelling uncertainty sources, the one from climate modeling is very significant.

  10. Estimating soil water-holding capacities by linking the Food and Agriculture Organization Soil map of the world with global pedon databases and continuous pedotransfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C. A.; Jackson, T. J.; Rawls, W. J.

    2000-12-01

    Spatial soil water-holding capacities were estimated for the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) digital Soil Map of the World (SMW) by employing continuous pedotransfer functions (PTF) within global pedon databases and linking these results to the SMW. The procedure first estimated representative soil properties for the FAO soil units by statistical analyses and taxotransfer depth algorithms [Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 1996]. The representative soil properties estimated for two layers of depths (0-30 and 30-100 cm) included particle-size distribution, dominant soil texture, organic carbon content, coarse fragments, bulk density, and porosity. After representative soil properties for the FAO soil units were estimated, these values were substituted into three different pedotransfer functions (PTF) models by Rawls et al. [1982], Saxton et al. [1986], and Batjes [1996a]. The Saxton PTF model was finally selected to calculate available water content because it only required particle-size distribution data and results closely agreed with the Rawls and Batjes PTF models that used both particle-size distribution and organic matter data. Soil water-holding capacities were then estimated by multiplying the available water content by the soil layer thickness and integrating over an effective crop root depth of 1 m or less (i.e., encountered shallow impermeable layers) and another soil depth data layer of 2.5 m or less.

  11. Long-term study of migration of volatile organic compounds from cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipes and effects on drinking water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Vidar; Anderson-Glenna, Mary; Skjevrak, Ingun; Steffensen, Inger-Lise

    2011-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate migration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) pipes used for drinking water produced by different production methods, and to evaluate their potential risk for human health and/or influence on aesthetic drinking water quality. The migration tests were carried out in accordance with EN-1420-1, and VOCs were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The levels of VOC migrating from new PEX pipes were generally low, and decreasing with time of pipe use. No association was found between production method of PEX pipes and concentration of migration products. 2,4-di-tert-butyl phenol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) were two of the major individual components detected. In three new PEX pipes, MTBE was detected in concentrations above the recommended US EPA taste and odour value for drinking water, but decreased below this value after 5 months in service. However, the threshold odour number (TON) values for two pipes were similar to new pipes even after 1 year in use. For seven chemicals for which conclusions on potential health risk could be drawn, this was considered of no or very low concern. However, odour from some of these pipes could negatively affect drinking water for up to 1 year.

  12. Cross-linked cyclodextrin-based material for treatment of metals and organic substances present in industrial discharge waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Euvrard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a polymer, prepared by crosslinking cyclodextrin (CD by means of a polycarboxylic acid, was used for the removal of pollutants from spiked solutions and discharge waters from the surface treatment industry. In spiked solutions containing five metals, sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and three alkylphenols (AP, the material exhibited high adsorption capacities: >99% of Co2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+ were removed, between 65 and 82% of the PAHs, as well as 69 to 90% of the APs. Due to the structure of the polymer and its specific characteristics, such as the presence of carboxylic groups and CD cavities, the adsorption mechanism involves four main interactions: ion exchange, electrostatic interactions and precipitation for metal removal, and inclusion complexes for organics removal. In industrial discharge waters, competition effects appeared, especially because of the presence of calcium at high concentrations, which competed with other pollutants for the adsorption sites of the adsorbent.

  13. Ecosystem engineering creates a direct nutritional link between 600-m deep cold-water coral mounds and surface productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetaert, Karline; Mohn, Christian; Rengstorf, Anna; Grehan, Anthony; van Oevelen, Dick

    2016-10-01

    Cold-water corals (CWCs) form large mounds on the seafloor that are hotspots of biodiversity in the deep sea, but it remains enigmatic how CWCs can thrive in this food-limited environment. Here, we infer from model simulations that the interaction between tidal currents and CWC-formed mounds induces downwelling events of surface water that brings organic matter to 600-m deep CWCs. This positive feedback between CWC growth on carbonate mounds and enhanced food supply is essential for their sustenance in the deep sea and represents an example of ecosystem engineering of unparalleled magnitude. This ’topographically-enhanced carbon pump’ leaks organic matter that settles at greater depths. The ubiquitous presence of biogenic and geological topographies along ocean margins suggests that carbon sequestration through this pump is of global importance. These results indicate that enhanced stratification and lower surface productivity, both expected consequences of climate change, may negatively impact the energy balance of CWCs.

  14. Look Who's Talking. Explaining Water-Related Information Sharing and Demand for Action Among Ugandan Villagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Nathalie; Dewachter, Sara; Molenaers, Nadia

    2016-11-01

    Many national water policies propagate community-based participatory approaches to overcome weaknesses in supply-driven rural water provision, operation, and maintenance. Citizen involvement is thought to stimulate bottom-up accountability and broaden the information base, which may enrich design and implementation processes and foster improved water accessibility and sustainability. Practices on the ground, however, are embedded in socio-political realities which mediate possible beneficial effects of participatory approaches. This paper builds on full social network data collected in a Ugandan village to study the social and political reality of two distinct levels of participation, i.e. local information sharing among citizens and a more active appeal to fellow citizens to improve water services. We use Logistic Regression Quadratic Assignment Procedure to explore what type of actor and network traits influence information sharing and whether the same factors are in play in the demand for action to remedy water-related problems. Whereas social aspects (social support relations) and homophily (using the same water source, the same gender) play an important role in information sharing, it is the educational level, in particular, of the villager who is called upon that is important when villagers demand action. Our findings also demonstrate that those most in need of safe water do not mobilize their information sharing ties to demand for action. This indicates that building local water policies and practice exclusively on locally existing demand for action may fail to capture the needs of the most deprived citizens.

  15. Social outcomes associated with alcohol-related diagnoses: a population-based analysis using linked administrative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Nickel

    2017-04-01

    Receiving an alcohol-related diagnosis is associated with subsequent increased use of social services and contacts with the justice system. Upstream efforts to reduce alcohol-related diagnoses may result in reduced use of social services and justice contacts.

  16. Incidence of plasmid-linked antibiotic-heavy metal resistant enterics in water-sediment from agricultural and harbor sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietz, J.A.; Sjorgren, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of antibiotics used in clinical and veterinary practices on the incidence of antibiotic-heavy metal resistant enterics in fresh water and sediment from agricultural and harbor sample sites. A total of 848 bacterial strains of the family Enterobacteriaceae was isolated from agricultural and lake harbor samples. These were examined for anitbiotic-heavy metal resistance. A select smaller number of these isolates were also examined for the presence of plasmids and ability to transfer antibiotic resistance via conjugation or transformation. More than 85% of the 848 isolates from all four sites were resistant to Pb, Zn, and Co while 5.6% to 16% were resistant to Te and 2.4% to 5.7% to Hg. Of the total isolates tested, 87% were resistant to six or more antibiotics and 74% were also simultaneously resistant to Co, Zn, and Pb. Testing the resistance of the water isolates to antibiotics used solely in animal husbandry-veterinary medicine indicated that 55.6% of the agricultural isolates possessed resistance to these antibiotics while only 31.9% of the isolates from harbor water showed resistance to the same antibiotics. Of 41 ampicillin resistant isolates examined, 16 (39%) were capable of transferring antibiotic-heavy resistance markers via conjugation. From this same group, plasmid DNA preparations were made. Of these latter preparations, 67% transformed recipient E. coli cells while 58% possessed discernible, often multiple plasmids when examined by gel electrophoresis.

  17. A qualitative study exploring the experiences and emotional responses of female community continence link workers and female patients in relation to performing clean intermittent self-catheterisation

    OpenAIRE

    Ramm, Dianne; Kane, Ros

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This paper represents a report of a study designed to explore the experiences of female community continence link nurses in relation to female catheterisation and their psychological and educational preparedness to teach it. The lived experiences and emotional responses of female patients learning to perform Clean Intermittent Self-Catheterisation (CISC) are also examined. Background: There is general consensus that CISC should be considered in preference to indwelling catheterisat...

  18. Gas exchange at whole plant level shows that a less conservative water use is linked to a higher performance in three ecologically distinct pine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Tortosa, D.; Castro, J.; Rubio de Casas, R.; Viñegla, B.; Sánchez-Cañete, E. P.; Villar-Salvador, P.

    2018-04-01

    Increasing temperatures and decreasing precipitation in large areas of the planet as a consequence of global warming will affect plant growth and survival. However, the impact of climatic conditions will differ across species depending on their stomatal response to increasing aridity, as this will ultimately affect the balance between carbon assimilation and water loss. In this study, we monitored gas exchange, growth and survival in saplings of three widely distributed European pine species (Pinus halepensis, P. nigra and P. sylvestris) with contrasting distribution and ecological requirements in order to ascertain the relationship between stomatal control and plant performance. The experiment was conducted in a common garden environment resembling rainfall and temperature conditions that two of the three species are expected to encounter in the near future. In addition, gas exchange was monitored both at the leaf and at the whole-plant level using a transient-state closed chamber, which allowed us to model the response of the whole plant to increased air evaporative demand (AED). P. sylvestris was the species with lowest survival and performance. By contrast, P. halepensis showed no mortality, much higher growth (two orders of magnitude), carbon assimilation (ca. 14 fold higher) and stomatal conductance and water transpiration (ca. 4 fold higher) than the other two species. As a consequence, P. halepensis exhibited higher values of water-use efficiency than the rest of the species even at the highest values of AED. Overall, the results strongly support that the weaker stomatal control of P. halepensis, which is linked to lower stem water potential, enabled this species to maximize carbon uptake under drought stress and ultimately outperform the more water conservative P. nigra and P. sylvestris. These results suggest that under a hotter drought scenario P. nigra and P. sylvestris would very likely suffer increased mortality, whereas P. halepensis could maintain

  19. Water relations in grassland and desert ecosystems exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J A; Pataki, D E; Körner, C; Clark, H; Del Grosso, S J; Grünzweig, J M; Knapp, A K; Mosier, A R; Newton, P C D; Niklaus, P A; Nippert, J B; Nowak, R S; Parton, W J; Polley, H W; Shaw, M R

    2004-06-01

    Atmospheric CO2 enrichment may stimulate plant growth directly through (1) enhanced photosynthesis or indirectly, through (2) reduced plant water consumption and hence slower soil moisture depletion, or the combination of both. Herein we describe gas exchange, plant biomass and species responses of five native or semi-native temperate and Mediterranean grasslands and three semi-arid systems to CO2 enrichment, with an emphasis on water relations. Increasing CO2 led to decreased leaf conductance for water vapor, improved plant water status, altered seasonal evapotranspiration dynamics, and in most cases, periodic increases in soil water content. The extent, timing and duration of these responses varied among ecosystems, species and years. Across the grasslands of the Kansas tallgrass prairie, Colorado shortgrass steppe and Swiss calcareous grassland, increases in aboveground biomass from CO2 enrichment were relatively greater in dry years. In contrast, CO2-induced aboveground biomass increases in the Texas C3/C4 grassland and the New Zealand pasture seemed little or only marginally influenced by yearly variation in soil water, while plant growth in the Mojave Desert was stimulated by CO2 in a relatively wet year. Mediterranean grasslands sometimes failed to respond to CO2-related increased late-season water, whereas semiarid Negev grassland assemblages profited. Vegetative and reproductive responses to CO2 were highly varied among species and ecosystems, and did not generally follow any predictable pattern in regard to functional groups. Results suggest that the indirect effects of CO2 on plant and soil water relations may contribute substantially to experimentally induced CO2-effects, and also reflect local humidity conditions. For landscape scale predictions, this analysis calls for a clear distinction between biomass responses due to direct CO2 effects on photosynthesis and those indirect CO2 effects via soil moisture as documented here.

  20. Diurnal variations in water relations of deficit irrigated lemon trees during fruit growth period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. García-Orellana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Field-grown lemon trees (Citrus limon (L. Burm. fil. cv. Fino were subjected to different drip irrigation treatments: a control treatment, irrigated daily above crop water requirements in order to obtain non-limiting soil water conditions and two deficit irrigation treatments, reducing the water applied according to the maximum daily trunk shrinkage (MDS signal intensity (actual MDS/control treatment MDS threshold values of 1.25 (T1 treatment and 1.35 (T2 treatment, which induced two different drought stress levels. Daily variations in leaf (Yleaf and stem (Ystem water potentials, leaf conductance, net photosynthesis, sap flow (SF and trunk diameter fluctuations were studied on four occasions during the lemon fruit growth period. Ystem and Yleaf revealed a diurnal pattern in response to changes in evaporative demand of the atmosphere. Both water potentials decreased in response to water deficits, which were more pronounced in the T2 treatment. Ystem was seen to be a better plant water status indicator than Yleaf. The difference between the two values of Y (Ystem - Yleaf  = DY was closely correlated with sap flow, making it a suitable measure of leaf transpiration. Using the slope of this relationship, the canopy hydraulic conductance (KC was estimated. When other continuously recorded plant-based indicators are not accessible, the concurrent measurement of leaf and stem water potentials at midday, which are relatively inexpensive to measure and user-friendly, act as sufficiently good indicators of the plant water status in field grown Fino lemon trees.

  1. The control of potential health risks related to drinking water in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, T A

    1981-04-01

    In the United Kingdom, potable water put into supply is required to be 'wholesome'. The term 'wholesome' is interpreted as clear, palatable and safe to drink. About 99% of potable supplies are provided by Regional Water Authorities and Water Companies (for England and Wales), Regional Councils and Island Councils (for Scotland) and the Department of the Environment (NI) (for Northern Ireland). These water authorities draw their raw water from upland surface waters, lowland surface waters (including lakes and rivers) and underground waters. Although each source provides approximately one-third of supply, the proportion varies considerably in different parts of the UK. Consequently the control of potential health risks related to drinking water also varies according to the source of supply. The paper describes briefly the treatment practice for the various sources, including disinfection practice. More specifically the paper describes current UK practice or developments in the control or investigation of plumbosolvency, fluoridation, nitrate, trihalomethanes, other organic micropollutants, sodium, asbestos and tar linings in pipes. The possibilities for the surveillance of the 1% of private supplies are also discussed.

  2. Rate of antioxidant degradation and color variations in dehydrated apples as related to water activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelli, Vera; Vantaggi, Claudia

    2009-06-10

    Dehydrated apples were studied to evaluate the effects of water activity on the stability of their antioxidants and color. Apples were freeze-dried, ground, then equilibrated, and stored at eight water activity levels, ranging from 0.058 to 0.747, at 40 degrees C. Their contents of hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, catechin, epicatechin, polymeric flavan-3-ols, and hydroxymethylfurfural, their antioxidant activity values, and their Hunter colorimetric parameters were analyzed at different storage times. Antioxidant degradation followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and was accelerated by increasing the water activity. The order of antioxidant stability in the products at water activity levels below 0.316 was catechin, epicatechin, and ascorbic acid acid acid; however, in the products at water activity levels above 0.316, the degradation of all antioxidants was very fast. The hydroxymethylfurfural formation rate increased exponentially during storage, especially at high water activity levels. The antioxidant activity of the dehydrated apples decreased during storage, consistent with antioxidant loss. The variations of the colorimetric parameters, namely, lightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*), followed pseudo-zero-order kinetics and were accelerated by increasing water activity. All analytical indices indicated that the dehydrated apples were stable at water activity levels below 0.316, with the degradation rate accelerating upon exposure to higher relative humidities. Above 0.316, a small increase in water activity of the product would sharply increase the degradation rate constants for both antioxidant and color variations.

  3. Molar ratios of therapeutic water-soluble phenothiazine⋅water-insoluble phospholipid adducts reveal a Fibonacci correlation and a putative link for structure–activity relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyzer, Hendrik; Fey, S. J.; Thornton, Barry

    2015-01-01

    1,2diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospholipids (PL) with even-numbered symmetric saturated diacyl chains with the headgroups choline (PC), glycerol (PG), serine (PS), ethanolamine (PE), phosphatidic acid (PA). We observed water soluble products with replicable molar ratios (MR) that could be divided into two...

  4. Linking benthic hydrodynamics and cold-water coral occurrences: A high-resolution model study at three cold-water coral provinces in the NE Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohn, C.; Rengstorf, A.; White, M.; Mienis, F.; Soetaert, K.; Grehan, A.; Duineveld, G.

    2014-01-01

    Observations from numerous cold-water coral locations in the NE Atlantic show energetic near-bottom flow dynamics along the European continental margin at individual coral mounds and mound clusters. Dynamics are largely controlled by tide-topography interaction generating and enhancing periodic

  5. Relating follicly-challenged compact stars to bald black holes: A link between two no-hair properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás

    2015-05-01

    Compact stars satisfy certain no-hair relations through which their multipole moments are given by their mass, spin and quadrupole moment. These relations are approximately independent of their equation of state, relating pressure to density. Such relations are similar to the black hole no-hair theorems, but these possess event horizons inside which information that led to their formation can hide. Compact stars do not possess horizons, so whether their no-hair relations are related to the black hole ones is unclear. We investigate how the two relations are related by studying relations among multipole moments for compact stars with anisotropic pressure as a toy model, which allows such stars to be more compact than those with isotropic pressure. We here show numerically that the compact star no-hair relations approach the black hole ones as the compactness approaches that of a black hole. We also prove analytically that the current dipole moment exactly reaches the black hole limit quadratically in compactness as strongly anisotropic stars approach the black hole limit. We moreover show that compact stars become progressively oblate in this limit, even if prolate at low compactness due to strong anisotropies.

  6. Water Conservation in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana in Relation to Carbon Dioxide Dark Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabka, G G; Chaturvedi, S N

    1975-03-01

    The succulent Kalanchoe blossfeldiana v. Poel. var Tom Thumb was treated on long and short photoperiods for 6 weeks during which short day plants developed thicker leaves, flowered prolifically, and exhibited extensive net dark fixation of carbon dioxide. In contrast, long day plants remained vegetative and did not develop thicker leaves or exhibit net carbon dioxide dark fixation. When examined after the photoperiodic state described, long day plants showed approximately three times more water loss over a 10-day period than short day plants. Water loss is similar during light and dark periods for short day plants but long day plants exhibited two times more water loss during the day than at night. The latter plants also lost three and one-half times more water during the light period than short day plants. The water conservation by short day plants is correlated with conditions of high carbon dioxide dark fixation and effects of its related Crassulacean acid metabolism on stomatal behavior.

  7. Highly transparent triboelectric nanogenerator for harvesting water-related energy reinforced by antireflection coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qijie; Yan, Xiaoqin; Gu, Yousong; Zhang, Kui; Liang, Mengyuan; Lu, Shengnan; Zheng, Xin; Zhang, Yue

    2015-03-01

    Water-related energy is an inexhaustible and renewable energy resource in our environment, which has huge amount of energy and is not largely dictated by daytime and sunlight. The transparent characteristic plays a key role in practical applications for some devices designed for harvesting water-related energy. In this paper, a highly transparent triboelectric nanogenerator (T-TENG) was designed to harvest the electrostatic energy from flowing water. The instantaneous output power density of the T-TENG is 11.56 mW/m2. Moreover, with the PTFE film acting as an antireflection coating, the maximum transmittance of the fabricated T-TENG is 87.4%, which is larger than that of individual glass substrate. The T-TENG can be integrated with silicon-based solar cell, building glass and car glass, which demonstrates its potential applications for harvesting waste water energy in our living environment and on smart home system and smart car system.

  8. Determination of radiocaesium in agriculture-related water samples containing suspended solids using gelling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunami, Hisaya; Shin, Moono; Takahashi, Yoshihiko; Shinano, Takuro; Kitajima, Shiori; Tsuchiya, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    After the TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011, the radiocaesium, which flowed into the paddy fields via irrigation water, have been widely investigated. When the concentration of radiocaesium in the water samples containing suspended solids were directly measured using a high purity germanium detector with a 2 L marinelli beaker, the radiocaesium concentration might be overestimated due to the sedimentation of the suspended solids during the measurement time. In fact, the values obtained by the direct method were higher than those obtained by the filtering method and/or the gelling method in most of the agriculture-related water samples. We concluded that the gelling method using sodium polyacrylate can be widely adapted for the analysis of the total radiocaesium in the agriculture-related water samples because of its many advantage such as simple preparation procedure, accurate analysis values, excellent long-term stability of geometry and low operating cost. (author)

  9. Bullying perpetration and victimization as externalizing and internalizing pathways: A retrospective study linking parenting styles and self-esteem to depression, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Medina, Mia; Terrell, Nathan; Belton, Daniel; King, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Emerging research suggests significant positive associations between bullying and substance use behaviors. However, these studies typically focused either on the link between substance use and bullying perpetration or victimization, and few have conceptualized bullying perpetration and/or victimization as mediators. In this study, we simultaneously tested past bullying perpetration and victimization as mediational pathways from retrospective report of parenting styles and global self-esteem to current depressive symptoms, alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Data were collected from a college sample of 419 drinkers. Mediation effects were conducted using a bias-corrected bootstrap technique in structural equation modeling. Two-path mediation analyses indicated that mother and father authoritativeness were protective against bully victimization and depression through higher self-esteem. Conversely, having a permissive or authoritarian mother was positively linked to bullying perpetration, which in turn was associated with increased alcohol use, and to a lesser degree, more alcohol-related problems. Mother authoritarianism was associated with alcohol-related problems through depressive symptoms. Three-path mediation analyses suggested a trend in which individuals with higher self-esteem were less likely to report alcohol-related problems through lower levels of bullying victimization and depression. Results suggested that bullying perpetration and victimization may respectively serve as externalizing and internalizing pathways through which parenting styles and self-esteem are linked to depression and alcohol-related outcomes. The present study identified multiple modifiable precursors of, and mediational pathways to, alcohol-related problems which could guide the development and implementation of prevention programs targeting problematic alcohol use. PMID:26757486

  10. Bullying Perpetration and Victimization as Externalizing and Internalizing Pathways: A Retrospective Study Linking Parenting Styles and Self-Esteem to Depression, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Jeremy W; Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Medina, Mia; Terrell, Nathan; Belton, Daniel; King, Kevin M

    2016-01-02

    Emerging research suggests significant positive associations between bullying and substance use behaviors. However, these studies typically focused either on the link between substance use and bullying perpetration or victimization, and few have conceptualized bullying perpetration and/or victimization as mediators. In this study, we simultaneously tested past bullying perpetration and victimization as mediational pathways from retrospective report of parenting styles and global self-esteem to current depressive symptoms, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Data were collected from a college sample of 419 drinkers. Mediation effects were conducted using a bias-corrected bootstrap technique within a structural equation modeling framework. Two-path mediation analyses indicated that mother and father authoritativeness were protective against bully victimization and depression through higher self-esteem. Conversely, having a permissive or authoritarian mother was positively linked to bullying perpetration, which in turn, was associated with increased alcohol use, and to a lesser degree, more alcohol-related problems. Mother authoritarianism was associated with alcohol-related problems through depressive symptoms. Three-path mediation analyses suggested a trend in which individuals with higher self-esteem were less likely to report alcohol-related problems through lower levels of bullying victimization and depression. Results suggested that bullying perpetration and victimization may, respectively, serve as externalizing and internalizing pathways through which parenting styles and self-esteem are linked to depression and alcohol-related outcomes. The present study identified multiple modifiable precursors of, and mediational pathways to, alcohol-related problems which could guide the development and implementation of prevention programs targeting problematic alcohol use.

  11. Water-carbon Links in a Tropical Forest: How Interbasin Groundwater Flow Affects Carbon Fluxes and Ecosystem Carbon Budgets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genereux, David [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Osburn, Christopher [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Oberbauer, Steven [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States); Oviedo Vargas, Diana [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Dierick, Diego [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States)

    2017-03-27

    This report covers the outcomes from a quantitative, interdisciplinary field investigation of how carbon fluxes and budgets in a lowland tropical rainforest are affected by the discharge of old regional groundwater into streams, springs, and wetlands in the forest. The work was carried out in a lowland rainforest of Costa Rica, at La Selva Biological Station. The research shows that discharge of regional groundwater high in dissolved carbon dioxide represents a significant input of carbon to the rainforest "from below", an input that is on average larger than the carbon input "from above" from the atmosphere. A stream receiving discharge of regional groundwater had greatly elevated emissions of carbon dioxide (but not methane) to the overlying air, and elevated downstream export of carbon from its watershed with stream flow. The emission of deep geological carbon dioxide from stream water elevates the carbon dioxide concentrations in air above the streams. Carbon-14 tracing revealed the presence of geological carbon in the leaves and stems of some riparian plants near streams that receive inputs of regional groundwater. Also, discharge of regional groundwater is responsible for input of dissolved organic matter with distinctive chemistry to rainforest streams and wetlands. The discharge of regional groundwater in lowland surface waters has a major impact on the carbon cycle in this and likely other tropical and non-tropical forests.

  12. Relative spectral absorption of solar radiation by water vapor and cloud droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, R.; Ridgway, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    A moderate (20/cm) spectral resolution model which accounts for both the highly variable spectral transmission of solar radiation through water vapor within and above cloud, as well as the more slowly varying features of absorption and anisotropic multiple scattering by the cloud droplets, is presented. Results from this model as applied to the case of a typical 1 km thick stratus cloud in a standard atmosphere, with cloud top altitude of 2 km and overhead sun, are discussed, showing the relative importance of water vapor above the cloud, water vapor within the cloud, and cloud droplets on the spectral absorption of solar radiation.

  13. Relative Water Uptake as a Criterion for the Design of Trickle Irrigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communar, G.; Friedman, S. P.

    2008-12-01

    Previously derived analytical solutions to the 2- and 3-dimensional water flow problems describing trickle irrigation are not being widely used in practice because those formulations either ignore root water uptake or refer to it as a known input. In this lecture we are going to describe a new modeling approach and demonstrate its applicability for designing the geometry of trickle irrigation systems, namely the spacing between the emitters and drip lines. The major difference between our and previous modeling approaches is that we refer to the root water uptake as to the unknown solution of the problem and not as to a known input. We postulate that the solution to the steady-state water flow problem with a root sink that is acting under constant, maximum suction defines un upper bound to the relative water uptake (water use efficiency) in actual transient situations and propose to use it as a design criterion. Following previous derivations of analytical solutions we assume that the soil hydraulic conductivity increases exponentially with its matric head, which allows the linearization of the Richards equation, formulated in terms of the Kirchhoff matric flux potential. Since the transformed problem is linear, the relative water uptake for any given configuration of point or line sources and sinks can be calculated by superposition of the Green's functions of all relevant water sources and sinks. In addition to evaluating the relative water uptake, we also derived analytical expressions for the steam functions. The stream lines separating the water uptake zone from the percolating water provide insight to the dependence of the shape and extent of the actual rooting zone on the source- sink geometry and soil properties. A minimal number of just 3 system parameters: Gardner's (1958) alfa as a soil type quantifier and the depth and diameter of the pre-assumed active root zone are sufficient to characterize the interplay between capillary and gravitational effects on

  14. The Role of Preschool Relational and Physical Aggression in the Transition to Kindergarten: Links with Social-Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Amy L.; Lingras, Katherine A.; Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The transition to kindergarten has important ramifications for future achievement and psychosocial outcomes. Research suggests that physical aggression may be related to difficulty during school transitions, yet no studies to date have examined the role of relational aggression in these transitions. This article examines how…

  15. Climate change in urban areas. Green and water storage in relation to soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirven-van Breemen, E.M.; Claessens, J.W.; Hollander, A.

    2011-08-01

    One of the possible effects of climate change in urban areas is an increased frequency of periods of extreme heat and extreme rainfall events. Public green areas provide shadow and therefore have a cooling effect during periods of extreme heat. Sufficient water storage capacity of the soil may reduce the overburdening of the public water system during extreme rainfall events. Governments do well by taking measures for climate-proofing of their towns. Also citizens may contribute to these climate issues. Governments and citizens should realize that investing in climate-proofing of their towns at this moment will pay off in the future. These are the outcomes of an inventory carried out by the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, RIVM, ordered by the ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment. With measures for public green areas and water storage capacity local governments should link with other policy areas like infrastructure, public health, safety and sustainability. An example of more public green is a green infrastructure like parks and public gardens. An other advantage of public green is the unsealed soil; that is the soil not covered by roads, buildings, etc. The presence of unsealed soil increases the possibility for water infiltration. For favorable water storage local governments may construct wadis that prevent public water systems for being overburdened by extreme rainfall events. A wadi is a lowering of the surface level mostly covered with plants. During heavy rainfall the wadi is flooded, due to rainwater from the roofs of the surrounding buildings which drains away to the wadi. Citizens may construct green roofs or city gardens with unsealed soil. To promote this, subsidies for private initiatives are an additional boost. [nl

  16. Linking benthic hydrodynamics and cold-water coral occurrences: A high-resolution model study at three cold-water coral provinces in the NE Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, Christian; Rengstorf, Anna; White, Martin; Duineveld, Gerard; Mienis, Furu; Soetaert, Karline; Grehan, Anthony

    2014-03-01

    Observations from numerous cold-water coral locations in the NE Atlantic show energetic near-bottom flow dynamics along the European continental margin at individual coral mounds and mound clusters. Dynamics are largely controlled by tide-topography interaction generating and enhancing periodic motions such as trapped waves, freely propagating internal tides and internal hydraulic jumps. In this study, linkages between key abiotic parameters and cold water coral occurrences are explored across entire cold-water coral mound provinces using an integrated modelling and observational approach. The 3-D ocean circulation model ROMS-AGRIF was applied to simulate near-bottom hydrodynamic conditions at three provinces in the NE Atlantic (Logachev mounds, Arc mounds and Belgica mounds) adopting a nested model setup with a central grid resolution of 250 m. Simulations were carried out with a focus on accurate high-resolution topography and tidal forcing. The central model bathymetry was taken from high-resolution INSS (Irish National Seabed Survey) seafloor mapping data. The model was integrated over a full one-year reference period starting from the 1st January 2010. Interannual variability was not considered. Tidal forcing was obtained from a global solution of the Oregon State University (OSU) inverse tidal model. Modelled fields of benthic currents were validated against available independent in situ observations. Coral assemblage patterns (presence and absence locations) were obtained from benthic surveys of the EU FP7 CoralFISH programme and supplemented by data from additional field surveys. Modelled near-bottom currents, temperature and salinity were analysed for a 1-month subset (15th April to 15th May 2010) corresponding to the main CoralFISH survey period. The model results show intensified near-bottom currents in areas where living corals are observed by contrast with coral absence and random background locations. Instantaneous and time-mean current speeds at

  17. Summer spatial patterning of chukars in relation to free water in Western Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, R.T.; Bissonette, J.A.; Flinders, J.T.; Hooten, M.B.; Wilson, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    Free water is considered important to wildlife in arid regions. In the western United States, thousands of water developments have been built to benefit wildlife in arid landscapes. Agencies and researchers have yet to clearly demonstrate their effectiveness. We combined a spatial analysis of summer chukar (Alectoris chukar) covey locations with dietary composition analysis in western Utah. Our specific objectives were to determine if chukars showed a spatial pattern that suggested association with free water in four study areas and to document summer dietary moisture content in relation to average distance from water. The observed data for the Cedar Mountains study area fell within the middle of the random mean distance to water distribution suggesting no association with free water. The observed mean distance to water for the other three areas was much closer than expected compared to a random spatial process, suggesting the importance of free water to these populations. Dietary moisture content of chukar food items from the Cedar Mountains (59%) was significantly greater (P model error components in future ecological research. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  18. Rift systems of the Russian Eastern Arctic shelf and Arctic deep water basins: link between geological history and geodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Nikishin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In our study, we have developed a new tectonic scheme of the Arctic Ocean, which is based mainly on seismic profiles obtained in the Arctic-2011, Arctic-2012 and Arctic-2014 Projects implemented in Russia. Having interpreted many seismic profiles, we propose a new seismic stratigraphy of the Arctic Ocean. Our main conclusions are drawn from the interpretation of the seismic profiles and the analysis of the regional geological data. The results of our study show that rift systems within the Laptev, the East Siberian and the Chukchi Seas were formed not earlier than Aptian. The geological structure of the Eurasian, Podvodnikov, Toll and Makarov Basins is described in this paper. Having synthesized all the available data on the study area, we propose the following model of the geological history of the Arctic Ocean: 1. The Canada Basin formed till the Aptian (probably, during Hauterivian-Barremian time. 2. During the Aptian-Albian, large-scale tectonic and magmatic events took place, including plume magmatism in the area of the De Long Islands, Mendeleev Ridge and other regions. Continental rifting started after the completion of the Verkhoyansk-Chukotka orogenу, and rifting occurred on the shelf of the Laptev, East Siberian, North Chukchi and South Chukchi basins, and the Chukchi Plateau; simultaneously, continental rifting started in the Podvodnikov and Toll basins. 3. Perhaps the Late Cretaceous rifting continued in the Podvodnikov and Toll basins. 4. At the end of the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene, the Makarov basin was formed by rifting, although local spreading of oceanic crust during its formation cannot be excluded. 5. The Eurasian Basin started to open in the Early Eocene. We, of course, accept that our model of the geological history of the Arctic Ocean, being preliminary and debatable, may need further refining. In this paper, we have shown a link between the continental rift systems on the shelf and the formation history of the Arctic

  19. DIURNAL CHANGES IN LEAF PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RELATIVE WATER CONTENT OF GRAPEVINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Variation in light intensity, air temperature and relative air humidity leads to diurnal variations of photosynthetic rate and leaf relative water content. In order to determine the diurnal changes in net photosynthetic rate of vine plants and influence of the main environmental factors, gas exchange in the vine leaves were measure using a portable plant CO2 analysis package. The results show that diurnal changes in photosynthetic rate could be interpreted as single-peak curve, with a maximum at noon (10.794 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Leaf relative water content has maximum value in the morning; the values may slightly decrease during the day (day of June, with normal temperature, no rain, no water restriction in soil.

  20. Removal of some organic pollutants in water employing ceramic membranes impregnated with cross-linked silylated dendritic and cyclodextrin polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allabashi, Roza; Arkas, Michael; Hörmann, Gerold; Tsiourvas, Dimitris

    2007-01-01

    Triethoxysilylated derivatives of poly(propylene imine) dendrimer, polyethylene imine and polyglycerol hyperbranched polymers and beta-cyclodextrin have been synthesized and characterized. These compounds impregnated ceramic membranes made from Al(2)O(3), SiC and TiO(2) and subsequently sol-gel reaction led to their polymerization and chemical bond formation with the ceramic substrates. The resulting organic-inorganic filters were tested for the removal of a variety of organic pollutants from water. They were found to remove of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (up to 99%), of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (up to 93%), trihalogen methanes (up to 81%), pesticides (up to 43%) and methyl-tert-butyl ether (up to 46%).