WorldWideScience

Sample records for water reclamation

  1. Water Reclamation and Reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel W.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of water reclamation and reuse. This review covers: (1) water resources planning; (2) agriculture and irrigation; (3) ground recharge; (4) industrial reuse; (5) health considerations; and (6) technology developments. A list of 217 references is also presented. (HM)

  2. Water reclamation and reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrudey, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    A literature review of wastewater treatment for recycle is presented. Wastewater and activated sludge from the processing of petroleum, shale oil, and from coal conversion and lignite liquefaction have been successfully treated for use as boiler feedwater, cooling water makeup, and steam generation. Acid mine drainage has been treated with lime for use in revegetation of spoil areas. Use of tailings decant water for use in a mill concentrator was reported. Ionizing radiation was effective in disinfecting wastewater makeup to power plant cooling systems. The zero discharge concept was demonstrated in several power plants. Reverse osmosis is reported to be the most economical technology for treatment of cooling tower blowdown. It has the capability of 44% recovery of boric acid and 55% recovery of water from nuclear power plant radioactive wastewater. Included are 402 references

  3. 43 CFR 423.38 - Operating vessels on Reclamation waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operating vessels on Reclamation waters... WATERBODIES Rules of Conduct § 423.38 Operating vessels on Reclamation waters. (a) You must comply with... Reclamation waters, and with any restrictions established by an authorized official. (b) You must not operate...

  4. 43 CFR 404.3 - What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.3 What is the Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program? This program addresses domestic, municipal, and industrial water...

  5. Addressing Open Water Data Challenges in the Bureau of Reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, L. D.; Danner, A.; Nagode, J.; Rocha, J.; Poulton, S.; Anderson, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation is largest wholesaler of water in the United States. Located in the 17 western states, Reclamation serves water to 31 million people, provides irrigated water to 20 percent of Western farmers, and is the second largest producer of hydroelectric power in the United States. Through these activities, Reclamation generates large amounts of water and water-related data, describing reservoirs and river system conditions, hydropower, environmental compliance activities, infrastructure assets, and other aspects of Reclamation's mission activities. Reclamation aims to make water and water-related data sets more easily found, accessed, and used in decision-making activities in order to benefit the public, private sector, and research communities. Historically, there has not been an integrated, bureau-wide system to store data in machine-readable formats; nor a system to permit centralized browsing, open access, and web-services. Reclamation began addressing these limitations by developing the Reclamation Water Information System (RWIS), released in Spring 2017 (https://water.usbr.gov/). A bureau-wide team contributed to RWIS development, including water data stewards, database administrators, and information technology (IT) specialists. The first RWIS release publishes reservoir time series data from Reclamation's five regions and includes a map interface for sites identification, a query interface for data discovery and access, and web-services for automated retrieval. As RWIS enhancement continues, the development team is developing a companion system - the Reclamation Information Sharing Environment (RISE) - to provide access to the other data subjects and types (geospatial, documents). While RWIS and RISE are promising starts, Reclamation continues to face challenges in addressing open water data goals: making data consolidation and open publishing a value-added activity for programs that publish data locally, going beyond providing open access

  6. Grey water reclamation by decentralized MBR prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Santasmasas Rubiralta, Carme; Rovira Boixaderas, Miquel; Clarens Blanco, Frederic; Valderrama Angel, César Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Grey water treatment and reuse for non-drinking water requirements has become of great interest in arid and semi-arid zones where water resources are becoming both quantitatively and qualitatively scarce. In this study a decentralized and automatic MBR prototype has been designed and installed in the REMOSA facilities for treatment of low-load grey water to be recycled in flushing-toilet application. The recycling treatment of grey water comprises four stages: screening, biological oxidation,...

  7. Water Reclamation using Spray Drying, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a new spray drying technology for the recovery and recycle of water while stabilizing the solid wastes or residues as found in advanced life support...

  8. Photocatalytic post-treatment in waste water reclamation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gerald; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Verostko, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    A photocatalytic water purification process is described which effectively oxidizes organic impurities common to reclaimed waste waters and humidity condensates to carbon dioxide at ambient temperatures. With this process, total organic carbon concentrations below 500 ppb are readily achieved. The temperature dependence of the process is well described by the Arrhenius equation and an activation energy barrier of 3.5 Kcal/mole. The posttreatment approach for waste water reclamation described here shows potential for integration with closed-loop life support systems.

  9. Water reclamation and effluent retreatment system at Jaduguda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beri, K K [Uranium Corporation of India Limited, Jaduguda Mines, Singhbhum (India)

    1994-06-01

    Neutralization of uranium mill tailing with lime provided in original flow sheet was not found adequate for effluent quality control within limits particularly as regards to{sup 226}Ra and Mn. The same was being controlled by dilution and hence no water was being reclaimed. In October 1987 the Jaduguda mill was expanded to augment its ore processing capacity from 1000 MT/day to 1340 MT/day. This necessitated extra water requirement, which could have been met only with water reclamation. But this would have resulted in build up of pollutant ions apart from less water available for dilution. Hence a composite scheme was made for water reclamation and treatment of effluent with BaCl{sub 2} to precipitate Ba(Ra)So{sub 4} and with lime to precipitate Mn as hydroxide. This effluent treatment plant was commissioned in May 1990 and is working satisfactorily. The scheme is being further modified and augmented to take care of Narwa mine water and sewage treatment plant effluent. (author).

  10. 43 CFR 404.12 - Can Reclamation provide assistance with the construction of a rural water supply project under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the construction of a rural water supply project under this program? 404.12 Section 404.12 Public... RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Overview § 404.12 Can Reclamation provide assistance with the construction of a rural water supply project under this program? Reclamation may provide assistance with the...

  11. Municipal water reclamation of industrial water use in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamez, G.; Ramos, R.; Aerts, P.; Guzman, E.; Pachecho, J. c.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how treated domestic wastewater in a Mexican desert area is reused by a local mining and metallurgical company for process water make-up. With increasing production of treated domestic wastewater, the company's water reuse facilities were continuously expanded over the last ten years. Today, four water reuse plants run with reverse osmosis membranes. With water being a limiting factor, they have enabled the scale-up of mining operations. (Author)

  12. Potential exposure and treatment efficiency of nanoparticles in water supplies based on wastewater reclamation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Peter; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Rygaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity brings an increased focus on wastewater reclamation for drinking water supply. Meanwhile, the production volume of nanoparticles (NPs) is rapidly increasing, but to date there has been little attention given to the fate of NPs in water systems based on wastewater reclamation. We have...... investigated the possible concentrations of silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in tap water for water supplies based on reclaimed wastewater. Tap water concentrations of the NPs were assessed by mass flow analyses of two typical wastewater reclamation concepts: 1) advanced...... studies are available on the removal efficiencies of NPs by advanced water treatment processes with a majority of the identified studies focusing on removal efficiencies in wastewater treatment plants and fate in surface waters. The NP removal efficiency of several treatment processes is unknown...

  13. Study on the cumulative impact of reclamation activities on ecosystem health in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chengcheng; Shi, Honghua; Zheng, Wei; Li, Fen; Peng, Shitao; Ding, Dewen

    2016-02-15

    The purpose of this study is to develop feasible tools to investigate the cumulative impact of reclamations on coastal ecosystem health, so that the strategies of ecosystem-based management can be applied in the coastal zone. An indicator system and model were proposed to assess the cumulative impact synthetically. Two coastal water bodies, namely Laizhou Bay (LZB) and Tianjin coastal waters (TCW), in the Bohai Sea of China were studied and compared, each in a different phase of reclamations. Case studies showed that the indicator scores of coastal ecosystem health in LZB and TCW were 0.75 and 0.68 out of 1.0, respectively. It can be concluded that coastal reclamations have a historically cumulative effect on benthic environment, whose degree is larger than that on aquatic environment. The ecosystem-based management of coastal reclamations should emphasize the spatially and industrially intensive layout. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A flow balance approach to scenarios for water reclamation by Ania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    ISSN 0378-4738 = Water SA Vol. 27 No. 1 January 2001 115. Available on website http://www.wrc.org.za. Comments on: A flow balance approach to scenarios for water reclamation by Ania MW Grobicki and B Cohen. I would like to offer a brief comment on the above paper, which appeared in Water SA 25 (4), October ...

  15. NASA Land Information System (LIS) Water Availability to Support Reclamation ET Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David; Arsenault, Kristi; Pinheiro, Ana; Peters-Lidard, Christa; Houser, Paul; Kumar, Sujay; Engman, Ted; Nigro, Joe; Triggs, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation identified the remote sensing of evapotranspiration (ET) as an important water flux for study and designated a test site in the Lower Colorado River basin. A consortium of groups will work together with the goal to develop more accurate and cost effective techniques using the enhanced spatial and temporal coverage afforded by remote sensing. ET is a critical water loss flux where improved estimation should lead to better management of Reclamation responsibilities. There are several areas where NASA satellite and modeling data may be useful to meet Reclamation's objectives for improved ET estimation. In this paper we outline one possible contribution to use NASA's data integration capability of the Land Information System (LIS) to provide a merger of observational (in situ and satellite) with physical process models to provide estimates of ET and other water availability outputs (e.g., runoff, soil moisture) retrospectively, in near real-time, and also providing short-term predictions.

  16. Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support Systems: An Update on Waste Water Reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferner, Kathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    Since the mid-1980's, work has been ongoing In the development of the various environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) for the space station. Part of this effort has been focused on the development of a new subsystem to reclaim waste water that had not been previously required for shuttle missions. Because of the extended manned missions proposed, reclamation of waste water becomes imperative to avoid the weight penalties associated with resupplying a crew's entire water needs for consumption and daily hygiene. Hamilton Standard, under contract to Boeing Aerospace and Electronics, has been designing the water reclamation system for space station use. Since June of 1991, Hamilton Standard has developed a combined water processor capable of reclaiming potable quality water from waste hygiene water, used laundry water, processed urine, Shuttle fuel cell water, humidity condensate and other minor waste water sources. The system was assembled and then tested with over 27,700 pounds of 'real' waste water. During the 1700 hours of system operation required to process this waste water, potable quality water meeting NASA and Boeing specifications was produced. This paper gives a schematic overview of the system, describes the test conditions and test results and outlines the next steps for system development.

  17. Object-Oriented Technology-Based Software Library for Operations of Water Reclamation Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Tetsuo; Shimada, Takehiro; Yoshida, Norio; Abe, Wataru

    SCADA systems in water reclamation centers have been constructed based on hardware and software that each manufacturer produced according to their design. Even though this approach used to be effective to realize real-time and reliable execution, it is an obstacle to cost reduction about system construction and maintenance. A promising solution to address the problem is to set specifications that can be used commonly. In terms of software, information model approach has been adopted in SCADA systems in other field, such as telecommunications and power systems. An information model is a piece of software specification that describes a physical or logical object to be monitored. In this paper, we propose information models for operations of water reclamation centers, which have not ever existed. In addition, we show the feasibility of the information model in terms of common use and processing performance.

  18. Water Reclamation Technology Development at Johnson Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Pickering, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Who We Are: A staff of approximately 14 BS, MS, and PhD-Level Engineers and Scientists with experience in Aerospace, Civil, Environmental, and Mechanical Engineering, Chemistry, Physical Science and Water Pollution Microbiology. Our Primary Objective: To develop the next generation water recovery system technologies that will support NASA's long duration missions beyond low-earth orbit.

  19. Removal of Animal Antibiotics for Potable Water Reclamation: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Important classes of antibiotics that are used to treat bacterial infections in humans are also being used in food-producing animals. The overuse of antibiotics for animal food production is becoming an issue of growing concern as it promotes antibacterial resistance, compromising their efficacy and effectiveness. Low concentrations of antibiotics from feedlot runoff and wastewater discharges have been reported in surface waters and groundwaters used as drinking water sources. The presence of...

  20. Virological studies of water from the Cape Flats reclamation plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4500 m3 of water per day, was constructed at the Cape Flats sewage works and studied over a period of ... In brief, gels were fIxed with methanol 50%, acetic acid 10% for 1 hour, followed by ethanol 10%, acetic acid 0,5% for 1 hour and then ...

  1. Plutonium discharges to the sanitary sewer: Health impacts at the Livermore Water Reclamation Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balke, B.K.

    1993-01-01

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is the largest discharger of sewage treated by the Livermore Water Reclamation (LWRP), contributing approximately 7% by volume of the LWRP influent LILNL operations, as potential sources both of industrial pollutants and radioactivity, are therefore of particular concern to the LWRP. For this reason, LLNL has maintained vigorous wastewater discharge control and monitoring programs. In particular, the monitoring program has demonstrated that, except in a few rare instances, the concentration of contaminants in LLNL effluent have always remained below the appropriate regulatory standards. The exceptions have generally been due to inadvertent discharges of metals-bearing solutions produced by metal plating or cleaning operations

  2. Reclamation and reuse of MWI slags under the aspect of ground water protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahl, U.; Struth, R.

    1993-01-01

    Some importants aspects of ground water protection are discussed, with regard to MWI-slag reclamation and reuse as construction material. The effects of a treatment process on residual organic compounds of slag material have to be regarded as very positive. Directed chemical influencing of the hydratation process directly after incineration offers new perspectives for generating slag with potentially little and constant elution behaviour. The authors welcome the new, sharpened demands on reuse of MWI-slag in Northrhine-Westfalia. This challenge can be met by the proposed treatment procedure without problems. (orig.) [de

  3. Impact of direct greenhouse gas emissions on the carbon footprint of water reclamation processes employing nitrification-denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Andrew G; Townsend-Small, Amy; Rosso, Diego

    2015-02-01

    Water reclamation has the potential to reduce water supply demands from aquifers and more energy-intensive water production methods (e.g., seawater desalination). However, water reclamation via biological nitrification-denitrification is also associated with the direct emission of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) CO₂, N₂O, and CH₄. We quantified these direct emissions from the nitrification-denitrification reactors of a water reclamation plant in Southern California, and measured the (14)C content of the CO₂ to distinguish between short- and long-lived carbon. The total emissions were 1.5 (±0.2) g-fossil CO₂ m(-3) of wastewater treated, 0.5 (±0.1) g-CO₂-eq of CH₄ m(-3), and 1.8 (±0.5) g-CO₂-eq of N₂O m(-3), for a total of 3.9 (±0.5) g-CO₂-eqm(-3). This demonstrated that water reclamation can be a source of GHGs from long lived carbon, and thus a candidate for GHG reduction credit. From the (14)C measurements, we found that between 11.4% and 15.1% of the CO₂ directly emitted was derived from fossil sources, which challenges past assumptions that the direct CO₂ emissions from water reclamation contain only modern carbon. A comparison of our direct emission measurements with estimates of indirect emissions from several water production methods, however, showed that the direct emissions from water reclamation constitute only a small fraction of the plant's total GHG footprint. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevention of ground-water quality degradation during reclamation of a uraniferous lignite mine, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, R.L.; Anderson, G.S.; Hill, S.R.; Burgess, J.L.; Wald, J.D.; Patrick, D.P.; Hall, R.L.; Unseth, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    About 590,000 pounds of uranium oxide were recovered from 85,000 tons of lignite in at least 16 North Dakota pits between 1955 and 1967. Because uranium salts in the overburden generally were not recovered, spoil piles at abandoned mine sites contain elevated uranium contents. Reclamation of these mines is required to eliminate public hazards due to elevated radiation and toxic-element levels. A pilot reclamation project was implemented at one abandoned mine pit in northwestern Stark County. Basically, the reclamation involved the replacement of spoil material into the pits from which it was removed. Based on analyses of drill-hole cutting samples obtained from 2-foot depth increments on a 50-foot grid over the 7.25-acre spoil pile, spoil material with radium-226 concentrations exceeding 5 picocuries per gram above background or with uranium concentrations exceeding 5 times background was identified and mapped in three dimensions. This ''most-contaminated'' spoil material was selectively replaced in the mine pits above the water table to prevent dissolution of uranium salts and under a minimum of 5 feed of cover to minimize postreclamation surface-radiation levels. Similarly, areas of spoils with specific conductance greater than 5,000 microsiemens per centimeter were replaced at least 6 feet below the postreclamation ground surface to promote revegetation and above the water table to prevent enrichment of dissolved-solids concentrations in the aquifer. Finally, replaced zones of high radioactivity and soluble salts were capped with clay from the base of an adjacent pit; and the surface topography was mounded to minimize infiltration that might introduce radioactive and other soluble salts into the aquifer

  5. Field performance of de-watered fluid fine tailings for oil sands reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward Wilson, G.; Kabwe, Louis [University of Alberta (Canada); Donahue, Robert [Applied Geochemical Engineering Inc. (Canada); Lahaie, Rick [Syncrude Canada Ltd (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This document presents research carried out by Syncrude Canada Ltd and its partners to evaluate several methods of de-watering fluid fine tailings to increase the solids content and at the same time produce a tailings profile which will permit final reclamation. Several de-watering methods are discussed in this paper, particularly in-line flocculation and centrifuged fluid fine tailings. First, in-line flocculation with organic polymers is discussed followed by thin left deposition, then the flocculation and centrifugation process to produce a paste- like material that is deposited in a thicker layer is presented. This document details the preliminary performance of both discussed methods; extensive instrumentation was used to measure de-watering rates due to consolidation, atmospheric drying, downward drainage to the foundation materials, and freeze/thaw consolidation. Finally, a summary of the measured results of de-watering rates and numerical model results obtained from the SoilCover model are presented and discussed.

  6. Geotechnical and water resource aspects of uranium mill tailings pile reclamation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.A.; Tackston, J.W.; Portillo, R.

    1986-01-01

    Design and construction work is currently in progress at more than twenty sites associated with the UMTRA Project - this involves final reclamation of the uranium mill tailings piles so that they are stable for at least 200 years and for up to 1000 years. Remedial action construction plans for the tailings piles involve detailed consideration of the present and possible future ground water and surface-water impacts of the pile. Since the stabilized pile is ultimately a major geotechnical structure, detailed consideration of the long-term resistance to erosion and containment of radioactive material is also required. A case history illustrates how the critical design criteria governing the remedial action activities at the various piles are applied to the pile at the Lakeview site to provide for long-term protection of the water resource and public health and safety

  7. Application of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane hybrid process for water reclamation

    KAUST Repository

    Im, Sung-Ju

    2017-11-15

    A new concept of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane (VRO-LPM) hybrid process was developed and evaluated for the first time in this study. Commercially available forward osmosis (FO) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were employed in a VRO-LPM hybrid process to overcome energy limitations of draw solution (DS) regeneration and production of permeate in the FO process. To evaluate its feasibility as a water reclamation process, and to optimize the operational conditions, cross-flow FO and dead-end mode UF processes were individually evaluated. For the FO process, a DS concentration of 0.15 g mL−1 of polysulfonate styrene (PSS) was determined to be optimal, having a high flux with a low reverse salt flux. The UF membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 1 kDa was chosen for its high PSS rejection in the LPM process. As a single process, UF (LPM) exhibited a higher flux than FO, but this could be controlled by adjusting the effective membrane area of the FO and UF membranes in the VRO-LPM system. The VRO-LPM hybrid process only required a circulation pump for the FO process. This led to a decrease in the specific energy consumption of the VRO-LPM process for potable water production, that was similar to the single FO process. Therefore, the newly developed VRO-LPM hybrid process, with an appropriate DS selection, can be used as an energy efficient water production method, and can outperform conventional water reclamation processes.

  8. Application of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane hybrid process for water reclamation

    KAUST Repository

    Im, Sung-Ju; Choi, Jungwon; Lee, Jung Gil; Jeong, Sanghyun; Jang, Am

    2017-01-01

    A new concept of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane (VRO-LPM) hybrid process was developed and evaluated for the first time in this study. Commercially available forward osmosis (FO) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were employed in a VRO-LPM hybrid process to overcome energy limitations of draw solution (DS) regeneration and production of permeate in the FO process. To evaluate its feasibility as a water reclamation process, and to optimize the operational conditions, cross-flow FO and dead-end mode UF processes were individually evaluated. For the FO process, a DS concentration of 0.15 g mL−1 of polysulfonate styrene (PSS) was determined to be optimal, having a high flux with a low reverse salt flux. The UF membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 1 kDa was chosen for its high PSS rejection in the LPM process. As a single process, UF (LPM) exhibited a higher flux than FO, but this could be controlled by adjusting the effective membrane area of the FO and UF membranes in the VRO-LPM system. The VRO-LPM hybrid process only required a circulation pump for the FO process. This led to a decrease in the specific energy consumption of the VRO-LPM process for potable water production, that was similar to the single FO process. Therefore, the newly developed VRO-LPM hybrid process, with an appropriate DS selection, can be used as an energy efficient water production method, and can outperform conventional water reclamation processes.

  9. Application of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane hybrid process for water reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sung-Ju; Choi, Jungwon; Lee, Jung-Gil; Jeong, Sanghyun; Jang, Am

    2018-03-01

    A new concept of volume-retarded osmosis and low-pressure membrane (VRO-LPM) hybrid process was developed and evaluated for the first time in this study. Commercially available forward osmosis (FO) and ultrafiltration (UF) membranes were employed in a VRO-LPM hybrid process to overcome energy limitations of draw solution (DS) regeneration and production of permeate in the FO process. To evaluate its feasibility as a water reclamation process, and to optimize the operational conditions, cross-flow FO and dead-end mode UF processes were individually evaluated. For the FO process, a DS concentration of 0.15 g mL -1 of polysulfonate styrene (PSS) was determined to be optimal, having a high flux with a low reverse salt flux. The UF membrane with a molecular weight cut-off of 1 kDa was chosen for its high PSS rejection in the LPM process. As a single process, UF (LPM) exhibited a higher flux than FO, but this could be controlled by adjusting the effective membrane area of the FO and UF membranes in the VRO-LPM system. The VRO-LPM hybrid process only required a circulation pump for the FO process. This led to a decrease in the specific energy consumption of the VRO-LPM process for potable water production, that was similar to the single FO process. Therefore, the newly developed VRO-LPM hybrid process, with an appropriate DS selection, can be used as an energy efficient water production method, and can outperform conventional water reclamation processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of direct greenhouse gas emissions on the carbon footprint of water reclamation processes employing nitrification–denitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Andrew G.; Townsend-Small, Amy; Rosso, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Water reclamation has the potential to reduce water supply demands from aquifers and more energy-intensive water production methods (e.g., seawater desalination). However, water reclamation via biological nitrification–denitrification is also associated with the direct emission of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) CO 2 , N 2 O, and CH 4 . We quantified these direct emissions from the nitrification–denitrification reactors of a water reclamation plant in Southern California, and measured the 14 C content of the CO 2 to distinguish between short- and long-lived carbon. The total emissions were 1.5 (± 0.2) g-fossil CO 2 m −3 of wastewater treated, 0.5 (± 0.1) g-CO 2 -eq of CH 4 m −3 , and 1.8 (± 0.5) g-CO 2 -eq of N 2 O m −3 , for a total of 3.9 (± 0.5) g-CO 2 -eq m −3 . This demonstrated that water reclamation can be a source of GHGs from long lived carbon, and thus a candidate for GHG reduction credit. From the 14 C measurements, we found that between 11.4% and 15.1% of the CO 2 directly emitted was derived from fossil sources, which challenges past assumptions that the direct CO 2 emissions from water reclamation contain only modern carbon. A comparison of our direct emission measurements with estimates of indirect emissions from several water production methods, however, showed that the direct emissions from water reclamation constitute only a small fraction of the plant's total GHG footprint. - Highlights: • Direct greenhouse gas emissions were measured at a wastewater reclamation plant. • These greenhouse gas emissions amounted to 3.9 (± 0.5) g-CO 2 -eq m −3 of wastewater. • 14 C analysis of the CO 2 emissions was conducted to determine the fossil component. • 11.4% to 15.1% of the emitted CO 2 was derived from fossil sources

  11. Impact of direct greenhouse gas emissions on the carbon footprint of water reclamation processes employing nitrification–denitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Andrew G., E-mail: andrew.schneider@yale.edu [University of Cincinnati, Department of Geology, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Townsend-Small, Amy [University of Cincinnati, Department of Geology, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); University of Cincinnati, Department of Geography, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Rosso, Diego [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-2175 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Water reclamation has the potential to reduce water supply demands from aquifers and more energy-intensive water production methods (e.g., seawater desalination). However, water reclamation via biological nitrification–denitrification is also associated with the direct emission of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 4}. We quantified these direct emissions from the nitrification–denitrification reactors of a water reclamation plant in Southern California, and measured the {sup 14}C content of the CO{sub 2} to distinguish between short- and long-lived carbon. The total emissions were 1.5 (± 0.2) g-fossil CO{sub 2} m{sup −3} of wastewater treated, 0.5 (± 0.1) g-CO{sub 2}-eq of CH{sub 4} m{sup −3}, and 1.8 (± 0.5) g-CO{sub 2}-eq of N{sub 2}O m{sup −3}, for a total of 3.9 (± 0.5) g-CO{sub 2}-eq m{sup −3}. This demonstrated that water reclamation can be a source of GHGs from long lived carbon, and thus a candidate for GHG reduction credit. From the {sup 14}C measurements, we found that between 11.4% and 15.1% of the CO{sub 2} directly emitted was derived from fossil sources, which challenges past assumptions that the direct CO{sub 2} emissions from water reclamation contain only modern carbon. A comparison of our direct emission measurements with estimates of indirect emissions from several water production methods, however, showed that the direct emissions from water reclamation constitute only a small fraction of the plant's total GHG footprint. - Highlights: • Direct greenhouse gas emissions were measured at a wastewater reclamation plant. • These greenhouse gas emissions amounted to 3.9 (± 0.5) g-CO{sub 2}-eq m{sup −3} of wastewater. • {sup 14}C analysis of the CO{sub 2} emissions was conducted to determine the fossil component. • 11.4% to 15.1% of the emitted CO{sub 2} was derived from fossil sources.

  12. Agricultural reuse of municipal wastewater through an integral water reclamation management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intriago, Juan Carlo; López-Gálvez, Francisco; Allende, Ana; Vivaldi, Gaetano Alessandro; Camposeo, Salvatore; Nicolás Nicolás, Emilio; Alarcón, Juan José; Pedrero Salcedo, Francisco

    2018-05-01

    The DESERT-prototype, a state-of-the-art compact combination of water treatment technologies based on filtration and solar-based renewable energy, was employed to reclaim water for agricultural irrigation. Water reclaimed through the DESERT-prototype (PW) from a secondary effluent of a wastewater treatment plant, as well as conventional irrigation water (CW) and the secondary effluent (SW) itself, were employed to cultivate baby romaine lettuces in a greenhouse in Murcia (Spain), by means of drip and sprinkler irrigation methods, thus establishing six treatments. Assessments of physicochemical and microbiological quality of irrigation water, as well as agronomic and microbiological quality of crops from all treatments, showed that results associated to PW complied in all cases with relevant standards and guidelines. In contrast, results linked to SW and CW presented certain non-compliance cases of water and crop microbiological quality. These assessments lead to conclude that the DESERT-prototype is an appropriate technology for safe water reclamation oriented to agricultural production, that can be complemented by a proper irrigation method in reaching safety targets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Micropollutants removal and health risk reduction in a water reclamation and ecological reuse system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoyan Y; Li, Qiyuan; Wang, Xiaochang C; Wang, Yongkun; Wang, Donghong; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2018-07-01

    As reclaimed water use is increasing, its safety attracts growing attention, particularly with respect to the health risks associated with the wide range of micropollutants found in the reclaimed water. In this study, sophisticated analysis was conducted for water samples from a water reclamation and ecological reuse system where domestic wastewater was treated using an anaerobic-anoxic-oxic unit followed by a membrane bioreactor (A 2 O-MBR), and the reclaimed water was used for replenishing a landscape lake. A total of 58 organic micropollutants were detected in the system, consisting of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 16 phenols, 3 pesticides, and 26 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs). After treatment by the A 2 O-MBR process, effective removal of pesticides and phenols was achieved, while when the reclaimed water entered the landscape lake, PPCPs were further removed. From the physicochemical properties of micropollutants, it could be inferred that phenols and dichlorphos (the only pesticide with considerable concentration in the influent) would have been mainly removed by biodegradation and/or volatilization in the biological treatment process. Additionally, it is probable that sludge adsorption also contributed to the removal of dichlorphos. For the predominant PPCP removal in the landscape lake, various actions, such as adsorption, biodegradation, photolysis, and ecologically mediated processes (via aquatic plants and animals), would have played significant roles. However, according to their logK oc , logK ow and logD (pH = 8) values, it could be concluded that adsorption by suspended solids might be an important action. Although carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks associated with all the detected micropollutants were at negligible levels, the hazard quotients (HQs) of PPCPs accounted for 92.03%-97.23% of the HQ Total . With the significant removal of PPCPs through the ecological processes in the landscape lake, the safety

  14. Predicted water quality of oil sands reclamation wetlands : impact of physical design and hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Although engineered wetlands can be used as treatment systems in the reclamation of oil sands mines, a variety of factors must be considered to improve the biological functioning of many oil sands reclamation landscapes. Key factors in the control of concentrations of dissolved substances include area, depth, shape, surrounding landscape material and contributing water quality and quantity. Seasonal cycles of precipitation and ice cover also require consideration in the planning of wetlands ecosystems. This paper presented details of a model designed to predict constituent concentrations in planned wetlands based on probable inflow and processes. Input variables consisted of key substances and hydrological factors that may be encountered on reclaimed landscapes. The model was constructed to perform sensitivity analyses of wetlands with respect to total dissolved solids (TDS), major ions, and naphthenic acids concentrations. Inputs and assumptions drawn from previous environmental impact assessments completed for proposed and approved oil sands projects were used. Results suggested that wetlands volume is an important factor in the moderation of peak flows and substance decay. The predictions generated by the model suggested that wetlands size, tailings and sandcap placement schedules may be manipulated to achieve desired wetlands salinities. It was observed that the proportion of the watershed covered by specific land types can affect both initial and future concentrations. Long-term climate change that results in 15 per cent more or less runoff was predicted to have little effect on wetlands concentrations, although concentrations may rise during periodic droughts. It was concluded that site-specific modelling and careful planning is needed to achieve desired water quality for the creation of engineered wetlands. 18 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  15. Proposing of an aerated water treatment plant for reducing water pollution problem in Losari Beach after reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, Sri; Maharani, Hamzah, Muhammad Alimuddin

    2017-01-01

    Losari Beach is the most important site in Makassar. It lies at the west side of Makassar city. This place is known as the place where people are relaxed and gathering with friends or family after working, and now it becomes the icon of Makassar city. As the biggest city in eastern Indonesia, Makassar grows very fast. We can find constructions for building hospitals, shopping malls, bussines activities, and residences everywhere. The most important construction activities that will effect Losari Beach is the reclamation to build the Center Point of Indonesia that takes an area of 157 hectares and it is located at the west side of Losari Beach. In the last research presented in 9th International Conference on Marine Technology (October 2014) using surface-water modeling system (SMS) software showed that reclamation will significantly increase concentrations of BOD and COD (± 7 mg/L for BOD and 6.2 mg/L for COD). This condition will cause Losari Beach becomes very polluted. A probable solution to overcome this problem is to clean the wastewater before introducing to the sea. This paper will describe the type of the wastewater treatment plant that can be used to solve the water pollution problem in Losari Beach.

  16. Effect of long-term application of biosolids for land reclamation on surface water chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, G; Granato, T C; Pietz, R I; Carlson, C R; Abedin, Z

    2006-01-01

    Biosolids are known to have a potential to restore degraded land, but the long-term impacts of this practice on the environment, including water quality, still need to be evaluated. The surface water chemistry (NO3-, NH4+, and total P, Cd, Cu, and Hg) was monitored for 31 yr from 1972 to 2002 in a 6000-ha watershed at Fulton County, Illinois, where the Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago was restoring the productivity of strip-mined land using biosolids. The mean cumulative loading rates during the past 31 yr were 875 dry Mg ha(-1) for 1120-ha fields in the biosolids-amended watershed and 4.3 dry Mg ha(-1) for the 670-ha fields in the control watershed. Biosolids were injected into mine spoil fields as liquid fertilizer from 1972 to 1985, and incorporated as dewatered cake from 1980 to 1996 and air-dried solids from 1987 to 2002. The mean annual loadings of nutrients and trace elements from biosolids in 1 ha were 735 kg N, 530 kg P, 4.5 kg Cd, 30.7 kg Cu, and 0.11 kg Hg in the fields of the biosolids-amended watershed, and negligible in the fields of the control watershed. Sampling of surface water was conducted monthly in the 1970s, and three times per year in the 1980s and 1990s. The water samples were collected from 12 reservoirs and 2 creeks receiving drainage from the fields in the control watershed, and 8 reservoirs and 4 creeks associated with the fields in the biosolids-amended watershed for the analysis of NO3- -N (including NO2- N), NH4+-N, and total P, Cd, Cu, and Hg. Compared to the control (0.18 mg L(-1)), surface water NO3- -N in the biosolids-amended watershed (2.23 mg L(-1)) was consistently higher; however, it was still below the Illinois limit of 10 mg L(-1) for public and food-processing water supplies. Biosolids applications had a significant effect on mean concentrations of ammonium N (0.11 mg L(-1) for control and 0.24 mg L(-1) for biosolids) and total P (0.10 mg L(-1) for control and 0.16 mg L(-1) for biosolids) in

  17. Water, Energy and Carbon Balance Research: Recovery Trajectories For Oil Sands Reclamation and Disturbed Watersheds in the Western Boreal Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, R. M.; Carey, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The Oil Sand Region (OSR) of North-Central Alberta exists within the sub-humid Boreal Plains (BP) ecozone, with a slight long-term moisture deficit regime. Despite this deficit, the BP is comprised of productive wetland and mixed wood (aspen and conifer dominated) forests. Reclamation activities are now underway at a large number of surface mining operations in the OSR, where target ecosystems are identified, soil prescriptions placed and commercial forest species planted. Some watersheds have been created that now contain wetlands. However, recent work in the BP suggests that over time wetlands supply moisture for the productivity of upland forests. Thus, water use of reclaimed forests is going to be critical in determining the sustainability of these systems and adjacent wetlands, and whether in time, either will achieve some form of equivalent capability that will allow for certification by regulators. A critical component in the success of any reclamation is that sufficient water is available to support target ecosystems through the course of natural climate cycles in the region. Water Use Efficiency (WUE), which links photosynthesis (GEP) with water use (Evapotranspiration (ET)), provides a useful metric to compare ecosystems and evaluate their utilization of resources. In this study, 41 site years of total growing season water and carbon flux data over 8 sites (4 reclamation, 4 regeneration) were evaluated using eddy covariance micrometeorological towers. WUE shows clear discrimination among ecosystem types as aspen stands assimilate more carbon per unit weight of water than conifers. WUEs also change with time as ecosystems become more effective at transpiring water through plant pathways compared with bare-soil evaporation, which allows an assessment of ability to limit water loss without carbon uptake. In addition, clonal rooting systems allow aspen forests to recover quicker after disturbance than reclamation sites in terms of their WUE. For reclamation

  18. Alternative Processes for Water Reclamation and Solid Waste Processing in a Physical/chemical Bioregenerative Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Tom D.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on alternative processes for water reclamation and solid waste processing in a physical/chemical-bioregenerative life support system are presented. The main objective is to focus attention on emerging influences of secondary factors (i.e., waste composition, type and level of chemical contaminants, and effects of microorganisms, primarily bacteria) and to constructively address these issues by discussing approaches which attack them in a direct manner.

  19. Water and waste water reclamation in a 21st century space colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebens, H. J.; Johnson, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research on closed-life support systems initiated during a system design study on space colonization and concentrates on the water and waste water components. Metabolic requirements for the 10,000 inhabitants were supplied by an assumed earth-like diet from an intensive agriculture system. Condensed atmospheric moisture provided a source of potable water and a portion of the irrigation water. Waste water was reclaimed by wet oxidation. The dual-water supply required the condensation of 175 kg/person-day of atmospheric water and the processing of 250 kg/person-day of waste water.

  20. Comparing effects of land reclamation techniques on water pollution and fishery loss for a large-scale offshore airport island in Jinzhou Bay, Bohai Sea, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hua-Kun; Wang, Nuo; Yu, Tiao-Lan; Fu, Qiang; Liang, Chen

    2013-06-15

    Plans are being made to construct Dalian Offshore Airport in Jinzhou Bay with a reclamation area of 21 km(2). The large-scale reclamation can be expected to have negative effects on the marine environment, and these effects vary depending on the reclamation techniques used. Water quality mathematical models were developed and biology resource investigations were conducted to compare effects of an underwater explosion sediment removal and rock dumping technique and a silt dredging and rock dumping technique on water pollution and fishery loss. The findings show that creation of the artificial island with the underwater explosion sediment removal technique would greatly impact the marine environment. However, the impact for the silt dredging technique would be less. The conclusions from this study provide an important foundation for the planning of Dalian Offshore Airport and can be used as a reference for similar coastal reclamation and marine environment protection. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Water Reuse Highlights: A Summary Volume of Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Water Works Association, Denver, CO. Research Foundation.

    This document reports the efforts of the AWWA Research Foundation to gather, prepare, and distribute current technical information in the wastewater reclamation and reuse field. The information reported has been abstracted from other Foundation publications and only attempts here to highlight the field. Categories discussed include research,…

  2. Application of pressure assisted forward osmosis for water purification and reuse of reverse osmosis concentrate from a water reclamation plant

    KAUST Repository

    Jamil, Shazad

    2016-07-26

    The use of forward osmosis (FO) is growing among the researchers for water desalination and wastewater treatment due to use of natural osmotic pressure of draw solute. In this study pressure assisted forward osmosis (PAFO) was used instead of FO to increase the water production rate. In this study a low concentration of draw solution (0.25 M KCl) was applied so that diluted KCl after PAFO operation can directly be used for fertigation. The performance of PAFO was investigated for the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) from a water reclamation plant. The water production in PAFO was increased by 9% and 29% at applied pressure of 2 and 4 bars, respectively, to feed side based on 90 h of experiments. Granular activated carbon (GAC) pretreatment and HCl softening were used to reduce organic fouling and scaling prior to application of PAFO. It reduced total organic carbon (TOC) and total inorganic carbon (TIC) by around 90% and 85%, respectively from untreated ROC. Subsequently, this led to an increase in permeate flux. In addition, GAC pretreatment adsorbed 12 out of 14 organic micropollutants tested from ROC to below detection limit. This application enabled to minimise the ROC volume with a sustainable operation and produced high quality and safe water for discharge or reuse. The draw solution (0.25 M KCl) used in this study was diluted to 0.14 M KCl, which is a suitable concentration (10 kg/m3) for fertigation, due to water transport from feed solution. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Evaluation of the seasonal performance of a water reclamation pond-constructed wetland system for removing emerging contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Víctor; Salvadó, Victòria

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of a full-scale reclamation pond-constructed wetland (CW) system to eliminate 27 emerging contaminants (i.e. pharmaceuticals, sunscreen compounds, fragrances, antiseptics, fire retardants, pesticides, and plasticizers) and the seasonal occurrence of these contaminants is studied. The compounds with the highest concentrations in the secondary effluent are diclofenac, caffeine, ketoprofen, and carbamazepine. The results show that the constructed wetland (61%) removes emerging contaminants significantly more efficiently than the pond (51%), presumably due to the presence of plants (Phragmites and Thypa) as well as the higher hydraulic residence time (HRT) in the CW. A greater seasonal trend to the efficient removal of these compounds is observed in the pond than in the CW. The overall mass removal efficiency of each individual compound ranged from 27% to 93% (71% on average), which is comparable to reported data in advanced treatments (photo-fenton and membrane filtration). The seasonal average content of emerging contaminants in the river water (2488 ng L(-1)) next to the water reclamation plant is found to be higher than the content in the final reclaimed water (1490 ng L(-1)), suggesting that the chemical quality of the reclaimed water is better than available surface waters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cyber-physical system for a water reclamation plant: Balancing aeration, energy, and water quality to maintain process resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junjie

    Aeration accounts for a large fraction of energy consumption in conventional water reclamation plants (WRPs). Although process operations at older WRPs can satisfy effluent permit requirements, they typically operate with excess aeration. More effective process controls at older WRPs can be challenging as operators work to balance higher energy costs and more stringent effluent limitations while managing fluctuating loads. Therefore, understandings of process resilience or ability to quickly return to original operation conditions at a WRP are important. A state-of-art WRP should maintain process resilience to deal with different kinds of perturbations even after optimization of energy demands. This work was to evaluate the applicability and feasibility of cyber-physical system (CPS) for improving operation at Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago (MWRDGC) Calumet WRP. In this work, a process model was developed and used to better understand the conditions of current Calumet WRP, with additional valuable information from two dissolved oxygen field measurements. Meanwhile, a classification system was developed to reveal the pattern of historical influent scenario based on cluster analysis and cross-tabulation analysis. Based on the results from the classification, typical process control options were investigated. To ensure the feasibility of information acquisition, the reliability and flexibility of soft sensors were assessed to typical influent conditions. Finally, the process resilience was investigated to better balance influent perturbations, energy demands, and effluent quality for long-term operations. These investigations and evaluations show that although the energy demands change as the influent conditions and process controls. In general, aeration savings could be up to 50% from the level of current consumption; with a more complex process controls, the saving could be up to 70% in relatively steady-state conditions and at least 40

  5. Water Reclamation Using a Ceramic Nanofiltration Membrane and Surface Flushing with Ozonated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Anh T.; Okuda, Tetsuji; Takeuchi, Haruka; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Nghiem, Long D.

    2018-01-01

    A new membrane fouling control technique using ozonated water flushing was evaluated for direct nanofiltration (NF) of secondary wastewater effluent using a ceramic NF membrane. Experiments were conducted at a permeate flux of 44 L/m2h to evaluate the ozonated water flushing technique for fouling mitigation. Surface flushing with clean water did not effectively remove foulants from the NF membrane. In contrast, surface flushing with ozonated water (4 mg/L dissolved ozone) could effectively remove most foulants to restore the membrane permeability. This surface flushing technique using ozonated water was able to limit the progression of fouling to 35% in transmembrane pressure increase over five filtration cycles. Results from this study also heighten the need for further development of ceramic NF membrane to ensure adequate removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) for water recycling applications. The ceramic NF membrane used in this study showed approximately 40% TOC rejection, and the rejection of PPCPs was generally low and highly variable. It is expected that the fouling mitigation technique developed here is even more important for ceramic NF membranes with smaller pore size and thus better PPCP rejection. PMID:29671797

  6. Water Reclamation Using a Ceramic Nanofiltration Membrane and Surface Flushing with Ozonated Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Fujioka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A new membrane fouling control technique using ozonated water flushing was evaluated for direct nanofiltration (NF of secondary wastewater effluent using a ceramic NF membrane. Experiments were conducted at a permeate flux of 44 L/m2h to evaluate the ozonated water flushing technique for fouling mitigation. Surface flushing with clean water did not effectively remove foulants from the NF membrane. In contrast, surface flushing with ozonated water (4 mg/L dissolved ozone could effectively remove most foulants to restore the membrane permeability. This surface flushing technique using ozonated water was able to limit the progression of fouling to 35% in transmembrane pressure increase over five filtration cycles. Results from this study also heighten the need for further development of ceramic NF membrane to ensure adequate removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs for water recycling applications. The ceramic NF membrane used in this study showed approximately 40% TOC rejection, and the rejection of PPCPs was generally low and highly variable. It is expected that the fouling mitigation technique developed here is even more important for ceramic NF membranes with smaller pore size and thus better PPCP rejection.

  7. Coal refuse reclamation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.

    1979-04-06

    A 13.8 ha abandoned coal refuse site in southwestern Illinois was reclaimed by recontouring the refuse material and covering it with a minimum 30 cm of soil. The reclamation procedure included determination of the site's final land use, collection of preconstruction environmental data, and development and implementation of engineering plans. The project is demonstrating methods that can be used to reclaim abandoned coal refuse sites, and a multidisciplinary approach is being used to evaluate postconstruction environmental and economic effects of the reclamation effort. Surface water quality has shown significant improvement and plant cover is becoming established on the site. Soil microbial populations are developing and wildlife habitats are forming. The economic value of the site and adjacent properties has increased substantially and the area's aesthetic value has been enhanced. This project is providing valuable design data for future reclamation efforts of this type.

  8. Access road reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson, T.; Blok, M.

    1997-01-01

    A general review of the measures involved in restoring abandoned access road sites in British Columbia was presented. Permits and licences are needed for the use of crown land for roads used by the petroleum and natural gas industry for exploration activities. However, the regulatory framework for road site reclamation is not well developed. The nature of access road reclamation is very site-specific. Some of the issues that are considered for all reclamation projects include slope stability, water control, revegetation, soil rehabilitation, access management and monitoring. The primary objective of reclaiming access road sites is to return the site to conditions that are equal or better than pre-disturbance conditions. Restoration measures must be approved by BC Environment and by the Department of Fisheries and Oceans where federal fisheries responsibilities are involved. 54 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  9. Increasing Crop Yields in Water Stressed Countries by Combining Operations of Freshwater Reservoir and Wastewater Reclamation Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, R.; Ng, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Freshwater resources around the world are increasing in scarcity due to population growth, industrialization and climate change. This is a serious concern for water stressed countries, including those in Asia and North Africa where future food production is expected to be negatively affected by this. To address this problem, we investigate the potential of combining freshwater reservoir and wastewater reclamation operations. Reservoir water is the cheaper source of irrigation, but is often limited and climate sensitive. Treated wastewater is a more reliable alternative for irrigation, but often requires extensive further treatment which can be expensive. We propose combining the operations of a reservoir and a wastewater reclamation plant (WWRP) to augment the supply from the reservoir with reclaimed water for increasing crop yields in water stressed regions. The joint system of reservoir and WWRP is modeled as a multi-objective optimization problem with the double objective of maximizing the crop yield and minimizing total cost, subject to constraints on reservoir storage, spill and release, and capacity of the WWRP. We use the crop growth model Aquacrop, supported by The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), to model crop growth in response to water use. Aquacrop considers the effects of water deficit on crop growth stages, and from there estimates crop yield. We generate results comparing total crop yield under irrigation with water from just the reservoir (which is limited and often interrupted), and yield with water from the joint system (which has the potential of higher supply and greater reliability). We will present results for locations in India and Africa to evaluate the potential of the joint operations for improving food security in those areas for different budgets.

  10. Sustainability of Water Reclamation: Long-Term Recharge with Reclaimed Wastewater Does Not Enhance Antibiotic Resistance in Sediment Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean E. McLain

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater reclamation for municipal irrigation is an increasingly attractive option for extending water supplies. However, public health concerns include the potential for development of antibiotic resistance (AR in environmental bacteria after exposure to residual pharmaceuticals in reclaimed water. Though scientific studies have reported high levels of AR in soils irrigated with wastewater, these works often fail to address the soil resistome, or the natural occurrence of AR. This study compared AR patterns in sediment Enterococcus isolated from water storage basins containing either reclaimed water or groundwater in central Arizona. Resistance to 16 antibiotics was quantified in isolates to a depth of 30 cm. Results reveal high levels of resistance to certain antibiotics, including lincomycin, ciprofloxacin, and erythromycin, exists in sediments regardless of the water source (groundwater, reclaimed water, and higher AR was not detectable in reclaimed water sediments. Furthermore, multiple-antibiotic-resistance (MAR was substantially reduced in isolates from reclaimed water sediments, compared to freshwater sediment isolates. Comparing the development of AR in sediment bacteria at these two sites will increase awareness of the environmental and public health impacts of using reclaimed water for irrigation of municipal areas, and illustrates the necessity for control sites in studies examining AR development in environmental microbiota.

  11. Relating Climate Change Risks to Water Supply Planning Assumptions: Recent Applications by the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brekke, L. D.

    2009-12-01

    Presentation highlights recent methods carried by Reclamation to incorporate climate change and variability information into water supply assumptions for longer-term planning. Presentation also highlights limitations of these methods, and possible method adjustments that might be made to address these limitations. Reclamation was established more than one hundred years ago with a mission centered on the construction of irrigation and hydropower projects in the Western United States. Reclamation’s mission has evolved since its creation to include other activities, including municipal and industrial water supply projects, ecosystem restoration, and the protection and management of water supplies. Reclamation continues to explore ways to better address mission objectives, often considering proposals to develop new infrastructure and/or modify long-term criteria for operations. Such studies typically feature operations analysis to disclose benefits and effects of a given proposal, which are sensitive to assumptions made about future water supplies, water demands, and operating constraints. Development of these assumptions requires consideration to more fundamental future drivers such as land use, demographics, and climate. On the matter of establishing planning assumptions for water supplies under climate change, Reclamation has applied several methods. This presentation highlights two activities where the first focuses on potential changes in hydroclimate frequencies and the second focuses on potential changes in hydroclimate period-statistics. The first activity took place in the Colorado River Basin where there was interest in the interarrival possibilities of drought and surplus events of varying severity relevant to proposals on new criteria for handling lower basin shortages. The second activity occurred in California’s Central Valley where stakeholders were interested in how projected climate change possibilities translated into changes in hydrologic and

  12. Water reclamation from emulsified oily wastewater via effective forward osmosis hollow fiber membranes under the PRO mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Gang; de Wit, Jos S; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-09-15

    By using a novel hydrophilic cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) as the membrane material for the hollow fiber substrate and modifying its outer surface by polydopamine (PDA) coating and inner surface by interfacial polymerization, we have demonstrated that the thin-film composite (TFC) membranes can be effectively used for sustainable water reclamation from emulsified oil/water streams via forward osmosis (FO) under the pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) mode. The newly developed TFC-FO hollow fiber membrane shows characteristics of high water flux, outstanding salt and oil rejection, and low fouling propensity. Under the PRO mode, the newly developed TFC-FO membrane exhibits a water flux of 37.1 L m(-2) h(-1) with an oil rejection of 99.9% using a 2000 ppm soybean oil/water emulsion as the feed and 1 M NaCl as the draw solution. Remarkable anti-fouling behaviors have also been observed. Under the PRO mode, the water flux decline is only 10% of the initial value even after a 12 h test for oil/water separation. The water flux of the fouled membrane can be effectively restored to 97% of the original value by water rinses on the fiber outer surface without using any chemicals. Furthermore, the flux declines are only 25% and 52% when the water recovery of a 2000 ppm soybean oil/water emulsion and a 2000 ppm petroleum oil/water emulsion containing 0.04 M NaCl reaches 82%, respectively. This study may not only provide insightful guidelines for the fabrication of effective TFC-FO membranes with high performance and low fouling behaviors for oily wastewater under the PRO mode but also add an alternative perspective to the design of new materials for water purification purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Rieti Land Reclamation Authority relevance in the management of surface waters for the irrigation purposes of the Rieti Plain (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Martarelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Rieti Plain is crowned by calcareous-marly reliefs (Rieti and Sabini Mountains and represents an intra-Apennine Plio- Quaternary alluvial and fluvial-lacustrine basin formed after multistage extensional tectonic processes. This territory presents huge amounts of water resources (Velino and Turano rivers; several springs; Lungo and Ripasottile lakes, relics of ancient Lacus Velinus. The aquifers occurring in the reliefs often have hydraulic continuity with the Rieti plain groundwater (detected at about 1-4 m below ground surface, which has general flow directions converging from the reliefs to the lake sector. Hydraulic exchanges between groundwater and surface waters are variable in space and time and play a relevant role for groundwater resource distribution. The Rieti Land Reclamation Authority was instituted in 1929 by Royal Decree N. 34171-3835, and integrates eight former authorities, dating the end of 1800s. It contributes to maintain the reclamation actions in the Rieti Plain, which started with the realization of the Salto and Turano artificial reservoirs, along two left tributaries of Velino River. The hydroelectric energy production purposes struggle with the reclamation and flood mitigation activities in the plain. The Land Reclamation Authority actuated the Integrated Reclamation General Project through the realization of pumping stations, connection and drainage canals, forestry-hydraulic works, rural roads, movable dams along Velino River and irrigation ditches. The irrigation activities, granted by the derivation of 5 m3/s from the Velino River, are carried out through 194,000 hectares within the territory of 42 municipalities of the Rieti Province. The Rieti Land Reclamation Authority contributes to the irrigation needs and to the environmental and hydrogeological protection and monitoring.

  14. A Review of Water Reclamation Research in China Urban Landscape Design and Planning Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Wei; Zeng, Tianran

    2018-04-01

    With the continuously growing demand for better living environment, more and more attention and efforts have been paid to the improvement of urban landscape. However, the expansion of green area and water features are at the cost of high consumption of water resources, which has become prominent problems in cities that suffer from water shortage. At the same time, with the water shortage and water environment deterioration problems that shared globally, water conservation has become an inevitable choice to achieve sustainable social development. Urban landscape is not simply a consuming body of water resources, but also are of water-saving potential and able to perform the function of water storage. Thus, recycling the limited water resources becomes a challenge for every landscape designer. This paper is intended to overview the existing effort of reclaimed water recycle research in China landscape designing fields, and raise recommendations for future research and development.

  15. Effects of middle-term land reclamation on nickel soil-water interaction: a case study from reclaimed salt marshes of Po River Delta, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giuseppe, Dario; Melchiorre, Massimiliano; Faccini, Barbara; Ferretti, Giacomo; Coltorti, Massimo

    2017-09-26

    Reclaimed salt marshes are fragile environments where water salinization and accumulation of heavy metals can easily occur. This type of environment constitutes a large part of the Po River Delta (Italy), where intensive agricultural activities take place. Given the higher Ni background of Po River Delta soils and its water-soluble nature, the main aim of this contribution is to understand if reclamation can influence the Ni behavior over time. In this study, we investigated the geochemical features of 40 soils sampled in two different localities from the Po River Delta with different reclamation ages. Samples of salt marsh soils reclaimed in 1964 were taken from Valle del Mezzano while soils reclaimed in 1872 were taken nearby Codigoro town. Batch solubility tests and consecutive determination of Ni in pore-water were compared to bulk physicochemical compositions of soils. Bulk Ni content of the studied soils is naturally high, since these soils originated from Po River sediments derived from the erosion of ultramafic rocks. Moreover, it seems that Ni concentration increases during soil evolution, being probably related to the degradation of serpentine. Instead, the water-soluble Ni measured in the leaching tests is greater in soils recently reclaimed compared to the oldest soils. Soil properties of two soil profiles from a reclaimed wetland area were examined to determine soil evolution over one century. Following reclamation, pedogenic processes of the superficial horizons resulted in organic matter mineralization, pH buffer, and a decrease of Ni water solubility from recently to evolved reclaimed soil.

  16. Surface coal mine land reclamation using a dry flue gas desulfurization product: Short-term and long-term water responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liming; Stehouwer, Richard; Tong, Xiaogang; Kost, Dave; Bigham, Jerry M; Dick, Warren A

    2015-09-01

    Abandoned coal-mined lands are a worldwide concern due to their potential negative environmental impacts, including erosion and development of acid mine drainage. A field study investigated the use of a dry flue gas desulfurization product for reclamation of abandoned coal mined land in USA. Treatments included flue gas desulfurization product at a rate of 280 Mg ha(-1) (FGD), FGD at the same rate plus 112 Mg ha(-1) yard waste compost (FGD/C), and conventional reclamation that included 20 cm of re-soil material plus 157 Mg ha(-1) of agricultural limestone (SOIL). A grass-legume sward was planted after treatment applications. Chemical properties of surface runoff and tile water (collected from a depth of 1.2m below the ground surface) were measured over both short-term (1-4 yr) and long-term (14-20 yr) periods following reclamation. The pH of surface runoff water was increased from approximately 3, and then sustained at 7 or higher by all treatments for up to 20 yr, and the pH of tile flow water was also increased and sustained above 5 for 20 yr. Compared with SOIL, concentrations of Ca, S and B in surface runoff and tile flow water were generally increased by the treatments with FGD product in both short- and long-term measurements and concentrations of the trace elements were generally not statistically increased in surface runoff and tile flow water over the 20-yr period. However, concentrations of As, Ba, Cr and Hg were occasionally elevated. These results suggest the use of FGD product for remediating acidic surface coal mined sites can provide effective, long-term reclamation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Tree-Substrate Water Relations and Root Development in Tree Plantations Used for Mine Tailings Reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guittonny-Larchevêque, Marie; Bussière, Bruno; Pednault, Carl

    2016-05-01

    Tree water uptake relies on well-developed root systems. However, mine wastes can restrict root growth, in particular metalliferous mill tailings, which consist of the finely crushed ore that remains after valuable metals are removed. Thus, water stress could limit plantation success in reclaimed mine lands. This study evaluates the effect of substrates varying in quality (topsoil, overburden, compost and tailings mixture, and tailings alone) and quantity (50- or 20-cm-thick topsoil layer vs. 1-m plantation holes) on root development and water stress exposure of trees planted in low-sulfide mine tailings under boreal conditions. A field experiment was conducted over 2 yr with two tree species: basket willow ( L.) and hybrid poplar ( Moench × A. Henry). Trees developed roots in the tailings underlying the soil treatments despite tailings' low macroporosity. However, almost no root development occurred in tailings underlying a compost and tailings mixture. Because root development and associated water uptake was not limited to the soil, soil volume influenced neither short-term (water potential and instantaneous transpiration) nor long-term (δC) water stress exposure in trees. However, trees were larger and had greater total leaf area when grown in thicker topsoil. Despite a volumetric water content that always remained above permanent wilting point in the tailings colonized by tree roots, measured foliar water potentials at midday were lower than drought thresholds reported for both tested tree species. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Water reclamation and value-added animal feed from corn-ethanol stillage by fungal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, M L; Khanal, S K; Pometto, A L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rhizopus oligosporus was cultivated on thin stillage from a dry-grind corn ethanol plant. The aim of the research was to develop a process to replace the current energy-intensive flash evaporation and make use of this nutrient-rich stream to create a new co-product in the form of protein-rich biomass. Batch experiments in 5- and 50-L stirred bioreactors showed prolific fungal growth under non-sterile conditions. COD, suspended solids, glycerol, and organic acids removals, critical for in-plant water reuse, reached ca. 80%, 98%, 100% and 100%, respectively, within 5 d of fungal inoculation, enabling effluent recycle as process water. R. oligosporus contains 2% lysine, good levels of other essential amino acids, and 43% crude protein - a highly nutritious livestock feed. Avoiding water evaporation from thin stillage would furthermore save substantial energy inputs on corn ethanol plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. PVDF hollow fiber and nanofiber membranes for fresh water reclamation using membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Polyvinylidene fluoride hollow fiber and nanofibrous membranes are engineered and successfully fabricated using dry-jet wet spinning and electrospinning techniques, respectively. Fabricated membranes are characterized for their morphology, average pore size, pore size distribution, nanofiber diameter distribution, thickness, and water contact angle. Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) performances of the fabricated membranes have been investigated using a locally designed and fabricated, fully automated MD bench scale unit and DCMD module. Electrospun nanofibrous membranes showed a water flux as high as 36 L m-2 h-1 whereas hollow fiber membranes showed a water flux of 31.6 L m-2 h-1, at a feed inlet temperature of 80 °C and at a permeate inlet temperature of 20 °C.

  20. PVDF hollow fiber and nanofiber membranes for fresh water reclamation using membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2013-11-26

    Polyvinylidene fluoride hollow fiber and nanofibrous membranes are engineered and successfully fabricated using dry-jet wet spinning and electrospinning techniques, respectively. Fabricated membranes are characterized for their morphology, average pore size, pore size distribution, nanofiber diameter distribution, thickness, and water contact angle. Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) performances of the fabricated membranes have been investigated using a locally designed and fabricated, fully automated MD bench scale unit and DCMD module. Electrospun nanofibrous membranes showed a water flux as high as 36 L m-2 h-1 whereas hollow fiber membranes showed a water flux of 31.6 L m-2 h-1, at a feed inlet temperature of 80 °C and at a permeate inlet temperature of 20 °C.

  1. Water reclamation for aquifer recharge at the eight case study sites: a cross case analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Corre, K

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available , Tredoux, Gideon, Wintgens, Thomas, Cheng Xuzhou, Yu, Liang and Zhao, Xuan Abstract: Water scarcity combined with the quality deterioration of freshwater due to the rapid augmentation of population and industrial development is a major concern... stream_source_info Genthe_2012_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1118 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Genthe_2012_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Water...

  2. Integrated system of phytodepuration and water reclamation: A comparative evaluation of four municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroselli, Andrea; Giannotti, Maurizio; Marras, Tatiana; Allegrini, Elena

    2017-06-03

    In dry regions, water resources have become increasingly limited, and the use of alternative sources is considered one of the main strategies in sustainable water management. A highly viable alternative to commonly used water resources is treated municipal wastewater, which could strongly benefit from advanced and low-cost techniques for depuration, such as the integrated system of phytodepuration (ISP). The current manuscript investigates four Italian case studies with different sizes and characteristics. The raw wastewaters and final effluents were sampled on a monthly basis over a period of up to five years, allowing the quantification of the ISP performances. The results obtained show that the investigated plants are characterized by an average efficiency value of approximately 83% for chemical oxygen demand removal, 84% for biochemical oxygen demand, 89% for total nitrogen, 91% for total phosphorus, and 85% for total suspended solids. Moreover, for three of the case studies, the ISP final effluent is suitable for irrigation, and in the fourth case study, the final effluent can be released in surface water.

  3. Henretta Creek reclamation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pumphrey, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Teck Coal Ltd. operates 6 open-pit coal mines, of which 5 are located in the Elk Valley in southeastern British Columbia. The Fording River Operations (FRO) began in 1971 in mining areas in Eagle Mountain, Turnbull Mountain and Henretta Valley. The recovery of approximately 5 million tons of coal from the Henretta Creek Valley posed significant challenges to mine planners, hydrologists and environmental experts because the coal had to be recovered from the valley flanks and also from under the main valley floor, on which the fish-bearing Henretta Creek runs. The Henretta Dragline Mining project was described along with the water control structures and fisheries management efforts for the cutthroat trout. A detailed Environmental Impact Assessment and Stage 1 mining report for the Henretta Valley area was completed in December 1990. FRO was granted a mining and reclamation permit in 1991. A temporary relocation of 1,270 metres was required in in April 1997 in order to enable mining on both sides and below the creek bed. Among the innovative construction techniques was a diversion of Henretta Creek through large diameter steel culverts and a specialized crossing of the creek to allow fish passage. The first water flowed through the reclaimed Henretta Creek channel in late 1998 and the first high flow occurred in the spring of 2000. Teck coal FRO then launched an annual fish and fish habitat monitoring program which focused on the Henretta Creek Reclaimed Channel and Henretta Lake. This document presented the results from the final year, 2006, and a summary of the 7 year aquatic monitoring program. It was concluded that from mining through to reclamation, the Henretta project shows the commitment and success of mining and reclamation practices at Teck Coal. Indicators of the project's success include riparian zone vegetation, fisheries re-establishment, aquatic communities and habitat utilization by terrestrial and avian species. 33 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Handling of membrane concentrate from reclamation of water in polyester dyeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik; Knudsen, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    incineration, wet air oxidation, activated carbon, transport to hazardous waste treatment facility, and drying for zero-discharge. In most disposal scenarios considered it is advantageous to dewater the concentrate further from 2,5 %DS (dry solids) to 20 %DS in order to reduce its volume and thereby diminish...... recycling projects where the concentrate has low or no commercial value. In the scenarios analyzed, concentrate disposal costs represents between 10% and 70% of the total treatment costs per m3 of water recycled. It is therefore recommended to analyze in detail the available alternatives for concentrate...

  5. Handling of Membrane Concentrate from Reclamation of Water in Polyester Dyeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik; Knudsen, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    incineration, wet air oxidation, activated carbon, transport to hazardous waste treatment facility, and drying for zero-discharge. In most disposal scenarios considered it is advantageous to dewater the concentrate further from 2,5 %DS (dry solids) to 20 %DS in order to reduce its volume and thereby diminish...... recycling projects where the concentrate has low or no commercial value. In the scenarios analyzed, concentrate disposal costs represents between 10% and 70% of the total treatment costs per m3 of water recycled. It is therefore recommended to analyze in detail the available alternatives for concentrate...

  6. Alberta Reclamation Research annual report, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Reclamation Research Technical Advisory Committee (RRTAC) was appointed by the Alberta Land Conservation and Reclamation Council to assist in technical matters related to the development and administration of the Council's research program. RRTAC develops reclamation research under four major program areas, and activities in these areas during the year are described in this report. The Plains Coal Reclamation Research Program addresses questions relating to groundwater and soil reconstruction in plains coal mining zones. The Mountain and Foothills Reclamation Research Program focuses on water management, soil reconstruction, reforestation, and wildlife habitat development, with objectives including control of erosion on a variety of disturbances such as coal mines and ash pits. The Oil Sands Reclamation Research Program is attempting to develop techniques to establish self-sustaining, erosion-free cover on oil sand tailings pond dikes, and to return tailings sand storage and overburden dumps to productive forests. The Oil and Gas Reclamation Research Program is concerned with disposal of drilling wastes and reclamation of lands disturbed by oil and gas activities. Under each program, the objectives, basic problems investigated, and research approach are presented, followed by description of specific projects involving such subjects as hydrology, revegetation, soil-water interactions, landscape and watershed design, soil reconstruction and amendment, and soil compaction. A list of research reports is included. 69 refs., 8 figs

  7. Domestic wash water reclamation for reuse as commode water supply using filtration: Reverse-osmosis separation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. B., Jr.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    A combined filtration-reverse-osmosis water recovery system has been evaluated to determine its capability to reclaim domestic wash water for reuse as a commode water supply. The system produced water that met all chemical and physical requirements established by the U.S. Public Health Service for drinking water with the exception of carbon chloroform extractables, methylene blue active substances, and phenols. It is thought that this water is of sufficient quality to be reused as commode supply water. The feasibility of using a combined filtration and reverse-osmosis technique for reclaiming domestic wash water has been established. The use of such a technique for wash-water recovery will require a maintenance filter to remove solid materials including those less than 1 micron in size from the wash water. The reverse-osmosis module, if sufficiently protected from plugging, is an attractive low-energy technique for removing contaminants from domestic wash water.

  8. Rubber Reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kathryn R.

    2007-01-01

    The safety and health hazards related to recycling of used rubber, due to the scarcity and high price of virgin rubber are reported. Various threats like stagnant water pools trapped in tires leading to diseases and ignited tires, which become very difficult to extinguish and generating smoke that is extremely detrimental to the environment, have…

  9. SUITABILITY ANALYSIS OF WASTE ROCK APPLICATION IN HYDRIC RECLAMATION IN THE NATURAL WATER-BEARING SUBSIDENCE TROUGHS IN KARVINSKO, CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Pertile

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a suitability analysis of waste rock application in hydric reclamation on the basis of studying its impact on water quality in the natural water-bearing subsidence troughs. The evaluation was carried out in sixteen localities where waste rock had been used in the past for the purposes of bank system improvement. Within the evaluation of waste rock impact on the hydrochemical character of water in the subsidence troughs the values of geochemical background were identified. In order to compare the impact of waste rock on the quality of water, changes in the hydrochemical parameters were monitored in the localities without waste rock banking, with partial (maximum ½ circumference and complete waste rock banking.

  10. Reclamation of slopes left after surface mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zmitko, J [Banske Projekty, Teplice (Czech Republic)

    1993-03-01

    Discusses land reclamation of abandoned slopes from brown coal surface mining in the North Bohemian brown coal basin in the Czech Republic. Problems associated with reclamation of landslide areas in two former coal mines are evaluated: the Otokar mine in Kostany (mining from 1956 to 1966) and the CSM mine in Pozorka (mining from 1955 to 1967). Land reclamation was introduced 25 years after damage occurred. The following aspects are analyzed: hydrogeologic conditions, range of landslides, types of rocks in landslide areas, water conditions, methods for stabilizing slopes, safety aspects.

  11. ACCOUNTING FOR NONUNIFORMITY OF WATER CONSUMPTION IN THE EXHAUST AIR HEAT RECLAMATION SYSTEMS FOR HOT WATER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarin Oleg Dmitrievich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to assessment of the influence of variation of daily hot water consumption on the predicted energy effect by using heat recovery of exhaust air in typical exhaust ventilation systems of the most commonly used flat buildings during their switch to the mechanical induction for the pre-heating of water for hot water supply. It outlines the general principle of the organization of this method of energy saving and presents the basic equations of heat transfer in the heat exchanger. The article proposes a simplified method of accounting for changes in the heat transfer coefficient of air-to-water heat exchanger with fluctuations of water demand using existing dependencies for this coefficient from the rate flow of heating and heated fluid through the device. It presents observations to identify the parameters of the real changes of water consumption during the day with the main quantitative characteristics of normally distributed random variables. Calculation of thermal efficiency of the heat exchange equipment using dimensionless parameters through the number of heat transfer under the optimal opposing scheme of fluid motion is completed under conditions of variable water flow rate for the type residential building of the П3-1/16 series using the Monte Carlo method for numerical modeling of stochastic processes. The estimation of the influence of fluctuation of the current water consumption on the instantaneous thermal efficiency factor of the heat exchanger and the total energy consumption of the building is given, and it is shown that the error of said calculation using average daily parameters is within the margin of usual engineering calculation.

  12. Description of concept and first feasibility test results of a life support subsystem of the Botany Facility based on water reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeser, H. R.

    1986-01-01

    The Botany Facility allows the growth of higher plants and fungi over a period of 6 months maximum. It is a payload planned for the second flight of the Eureca platform around 1990. Major tasks of the Life Support Subsystem (LSS) of the Botany Facility include the control of the pressure and composition of the atmosphere within the plant/fungi growth chambers, control of the temperature and humidity of the air and the regulation of the soil water content within specified limits. Previous studies have shown that various LSS concepts are feasible ranging from heavy, simple and cheap to light, complex and expensive solutions. A summary of those concepts is given. A new approach to accomplish control of the temperature and humidity of the air within the growth chambers based on water reclamation is discussed. This reclamation is achieved by condensation with a heat pump and capillary transport of the condensate back into the soil of the individual growth chamber. Some analytical estimates are given in order to obtain guidelines for circulation flow rates and to determine the specific power consumption.

  13. Reclamation of urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1986-02-01

    A literature study was conducted in order to compare the effectiveness and cost of different reclamation procedures that may be employed after an accident on a nuclear facility takes place in which radioactive material is released to the atmosphere. A substantial amount of work has been done on reclaming soil and snow-covered surfaces. Using scrapers or other soil-moving equipment decontamination factors are 10-100. (The decontamination factor is the ratio of the contamination before to that after the decontamination procedure). However, information on decontamination of paved areas by simple methods such as firehosing and vacuum sweeping are poorly documented. Therefore, only a very uncertain figure in the range 2-10 can be given for the decontamination factor here. It is recommended that a major effort be made in the future to investigate the efficiency of these simple methods, because of their relatively low cost. Also, more expensive methods for reducing the dose such as vacuuming, road planing and deep plowing are treated because of their feasibility under certain circumstances. Using these methods dose reduction factors in the 2-100 range can be obtained. Very expensive techniques, such as sandblasting, water cannon, flame spalling, etc. are justifiable usable only in special situations and are therefore considered very briefly here. The methods vary widely in cost. A simple method like vacuum sweeping costs $0.004 per square meter of surface; whereas one like road planing can reach $4 per square meter. A more sophisticated technique like flame spalling costs as much as $100 per square meter. (author)

  14. The feasibility of nanofiltration membrane bioreactor (NF-MBR)+reverse osmosis (RO) process for water reclamation: Comparison with ultrafiltration membrane bioreactor (UF-MBR)+RO process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Ming Feng; Liu, Chang; Cornelissen, Emile R; Wu, Bing; Chong, Tzyy Haur

    2018-02-01

    This study examines the feasibility of a novel nanofiltration membrane bioreactor (NF-MBR) followed by reverse osmosis (RO) process for water reclamation at 90% recovery and using an ultrafiltration MBR (UF-MBR)+RO as baseline for comparison. Both MBRs adopted the same external hollow fiber membrane configurations and operating conditions. The collected permeates of the MBRs were subsequently fed to the respective RO systems. The results showed that the NF-MBR (operated at a constant flux of 10 L/m 2 h) achieved superior MBR permeate quality due to enhanced biodegradation and high rejection capacity of the NF membrane, leading to lower RO fouling rates (∼3.3 times) as compared to the UF-MBR. Further analysis indicated that the cake layer fouling that caused the cake-enhanced osmotic pressure (CEOP) effect contributed predominantly to the transmembrane pressure (TMP) increase in the NF-MBR, while irreversible pore fouling was the major reason for UF membrane fouling. Furthermore, it was found that the biopolymers (i.e., organics with MW > 10 kDa) were the main components present in the foulants of the NF/UF membranes and RO membranes. The analysis indicated that the NF-MBR + RO system at recovery of 90% has comparable energy consumption as the UF-MBR + RO system at recovery of 75%. Our findings proved the feasibility of the NF-MBR + RO for water reclamation at a high recovery rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Focus on land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Various aspects of land reclamation, i.e. returning disturbed land to a state where, at minimum, it is at least capable of supporting the same kinds of land uses as before the disturbance, are discussed. Activities which disturb the land such as surface mining of coal, surface mining and extraction of oil sands, drilling for oil and natural gas, waste disposal sites, including sanitary landfills, clearing timber for forestry, excavating for pipelines and transportation are described, along with land reclamation legislation in Alberta, and indications of future developments in land reclamation research, legislation and regulation. Practical guidelines for individuals are provided on how they might contribute to land reclamation through judicious and informed consumerism, and through practicing good land management, inclusive of reduced use of herbicides, composting of household wastes, and planting of native species or ground cover in place of traditional lawns.

  16. Land reclamation program description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-05-01

    The Land Reclamation Program will address the need for coordinated applied and basic research into the physical and ecological problems of land reclamation, and advance the development of cost-effective techniques for reclaiming and rehabilitating mined coal land to productive end uses. The purpose of this new program is to conduct integrated research and development projects focused on near- and long-term reclamation problems in all major U.S. coal resource regions including Alaska and to coordinate, evaluate, and disseminate the results of related studies conducted at other research institutions. The activities of the Land Reclamation Laboratory program will involve close cooperation with industry and focus on establishing a comprehensive field and laboratory effort. Research demonstration sites will be established throughout the United States to address regional and site-specific problems. Close cooperation with related efforts at academic institutions and other agencies, to transfer pertinent information and avoid duplication of effort, will be a primary goal of the program. The major effort will focus on the complete coal extraction/reclamation cycle where necessary to develop solutions to ameliorating the environmental impacts of coal development. A long-range comprehensive national reclamation program will be established that can schedule and prioritize research activities in all of the major coal regions. A fully integrated data management system will be developed to store and manage relevant environmental and land use data. Nine research demonstration sites have been identified.

  17. Staunton 1 Reclamation Demonstration Project. Progress report for 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-12-01

    The Staunton 1 Reclamation Demonstration Project involves an evaluation of the reclamation process for a deep coal mine refuse system. A typical abandoned midwestern deep coal mine refuse site was selected, final land use was determined, baseline data were collected, engineering plans were developed and implemented, and a post-construction evaluation was begun. The project is a cooperative effort by two state agencies--the Abandoned Mined Land Reclamation Council of Illinois the Illinois Institute for Environmental Quality--and the U.S. Department of Energy through the Land Reclamation Program at Argonne National Laboratory. Current investigations are monitoring groundwater, surface water quality, aquatic ecosystems, revegetation, soil characteristics, erosion and runoff, soil microbial and soil fauna populations, wildlife, and economic effects of the reclamation effort. The research is a multidisciplinary approach to the concept of ecosystem response to reclamation.

  18. Trace element uptake by Eleocharis equisetina (spike rush) in an abandoned acid mine tailings pond, northeastern Australia: Implications for land and water reclamation in tropical regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lottermoser, Bernd G.; Ashley, Paul M.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the uptake of trace elements by the emergent wetland plant species Eleocharis equisetina at the historic Jumna tin processing plant, tropical Australia. The perennial emergent sedge was found growing in acid waters (pH 2.45) and metal-rich tailings (SnAsCuPbZn). E. equisetina displayed a pronounced acid tolerance and tendency to exclude environmentally significant elements (Al, As, Cd, Ce, Co, Cu, Fe, La, Ni, Pb, Se, Th, U, Y, Zn) from its above-substrate biomass. This study demonstrates that geobotanical and biogeochemical examinations of wetland plants at abandoned mined lands of tropical areas can reveal pioneering, metal-excluding macrophytes. Such aquatic macrophytes are of potential use in the remediation of acid mine waters and sulfidic tailings and the reclamation of disturbed acid sulfate soils in subtropical and tropical regions. - Highlights: → In tropical Australia, Eleocharis equisetina grows in an acid mine tailings pond. → Eleocharis equisetina excludes environmentally significant elements from its biomass. → Inspections of equatorial mined lands can reveal metal-excluding aquatic macrophytes. → Such plants are of use in land and water remediation in tropical regions. - The metal-excluding aquatic macrophyte Eleocharis equisetina is of use in land and water remediation in tropical regions.

  19. Trace element uptake by Eleocharis equisetina (spike rush) in an abandoned acid mine tailings pond, northeastern Australia: Implications for land and water reclamation in tropical regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lottermoser, Bernd G., E-mail: Bernd.Lottermoser@utas.edu.au [School of Earth Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 79, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); Ashley, Paul M. [Earth Sciences, University of New England, Armidale, New South Wales 2351 (Australia)

    2011-10-15

    This study was conducted to determine the uptake of trace elements by the emergent wetland plant species Eleocharis equisetina at the historic Jumna tin processing plant, tropical Australia. The perennial emergent sedge was found growing in acid waters (pH 2.45) and metal-rich tailings (SnAsCuPbZn). E. equisetina displayed a pronounced acid tolerance and tendency to exclude environmentally significant elements (Al, As, Cd, Ce, Co, Cu, Fe, La, Ni, Pb, Se, Th, U, Y, Zn) from its above-substrate biomass. This study demonstrates that geobotanical and biogeochemical examinations of wetland plants at abandoned mined lands of tropical areas can reveal pioneering, metal-excluding macrophytes. Such aquatic macrophytes are of potential use in the remediation of acid mine waters and sulfidic tailings and the reclamation of disturbed acid sulfate soils in subtropical and tropical regions. - Highlights: > In tropical Australia, Eleocharis equisetina grows in an acid mine tailings pond. > Eleocharis equisetina excludes environmentally significant elements from its biomass. > Inspections of equatorial mined lands can reveal metal-excluding aquatic macrophytes. > Such plants are of use in land and water remediation in tropical regions. - The metal-excluding aquatic macrophyte Eleocharis equisetina is of use in land and water remediation in tropical regions.

  20. Simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal (SNDPR) in a full-scale water reclamation plant located in warm climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qin; Shen, Nan; Lee, Zarraz M-P; Xu, Guangjing; Cao, Yeshi; Kwok, Beehong; Lay, Winson; Liu, Yu; Zhou, Yan

    The combination of simultaneous nitrification-denitrification (SND) with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) provides a more efficient and economically viable option for nutrient removal from municipal wastewater compared to conventional two-step nitrification-denitrification. This study analyzed the nutrients (N and P) profiles in a full-scale municipal wastewater reclamation plant (WRP) located in the tropical region, in which more than 90% of nitrogen was removed. Interestingly, average SND efficiency in aerobic zones was found to be up to 50%, whereas phosphorus profile displayed a clear cyclic release and uptake pattern with a phosphorus removal efficiency of up to 76%. The capability of sludge to perform SND and EBPR was further confirmed through a series of batch experiments. Microbial analysis revealed the presence of Accumulibacter and Tetrasphaera phosphate accumulating organisms in the plant, while few glycogen accumulating organisms (GAO) was observed. This study showed the significant occurrence of combined SND and EBPR, known as simultaneous nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal (SNDPR), in the studied WRP under warm climate. The possible causes behind the observed SNDPR were also discussed.

  1. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Cure

    2013-01-01

    Developing a method of agricultural field reclamation to native grasses in the Lower San Pedro Watershed could prove to be a valuable tool for educational and practical purposes. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production will address water table depletion, soil degradation and the economic viability of the communities within the watershed....

  2. Integrated Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC) with an anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) for low strength wastewater treatment, energy harvesting and water reclamation

    KAUST Repository

    Jimenez Sandoval, Rodrigo J.

    2013-11-01

    Shortage of potable water is a problem that affects many nations in the world and it will aggravate in a near future if pertinent actions are not carried out. Decrease in consumption, improvements in water distribution systems to avoid losses and more efficient water treatment processes are some actions that can be implemented to attack this problem. Membrane technology and biological processes are used in wastewater treatment to achieve high water quality standards. Some other technologies, besides water treatment, attempt to obtain energy from organic wastes present in water. In this study, a proof-of-concept was accomplished demonstrating that a Microbial Electrolysis Cell can be fully integrated with a Membrane Bioreactor to achieve wastewater treatment and harvest energy. Conductive hollow fiber membranes made of nickel functioned as both filter material for treated water reclamation and as a cathode to catalyze hydrogen production reaction. The produced hydrogen was subsequently converted into methane by hydrogenotrophic methanogens. Organic removal was 98.9% irrespective of operation mode. Maximum volumetric hydrogen production rate was 0.2 m3/m3d, while maximum current density achieved was 6.1 A/m2 (based on cathode surface area). Biofouling, an unavoidable phenomenon in traditional MBRs, can be minimized in this system through self-cleaning approach of hybrid membranes by hydrogen production. The increased rate of hydrogen evolution at high applied voltage (0.9 V) reduces the membrane fouling. Improvements can be done in the system to make it as a promising net energy positive technology for the low strength wastewater treatment.

  3. Greening reclamation of arid region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamichika, Makio [Tottori Univ. (Japan)

    1989-01-20

    Arid regions occupy a third of the whole land in the world, and desertification in the rimland makes a problem become more acute. It is also a problem that the large part of such areas is distributed in developing countries. Desertification is defined as a phenomenon, by which the ecological system is degenerated by the change of weather conditions and the pressure of human beings and livestock, and productivity of land is markedly deteriorated. In order to prevent desertification and to promote greening reclamation and agricultural development, it is necessary to analyze desertification mechanism in detail. Artificial factors are overpopulation, too much pasturage, and conversion of grassland into farmland. Natural environmental factors are weather conditions, water resources, soil conditions, etc. It is also important for greening reclamation and development of farm land to evaluate the amount of meteorological resources (such as water resources, energy resources, etc.) and to search for the possibility of their utilization. Because of major condition to grow plants is water environment, investigation and development of water resources are important. If a project ignores the cycle of the ecological system, it might be in danger of retrogradation toward desertification. 8 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. 43 CFR 404.49 - What criteria will Reclamation use to determine whether to recommend that a proposed rural water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... technologies to reduce water use and water system costs; (6) Addresses opportunities to take advantage of... saline waters, through innovative and economically viable treatment technologies; (5) Addresses... sponsor; (10) Demonstrates your financial capability to pay at least 25 percent of the design and...

  5. Regulation of strontium migration and translocation in chemical reclamation of acid soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichko, V.A.; Okonskij, A.I.; Shestakov, E.I.; Panov, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    Results of chemical testing are presented of the local reclamants (ashes of various deposits and ferrochromium plant slags) to study the possibilities of their use for chemical soil reclamation. Attention was paid to the investigation of pollutant (strontium) behaviour in the reclamant-acid soil-plant-ground water system. Tracer method was used, 85 Sr was applied as a label. Prospects of zeolite application to control the strontium behaviour following the reclamant introduction into soil were considered. It was shown that zeolite application permitted to regulate strontium behaviour in the reclamant-soil-plant-ground water system. At that the modified zeolites possessing high Sr selectivity are recommended for application

  6. Reclamation of grey water for non-potable purposes using pilot-scale solar photocatalytic tubular reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran, Sarangapany; Arunkumar, Patchaiyappan; Manjari, Gangarapu; Devipriya, Suja P

    2018-05-05

    Application of pilot-scale slurry-type tubular photocatalytic reactor was tested for the decentralized treatment of actual grey water. The reactors were fabricated by reusing the locally available materials at low cost, operated in batch recycle mode with 25 L of grey water. The influence of operational parameters such as catalysts' concentration, initial slurry pH and addition of H 2 O 2 on COD abatement were optimized. The results show that Ag-decorated TiO 2 showed a two-fold increase in COD abatement than did pure TiO 2 . Better COD abatement was observed under acidic conditions, and addition of H 2 O 2 significantly increases the rate of COD abatement. Within 2 h, 99% COD abatement was observed when the reactor was operated with optimum operational conditions. Silver ion lixiviate was also monitored during the experiment and is five times less than the permissible limits. The catalyst shows good stability even after five cycles without much loss in its photocatalytic activity. The results clearly reveal that pilot-scale slurry tubular solar photocatalytic reactors could be used as a cost-effective method to treat grey water and the resulting clean water could be reused for various non-potable purposes, thus conserving precious water resource. This study favours decentralized grey water treatment and possible scaling up of solar photocatalytic reactor using locally available materials for the potential reuse of treated water.

  7. Impacts of oil sands process water on fen plants: Implications for plant selection in required reclamation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouliot, Rémy; Rochefort, Line; Graf, Martha D.

    2012-01-01

    Fen plant growth in peat contaminated with groundwater discharges of oil sands process water (OSPW) was assessed in a greenhouse over two growing seasons. Three treatments (non-diluted OSPW, diluted OSPW and rainwater) were tested on five vascular plants and four mosses. All vascular plants tested can grow in salinity and naphthenic acids levels currently produced by oil sands activity in northwestern Canada. No stress sign was observed after both seasons. Because of plant characteristics, Carex species (C. atherodes and C. utriculata) and Triglochin maritima would be more useful for rapidly restoring vegetation and creating a new peat-accumulating system. Groundwater discharge of OSPW proved detrimental to mosses under dry conditions and ensuring adequate water levels would be crucial in fen creation following oil sands exploitation. Campylium stellatum would be the best choice to grow in contaminated areas and Bryum pseudotriquetrum might be interesting as it has spontaneously regenerated in all treatments. - Highlights: ► Fen plant growth was assessed under groundwater discharges of oil sands process water. ► Sedge and grass species were not stressed after two growing seasons in greenhouse. ► Carex species and Triglochin maritima would be helpful in created contaminated fens. ► In dry conditions, contaminated groundwater discharge was detrimental for mosses. ► Campylium stellatum would be the best choice in created fens with contaminated water. - Sedges and grasses tolerated the contact with oil sands process water and could probably grow well in contaminated created fens, but mosses were particularly affected under dry conditions.

  8. Impact of biocrust succession on water retention and repellency on open-cast lignite mining sites under reclamation in Lower Lusatia, NE-Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gypser, Stella; Fischer, Thomas; Lange, Philipp; Veste, Maik

    2016-04-01

    caused by bryophytes. The determination of the water retention curves showed an increase of the water holding capacity, especially in conjunction with the growth of green algae layer. The absorption capacity of soil crust biota as well as a decreased pore diameter in the green algae layers positively affected the water retention of crusted soil compared to pure substrate. The occurrence of bryophytes with later succession weakened the repellent behavior of the biocrusts, increased infiltration, and might have affected the run-off at small-scale on biocrusts. Certainly, the biological soil crusts showed water repellent properties but no distinctive hydrophobic characteristics. On both locations, similar trends of water repellency and retention related to crustal formation were observed, in spite of different relief, reclamation time and inhomogeneous distribution of crustal organisms. References Gypser, S., Veste, M., Fischer, T., Lange, P. (2016): Infiltration and water retention of biological soil crusts on reclaimed soils of former open-cast lignite mining sites in Brandenburg, north-east Germany, Journal of Hydrology and Hydromechanics, accepted 12. November 2015. Gypser, S., Veste, M., Fischer, T., Lange, P. (2015): Formation of soil lichen crusts at reclaimed post-mining sites, Lower Lusatia, North-east Germany. Graphis Scripta 27: 3-14.

  9. Forward osmosis for the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate from water reclamation: process performance and fouling control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazner, C; Jamil, S; Phuntsho, S; Shon, H K; Wintgens, T; Vigneswaran, S

    2014-01-01

    While high quality water reuse based on dual membrane filtration (membrane filtration or ultrafiltration, followed by reverse osmosis) is expected to be progressively applied, treatment and sustainable management of the produced reverse osmosis concentrate (ROC) are still important issues. Forward osmosis (FO) is a promising technology for maximising water recovery and further dewatering ROC so that zero liquid discharge is produced. Elevated concentrations of organic and inorganic compounds may act as potential foulants of the concentrate desalting system, in that they consist of, for example, FO and a subsequent crystallizer. The present study investigated conditions under which the FO system can serve as concentration phase with the focus on its fouling propensity using model foulants and real ROC. Bulk organics from ROC consisted mainly of humic acids (HA) and building blocks since wastewater-derived biopolymers were retained by membrane filtration or ultrafiltration. Organic fouling of the FO system by ROC-derived bulk organics was low. HA was only adsorbed moderately at about 7% of the initial concentration, causing a minor flux decline of about 2-4%. However, scaling was a major impediment to this process if not properly controlled, for instance by pH adjustment or softening.

  10. Land reclamation in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2009-01-01

    on fieldwork in a village in the new lands; it is inhabited by graduates who have received land under the Mubarak Project. The analysis shows that they move there in hope of making a better life especially for their children. Nevertheless, the settlers have difficulties building a sense of belonging to the new....... This paper examines from a micro-perspective, the life of Egyptians resettled in the new lands. The first part of the paper provides an introduction to the discourses of land reclamation, to the policies of reclaimed land distribution, and to the background of the settlers. The second part is based...

  11. Design of 90-mgd wastewater reclamation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, C.B.; Kluesener, J.W.; Lazarus, E.

    1981-01-01

    Ninety MGD of municipal secondary effluent is to be reclaimed for use as cooling water in the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station in Arizona. The water reclamation plant design criteria are presented for nitrification, lime-soda softening, filtration, and sludge processing. In-pipe storage is used for flow equalization. Forced air down-draft trickling filters with computer-controlled recycle are used for nitrification. Effluent recirculation is used to maintain constant sludge blanket dept in the upflow solids contact clarifier softening units. An influent flow-splitting, gravity-backwash, dual-media filter is used for final suspended solids removal. Rheological data was used in the hydraulic design of sludge piping. Computerized automatic flushing also aids in preventing sludge pumping problems. Reclamation plant design and construction are integrated in one Engineering-Procurement-Construction project conducted by a single company. 5 refs

  12. Spray Lakes reclamation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacaruk, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    When the level of the Spray Lakes (Alberta) reservoir was lowered by four metres, 208 ha of shoreline was exposed offering little to no wildlife benefit and only limited recreation potential. A reclamation plan for 128 ha of shoreline was therefore developed. A wild life-palatable, self-sustaining vegetation cover was established. Approximately 90 ha was scarified, and/or had tree stumps removed prior to seeding, while approximately 40 ha was seeded and fertilized only. The remaining 80 ha of shoreline was not revegetated due to limited access; these areas will be allowed to re-establish naturally from the forested edge. The species were selected based on their adaptation to alkaline soils, drought tolerance, persistence in a stand and rooting characteristics, as well as palatability to wildlife. Alfalfa, white clover and fall rye were seeded. In general, all areas of the reclamation plan are successfully revegetated. Areas which were recontoured are stable and non-eroding. Success was most significant in areas which had been scarified, then seeded and trackpacked. Areas that were seeded and fertilized only were less well established at the end of the first year, but showed improvement in the second and third years. The area will be monitored to ensure the reclaimed vegetation is self-sustaining

  13. Coal mine site reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Coal mine sites can have significant effects on local environments. In addition to the physical disruption of land forms and ecosystems, mining can also leave behind a legacy of secondary detrimental effects due to leaching of acid and trace elements from discarded materials. This report looks at the remediation of both deep mine and opencast mine sites, covering reclamation methods, back-filling issues, drainage and restoration. Examples of national variations in the applicable legislation and in the definition of rehabilitation are compared. Ultimately, mine site rehabilitation should return sites to conditions where land forms, soils, hydrology, and flora and fauna are self-sustaining and compatible with surrounding land uses. Case studies are given to show what can be achieved and how some landscapes can actually be improved as a result of mining activity.

  14. Municipal water reclamation of industrial water use in Mexico; Recuperacion de aguas municpales para su uso como aguas industrailes en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamez, G.; Ramos, R.; Aerts, P.; Guzman, E.; Pachecho, J. c.

    2009-07-01

    This article describes how treated domestic wastewater in a Mexican desert area is reused by a local mining and metallurgical company for process water make-up. With increasing production of treated domestic wastewater, the company's water reuse facilities were continuously expanded over the last ten years. Today, four water reuse plants run with reverse osmosis membranes. With water being a limiting factor, they have enabled the scale-up of mining operations. (Author)

  15. Conservation and reclamation at Alberta's mineable oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdy, B.; Richens, T. [Alberta Environment, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The regulatory foundation for oil sands in this region is established by the Energy Resources Conservation Board, Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act (EPEA), as well as the Water Act. This presentation discussed the regulatory foundation for conservation and reclamation in the mineable oil sands region. EPEA requirements and conservation objectives were identified. EPEA conservation and reclamation requirements stipulate that an operator must conserve and reclaim and obtain a reclamation certificate. EPEA approvals that were presented compared prescriptive standards versus meeting outcomes at certification. Operational and management challenges as well as the role of research networks and multi-stakeholder organizations were also addressed. Challenge facing the industry include progressive reclamation; tailings management and process-affected water; reclamation certification; integrated landscapes; soil handling and revegetation and monitoring and research. The presentation demonstrated that reclamation begins with mine planning and ends with certification. figs.

  16. The chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics of typical bath and laundry waste waters. [waste water reclamation during manned space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hypes, W. D.; Batten, C. E.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    Chemical/physical and microbiological characteristics are studied of typical bath and laundry waters collected during a 12 day test in which the untreated waste waters were reused for toilet flush. Most significant changes were found for ammonia, color, methylene blue active substances, phosphates, sodium, sulfates, total organic carbon, total solids, and turbidity in comparison with tap water baseline. The mean total number of microorganisms detected in the waste waters ranged from 1 million to 10 to the 7th power cells/m1 and the mean number of possible coliforms ranged from 10 to the 5th power to 1 million. An accumulation of particulates and an objectible odor were detected in the tankage used during the 12 day reuse of the untreated waste waters. The combined bath and laundry waste waters from a family of four provided 91 percent of the toilet flush water for the same family.

  17. Coal mine reclamation: the cooperative approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazenko, E J; Kuhn, J A

    1976-07-01

    Salient problems encountered in coal mine reclamation include land use and environmental protection values, license applications and subsequent reports, and the development of sound reclamation planning programs. The facts of life to be dealt with in reclamation and reclamation planning include encounters with negative attitudes toward reclamation, basic physics, chemistry, biology and geology, and the ability or inability to respond properly. The cooperative approach to reclamation includes interfacing with mining company personnel, government agencies, public-interest groups and consultants. Some promising solutions to reclamation, especially in alpine and subalpine regions, include handling of materials and organic test plot research.

  18. Water-Rights Settlements and Reclamation in Central Arizona as a Cross-Cultural Experience: A Reexamination of Native Water Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    As of December 2010, the US Congress had enacted more than twenty major community-specific Native water-rights settlements, and the state of Arizona had more of these settlements (eight) than any other US state. This unique situation has invited voluminous studies on Arizona's Native water-rights settlements. Although these studies have clarified…

  19. The Karvina Township reclamation concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, J.; Orsag, H.; Dirner, V.

    1997-01-01

    The paper contains a summary of all reclamation activities in the Karvina township territory, Czech Republic, including those completed, those being worked at, and those under preparation. All projects are connected with changes of the landscape due to coal extraction. The landscape reclamation requires a certain volume of mine waste and of soil. The policy, as presented in this paper, has been submitted for approval by the Municipal Council

  20. Waste water integrated reclamation system in the University of the Balearic Islands; Sistema integral de depuracion de aguas residuales en la Universitat de les Illes Balears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amengual Morro, C.; Moya Niell, G.; Forss Sanchez, A.

    2007-07-01

    In 2001, the University of the Balearic Island carried out a project on the reclamation and reuse of wastewater in an extensive system. the system is composed of three phases: waste stabilization ponds, wetland and planted tree filters. the first phase is now complete. We show the preliminary data which characterised the ponds including those where floating macrophyte Eichhornia carssipes) were used, paying specific attention to the operation and maintenance. finally this study is centred on the thermal stratification and temperature inversion in relation with the generation of odours. (Author) 22 refs.

  1. Nanosized Linde Type A Zeolites Providing Water-Selective Transport Pathways Through Chlorine Tolerant Polymers in Molecular Sieve Nanocomposite (MoSIN) Membranes for Reclamation of Impaired Waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — One of the challenges currently faced by NASA is providing clean water from the limited supplies available in the isolated environment of a space shuttle or station....

  2. Experimental verification of the energetic model of the dry mechanical reclamation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dańko

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental results of the dry mechanical reclamation process, which constituted the bases for the verification of the energetic model of this process, developed by the author on the grounds of the Rittinger’s deterministic hypothesis of the crushing process, are presented in the paper. Used foundry sands with bentonite, with water-glass from the floster technology and used sands with furan FL 105 resin were used in the reclamation tests. In the mechanical and mechanical-cryogenic reclamation a wide range of time variations and reclamation conditions influencing intensity of the reclamation process – covering all possible parameters used in industrial devices - were applied. The developed theoretical model constitutes a new tool allowing selecting optimal times for the reclamation treatment of the given spent foundry sand at the assumed process intensity realized in rotor reclaimers - with leaves or rods as grinding elements mounted horizontally on the rotor axis.

  3. BUILDING MATERIALS RECLAMATION PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David C. Weggel; Shen-En Chen; Helene Hilger; Fabien Besnard; Tara Cavalline; Brett Tempest; Adam Alvey; Madeleine Grimmer; Rebecca Turner

    2010-08-31

    This report describes work conducted on the Building Materials Reclamation Program for the period of September 2008 to August 2010. The goals of the project included selecting materials from the local construction and demolition (C&D) waste stream and developing economically viable reprocessing, reuse or recycling schemes to divert them from landfill storage. Educational resources as well as conceptual designs and engineering feasibility demonstrations were provided for various aspects of the work. The project was divided into two distinct phases: Research and Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination. In the Research Phase, a literature review was initiated and data collection commenced, an advisory panel was organized, and research was conducted to evaluate high volume C&D materials for nontraditional use; five materials were selected for more detailed investigations. In the Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination Phase, a conceptual study for a regional (Mecklenburg and surrounding counties) collection and sorting facility was performed, an engineering feasibility project to demonstrate the viability of recycling or reuse schemes was created, the literature review was extended and completed, and pedagogical materials were developed. Over the two-year duration of the project, all of the tasks and subtasks outlined in the original project proposal have been completed. The Final Progress Report, which briefly describes actual project accomplishments versus the tasks/subtasks of the original project proposal, is included in Appendix A of this report. This report describes the scientific/technical aspects (hypotheses, research/testing, and findings) of six subprojects that investigated five common C&D materials. Table 1 summarizes the six subprojects, including the C&D material studied and the graduate student and the faculty advisor on each subproject.

  4. Building Materials Reclamation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weggel, David C.; Chen, Shen-En; Hilger, Helene; Besnard, Fabien; Cavalline, Tara; Tempest, Brett; Alvey, Adam; Grimmer, Madeleine; Turner, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This report describes work conducted on the Building Materials Reclamation Program for the period of September 2008 to August 2010. The goals of the project included selecting materials from the local construction and demolition (C and D) waste stream and developing economically viable reprocessing, reuse or recycling schemes to divert them from landfill storage. Educational resources as well as conceptual designs and engineering feasibility demonstrations were provided for various aspects of the work. The project was divided into two distinct phases: Research and Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination. In the Research Phase, a literature review was initiated and data collection commenced, an advisory panel was organized, and research was conducted to evaluate high volume C and D materials for nontraditional use; five materials were selected for more detailed investigations. In the Engineering Feasibility and Dissemination Phase, a conceptual study for a regional (Mecklenburg and surrounding counties) collection and sorting facility was performed, an engineering feasibility project to demonstrate the viability of recycling or reuse schemes was created, the literature review was extended and completed, and pedagogical materials were developed. Over the two-year duration of the project, all of the tasks and subtasks outlined in the original project proposal have been completed. The Final Progress Report, which briefly describes actual project accomplishments versus the tasks/subtasks of the original project proposal, is included in Appendix A of this report. This report describes the scientific/technical aspects (hypotheses, research/testing, and findings) of six subprojects that investigated five common C and D materials. Table 1 summarizes the six subprojects, including the C and D material studied and the graduate student and the faculty advisor on each subproject.

  5. 30 CFR 902.20 - Approval of Alaska abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... available at: (a) Department of Natural Resources, Division of Mining and Water Management, 3601 C Street... reclamation plan. 902.20 Section 902.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ALASKA...

  6. 30 CFR 942.800 - Bond and insurance requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required for postmining water treatment must remain bonded. However, the trust fund or annuity may serve as... coal mining and reclamation operations. 942.800 Section 942.800 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING...

  7. Mechanization for Optimal Landscape Reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráčková, Terezie; Voštová, Věra; Kraus, Michal

    2017-12-01

    Reclamation is a method of ultimate utilization of land adversely affected by mining or other industrial activity. The paper explains the types of reclamation and the term “optimal reclamation”. Technological options of the long-lasting process of mine dumps reclamation starting with the removal of overlying rocks, transport and backfilling up to the follow-up remodelling of the mine dumps terrain. Technological units and equipment for stripping flow division. Stripping flow solution with respect to optimal reclamation. We recommend that the application of logistic chains and mining simulation with follow-up reclamation to open-pit mines be used for the implementation of optimal reclamation. In addition to a database of local heterogeneities of the stripped soil and reclaimed land, the flow of earths should be resolved in a manner allowing the most suitable soil substrate to be created for the restoration of agricultural and forest land on mine dumps. The methodology under development for the solution of a number of problems, including the geological survey of overlying rocks, extraction of stripping, their transport and backfilling in specified locations with the follow-up deployment of goal-directed reclamation. It will make possible to reduce the financial resources needed for the complex process chain by utilizing GIS, GPS and DGPS technologies, logistic tools and synergistic effects. When selecting machines for transport, moving and spreading of earths, various points of view and aspects must be taken into account. Among such aspects are e.g. the kind of earth to be operated by the respective construction machine, the kind of work activities to be performed, the machine’s capacity, the option to control the machine’s implement and economic aspects and clients’ requirements. All these points of view must be considered in the decision-making process so that the selected machine is capable of executing the required activity and that the use of an

  8. Reclamation of opencut spoil piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-07-01

    A successful reclamation program requires definite physical/engineering guidelines, a specific time commitment and to be fully integrated in the mining operation enabling most efficient use of available resources. This statement should be immediately qualified by saying that there must be enough flexibility to allow for varying mine layouts, plans and conditions. Mine conditions include physical and chemical spoil properties, climatic conditions and local topographic effects. Whilst reclamation is the responsibility of individual mine managers, the author undertakes a co-ordinating function amongst mine environmental officers to ensure that experience gained is recorded. Exchange of information between mines is maintained and there is a minimum duplication of effort.

  9. Mining and Reclamation Technology Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None Available

    1999-06-24

    The Mining and Reclamation Technology Symposium was commissioned by the Mountaintop Removal Mining/Valley Fill Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) Interagency Steering Committee as an educational forum for the members of the regulatory community who will participate in the development of the EIS. The Steering Committee sought a balanced audience to ensure the input to the regulatory community reflected the range of perspectives on this complicated and emotional issue. The focus of this symposium is on mining and reclamation technology alternatives, which is one of eleven topics scheduled for review to support development of the EIS. Others include hydrologic, environmental, ecological, and socio-economic issues.

  10. Achieving land use potential through reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Papers are presented under the headings: policy, rules and regulations; surface mine spoil and soil; wetlands technical division; forestry and wildlife technical division; abatement and treatment of acidic conditions; wetlands technical division; ecological evaluations of reclamation success; international tailing reclamation technical division; disposal and utilization of coal combustion residues; landscape architecture technical division; impacts and biological treatment of acidic drainage; reclamation with trees and woods shrubs; reclamation and restoration practices; and ultimate land use

  11. Abandoned coal mine refuse areas: their reclamation and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S. D.; Carter, R. P.

    1977-01-01

    There are over 4,000 abandoned deep coal mine refuse areas in Illinois ranging in size from a few acres to as large as 160 acres. These sites produce quantities of pollutants which affect the environment, have no real land value, and are a scar on the landscape. The Staunton 1 Site Reclamation Demonstration Project addressess these problems. It also is developing and evaluating new cost-effective methods for reclaiming refuse areas of this type. The program involved determining the final land use for the site, development of detailed engineering plans and specifications for the reclamation effort, a prereclamation environmental inventory, and implementation. Post-construction evaluation is now in process to determine the effectiveness of the reclamation effort. Detailed investigations are being conducted to determine surface water quality improvement, the amount of suitable surface cover and amendments required for revegetation, and field evaluation of candidate vegetation species for revegetation. Other research is examining soil microbial populations, soil fauna reactions, and changes in surface material characteristics at the reclamation site. Surveys are being conducted on groundwater quality, effects on the aquatic ecosystem, and wildlife use of the area. An economic evaluation is underway to determine the cost effectiveness of the total effort and of individual reclamation procedures. Preliminary results from the first year's environmental evaluation of various method tested will be described in detail. An economic assessment, including cost effectiveness, of the first year's work is given.

  12. 7 CFR 632.21 - Reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reclamation plan. 632.21 Section 632.21 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL ABANDONED MINE PROGRAM Participation § 632.21 Reclamation plan. (a) Responsibility. Land users are responsible for developing a reclamation plan that will serve as a basis for a...

  13. 31 CFR 235.5 - Reclamation amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reclamation amounts. 235.5 Section 235.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... ON DESIGNATED DEPOSITARIES § 235.5 Reclamation amounts. Amounts received by way of reclamation on...

  14. Land reclamation on the Nevada Test Site: A field tour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkel, V.K.; Ostler, W.K.

    1993-01-01

    An all-day tour to observe and land reclamation on the Nevada Test Site was conducted in conjunction with the 8th Wildland Shrub and Arid Land Restoration Symposium. Tour participants were introduced to the US Department of Energy reclamation programs for Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project and Treatability Studies for Soil Media (TSSM) Project. The tour consisted of several stops that covered a variety of topics and studies including revegetation by seeding, topsoil stockpile stabilization, erosion control, shrub transplanting, shrub herbivory, irrigation, mulching, water harvesting, and weather monitoring

  15. An exploration of Bureau of Reclamation approaches for managing conflict over diverging science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkardt, Nina; Ruell, Emily; Clark, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    As a major institutional agent supplying Western water resources, the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) provides important leadership, technical, and financial resources in water management, serving as the West's "water broker" (Bowersox 2000; Pisani 2003). In recent years, growing numbers of constituencies using water and the over-allocation of water resources have contributed to conflict over the resource in the American West (National Research Council 2004). Although the conflicts arise from many sources, one common theme is that Reclamation managers often must make decisions about water use and allocation when scientific studies provide uncertain or competing recommendations. We conducted a preliminary study of Reclamation water managers and water scientists to try to understand the approaches or techniques they use or consider useful for dealing with scientific conflicts over water allocation and how these compare to techniques found in the relevant literature. We report the results of (1) an electronic survey of Reclamation senior managers and (2) a panel discussion amongst Reclamation senior managers as to the current institutional capabilities for managing diverging scientific findings in water dispute resolution processes. We conclude with a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the different tools and techniques managers reported in the survey and in the panel discussion.

  16. Surface mining and land reclamation in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nephew, E.A.

    1972-05-01

    Mining and land restoration methods as well as planning and regulatory procedures employed in West Germany to ameliorate environmental impacts from large-scale surface mining are described. The Rhineland coalfield in North Rhine Westphalia contains some 55 billion tons of brown-coal (or lignite), making the region one of Europe's most important energy centers. The lignite is extracted from huge, open-pit mines, resulting in large areas of disturbed land. The German reclamation approach is characterized by planning and carrying out the mining process as one continuum from early planning to final restoration of land and its succeeding use. Since the coalfield is located in a populated region with settlements dating back to Roman times, whole villages lying in the path of the mining operations sometimes have to be evacuated and relocated. Even before mining begins, detailed concepts must be worked out for the new landscape which will follow: the topography, the water drainage system, lakes and forests, and the intended land-use pattern are designed and specified in advance. Early, detailed planning makes it possible to coordinate mining and concurrent land reclamation activities. The comprehensive approach permits treating the overall problem as a whole rather than dealing with its separate aspects on a piecemeal basis.

  17. Changing knowledge needs for wellsite reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.

    1996-01-01

    The educational and informational sources available in the field of land reclamation were reviewed, and a qualitative assessment of their effectiveness was made. The focus was on reclamation of abandoned petroleum wellsite and related facilities within the province of Alberta. The review showed that land reclamation involves knowledge and experience from several scientific disciplines, as well as technological expertise, an understanding of the legislative environment and the impacts of such legislation on stakeholders who are party to a site reclamation. Since the combination of these necessary skills is not always present, there is a need for formalized educational opportunities. The review identified a number of institutions offering reclamation related programs; also professional and industry associations which also provide reliable and consistent information. By contrast, regulatory requirements frequently contain inconsistencies between reclamation criteria and common law; these should be addressed and remedied as soon as practicable. 1 ref

  18. Reclamation with a purpose. Proceedings of a joint conference of ASMR 19th annual national conference and IALR 6th international conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnhisel, R.; Collins, M. (eds.) [American Society of Mining and Reclamation, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2002-07-01

    The conference covers the following topics: ecology; forestry and wildlife; geotechnical engineering; inter, tailing and reclamation; land use planning and design; soils and overburden and water management.

  19. Oil sands tailings technology : understanding the impact to reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamer, M. [Suncor Energy Inc., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed tailings management techniques at oil sands mines and their effects on reclamation schedules and outcomes. The layer of mature fine tailings (MFT) that forms in tailings ponds does not settle within a reasonable time frame, requiring more and larger tailings ponds for storing MFT. Consolidated tailings (CT) technology was developed to accelerate the consolidation of MFT, although the process nonetheless takes decades. CT is produced from mixing tailings sand, gypsum, and MFT to create a mixture that will consolidate more quickly and release water. However, CT production is tied to the extraction process, making it applicable only when the plant is operational, and a precise recipe and accurate injection are required for CT to work. In tailings reduction operations (TRO), a new approach to tailings management, MFT is mixed with a polymer flocculant, deposited in thin layers, and allowed to dry. TRO has a significant advantage over CT in that the latter takes up to 30 years to consolidate to a trafficable surface compared to weeks for TRO. TRO allows MFT to be consumed more quickly than it is produced, reducing need to build more tailings ponds, operates independent of plant operations, accelerates the reclamation time frame, and offers enhanced flexibility in final tailings placement sites. TRO also creates a dry landscape, to which well established reclamation techniques can be applied. Dried MFT is a new material type, and research is exploring optimum reclamation techniques. 2 figs.

  20. 75 FR 15453 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Westlands Water District Drainage Repayment Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Westlands Water District Drainage Repayment Contract AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Proposed Repayment Contract. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Reclamation will be initiating negotiations with the...

  1. Draft reclamation program plan for site characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    As part of its obligations under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, as amended, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed an environmental program that is to be implemented during site characterization at the Yucca Mountain site. This site is proposed for the location of the nation's first high-level radioactive waste repository. A program for the reclamation of areas disturbed by site characterization is part of the overall environmental program for that site. This Reclamation Program Plan (RPP) describes the reclamation policy of the DOE for the Yucca Mountain site and presents an overview of the reclamation program. The RPP also provides an overview of the reclamation needs relative to site characterization; a review of legislation and requirements pertinent to reclamation; and a review of previous commitments made by the DOE to certain types of reclamation activities. The objective of the DOE reclamation program at Yucca Mountain is to return land disturbed by site-characterization activities to a stable ecological state with a form and productivity similar to the predisturbance state. The DOE will take all reasonable and necessary steps to achieve this objective. 19 refs., 2 tabs

  2. 36 CFR 9.11 - Reclamation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Mining and Mining Claims § 9.11 Reclamation requirements. (a) As contemporaneously as... within the time specified in an approved mining reclamation plan, unless a longer period is authorized in... topsoil necessary for vegetative restoration; and (vi) Reestablishing native vegetative communities. (b...

  3. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, T.M.; Stewart, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Economically feasible processes that reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids by reclaiming, reusing, and recycling spent acids and metal salts are being developed and demonstrated. The acids used in the demonstrations are generated during metal-finishing operations used in nuclear fuel fabrication; HF-HNO 3 , HNO 3 , and HNO 3 -H 2 SO 4 wastes result from Zr etching, Cu stripping, and chemical milling of U. At discharge, wastes contain high concentrations of acid and one major metal impurity. The waste minimization process used to reclaim acid from these three streams incorporates three processes for acid regeneration and reclamation. Normally, HNO 3 remains in the bottoms when an aqueous acid solution is distilled; however, in the presence of H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 will distill to the overhead stream. In this process, nitrates and fluorides present as free acid and metal salts can be reclaimed as acid for recycle to the metal-finishing processes. Uranium present in the chemical milling solution can be economically recovered from distillation bottoms and refined. Using acid distillation, the volume of chemical milling solution discharged as waste can be reduced by as much as 60% depending on the H 2 SO 4 concentration. A payback period of 2.2 years has been estimated for this process. The development and demonstration of precipitation and distillation processes for detoxification and reclamation of waste acid is supported by the US Department of Energy's Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)

  4. Jiangsu coastal highland reclamation and its wetland ecological construction-a case analysis of the Tiaozini reclamation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Meixiu; Xu, Xianghong

    2017-04-01

    ,developing more suitable water bird habitats by reserving natural ecological wetland and restoring affected wetland. The TRP is attempting to be built as an ecological cultivation demonstration integrated with ecological restoration, science research and education, and ecological leisure respectively. To better protecting and restoring tidal wetland, and for sustainable utilization and management of wetland resource, Jiangsu coast development group CO., Ltd (it is in charge of the TRP reclamation and development), Hohai University and Deltares signed a triple cooperation strategic framework agreement, co-building the Jiangsu Province coastal development and ecological construction engineering center. Besides, routine surveys in ecological, hydrological, topographic data in/around the TRP are also carrying out as well as the ecological compensations.

  5. Disputes over science and dispute resolution approaches - A survey of Bureau of Reclamation employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkardt, Nina; Ruell, Emily W.

    2012-01-01

    Water resources in parts of the Western United States are over-allocated, which intensifies the pressure to support water management decisions with strong scientific evidence. Because scientific studies sometimes provide uncertain or competing results or recommendations, science can become a source of disputes during decision-making processes. The Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) is an important water manager in the Western United States, and Reclamation decision processes are often contested by a variety of affected constituencies. We conducted a Web-based survey of Reclamation employees to determine (1) which types of disputes over science are occurring and how common they are, (2) which approaches have been used by Reclamation to try to resolve these different types of disputes, (3) how useful Reclamation employees find these approaches at resolving these types of disputes, (4) the final outcomes of these disputes and the decision-making processes that were hindered by the disputes over science, and (5) the potential usefulness of several different types of dispute resolution resources that Reclamation could provide for employees that become involved in disputes over science. The calculated minimum response rate for the survey was 59 percent. Twenty-five percent of respondents indicated that they had been involved in a dispute over science while working at Reclamation. Native species and species listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 were the most common issue types reported in these disputes over science. Survey respondents indicated that they used a variety of approaches to resolve disputes over science and rated most approaches as either neutral or somewhat helpful in these endeavors. Future research is needed to determine whether there are additional variables underlying these disputes that were not measured in this survey that may identify when dispute resolution methods are most effective, or whether resolving aspects of these disputes, such as

  6. Temporal-spatial variations and driving factors analysis of coastal reclamation in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Weiqing; Hu, Beibei; He, Mengxuan; Liu, Baiqiao; Mo, Xunqiang; Li, Hongyuan; Wang, Zhongliang; Zhang, Yu

    2017-05-01

    Coastal reclamation is the gain of land from the sea or coastal wetlands for agricultural purposes, industrial use or port expansions. Large-scale coastal land reclamation can have adverse effects on the coastal environment, including loss of marine habitats and deterioration of coastal water quality. In recent decades, coastal land reclamation has occurred extensively to meet the increasing needs of rapid economic development and urbanization in China. The overall objective of this study is to understand the coastal reclamation status of China from 1979 to 2014 and analyzed its driving factors for mitigating negative ecological effects. The data of coastal reclamation were done with the ERDAS Imagine V9.2 platform and ArcGIS software based on remote images including Landsat, SPOT, ZY-2 and ZY-3. Potential driving factors for sea reclamation were selected based on statistics bulletins and the knowledge of experts in coastal management. In order to understand the relationships among possible impact factors and coastal reclamation, the Partial Least-Squares Regression models was constructed. The analysis results indicated that the total area of reclamation was 11162.89 km2 based on remote sensing images between 1979 and 2014. Shandong Province is the largest reclamation area, reaching 2736.54 km2, and the reclamation is mainly concentrated in Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Liaoning, where the reclamation areas were all more than 1000 km2. According to the remote sensing images, there are three coastal reclamation hotspot regions including Bohai bay (in which is located Liaoning, Tianjin and Hebei), Jiangsu province coastal area and Hangzhou bay (in Zhejiang province). A large scale land reclamation plan of more than 5880 km2 has been made by local government and 2469 km2 has approved by the State Council. From the analyzed results, there is a significant collinearity between these indicators, and no significant correlation between the area of reclamation and selected

  7. 75 FR 42774 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water- Related Contract Actions AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... region in the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michelle Kelly, Water...

  8. 76 FR 44948 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water- Related Contract Actions AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Michelle Kelly, Water and Environmental...

  9. Progress with the reclamation of saline soils in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The present report is the result of five years' experimental work at the Costa Regional Development Institute (IRD-Costa), based in Canete, Lima, Peru, on the reclamation of land affected by salts and hence of seriously limited agricultural value (production lower than 50%). A reclamation method combining surface and at depth washing with artificial drainage of excess water has been tried out and a method of nutrition has been developed which is based on tonification of the seeds before sowing. The results obtained are rather encouraging, so the method looks very promising, especially as it also makes for considerable savings in fertilizers (some 20% less) and for better yields per unit area. Once the ionic behaviour of this method has been studied by means of radioisotopes a large contribution will have been made towards alleviating the problem of saline soils. (author)

  10. Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

    1986-01-01

    KLM Technologies was recently awarded a contract by the Department of Energy for a Phase II demonstration of an optimized full-scale prototype membrane system including performance evaluation under plant operating conditions. The program will serve as the catalyst for developing technology to augment the industry's incentive toward innovative and compact volume reduction alternatives for PWRs. The development and demonstration of the KLM Boric Acid Reclamation System, which is readily retrofitted into existing PWR facilities, will provide a positive means of reducing PWR waste volumes without requiring the $25-50 million equipment and support facility expenditures associated with most liquid waste volume reduction systems. This new application for membrane separation technology can reduce waste by upward of 50 percent for two-thirds of the operating nuclear plants in the U.S. The use of membrane technology has demonstrated significant process potential in radwaste and related applications. Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Ultrafiltration (UF) can provide selective filtration capability and concentrate contaminants without the need of filter aids, thus minimizing the requirements of chemical regeneration, costly resins, and major process equipment with large auxiliary heat supplies. KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing RO and UF to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase I Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs

  11. Design and development of a prototype wet oxidation system for the reclamation of water and the disposition of waste residues onboard space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagow, R. B.

    1972-01-01

    Laboratory investigations to define optimum process conditions for oxidation of fecal/urine slurries were conducted in a one-liter batch reactor. The results of these tests formed the basis for the design, fabrication, and testing of an initial prototype system, including a 100-hour design verification test. Areas of further development were identified during this test. Development of a high pressure slurry pump, materials corrosion studies, oxygen supply trade studies, comparison of salt removal water recovery devices, ammonia removal investigation, development of a solids grinder, reactor design studies and bearing life tests, and development of shutoff valves and a back pressure regulator were undertaken. The development work has progressed to the point where a prototype system suitable for manned chamber testing can be fabricated and tested with a high degree of confidence of success.

  12. 30 CFR 874.13 - Reclamation objectives and priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reclamation objectives and priorities. 874.13... INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.13 Reclamation objectives...)(2)(ii) of this section. (b) This paragraph applies to State or Tribal share funds available under...

  13. 43 CFR 422.3 - Reclamation law enforcement policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reclamation law enforcement policy. 422.3 Section 422.3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITY AT BUREAU OF RECLAMATION PROJECTS § 422.3 Reclamation law enforcement policy. The law enforcement...

  14. Indian Creek-AML: Coal slurry reclamation (Kansas case history)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witthar, S.R.

    1998-01-01

    Black and Veatch, assisted by Jack Nawrot, developed conceptual and final designs and provided construction assistance to create grasslands and wetlands in order to reclaim an abandoned coal mine for the state of Kansas. The mine included spoils, a coal refuse dump, and slurry pond in the Indian Creek drainage basin in east central Kansas. The Indian Creek flowed from an off-site abandoned mine and through the coal slurry pond where its waters became more polluted. The intent of the reclamation project was to improve water quality and create a wildlife refuge. The coal refuse was covered and seeded with a diversity of vegetation including several grasses and legume. The slurry pond was developed into a series of large wetland cells to improve water quality. Prior to reclamation, the water leaving the site had a typical pH of 3.3, ranging from 2.4 to 5.6, an iron content which typically over 22 mg/L and ranging over 100 mg/L, and contained large amounts of coal slurry. The acid sediment in the slurry killed fish and caused visible damage to a new large concrete box culvert several miles downstream of the site. Post-reclamation water quality leaving the Indian Creek site showed immediate improvement even before vegetation was reestablished. The existing wetland treatment systems have been successfully treating water for over seven years with the pH of the water leaving the wetlands above 7 and soluble iron content less than 1 mg/L. Fish in the constructed wetlands support waterfowl which now nest onsite

  15. Metal concentrations and mobility in marine sediment and groundwater in coastal reclamation areas: A case study in Shenzhen, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Kouping; Jiao, Jiu J.

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations of metals in the buried marine sediment and groundwater were differently affected by land reclamation. Nine metals (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in sediment and coastal groundwater from reclamation areas in Shenzhen were examined. The gradually decreased concentrations (V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn) in sediment and relatively higher concentrations (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu and Cd) in groundwater within reclamation areas were observed. The increase of V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu and Cd concentrations in groundwater within reclamation areas subsequently after land reclamation should be resulted from the mobilization of these metals accumulated in the sediment. These metals appear to be easily mobilized from solid phase to solution phase after reclamation. The physico-chemical changes such as reduction in pH and salinity in water environment induced by land reclamation appear to be responsible for metal mobility in the sediment-groundwater system. - Metals in coastal groundwater and marine sediment are affected by land reclamation

  16. Reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands in eastern China: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Z.; Gu, H.

    1995-01-01

    China has a long history of coal mining and more than 96% of coal output is taken from underground mines each year. With the excavation of coal from underground, severe subsidence often results, which produces many subsidence lands. This paper explores the principle and methods of reclamation planning for abandoned mining subsidence lands and presents a case study in eastern China. A 373 ha of abandoned mining subsidence land in Anhui province was selected as an experiment site. Since China is a developing country and land shortage is severe in this area, the high economic benefits from the reclaimed land was the final reclamation goal. Based on the topography of subsidence lands, some parts of the abandoned lands were lands or lake-like troughs, restoring farmlands and fishponds were chosen as post-reclamation land uses. The elevation of reclaimed lands was the key for restoring farmland successfully because of the high underground water level in this area, and the optimum fishpond size and side-slope design were the keys to reach high reclamation income. The HDP (Hydraulic Dredge Pump) reclamation technique was used for restoring farmland and creating fishpond. A farming and aquaculture plan for high economic benefits was also designed. This project will make farmers, who own the lands, richer through reclamation. 3 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  17. An introduction to conservation and reclamation at Alberta's mineable oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richens, T. [Alberta Environment, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented a balanced view of the conservation and reclamation issues and challenges facing oil sands development in Alberta. Bitumen is recovered by truck and shovel in the shallow oil sands of the Athabasca region. The deeper deposits in the Athabasca, Peace River and Cold Lake regions are accessed primarily using a system of horizontal wells and steam to extract the bitumen from the sand and pump it to the surface. Individual in-situ operations have a smaller environmental impact than mines, and do not produce tailings ponds. However, the footprint of in-situ facilities will accumulate over time because of the potential for extensive future development. The key issues facing conservation and reclamation in the mineable oil sands were discussed. Summary statistics on land disturbed and reclaimed in the region were also provided. The challenges facing reclamation activities include long timeframes; large scale, regional planning and integration; competing land use goals; revegetation; byproduct management; and tailings and process-affected water. Multi-stakeholder forums have proven to be the key to the progression of monitoring, research and development and the sharing of knowledge and information. Frameworks have been developed for the assessment of pre-disturbed and reclaimed soil capability specific to the oil sands region. Additional resources are also available, such as guidelines for the reclamation of terrestrial and wetland habitats that represent the best management practices for reclamation research in revegetation, soil salvage, stockpiling and placement, tailings reclamation, end pit lakes, wetlands and biodiversity. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Reclamation project at an abandoned deep mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkey, M.; Zellmer, S.

    1978-01-01

    The total reclamation of any site requires time, physical control of the site, favorable natural conditions, and a considerable capital investment. It must be realized that processes involving biological systems require time to become established and self-sustaining. The Staunton 1 project has been designed to provide data on many aspects of the reclamation process. Data collected to date indicate a significant improvement in overall environmental quality, a substantial increase in the economic potential of the site and adjacent properties, and a genuine enhancement of the entire area's aesthetic value. The Staunton 1 Reclamation Demonstration Project, in addition to reclaiming this one site, will provide the necessary design data for future reclamation efforts of this type.

  19. Reclamation challenges at Usibelli Coal Mine in Healy, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, L.P.

    1998-01-01

    Successful reclamation in the Interior of Alaska requires planning in order to avoid major setbacks. Usibelli Coal Mine is located at a North Latitude of approximately 64 degrees. Temperature extremes in the Interior of Alaska range from a high of 90 degrees Fahrenheit to a low of minus 60 degrees Fahrenheit. The challenges in this sub-arctic climate are many. Several unique reclamation challenges are present due to the cold climate. Discontinuous permafrost is prevalent on north facing slopes. This presents stability problems if placed in inappropriate locations. Very detailed planning is required to assure that no stability problems occur. The construction of drainage channels in ice-rich permafrost areas also requires extra care to assure that water flows along the surface rather than down into the spoil. Mineral topsoil is often not present on the areas to be mined. Often non-salvageable organic permafrost soils are present. These require special handling and must be isolated to avoid stability problems. Since the ground is frozen for 7--8 months a year the reestablishment of vegetation requires a very aggressive planting schedule. Grass seed is applied by fixed wing aircraft and shrubs are planted from locally collected seed. By planning properly prior to mining successful reclamation can take place in the Interior of Alaska

  20. Staunton 1 reclamation demonstration project. Aquatic ecosystems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinikour, W. S.

    1981-02-01

    To provide long-term indications of the potential water quality improvements following reclamation efforts at the Staunton 1 Reclamation Demonstration Project, macroinvertebrates were collected from three on-site ponds and from the receiving stream (Cahokia Creek) for site drainage. Implications for potential benthic community differences resulting from site runoff were disclosed, but macroinvertebrate diversity throughout Cahokia Creek was limited due to an unstable, sandy substrate. The three ponds sampled were the New Pond, which was created as part of the reclamation activities; the Shed Pond, which and the Old Pond, which, because it was an existing, nonimpacted pond free of site runoff, served as a control. Comparisons of macroinvertebrates from the ponds indicated the potential for the New Pond to develop into a productive ecosystem. Macroinvertebrates in the New Pond were generally species more tolerant of acid mine drainage conditions. However, due to the present limited faunal densities and the undesirable physical and chemical characteristics of the New Pond, the pond should not be stocked with fish at this time.

  1. Staunton 1 Reclamation Demonstration Project. Progress report II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The Staunton 1 Reclamation Demonstration Project involves an evaluation of the reclamation process on a 13.8-ha abandoned deep coal mine refuse site in southwestern Illinois. The procedure included collection of preconstruction environmental data, determination of the site's final land use, and development and implementation of a detailed site development plan. Approximately 9.3 ha of refuse material was recontoured, covered with a minimum of 30 cm of soil obtained on site, and seeded with a mixture of grasses and legumes. Hydrologic investigation indicates some improvement in groundwater quality. Surface water quality also has shown improvement, but development of the aquatic ecosystem in the newly-constructed pond is slow. Revegetation has been successful, and a protective plant cover has been established on most areas of the site. Soil tests indicate that acceptable plant growth media have been constructed; however, continued application of fertilizer and limestone will probably be necessary to maintain the vegetation. The soil microbial community has achieved total numbers equal to those of old fields, but species' diversity is low. Small mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians have invaded and are utilizing the site. The economic value of the site and adjacent property has increased substantially, and the area's aesthetic value has been enhanced significantly. The two-year period of intensive monitoring and evaluation has been utilized to develop recommendations for improving the designs of future reclamation efforts.

  2. Reclamation plans at uranium mill tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, S.R.; Nelson, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term stability of waste impoundments is of concern because of the long time periods over which various types of waste may remain active. Over the past decade much technology has been developed specifically for reclamation of uranium mill tailings impoundments. Aspects of this technology will be discussed here and is presented as also being directly applicable to reclamation of industrial waste impoundments in general. The paper discusses Title I and Title II sites which represent two different generations in uranium tailings impoundment construction. The comparison between the two represent differences in philosophies as well as in impoundment type. Reclamation of uranium mill tailings impoundments in the U.S. is controlled by Federal legislation, which has set forth the regulatory framework for reclamation plan approval. Title I requirements govern government owned inactive sites and Title II requirements govern active tailings impoundments or those operated by private industries. While the Title I and Title II designation may result in a slightly different regulatory process, reclamation of uranium tailings sites has the same. Differences between Title I and Title II reclamation plans to achieve surface stability relate primarily to the embankment and surface covers. The differences in the cover designs result from site-specific conditions, rather than from differences in engineering approaches or the regulatory process. This paper discusses the site-specific conditions that affect the selection of cover designs, and provides a comparative example to illustrate the effect of this condition

  3. Ecological Aspects of the Performed Thermal Reclamation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucarz M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The thermal analysis results of the selected group of binders and the thermal reclamation of one spent moulding sand with organic binder, are presented in the paper. The reclaiming process of the quartz matrix was performed on the basis of the own method of selecting the reclamation temperature. Taking into account thermogravimetric (TG analysis results of the binder, the temperature range - required for performing the efficient reclamation of spent moulding sand containing this binder - was indicated. In order to confirm the assumptions, the thermal reclamation operations were carried out at a temperature similar to the determined on the TG basis and - for comparisons - at lower and higher temperatures. During the reclamation operation the reclaim samples were taken for the loss on ignition testing, aimed at the determination of the process efficiency. Temperature in the reclaimer chamber and gas consumptions were also recorded. On the bases of the thermal analyses, loss on ignition, gas consumption and temperatures of the reclaimed moulding sand bed the recommendations for the realisation of the thermal reclamation were given. These recommendations will allow a better, than currently available, process control in an aspect of decreasing the pyrolysis effect and limiting the emission of substances harmful for the environment.

  4. Prospects for ash pond reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyyam, A.K.; Shukla, K.S.; Agrawal, D. (National Thermal Power Corporation Ltd., New Delhi (India))

    1993-01-01

    A typical modern coal fired station in India burns 0.7 t/MWh of coal and consequently generates ash at 0.245 t/MWh. The physical nature of ash, low available concentrations of certain plant nutrients and the presence of phytotoxic trace elements render fly ash marginally adequate for plant growth. As fly ash itself was thought to be an inappropriate growth medium for plants, regulators decided that a soil cover is mandatory. There is ample data to suggest that the attributes of fly ash detrimental to plant growth can be ameliorated, allowing the establishment of vegetation directly on fly ash surfaces. The natural revegetation of fly ash disposal sites has been reported in the world. The natural vegetation pioneered by Cynodon at different stages of ecological succession and comprising of species such as [ital Calotropis gigantea], [ital Lippia nodiflora], [ital Ipomea, cornea], [ital Xanthium parviflorum] has been noted at one of the NTPC projects, in Badarpur Thermal Power Station. Since natural reclamation is a time-consuming process, experimental trials of growing some species over the temporary ash lagoon directly (without soil cover) were carried out at Ramagundam Super Thermal Power Project (RSTPP) of NTPC, in South India to achieve faster results than the natural process. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.

    1986-03-01

    KLM Technologies' personnel have identified a Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS) utilizing reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration to produce a recyclable grade of otherwise waste boric acid at PWRs, thus reducing a major source of low-level radwaste. The design of a prototype BARS as a compact volume reduction system was the result of KLM's Phase 1 Program, and based upon a preliminary feasibility program, which assessed the applicability of membrane technology to refurbish and recycle waste boric acid from floor and equipment drain streams. The analysis of the overall program indicated a substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs. Today's economic scenario indicates that optimization of volume reduction operation procedures could significantly reduce waste management costs, especially where burial penalties have become more severe. As a reaction to the economic burden imposed by final disposal, many nuclear plants are currently modifying their design and operating philosophies concerning liquid radwaste processing systems to meet stricter environmental regulations, and to derive potential economic benefits by reducing the ever-increasing volumes of wastes that are produced. To effect these changes, innovative practices in waste management and more efficient processing technologies are being successfully implemented

  6. Coupled hydrodynamic and ecological simulation for prognosticating land reclamation impacts in river estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Cai, Yanpeng; Sun, Tao; Yang, Zhifeng; Hao, Yan

    2018-03-01

    A multiphase finite-element hydrodynamic model and a phytoplankton simulation approach are coupled into a general modeling framework. It can help quantify impacts of land reclamation. Compared with previous studies, it has the following improvements: a) reflection of physical currents and suitable growth areas for phytoplankton, (b) advancement of a simulation method to describe the suitability of phytoplankton in the sea water. As the results, water velocity is 16.7% higher than that of original state without human disturbances. The related filling engineering has shortened sediment settling paths, weakened the vortex flow and reduced the capacity of material exchange. Additionally, coastal reclamation lead to decrease of the growth suitability index (GSI), thus it cut down the stability of phytoplankton species approximately 4-12%. The proposed GSI can be applied to the management of coastal reclamation for minimizing ecological impacts. It will be helpful for facilitating identifying suitable phytoplankton growth areas.

  7. The state of oil sands wetland reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, L. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The state of oil sand and wetlands reclamation was the subject of this presentation. Wildlife habitat and response, plant community and production, and microbial biology were examples of research areas surrounding this body of knowledge. Hydrological research and landscape ecology were discussed along with peatlands and marshes such as the Corvette and the Kia. A few examples of what has been learned in the area of wetlands reclamation was presented. Other topics were also discussed, such as timeframes, pragmatic policy approaches, reclamation costs, research needs and some ideas on maturing the field. It was concluded that environmental conditions change with time and area because of time, chemistry, physics, stoichiometry, as well as biotic mediation and facilitation. figs.

  8. Proceedings of the 2009 Atlantic reclamation conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This conference provided a forum for industry leaders of reclamation and restoration to advance knowledge, raise awareness and examine problems and solutions in the areas of land and waterway reclamation, restoration and rehabilitation. With a history of resource and industrial development, many communities in Atlantic Canada are faced with the challenge of restoring contaminated sites and abandoned mines sites, including both underground and surface coal mines. The topics discussed at this conference ranged from mine site reclamation, in-situ and ex-situ remediation, contaminated site restoration, erosion and sediment control planning, revegetation planning, wetland and soil quality research, landuse planning, regulation, and environmental risk. One of the 25 presentations featured at this conference has been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  9. 75 FR 82066 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water- Related Contract Actions AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... CONTACT: Michelle Kelly, Water and Environmental Services Division, Bureau of Reclamation, P.O. Box 25007...

  10. 76 FR 73674 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water- Related Contract Actions AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... INFORMATION CONTACT: Michelle Kelly, Water and Environmental Resources Division, Bureau of Reclamation, P.O...

  11. 76 FR 60527 - Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water- Related Contract Actions AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... CONTACT: Michelle Kelly, Water and Environmental Resources Division, Bureau of Reclamation, P.O. Box 25007...

  12. 43 CFR 404.44 - What criteria will Reclamation apply to determine whether it is appropriate to recommend that a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... health and safety; (3) Will meet water demand, including projected future needs; (4) Provides... THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Appraisal Investigations § 404.44 What criteria... in the investigation, whether the alternative: (1) Identifies viable water supplies and water rights...

  13. 75 FR 48986 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A... CONTACT: Alicia Waters, Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area...

  14. 75 FR 49518 - Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Northwest Area Water Supply Project, North Dakota... Area Water Supply Project (NAWS Project), a Federal reclamation project, located in North Dakota. A... CONTACT: Alicia Waters, Northwest Area Water Supply Project EIS, Bureau of Reclamation, Dakotas Area...

  15. Land reclamation in the North Bohemian Brown Coal Mines and its effect on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixta, J.

    1991-01-01

    Land reclamation actually begins the moment the opening of a new mine is planned. The following basic characteristics of the future landscape are decided on: the shape and size of outer waste dumps, location, shape and size of the remaining pit, ground modeling with respect to the airing of the territory and outflow of surface waters, and balance and exploitation of earth that can be made into arable land as well as of other resources. The success of the further use of the territory primarily depends on the mining-technical stage of the land reclamation activity. The biotechnical stage begins after closing the mine. This stage includes the supply of topsoil, a special 5-8 year sowing procedure, planting, etc. The post-reclamation stage, whose aim it is to sustain the desired pedogenetic development, is provided by the subsequent users of the reclaimed plots. The reclamation costs are included in the current mining costs. A detailed discussion is devoted to the economic and legal aspects of the future of reclamation activities. (M.D.). 2 tabs

  16. Jackpile-Paguate Uranium Mine Reclamation Project, Laguna Indian Reservation, Cibola County, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The final version of environmental impact statement, EPA No. 860443F, relates to a proposed reclamation plan for the Jackpile-Paguate uranium mine in New Mexico. The statement describes backfilling of disturbed areas, the reduction of waste dump slopes, steam stabilization, and revegetation plans. Positive impacts include the restoration of the site to productive land use, the reduction of hazards, and aesthetic improvements. Negative impacts include a one-time loss of water and assignment of labor. The Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 provides a legal mandate for the statement. The summary includes a reference to the draft statement

  17. Costs of abandoned coal mine reclamation and associated recreation benefits in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shruti K; Hitzhusen, Frederick J; Sohngen, Brent L; Guldmann, Jean-Michel

    2012-06-15

    Two hundred years of coal mining in Ohio have degraded land and water resources, imposing social costs on its citizens. An interdisciplinary approach employing hydrology, geographic information systems, and a recreation visitation function model, is used to estimate the damages from upstream coal mining to lakes in Ohio. The estimated recreational damages to five of the coal-mining-impacted lakes, using dissolved sulfate as coal-mining-impact indicator, amount to $21 Million per year. Post-reclamation recreational benefits from reducing sulfate concentrations by 6.5% and 15% in the five impacted lakes were estimated to range from $1.89 to $4.92 Million per year, with a net present value ranging from $14.56 Million to $37.79 Million. A benefit costs analysis (BCA) of recreational benefits and coal mine reclamation costs provides some evidence for potential Pareto improvement by investing limited resources in reclamation projects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 76 FR 49787 - Rural Water Supply Program Approved Appraisal Reports; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Rural Water Supply Program Approved Appraisal...: Reclamation provides assistance for appraisal investigations and feasibility studies for rural water supply... the findings and conclusions of the appraisal investigations that identified the water supply problems...

  19. Land Reclamation Program annual report, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    The Argonne Land Reclamation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, is a joint effort of two Argonne divisions: Energy and Environmental Systems and Environmental Impact Studies. The program is carried out by a multidisciplinary team of scientists and engineers and has three primary objectives: (1) to develop energy-efficient and cost-effective mining and reclamation techniques; (2) to assist industry in evaluating the viability of environmental regulations and demonstrating techniques to meet these regulations; and (3) to supply data and evaluation techniques to decisionmakers concerned with trade-offs between energy development and environmental quality. Six integrated field research sites have been established to address problems associated with surface mining operations. This program relies heavily on input from industry and has developed working arrangements with coal companies at each of the current mining sites. A major area of interest is the development of a ten-year environmental mining and reclamation research plan for the Assistant Secretary for Environment. The Land Reclamation Program assigns the highest priority to the transfer to users of information generated by its research.

  20. 36 CFR 9.39 - Reclamation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINERALS MANAGEMENT Non-Federal Oil and Gas Rights § 9.39 Reclamation requirements. (a) Within the time... Director consistent with the unit purpose and management objectives; (ii) Removing all other man-made... to a condition which does not jeopardize visitor safety or public use of the unit. ...

  1. The development of a field method for evaluating the success of reclamation efforts on abandoned mine lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunsberger, E.L.; Michaud, L.H.

    1994-01-01

    Abandoned Mine Lands (AML) are prevalent throughout Pennsylvania and in other areas of the US. Reclamation of these sites has been an ongoing concern of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources (PA DER) for over 20 yr. As the state of the technology improves, a variety of techniques have been utilized to rehabilitate AML. These reclamation efforts have resulted in vast improvements in the conditions of the sites, especially in water quality, erosion control, and aesthetic beauty. However, little work has been done to evaluate and document the success of individual reclamation techniques. Working with the Bureau of Abandoned Mine Reclamation, PA DER, a study was conducted at The Pennsylvania State University to address this need. The main goal of the project was to develop an evaluation system that could be easily carried out in the field by one person. The result of this study was the development of the Reclamation Success Evaluation System (RSES). The system utilizes three main parameters to evaluate reclamation success: (1) Surface Water Quality, (2) Extent of Erosion, and (3) Success of the Vegetative Cover. A series of guidelines and recommendations was developed for each of these evaluation parameters. The RSES was tested under field conditions by applying it to a watershed that contains both reclaimed and unreclaimed AML sites. This test proved that the RSES is an easily implemented and effective tool for evaluating the success of AML reclamation efforts. The system facilitates the comparison of reclamation efforts at different sites, it can be conducted by one person, and the results are easily interpreted

  2. Response of soil physicochemical properties and enzyme activities to long-term reclamation of coastal saline soil, Eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xuefeng; Pu, Lijie; Wang, Qiqi; Zhu, Ming; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Meng

    2017-12-31

    Soil enzyme activity during different years of reclamation and land use patterns could indicate changes in soil quality. The objective of this research is to explore the dynamics of 5 soil enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, amylase, urease, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase) involved in C, N, and P cycling and their responses to changes in soil physicochemical properties resulting from long-term reclamation of coastal saline soil. Soil samples from a total of 55 sites were collected from a coastal reclamation area with different years of reclamation (0, 7, 32, 40, 63a) in this study. The results showed that both long-term reclamation and land use patterns have significant effects on soil physicochemical properties and enzyme activities. Compared with the bare flat, soil water content, soil bulk density, pH and electrical conductivity showed a decreasing trend after reclamation, whereas soil organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus tended to increase. Dehydrogenase, amylase and acid phosphatase activities initially increased and then decreased with increasing years of reclamation, whereas urease and alkaline phosphatase activities were characterized by an increase-decrease-increase trend. Moreover, urease, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activities exhibited significant differences between coastal saline soil with 63years of reclamation and bare flat, whereas dehydrogenase and amylase activities remained unchanged. Aquaculture ponds showed higher soil water content, pH and EC but lower soil organic carbon, total nitrogen and total phosphorus than rapeseed, broad bean and wheat fields. Rapeseed, broad bean and wheat fields displayed higher urease and alkaline phosphatase activities and lower dehydrogenase, amylase and acid phosphatase activities compared with aquaculture ponds. Redundancy analysis revealed that the soil physicochemical properties explained 74.5% of the variation in soil enzyme activities and that an obvious relationship

  3. Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploratory shaft site: Final reclamation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.

    1990-06-01

    The restoration of areas disturbed by activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) constitutes a unique operation at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site, both from the standpoint of restoration objectives and the time frame for accomplishing these objectives. The BWIP reclamation program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility (NSTF) reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) reclamation. The main focus of this report is on determining the success of the revegetation effort 1 year after work was completed. This report also provides a brief overview of the ESF reclamation program. 21 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs

  4. Changes in algal stable isotopes following nutrient and peat amendments in oil sands aquatic reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farwell, A.; Chen, H.; Boutsivongskad, M.; Dixon, D.

    2010-01-01

    The processing of oil sands in Alberta generates large volumes of processed material that must be reclaimed. Processed water and solids (PW/S) contain higher levels of naturally occurring compounds such as naphthenic acids (NAs) and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Organic carbon and nitrogen are some of the constituents in PW/S that may provide nutrient sources for aquatic reclamation sites as they develop into viable ecosystems. This study was conducted to assess the modifying factors that may affect the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of primary production in oil sands aquatic reclamation. Both field-based microcosm studies and laboratory studies were used to evaluate the changes in the growth and stable isotope values of phytoplankton, periphyton and/or filamentous algae along gradients of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), nitrogen and phosphorus. Various types of reclamation substrates were used in the study, including various combinations of sand, mature fine tailings, peat and process water. Results showed different levels of growth depending on both the water and substrate type. Typically, periphyton from oil sands reclamation sites were more enriched in 15N than the reference site. Periphyton from one site known as the MP site was more enriched in 13C than periphyton from another site know as the Shallow Wetland South Ditch (SWSD). However, periphyton in the demonstration pond (DP) was more 13C depleted than the reference site. Findings from this study indicate that carbon isotopes are influenced by other factors, such as nutrients.

  5. Reclamation of a uraniferous lignite mine, North Dakota: summary paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, R.L.; Hall, R.L.; Unseth, J.D.; Wald, J.D.; Burgess, J.L.; Patrick, D.P.; Anderson, G.S.; Hill, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    Uraniferous lignite deposits were mined from 1955 to 1967 by surface mining techniques. Overburden was stripped, and the lignite was burned to concentrate the uranium in its ash. Uranium salts in the overburden gave exposure levels of as much as 500 microroentgens/hour; water in mine pits had U concentrations from 12 to 19,000 micrograms/liter. Reclamation involved replacing the spoils into the source pit, the most contaminated spoils being placed above the water table, capping the pit with clay then topsoil containing lesser concentrations of radioactive elements, and finally planting with prairie grass. Resulting concentrations of radionuclides are given. The land is expected to remain as prairie for wildlife use, but it is safe enough for domestic animals as well. 3 figures

  6. Acidic minespoil reclamation with alkaline biosolids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drill, C.; Lindsay, B.J.; Logan, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    The effectiveness of an alkaline stabilized biosolids product, N-Viro Soil (NVS), was studied at a wild animal preserve in Cumberland, OH. The preserve occupies land that was strip mined for high-sulfur coal. While most of the land has been conventionally reclaimed, several highly acidic hot spots remain. Two of these hot spots were studied through concurrent field, greenhouse, and laboratory projects. In April 1995, NVS was applied at rates ranging from 0--960 mt/ha (wet wt.) to plots at the two sites. The plots were seeded using a standard reclamation mix and soil samples were analyzed for chemical characteristics before and after application and also in 1996 and 1997. Soil pH increased from 3.5 to about 11 in the amended plots and soil EC values increased from 21.0 mmho/cm to a maximum of 6.0 mmho/cm in the amended plots immediately after application. Soil Cu and Zn concentrations also increased in the NVS amended plots, but this did not affect plant germination or growth. By the summer of 1996, soil pH values had decreased to 7.3--8.7 and EC values decreased to 0.34--1.36 mmho/cm to the amended plots. Soil samples were collected in September 1995 for physical analyses. N-Viro Soil improved the moisture retention and water conductivity properties of the spoil. The plots were monitored for growth during the summer of 1995 and plant biomass and soil samples were taken in 1996 and 1997 for trace element and nutrient analysis. NVS did not significantly increase trace element concentrations in the biomass. The addition of NVS to acid mine spoil improves the chemical and physical properties of the spoil material thus aiding vegetative establishment and growth. NVS improves the chemical nature of the spoil by increasing pH and providing micro and macronutrients and improves the physical properties of the spoil with the addition of organic matter

  7. Proceedings of the 2008 Atlantic Reclamation conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This annual event served as a forum to share information, advance knowledge, raise awareness and examine problems and solutions in the many areas of land and waterway reclamation, restoration and rehabilitation. Given the long history of resource and industrial development in Atlantic Canada, many communities are faced with the challenge of restoring contaminated sites, brownfields, and abandoned mines sites, including both underground and surface coal mines. The topics discussed at this conference ranged from mine site reclamation, brownfield redevelopment, contaminated site restoration, erosion and sediment control planning, revegetation planning, wetland and soil quality research, landuse planning, landscape design, policy, regulation and fiscal planning, environmental risk and liability insurance policies. The conference featured 14 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  8. Reclamation of the mining areas by Nuclemon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torezan, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    This work refers to the reclamation of mine land, fundamental condition to the preservation of the environment. The NUCLEMON - ''Nuclebras de Monazita e Associadas Ltda is dedicated to prospecting activities, exploration, exploitation and industrialization of heavy minerals, ilmenite, monazite, zirconite and rutil. The process of reclamation of the areas starts at the same tinic as the exploitation. The excavation isn't made with explosives, also durung emission doesn't occur. The drainning of pit is made by the pumping of wather for the pits rehabilitation, avoiding the pumping of the surrounding. At the completation of the exploitation restarts the agricultural activity al-ready existing in the area. Sometimes the owner of the soil prefers to preserve some of the pits for the formation of small lakes for the use of wild focal. (C.D.G.) [pt

  9. Reclamation of nuclear contaminated urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.; Andersson, Kasper; Sandalls, J.

    1991-01-01

    From a knowledge of the distribution and levels of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides on urban surfaces, the dose rate at various locations in an urban complex can be calculated. The information produced provides a quantitative guide of where decontamination would be of greatest benefit in terms of dose reduction. The efficiency and cost of practicable reclamation and decontamination procedures has been considered and, combined with dose rate calculations before and after treatment, a strategy for reclamation of various urban contamination scenarios has been developed. The study has shown that decontamination of green areas and streets is relatively highly cost-effective in terms of dose reduction and would rank highly in a list of priorities. Roofs are shown to make a significant contribution to dose rate but decontamination of roofs is difficult and not highly cost-effective. Decontamination of walls would rank lowly in a list of priorities, since they represent large areas carrying very little contamination. (3 refs., 4 tabs.)

  10. Comparative study of German and Greek lignite mine reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    The reclamation planning of three European lignite mining districts are compared: amount and extent of planning, integration with mining operations, and results. The districts are: Rheinbraun (Cologne), Leipzig-Borna (''East'' Germany), and Megalopolis (Greece). Lignite mines were visited and mining and reclamation personnel interviewed. The Rheinbraun mines have the most thorough reclamation operations. The integrated mine and reclamation operations are world class in size, scope, and detail of reclamation. A comprehensive landscape and reclamation plan is required in the mine permitting process. The Leipzig-Borna district is the second largest of the districts, studied little pre-mining planning of the post-mining landscape or land uses was evident. Reclamation is not closely integrated with the mining and typically occurs many years after the mining. Reduced lignite production since German reunification has left vast areas of disturbed land with little mining; and no funding for the reclamation of the large areas of mined land reclamation. The Greek Megalopolis mines have mine operations plan, but with no integrated reclamation planning. The initial spoil pile was reclaimed according to the original German mining plan. No pits have been reclaimed, and spoil areas are revegetated sporadically. The Rheinbraun mining operations Cologne which include a post mining landscape/land use plan have integrated and timely reclamation operations. The other two mining operations, which do not have a comprehensive and detailed reclamation and landscape/land use plans, do not integrate reclamation operations with the mining operations. The results are large areas of mined land unreclaimed for many years

  11. Risk-based optimization of land reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lendering, K.T.; Jonkman, S.N.; Gelder, P.H.A.J.M. van; Peters, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale land reclamations are generally constructed by means of a landfill well above mean sea level. This can be costly in areas where good quality fill material is scarce. An alternative to save materials and costs is a ‘polder terminal’. The quay wall acts as a flood defense and the terminal level is well below the level of the quay wall. Compared with a conventional terminal, the costs are lower, but an additional flood risk is introduced. In this paper, a risk-based optimization is developed for a conventional and a polder terminal. It considers the investment and residual flood risk. The method takes into account both the quay wall and terminal level, which determine the probability and damage of flooding. The optimal quay wall level is found by solving a Lambert function numerically. The terminal level is bounded by engineering boundary conditions, i.e. piping and uplift of the cover layer of the terminal yard. It is found that, for a representative case study, the saving of reclamation costs for a polder terminal is larger than the increase of flood risk. The model is applicable to other cases of land reclamation and to similar optimization problems in flood risk management. - Highlights: • A polder terminal can be an attractive alternative for a conventional terminal. • A polder terminal is feasible at locations with high reclamation cost. • A risk-based approach is required to determine the optimal protection levels. • The depth of the polder terminal yard is bounded by uplifting of the cover layer. • This paper can support decisions regarding alternatives for port expansions.

  12. A modelling framework for reclamation planning of oil sands mines in northern Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.D.; Hamilton, H.R.; MacKinnon, M.D.; Gulley, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Reclamation Landscape Model Development Project was initiated in 1991 to develop a modelling framework to assist in oil sands mine reclamation planning. The initial year focused on developing a suite of computer simulation models suitable for evaluating hydrodynamic, water quality and biological conditions of fine-tails bottom lakes that would be capped with a layer of fresh water. That modelling framework was further refined in 1992--93 by incorporating probabilistic capabilities, developing of secondary production and food-chain components, and implementing of a model to simulate contaminant concentrations in the Athabasca River. In 1993--94 the emphasis expanded from a focus solely on developing tools for evaluating wet landscape options to developing an integrated modelling framework capable of evaluating both wet and dry landscape reclamation options. Major components completed in 1993--94 included development of a dry landscape module that includes surface runoff, groundwater seepage, air vapor and bioaccumulation components, a wetlands module to assist in evaluating treatment potential and for optimizing design of wetlands units, and a risk analysis module for quantifying risks to human health and ecological receptors. The Reclamation Landscape Model is a compartment modelling system that consists of a number of stand-alone computer programs that can be run in conjunction with one another or separately. The computer programs that simulate contaminant-fate processes range from simple empirical models to complex, mechanistic, three-dimensional, dynamic models, which are capable of predicting contaminant concentrations in water, soil, air and biota for a wide range of reclamation landscape units. Most of the component models have probabilistic capabilities

  13. Land reclamation program annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, J. R.; Carter, R. P.; Cleaves, D. T.

    1979-07-01

    The Argonne Land Reclamation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy's Assistant Secretary for Environment, is a joint effort of two Argonne divisions: Energy and Environmental Systems and Environmental Impact Studies. The program is carried out by a multidisciplinary team of scientists and engineers, and has three primary objectives: (1) to develop energy-efficient and cost-effective mining and reclamation techniques; (2) to assist industry in evaluating the applicability of regulations and demonstrating techniques to meet regulations; and (3) to supply data and evaluation techniques to decisionmakers concerned with trade-offs between energy development and environmental quality. Six integrated field research sites have been established to address problems associated with surface mining operations. This program relies heavily on input from industry and has developed excellent working arrangements with coal companies at each of the current mining sites. A major area of interest is the development of a computerized system to store and manage data gathered by the research staff. The Land Reclamation Program assigns the highest priority to the transfer to users of information generated by its research.

  14. Threshold Considerations and Wetland Reclamation in Alberta's Mineable Oil Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Foote

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Oil sand extraction in Alberta, Canada is a multibillion dollar industry operating over 143 km² of open pit mining and 4600 km² of other bitumen strata in northern boreal forests. Oil production contributes to Canada-wide GDP, creates socio-cultural problems, provides energy exports and employment, and carries environmental risks regarding long-term reclamation uncertainties. Of particular concern are the implications for wetlands and water supply management. Mining of oil sands is very attractive because proven reserves of known quality occur in an accessible, politically stable environment with existing infrastructure and an estimated 5.5 billion extractable barrels to be mined over the next five decades. Extraction occurs under a set of limiting factors or thresholds including: limited social tolerance at local to international levels for externalities of oil sand production; water demands > availability; limited natural gas supplies for oil processing leading to proposals for hydroelectric dams and nuclear reactors to be constructed; difficulties in reclaiming sufficient habitat area to replace those lost. Replacement of the 85 km² of peat-forming wetlands forecast to be destroyed appears unlikely. Over 840 billion liters of toxic fluid byproducts are currently held in 170 km² of open reservoirs without any known process to purify this water in meaningful time frames even as some of it leaches into adjacent lands and rivers. Costs for wetland reclamation are high with estimates of $4 to $13 billion, or about 6% of the net profits generated from mining those sites. This raises a social equity question of how much reclamation is appropriate. Time frames for economic, political, and ecological actions are not well aligned. Local people on or near mine sites have had to change their area use for decades and have been affected by industrial development. Examining mining effects to estimate thresholds of biophysical realities, time scales

  15. 77 FR 33240 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``develop criteria for evaluating the... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The...

  16. 75 FR 69698 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The ``Criteria for Developing Refuge Water Management Plans'' (Refuge...

  17. 75 FR 70020 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``* * * develop... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The...

  18. 76 FR 12756 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``* * * develop... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The...

  19. 76 FR 54251 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... and administer an office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The...

  20. 77 FR 64544 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices that shall ``develop criteria for... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The...

  1. 75 FR 38538 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... to establish and administer an office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The...

  2. Application of dry stackable tailings technologies : providing the base for reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikula, R.J. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2010-07-01

    The tailings containment structures are some of the largest man made features on the planet. This presentation demonstrated that dry stackable tailings technology may reduce the volume of the accumulated fluid fine tailings. Dry stackable tailings can contribute to boreal forest reclamation and reduce water requirement from the Athabasca River. Much of the water used for the production of each barrel of bitumen is recycled. The water is tied up in the pore spaces of the mineral sand, silt, and clay component which forms the mature fine tailings (MFT) that are contained behind large dykes. Syncrude and Suncor have used a wide variety of technologies to create a dry stackable tailings from this fluid fine tailings substrate. The availability of dry stackable tailings will open options for reclamation strategies that end with the original wetlands or boreal forest. Some of the tailings management options that would lead to a dry stackable tailings naturally also significantly decrease the barrels of water lost with each barrel of bitumen production. These options were discussed along with an analysis of their impact on recycle and pore water quality and quantity. There is an opportunity to remove residual bitumen during the transfer of fluid fine tailings to recover water and create dry stackable tailings. If this bitumen removal is extensive enough, it might be possible to use the dry stackable tailings directly as a reclamation material. tabs., figs.

  3. Used Furan Sand Reclamation in REGMAS Vibratory Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dańko J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper, especially dealt with problems of reclamation of used furan sand, carried out in new, vibratory sand reclamation unit REGMAS developed by researches from AGH-University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering in Cracow (Poland. Functional characteristics of reclamation unit as well as the results of reclamation of used sand with furfuryl resin are discussed in the paper. The quality of reclaim was tested by means of the LOI and pH value, dust content in the reclaim and at least by the the quality of the castings produced in moulds prepared with the use of reclaimed matrix.

  4. The reclamation program for the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostler, W.K.; O'Farrell, T.P.; Winkel, V.K.; Schultz, B.W.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is required by law and other regulatory requirements to reclaim disturbances created by site characterization activities at Yucca Mountain. Because of the difficulty of reclaiming arid areas and the lack of site specific information on successful reclamation techniques and procedures, the DOE has developed a comprehensive reclamation program. The program consists of three phases: planning, operational and research. The planning phase is a continuing process that ensures that program policy, goals, tasks and responsibilities are clearly identified and linked. The operational phase uses best available knowledge to develop and implement reclamation plans that are site-specific for each disturbance. Reclamation activities start prior to any surface disturbance with a survey of each disturbance by trained scientists. The scientists survey the area for the presence of protected species or critical wildlife habitat. They also gather vegetation, landscape, soils and other environmental data that is used to assess the impact of the proposed disturbance. Recommendations can be made to either avoid areas or mitigate impacts. The operational phase includes interim reclamation to protect valuable resources and control erosion prior to final reclamation. Monitoring of reclaimed sites is conducted to correct problem areas and insure that reclamation objectives are achieved. The third phase of the reclamation program is designed to provide site-specific information on effective reclamation techniques through research and field demonstrations. 52 refs., 1 tab

  5. 78 FR 8821 - Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Program; Limited Liability for Noncoal Reclamation by Certified...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Federal laws. It does not preclude liability for gross negligence or intentional misconduct by a state or... Law 109-432 (the ``2006 amendments'') substantially modified the AML reclamation program in title IV... tribe shall be liable under Federal law for any costs or damages as a result of any action or omitted...

  6. Effectiveness of a constructed wetland for acid mine drainage reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, A.J.; Ramey, B.A.; Jarrett, L.; Hart, G.

    1993-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from an abandoned coal mine in southcentral Kentucky had pH levels as low as 2.5 and iron concentrations as high as 630 mg/L. In the summer of 1992, the SCS constructed a wetland system to treat the AMD that involved use of both physical and biological treatment. The AMD was fed into three anoxic limestone beds, followed by an aeration pond, before entering a series of four cattail cells and a polishing pond. Flow of AMD was initiated in the fall of 1992, and chemical and biological monitoring were conducted throughout the winter months. Chemical analysis of the water along the flow path of the AMD during the first six months of operation indicated that the limestone beds improved the pH substantially, and that most of the metals were removed prior to the water entering the cattail cells. The effectiveness of the wetland system to improve water quality also was monitored using the cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia) survival and reproduction test. Determination of toxic levels indicated a substantial improvement in water quality below the limestone beds, and a slight decrease in toxicity throughout the cattail cells. However, toxic levels stayed the same or increased in the polishing pond. Water quality monitoring will continue through the growing season of 1993 to assess the impact of plant growth on the reclamation of the AMD

  7. Application of toxicity testing in the evaluation of reclamation options for oil sands fine tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, L.R.; MacKinnon, M.; Gulley, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The hot water process for the extraction of bitumen from oil sands leads to the production of large volumes of wastewater and the formation of a large inventory of fine clay tailings. This fine tailings material and its associated water are acutely toxic to various aquatic test organisms during bioassays. An overview is presented of toxicity testing at Syncrude and Suncor, the application of toxicity testing to fine tailings management, and the role in reclamation planning. The main acutely toxic component of the tailings is the polar organic acid fraction, specifically naphthanates. These naphthanates are readily degraded biologically by indigenous microbial populations. Toxicity testing is aimed at assessing the degree of both acute and chronic toxicity and the long term potential for the input of toxins into the environment from various proposed reclamation measures. 28 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Renewable Energy Assessment for the Bureau of Reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, S.; Burman, K.; Dahle, D.; Heimiller, D.; Van Geet, O.

    2012-05-01

    Report summarizes the results of an assessment and analysis of renewable energy opportunities conducted for the U.S. Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Report contains results from utility scale analysis and site visits, as well as facility scale screening and site visits.

  9. Facility-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Guidebook: Bureau of Reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiatreungwattana, Kosol [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); VanGeet, Otto [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stoltenberg, Blaise [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This guidebook was written for the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation to explore the use of non-hydro renewable energy resources to meet the U.S. Department of Interior's objectives and Reclamation's mission. This guidebook presents readers with the processes and steps needed to assess and successfully implement facility-scale solar projects.

  10. 30 CFR 784.15 - Reclamation plan: Land use information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... The narrative shall provide analyses of: (i) The capability of the land before any mining to support a... Section 784.15 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER...

  11. 30 CFR 780.23 - Reclamation plan: Land use information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... The narrative shall provide analyses of: (i) The capability of the land before any mining to support a... Section 780.23 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL EXPLORATION SYSTEMS UNDER...

  12. The placing of the disinfection stage in a reclamation plant to reduce haloform formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, O O

    1979-10-01

    Chlorination of water containing organic matter leads to the formation of various volatile halogenated hydrocarbons (VHH). Various process configurations of a water reclamation plant were studied to determine the best position of the primary disinfection stage in the plant to achieve the greatest possible reduction of haloform concentration in the water distribution system. The pros and cons of ozone and chlorine as disinfectants were also investigated. Experiment methodology is explained. Results indicate that breakpoint chlorination ahead of two active carbon adsorption stages is the preferred process sequence and disinfectant to assure the lowest possible VHH production in the distribution system. (3 diagrams, 1 drawing, 8 graphs, 54 references, 2 tables)

  13. The State of Technology and Community Driven Application of Distributed Wastewater Reuse, Nutrient Reclamation, and Energy Savings

    OpenAIRE

    Gocke, Thomas Edward

    2014-01-01

    The security of clean water for urban communities is increasingly uncertain due to over usage, a shifting hydrosphere, and changes in development patterns. The wastewater treatment community has come to a turning point, where wastewater is increasingly being viewed as a valuable resource that can be transformed into commodities such as clean water, nutrients and energy. This document will discuss the current state of the industry for water reuse and nutrient reclamation and evaluate each prac...

  14. Reclamation of uranium mining and milling disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, E.E.; Schuman, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1945 the history of uranium mining and milling in the US has been a story of wide fluctuations in market prices and in mining and milling capacity. The late 1960's and the 1970's saw a sizeable reduction in the production of yellowcake because of an earlier over-supply, a leveling off of the military demand, and a failure of the nuclear electric power industry to create the anticipated commercial demand. The decline in the domestic production of yellowcake has continued through the early 1980's to the present. Today, there are five operating uranium mills in the US: one in Wyoming, two in Utah, one in New Mexico, and one in Texas. Of these five mills, three are operating on a reduced schedule, as little as three days a month. A significant portion of the current US production of uranium goes overseas to fulfill Japanese, French, and other European contracts. There is still a sizeable reclamation job to be accomplished on old uranium wastes, both tailings impoundments and overburden embankments. Before the Uranium Mill Tailings Control Act of 1978 (PL 95-604), reclamation was frequently omitted altogether, or else done in a haphazard fashion. We do not know the total area of unreclaimed, radioactive, uranium overburden wastes in the western US, but the area is large, probably several thousand hectares. Fortunately, these overburden wastes are almost entirely located in remote areas. Mill tailings are more difficult to reclaim than overburden, and tailings represent a more serious health hazards. There are approximately 25 million metric tons of unreclaimed uranium mill tailings, with variable health hazards, located in the US

  15. Reclamation and closure of an oil sands tailings facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobkowicz, J. [Thurber Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Morgenstern, N. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed methods of ensuring the successful reclamation of oil sands tailings facilities. Tailings should be reclaimed as mining proceeds in order to avoid an excessive accumulation of fluid fine tailings (FFT). The volume of mature fine tailings (MFT) in ponds should be limited in order to ensure effective tailings management. The reclaimed landforms should have good geotechnical stability and be comprised of self-sustaining native vegetation. Strength is needed to allow for timely capping and initial reclamation, and stiffness is required to minimize future settlement and to allow for the construction of a closure landscape. Reclamation strategies were presented for fines-dominated tailings; sand-depleted tailings; and sand-dominated tailings. Energy Resources Conservation Board (ERCB) criteria for tailings reclamation were discussed, and various monitoring and performance assessment strategies were presented. tabs., figs.

  16. Town of Edinburg landfill reclamation demonstration project. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A landfill reclamation demonstration project was hosted at the Town of Edinburg municipal landfill in northwest Saratoga County, with majority funding provided by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority. The report examines various separation techniques employed at the site and appropriate uses for reclaimed materials. Specifications regarding engineered work plans, health and safety monitoring, and contingency preparedness are discussed. Major potential applications and benefits of using landfill reclamation technology at existing landfills are identified and discussed. The research and development aspect of the report also examines optimal screening technologies, site selection protocol and the results of a test burn of reclaimed waste at a waste-to-energy facility. Landfill reclamation costs are developed, and economic comparisons are made between reclamation costs and conventional landfill closure costs, with key criteria identified

  17. Modeling the impacts of dryland agricultural reclamation on groundwater resources in Northern Egypt using sparse data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzman, Harris; Coulibaly, Paulin; Adeel, Zafar

    2015-01-01

    Demand for freshwater in many dryland environments is exerting negative impacts on the quality and availability of groundwater resources, particularly in areas where demand is high due to irrigation or industrial water requirements to support dryland agricultural reclamation. Often however, information available to diagnose the drivers of groundwater degradation and assess management options through modeling is sparse, particularly in low and middle-income countries. This study presents an approach for generating transient groundwater model inputs to assess the long-term impacts of dryland agricultural land reclamation on groundwater resources in a highly data-sparse context. The approach was applied to the area of Wadi El Natrun in Northern Egypt, where dryland reclamation and the associated water use has been aggressive since the 1960s. Statistical distributions of water use information were constructed from a variety of sparse field and literature estimates and then combined with remote sensing data in spatio-temporal infilling model to produce the groundwater model inputs of well-pumping and surface recharge. An ensemble of groundwater model inputs were generated and used in a 3D groundwater flow (MODFLOW) of Wadi El Natrun's multi-layer aquifer system to analyze trends in water levels and water budgets over time. Validation of results against monitoring records, and model performance statistics demonstrated that despite the extremely sparse data, the approach used in this study was capable of simulating the cumulative impacts of agricultural land reclamation reasonably well. The uncertainty associated with the groundwater model itself was greater than that associated with the ensemble of well-pumping and surface recharge estimates. Water budget analysis of the groundwater model output revealed that groundwater recharge has not changed significantly over time, while pumping has. As a result of these trends, groundwater was estimated to be in a deficit of

  18. KLM's boric acid reclamation system (BARS). An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuelke, D.; Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.; Brossart, M.A.; Choi, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    KLM Technologies has implemented its Department of Energy Phase II Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) demonstration program for a radioactive waste Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS). Preliminary performance indicates enhanced treatment by the BARS technique over state of the art process methods for selective removal of silica and other impurities from borated water matrices. At optimal system recovery of 96-97 percent. BARS removes nominal levels of boric acid while achieving significant rejection for soluble silica and selective radioisotopes. This is indicative of superior performance compared to existing data governing standard boric acid process treatment in the presence of silica and other contaminants. Conventional technologies have also proven to be relatively expensive, utilizing costly chemically treated disposable resins for primary waste removal. The overall BARS program indicates substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs based on reduced waste generation. Optimization of the BARS technology could have potential impact on conventional process technologies that are essentially non-selective in removal capacities. Within the scope of the project, a variety of contaminated process stream and mixed radwaste sources have been evaluated at Northern States Power's Prairie Island Nuclear Generating Station. The design of an advanced prototype BARS as an optimized process alternative was the result of KLM's initial Phase 1 SBIR program with the DOE in 1984 and 1985

  19. KLM's Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS): An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuelke, D.; Kniazewycz, B.G.; Markind, J.; Brossart, M.A.; Choi, R.C.

    1987-02-01

    KLM Technologies has implemented its Department of Energy Phase II Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) demonstration program for a radioactive waste Boric Acid Reclamation System (BARS). Preliminary performance indicates enhanced treatment by the BARS technique over state of the art process methods for selective removal of silica and other impurities from borated water matrices. At optimal system recovery of 96 to 97%, BARS removes nominal levels of boric acid while achieving significant rejection for soluble silica and selective radioisotopes. This is indicative of superior performance compared to existing data governing standard boric acid process treatment in the presence of silica and other contaminants. Conventional technologies have also proven to be relatively expensive, utilizing costly chemically treated disposable resins for primary waste removal. The overall BARS program indicates substantial savings regarding off-site disposal costs based on reduced waste generation. Optimization of the BARS technology could have potential impact on conventional process technologies that are essentially non-selective in removal capacities. 2 figs

  20. Overcoming soil compaction in surface mine reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweigard, R.J. (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (USA). Dept. of Mining Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    Rubber-tyred soil reconstruction equipment causes compaction of soil and means surface mine operators cannot satisfy crop yield standards defined by the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. Soil compaction can be overcome by either modifying the reconstruction process or alleviating the problem, for example by deep tillage, once it occurs. The Dept. of Mining Engineering at the Institute of Mining and Minerals Research is conducting a laboratory investigation into a method of injecting low density porous organic material into a bin containing soil at the same time as the soil is ripped. This should prevent voids collapsing when subjected to forces from farm equipment and natural sources. Soil analyses are performed before and after the injection. Ripping and injection with ground pecan shells had a residual effect on nuclear bulk density compared to the initially compacted case and also showed an improvement in hydraulic conductivity. Work is in progress on modifying the system to handle other injection material and should lead on to field tests on a prototype involving both soil analysis and crop yield determination. 1 fig.

  1. Overcoming soil compaction in surface mine reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweigard, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Rubber-tyred soil reconstruction equipment causes compaction of soil and means surface mine operators cannot satisfy crop yield standards defined by the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. Soil compaction can be overcome by either modifying the reconstruction process or alleviating the problem, for example by deep tillage, once it occurs. The Dept. of Mining Engineering at the Institute of Mining and Minerals Research is conducting a laboratory investigation into a method of injecting low density porous organic material into a bin containing soil at the same time as the soil is ripped. This should prevent voids collapsing when subjected to forces from farm equipment and natural sources. Soil analyses are performed before and after the injection. Ripping and injection with ground pecan shells had a residual effect on nuclear bulk density compared to the initially compacted case and also showed an improvement in hydraulic conductivity. Work is in progress on modifying the system to handle other injection material and should lead on to field tests on a prototype involving both soil analysis and crop yield determination. 1 fig

  2. The forestry reclamation approach in Appalachia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, P.N.; Burger, J.A.; Skousen, J.; Barton, C.D.

    2009-04-01

    The Appalachian Regional Reforestation Initiative (ARRI) was formed in 2005 to promote the planting of high-value hardwood trees on reclaimed coal mined lands and abandoned mine lands in Appalachia. In addition to planting more trees, ARRI's vision is to increase the survival rate of the planted trees and build a productive forest ecosystem that encourage natural succession of native forest plants by promoting the use of Forestry Reclamation Approach (FRA). This article described the 5 steps of the FRA, which include (1) creating a suitable rooting medium for good tree growth that is no less than 4 feet deep and comprised of topsoil, weathered sandstone, and/or the best available material, (2) loosely grading the topsoil or topsoil substitutes established in step one to create a non-compacted growth medium, (3) using ground covers that are compatible with growing trees, (4) planting two types of trees, an early succession species for wildlife and soil stability as well as commercially valuable crop trees, and (5) using proper tree planting techniques. The ARRI has been most successful in spreading the FRA by building partnerships with groups and individuals that share the common goal of science-base surface mine reforestation. 4 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Oil sands terrestrial habitat and risk modeling for disturbance and reclamation - Phase I report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welham, C. [FORRx Consulting Inc., Belcarra, BC (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    The main purpose of this study is to build a framework that includes risk management and strategic decision-making to assess the impact of natural and industrial disturbance on ecosystem products and services and on the existence of habitat for terrestrial species in Alberta's Lower Athabasca planning region. This will include an evaluation of the impact of disturbance, conservation and reclamation activities associated with oil sands development both at the lease and regional levels. The basecase scenario, established in Phase I, includes a dendrochronology study of the link between climate and tree growth in the sub boreal region that comprises oil sands mining, an analysis of habitat availability for 10 wildlife species compared with reclamation activities on the Kearl Lake mine, and an examination of the potential for development of high levels of water stress in recent reclamation plantations at the Kearl Lake mine. Four tree species of the subboreal forests of Alberta and Saskatchewan were considered for the dendrochronology study: the white spruce or Picea glauca, the black spruce or Picea mariana, the jack pine or Pinus banksiana, and the trembling aspen or Populus tremuloides. This study shows that the water stress observed during the year has restricted the radial growth of white spruce and a link has been established between radial growth and increasing season precipitation and summer temperatures. The purposes of the habitat suitability analysis were to list habitats suitability models that could be applied to Alberta boreal forests, distinguish the parameters used in those models that can be simulated with an ecosystem simulation model, simulate the reclamation prescriptions detailed in the Kearl Lake EIA documents with the ecosystem simulation model and generate output suitable for populating each habitat suitability model. The establishment of ecologically viable reclamation plans in the oil sands region can be hard to manage regarding the

  4. Reclamation of lands transformed by mining activities as an important aspect of environmental protection of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudek, M; Duchowski, S; Czuber, W

    1976-01-01

    Surface area of lands transformed by coal mining in the basin are analyzed. In 1975 there were 3,110.9 ha of waste lands. Of this, spoil banks dumped on the surface covered 1,019.5 ha, spoil banks located in the cuts of surface mines (e.g. where sand is removed for stowing) or in other subsided places covered 1,064.5 ha, and water reservoirs covered 665.6 ha. Composition of spoil banks produced by black coal mines is analyzed from the point of view of land reclamation. A scheme of reclamation of spoil banks used in the Upper Silesian black coal basin is given. Reclamation of 5 large spoil banks is described. The land reclamation procedure consists in: leveling the spoil bank slopes so that their inclination is 1:10 instead of 1:4. When afforestation is used relatively steep slopes (1:4) are not leveled, centers of endogenic fires are extinguished by packing using rollers, the top layer of a spoil bank is mixed with calcium carbonate (3 to 10 kg/ha), then the top layer of waste fertilized by calcium carbonate is covered with soil (in some cases with fertile soil), soil cover ranges from 15 to 30 cm, the top soil cover is fertilized (dose ranges from 300 to 500 kg/ha). Later lupine is planted and ploughed as additional fertilizer. At a later stage trees and bushes are planted. (10 refs.) (In Polish)

  5. 7 CFR 632.13 - Eligible lands and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible lands and water. 632.13 Section 632.13... lands and water. Lands and water eligible for reclamation are those that were mined for coal or were... lands and water are not eligible if: (a) There is continuing reclamation responsibility on the part of a...

  6. Environmental and biogeochemical changes following a decade's reclamation in the Dapeng (Tapong) Bay, southwestern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, J.-J.; Huang, W.-C.; Yu, C.-S.

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the environmental and biogeochemical changes in Dapeng (formerly spelled Tapong) Bay, a semi-enclosed coastal lagoon in southwestern Taiwan, after two major reclamation works performed between 1999 and 2010. The lagoon was largely occupied by oyster culture racks and fish farming cages before December, 2002. Substantial external inputs of nutrients and organic carbon and the fairly long water exchange time (τ) (10 ± 2 days) caused the lagoon to enter a eutrophic state, particularly at the inner lagoon, which directly received nutrient inputs. However, the entire lagoon showed autotrophic, and the estimated net ecosystem production (NEP) during the first stage was 5.8 mol C m-2 yr-1. After January, 2003, the aquaculture structures were completely removed, and the τ decreased to 6 ± 2 days. The annual mean concentrations of dissolved oxygen increased, and nutrients decreased substantially, likely due to improved water exchange, absence of feeding and increased biological utilization. The NEP increased 37% to 7.7 mol C m-2 yr-1 after structure removal. The second reclamation work beginning from July, 2006, focused on establishing artificial wetlands for wastewater treatment and on dredging bottom sediment. Although the τ did not change significantly (8 ± 3 days), substantial decreases in nutrient concentrations and dissolved organic matter continued. The NEP (14.3 mol C m-2 yr-1) increased 85% compared to that in the second stage. The data suggest that the reclamations substantially improved water quality, carbon and nutrient biogeochemical processes and budgets in this semi-enclosed ecosystem.

  7. Efficiency of sulfuric acid, mined gypsum, and two gypsum by-products in soil crusting prevention and sodic soil reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amezketa, E.; Aragues, R.; Gazol, R. [Gobierno Navarra, Pamplona (Spain). Agricultural Resources Evaluation Center

    2005-06-01

    We evaluated the efficiency of four amendments (sulfuric acid, mined-gypsum, and the by-products coal-gypsum and lacto-gypsum) in crusting prevention of two calcareous nonsodic and sodic soils and in sodic soil reclamation. Treatments for crust prevention consisted of surface-applied amendments at equivalent rates of 5 Mg pure-gypsum ha{sup -1}. Treatments for sodic soil reclamation consisted of surface-applied acid and soil-incorporated gypsums at rates of 1 pure-gypsum requirement. The efficiency of these amendments was evaluated by comparing the final infiltration rates (FIR) of the amended vs. the nonamended soils measured in disturbed-soil columns pounded with low-salinity irrigation water. Electrical conductivity (EC) and Na in the leachates of the sodic soil were measured. In the crusting prevention experiment, FIRs (mm h{sup -1) of the nonsodic soil were 21 (nonamended), 33 to 35 (gypsum materials), and 53 (sulfuric acid), whereas those for the sodic soil were 0 (nonamended), 9 (lacto-gypsum), 15 to 17 (coal- and mined-gypsum), and 21 (sulfuric acid). In the sodic-soil reclamation experiment, FIRs were 0 (nonamended), 8 to 9 (gypsum-materials), and 17 (sulfuric acid) mm h{sup -1}. All amendments were effective in crusting prevention and soil reclamation, but sulfuric acid was the most efficient due to the fastest EC and Na reductions in the leachates. The three gypsum-materials were equally effective in the reclamation process and in the nonsodic soil crusting-prevention, whereas lacto-gypsum was less efficient in the sodic-soil crusting-prevention.

  8. Reclamation to native forest ecosystems in the oil sands region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuttle, S.

    1996-01-01

    Suncor's reclamation goal is to achieve maintenance-free, self-sustaining ecosystems with capability equivalent to their pre-disturbed condition. Ecosystem re-establishment includes the following steps: (1) soil reconstruction, (2) revegetation, and (3) growth of primary vegetation communities. To assess the sustainability of re-established ecosystems, vegetation and soil characteristics are monitored each year. This method of reclamation and tree planting results in a diverse herbaceous cover developing within a year of soil amendment application, providing erosion protection along with a source of cover and food for wildlife. Results to date have proven to be very positive, since reconstructed soils have been shown to be equivalent to or better than original soils. Also, reclamation sites are developing into sustainable ecological units comparable to nearby natural forest areas

  9. Utilization of coal ash/coal combustion products for mine reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolence, R.C.; Giovannitti, E.

    1997-01-01

    Society's demand for an inexpensive fuel, combined with ignorance of the long term impacts, has left numerous scars on the Pennsylvania landscape. There are over 250,000 acres of abandoned surface mines with dangerous highwalls and water filled pits. About 2,400 miles of streams do not meet water quality standards because of drainage from abandoned mines. There are uncounted households without an adequate water supply due to past mining practices. Mine fires and mine subsidence plague many Pennsylvania communities. The estimated cost to reclaim these past scars is over $15 billion. The beneficial use of coal ash in Pennsylvania for mine reclamation and mine drainage pollution abatement projects increased during the past ten years. The increase is primarily due to procedural and regulatory changes by the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP). Prior to 1986, DEP required a mining permit and a separate waste disposal permit for the use of coal ash in backfilling and reclaiming a surface mine site. In order to eliminate the dual permitting requirements and promote mine reclamation, procedural changes now allow a single permit which authorize both mining and the use of coal ash in reclaiming active and abandoned pits. The actual ash placement, however, must be conducted in accordance with the technical specifications in the solid waste regulations

  10. 75 FR 67993 - Hydropower Resource Assessment at Existing Reclamation Facilities-Draft Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Hydropower Resource Assessment at Existing... comment the ``Hydropower Resource Assessment at Existing Reclamation Facilities'' (HRA) Draft Report. The HRA is an assessment of the economic and technical potential for hydropower development at existing...

  11. Sand and gravel mine operations and reclamation planning using microcomputers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariffin, J.B.

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to focus on the application of microcomputers, also known as personal computers, in planning for sand and gravel mine operations and reclamation at a site in Story County, Iowa. This site, called the Arrasmith Pit, is operated by Martin Marietta Aggregates, Inc. The Arrasmith site, which encompasses an area of about 25 acres, is a relatively small site for aggregate mining. However, planning for the concurrent mine operation and reclamation program at this site is just as critical as with larger sites and the planning process is the same.

  12. Disposal and reclamation of southwestern coal and uranium wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wewerka, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    The types of solid wastes and effluents produced by the southwestern coal and uranium mining and milling industries are considered, and the current methods for the disposal and reclamation of these materials discussed. The major means of disposing of the solid wastes from both industries is by land fill or in some instances ponding. Sludges or aqueous wastes are normally discharged into settling and evaporative ponds. Basic reclamation measures for nearly all coal and uranium waste disposal sites include solids stabilization, compacting, grading, soil preparation, and revegetation. Impermeable liners and caps are beginning to be applied to disposal sites for some of the more harmful coal and uranium waste materials

  13. Preliminary Research on Granulation Process of Dust Waste from Reclamation Process of Moulding Sands with Furan Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kamińska

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of usedsands, where furan resins were binders are presented in the paper. Investigations concerned producing of granules of the determineddimensions and strength parameters.Granules were formed from the dusts mixture consisting in 50 mass% of dusts obtained after the reclamation of the furane sands and in50 mass % of dusts from sands with bentonite. Dusts from the bentonite sands with water were used as a binder allowing the granulation of after reclamation dusts from the furane sands.The following parameters of the ready final product were determined: moisture content (W, shatter test of granules (Wz performeddirectly after the granulation process and after 1, 3, 5, 10 days and nights of seasoning, water-resistance of granules after 24 hours of being immersed in water, surface porosity ep and volumetric porosity ev. In addition the shatter test and water-resistance of granulate dried at a temperature of 105oC were determined.Investigations were performed at the bowl angle of inclination 45o, for three rotational speeds of the bowl being: 10, 15, 20 rpm.For the speed of 10 rpm the granulation tests of dusts mixture after the preliminary mixing in the roller mixer and with the addition ofwater-glass in the amount of 2% in relation to the amount of dust were carried out.The obtained results indicate that the granulator allows to obtain granules from dusts originated from the reclamations of mouldingsands with the furane resin with an addition of dusts from the bentonite sands processing plants.

  14. Renewed mining and reclamation: Imapacts on bats and potential mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, P.E. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Berry, R.D. [Brown-Berry Biological Consulting, Bishop, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Historic mining created new roosting habitat for many bat species. Now the same industry has the potential to adversely impact bats. Contemporary mining operations usually occur in historic districts; consequently the old workings are destroyed by open pit operations. Occasionally, underground techniques are employed, resulting in the enlargement or destruction of the original workings. Even during exploratory operations, historic mine openings can be covered as drill roads are bulldozed, or drills can penetrate and collapse underground workings. Nearby blasting associated with mine construction and operation can disrupt roosting bats. Bats can also be disturbed by the entry of mine personnel to collect ore samples or by recreational mine explorers, since the creation of roads often results in easier access. In addition to roost disturbance, other aspects of renewed mining can have adverse impacts on bat populations, and affect even those bats that do not live in mines. Open cyanide ponds, or other water in which toxic chemicals accumulate, can poison bats and other wildlife. The creation of the pits, roads and processing areas often destroys critical foraging habitat, or change drainage patterns. Finally, at the completion of mining, any historic mines still open may be sealed as part of closure and reclamation activities. The net result can be a loss of bats and bat habitat. Conversely, in some contemporary underground operations, future roosting habitat for bats can be fabricated. An experimental approach to the creation of new roosting habitat is to bury culverts or old tires beneath waste rock. Mining companies can mitigate for impacts to bats by surveying to identify bat-roosting habitat, removing bats prior to renewed mining or closure, protecting non-impacted roost sites with gates and fences, researching to identify habitat requirements and creating new artificial roosts.

  15. 43 CFR 422.9 - Reclamation law enforcement contracts and cooperative agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reclamation law enforcement contracts and... PROJECTS Program Requirements § 422.9 Reclamation law enforcement contracts and cooperative agreements. (a... Federal laws. (b) Each contract and cooperative agreement authorizing the exercise of Reclamation law...

  16. Monitoring and analysis of coastal reclamation from 1995-2015 in Tianjin Binhai New Area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wengang; Wang, Dongchuan; Huang, Yong; Chen, Liding; Zhang, Lihui; Wei, Xiangwang; Sang, Mengqin; Wang, Feicui; Liu, Jinya; Hu, Bingxu

    2017-06-20

    Increasing coastal reclamation activities have been undertaken to solve the conflict between people and land resources, creating significant challenges for coordinating coastal reclamation, economic development and environmental protection. This paper analyzes the effects of coast reclamation on Gross Domestic Product growth and the quality of inshore seawater in the Tianjin Binhai New Area. Remote sensing and a Geographic Information System were used to extract the information of coastal reclamation. The correlation between the area of coastal reclamation, GDP growth and the quality of inshore seawater was analyzed and a decoupling elasticity model was used to explore trends in the relationship between economic development and coastal reclamation. Results showed that coastal reclamation activities played an important role in promoting economic development, but greatly damaged the ecological environment. Although the relationship between coastal reclamation and economic development has weakened during the last three periods, the influence on the environment will continue because of the cumulative effects of pollution. To maintain a balance between coastal reclamation, economic development and environmental protection, (1) coastal reclamation planning must address both economic and environmental outcomes; (2) environmental deficiencies from existing coastal reclamation projects must be rectified; and (3) the legal system regulating coastal reclamation needs to be refined and strengthened.

  17. Pedo-geological activities with exploration of lignite deposits and their value for soil reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuensche, M.; Richter, H.; Oehme, W.D.

    1983-10-01

    A description is presented of geological conditions facilitating soil reclamation and of the overburden removal technologies to be applied. Pedo-geological pre-exploitation studies are indispensable for soil reclamation and their methods and results are described with a final reference to the value of land reclamation for national economy.

  18. 75 FR 81643 - Hydropower Resource Assessment at Existing Reclamation Facilities-Draft Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Hydropower Resource Assessment at Existing... period for review of the Hydropower Resource Assessment at Existing Reclamation Facilities Draft Report... sustainable, affordable hydropower for our national electricity supplies. Reclamation has 476 dams and 8,116...

  19. 30 CFR 780.27 - Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reclamation plan: Surface mining near underground mining. 780.27 Section 780.27 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SURFACE COAL MINING AND RECLAMATION OPERATIONS PERMITS AND COAL...

  20. 30 CFR 906.25 - Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 906.25 Section 906.25 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE COLORADO § 906.25 Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. The...

  1. Utilisation of Products of the Thermal Reclamation of Post Reclamation Dusts in the Production Technology of Ceramic Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtzer M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem related to the management of post reclamation dusts generated in the reclamation process of waste moulding sands with organic binders is presented in the hereby paper. Waste materials generated in this process are products hazardous for the environment and should be utilised. The prototype stand for the utilisation of this dangerous material in its co-burning with coal was developed and patented in AGH in Krakow. The stand was installed in one of the domestic casting houses. As the utilisation result the transformed waste product is obtained and its management in the production of ceramic materials constitutes the subject of the presented publication.

  2. 30 CFR 874.14 - Water supply restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water supply restoration. 874.14 Section 874.14... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION GENERAL RECLAMATION REQUIREMENTS § 874.14 Water supply restoration. (a) Any... supply restoration projects. For purposes of this section, “water supply restoration projects” are those...

  3. Independent regulatory control and monitoring of the environment at the uranium legacy sites under reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shandala, N.K.; Titov, A.V.; Kiselev, S.M.; Isaev, D.V.; Aladova, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Radiation safety at areas affected by the natural uranium mining and milling facilities is very important for the environment protection and human health. For this purpose the close operator-regulator contact is required during remedial operations. One of the key mechanisms of the operating regulatory supervision of radiation safety at uranium legacy sites is organization of independent radiation control and monitoring in the course of reclamation and after its completion. The main stages of this strategy include: detailed radiation survey at the area and in the vicinity of the former uranium mining sites; threat assessment in order to identify the regulatory priorities; environmental radiation control and monitoring. Tailings and shallow disposal sites of the uranium mining wastes are the most critical areas in terms of potential hazard for the environment. Tailings are the source of contamination of the near-land air due to the radionuclide dust resuspension from the tailing surface; surface and ground water due to washing out from by precipitation and surface streams of toxic and radioactive elements. Frequently, contamination of surface and ground waters results in some problems, especially when using the leaching fluids for the solution mining and draining hydraulic fluids. Radiation risk for the residents of areas near not operating uranium mining and milling facilities depends on the following factors: radon exhalation from the surface of dumps and tailing; radioactive dust transfer; using radioactive material in building; contamination of surface water streams and aquifers used for drinking water supply; contamination of open ponds used for fish breeding and catching; contamination of foodstuffs grown in the nuclear legacy areas. Radiation monitoring is necessary for the up-to-date response to changing radiation situation during reclamation and arrangement of adequate countermeasures. We mean here comprehensive dynamic surveillance including long

  4. Investigation of the selected properties of dusts from the reclamation of spent sands with bentonite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kamińska

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The investigation results of the selected properties of dusts generated during the mechanical reclamation of spent sands with bentonite as well as dusts from the dedusting system of sand processing plant are presented in the hereby paper. Investigations were performed with regard to determination conditions allowing to pelletise dusts in the bowl granulator. The verified methods of testing physical and chemical dust properties such as: specific density, bulk density of loosely put materials and apparent density of compacted materials together with their corresponding porosity, ignition losses and pH values, were applied. Granular composition of dusts generated during abrasion of spent binding materials in mechanical dry reclamation processes of spent sands with bentonite and coal dusts were performed by the laser diffraction analysis, allowing to broaden the measuring range of particle diameters. The optimal wetting agent content (in this case water at which the dust-water mixture obtains the best strength properties – after compacting by means of the standard moulder’s rammer – was determined.

  5. Influence of land reclamation on the status of groundwater in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of land reclamation on the status of groundwater in Borokiri area of Port Harcourt, Niger Delta, Nigeria. ... The resulting resistivity data were iterated using a RES2DINV Computer Program. The results were used to map the quality potential of groundwater in the area. The results of the mapping process indicate that ...

  6. Recycling: Establishing a Citizen-Sponsored Reclamation Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keep America Beautiful, Inc., New York, NY.

    This booklet applies the Clean Community System (CCS) of Keep America Beautiful, Inc. to the development of citizen-sponsored recycling projects. Six initial steps in establishing a reclamation center are given and include information gathering, market analysis, legal requirements, and site location. Suggestions are included for recruiting staff…

  7. Land reclamation program. Annual report, July 1976--October 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, R. P.; Hinchman, R. R.; Johnson, D. O.

    1978-05-01

    The Argonne Land Reclamation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy's Division of Environment and Safety, is a joint effort of two Argonne divisions: Energy and Environmental Systems and Environmental Impact Studies. The program is carried out by a multidisciplinary team of scientists and engineers, and has three primary goals: (1) to conduct research and development projects that are focused on both near- and far-term reclamation problems in all major U.S. coal regions; (2) to coordinate and evaluate related studies at other institutions; and (3) to keep industry and government decision-makers informed of reasonable reclamation options and their costs. Since many of the factors that influence reclamation success are region- or site-specific, the program has adopted a regional approach to field and laboratory research. In each of the nation's eight major coal regions, one or more mines have been (or will be) selected as sites for field studies. The vast amount of data gathered by the research arm of the program has also required the development of a data systems component of the program. This annual report is intended to provide a summary of the program's activities and accomplishments during fiscal year 1977.

  8. Adopted practices for mined land reclamation in Ghana: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although mining is an economic booster, its negative ecological backlashes have become a great concern to environmental experts, development planners and policy makers in the era of increasing environment and sustainable development concerns. Reclamation of derelict mine sites is necessary for restoration of ...

  9. 31 CFR 210.9 - Parties to the reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parties to the reclamation. 210.9 Section 210.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT PARTICIPATION IN THE...

  10. Acid mine water reclamation using the ABC process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available of about 2 to 4.5 g/L of sulphate, 250 to 1200 mg/L of Ferrous iron, 60 to 175 mg/L of Mn and 120 mg/L of Mg. The CSIR ABC desalination process, developed for AMD neutralisation and the removal of total dissolved solids from 2 600 to 360 mg/L...

  11. Reclamation of potable water from mixed gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judkins, Roddie R; Bischoff, Brian L; Debusk, Melanie Moses; Narula, Chaitanya

    2013-08-20

    An apparatus for separating a liquid from a mixed gas stream can include a wall, a mixed gas stream passageway, and a liquid collection assembly. The wall can include a first surface, a second surface, and a plurality of capillary condensation pores. The capillary condensation pores extend through the wall, and have a first opening on the first surface of the wall, and a second opening on the second surface of the wall. The pore size of the pores can be between about 2 nm to about 100 nm. The mixed gas stream passageway can be in fluid communication with the first opening. The liquid collection assembly can collect liquid from the plurality of pores.

  12. 43 CFR 404.58 - Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have to comply with the requirements in this rule... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404.58 Do rural water projects authorized before the enactment of the Rural Water Supply Act of 2006 have to comply with...

  13. The way it was : reclamation research gears up for oilsands expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, D.

    2005-10-01

    Although many new developments in oilsands mining operations are in situ, the continuing reliance on truck and shovel projects will mean more mine-scale disturbance and more tailings. Managing tailings is an integral aspect of mine reclamation. Syncrude and Suncor have reclaimed close to 5000 hectares of land, planting trees and grasses. This article discussed future reclamation strategies, which are targeted to also include constructed and natural wetlands to provide habitat for local waterfowl, vegetation and animals. Details of an ongoing 4 year study of natural and constructed wetlands in the Fort McMurray oil sands region were provided. The study has focused on opportunistic wetlands that form themselves close to man-made structures. Because of their microbial content, wetlands are capable of treating contaminated water. A pilot-scale constructed wetland has started operating at Keyspan Energy's Strachan gas plant. It was noted that the peatlands that have been removed cannot easily be replaced after mine closure, since their development is the result of thousands of years of production and evolution. The goal of the project is to create marshes in order to re-contour the land with a range of different land features. Details of the Oil Sands Tailings Research Facility (OSTRF) were provided, a $2.3 million facility with a focus on finding better ways to manage tailings. One of the main problems in tailings management is the length of time it takes for tailings to settle after being discharged from the extraction plant. A description of the facility was provided, with details of research into tailings-thickening procedures which result in composite or consolidated tailings, as well as a project where tailings flow and settle into deposition modules, which can then be lifted out and taken away for examination. Plans for test pits in the future were also reviewed. It was concluded that reclamation is an increasingly important aspect of oil sands operations

  14. A flux-enhancing forward osmosis-nanofiltration integrated treatment system for the tannery wastewater reclamation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Parimal; Chakrabortty, Sankha; Nayak, Jayato; Senapati, Suman

    2017-06-01

    Effective treatment of tannery wastewater prior to discharge to the environment as per environmental regulations remains a big challenge despite efforts to bring down the concentrations of the pollutants which are often quite high as measured in terms of chemical oxygen demand (7800 mg/L), total dissolved solids (5400 mg/L), chloride (4260 mg/L), sulphides (250 mg/L) and chromium. A pilot-scale forward osmosis and nanofiltration integrated closed loop system was developed for continuous reclamation of clean water from tannery wastewater at a rate of 52-55 L/m 2 /h at 1.6 bar pressure. The low-cost draw solution was 0.8 M NaCl solution. Continuous recovery for recycling the draw solute was done by nanofiltration of diluted draw solution at an operating pressure of 12 bar and volumetric cross-flow rate of 700 L/h. Fouling study revealed that the specific flat-sheet design of cross-flow forward osmosis module with counter current flow of feed and draw solution prevents the build-up of concentration polarization, thus enabling long-term filtration in continuous mode of operation without significant membrane fouling. This study culminates in the development of a compact, efficient and low-cost industrial wastewater treatment and reclamation technology.

  15. Reclamation of devastated landscape in the Karviná region (Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havrlant Jan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the recent positive changes in the industrial landscape of the Karviná region in a broader context. The Karviná region has been the most important part of the coal-bearing Ostrava-Karviná District. Since the industrial revolution, the position of the primary mining area has brought a dynamic economic development and a great concentration of population into the fast-growing conurbation cities, particularly between 1950s and 1980s. However, the dominant coal mining and processing has had a negative impact on the environment, the character and utilization of the landscape. Many environmental, socioeconomic and other problems did not become fully evident until the social changes at the turn of 1980s and 1990s. At present, a great attention is being paid to the reclamation of the affected landscape. As a result, the region is starting to change its unflattering image of an industrial and problematic area devastated by coal extraction for the better after many years. The various forms of land reclamation, modification of water bodies, construction of new sports and recreational facilities and so on are bringing a gradual improvement of the environment in the region, creating a new cultivated landscape that can be used, among other things, for various forms of tourism and relaxation.

  16. Reclamation of natural, seminatural and agricultural environments following radioactive contamination - A Nordic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liland, A.; Strand, P.; Skuterud, L.

    2002-01-01

    A range of methods, from simple cost benefits analyses to sophisticated decision making systems, are available for assessing the net countermeasure benefits to man contamination of different environments. As part of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Programme, an attempt was made to develop a strategy for mid- and long-term reclamation of contaminated cultivated agricultural environments, animals, forests, freshwater and fish, and urban environments. The study focused on the long-lived nuclides 137 Cs and 90 Sr. Also social implications and a sound environmental management should be addressed in the selection of a countermeasure strategy. The considerations of the cultivated agricultural environment included a model of a Nordic environment, with different soil types, land use and crops. When considering countermeasure strategies for animals, both transfer and production rates have to be compared, as the transfer of radiocaesium to animals in cultivated areas is low compared to the transfer in unimproved areas or to wild animals. The countermeasures considered for freshwater were: use of alternative water supply, and ion exchange method, and for freshwater fish: limiting consumption, brining in households, and wet land and lake liming. In urban environments knowledge on the source strengths, relative dose rate at different locations (indoor, outdoor) due to the deposition on different urban surfaces (roofs, walls, paved areas, trees, bushes etc.) is important. For all environments costs and averted doses were estimated for a fallout scenario giving 1 MBq m -2 of 137 Cs. The effectiveness of the different countermeasures was then compared and reclamation strategies suggested. (author)

  17. [Effects of biochar and PAM application on saline soil hydraulic properties of coastal reclamation region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu Tong; She, Dong Li

    2017-11-01

    Disc infiltration tests were carried out to study the soil infiltration characteristics under different rates of soil amendments application, and to investigate the effects of biochar and polyacrylamide (PAM) application on saline soil hydraulic properties, pore characteristics and contribution of each pore to soil water flow in coastal reclamation region. The results showed that soil satura-ted hydraulic conductivity increased by 46.4% when biochar was applied at 2% compared with the control, and decreased with increasing PAM application. The total effective soil porosity and r>100 μm pores were increased by 8.3% and 10.2% (PPAM application. Particularly, the total effective soil porosity decreased markedly when PAM was applied at 1‰ and the reduction was up to 88%. With the application of biochar and PAM, the contribution of r500 μm played a major role in determining water flows.

  18. Suspension, abandonment, decontamination, and surface land reclamation of upstream oil and gas facilities : informational letter IL 98-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This release of the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) is intended to clarify the jurisdictional roles of Alberta Environmental Protection (AEP) and the EUB with regard to their respective responsibilities for the regulation of the suspension, abandonment, decontamination and surface land reclamation of active and inactive upstream oil and gas facilities. The EUB, AEP and industrial operators all have separate roles and responsibilities when active and inactive upstream facilities are suspended or reclaimed. In the future, industry operators will have more interaction with the AEP during the decontamination of a site, while the EUB will concentrate on pollution prevention and abandonment of non-economic facilities. All oilfield waste generated from suspension, abandonment, decontamination, and surface land reclamation of an active or inactive upstream oil and gas facility will fall under the jurisdiction of the EUB. Contaminated soils, sludges, and waters that are physically removed as a result of decontamination activities are considered to be oilfield wastes. The regulatory responsibility between the AEP and the EUB remains unchanged for the reclamation process of on-lease and off-lease spills, releases or pipeline breaks. Industry operators are no longer allowed to discharge any produced liquid to earthen pits or ponds and are encouraged to reclaim existing ones. 3 figs

  19. Hydrogen sulfide booster compressors for HWP Manuguru - oil reclamation study - BHEL experience (Paper No. 5.2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbole, A.; Santanam, N.; Murthy, T.S.R.

    1992-01-01

    BHEL undertook the development of hydrogen sulphide booster compressor with a view to indigenise this most critical equipment in a heavy water plant. Throughout the design, manufacture and shop testing of these booster compressors BHEL had close interaction with Heavy Water Board. This paper describes the problems faced during commissioning of compressors at KCR -Manuguru such as deficiencies in the sizing of LP seal oil drain, development of a process for reclamation of oil and development of alternate sealing arrangement, etc. (author). 1 tab., 4 figs

  20. Interim reclamation report: Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploration shaft site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

    1990-02-01

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. Extensive studies of the geotechnical aspects of the site were undertaken, including preparations for drilling a large diameter Exploratory Shaft. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the Exploratory Shaft Facility, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 43 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs

  1. DU Processing Efficiency and Reclamation: Plasma Arc Melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhoff, Seth D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Aikin, Jr., Robert M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Swenson, Hunter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Solis, Eunice Martinez [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-26

    The work described here corresponds to one piece of a larger effort to increase material usage efficiency during DU processing operations. In order to achieve this goal, multiple technologies and approaches are being tested. These technologies occupy a spectrum of technology readiness levels (TRLs). Plasma arc melting (PAM) is one of the technologies being investigated. PAM utilizes a high temperature plasma to melt materials. Depending on process conditions, there are potential opportunities for recycling and material reclamation. When last routinely operational, the LANL research PAM showed extremely promising results for recycling and reclamation of DU and DU alloys. The current TRL is lower due to machine idleness for nearly two decades, which has proved difficult to restart. This report describes the existing results, promising techniques, and the process of bringing this technology back to readiness at LANL.

  2. The legal framework for wellsite abandonment and reclamation in Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmour, B.S.

    1997-01-01

    The legislative framework for wellsite reclamation in Alberta was discussed. The legal requirements that impact on wellsite abandonment and reclamation, with emphasis on the Oil and Gas Conservation Act (OGCA) and the Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act (EPEA) were described. In 1994, the Orphan Well fund was established to ensure that wells are properly abandoned in those cases where participants are insolvent. The fund is financed by the petroleum industry. The regulatory requirements for wellsite abandonment are found in the OGCA and the Well Abandonment Guide 20 which provides explicit procedures for both open-hole and cased-hole abandonment. Liability for contaminated sites exists under the contaminated sites provision of the EPEA. Amendments to the OGCA provide for more supervision over licence transfers and the granting of licences to first-time licensees

  3. Plutonium--uranium partitioning; alternate flowsheet Plutonium Reclamation Facility. [SEPHIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fort, L.A.

    1975-12-01

    The SEPHIS computer program was used to predict the transient and steady-state concentrations in a stage-wise scheme for the Pu reclamation solvent extraction system. With the aid of the computer an alternative flowsheet for Pu--U partitioning was constructed. The goal of the alternative program is to reduce Pu losses from the initial stripping column and reduce the quantity of Pu-bearing wastes from the solvent extraction system. (JSR)

  4. Interim reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation project: Boreholes, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

    1990-03-01

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. An extensive site characterization program was begun to determine the feasibility of using the basalts beneath the Hanford Site for the repository. Site research focused primarily on determining the direction and speed of groundwater movement, the uniformity of basalt layers, and tectonic stability. Some 98 boreholes were sited, drilled, deepened, or modified by BWIP between 1977 and 1988 to test the geologic properties of the Site. On December 22, 1987, President Reagan signed into law the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, which effectively stopped all repository-related activities except reclamation of disturbed lands at the Hanford Site. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 48 refs., 28 figs., 14 tabs

  5. Blasting as a method for abandoned mine land reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Workman, J.L.; Fletcher, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Blasting methods have been proposed for reclaiming abandoned underground coal mine sites having unstable conditions. The objective of blasting is twofold: the permanent stabilization of an area by the collapse of underground workings to prevent any future subsidence, and the use of blasting to close existing sinkholes. This paper presents the results of two research projects funded by the Bureau of Mines Abandoned Mine Land Research Program to investigate the feasibility of blasting to assist in the reclamation of shallow abandoned coal mine sites. Blasting tests were conducted at Beulah, North Dakota and at Scobey, Montana, involving different configurations. The first test was a 10-acre site where blasting was used to collapse regular room and pillar panels for which good mine layout information was available. The second test involved a one acre site containing very irregular workings for which there was little available information. Finally, blasting techniques were used to close 13 individual vertical openings. The depths to the coal seams were 60 feet or less at all sites. When blasting for Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation, material must be cast downward into the abandoned developments or laterally into the sinkhole. Designs based on cratering concepts and spherical charges worked well. The blasting techniques successfully collapsed and stabilized the test areas. Cost of reclamation for the two test sites are presented. Data from blast vibration monitoring are presented because control of vibrations is of concern when mitigation efforts are conducted near homes

  6. Flare pit reclamation in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The legislative acts and policies administered by the Pollution Prevention program of the B.C. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, (MELP) were reviewed. MELP is responsible for protecting land, water, air and living resources. Past oil and gas activities have left behind high levels of hazardous materials spills on the land which can pose a risk to human health. Flare pits are also a potential source of soil and groundwater contamination, therefore proper management and remediation of these sites is critical to ensuring that adverse impacts do not occur due to contamination of the sites. MELP has created a Contaminated Sites Regulation (CSR) which presents a consistent approach to ensuring protection of human health, the environment and property. This paper explores key provisions of the CSR, the prescribed contaminated sites management process and compares the B.C. legislation with that of neighbouring Alberta. 5 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  7. The effect of mining on landscape ecological systems and land reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stys, S.

    1991-01-01

    Coal mining causes serious disturbance of the environment. Basic principles for the reclamation of affected territories are discussed. The effects of mining on the socio-ecological landscape system, the agricultural and forestry aspects of reclamation technologies after surface mining and the factors affecting the way of reclamation are shown in a diagrammatic form. The attached photographs document the effect of mining on landscape devastation. (M.D.). 17 figs

  8. Carbon dynamics, food web structure and reclamation strategies in Athabasca oil sands wetlands (CRFAW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciborowski, J.; Dixon, G.; Foote, L.; Liber, K.; Smits, J.

    2010-01-01

    This abstract provided details of the Carbon Dynamics, Food Web Structure and Reclamation Strategies in Athabasca Oil Sands Wetlands (CFRAW) program, a collaboration between oil sands industry partners and university laboratories. CFRAW researchers are investigating the effects of mine tailings and process waters on the development, health, and function of wetland communities in post-mining landscapes. The aim of the program is to accurately predict how quickly the reclaimed wetlands will approach conditions seen in reference wetland systems. The program is also examining the effects of hydrocarbons as a surrogate source of carbon after they are metabolized by bacteria. The biological uptake, pathways, and movement through the food web of materials used by the biota in constructed wetlands are also being studied. Flux estimates will be used to determine if wetlands amended with peat will maintain their productivity. A conceptual model of carbon pathways and budgets is also being developed.

  9. Suitability of dredged material for reclamation of surface-mined land. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Van Luik, A.

    1979-12-01

    Eroding ridges of acidic coal-mine spoil in La Salle County, Illinois, were leveled to form a gently-sloped raised plateau. Four test plots were constructed: a control plot and three treatment plots that received a 0.9-m-thick cover of dredged material obtained from the Metropolitan Sanitary District of Greater Chicago. Two treatment plots received lime applications and all plots were seeded with a mixture of grasses. Pressure-vacuum soil water samplers were installed, in duplicate, at two levels in the control plot and at three levels in each treatment plot. The three levels in the treatment plots coincided with dredged material, the dredged-material mine-spoil interface, and the underlying mine spoil. Surface water, soil water, and groundwater were monitored for 29 water-quality parameters for one year. Rainfall, air temperature, runoff, and water-level elevation data were collected also. Detailed analysis of the data indicates that the dredged material used in this study does not adversely affect water quality; it supports abundant plant growth, lessens groundwater contamination, and controls acid runoff. The dredged material is judged to be a suitable material for use in reclamation of surface-mined land.

  10. Fifth symposium on surface mining and reclamation. NCA/BCR coal conference and Expo IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-01

    The Fifth Symposium on Surface Mining and Reclamation, sponsored by the National Coal Association and Bituminous Coal Research, Inc., was held at the Kentucky Fair and Exposition Center, Louisville, Kentucky, October 18-20, 1977. Twenty-six papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Topics covered include spoil bank revegetation, use of aerial photography, reclamation for row crop production, hydrology, computer programs related to this work, subirrigated alluvial valley floors, reclamation on steep slopes, mountain top removal, surface mine road design, successional processes involved in reclamation, land use planning, etc. (LTN)

  11. Sea Reclamation Status of Countries around the South China Sea from 1975 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjue Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As a way of turning sea into land for living space for humans, the actions of sea reclamation bring about significant benefits. Nevertheless, it is also an under-recognized threat to the environment and the marine ecosystem. Based on images in two periods, sea reclamation information of countries around the South China Sea was extracted from 1975 to 2010. The spatial state and driven forces of sea reclamation are then discussed. Results show that the overall strength of sea reclamation in the South China Sea was great. New reclaimed land added up to 3264 km2. Sea reclamation for fish farming was the main reclamation type and widely distributed in the whole area, especially on the coast from the Pearl River Delta to the Red River Delta, and the coast of Ca Mau Peninsula. Sea reclamation in China and Vietnam was rather significant, which occupies 80.6% of the total reclamation area. Singapore had the highest level of sea reclamation. New reclaimed land for fish farming holds a key role in China, Vietnam, and Indonesia, while new reclaimed land for construction and docks dominated in Malaysia, Singapore, and Brunei. Areas and use-type compositions of new reclaimed land in countries varied greatly due to the differences of economic factors, policy inclination, and landscapes in the respective countries.

  12. Influence of the Reclamation Process Intensity in the REGMAS Reclaimer on the Purification Degree of the High-silica Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzyński M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The investigation results of the reclamation of spent moulding sands with furfuryl resin are presented in this paper. The reclamation process was performed in the secondary reclamation chamber of the REGMAS 1.5 vibratory reclaimer. 70 kg portions of moulding sands, previously subjected to the primary reclamation and dedusting, were used. The secondary reclamation was performed in two stages: the first consisted of determining the reclaimer intensity at various reclamation times (5 min, 10 min and 15 min and various electrovibrator frequencies (40 Hz, 50 Hz and 60 Hz, the second consisted of determining the influence of additional crushing elements on the intensity of processes.

  13. Estimation of contamination sources of human enteroviruses in a wastewater treatment and reclamation system by PCR-DGGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zheng; Wang, Xiaochang C; Xu, Limei; Zhang, Chongmiao; Funamizu, Naoyuki; Okabe, Satoshi; Sano, Daisuke

    2014-06-01

    A polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method was employed to estimate the contamination sources of human enteroviruses and understand how their dominant strains vary in a wastewater treatment and reclamation system consisting of sewage collection, wastewater treatment with membrane bioreactor and open lakes for reclaimed water storage and reuse. After PCR-DGGE using a selected primer set targeting enteroviruses, phylogenetic analysis of acquired enterovirus gene sequences was performed. Enteroviruses identified from the septic tank were much more diverse than those from grey water and kitchen wastewater. Several unique types of enterovirus different from those in wastewater samples were dominant in a biological wastewater treatment unit. Membrane filtration followed by chlorination was proved effective for physically eliminating enteroviruses; however, secondary contamination likely occurred as the reclaimed water was stored in artificial lakes. Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) viral pathogen, was detected mainly from the artificial lakes, implying that wastewater effluent was not the contamination source of EV71 and that there were unidentified non-point sources of the contamination with the HFMD viral pathogen in the reclaimed water stored in the artificial lakes. The PCR-DGGE targeting enteroviruses provided robust evidence about viral contamination sources in the wastewater treatment and reclamation system.

  14. The utilisation of municipal waste compost for the reclamation of anthropogenic soils: implications on C dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Pullicino, D.; Bol, R.; Gigliotti, G.

    2009-04-01

    The application of municipal waste compost (MWC) and other organic materials may serve to enhance soil fertility and increase C stocks of earthen materials and mine spoils used in land reclamation activities, particularly in the recovery of degraded areas left by exhausted quarries, mines, abandoned industrial zones, degraded natural areas and exhausted landfill sites. Such land management options may serve as a precondition for landscaping and reclamation of degraded areas, reforestation or agriculture. In fact, previous results have shown that compost application to the capping layer of a landfill covering soil significantly enhanced the fertility, evidenced by an improvement in soil structure, porosity and water holding capacity, an increase in the relative proportion of recalcitrant C pools and an increase in soil nutrient content, microbial activity and soil microbial biomass. Proper management of MWC requires a capacity to understand and predict their impacts on C dynamics in the field subsequent to application. Although numerous works deal with the effects of compost application in agricultural systems, little is known on how land rehabilitation practices effect C dynamics in such relatively young soil systems. The estimation of SOC pools and their potential turnover rates in land reclamation activities is fundamental to our understanding of terrestrial C dynamics. In the framework of a long-term field experiment, the objective of this work was to evaluate the temporal and spatial dynamics of compost-derived organic matter with respect to the major processes involved in organic matter cycling in an anthropogenic landfill covering soil originally amended with a single dose of MWC. We investigated long-term organic C dynamics in such systems by collecting samples at different depths over a 10 year chronosequence subsequent to compost application to the top layer of the landfill covering soil. Variations in the stable isotope composition (delta 13C) of the soil

  15. Elliot Lake uranium mine reclamation, the first ten years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1989, Rio Algom Limited finalized its plans for the closure and subsequent decommissioning of two of its then three operating mines in Elliot Lake as a result of market conditions. These two mines closed in August 1990. These mine closures had significant impacts. The principal mining operations of Rio Algom at that time were still in Elliot Lake and had been the very foundation of the company for about 40 years. The business impact on the Corporation was regarded as possibly severe. The resultant layoff of over 1,500 long-term, highly qualified, skilled and well-paid employees, a devastating blow to the affected employees and their families, would have a significant financial impact on the municipal economy, particularly as this announcement was seen as the first step in the early closure of all four operating mines in the region. At that time there was little precedence for such a high profile mine closure program and consequently the many unknowns relating to the mine decommissioning process, legislative requirements and society's expectations resulted in a perception of a significant yet ill-defined liability. In this atmosphere of understandable company, stakeholder and public concern, Rio Algom Limited embarked on what has turned out to be a long, rigorous, challenging yet ultimately reasonable and rewarding process of progressive reclamation of all its Elliot Lake mines, some ten in total (nine uranium, one copper). Over the past ten years, reclamation of all ten mines has been successfully completed, some $70 m plus has been expended in direct site reclamation works and the workforce has been reduced from over 2,500 to just 4. After ten years, the focus of attention is now on the long-term care, maintenance, monitoring and reporting required for the decommissioned mine sites, and the accomplishment of this in the best interests of all the stakeholders. (author)

  16. Reclamation of prime farmland following mineral sands mining in Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, W.L.; Schroeder, P.D.; Nagle, S.M.; Zelazny, L.W.; Alley, M.M.

    1999-07-01

    Significant deposits of mineral sands were discovered in Virginia's Upper Coastal Plain in 1989. The Old Hickory deposit is the largest ore body in the state (>2,000 ha) and supports a productive rowcrop agriculture on prime farmlands. field experiments were installed on pilot-scale (25 m x 60 m) mining pits in the late summer of 1995 and replicated on an adjacent undisturbed area. Half of each mining pit was topsoiled (25 cm) while the remaining half was left as either (1) mixed tails/slimes or (2) re-graded subsoil over tails/slimes to simulate various pit closure scenarios. Both non-topsoiled areas received 112 Mg/ha of yard waste compost as a soil building amendment. The entire area was ripped/disked to ameliorate compaction and incorporate lime and fertilizer additions. The experiment was cropped through a wheat/soybeans/corn/cotton rotation over the 1995 to 1998 growing seasons. Taken as a whole, these combined results clearly indicate that mining and reclamation of these prime farmlands will lead to a substantial decrease in rowcrop productivity, at least over the initial years following pit closure and reclamation. For the rotation studied, post-mining productivity was estimated by this experiment to be reduced by 23%, 3%, 27%, and 20% for each crop (wheat/soybeans/corn/cotton) in sequence. For a given crop in a given year, response to topsoiling versus compost addition to the surface varied, and neither treatment appeared superior. Corn and cotton yields on the mined land treatments were reduced despite the application of irrigation. Cotton quality was also adversely affected by the mining reclamation treatments. Results of these controlled experiments are somewhat encouraging. However, the implementation of protocols will be complicated in practice if tailings and slimes cannot be re-blended to generate a reasonably uniform final reclaimed surface.

  17. EFFECTIVENESS OF RECLAMATION OF SODA WASTE DISPOSAL SITE AT JANIKOWO USING SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Siuta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous reclamation technologies based on sewage sludge treatment, however, one that is most purposeful consists in applying the sludge in order to achieve green cover (bioremediation with plants on fine grained waste disposal sites which have a high potential for soil formation on the one hand, but on the other, are highly vulnerable to erosive action of wind and atmospheric precipitation. The technological waste at the Janikowo Soda Plant has liquid consistence, contains fine-grained (dust-like and water soluble calcium compounds, and is highly alkaline and saline. The waste was disposed and dehydrated in the large-area earthen ponds elevated beyond the ground level. The combined surface of all the exploited settling ponds (with roads and escarpments jointly exceeds 105 ha. Dehydration by infiltration and evaporation was a source of unrestricted dust emissions from the drying and dry surfaces of the waste site. Urgent action was then deemed necessary to manage the high risk of nuisance dust to the local population, technical infrastructure, engines and cars. Consequently, it was decided that the best way to manage nuisance dust would be to create a thick and permanent vegetal cover on the waste site. The vegetal cover would also limit salt infiltration from the disposal site to groundwater and to adjacent agricultural land, and contribute to improving the local landscape values. Treatment with adequately high (appropriate for reclamation purposes doses of sewage sludge and sowing of plants which have a high growth potential and nutrient demand resulted in the quick establishment of green cover on the waste disposal site. The contents of mineral elements in plants and in the top layer of the ground reclaimed were analyzed starting from the year 2000 onwards until the year 2013. The chemical composition of sewage sludge was systematically analyzed as well. No excessive contents were found of main elements neither of heavy metals in

  18. Quantification of intensive hybrid coastal reclamation for revealing its impacts on macrozoobenthos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Jiaguo; Cui, Baoshan; Zheng, Jingjing; Xie, Tian; Wang, Qing; Li, Shanze

    2015-01-01

    Managing and identifying the sources of anthropogenic stress in coastal wetlands requires an in-depth understanding of relationships between species diversity and human activities. Empirical and experimental studies provide clear evidence that coastal reclamation can have profound impacts on marine organisms, but the focus of such studies is generally on comparative or laboratory research. We developed a compound intensity index (reclamation intensity index, RI) on hybrid coastal reclamation, to quantify the impacts of reclamation on coastal ecosystems. We also made use of mean annual absolute changes to a number of biotic variables (biodiversity, species richness, biomass of total macrozoobenthos, and species richness and biomass of Polychaeta, Mollusca, Crustacea, and Echinodermata) to determine Hedges’d index, which is a measure of the potential effects of coastal reclamation. Our results showed that there was significant difference of coastal reclamation intensity between Yellow Sea, East China Sea and South China Sea, the biological changes in effect sizes of the three regions differed greatly over time. Our modelling analyses showed that hybrid coastal reclamation generally had significant negative impacts on species diversity and biomass of macrozoobenthos. These relationships varied among different taxonomic groups and included both linear and nonlinear relationships. The results indicated that a high-intensity of coastal reclamation contributed to a pronounced decline in species diversity and biomass, while lower-intensity reclamation, or reclamation within certain thresholds, resulted in a small increase in species diversity and biomass. These results have important implications for biodiversity conservation and the ecological restoration of coastal wetlands in face of the intensive reclamation activities. (letter)

  19. Reclamation of colliery mine spoil founded on natural succession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochimsen, M.E.A.

    1996-01-01

    Reclamation of derelict land is of great concern for industrial countries. Technically produced and biologically inactive soils are said to be hostile to plants. Therefore, great effort is applied, in order to reintegrate them into the landscape. Ordinarily plant settlement starts with pioneer plants, especially herbs. Reafforestation, in this case, is an ecological misunderstanding. A method of mimicking natural succession including its ecological and economic advantages is described. The results of an applied experiment on virgin mine spoil with respect to species number, plant cover degree, and above ground phytomass production in the course of six years are reported in this paper. 12 refs., 4 figs

  20. LANDSLIDE RECLAMATION IN ŠÁRKA VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vaníček

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Housing development in Šárka’s valley is situated in former brickworks – borrow pit for brick-clay. On its north side the borrow pit cutting is up to 8m high with main road on top. This slope was suffering from progressive landslide mainly due to weathering and surface erosion. The reclamation works proposed and afterwards executed consisted of stabilizing the slope by combination of soil nailing and connecting reinforced slope with surcharge bench at its toe. The final reinforced soil structure nicely merged into the surrounding environment.

  1. The Early Modern Land Reclamation, Protomodern Migration and Economic Development of the Feudal Estate of Vrana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka Mlinarić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the authors are focused on local and trans-border migration processes in Northern Dalmatia and their influence on the economic and demographic development of the Vrana feudal estate during the 17th and 18th century. The research was based on the complex and qualitative analysis of demographic, economical, confessional and cartographic archival sources, followed by the correlation of existing secondary literature research (desk-study analysis. The primary scientific goal was to determine how the land reclamation and corresponding protomodern migrations, which had occurred prior the statistical period of migration registration, have changed and influenced further economic and environmental development of this particular hinterland of the Dalmatian area. The change of the lowland marshy borderlands was investigated within the frames of its physical ambience, geo-strategic position, and its communication, commercial and migratory potential, within the interdisciplinary framework and discourse of ecohistory and environmental studies methodology and approach. In addition, this paper tends to discuss whether the Borelli family's private venture of investing in land reclamation was an economic success or rather an adventurous experiment since they failed to keep the immigrants colonized from Bukovica in permanent settlements. After getting the Vrana estate as a feudal possession in 1752, these Italian family members undertook a huge action of marshland and land reclamation in order to re-evaluate and redefine land use in the area that was once a prosperous Roman barn field, which provided food for a much larger population. Consequently, these newly gained lands were used by the state, along with some other tax and administrative benefits, to attract agrarian labour force. After drying the Vrana moors and marshes, damp soil improved in quality and the excess water was taken away, especially after the trenching of main and collateral ditches

  2. 43 CFR 404.56 - If a financial assistance agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... entered into for a rural water supply project that benefits more than one Indian tribe, is the approval of... Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECLAMATION RURAL WATER SUPPLY PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 404.56 If a financial assistance agreement is entered into for a rural water supply project that...

  3. Feasibility of In-Situ Aeration of Old Dumping Ground for Land Reclamation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Huan Tong

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dumping grounds are characterized by the absence of engineering controls such as base liners and cover layer. Consequently, these dumping grounds present risks for surrounding resources such as soil, groundwater and air. The concern for groundwater contamination by leachate from tropical dumping grounds is heightened due to the greater amounts of rainfall and subsequent infiltration and percolation through the waste mass. The emergent demand for old dumping grounds reclamation drives the need to employ remediation technologies. Generally, in-situ aeration is a remediation method that promotes aerobic conditions in the later stage of dumping ground. It accelerates carbon transfer, reduces remaining organic load, and generally shortens the post closure period. However, high rainfall in tropical areas straitens this technique. For example, pollutants could be easily flushed out and more energy should be required to overcome hydrostatic pressure. Although heavy rainfall could supply sufficient water to the substrate and accelerate degradation of organic matter, it may inhibit aerobic activities due to limited air transfer. The waste characterization from Lorong Halus Dumping Ground (closed dumping ground in Singapore showed that the waste materials were stabilized after 22 years closure. According to the Waste Acceptance Criteria set by European Communities Council, the waste materials could be classified as inert wastes. One interesting finding was that leachate layer detected was about of 5 - 8 meter depth, which entirely soaked the waste materials. Hence, the reclamation design and operation should be carefully adjusted according to these characters. Lorong Halus Dumping Ground case study can provide a guideline for other tropical closed landfills or dumping grounds.

  4. 77 FR 55430 - Arkansas Regulatory Program and Abandoned Mine Land Reclamation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ... of its regulatory program and abandoned mine land reclamation plan, make grammatical changes, correct... portions of its regulatory program and abandoned mine land reclamation plan, make grammatical changes... Streams. PART 785--REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMITS FOR SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF MINING 785.13, 785.14, 785.15...

  5. Science and technology of rubber reclamation with special attention to NR based waste latex products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, V.V.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Joseph, R.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of reclamation of cured rubber with special emphasis on latex reclamation is depicted in this paper. The latex industry has expanded over the years to meet the world demands for gloves, condoms, latex thread, etc. Due to the strict specifications for the products and the

  6. Renewable Energy Assessment of Bureau of Reclamation Land and Facilities Using Geographic Information Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heimiller, D.; Haase, S.; Melius, J.

    2013-05-01

    This report summarizes results of geographic information system screening for solar and wind potential at select Bureau of Reclamation lands in the western United States. The study included both utility-scale and facility-scale potential. This study supplements information in the report titled Renewable Energy Assessment for the Bureau of Reclamation: Final Report.

  7. 43 CFR 420.25 - Reclamation lands administered by other agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for management of Reclamation lands for recreation purposes. Specifically: (1) Reclamation lands managed by the National Park Service, the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife, the Bureau of Land Management, the Forest Service, and other Federal agencies will be administered in accordance with...

  8. 30 CFR 906.20 - Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Colorado abandoned mine land reclamation plan. 906.20 Section 906.20 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE COLORADO...

  9. Geochemical and isotopic tracers of recharge and reclamation of stormwater in an urban aquifer: Adelaide, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herczeg, A.L.; Rattray, K.J.; Dillon, P.J.; Pavelic, P.C.; Barry, K.J.

    2002-01-01

    Artificial recharge and reclamation of stormwater into groundwater is a newly developing strategy to augment water resources in the Adelaide metropolitan area of South Australia. Mixing between injected storm water and native groundwater can be most effectively using naturally occurring chloride ion. Stable isotopes of the water molecule are used more effectively during short term tests (i.e., immediately following injection events), and requires frequent monitoring of the surface water end-member. Biogeochemical processes involving geochemical reactions such as organic matter oxidation, carbonate mineral dissolution and sulfide mineral oxidation are very effectively traced by δ 13 C and 14 C (of TDIC) and δ 34 S (of SO 4 2- ). The most important processes occurring in the Tertiary limestone aquifer in Adelaide were carbonate mineral dissolution which is induced largely by CO 2 production during organic matter oxidation. Sulfide mineral oxidation is a minor process, and is accompanied by an equivalent amount of sulfate reduction after injection of the stormwater. (author)

  10. A study of the performance of a reclamation soil cover placed over an oilsands coke deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, D.S.; Barbour, S.L. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Qualizza, C. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Coke is a solid, carbonaceous residue that forms during the cracking of high-boiling point distillates and is one of the by-products of petroleum extraction from oilsands. Coke is known as a possible future energy source and therefore, must be stored within the reclaimed landscape in a form that allows it to be recovered. In addition, it also could be used as a low-density capping material over soft tailings. This paper presented the results of a study that examined the effects of coke in the environment. The study involved construction of two small instrumented watersheds at Syncrude Canada's Mildred Lake Settling Basin. Preliminary field data, highlighting the moisture dynamics within the covers and the underlying coke were discussed. Sand tailings underlie the hydraulically placed coke deposit. Overlying the coke were two different reclamation soil covers constructed of a peat/mineral mix over glacial or glacial lacustrine soils. Placing the finer textured soil cover over coarser grained coke produced a textural or capillary break which enhanced moisture storage for plant use while minimizing deep percolation of infiltrating water. The site has been instrumented with a meteorological station; automated soil stations to monitor suction, water content and temperature through the cover profile; lysimeters to collect net percolation; access tubes for water content monitoring; gas sampling points at depth in the coke; and standpipe piezometers to monitor water chemistry and total head in the coke at depth. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  11. Waste Not Want Not: Water Reuse and Recycling in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Texas Water Development Board has provided more than $300 million to over 28 projects using its CWSRF to fund a diversification of water reclamation, reuse and supply development solutions to augment community resiliency in the face of drought events.

  12. 43 CFR 404.36 - Will Reclamation reimburse me for the cost of an appraisal investigation or a feasibility study...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Will Reclamation reimburse me for the cost... Reclamation reimburse me for the cost of an appraisal investigation or a feasibility study that was not...) or (b). Reclamation will not reimburse you or provide program funding for any expenses related to an...

  13. 30 CFR 937.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 937.784 Section 937.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application to conduct...

  14. 30 CFR 903.784 - Underground mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 903.784 Section 903.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, applies to any person who submits an application...

  15. 30 CFR 910.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 910.784 Section 910.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes...

  16. 30 CFR 942.780 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 942.780 Section 942.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application to conduct...

  17. 30 CFR 947.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 947.784 Section 947.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes...

  18. 30 CFR 942.784 - Underground mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 942.784 Section 942.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application...

  19. 30 CFR 939.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 939.784 Section 939.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes...

  20. 30 CFR 912.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 912.780 Section 912.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application to conduct...

  1. 30 CFR 921.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 921.780 Section 921.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application...

  2. 30 CFR 941.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 941.784 Section 941.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes...

  3. 30 CFR 939.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operations plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operations plan. 939.780 Section 939.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operations plan. (a) Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application...

  4. 30 CFR 905.780 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 905.780 Section 905.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application to conduct...

  5. 30 CFR 922.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 922.784 Section 922.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application...

  6. 30 CFR 947.780 - Surface mining permit application-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 947.780 Section 947.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Application—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application to conduct...

  7. 30 CFR 933.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 933.780 Section 933.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application...

  8. 30 CFR 910.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 910.780 Section 910.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirement for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application to conduct...

  9. 30 CFR 922.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 922.780 Section 922.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application to conduct...

  10. 30 CFR 905.784 - Underground mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 905.784 Section 905.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application...

  11. 30 CFR 933.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 933.784 Section 933.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes...

  12. 30 CFR 903.780 - Surface mining permit applications-Minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 903.780 Section 903.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, applies to any person who submits an application to conduct...

  13. 30 CFR 912.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 912.784 Section 912.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application to conduct...

  14. 30 CFR 937.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 937.780 Section 937.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirement for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application to conduct...

  15. 30 CFR 921.784 - Underground mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 921.784 Section 921.784 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. Part 784 of this chapter, Underground Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes...

  16. 30 CFR 941.780 - Surface mining permit applications-minimum requirements for reclamation and operation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for reclamation and operation plan. 941.780 Section 941.780 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE... for reclamation and operation plan. (a) Part 780 of this chapter, Surface Mining Permit Applications—Minimum Requirements for Reclamation and Operation Plan, shall apply to any person who makes application...

  17. 78 FR 21414 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are available for review... establish and administer an office on Central Valley Project water conservation best management practices...

  18. Carbon dynamics, food web structure and reclamation strategies in Athabasca oil sands wetlands (CFRAW) : overview and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciborowski, J.; Dixon, D.G.; Foote, L.; Liber, K.; Smits, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Seven oil sand mining partners and 5 university labs have joined forces to study the effects of mine tailings and process waters on development, health and function of wetland communities formed in post-mining landscapes. The collaborative effort, know as the carbon dynamics, food web structure and reclamation strategies in Athabasca oil sands wetlands (CRFAW), aims to identify the materials and strategies most effective and economical in producing a functioning reclamation landscape. This presentation reported on part of the study that tested predictions about how quickly wetlands amended with reclamation materials approach the conditions of reference wetland systems. It provided a conceptual model of carbon pathways and budgets to assess how the allocation of carbon among compartments changes as newly formed wetlands mature in the boreal system. It was assumed that stockpiling constructed wetlands with peat or topsoil would accelerate succession and community development. Although the bitumen and the naphthenic acids found in constructed wetlands are initially toxic, they may serve as an alternate source of carbon once they degrade. This study also assessed the sources, biological uptake, pathways, and movement through the food web of materials used by the biota in constructed wetlands. Additional studies are examining how the productivity of new wetlands is maintained. Net ecosystem productivity is being monitored along with rates of organic carbon accumulation from microbial, algal, and macrophyte production, and influx of outside materials. The rates of leaf litter breakdown and microbial respiration are being compared to determine how constituents speed or slow food web processes of young and older wetlands. Carbon and nitrogen isotope values in food web compartments indicate which sources are incorporated into the food web as wetlands age. The values are used to determine how this influences community development, food web structure and complexity, and the

  19. The Reclamation of Tailing Area Reclamation in The Mining Area with Forages, is it Possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N D Purwantari

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Tailings are what’s left over from mining. The rock where copper, gold, silver and other minerals found is ground up into fine particles so that the valuable material can be taken out and refined. The solid waste would affect the environment physically and biologically. Characteristics of tailing are high porosity with low water holding capacity, poor organic matter, poor macro and micro nutrients and no microorganism activity. Therefore, it takes time and requires strategy to manage and change them to a more productive area. Many technologies have been applied to rehabilitate tailing for agriculture. The technologies including the use of manure, compost, mulch, biosolid, chemical fertilizer, microorganism (bacteria, mycorhiza and phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is the use of plants to remediate selected contaminants in the contaminated soil, sludge, sediment, water (ground, surface, waste water. Phytoremediation encompasses a number of different methods that can lead to contaminant degradation, removal or immobilization. Those methods including phytodegradation/rhizodegradation, phytoextraction, phytovolatilization and phytostabilization. The phytoextraction is inexpensive compared with the conventional technology. Some forages have been used for phytoremediation such as Paspalum notatum (Bahia grass, Vetiveria zizonoides (Vetiver grass, Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass, since they have been known as heavy metal hyperaccumulator plant.

  20. Field manual for reclamation of salt contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burley, M.J.; Lesky, M.; Warren, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Saltwater is often produced with crude oil and must be separated from it at a processing facility prior to deep-well injection. Increasing volumes of saltwater have led to pipeline corrosion and an increasing frequency of saltwater spills. A field manual for treating saltwater-contaminated soil was prepared by the Production Research Department of Esso Resources Canada Limited and Husky Oil Operations Limited. The purpose of the manual is to provide field and plant operations with a practical guide for reclaiming brine spills on mineral (agricultural) soil. The manual covers background scientific theory about how saltwater affects the soil, initial steps for treating new spills, site assessment, and reclamation program design, implementation and monitoring. A sample spill site assessment form is included. 8 refs

  1. Plutonium Reclamation Facility incident response project progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides status of Hanford activities in response to process deficiencies highlighted during and in response to the May 14, 1997, explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility. This report provides specific response to the August 4, 1997, memorandum from the Secretary which requested a progress report, in 120 days, on activities associated with reassessing the known and evaluating new vulnerabilities (chemical and radiological) at facilities that have been shut down, are in standby, are being deactivated or have otherwise changed their conventional mode of operation in the last several years. In addition, this report is intended to provide status on emergency response corrective activities as requested in the memorandum from the Secretary on August 28, 1997. Status is also included for actions requested in the second August 28, 1997, memorandum from the Secretary, regarding timely notification of emergencies

  2. Plutonium Reclamation Facility incident response project progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, B.A.

    1997-11-25

    This report provides status of Hanford activities in response to process deficiencies highlighted during and in response to the May 14, 1997, explosion at the Plutonium Reclamation Facility. This report provides specific response to the August 4, 1997, memorandum from the Secretary which requested a progress report, in 120 days, on activities associated with reassessing the known and evaluating new vulnerabilities (chemical and radiological) at facilities that have been shut down, are in standby, are being deactivated or have otherwise changed their conventional mode of operation in the last several years. In addition, this report is intended to provide status on emergency response corrective activities as requested in the memorandum from the Secretary on August 28, 1997. Status is also included for actions requested in the second August 28, 1997, memorandum from the Secretary, regarding timely notification of emergencies.

  3. Reclamation of abandoned underground mines in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, D.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1980, the Derelict Land Grant program has supported reclamation of abandoned mines in the United Kingdom. The stabilization of large-scale limestone mines in the West Midlands has stimulated the development of new methods of bulk infilling using waste materials as thick pastes. Colliery spoil rock paste develops strengths of 10 to 20 kPa to support roof falls and prevent crown hole collapse. Pulverized fuel ash rock paste develops strengths over 1 MPa where lateral support to pillars is required. Smaller scale mine workings in the West Midlands and elsewhere have been stabilized using conventional grouting techniques, hydraulic and pneumatic stowing, foamed-concrete infill, bulk excavation with controlled backfill, and structural support using bolts, mesh, and shotcrete

  4. Vegetation cover and their functioning in dependence on the reclamation of the Velka podkrusnohorska dump during last 20 years using satellite data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochazka, J.; Nedbal, V.; Pecharova, E.; Brom, J.

    2010-01-01

    Vegetation plays a significant role in mass retention, solar energy dissipation, water cycle forming and local climate changes on reclamation plots of mining areas. This paper discussed the use of Landsat satellite data in order to evaluate different types of reclamation and their development for the last 20 years in the case of the Velka podkrusnohorska dump. Biophysical parameters which can be indicators of solar energy dissipation that were utilized to analyse changes of temporal development from 1991 to 2009 included land surface temperature, surface moisture expressed as wetness index tasseled cap, and normalized difference vegetation index. From these parameters, a functional index was then developed. The paper discussed the development of these parameters and their relationship to solar energy dissipation. It was concluded that since 1995, the observed parameters significantly changed, gradually converging to the state of the surrounding landscape. 16 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  5. Vegetation cover and their functioning in dependence on the reclamation of the Velka podkrusnohorska dump during last 20 years using satellite data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prochazka, J.; Nedbal, V.; Pecharova, E. [South Bohemia Univ., Ceske Budejovice (Czech Republic); Brom, J. [Enki o.p.s., Trebon (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-01

    Vegetation plays a significant role in mass retention, solar energy dissipation, water cycle forming and local climate changes on reclamation plots of mining areas. This paper discussed the use of Landsat satellite data in order to evaluate different types of reclamation and their development for the last 20 years in the case of the Velka podkrusnohorska dump. Biophysical parameters which can be indicators of solar energy dissipation that were utilized to analyse changes of temporal development from 1991 to 2009 included land surface temperature, surface moisture expressed as wetness index tasseled cap, and normalized difference vegetation index. From these parameters, a functional index was then developed. The paper discussed the development of these parameters and their relationship to solar energy dissipation. It was concluded that since 1995, the observed parameters significantly changed, gradually converging to the state of the surrounding landscape. 16 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  6. Alberta Surface Reclamation Fund annual report, April 1, 1992 to March 31, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Alberta Surface Reclamation Fund holds security deposits as an incentive to assure satisfactory reclamation of coal and oil sands exploration and coal, pipelines, sand and gravel and oil sands development operations. Upon satisfactory compliance, the funds are returned to the depositor. Where there is not satisfactory compliance, the Land Conservation and Reclamation Council is obligated to carry out the subsequent reclamation and the funds are used to complete the reclamation. This document also reports on the disposition of all non-cash security deposits which have been accepted instead of cash. During the year, $382,610 was refunded from coal exploration deposits, $82,226 was refunded from oil sands exploration deposits, $259,427 was refunded from pipeline development and reclamation deposits, and $94,421 was refunded from sand and gravel deposits where satisfactory reclamation had been completed. The fund, which is an integral part of the Consolidated Cash Investment Trust Fund administered by the Provincial Treasurer, earned between 6.15 and 7.85% interest on cash deposits calculated monthly. The interest accrues to the depositor's account on a quarterly basis. The total cash deposits plus interest, bonds and guaratees as of March 31, 1993 held in the fund was $116,199,168. The balance sheet and operating account summary summarize the fund and also provide details of each individual account

  7. Alberta Surface Reclamation Fund annual report, April 1, 1991 to March 31, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Alberta Surface Reclamation Fund holds security deposits as an incentive to assure satisfactory reclamation of coal and oil sands exploration and coal, pipelines, sand and gravel and oil sands development operations. Upon satisfactory compliance, the funds are returned to the depositor. Where there is not satisfactory compliance, the Land Conservation and Reclamation Council is obligated to carry out the subsequent reclamation and the funds are used to complete the reclamation. This document also reports on the disposition of all non-cash security deposits which have been accepted instead of cash. During the year, $136,703 was refunded from coal development deposits, $199,788 was refunded from coal exploration deposits, $92,200 was refunded from oil exploration deposits, $145,565 was refunded from pipeline development and reclamation deposits, and $281,209 was refunded from sand and gravel deposits where satisfactory reclamation had been completed. The fund, which is an integral part of the Consolidated Cash Investment Trust Fund administered by the Provincial Treasurer, earned between 7.88 and 10.4% interest on cash deposits calculated monthly. The interest accrues to the depositor's account on a quarterly basis. The total cash deposits plus interest, bonds and guaratees as of March 31, 1992 held in the fund was $110,811,702. The balance sheet and operating account summary summarize the fund and also provide details of each individual account

  8. Study on protection and reclamation for the groundwater resources in Busan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Ig-Hwan; Cho, Byong-Wook; Lee, Byung-Dae [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)

    1999-12-01

    This research was carried out to investigate the protection of contaminated groundwater and reclamation in the Pusan area. Groundwater Busan city is highly subjected to groundwater contamination due to its unfavorable geographical features; it is located in the estuaries of the Nakdong river, most of the urban area are composed of highlands, and the large population resides in the downhill. Heavy pumping and deterioration of groundwater are currently found to be significant compared to other major cities, resulting in shortage of water resources and contamination of groundwater. The first step of the research aims at investigating hydrogeological features which includes analysis of climate and hydrologic data, investigation of geology and structural pattern, acquisition of hydrological data, inspection of wells, measurement of groundwater level, analysis of water samples, investigation of groundwater contamination, isotope analysis, and monitoring water level by automated data logger to identify seawater intrusion. The second step is to simulate the two-dimensional flow model after construction of the database. Aside from this, abandoned wells were transformed into observation wells. An effort for remedy of contaminated groundwater was made and the water quality was constantly monitored to improve the deteriorated water to the drinking water. Kriging analysis and geostatistical analysis were carried out in order to verify the effect of seawater intrusion, showing that there is no clear evidence of seawater intrusion. Instead, it is clear that groundwater in the inland district was preferentially contaminated by pollutants originated from human activities. Based on the two-dimensional flow model, only 0.021 m{sup 3} may be allocated to each person a day from public wells for emergency. In order to ensure that protection and remediation of groundwater of the Busan area are able to accomplish, well-controlled management of aquifer systems needs to be maintained and

  9. Leaching of radium from mine deposits - application for planning of ground reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupnik, S.

    2002-01-01

    Saline waters occurring in underground coal mines in Poland often contain natural radioactive isotopes, mainly 226 Ra from uranium series and 228 Ra from thorium series. Approximately 40% of total amount of radium remains underground in a form of radioactive deposits, but 225 MBq of 226 Ra and 400 MBq of 228 Ra are released daily into the rivers with mine effluents through surface settling ponds. Very peculiar situation is observed in coal mines, where as a result of precipitation of radium from radium-bearing waters radioactive deposits are formed. Sometimes natural radioactivity of such materials is very high, in case of scaling from coal mines radium concentration may reach 400000 Bq/kg - similar activity as for 3% uranium ore. Usually such deposits can be found underground, but sometimes co-precipitation of radium and barium takes place on the surface, in settling pond and in rivers. Therefore maintenance of solid and liquid waste with technologically enhanced natural radioactivity (TENORM) is a very important subject. Lately another problem appeared - due to the decrease of the production in Poland coal industry and dismantling of several coal mines, also the ground reclamation should be done in their vicinity. But in several cases deposits in the ponds contain enhanced levels of radium concentration. Therefore laboratory tests were done to investigate a possibility of the re-entry of radium into ground water or river waters from such deposits. Results show, that in the case of insoluble barium and radium sulphates co-precipitated out from waters type A, re-entry ratio is very small. Different situation can be observed in case of radium, adsorbed on bottom of sediments from waters type B, because re-entry ratio is much higher. Nevertheless, this phenomenon seems to be not so important and significant for the further pollution of the adjacent areas of the settling ponds in the future. (author)

  10. Effect of reclamation on soil organic carbon pools in coastal areas of eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianguo; Yang, Wenhui; Li, Qiang; Pu, Lijie; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Zhongqi; Liu, Lili

    2018-06-01

    The coastal wetlands of eastern China form one of the most important carbon sinks in the world. However, reclamation can significantly alter the soil carbon pool dynamics in these areas. In this study, a chronosequence was constructed for four reclamation zones in Rudong County, Jiangsu Province, eastern China (reclaimed in 1951, 1974, 1982, and 2007) and a reference salt marsh to identify both the process of soil organic carbon (SOC) evolution, as well as the effect of cropping and soil properties on SOC with time after reclamation. The results show that whereas soil nutrient elements and SOC increased after reclamation, the electrical conductivity of the saturated soil extract (ECe), pH, and bulk density decreased within 62 years following reclamation and agricultural amendment. In general, the soil's chemical properties remarkably improved and SOC increased significantly for approximately 30 years after reclamation. Reclamation for agriculture (rice and cotton) significantly increased the soil organic carbon density (SOCD) in the top 60 cm, especially in the top 0-30 cm. However, whereas the highest concentration of SOCD in rice-growing areas was in the top 0-20 cm of the soil profile, it was greater at a 20-60 cm depth in cottongrowing areas. Reclamation also significantly increased heavy fraction organic carbon (HFOC) levels in the 0-30 cm layer, thereby enhancing the stability of the soil carbon pool. SOC can thus increase significantly over a long time period after coastal reclamation, especially in areas of cultivation, where coastal SOC pools in eastern China tend to be more stable.

  11. Effect of reclamation on soil organic carbon pools in coastal areas of eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianguo; Yang, Wenhui; Li, Qiang; Pu, Lijie; Xu, Yan; Zhang, Zhongqi; Liu, Lili

    2018-04-01

    The coastal wetlands of eastern China form one of the most important carbon sinks in the world. However, reclamation can significantly alter the soil carbon pool dynamics in these areas. In this study, a chronosequence was constructed for four reclamation zones in Rudong County, Jiangsu Province, eastern China (reclaimed in 1951, 1974, 1982, and 2007) and a reference salt marsh to identify both the process of soil organic carbon (SOC) evolution, as well as the effect of cropping and soil properties on SOC with time after reclamation. The results show that whereas soil nutrient elements and SOC increased after reclamation, the electrical conductivity of the saturated soil extract (ECe), pH, and bulk density decreased within 62 years following reclamation and agricultural amendment. In general, the soil's chemical properties remarkably improved and SOC increased significantly for approximately 30 years after reclamation. Reclamation for agriculture (rice and cotton) significantly increased the soil organic carbon density (SOCD) in the top 60 cm, especially in the top 0-30 cm. However, whereas the highest concentration of SOCD in rice-growing areas was in the top 0-20 cm of the soil profile, it was greater at a 20-60 cm depth in cottongrowing areas. Reclamation also significantly increased heavy fraction organic carbon (HFOC) levels in the 0-30 cm layer, thereby enhancing the stability of the soil carbon pool. SOC can thus increase significantly over a long time period after coastal reclamation, especially in areas of cultivation, where coastal SOC pools in eastern China tend to be more stable.

  12. Investigations of physicochemical properties of dusts generated in mechanical reclamation process of spent moulding sands with alkaline resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dańko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical reclamation processes of spent moulding sands generate large amounts of post-reclamation dusts mainly containing rubbed spent binding agents and quartz dusts. The amount of post-reclamation dusts, depending in the reclamation system efficiency and the reclaim dedusting system, can reach 5%-10% in relation to the total reclaimed spent moulding sand. The proper utilization of such material is a big problem facing foundries these days. This study presents the results of investigations of physicochemical properties of post- reclamation dusts. All tested dusts originated from various Polish cast steel plants applying the mechanical reclamation process of moulding sands with alkaline resins, obtained from different producers. Different dusts, delivered from foundries, were tested to determine their chemical composition, granular characterization, physicochemical and energetic properties. Presented results confirmed assumptions that it is possible to utilize dusts generated during mechanical reclamation of used sands with organic resins as a source of energy.

  13. Reclamation of alkaline spent moulding sands of organic and inorganic type and their mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dańko

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of modern moulding sands with organic and inorganic binders requires the reclamation treatments in order to be able to reuse the matrices of spent sands. The spent sands, depending on the applied binding agent, are characterised by various abilities of the matrix reclamation. The results of investigations of the reclamation of spent moulding sands with the Rudal binder and spent sands with the Rezolit binder in the system of uniform sands and of mixed ones, are presented in the paper. Investigations were performed by means of the special experimental stands designed and built in the AGH University of Science and Technology, AGH, in Krakow.

  14. Assessing the Sustainable Development of Coastal Reclamation: A Case of Makassar Using GIS Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurnita, A.; Trisutomo, S.; Ali, M.

    2017-07-01

    Reclamation has been made in many areas in Indonesia including Makassar, as a response to the present needs of land as the impact of human activity in urban area. This research aims to assess the sustainable development of coastal reclamation and focus on environmental dimension of sustainable urban development. Assessment will be done by reclamation sustainability index (RSI) and analysis by GIS as the tools. RSI was built from previous research that has simplified from many researches and analysis by Structure of Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and expert choice. RSI uses 9 indices from three indicators of environment factor which are coastal resources, building and infrastructure.

  15. Sense of ownership and evaluation of safety. Questionnaire survey for reclamation project in the uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaka, Kaoru; Gofuku, Akio; Tanaka, Masaru; Tokizawa, Takayuki; Sato, Kazuhiko; Koga, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    To obtain public understanding on the uranium mining sites reclamation at Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center, it is necessary to conduct appropriate Risk Communication (RC). In this study, to discuss the appropriate Risk communication method on the uranium mining sites reclamation, we conducted questionnaire survey and SEM analysis. The results of the pass analysis are as follows: (1) in the group which has high-sense of ownership, risk acceptance has a strong impact on sense of security for uranium mining sites reclamation, (2) in the group which shows low-sense of ownership, hatred for radioactive ray has a strong impact relatively. (author)

  16. Reclamation of a mine tailings pond by addition of marble waste and pig slurry for the development of aided phytostabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zornoza, R.; Faz, A.; Martínez-Martínez, S.; Acosta, J.A.; Gómez-López, M.D.; Muñoz, M.A.; Sánchez-Medrano, R.; Murcia, F.J.; Fernández Cortés, F.J.; López Martínez, E.; Espín de Gea, A.

    2017-01-01

    Abandoned tailings ponds produce environmental and human health hazards due to the transfer of heavy metals through wind and water erosion or leaching. To reduce these hazards, a reclamation strategy has been developed on a tailings pond based on aided phytostabilization. In 2011 marble mud and pig slurry were applied to the surface of a tailings pond and in the spring of 2012 thirteen native vegetal species were introduced. The evolution of different soil properties and the bio-available fraction of the heavy metals Cd, Pb and Zn were monitored for two years (2012-2013). The results showed that the pH, aggregate stability, organic carbon, total nitrogen and cation exchange capacity increased after the application of the amendments and the growth of vegetation, whilst the bio-available fraction of the heavy metals drastically decreased (90-99%). Thus, the strategy followed proved to be positive for reducing the availability of heavy metals and improving soil quality and fertility. These results are promising in areas with extractive activity of carbonated materials, since the generated waste can be used for the reclamation of soils affected by heavy metals, transforming a residual material into a useful by-product. [es

  17. Modified Principal Component Analysis for Identifying Key Environmental Indicators and Application to a Large-Scale Tidal Flat Reclamation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejian Chu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the key environmental indicators (KEIs from a large number of environmental variables is important for environmental management in tidal flat reclamation areas. In this study, a modified principal component analysis approach (MPCA has been developed for determining the KEIs. The MPCA accounts for the two important attributes of the environmental variables: pollution status and temporal variation, in addition to the commonly considered numerical divergence attribute. It also incorporates the distance correlation (dCor to replace the Pearson’s correlation to measure the nonlinear interrelationship between the variables. The proposed method was applied to the Tiaozini sand shoal, a large-scale tidal flat reclamation region in China. Five KEIs were identified as dissolved inorganic nitrogen, Cd, petroleum in the water column, Hg, and total organic carbon in the sediment. The identified KEIs were shown to respond well to the biodiversity of phytoplankton. This demonstrated that the identified KEIs adequately represent the environmental condition in the coastal marine system. Therefore, the MPCA is a practicable method for extracting effective indicators that have key roles in the coastal and marine environment.

  18. Natural self-reclamation of soils and landscapes affected by agriculture and mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseenko, Vladimir; Bech, Jaume; Alekseenko, Alexey; Shvydkaya, Natalya; Puzanov, Alexander; Roca, Núria

    2017-04-01

    Processes of possible self-restoration of technogenically disturbed soils are studied in Central and Southern European Russia. Reclamation procedures are mainly not implemented in this vast region, and the natural soil restoration is supposed. Heaps overlaying the former steppe and cropland landscapes are created in the course of rock waste stacking after preparative and cleaning mining works during the underground coal extraction. Approximately 1 500 heaps occupying over 8 000 ha were formed in the area of the Donets Coal Basin. Soils are destroyed under heaps, land subsidence occurs in coal mining areas and acid lakes are usually formed in these ground depressions. Spontaneous combustions happen often and can continue for decades. In order to prevent them, heap surfaces are in some cases levelled and filled with water, forming peculiar ponds. After 70 years of heaps existence and ca. 50 years after their ignition, soil formation is just in the early stages. Heap surface differs a lot in geochemical and mineralogical characteristics from those of surrounding steppe soils that suffered substantial changes at distances up to 1 km. Development of plant communities in areas near coal dumps and heaps is one of the indicators of landscape-geochemical changes. Formation of ruderal phytocenoses with 10-15 % of local flora, as well as invasive and introduced plants occurred under the complex impact of ecological conditions. Communities formed by them are distinguished by the structure simplicity, low species diversity, and plant growth anomalies. Quarries and dumps are formed during underground and open-cast mining of ore deposits. During the last 50 years after abandoning mines in forest areas, the 30 m deep quarries have filled with the creep material less for 0.5 m, and sediments from water streams have added 1-3 cm. Thickness of argillaceous layers does not exceed 1-2 cm at small rock chips of the dumps that measures up to 70 km in length. The dumps are partially

  19. 43 CFR 422.10 - Requirements for authorizing officers to exercise Reclamation law enforcement authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... domestic violence, preventing him/her from possessing a firearm in compliance with section 658 of Public... orientation session developed by Reclamation to become familiar with Federal laws and procedures and with all...

  20. 30 CFR 884.13 - Content of proposed State reclamation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reclamation program, the Rural Abandoned Mine Program administered by the Soil Conservation Service, the... wildlife and their habitat. [47 FR 28600, June 30, 1982, as amended at 73 FR 67642, Nov. 14, 2008] ...

  1. Coal Mines, Reclamation Sites - Mine Drainage Treatment/Land Recycling Project Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Mine Drainage Treatment/Land Reclamation Locations are clean-up projects that are working to eliminate some form of abandoned mine. The following sub-facility types...

  2. In-Place Recycling and Reclamation of Asphaltic Concrete Pavements in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Full-depth reclamation has been defined by the Asphalt Recycling and Reclaiming Association as a rehabilitation technique in which the full thickness of the asphalt pavement and a predetermined portion of the underlying material (base, subbase, an...

  3. Determination of optimal environmental policy for reclamation of land unearthed in lignite mines - Strategy and tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.; Pollalis, Yannis A.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, optimal environmental policy for reclamation of land unearthed in lignite mines is defined as a strategic target. The tactics concerning the achievement of this target, includes estimation of optimal time lag between each lignite site (which is a segment of the whole lignite field) complete exploitation and its reclamation. Subsidizing of reclamation has been determined as a function of this time lag and relevant implementation is presented for parameter values valid for the Greek economy. We proved that the methodology we have developed gives reasonable quantitative results within the norms imposed by legislation. Moreover, the interconnection between strategy and tactics becomes evident, since the former causes the latter by deduction and the latter revises the former by induction in the time course of land reclamation.

  4. The impacts of land reclamation on suspended-sediment dynamics in Jiaozhou Bay, Qingdao, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Guan Dong; Wang, Xiao Hua; Bao, Xian Wen; Song, Dehai; Lin, Xiao Pei; Qiao, Lu Lu

    2018-06-01

    A three-dimensional, high-resolution tidal model coupled with the UNSW sediment model (UNSW-Sed) based on Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) was set up to study the suspended-sediment dynamics and its change in Jiaozhou Bay (JZB) due to land reclamation over the period 1935 to 2008. During the past decades, a large amount of tidal flats were lost due to land reclamation. Other than modulating the tides, the tidal flats are a primary source for sediment resuspensions, leading to turbidity maxima nearshore. The tidal dynamics are dominant in controlling the suspended-sediment dynamics in JZB and have experienced significant changes with the loss of tidal flats due to the land reclamation. The sediment model coupled with the tide model was used to investigate the changes in suspended-sediment dynamics due to the land reclamation from 1935 to 2008, including suspended-sediment concentrations (SSC) and the horizontal suspended-sediment fluxes. This model can predict the general patterns of the spatial and temporal variation of SSC. The model was applied to investigate how the net transport of suspended sediments between JZB and its adjacent sea areas changed with land reclamation: in 1935 the net movement of suspended sediments was from JZB to the adjacent sea (erosion for JZB), primarily caused by horizontal advection associated with a horizontal gradient in the SSC; This seaward transport (erosion for JZB) had gradually declined from 1935 to 2008. If land reclamation on a large scale is continued in future, the net transport between JZB and the adjacent sea would turn landward and JZB would switch from erosion to siltation due to the impact of land reclamation on the horizontal advection of suspended sediments. We also evaluate the primary physical mechanisms including advection of suspended sediments, settling lag and tidal asymmetry, which control the suspended-sediment dynamics with the process of land reclamation.

  5. Cultural keystone species in oil sands mine reclamation, Fort McKay, Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibaldi, A.; Straker, J. [Stantec Ltd., Sidney, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Cultural keystone species (CKS) shape the cultural identify of people through the roles they have in diet, material and spiritual practices. The use of the CKS concept is regarded as a method of addressing linked social and ecological issues. This paper presented the results of using the CKS model in the indigenous community of Fort McKay, Alberta to address, social, ecological and spiritual values in regional mine-land reclamation. Fort McKay is at the epicenter of the existing mine developments. Its residents regard human and environmental health to be be linked and therefore experience the effects of development and subsequent reclamation on both cultural and ecological levels. The community is actively engaged in working with the local mining companies on issues of mine reclamation design. In order to hold meaning to the local people, oil sand operators used the CKS concept in their reclamation efforts to take into account ecological functionality and also address the linked social factors. Five CKS were identified through a literature review and extensive community interviews. The list includes moose, cranberry, blueberry, ratroot and beaver. These 5 CKS were used to focus discussions and make recommendations for relevant land reclamation within Fort McKay traditional territory. The project has influenced the way both the community and oil sands operators engage with reclamation. Lessons learned from this process will help direct reclamation activities on other portions of traditional territory, while offering guidance to other regional developers for addressing cultural values in reclamation on their leases. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Decontamination and functional reclamation of dredged brackish sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, S; Macci, C; Peruzzi, E; Iannelli, R; Ceccanti, B; Masciandaro, G

    2013-07-01

    The continuous stream of sediments, dredged from harbors and waterways for keeping shipping traffic efficiency, is a considerable ongoing problem recognized worldwide. This problem gets worse as most of the sediments dredged from commercial ports and waterways turn out to be polluted by a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants. In this study, phytoremediation was explored as a sustainable reclamation technology for turning slightly-polluted brackish dredged sediments into a matrix feasible for productive use. To test this possibility, a phytoremediation experimentation was carried out in containers of about 0.7 m(3) each, filled with brackish dredged sediments contaminated by heavy metals and hydrocarbons. The sediments were pre-conditioned by adding an agronomic soil (30 % v/v) to improve their clayey granulometric composition, and by topping the mixture with high quality compost (4 kg m(-2)) to favour the initial adaptation of the selected vegetal species. The following plant treatments were tested: (1) Paspalum vaginatum, (2) Phragmites australis, (3) Spartium junceum + P. vaginatum, (4) Nerium oleander + P. vaginatum, (5) Tamarix gallica + P. vaginatum, and (6) unplanted control. Eighteen months after the beginning of the experimentation, all the plant species were found in healthy condition and well developed. Throughout the whole experiment, the monitored biological parameters (total microbial population and dehydrogenase activity) were generally observed as constantly increasing in all the planted sediments more than in the control, pointing out an improvement of the chemico-physical conditions of both microorganisms and plants. The concentration decrease of organic and inorganic contaminants (>35 and 20 %, respectively) in the treatments with plants, particularly in the T. gallica + P. vaginatum, confirmed the importance of the root-microorganism interaction in activating the decontamination processes. Finally, the healthy state of

  7. Assessment of post forest fire reclamation in Algarve, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Rita; Panagopoulos, Thomas; Guerrero, Carlos; Martins, Fernando; Zdruli, Pandi; Ladisa, Gaetano

    2014-05-01

    Fire is a common phenomenon in Mediterranean landscapes and it plays a crucial role in its transformations, making the determination of its impact on the ecosystem essential for land management. During summer of 2012, a wildfire took place in Algarve, Portugal, on an area mainly covered by sclerophyllous vegetation (39.44%, 10080ha), broad-leaved forest (20.80%, 5300ha), agriculture land with significant areas of natural vegetation (17.40%, 4400ha) and transitional woodlands-shrubs (16.17%, 4100ha). The objective of the study was to determine fire severity in order to plan post-fire treatments and to aid vegetation recovery and land reclamation. Satellite imagery was used to estimate burn severity by detecting physical and ecological changes in the landscape caused by fire. Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (DNBR) was used to measure burn severity with pre and post fire data of four Landsat images acquired in October 2011, February and August 2012 and April 2013. The initial and extended differenced normalized burn ratio (DiNBR and DeNBR) were calculated. The calculated burned area of 24291 ha was 552ha lower than the map data determined with field reports. The 19.5% of that area was burned with high severity, 45% with moderate severity and 28.3% with low severity. Comparing fire severity and regrowth with land use, it is shown in DiNBR that the most severely burned areas were predominantly sclerophyllous vegetation (37.6%) and broad-leaved forests (31.1%). From the DeNRB it was found that the reestablishment of vegetation was slower in mixed forests and higher in sclerophyllous vegetation and in land with significant areas of natural vegetation. Faster recovery was calculated for the land uses of sclerophyllous vegetation (46.7%) and significant regrowth in areas of natural vegetation and lands occupied by agriculture (25.4%). Next steps of the study are field validation and crossing with erosion risk maps before to take land reclamation decisions.

  8. Problems getting from the laboratory to the field: Reclamation of an AML site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, W.A.; Stehouwer, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    Acid and toxic abandoned mineland sites provide an opportunity whereby flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-product can be beneficially used as a reclamation amendment material. Studies are needed to compare the effectiveness of FGD by-product, as compared with resoil, for reclamation purposes. Initial studies provided information about the chemical and physical properties of the FGD by-product and how to transport and blend the FGD by-product with yard waste compost. Greenhouse studies indicated that rates of 125 dry tons/acre of FGD and 50 dry tons/acre of yard waste compost would provide optimum results for reclamation of acid and toxic spoil contained at the Fleming abandoned mineland (AML) site. Their results showed that heavy metal loading rates were much lower using the FGD/compost mixture than using resoil material. Dioxin in the mixture was also less than the 5 ppt level considered as normal background. The technical problems of using FGD by-product for reclamation of an AML site were solved. However, considerable efforts to educate the public about the merits of reclaiming the Fleming AML site using this FGD/compost mixture were required before initiating field reclamation activities. Education efforts must continue if FGD by-products are to achieve general acceptance as a reclamation alternative to resoil in cases where resoil is of scarce supply

  9. Investigation of the Results of Combined Reclamation on the Particular Stages of Grain Matrix Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucarz M.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, there were presented the results of research on combined mechanical and thermal regeneration of waste moulding sand with furfuryl resin originated from one of national foundries manufacturing aluminium alloys castings. Attempts of mechanical reclamation were led on the REGMAS reclaimer enabling to realize preliminary and primary reclamation with use of two modes of mechanical interactions on waste moulding sand. In the first attempt the reclaimer worked without any additional regenerating elements, and as the second solution, the reclaimer operated with additional crushing and abrasive elements to increase the result of primary reclamation. Thermal reclamation was led in the prototypic thermal reclaimer, enabling to fully control the process of grain matrix recovery. As a result of completed investigations the small efficiency of mechanical reclamation was determined. However, use of combined regeneration allowed for obtaining grain matrix of high purity. Thermal regeneration was conducted in prototypic thermal reclaimer. Evaluation of reclaim (reclaimed material quality was carried out in the way of iginition losses and grain-size analysis, surface morphology and also by executing of strength testing of moulding sand prepared on obtained grain matrix for the particular reclamation operations.

  10. Canadian Natural Resources Limited uses Siteview(TM) to manage its reclamation sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtby, L.

    2003-01-01

    Implementation of the Siteview(TM) computer software package designed to capture and manage reclamation data, by Canadian Natural Resources Limited is reported. Use of this software, developed by Pelodon Computer Enterprises in Calgary, enables Canadian Natural Resources to track from a single file data from each of over 3000 sites from the pre-construction stage right through to the final reclamation. Having all data in a single file permits the company to track the number of Reclamation Certificate applications submitted and received for a specific time period, helping them to capture the liability reduction and rental reduction associated with those sites and in general, manage their reclamation program more efficiently. Tracking the reclamation sites is by specific Site Status Codes, which allow the company to quickly determine current status of each site. Budgeting for reclamation can also be planned more accurately based on the current status of sites. Siteview(TM) also manages waste disposal information in the Guide 50 Drilling Waste Disposal Notification forms by digitally inputting all required data such as waste disposal location, mud system, and the volume of mud, and generating reports based on various waste disposal parameters. The software is also used by environmental consultants to track client's well site operations, and display them graphically in their reports, thus providing value-added services to their clients

  11. 76 FR 58840 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act; Refuge Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act; Refuge Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: To meet the requirements of the Central Valley Project Improvement Act of 1992 (CVPIA) and subsequent...

  12. 30 CFR 875.14 - Eligible lands and water after certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... 875.14 Section 875.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT... such mining or processing, and abandoned or left in an inadequate reclamation status before August 3, 1977. However, for Federal lands, waters, and facilities under the jurisdiction of the Forest Service...

  13. Hydrologic conditions in the coal mining district of Indiana and implications for reclamation of abandoned mine lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olyphant, G.A.; Harper, D.

    1998-01-01

    Bedrock strata of the mining district of Indiana (Indiana Coal Mining District, ICMD) include numerous coalbeds of economic importance, together with underclays, roof shales, limestones, and sandstones of Pennsylvanian age. These are typically poor aquifers with low hydraulic conductivities and specific yields. Surficial materials include loess, till, alluvium, and other deposits of pleistocene age. The loess and till also have low hydraulic conductivities, so that very few shallow aquifers exist in the vicinities of abandoned mine land (AML) sites, except where they are close to the alluvial fill of large bedrock valleys. The hydrologic cascade at AML sites in Indiana is strongly conditioned by the existence of elevated deposits of coarse-grained coal-preparation refuse and flooded underground mine workings. Flooded mines are the principal conduits of groundwater flow in the area, but their boundaries, flowpaths, and mechanisms of recharge and discharge are very different from those of natural aquifers and are poorly understood. Acidic mine drainage often emerges as seepages and springs on the edges of the elevated refuse deposits, but the low permeability of the natural surficial materials and bedrock inhibits the development of off-site groundwater contaminant plumes. The water balance across the surface of the refuse deposits is critical to reclamation planning and success. Enhancing runoff through reduction of infiltration capacity has the beneficial effect of reducing recharge through the acid-generating refuse, but the excess runoff may be accompanied by soil erosion that can lead to reclamation failure. Furthermore, during cool seasons and stormy periods, a well vegetated surface promotes recharge through increased infiltration, resulting in greater rates of acidic baseflow seepage. Passive Anoxic Limestone Drains (PALDs) have been successfully coupled with wetland treatment systems to improve surface waters that discharge from AML sites. Storm runoff from

  14. Green technologies in natural and synthetic surfaces use for dumps reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimkina, Iryna; Fedotov, Viacheslav; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    Last 50 years coal dumps reclamation in Ukraine was based on two- or three-layer models. These models use a fertile substratum underneath a black soil (chernozem) layer 0.5 m thick (Model 1) or 0.70-1 m thick (Model 2). Model 3 has 3 layers. The deepest layer is a substrate which is phytotoxic or unfavourable for crop growth (coal-bearing substrates with a high content of pyrite, saline substrates). The second layers acts as a protective shield and consist of loess (0.5 m). The third is the layer of fertile chernozem (0.3-0.8 m). However, due to the situation of a shortage of fertile soils, a lack of nutrient elements in the waste rock, and a moisture deficit with strong rock acidification, it is considered important to develop new non-traditional reclamation methods based on the geo-synthetic materials used in conjunction with sowing lawn grasses or grass seeds inside. The geogrids and biogeotextiles made from natural materials such as hemp, flax, jute, coconut and other plant biopolymer fibers are recommended for bioremediation. The biodegradable carcass of reclamation covering materials stabilises the slopes, effectively restraints the soil particles from leaching and blowing, and prevents wash-out of the plant seeds, as well as protecting them from being eaten by animals. The research object of the presented work was the coal dumps of sulfide rocks in Western Donbass (Ukraine). These rocks are characterized by low level of the maximum hygroscopic moisture (4.3%) and moisture content not available for plant growth (5-6%). Also the rock has an average level of salinity, mainly of the sulphate type. The main goal of the study was to justify the use of some non-traditional materials such as burlap (jute cloth), agricultural fibers (light non-woven material from polypropylene fiber of spun-bond type) and a padding of polyester in the capacity of a geosynthetic substrate as a basis for the mixed grass crop that enable a reduction in the bioremediation costs (in

  15. Reclamation technology development for western Arkansas coal refuse waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.R.; Veith, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Coal mining has been an important industry in the Arkansas River Valley Major Land Resource Area (MLRA) of western Arkansas for more than 100 yr., most of it with little regard for environmental concerns. Almost 3,640 ha. of land affected by surface coal mines cover the seven-county area, with less than 1,200 ha. currently in various stages of operation or reclamation. Since only the active mining sites must now be reclaimed by law, the remaining 2,440 ha. of abandoned land remains at the mercy of natural forces. Little topsoil exists on these sites and the coal wastes are generally acidic with a pH in the 4.0-5.5 range. Revegetation attempts under these conditions generally require continued maintenance and retreatment until an acceptable cover is achieved. If and when an acceptable vegetative cover is established, the cost frequently approaches $7,400/ha. ($3,000/acre). In an effort to resolve these issues and provide some direction for stabilizing coal waste lands, the US Department of Agriculture through its Soil Conservation Service Plant Materials Center at Boonville, Arkansas, received a Congressional Pass through administered by the US Bureau of Mines, to support a 5-yr. revegetation study on the coal mine spoils of western Arkansas. This paper reports the results through the spring of 1994 on that portion of the study dealing with the establishment of blackberries as a cash crop on coal mine spoils

  16. Reclamation of the Domtar/Canada brick quarry using coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, P J

    1991-03-20

    Two power plants in the Toronto area required disposal sites for coal fly ash in the late 1970s. A local brick quarry was recognized as a potential disposal site, since a 10-hectare area of the quarry was no longer in production and was required to be filled for reclamation. Ontario Hydro and the brick company joined together to obtain approval for the landfilling project. The preliminary site investigations included an examination of the impact of the project on local residents and the environment in terms of traffic volumes, noise levels, road dirt, airborne dust, and contamination of surface water and groundwater. Ontario Environmental Assessment Board hearings were held, with evidence presented from concerned parties. The findings from the hearings indicated that the project would have little effect on nearby residents and would improve the local environment by reclaiming usable land. Filling of the quarry began in December 1981 and continued for 5 years, after which a total of over 680,000 tonnes of fly ash was deposited. After completion, the ash was covered with a seal layer consisting of at least 1 m of clay or till compacted to structural fill standards with a 1 m thick protective cover layer to protect the seal layer from desiccation cracking and frost heave. Material is currently being stockpiled at the site to increase the thickness of the protective layer in order to make the site self-managing. Monitoring of surface water and groundwater is still ongoing and will continue for many years. 17 refs., 24 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Dry flue gas desulfurization byproducts as amendments for reclamation of acid mine spoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, W.A.; Stehouwer, R.C.; Beeghly, J.H.; Bigham, J.M.; Lal, R.

    1994-01-01

    Development of beneficial reuses of highly alkaline, dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts can impact the economics of adopting these FGD technologies for retrofit on existing powerplants. Greenhouse studies were conducted to evaluate the use of two dry FGD byproducts for reclamation of acid mine spoil (pH, 3.1 to 5.8). Treatment rates of FGD ranges from 0% to 32% by dry weight and most treatments also included 6% by dry weight of sewage sludge. Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) was harvested monthly for a total of six harvests. Plant tissue composition and root growth were determined after the sixth harvest. Leachate analyses and pH determination of mixes were done at the beginning and end of the experiments. Both FGD byproducts were effective in raising the spoil pH and in improving fescue growth. At the highest FGD application rate, fescue growth decreased from the optimum due to high pH and reduced rooting volume caused by cementation reactions between the FGD and spoil. Trace elements, with the exception of B, were decreased in the fescue tissue when FGD was applied. Leachate pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved organic carbon, Ca, Mg, and S tended to increase with increased FGD application rate; Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn decreased. pH was the most important variable controlling the concentrations of these elements in the leachate. Concentrations of elements of environmental concern were near or below drinking water standard levels. These results indicate that FGD applied at rates equivalent to spoil neutralization needs can aid in the revegetation of acid spoil revegetation with little potential for introduction of toxic elements into the leachate water or into the food chain

  18. Inventory of past DOE land disturbance, Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and estimated general reclamation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    Since 1976, DOE preliminary investigations for a high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have caused widespread disturbances of the landscape. This report addresses the areal extent of those disturbances that have accrued up to June 1988, and identifies expected associated reclamation costs. It was first necessary to identify disturbances, next to classify them for reclamation purposes, and, then, to assign general reclamation costs. The purposes of the analysis were: (1) to establish the amount of disturbance that already exists in the area of Yucca Mountain in order to identify alterations of the landscape that comprise the existing baseline conditions; (2) to identify estimated general reclamation costs for repair of the disturbances; (3) to provide information needed to establish disturbance models, and eventually environmental impact models, that can be applied to future DOE activities during Site Characterization and later phases of repository development, if they occur, and (4) to provide indicators of the needs for reclamation of future disturbances created by DOE's Site Characterization program. Disturbances were estimated using measurements from June 1988, large scale color aerial photography. Two reconnaissance site visits were also conducted. The identified disturbance totals by type are displayed in tabular form in the appendices. 84 refs., 2 figs., 9 tabs

  19. Paraho environmental data. Part IV. Land reclamation and revegetation. Part V. Biological effects. Part VI. Occupational health and safety. Part VII. End use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limbach, L.K.

    1982-06-01

    Characteristics of the environment and ecosystems at Anvil Points, reclamation of retorted shale, revegetation of retorted shale, and ecological effects of retorted shale are reported in the first section of this report. Methods used in screening shale oil and retort water for mutagens and carcinogens as well as toxicity studies are reported in the second section of this report. The third section contains information concerning the industrial hygiene and medical studies made at Anvil Points during Paraho research operations. The last section discusses the end uses of shale crude oil and possible health effects associated with end use. (DMC)

  20. Bio-Reclamation of Strategic and Energy Critical Metals from Secondary Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Ilyas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Metals with an average crustal abundance of <0.01 ppm, which are high in supply shortage due to soaring demand, can, under the excessive environmental risk and <1% recycling rate of their production, be termed as ‘critical’ in a limited geo-boundary. A global trend to the green energy and low carbon technologies with geopolitical scenario is challenging for the sustainable reclamation of these metals from secondary resources. Among the available processes, bio-reclamation can be a sustainable technique for extracting and concentrating these metals. Therefore, in the present paper, the potential reclamation of critical metals (including rare earth elements, precious metals, and a common nuclear fuel element, uranium via their interaction with microbe/s has been reviewed.

  1. Innovative wetland reclamation design case studies : the Suncor fen and pond 1 marsh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daly, C.A. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada); Price, J.; Rezanezhad, F. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada); Rochefort, L.; Graf, M. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada); Russell, B. [BGC Engineering Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Suncor Energy Inc. is an energy company strategically focused in Canada's Athabasca oil sands region. The company has more than 40 years of experience in pioneering commercial development. This presentation discussed reclamation requirements for Suncor Energy. Reclamation objectives that were addressed in this presentation included operating approvals, biodiversity and meeting stakeholder expectations. Several photographs of reclaimed forest areas were shown along with 5 freshwater wetland types and wetland values. Two innovative wetland reclamation design case studies were also presented, described and illustrated, with particular reference to the Suncor fen and pond 1 marsh. It was concluded that future work will involve finalizing site investigation and designs, as well as construction, vegetation, and monitoring. figs.

  2. Final technical evaluation report for the proposed revised reclamation plan for the Atlas Corporation Moab Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This final Technical Evaluation Report (TER) summarizes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff`s review of Atlas Corporation`s proposed reclamation plan for its uranium mill tailings pile near Moab, Utah. The proposed reclamation would allow Atlas to (1) reclaim the tailings pile for permanent disposal and long-term custodial care by a government agency in its current location on the Moab site, (2) prepare the site for closure, and (3) relinquish responsibility of the site after having its NRC license terminated. The NRC staff concludes that, subject to license conditions identified in the TER, the proposed reclamation plan meets the requirements identified in NRC regulations, which appear primarily in 10 CFR Part 40. 112 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs.

  3. ECOLOGY-ECONOMICAL ASSESSMENT OF NEW RECLAMATION METHOD FOR CURRENTLY WORKING TECHNOGENIC MASSIFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Strizhenok

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most relevant problems of the mining industry is the need to reduce the negative impact of technogenic massifs formed by wastes of extraction and processing of mineral raw materials. This problem has a significant meaning for currently used massifs, because traditional ways of reclamation are not suitable for them. The article describes the results of a scientific study on the development of the most efficient reclamation method for currently used technogenic massifs. Described in detail the main results of the field observations, methods and equipment of laboratory experiments conducted to determine agro-chemical properties of the soil and optimal composition of binder agent. The article also provides ecological and economic assessment of the proposed method of reclamation. The study was conducted on the example of the real technogenic massif, formed by wastes of phosphorus ore processing.

  4. Final technical evaluation report for the proposed revised reclamation plan for the Atlas Corporation Moab Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This final Technical Evaluation Report (TER) summarizes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff's review of Atlas Corporation's proposed reclamation plan for its uranium mill tailings pile near Moab, Utah. The proposed reclamation would allow Atlas to (1) reclaim the tailings pile for permanent disposal and long-term custodial care by a government agency in its current location on the Moab site, (2) prepare the site for closure, and (3) relinquish responsibility of the site after having its NRC license terminated. The NRC staff concludes that, subject to license conditions identified in the TER, the proposed reclamation plan meets the requirements identified in NRC regulations, which appear primarily in 10 CFR Part 40. 112 refs., 6 figs., 16 tabs

  5. Reclamation and reuse of LEU silicide fuel from manufacturing scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, G.R.; Pace, B.W.; Evans, R.S.

    2004-01-01

    In order to provide an understanding of the organization which is the sole supplier of United States plate type research and test reactor fuel and LEU core conversions, a brief description of the structure and history is presented. Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) is a part of McDermott International, Inc. which is a large diversified corporation employing over 20,000 people primarily in engineering and construction for the off-shore oil and power generation industries throughout the world. B and W provides many energy related products requiring precision machining and high quality systems. This is accomplished by using state-of-the-art equipment, technology and highly skilled people. The RTRFE group within B and W has the ability to produce various complexly shaped fuel elements with a wide variety of fuels and enrichments. B and W RTRFE has fabricated over 200,000 plates since 1981 and gained the diversified experience necessary to satisfy many customer requirements. This accomplishment was possible with the support of McDermott International and all of its resources. B and W has always had a commitment to high quality and integrity. This is apparent by the success and longevity (125 years) of the company. A lower cost to convert cores to LEU provides direct support to RERTR and demonstrates Babcock and Wilcox's commitment to the program. As a supporter of RERTR reactor conversion from HEU to LEU, B and W has contributed a significant amount of R and D money to improve the silicide fuel process which ultimately lowers the LEU core costs. In the most recent R and D project, B and W is constructing a LEU silicide reclamation facility to re-use the unirradiated fuel scrap generated from the production process. Remanufacturing use of this fuel completes the fuel cycle and provides a contribution to LEU cores by reducing scrap inventory and handling costs, lowering initial purchase of fuel due to increasing the process yields, and lowering the replacement costs. This

  6. Demonstration of a full-scale plant using an UASB followed by a ceramic MBR for the reclamation of industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Terutake; Hatamoto, Masashi; Yamashita, Takuya; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Takase, Osamu; Kekre, Kiran A; Ang, Wui Seng; Tao, Guihe; Seah, Harry; Yamaguchi, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    This study comprehensively evaluated the performance of a full-scale plant (4550m(3)d(-1)) using a UASB reactor followed by a ceramic MBR for the reclamation and reuse of mixed industrial wastewater containing many inorganics, chemical, oil and greases. This plant was demonstrated as the first full-scale system to reclaim the mixed industrial wastewater in the world. During 395days of operation, influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) fluctuated widely, but this system achieved COD removal rate of 91% and the ceramic MBR have operated flux of 21-25LMH stably. This means that this system adsorbed the feed water fluctuation and properly treated the water. Energy consumption of this plant was achieved 0.76kWhmm(-3) and this value is same range of domestic sewage MBR system. The combination of an UASB reactor and ceramic MBR is the most economical and feasible solution for water reclamation of mixed industrial wastewater. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Competitive effects of introduced annual weeds on some native and reclamation species in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, E.B.; Knight, D.H.

    1980-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to examine the competitive effects of introduced annual weeds on certain native and reclamation species. The first experiment was initiated by discing three sites in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, at three distances from introduced weed seed sources. Introduced weed colonization was greatest when a seed source was located nearby. Higher weed cover resulted in reductions of percent cover, density, and richness of the native species. The second experiment was conducted in the greenhouse and was designed to determine if there are changes in response of S. kali and the native grasses Agropyron smithii and Bouteloua gracilis to competition and water regime. Both grass species had lower biomass and higher stomatal resistance when growing in mixed culture with S. kali than in pure culture in the dry regime, but there were no significant differences in the wet regime. In general, the difference in plant response between mixed and pure cultures was more pronounced in the dry than in the wet regime. The third study was a greenhouse experiment on germination and competition of S. kali (a C/sub 4/ species) with native species Lepidium densiflorum (C/sub 3/), Chenopodium pratericola (C/sub 3/), A. smithii (C/sub 3/), and B. gracilis (C/sub 4/) under May, June, and July temperature regimes. Salsola kali germinated equally well in all three regimes, but the other C/sub 4/ species had highest germination in the July regime and the C/sub 3/ species in the May and June regimes. The fourth study was designed to examine the effect of weed colonization on the success of mine reclamation. Little effect was observed, but colonization by introduced annuals was very low. (ERB)

  8. Investigations of Physicochemical Properties and Thermal Utilisation of Dusts Generated in the Mechanical Reclamation Process of Spent Moulding Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dańko R.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The after reclamation dusts originated from various foundry plants, applying moulding sands with organic binding agents, mostly resins, are characterised by different properties in dependence of the used binders, reclamation systems, spent sands overheating degree and the efficiency of the system dedusting the reclaimed material operating in individual foundry plants.

  9. Design, construction and performance of an experimental watershed to support a fen peatland for mine landscape reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J. S.; Petrone, R. M.; Strack, M.; Cooper, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    In the Alberta oil sands region, fen peatlands comprised 50% of the boreal landscape. Oil sands mining has stripped over 800 km2 of land surface to access bitumen, necessitating landscape reclamation to re-establish functional wetlands. Fens are peat-dominated wetlands that commonly rely on groundwater to supplement their water budget and deliver dissolved solutes that impart a distinct geochemistry, hence vegetation community. A numerical model was used to test the concept and guide selection of earth materials and system geometry. The goal was to maintain the placed peat in a sufficiently wet condition to support wetland plants and become a net carbon sink, in this sub-humid climate. The 32.1 ha Nikanotee Fen Watershed comprises a 7.7 ha upland, that was designed to recharge sufficient water, and deliver it to the 2.9 ha fen via groundwater flow. These features are surrounded by other reclaimed slopes designed to store water, rather than deliver it downslope. Four years of monitoring since construction show the fen maintains a high water table, and the peatland has become a strong carbon sink, even though the hydrological performance of construction materials varied substantially from what was anticipated (lower hydraulic conductivity). However, solutes associated with the tailings sand used in construction are moving towards the fen, and are expected to influence the future vegetation community and system biogeochemistry. One of the biggest uncertainties is the changing performance of soils and vegetation as they develop.

  10. THE DEVELOPMENT OF SYNTHETIC SOIL MATERIALS FOR THE SUCCESSFUL RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINED LAND SITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Jin

    2006-03-01

    Abandoned mine sites associated with coal and metal mining across the western United States have been left as unproductive wastelands. The availability of soil materials or other materials to support the restoration of the vegetative cover and enhance the recovery of such areas is limited. The restoration of these areas often requires the use of available amendments such as organic waste products or to help stabilize the soil. Many of the organic waste products, including sewage sludge, clarifier sludge, fly ash sludge, and other by-products from the agricultural industries such as compost can be employed for beneficial uses. This study looked at the feasibility of applying organic waste products to a mine soil in Montana to increase soil fertility and enhance plant productivity. Waste rock samples were tested for acid forming potential via acid base accounting. Samples cores were constructed and leached with simulated rainwater to determine amendment affect on metal leaching. A greenhouse study was completed to determine the most suitable amendment(s) for the field mine land site. Results from the acid base accounting indicate that acid formed from the waste rock would be neutralized with the alkalinity in the system. Results also show that metals in solution are easily held by organics from the amendments and not allowed to leach in to the surrounding water system. Data from the greenhouse study indicated that the amendment of sewage sludge was most promising. Application of 2% sewage sludge along with 1% sewage sludge plus 1% clarifier sludge, 2% compost, and no treatment were used for mine land application. Initial results were encouraging and it appears that sewage sludge may be a good reclamation option for mine lands.

  11. Reclamation of oil and gas well sites on privately-owned land in Alberta: An evaluation of benefits and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    In Alberta, ca 24,000 oil/gas well sites will be abandoned over the next 10 years. There is concern that the expense to reclaim the surface lands at these sites to current standards represents a substantial opportunity cost to industry and the provincial economy. The economic costs and benefits associated with regulation of such reclamation activity are examined and the impacts of surface access regulations on the reclamation process are discussed. Cost benefit analysis is not easily applied to environmental regulation where some extra-market benefits and costs are intangible and/or unmeasurable. Although this qualifies the results, it appears that the costs of wellsite reclamation exceed the benefits. Costs are defined as reclamation expenses; benefits are defined as the real estate value of the land, or the net present value of agricultural land rentals. An effort has been made to provide a proxy for the extra-market value of the land to the landowner. The continuation of full surface access compensation for nonproducing wells can result in negative incentive effects that reduce allocative efficiency of reclamation regulation. Reclamation costs are correlated with well age and surface access payments, but not with agricultural land use or geographic region. This suggests that reclamation standards designed to reclaim well sites to the same productive capacity as site-adjacent land is not driving reclamation effort. Rather, landowners have negotiated substantial annual surface lease payments and may also be demanding greater reclamation effort, either to maximize compensation due to higher expectations. Methods of reducing these negative incentive effects to better achieve reclamation goals are suggested. 49 refs., 9 figs., 17 tabs

  12. Decommissioning and reclamation of the Beaverlodge uranium mine-mill operation: current state of the transition phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, R.L.J.; Himbeault, K.T.; Topp, B.J.; Halbert, B.E.; Fernandes, S.L.

    2000-01-01

    The Beaverlodge uranium mining and milling facilities were operated from 1952 to 1981 with about 94% of the ore extracted from the main underground mine and 6% from smaller satellite deposits. Decommissioning work occurred from 1982 to 1985 involving periods of shutdown, salvage and reclamation. Transition phase monitoring, leading to eventual delicencing commenced in July 1985. Over the last 15 years, discharge from the tailings management facility (TMF) and a fresh water stream, impacted during the operational phase by tailings spills, has improved in water quality for most parameters of concern. Loadings to the environment of three key contaminants (radium-226, total dissolved solids and uranium) have consistently been less than during the operational phase with radium-226 having the greatest variability. Outstanding environmental issues associated with the recovering drainage system formerly used for tailings disposal, are being addressed in an enhanced environmental monitoring program to commence in 2000. Changes in water chemistry and the natural re-introduction of aquatic organisms are issues of concern. In the meantime, application for release from selected satellite areas commenced in 1999. This paper reviews the issues which have arisen during the transition phase, outlines how they have and are being addressed, and provides a comparison of original and current predictions of the recovery process underway at the former Beaverlodge mine site. (author)

  13. Integrating seawater desalination and wastewater reclamation forward osmosis process using thin-film composite mixed matrix membrane with functionalized carbon nanotube blended polyethersulfone support layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeon-Gyu; Son, Moon; Choi, Heechul

    2017-10-01

    Thin-film composite mixed matrix membrane (TFC MMM) with functionalized carbon nanotube (fCNT) blended in polyethersulfone (PES) support layer was synthesized via interfacial polymerization and phase inversion. This membrane was firstly tested in lab-scale integrating seawater desalination and wastewater reclamation forward osmosis (FO) process. Water flux of TFC MMM was increased by 72% compared to that of TFC membrane due to enhanced hydrophilicity. Although TFC MMM showed lower water flux than TFC commercial membrane, enhanced reverse salt flux selectivity (RSFS) of TFC MMM was observed compared to TFC membrane (15% higher) and TFC commercial membrane (4% higher), representing membrane permselectivity. Under effluent organic matter (EfOM) fouling test, 16% less normalized flux decline of TFC MMM was observed compared to TFC membrane. There was 8% less decline of TFC MMM compared to TFC commercial membrane due to fCNT effect on repulsive foulant-membrane interaction enhancement, caused by negatively charged membrane surface. After 10 min physical cleaning, TFC MMM displayed higher recovered normalized flux than TFC membrane (6%) and TFC commercial membrane (4%); this was also supported by visualized characterization of fouling layer. This study presents application of TFC MMM to integrated seawater desalination and wastewater reclamation FO process for the first time. It can be concluded that EfOM fouling of TFC MMM was suppressed due to repulsive foulant-membrane interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pilot-scale testing membrane bioreactor for wastewater reclamation in industrial laundry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin; Kristensen, Gert Holm; Brynjolf, M.

    2002-01-01

    A pilot-scale study of membrane bioreactor treatment for reclamation of wastewater from Berendsen Textile Service industrial laundry in Søborg, Denmark was carried out over a 4 month period. A satisfactory COD degradation was performed resulting in a low COD in the permeate (

  15. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 2. Interior Coal Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricoski, M. L.; Daniels, L. K.; Sobek, A. A.

    1979-08-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Interior Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references, including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographies. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  16. Different effect of mycorrhizal inoculation in direct and indirect reclamation of spoil banks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rydlová, Jana; Püschel, David; Vosátka, Miroslav; Charvátová, K.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 1 (2008), s. 15-20 ISSN 1613-9216 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi * inoculum * reclamation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.482, year: 2008

  17. Prairie of mine(s) : cultural reclamation of the Estevan/Bienfait Coalfields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, S.

    2010-07-01

    A cultural reclamation project was launched in the Bienfait region of southern Saskatchewan where lignite mining has been ongoing since the 1800s. Evidence of 5 surface mines, 2 power stations and thousands of acres of spoil piles remain at the abandoned site. The region also comprises 140 abandoned underground mines and 4 mined-out townsites. The project introduced cultural reclamation into the role of landscape architecture, specifically in the planning and design of reclaimed mining lands. At the present time, the reclamation of post-extractive sites is limited to focusing almost exclusively on ecological factors, but failing to recognize the people and the industrial processes that actively transformed the landscape can disengage people from their past. The project concludes with a proposed master plan in addition to a few site-specific interventions that interrogate and explore the role of experiential, cultural, and historical elements in the reclamation of a site. In doing so, awareness is created about the ways in which various landscapes are manipulated every day in order for people to live in greater comfort.

  18. Countermeasures for China’s Ecological Environment Construction in Land Reclamation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen; LI; Xinfeng; LIU; Zhe; PENG; Tao; SI; Lingfeng; KONG

    2013-01-01

    Basic situation of the current ecological environment construction in land consolidation and rehabilitation of China is introduced. The related advanced experience abroad is summarized from mainly four aspects, namely policy, system as well as subject development, planning guidance, design method of project planning and engineering study, and practical countermeasures to China’s ecological environment construction in land reclamation are proposed. In terms of policy, system and subject, relevant regulations, policies and system construction should be strengthened and the framework of policy, system and subject development in ecological landscape construction of China’s land reclamation should be proposed, integrating ecological environment construction into land reclamation. At the level of strategic planning, the spatial layout and construction key points of green infrastructure in land reclamation of "urban multi-functional developing region, eastern economic developed region, central modern agricultural region and northwestern ecological fragile region" should be achieved. At the level of project planning design, ecological principles, sustainable landscape design principles and vernacular landscape design methods are to be integrated into the planning procedure to form operable technique regulations or introductions. At the level of engineering design, engineering technique system, standards and regulations of ditches, roads, forests and channels with local distinctions should be formulated according to the characters and strategic demands of urbanization, industrialization, agriculture modernization and ecological environment preservation in different regions.

  19. 43 CFR 429.26 - When may Reclamation reduce or waive costs or fees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Reductions or Waivers of Application Fees, Administrative Costs, and Use Fees § 429.26 When may Reclamation reduce or waive costs or fees? (a) As determined appropriate and approved and documented by the applicable Regional Director, the application fees may be waived, and charges for administrative costs or use...

  20. Cultural keystone species in oil sands reclamation, Fort McKay, Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibaldi, A.; Straker, J. [Stantec Consulting Ltd., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    This presentation discussed a reclamation project conducted in Fort McKay, Alberta that was designed to address some of the social and cultural concerns related to oil sands mining in the region. Conventional reclamation practices in the region have demonstrated a lack of communication and participation from surrounding communities. The project was designed to address future land use plans and to include cultural values in the reclamation process. An integrative approach was used to address community landscapes issues and to explore methods of reclaiming the social and ecological components impacted by oil sands development. Traditional environmental knowledge was also incorporated into the program's design. Cultural keystone species (CKS) were used to provide a culturally relevant compass to guide people engaging in long-term reclamation and land use planning. Cultural keystone species were defined as salient species that significantly shape the cultural identity of a people. Keystone species in the region include the beaver; the moose; the ratroot; and cranberries and blueberries. Challenges to the program included the fact that the scale of oil sands disturbances are so immense that some community recommendations for reclaiming CKS may be impractical. tabs., figs.

  1. Optimisation of reclamation approaches to land affected by surface coal mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabrna, M.; Hendrychova, M. [Vyzkumny ustav pro hnede uhli a.s. (Czech Republic); Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Environmental Science; Salek, M. [Czech Univ. of Life Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic). Faculty of Environmental Science; Rehor, M. [Vyzkumny ustav pro hnede uhli a.s. (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-01

    Since the 1950s, reclamation of land affected by brown coal mining in the Czech Republic has been conducted. Since this time, there has been significant improvement in quality development of reclamation measures. This paper discussed the results of different studies where technically reclaimed sites as well as naturally developed sites were investigated. The paper discussed the methodology of the study as well as results of succession versus reclamation and next preferences. One of the studies that was examined involved four groups of animals that have a close relation to soil and plant vegetation. These included ground beetles, bugs, molluscs, and birds. This study found that the spontaneously developed sites could be characterized by the same or a higher biodiversity than those technically reclaimed. The second study examined bird nest preferences either to domestic or to exotic trees. The results showed that although exotic trees dominate on reclaimed sites, the birds preferred the domestic trees for nesting. It was concluded that the natural succession could play a significant role within reclamation practices, particularly on those sites where higher species diversity is desirable. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Reclamation of abandoned mined lands along th Upper Illinois Waterway using dredged material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Luik, A; Harrison, W

    1982-01-01

    Sediments were sampled and characterized from 28 actual or proposed maintenance-dredging locations in the Upper Illinois Waterway, that is, the Calumet-Sag Channel, the Des Plaines River downstream of its confluence with the Calumet-Sag Channel, and the Illinois River from the confluence of the Kankakee and Des Plaines rivers to Havana, Illinois. Sufficient data on chemical constituents and physical sediments were obtained to allow the classification of these sediments by currently applicable criteria of the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency for the identification of hazardous, persistent, and potentially hazardous wastes. By these criteria, the potential dredged materials studied were not hazardous, persistent, or potentially hazardous; they are a suitable topsoil/ reclamation medium. A study of problem abandoned surface-mined land sites (problem lands are defined as being acidic and/or sparsely vegetated) along the Illinois River showed that three sites were particularly well suited to the needs of the Corps of Engineers (COE) for a dredged material disposal/reclamation site. Thes sites were a pair of municipally owned sites in Morris, Illinois, and a small corporately owned site east of Ottawa, Illinois, and adjacent to the Illinois River. Other sites were also ranked as to suitability for COE involvement in their reclamation. Reclamation disposal was found to be an economically competitive alternative to near-source confined disposal for Upper Illinois Waterway dredged material.

  3. Nanoenhanced Materials for Reclamation of Mine Lands and Other Degraded Soils: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiqiang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful mine soil reclamation facilitates ecosystem recovery, minimizes adverse environmental impacts, creates additional lands for agricultural or forestry uses, and enhances the carbon (C sequestration. Nanoparticles with extremely high reactivity and deliverability can be applied as amendments to improve soil quality, mitigate soil contaminations, ensure safe land–application of the conventional amendment materials (e.g., manures and biosolids, and enhance soil erosion control. However, there is no report on using nanoenhanced materials for mine soil reclamation. Through reviewing the up-to-date research results on using environment-friendly nanoparticles for agricultural soil quality improvement and for contaminated soil remediation, this paper synthesizes that these nanomaterials with high potentials for mine soil reclamation include zeolites, zero-valent iron nanoparticles, iron oxide nanoparticles, phosphate-based nanoparticles, iron sulfide nanoparticles and C nanotubes. Transport of these particles in the environment and their possible ecotoxicological effects are also discussed. Additionally, this article proposes a practical and economical approach to applying nanotechnology for mine soil reclamation: adding small amounts of nanoparticles to the conventional soil amendment materials and then applying the mixtures for soil quality improvements. Hence the cost of using nanoparticles is reduced and the benefits of both nanoparticles and the conventional amendment materials are harnessed.

  4. Reclaimed water quality during simulated ozone-managed aquifer recharge hybrid

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Min; Amy, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    A synergistic hybrid of two treatment processes, managed aquifer recharge (MAR) combined with ozonation, was proposed for wastewater reclamation and water reuse applications. Batch reactor and soil-column experiments were performed to evaluate

  5. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  6. Drivers, trends, and potential impacts of long-term coastal reclamation in China from 1985 to 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Bo; Wu, Wenting; Yang, Zhaoqing; Zhou, Yunxuan

    2016-03-01

    Driven by rapid economic development, population growth, and urbanization, China has experienced severe coastal land reclamation over the last decades, which resulted in significant loss of coastal wetland and wildlife habitat, and degradation of marine ecosystems. This study used advanced remote-sensing techniques to analyze the spatial and temporal distributions of coastal reclamation in China and investigated the relationships between coastal land reclamation and coastal economy, population growth, and urbanization. Analysis of long-term Landsat images time series from 1985 to 2010 in 5-year intervals, in combination with remotely sensed image techniques, indicated a sharp increasing trend of land reclamation after 2005, which accounted for over 35% of China’s total reclamation during the 25-year period since 1985. High-intensity coastal reclamation in China was mainly driven by the booming economy associated with urbanization and industrial development in the coastal region. Analysis indicated that coastal land reclamation is closely correlated with the GDP per capita in China. Study results of Landsat images showed that 754,697 ha of coastal wetlands have been reclaimed across all coastal provinces and metropolises from 1985 to 2010, at an annual rate of 5.9%. Coastal areas within the three major economic zones (Bohai Bay, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta) were found to generally have higher reclamation rates. For example, the built-up area in Shanghai, which is located in the Yangtze River Delta, increased more than five times from 1985 to 2010. Approximately 35% of the reclamation occurred in Bohai Bay, in which the CRI between 2005 and 2010 was three times higher than the average CRI over the 25-year period.

  7. A new low-cost method of reclaiming mixed foundry waste sand based on wet-thermal composite reclamation

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Zitian; Liu Fuchu; Long Wei

    2014-01-01

    A lot of mixed clay-resin waste sand from large-scale iron foundries is discharged every day; so mixed waste sand reclamation in low cost and high quality has a great realistic significance. In the study to investigate the possibility of reusing two types of waste foundry sands, resin bonded sand and clay bonded sand which came from a Chinese casting factory, a new low-cost reclamation method of the mixed foundry waste sand based on the wet-thermal composite reclamation was proposed. The wast...

  8. Impacts of operation of CVP regulating reservoirs on water temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vail, L.W.

    1996-01-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) markets and transmits electric power throughout 15 western states. Western's Sierra Nevada Customer Service Region (Sierra Nevada Region) markets approximately 1,480 megawatts (MW) of firm power (and 100 MW of seasonal peaking capacity) from the Central Valley Project (CVP) and other sources and markets available nonfirm power from the Washoe Project. Western's mission is to sell and deliver electricity generated from CVP powerplants. The hydroelectric facilities of the CVP are operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation). Reclamation manages and releases water in accordance with the various acts authorizing specific projects and with enabling legislation. Western's capacity and energy sales must be in conformance with the laws that govern its sale of electrical power. Further, Western's hydropower operations at each facility must comply with minimum and maximum flows and other constraints set by Reclamation, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, or other agencies, acting in accord with law or policy

  9. Car wash wastewater treatment and water reuse - a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaneti, R N; Etchepare, R; Rubio, J

    2013-01-01

    Recent features of a car wash wastewater reclamation system and results from a full-scale car wash wastewater treatment and recycling process are reported. This upcoming technology comprises a new flocculation-column flotation process, sand filtration, and a final chlorination. A water usage and savings audit (22 weeks) showed that almost 70% reclamation was possible, and fewer than 40 L of fresh water per wash were needed. Wastewater and reclaimed water were characterized by monitoring chemical, physicochemical and biological parameters. Results were discussed in terms of aesthetic quality (water clarification and odour), health (pathological) and chemical (corrosion and scaling) risks. A microbiological risk model was applied and the Escherichia coli proposed criterion for car wash reclaimed water is 200 CFU 100 mL(-1). It is believed that the discussions on car wash wastewater reclamation criteria may assist institutions to create laws in Brazil and elsewhere.

  10. Reclamation of urban wastewaters in an experimental plant with tertiary treatment; Regeneracion de aguas residuales urbanas en una planta piloto mediante tratamientos terciariarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Ramirez, J. A.; Sahuquillo, S.; Sales, D.; Quiroga, J. M. [Universidad de Cadiz (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    Among the most interesting techniques for reclamation or urban wastewaters, reverse osmosis stands out, because the good results obtained in several facilities. In this paper results of the operation of an experimental Reverse Osmosis (RO) pilot plant of 100 cu. m/day capacity, for the reuse or urban wastewaters are showed. Membranes used were of cellulose acetate and previously has been optimized in laboratory, the dose of reagents used in pretreatment in order to minimize, as far as possible, any type of fouling. The water quality obtained under the conditions determined as optimum is high, this quality allows the water to be injected into a local aquifer to counteract seawater intrusion. (Author) 16 refs.

  11. Sorghum - An alternative energy crop for marginal lands and reclamation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Stefan; Theiß, Markus; Jäkel, Kerstin

    2017-04-01

    The production of biogas and the associated cultivation of energy crops are still of great importance. Considering increasing restrictions for the cultivation of standard biogas crop maize regarding an environmentally friendly production of biomass, a wider range of energy crops is needed. The cultivation of sorghum can contribute to this. As maize, sorghum is a C4-plant and offers a high biomass yield potential. Originated in the semi-arid tropics, sorghum is well adapted to warm and dry climate and particularly noted for its drought tolerance compared to maize. It also makes few demands on soil quality and shows a good capability of nutrient acquisition. Therefore, particularly on marginal areas and reclamation sites with low soil nutrient and water content sorghum can contribute to secure crop yield and income of farmers. The applied research project aims at and reflects on the establishment of sorghum as a profitable and ecological friendly cropping alternative to maize, especially in the face of probable climate change with increasing risks for agriculture. For this purpose, site differentiated growing and cultivar trials with a standardized planting design as well as several practical on-farm field experiments were conducted. The agronomical and economic results will lead to scientifically based procedures and standards for agricultural practice with respect to cultivation methods (drilling, pest-management, fertilization), cropping sequence and technique, cropping period or position in crop rotation. Even by now there is a promising feedback from the agricultural practice linked with an increasing demand for information. Moreover, the specific cropping area is increasing continuously. Therefore, the leading signs for the establishment of sorghum as profitable alternative to maize biogas production are positive. Sorghum cultures perform best as main crops in the warm D locations in the middle and East German dry areas. Here, the contribution margin

  12. Decommissioning and reclamation of the Beaverlodge uranium mine/mill operation: ecosystem in recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himbeault, K.; Phillips, R.L.J.; Vanriel, P.; Wells, K.; Halbert, B.E.

    2006-01-01

    The Beaverlodge uranium mining and milling facility, located near Uranium City in northern Saskatchewan, operated for a period of thirty-two years between 1950 and 1982, making it one of the longest operating facilities of its type in Canada. Ore was extracted from the ma in underground mine and from smaller underground and open pit satellite deposits in a ratio of 94% and 6% respectively. Decommissioning activities consisted of four phases, shutdown, salvage and reclamation which occurred from 1982-1985, and the current transition monitoring phase from 1985 to present. Following transition monitoring to prove that the system is behaving as expected, licence revocation and hence completion of decommissioning is expected to occur. The plan to achieve delicensing from the federal Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission and surface lease revocation from the provincial government is currently captured in a 10-year plan, 2003-2013. The main remaining objective of the decommissioning plan is to document the aquatic ecosystem recovery of the former tailings management facility (TMF), which consisted of two natural lakes, and of the two former underground satellite areas, Hab and Dubyna. Extensive environmental monitoring has been carried out in the receiving environment, Beaverlodge Lake, the former Dubyna mine area and the TMF. Recovery of the aquatic ecosystems is occurring within an environment containing above-background levels of natural radionuclides. This makes Beaverlodge, with its relatively clean ore and long history of natural recovery, one of the better places to study low-level radioactive environmental biological effects. The Dubyna area has above background uranium concentrations in the water, sediment and fish, and a benthic invertebrate community similar to reference. In the receiving environment, Beaverlodge Lake, metal concentrations are highest with the deeper sediment. This trend fits well with the increased impacts of 32-years of operation followed by

  13. 76 FR 16818 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Standard Criteria for Ag and Urban Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... Valley Project water conservation best management practices (BMPs) that shall develop Criteria for... project contractors using best available cost- effective technology and best management practices.'' The... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Standard...

  14. Investigation of Quality and Reclamation of Urban Storm Runoff in City of Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Parvinnia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban storm runoff is considered as a potentially reclaimable and valuable resource in many arid and semiarid areas, in Iran. Urban storm runoff in Shiraz is collected mainly by Khoshk River and transported to the Maharloo Lake without any treatment or reclamation. In this study, storm runoff quality and the possibility for its reclamation from different parts of the city in certain canals and pipes are investigated. The quality of the first flush in three relatively large and small suburban areas with different land uses is studied. For the purposes of this study, three stations were considered: one near the downstream end of the city on Khoshk River with a relatively large watershed, one in the middle of the city where street runoff is the main constituent of the flush, and a third one near the western outskirts of the city with relatively small mainly residential watershed.

  15. California Water Resources Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    of disposing of waterborne wastes, includ- trol, navigation, salinity control, water supply, tidelands ing reclamation and reuse where appropriate...studies for Wilson and Wildwood Creeks streams in the South Coastal Basins have been com- Keys Canyon pleted: Moose Canyon Agua Hedionda Creek Otay...resulted from the De- cember 1966 flood. channel and conduit sections pass the reduced flows through Palm Springs and part of the Agua Caliente As a

  16. Regional Cost Estimates for Reclamation Practices on Arid and Semiarid Lands; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W. K. Ostler

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Army uses the Integrated Training Area Management program for managing training land. One of the major objectives of the Integrated Training Area Management program has been to develop a method for estimating training land carrying capacity in a sustainable manner. The Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity methodology measures training load in terms of Maneuver Impact Miles. One Maneuver Impact Mile is the equivalent impact of an M1A2 tank traveling one mile while participating in an armor battalion field training exercise. The Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity methodology is also designed to predict land maintenance costs in terms of dollars per Maneuver Impact Mile. The overall cost factor is calculated using the historical cost of land maintenance practices and the effectiveness of controlling erosion. Because land maintenance costs and effectiveness are influenced by the characteristics of the land, Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity cost factors must be developed for each ecological region of the country. Costs for land maintenance activities are presented here for the semiarid and arid regions of the United States. Five ecoregions are recognized, and average values for reclamation activities are presented. Because there are many variables that can influence costs, ranges for reclamation activities are also presented. Costs are broken down into six major categories: seedbed preparation, fertilization, seeding, planting, mulching, and supplemental erosion control. Costs for most land reclamation practices and materials varied widely within and between ecological provinces. Although regional cost patterns were evident for some practices, the patterns were not consistent between practices. For the purpose of estimating land reclamation costs for the Army Training and Testing Area Carrying Capacity methodology, it may be desirable to use the ''Combined Average'' of all provinces found in the last row of each table

  17. Reclamation status of a degraded pasture based on soil health indicators.

    OpenAIRE

    SANTOS, C. A. dos; KRAWULSKI, C. C.; BINI, D.; GOULART FILHO, T.; KNOB, A.; MEDINA, C. C.; ANDRADE FILHO, G.; NOGUEIRA, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Pasture degradation is a concern, especially in susceptible sandy soils for which strategies to recover them must be developed. Microbiological and biochemical soil health indicators are useful in the guindace of soil management practices and sustainable soil use. We assessed the success of threePanicum maximum Jacq. cultivars in the reclamation of a pasture in a sandy Typic Acrudox in the northwest of the state of Paraná, Brazil, based on soil health indicators. On a formerly degraded p...

  18. Reclamation status of a degraded pasture based on soil health indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Alcantara dos Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pasture degradation is a concern, especially in susceptible sandy soils for which strategies to recover them must be developed. Microbiological and biochemical soil health indicators are useful in the guindace of soil management practices and sustainable soil use. We assessed the success of threePanicum maximum Jacq. cultivars in the reclamation of a pasture in a sandy Typic Acrudox in the northwest of the state of Paraná, Brazil, based on soil health indicators. On a formerly degraded pasture withUrochloa brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich. R.D. Webster, a trial with threeP. maximum (cv. Massai, Tanzânia, or Mombaça was conducted. Lime and phosphate were applied at set-up, and mineral N and K as topdressing. A remnant of degraded pasture adjacent to the trial was used as control. Twenty-three chemical, physical, microbiological and biochemical attributes were assessed for the 0-10 cm topsoil. The procedures for reclamation improved most of the indicators of soil health in relation to the degraded pasture, such as soil P, mineral N, microbial biomass C, ammonification rate, dehydrogenase activity and acid phosphatase. CO2 evolution decreased, whereas microbial biomass C increased in the pasture under reclamation, resulting in a lower metabolic quotient (qCO2 that points to a decrease in metabolic stress of the microbial community. The reclamation of the pasture withP. maximum, especially cv. Mombaça, were evidenced by improvements in the microbiological and biochemical soil health indicators, showing a recovery of processes related to C, N and P cycling in the soil.

  19. Landscape and bio- geochemical strategy for monitoring transformation and reclamation of the soil mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobova, Elena

    2010-05-01

    Sites of active or abandoned mining represent areas of considerable technogenic impact and need scientifically ground organization of their monitoring and reclamation. The strategy of monitoring and reclamation depends on the scale and character of the physical, chemical and biological consequences of the disturbances. The geochemical studies for monitoring and rehabilitation of the career-dump complexes should methodically account of formation of the particular new landforms and the changes in circulation of the remobilized elements of the soil cover. However, the general strategy should account of both the initial and transformed landscape geochemical structure of the area with due regard to the natural and new content of chemical elements in the environmental components. For example the tailings and waste rocks present new geochemical fields with specifically different concentration of chemical elements that cause formation of new geochemical barriers and landscapes. The way of colonization of the newly formed landscapes depends upon the new geochemical features of the technogenic environment and the adaptive ability of local and intrusive flora. The newly formed biogeochemical anomalies need organization of permanent monitoring not only within the anomaly itself but also of its impact zones. Spatial landscape geochemical monitoring combined with bio-geochemical criteria of threshold concentrations seems to be a helpful tool for decision making on reclamation and operation of the soil mining sites to provide a long-term ecologically sustainable development of the impact zone as a whole.

  20. Grasshopper sparrow reproductive success and habitat use on reclaimed surface mines varies by age of reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Petra; Ammer, Frank K.

    2015-01-01

    We studied 3 mountaintop mining–valley fill (MTMVF) complexes in southern West Virginia, USA to examine grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum pratensis) demographic response to different age classes of mine land reclamation. For 71 nests monitored during the 2001–2002 breeding seasons, overall nest success (36%) was within the range of nest success rates previously reported for this species, but it was highest on more recently reclaimed sites (56%). Nest density and clutch size did not differ (P > 0.30) among reclamation age classes, whereas number of fledglings was greater (P = 0.01) on more recently reclaimed sites. We measured vegetation variables at 70 nest subplots and at 96 systematic subplots to compare nest vegetation with vegetation available on the plots. We found that nests occurred in areas with more bare ground near the nest, greater vegetation height–density surrounding the nest site, lower grass height, and fewer woody stems, similar to previous studies. As postreclamation age increased, vegetation height–density and maximum grass height increased, and sericea (Lespedeza cuneata) became more dominant. Nest success declined with increasing vegetation height–density at the nest. The grasslands available on these reclaimed mine complexes are of sufficient quality to support breeding populations of grasshopper sparrows, but nest success decreased on the older reclaimed areas. Without active management, grasslands on reclaimed MTMVF mines become less suitable for nesting grasshopper sparrows about 10 years after reclamation.

  1. Regional Studies Program. Extraction of North Dakota lignite: environmental and reclamation issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFevers, J.R.; Johnson, D.O.; Dvorak, A.J.

    1976-12-01

    This study, sponsored by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, addresses the environmental implications of extraction of coal in North Dakota. These implications are supported by details of the geologic and historical background of the area of focus, the lignite resources in the Fort Union coalfield portion. The particular concentration is on the four-county area of Mercer, Dunn, McLean, and Oliver where substantial coal reserves exist and a potential gasification plant site has been identified. The purposes of this extensive study are to identify the land use and environmental problems and issues associated with extraction; to provide a base of information for assessing the impacts of various levels of extraction; to examine the economics and feasibility of reclamation; and to identify research that needs to be undertaken to evaluate and to improve reclamation practices. The study also includes a description of the physical and chemical soil characteristics and hydrological and climatic factors entailed in extraction, revegetation, and reclamation procedures.

  2. Surface Mining and Reclamation Effects on Flood Response of Watersheds in the Central Appalachian Plateau Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, J. R.; Lookingbill, T. R.; McCormick, B.; Townsend, P. A.; Eshleman, K. N.

    2009-01-01

    Surface mining of coal and subsequent reclamation represent the dominant land use change in the central Appalachian Plateau (CAP) region of the United States. Hydrologic impacts of surface mining have been studied at the plot scale, but effects at broader scales have not been explored adequately. Broad-scale classification of reclaimed sites is difficult because standing vegetation makes them nearly indistinguishable from alternate land uses. We used a land cover data set that accurately maps surface mines for a 187-km2 watershed within the CAP. These land cover data, as well as plot-level data from within the watershed, are used with HSPF (Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran) to estimate changes in flood response as a function of increased mining. Results show that the rate at which flood magnitude increases due to increased mining is linear, with greater rates observed for less frequent return intervals. These findings indicate that mine reclamation leaves the landscape in a condition more similar to urban areas rather than does simple deforestation, and call into question the effectiveness of reclamation in terms of returning mined areas to the hydrological state that existed before mining.

  3. Diet of desert tortoises at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and implications for habitat reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakestraw, D.L.; Holt, E.A.; Rautenstrauch, K.R.

    1995-12-01

    The diet of desert tortoises at Yucca Mountain was assessed during 1992 to 1995 using a combination of feeding observations and scat analysis. Feeding observation data (1993 through 1995) showed that tortoises fed on a wide variety of items. The most frequently eaten items were forbs and annual grasses. These two forage groups comprised more than 90% of all bites taken. Analysis of scat (1992 and 1993) also showed that grasses and forbs were the most common groups, making up more than 80% of the composition of scat. Yearly differences between proportions of species in the diet were observed and were most likely attributable to differences in plant productivity, which is linked to rainfall patterns. Non-native species were an important component of the diet in all years, accounting for 13 to 50% of all bites observed and 6 to 24% of scat contents. A list of all items encountered in the diet is provided. To facilitate reclamation of desert tortoise habitat disturbed by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, native forage species that should be included in reclamation seed mixes, when feasible, were identified. Although shrubs make up only a small proportion of the diet, they should also be included in reclamation efforts because they provide habitat structure. Tortoise cover sites, and microhabitats amenable to seed germination and seedling establishment. In addition, non-native species should not be planted on reclaimed sites and, if necessary, sites should be recontoured and soil compaction reduced prior to planting

  4. Factors of Reclamation Success at the Lignite Strip-Mined Land in Northern Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Panagopoulos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The adverse ecological conditions at the lignite mines of Ptolemaida make the landscape reclamation difficult. The naturally established vegetation and soil properties were studied prior to reclamation. Various forest species were planted to assess the afforestation potential. The natural vegetation was heterogeneous but can be used for the analysis of the site. The soil of the spoil heaps was heterogeneous with unfavourable physicochemical properties. Surface soil temperature was still 24º C higher in bare soil than in soil covered with vegetation. The most successful species of the afforestation trial were Robinia pseudoacacia and Cedrus atlantica. Covering of fly ash spoils with topsoil presented poor results, while sewage sludge gave a favorable amelioration response in areas with high fly ash content. Topsoil from older stands was the suggested method to establish Robinia pseudoacacia. Reclamation success was dependent on appropriate planning; thus, the new landscape had to be designed in harmony with the surrounding landscape before the start of the mining activity.

  5. The reclamation of former coal mines and steelworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, I.G.; Palmer, J.P.; Barratt, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    The book is a result of studies undertaken on behalf of the European Commission and examines the current 'state of the art' techniques for the restoration of despoiled lands arising from the coal and steel industries. Chapters are entitled: introduction; site assessment; investigation and treatment of mine workings and unstable ground; demolition and site clearance; colliery spoil heap characteristics; colliery spoil heap stability; colliery spoil heap combustion; colliery spoil washing; steel industry raw materials and wastes; coal carbonisation; treatment of contaminated soils; water quality; landform and earthworks; the establishment and care of vegetation; management of reclaimed land; a framework for site generation; and case studies. 266 refs

  6. Land reclamation and artificial islands: Walking the tightrope between development and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yin Chee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Coastal developments worldwide have put entire shoreline ecosystems at risk. Recently, land reclamation has been extended to the construction of whole new islands; a phenomenon that is particularly common in Asia and the Middle East and is recognised as a global conservation issue. Using Penang Island, Malaysia as a case study, we illustrate the relationship between rapid population growth and the simultaneous increase in urbanisation, land reclamation and extent of artificial shorelines; and decrease in the quality and extent of natural coastal habitats. Our goal was to provide an up-to-date assessment of the state of coastal habitats around Penang, identify knowledge gaps and identify locations that may be potentially suitable for eco-engineering. Comparisons of historical and current topographic maps revealed that land formerly consisting of coastal swamp and forest, mangrove forests, sandy beaches, and rubber and oil plantations have been lost to large-scale land reclamation and urbanisation. Between 1960 and 2015, there were increases in urbanised area, reclaimed land, and artificial shoreline extent. The total extent of mangrove forests has remained relatively stable but this balance is characterised by significant losses on the east coast coupled with increases on the west coast. Coastal development on the island is still on-going with plans for the construction of five artificial islands and another two coastal reclamation projects are either underway or scheduled for the near future. If the plans for future land reclamations are fully realized, 32.3 km2 of the 321.8 km2 island (10% will be reclaimed land and the associated negative effects on the island’s natural coastal habitats will be inevitable. This study highlights sections of the coast of Penang Island in need of effective monitoring, conservation and management and explores the possibility of incorporating ecological engineering into development projects, either

  7. Use of morphometric soil aggregates parameters to evaluate the reclamation process in mined areas located at amazon forest - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, A. I.; Fengler, F. H.; Longo, R. M.; Mello, G. F.; Damame, D. B.; Crowley, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Brazil has a high mineral potential that have been explored over the years. A large fraction of these mineral resources are located in Amazon region, which is known for its large biodiversity and world climate importance. As the policies that control the Amazon preservation are relatively new, several mining activities have been exploring the Amazon territory, promoting a large process of degradation. Once the mining activities have a high potential of environmental changes the government created polices to restrain the mining in Amazon forests and obligate mining companies to reclaim theirs minded areas. However, the measurement of reclamation development still is a challenging task for the Professionals involved. The volume and complexity of the variables, allied to the difficulty in identifying the reclamation of ecosystem functionalities are still lack to ensure the reclamation success. In this sense this work aims to investigate the representativeness of morphometric soil aggregates parameters in the understanding of reclamation development. The study area is located in the National Forest of Jamari, State of Rondônia. In the past mining companies explored the region producing eight closed mines that are now in reclamation process. The soil aggregates morphometric measurements: geometric mean diameter (GMD), aggregate circularity index, and aggregate roundness, were choose based in its obtaining facility, and their association to biological activity. To achieve the proposed objective the aggregates of eight sites in reclamation, from different closed mines, where chosen and compared to Amazon forest and open mine soil aggregates. The results were analyzed to one way ANOVA to identifying differences between areas in reclamation, natural ecosystem, and open mine. It was obtained differences for GMD and circularity index. However, only the circularity index allowed to identifying differences between the reclamation sites. The results allowed concluding: (1

  8. REKUL'TIVATSIYA NARUSHENNYKH ZEMEL' V UGOL'NOY PROMYSHLENNOSTI [RECLAMATION OF DISTURBED LANDS IN THE COAL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harionovskij A.A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of the issue of reclamation of disturbed lands is due to the fact that coal mining by both open and underground methods is inevitably accompanied by exclusion from economic circulation and violation of lands for various purposes, by changing the terrain and forming an industrial landscape. The article contains information on the volumes of disturbance and reclamation of lands in the coal industry In the article the directions of reclamation and applied technologies, domestic developments and foreign experience are considered. It was noted that the priority areas for reclamation of disturbed lands in the coal industry are: agricultural, forestry and sanitary-hygienic. It is noted that the quality of the recultivated areas is not always at the proper level, which creates dif culties in their subsequent use. The main reasons for the low quality of reclamation are the lack of the necessary amount of initial data on the composition and properties of soil and rock mass of the dumps at the development stage of the reclamation projects, the lack of special technical means for performing remediation works at a high level, the lack of a landscape approach to the restoration of disturbed areas. Measures to prevent spontaneous combustion of rock dumps are laid in projects and are not implemented in practice in full, which leads to the occurrence of res. Two new developments in the eld of reclamation are presented: the microbiological method developed by MNIIECO TEK JSC, and the method for restoring the biological productivity of disturbed lands, proposed by the Scienti c Research Institute of Agricultural Problems of Khakassia SB RAAS. Identi ed problem issues in the eld of reclamation and a list of measures to improve the state of protection of land resources. In the article it is shown that in order to improve the state in the sphere of land resources protection in the coal industry, it is necessary to improve the applied mining technologies

  9. 78 FR 16706 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... Planning AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of change. SUMMARY: The Water Resources Planning Act of 1965 and the Water Resources Development Act of 1974 require an annual determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate for Federal water resources planning...

  10. 75 FR 8106 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Planning AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of change. SUMMARY: The Water Resources Planning Act of 1965 and the Water Resources Development Act of 1974 require an annual determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate for Federal water resources planning...

  11. 78 FR 67393 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of change. SUMMARY: The Water Resources Planning Act of 1965 and the Water Resources Development Act of 1974 require an annual determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate...

  12. 75 FR 82066 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Planning AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of change. SUMMARY: The Water Resources Planning Act of 1965 and the Water Resources Development Act of 1974 require an annual determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate for Federal water resources planning...

  13. 76 FR 73674 - Change in Discount Rate for Water Resources Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Planning AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of change. SUMMARY: The Water Resources Planning Act of 1965 and the Water Resources Development Act of 1974 require an annual determination of a discount rate for Federal water resources planning. The discount rate for Federal water resources planning...

  14. 77 FR 36001 - Draft Report Assessing Rural Water Activities and Related Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... of the authorized rural water projects identified above; (3) The demand for new rural water supply projects; (4) The rural water programs within other agencies; (5) The extent of the demand that can be met... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Reclamation Draft Report Assessing Rural Water Activities and...

  15. Memorandum of Understanding on Surface Coal Mining Operations Resulting in Placement of Excess Spoil Fills in the Waters of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOU on Surface Coal Mining Operations establishes a process for improving coordination in the review of permit applications required for surface coal mining and reclamation in waters of the United States

  16. Combination of methanogenesis and denitrification in a UASB reactor for water reclamation applied to small agglomerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davila, J.M.S.; Khassab, G.; Klapwijk, A.; Lier, van J.B.

    2009-01-01

    A two-step system combining an anaerobic/anoxic UASB reactor followed by a low energy consuming rotating biological contactor might be a sustainable option for wastewater treatment and reuse in small agglomerations. This article focuses on the UASB stage. The performance of a lab-scale UASB fed with

  17. Application of wastewater with high organic load for saline-sodic soil reclamation focusing on soil purification ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Kameli

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water source scarcity in arid and semiarid area is limitation factor for saline-sodic soil reclamation. The reusing of agricultural drainage and industrial wastewater are preferred strategies for combating with this concern. The objective of current study was evaluation in application of industrial sugar manufacture wastewater due to high soluble organic compounds in saline-sodic and sodic soil. Also soil ability in wastewater organic compounds removal was second aim of present study. Saline-sodic and sodic soil sample was leached in soil column by diluted wastewater of amirkabir sugar manufacture in Khuzestan Province of Iran at constant water head. Sodium, electric conductivity and chemical oxygen demand of soil column leachate were measured per each pore volume. The experimental kinetics of wastewater organic compounds on two saline-sodic and sodic soil were also investigated by three pseudo second order, intra particle diffusion and elovich model. The results of current study showed that electric conductivity of saline-sodic soil was decreased to 90% during 3 initial pore volumes, from other side exchangeable sodium percent of saline-sodic and sodic soil decreased 30 and 71 percent, respectively. There were no significant different between wastewater chemical oxygen demand removal by saline-sodic and sodic soil in both batch and column studies. Wastewater chemical oxygen demand was decreased to 35% during pass through soil column. The results showed that the adsorption kinetics of wastewater organic compounds were best fitted by the pseudo-second order model with 99 percent correlation coefficient (r2=0.99%.

  18. Vertical Distribution and Flux of Nutrients in the Sediments of the Mangrove Reclamation Region of Muara Angke Kapuk, Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ida Sunaryo Purwiyanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The reclaimed mangrove estuary in Muara Angke Kapuk is a reclaimed area that has not evaded the impacted of pollution and waste in the areas surrounding Cengkareng, Jakarta. This is apparent from the fact that almost all sediments under the mangrove trees are buried under heaps of plastic trash. However, the reclaimed region still has variety of organism, which indicating that the region still has an internal carrying capacity, especially nutrients from sediment. The purpose of this research was to examine the condition of sediment nutrients in this mangrove reclamation region. The research was conducted by taking water samples using a modification of the stratified cup at a sediment depth of 0-15 cm with depth intervals of 2.5 cm, and taking sediment samples using the sediment ring. Pore water samples were measured for dissolved oxygen (DO and concentrations of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate. Sediment samples were used to obtain porosity values. The data obtained is used to make vertical concentration profiles and analysis of vertical nutrient flux. Vertical nutrient flux analysis was performed with the aid of QUAL2K software version 2.11. The results showed different vertical distributions and flux of nutrients, where influx for ammonia and phosphate and an increase in line with increasing sediment depth, while nitrate efflux and a decreased concentration. The flux calculation of nitrite as transitory nutrient was not done, but the concentration decreased after a depth of 2.5 cm. This indicates that the high contamination on the surface does not prevent the natural chemical processes so the reclaimed region can still provide nutritional support for its organism.

  19. Vegetation development and native species establishment in reclaimed coal mine lands in Alberta : directions for reclamation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longman, P. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Faculty of Environmental Design

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed a study undertaken to evaluate reclamation vegetation at Coal Valley Mine in Alberta with respect to expected vegetation changes over time, establishing a successional model of vegetation development, and factors contributing to the observed patterns. Most of the expected vegetation trends were evident, including lower grass cover and height, lower legume cover, a higher degree of native plant species richness, and the establishment of woody species. Four vegetation communities (2 graminoid-dominated and 2 conifer-dominated) were identified in the study, for which a possible successional model was constructed. Vegetation dynamics for agronomic grasses, legumes, and tree cover were discussed. Areas with Lodgepole Pine were found to have higher species richness and cover. Concerns were raised that the identified trends may not in fact supply the expected opportunities for native species establishment. In order to facilitate the establishment of native species and better manage reclamation vegetation development, the author recommended that a conifer overstory be established to increase native richness and native cover, and that more appropriate seeding mixes be developed as certain agronomic species are detrimental to long-term goals. The author also recommended that site-specific seed mixes be developed according to end land-use goals, that a planting program for native plants and shrubs be developed, and that a monitoring program be established to better inform future reclamation efforts. The recommendations were designed to bring reclamation efforts into line with reclamation goals. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  20. Ecological bases of land reclamation in the mining regions of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharytonov, Mykola; Gumentyk, Myhailo; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    The mining production is situated in the several provinces of Ukraine. Specification of the problem coal and mixed sulfide mining activities in Ukraine have resulted in the generation of hundreds of millions of tons of hazardous wastes consisting of rest of manganese and iron oxides, traces of rare elements, sulphur bearing minerals, such as pyrite. These wastes have been / are still deposited, throughout the years, in huge stockpiles and dams. Land restoration in the mining region takes several forms. One of the ways is land reclamation. This way includes forest, recreation and agricultural reclamation. Land reclamation in industrial regions is conducted in one technological cycle with the process of ore mining. The soil mass is taken off, piled up and heaped onto the land after the rock has been replaced. The ecohydrogeological background of reclaimed lands forming and exploration was worked out. It foresee an environment restoration of disturbed lands to manage flow down, atmospheric precipitations taking aside, the process of the reclaimed profile biogenetic horizons formation and promotion with total depth 1.0-1.2 m and involvement of more suitable rocks and artificial drainage building. The effectiveness of different models of land reclamation and heavy metals migration through the rock-soil-plant system was investigated. Field experiments were carried out to study the adaptive potential of plants having different requirements for substrate fertility, with the main task to assess the prospects of land management for the rocks of the Nikopol manganese basin. The rocks exposed to the surface after manganese ore mining, first technical stage of landscape restoration, and plant melioration stages pass into other geochemical conditions and change their physical-chemical properties. During long-term melioration crops have dramatically improved some processes as following: bioweathering of rocks, phytomeliorated rocks fertility growth, etc. Meantime some rocks

  1. Computer simulation of the NASA water vapor electrolysis reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, A. M.

    1974-01-01

    The water vapor electrolysis (WVE) reactor is a spacecraft waste reclamation system for extended-mission manned spacecraft. The WVE reactor's raw material is water, its product oxygen. A computer simulation of the WVE operational processes provided the data required for an optimal design of the WVE unit. The simulation process was implemented with the aid of a FORTRAN IV routine.

  2. Microbes from mined sites: Harnessing their potential for reclamation of derelict mine sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thavamani, Palanisami; Samkumar, R. Amos; Satheesh, Viswanathan; Subashchandrabose, Suresh R.; Ramadass, Kavitha; Naidu, Ravi; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Megharaj, Mallavarapu

    2017-01-01

    Derelict mines pose potential risks to environmental health. Several factors such as soil structure, organic matter, and nutrient content are the greatly affected qualities in mined soils. Soil microbial communities are an important element for successful reclamation because of their major role in nutrient cycling, plant establishment, geochemical transformations, and soil formation. Yet, microorganisms generally remain an undervalued asset in mined sites. The microbial diversity in derelict mine sites consists of diverse species belonging to four key phyla: Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The activity of plant symbiotic microorganisms including root-colonizing rhizobacteria and ectomycorrhizal fungi of existing vegetation in the mined sites is very high since most of these microbes are extremophiles. This review outlines the importance of microorganisms to soil health and the rehabilitation of derelict mines and how microbial activity and diversity can be exploited to better plan the soil rehabilitation. Besides highlighting the major breakthroughs in the application of microorganisms for mined site reclamation, we provide a critical view on plant−microbiome interactions to improve revegetation at the mined sites. Also, the need has been emphasized for deciphering the molecular mechanisms of adaptation and resistance of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere microbes in abandoned mine sites, understanding their role in remediation, and subsequent harnessing of their potential to pave the way in future rehabilitation strategies for mined sites. - Highlights: • Abandoned mines pose potential risks to human and environmental health. • Re-establishment of a self-sustaining vegetative cover at derelict mines is a major challenge. • Soil microbial communities are very important for successful reclamation of mined sites. • Role of microorganisms in soil function in derelict mines needs to be understood.

  3. Effects of cluster land reclamation projects on storm surge in Jiaojiang Estuary, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-lin Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations in coastline geometry caused by coastal engineering affect tides, storm surges, and storm tides. Three cluster land reclamation projects have been planned for construction in the Jiaojiang Estuary during the period from 2011 to 2023. They will cause significant changes in coastline geometry. In this study, a surge-tide coupled model was established based on a three-dimensional finite-volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM. A series of numerical experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of variations in coastline geometry on tides, storm surges, and storm tides. This model was calibrated using data observed at the Haimen and Ruian gauge stations and then used to reproduce the tides, storm surges, and storm tides in the Jiaojiang Estuary caused by Typhoon Winnie in 1997. Results show that the high tide level, peak storm surge, and high storm tide level at the Haimen Gauge Station increased along with the completion of reclamation projects, and the maximum increments caused by the third project were 0.13 m, 0.50 m, and 0.43 m, respectively. The envelopes with maximum storm tide levels of 7.0 m and 8.0 m inside the river mouth appeared to move seaward, with the latter shifting 1.8 km, 3.3 km, and 4.4 km due to the first project, second project, and third project, respectively. The results achieved in this study contribute to reducing the effects of, and preventing storm disasters after the land reclamation in the Jiaojiang Estuary.

  4. Succession of Bacterial Community Structure and Diversity in Soil along a Chronosequence of Reclamation and Re-Vegetation on Coal Mine Spoils in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Wen, Hongyu; Chen, Longqian; Yin, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    The growing concern about the effectiveness of reclamation strategies has motivated the evaluation of soil properties following reclamation. Recovery of belowground microbial community is important for reclamation success, however, the response of soil bacterial communities to reclamation has not been well understood. In this study, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing was applied to compare bacterial communities in undisturbed soils with those in reclaimed soils using chronosequences ranging in time following reclamation from 1 to 20 year. Bacteria from the Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes and Bacteroidetes were abundant in all soils, while the composition of predominant phyla differed greatly across all sites. Long-term reclamation strongly affected microbial community structure and diversity. Initial effects of reclamation resulted in significant declines in bacterial diversity indices in younger reclaimed sites (1, 8-year-old) compared to the undisturbed site. However, bacterial diversity indices tended to be higher in older reclaimed sites (15, 20-year-old) as recovery time increased, and were more similar to predisturbance levels nearly 20 years after reclamation. Bacterial communities are highly responsive to soil physicochemical properties (pH, soil organic matter, Total N and P), in terms of both their diversity and community composition. Our results suggest that the response of soil microorganisms to reclamation is likely governed by soil characteristics and, indirectly, by the effects of vegetation restoration. Mixture sowing of gramineae and leguminosae herbage largely promoted soil geochemical conditions and bacterial diversity that recovered to those of undisturbed soil, representing an adequate solution for soil remediation and sustainable utilization for agriculture. These results confirm the positive impacts of reclamation and vegetation restoration on soil microbial diversity and suggest that the most important

  5. Microbial turnover and incorporation of organic compounds in oil sand mining reclamation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappé, M.; Kallmeyer, J.

    2013-12-01

    Microorganisms play an important role in the development of new soils and in the reclamation of disturbed landscapes. Especially in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils their ability to degrade organic matter and pollutants makes them essential to re-establish full ecosystem functionality. Microbes are also involved in the mobilization of nutrients for plant growth and in the production of greenhouse gases. Reclamation sites from oil sand mining activities in Alberta, Canada, contain residual bitumen as well as other hydrocarbons. So, these areas provide a great opportunity to study microbial degradation of residual contaminants from oil sand. To get an impression of degradation rates as well as metabolic pathways, incubation experiments were performed in the lab. We measured microbial turnover (catabolic metabolism) and incorporation (anabolic metabolism) rates of different common organic compounds in samples from differently treated reclamation sites - with plant cover and without plant cover. About 10 g of sample material was suspended in 10 mL of a solution that mimics the in-situ concentration of dissolved ions. Radioactively labelled 14C-acetate was added as a common substrate, whereas 14C-naphthenic acid was chosen to investigate the microbial community's capability to utilize a typical hydrocarbon pollutant in oil sand tailings as a nutrient source. To test for the influence of fertilizers on microbial activity, phosphate, nitrate and potassium were added to some samples in different combinations. Incubations were run over two different time periods (7 and 14 days). At the end of each incubation experiment, the amount of produced 14CO2, 14C incorporated into the cells and the remaining unreacted 14C in the slurry were measured. First results show that most of the added 14C-acetate is used for respiration as it is mostly released as 14CO2. In upper soil layers only about 3% of 14C is incorporated into cells, whereas in deeper horizons with lower cell abundances

  6. Reclamation Strategies and Geomorphic Outcomes in Coal Surface Mines of Eastern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, M.; Jaeger, K. L.

    2014-12-01

    Coal surface mining is a significant landscape disturbance in the United States. Since 1977, the reclamation of mined lands has been regulated by the Surface Mine Control and Reclamation Act (SMCRA). Prior to the act, many coalfields were left un-reclaimed or partially reclaimed, with highly irregular topology and drainage networks. Under the act, the reverse is often true; adherence to SMCRA often leads to the homogenization of surfaces and channel networks. While both pre and post-SMCRA landscapes are highly altered, they exhibit strongly dissimilar characteristics. We examine pre-SMCRA, post-SMCRA and unmined watersheds at 3 spatial scales in order to compare the geomorphic differences between reclamation strategies. In particular, we attempt to separate anthropogenic factors from pre-existing, natural factors via comparisons to unmined watersheds. Our study design incorporates a 3 scale top-down analysis of 21 independent watersheds (7 of each treatment type). Each watershed has an area of approximately 1km2. All watersheds share similar geography, climate and geology. At the landscape scale, characteristics are derived from 0.762m (2.5ft) resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). At the channel network scale, DEMs, as well as remote sensing data (including the National Wetlands Inventory database) are used. Finally, the reach scale incorporates longitudinal and cross-section surveys (using a total station) as well as a particle size distribution. At each scale, attributes are parameterized for statistical comparison. Post-SMCRA sites are characterized by a general reduction of watershed surface slopes (11.9% median) compared to pre-SMCRA (19.3%) and unmined (19.8%) sites. Both pre and post-SMCRA channel networks are characterized by significant surface impoundments (in the form of remnant headwall trenches on pre-SMCRA sites and engineered retention basins on post-SMCRA sites). Pre-SMCRA outlet reaches have significantly steeper bed slopes (2.79% mean) than

  7. ENHANCEMENT OF TERRESTRIAL CARBON SINKS THROUGH RECLAMATION OF ABANDONED MINE LANDS IN THE APPALACHIAN REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Kronrad

    2002-12-01

    The U.S.D.I. Office of Surface Mining (OSM) estimates that there are approximately 1 million acres of abandoned mine land (AML) in the Appalachian region. AML lands are classified as areas that were inadequately reclaimed or were left unreclaimed prior to the passage of the 1977 Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act, and where no federal or state laws require any further reclamation responsibility to any company or individual. Reclamation and afforestation of these sites have the potential to provide landowners with cyclical timber revenues, generate environmental benefits to surrounding communities, and sequester carbon in the terrestrial ecosystem. Through a memorandum of understanding, the OSM and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) have decided to investigate reclaiming and afforesting these lands for the purpose of mitigating the negative effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. This study determined the carbon sequestration potential of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), one of the major reclamation as well as commercial species, planted on West Virginia AML sites. Analyses were conducted to (1) calculate the total number of tons that can be stored, (2) determine the cost per ton to store carbon, and (3) calculate the profitability of managing these forests for timber production alone and for timber production and carbon storage together. The Forest Management Optimizer (FORMOP) was used to simulate growth data on diameter, height, and volume for northern red oak. Variables used in this study included site indices ranging from 40 to 80 (base age 50), thinning frequencies of 0, 1, and 2, thinning percentages of 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40, and a maximum rotation length of 100 years. Real alternative rates of return (ARR) ranging from 0.5% to 12.5% were chosen for the economic analyses. A total of 769,248 thinning and harvesting combinations, net present worths, and soil expectation values were calculated in this study. Results indicate that

  8. Initial land reclamation procedures related to possible Pu-cleanup activities at the Tonopah Test Range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, A.; Romney, E.M.

    1976-02-01

    If areas of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) are to be used for experimental tests of procedures for clean-up of 239 Pu contamination, there are experiences in the Great Basin Desert portions of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which can serve as guides to reclamation and revegetation of such arid lands. Procedures which will encourage development of the grasses Hilaria jamesii and Oryzopsis hymenoides, as well as the perennial shrubs Eurotia lanata and Atriplex canescens would greatly improve the area as range land

  9. The use of some geochemical methods in evaporation pond reclamation assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thimm, H. F.; Siebert, L. D.

    1998-01-01

    Certain geochemical techniques, such as complete inorganic identification, rare earth fingerprints, and the use of chondrite plots that may be used over and above CCME (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment) standards in the reclamation of evaporation ponds, are described. These techniques permit the separation of contaminant elements that occur naturally beyond provincial or CCME standards. They also permit conclusions to be drawn about soil stratification around the lagoons. The methods are less costly yet more effective than conventional assessment methods. Use of these techniques is illustrated with an example from an Alberta gas plant. 7 refs., 6 tabs., 5 figs

  10. 78 FR 72111 - Quarterly Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ...: Reclamation continues negotiations on an operations, maintenance and replacement transfer contract with the... Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions AGENCY: Bureau of... individual contract actions may be published in the Federal Register and in newspapers of general circulation...

  11. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drink and water in food (like fruits and vegetables). 6. Of all the earth’s water, how much is ocean or seas? 97 percent of the earth’s water is ocean or seas. 7. How much of the world’s water is frozen? Of all the water on earth, about 2 percent is frozen. 8. How much ...

  12. Effect of mining and land reclamation on the radiological characteristics of the terrestrial environment of Florida's phosphate regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, C.E.; Kautz, R.; Bolch, W.E. Jr.; Wethington, J.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Studies were performed to evaluate the extent and nature of the redistribution of uranium-series radioactivity in phosphate mining, reclamation, and land development. Radium-226 was measured in waste materials that enter into land reclamation. Radium-226 surface soil concentrations and depth profile, soil surface radon flux, and gamma radiation above the surface were reported for unmined and mined, reclaimed, and otherwise altered lands. Mining, land reclamation, and construction site preparation can increase the near-surface soil radium and related characteristics. The impact was evaluated in terms of effect on actual and potential indoor radon progeny concentrations in structures. It was concluded that debris lands, resulting from a former mining practice, represent the greatest impact on existing structures

  13. Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chovanec, A.; Grath, J.; Kralik, M.; Vogel, W.

    2002-01-01

    An up-date overview of the situation of the Austrian waters is given by analyzing the status of the water quality (groundwater, surface waters) and water protection measures. Maps containing information of nitrate and atrazine in groundwaters (analyses at monitoring stations), nitrate contents and biological water quality of running waters are included. Finally, pollutants (nitrate, orthophosphate, ammonium, nitrite, atrazine etc.) trends in annual mean values and median values for the whole country for the years 1992-1999 are presented in tables. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  14. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Legacy Uranium Mine Site Reclamation - Lessons Learned - 12384

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilpatrick, Laura E. [U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Westminster, Colorado 80021 (United States); Cotter, Ed [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Grand Junction, Colorado 81503 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management is responsible for administering the DOE Uranium Leasing Program (ULP) and its 31 uranium lease tracts located in the Uravan Mineral Belt of southwestern Colorado (see Figure 1). In addition to administering the ULP for the last six decades, DOE has also undertaken the significant task of reclaiming a large number of abandoned uranium (legacy) mine sites and associated features located throughout the Uravan Mineral Belt. In 1995, DOE initiated a 3-year reconnaissance program to locate and delineate (through extensive on-the-ground mapping) the legacy mine sites and associated features contained within the historically defined boundaries of its uranium lease tracts. During that same time frame, DOE recognized the lack of regulations pertaining to the reclamation of legacy mine sites and contacted the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) concerning the reclamation of legacy mine sites. In November 1995, The BLM Colorado State Office formally issued the United States Department of the Interior, Colorado Bureau of Land Management, Closure/Reclamation Guidelines, Abandoned Uranium Mine Sites as a supplement to its Solid Minerals Reclamation Handbook (H-3042-1). Over the next five-and-one-half years, DOE reclaimed the 161 legacy mine sites that had been identified on DOE withdrawn lands. By the late 1990's, the various BLM field offices in southwestern Colorado began to recognize DOE's experience and expertise in reclaiming legacy mine sites. During the ensuing 8 years, BLM funded DOE (through a series of task orders) to perform reclamation activities at 182 BLM mine sites. To date, DOE has reclaimed 372 separate and distinct legacy mine sites. During this process, DOE has learned many lessons and is willing to share those lessons with others in the reclamation industry because there are still many legacy mine sites not yet reclaimed. DOE currently administers 31 lease tracts (11,017 ha) that

  15. Reclamation of landfills and dumps of municipal solid waste in a energy efficient waste management system: methodology and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Tatyana; Melnichuk, Aleksandr; Klimenko, Kseniya; Vitvitskaya, Valentina; Popovych, Valentina; Dunaieva, Ielizaveta; Terleev, Vitaly; Nikonorov, Aleksandr; Togo, Issa; Volkova, Yulia; Mirschel, Wilfried; Garmanov, Vitaly

    2017-10-01

    The article considers the methodological and practical aspects of reclamation of landfills and dumps of municipal solid waste in a waste management system. The general tendencies of system development in the context of elements of the international concept of waste hierarchy are analyzed. Statistics of the formation and burial of domestic waste indicate a strategic non-alternative to the rejection of landfill technologies in favor of environmentally, energy efficient and economically expedient ways of utilization of municipal waste as a world trend. Practical approaches to the study of territories on which there are dumps and landfills are considered to justify the design solutions for reclamation.

  16. Effects of surface coal mining and reclamation on the geohydrology of six small watersheds in west-central Indiana. Chapter B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.D.; Duwelius, R.F.; Crawford, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    Coal has been and will continue to be a major source of energy in the United States for the foreseeable future. Surface mining is presently the most efficient method of extracting coal. The mining practice, however, usually has a detrimental effect on the environment by altering topography and ecologic systems. Surface coal mining also can degrade surface- and ground-water quality and quantity. The U.S. Geological Survey began a study in 1979 to identify changes in the quantity of surface- and ground-water resources caused by surface coal mining in Indiana. As part of the study, six small watersheds in west-central Indiana were instrumented for the collection of hydrologic and meteorologic data. The Water-Supply Paper comprises two reports resulting from the investigation. The physical environment and coal mining history of west-central Indiana and the six small watersheds selected for intensive study are described in chapter A. The surface- and ground-water systems of each of the small watersheds and the hydrologic effects of coal mining and reclamation are described in chapter B

  17. New reclamation standards for oil and gas well sites and pipelines in the agricultural land reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.

    1995-01-01

    Reclamation standards are a necessity because of increasing density of oil and gas developments, and the number of wells which may be abandoned over the next few years. All petroleum industry users of land are subject to the Agricultural Land Commission Act and require the approval of the Commission. The new General Order 293/95 was discussed, the purpose of which is to streamline existing regulations and to clarify reclamation standards. The new standards are similar to requirements currently in place in northwestern Alberta because landforms, soils, and land there are similar to those that exist in the Peace River region of B.C. Adopting similar requirements also has the added benefit of providing consistency for the industry between adjacent jurisdictions. In essence, the official view is that petroleum developments are temporary activities as long as the land is restored to its original or better condition, and the disruption to farm operations is minimal. Major provisions of General Order 293/95 were reviewed. It was noted that site contamination and the disposal of wastes were not addressed in the General Order. The reason for this is that these matters fall under the jurisdiction of other government agencies. 7 refs

  18. Monitoring ecosystem reclamation recovery using optical remote sensing: Comparison with field measurements and eddy covariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasmer, L; Baker, T; Carey, S K; Straker, J; Strilesky, S; Petrone, R

    2018-06-12

    Time series remote sensing vegetation indices derived from SPOT 5 data are compared with vegetation structure and eddy covariance flux data at 15 dry to wet reclamation and reference sites within the Oil Sands region of Alberta, Canada. This comprehensive analysis examines the linkages between indicators of ecosystem function and change trajectories observed both at the plot level and within pixels. Using SPOT imagery, we find that higher spatial resolution datasets (e.g. 10 m) improves the relationship between vegetation indices and structural measurements compared with interpolated (lower resolution) pixels. The simple ratio (SR) vegetation index performs best when compared with stem density-based indicators (R 2  = 0.65; p  0.02). Fluxes (net ecosystem production (NEP) and gross ecosystem production (GEP)) are most related to NDVI and SAVI when these are interpolated to larger 20 m × 20 m pixels (R 2  = 0.44-0.50; p  3 m 2  m -2 , making this index more appropriate for newly regenerating reclamation areas. For sites with LAI remote sensing in combination with field and eddy covariance data for monitoring and scaling of reclaimed and reference site productivity within and beyond the Oil Sands Region of western Canada. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. New approach to the reclamation of the old flotation tailings in Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dožić Stevan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The old flotation tailings of the Bor copper mine have not been reclaimed for several decades, although it is a serious threat to the environment, especially to some parts of the town. To date, there have been no efficacious attempts of solving the problem by indirect rehabilitation, only several cases of direct reclamation. This paper presents some results of the experiment established on a part of the tailings in the vicinity of the town, where various variants of meliorated and sterile substrates were applied in the biological reclamation with several tree and grass species. The analysis shows that, in the rehabilitation of sterile substrate of the copper mine, it is possible to grow several woody species. The best results were achieved by the species that were planted in the fertile soil layer on the sterile copper mine substrate, and on the mixture of soil and waste. Among the woody species, Robinia pseudoaccacia, Fraxinus excelsior and Acer pseudoplatanus showed the best survival percent, growth, and physiological vitality and the poorest were spruce and common oak.

  20. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be found in some metal water taps, interior water pipes, or pipes connecting a house to ... reduce or eliminate lead. See resources below. 5. Children and pregnant women are especially vulnerable to the ...

  1. Boron reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.M.

    1980-07-01

    A process to recover high purity 10 B enriched crystalline boron powder from a polymeric matrix was developed on a laboratory basis and ultimately scaled up to production capacity. The process is based on controlled pyrolysis of boron-filled scrap followed by an acid leach and dry sieving operation to return the powder to the required purity and particle size specifications. Typically, the recovery rate of the crystalline powder is in excess of 98.5 percent, and some of the remaining boron is recovered in the form of boric acid. The minimum purity requirement of the recovered product is 98.6 percent total boron

  2. 43 CFR 418.2 - How Project water may be used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How Project water may be used. 418.2..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OPERATING CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR THE NEWLANDS RECLAMATION PROJECT, NEVADA General Provisions § 418.2 How Project water may be used. Project water may be delivered only to serve...

  3. Research on the health implications of the use of recycled water in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa has an inadequate and unreliable supply of water. It is expected that water resources will be a limiting factor to development by the year 2020. Reclamation and reuse of sewage effluent is one possible method of supplementing existing supplies. Windhoek has had direct supplementation of its water supply for ...

  4. Selective bibliography of surface coal mining and reclamation literature. Volume 1. Eastern coal province. [More than 1300 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, N. E.; Sobek, A. A.; Streib, D. L.

    1977-11-01

    This bibliography has been compiled for use by researchers, students, and other groups who need a reference source of published literature related to surface coal mining and reclamation in the Eastern Coal Province. This bibliography contains more than 1300 references including government reports, journal articles, symposium proceedings, industrial reports, workshop proceedings, theses, and bibliographices. A simple format was used to categorize citations.

  5. 30 CFR 886.27 - What special procedures apply to Indian lands not subject to an approved Tribal reclamation program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND... mitigate emergency situations or extreme danger situations arising from past mining practices and begin... Indian tribe and the Bureau of Indian Affairs office having jurisdiction over the Indian lands. (d) If a...

  6. Preliminary Research on Granulation Process of Dust Waste from Reclamation Process of Moulding Sands with Furan Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamińska J.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the granulation process of foundry dusts generated in the dry mechanical reclamation process of used sands, where furan resins were binders are presented in the paper. Investigations concerned producing of granules of the determined dimensions and strength parameters.

  7. Case Studies of Potential Facility-Scale and Utility-Scale Non-Hydro Renewable Energy Projects across Reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, S.; Burman, K.; Dahle, D.; Heimiller, D.; Jimenez, A.; Melius, J.; Stoltenberg, B.; VanGeet, O.

    2013-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of an assessment and analysis of renewable energy opportunities conducted for the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Tasks included assessing the suitability for wind and solar on both a utility and facility scale.

  8. 30 CFR 785.19 - Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alluvial valley floor exists if it finds that— (i) Unconsolidated streamlaid deposits holding streams are... on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial valley floors in the arid and semiarid areas west of....19 Surface coal mining and reclamation operations on areas or adjacent to areas including alluvial...

  9. 75 FR 17955 - Public Land Order No. 7736; Partial Revocation of the Bureau of Reclamation Order Dated February...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLCA930000; CACA 7817] Public Land Order No. 7736; Partial Revocation of the Bureau of Reclamation Order Dated February 19, 1952; California AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management. ACTION: Correction. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management published a...

  10. 75 FR 36118 - Public Land Order No. 7743; Partial Revocation of Five Secretarial Orders for Reclamation Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLCA930000, L14300000.ER0000; CACA 7059, CACA 7060, CACA 7101, CACA 7102, and CACA 7239] Public Land Order No. 7743; Partial Revocation of Five Secretarial Orders for Reclamation Project Purposes on the Colorado River, California. AGENCY: Bureau of Land...

  11. Carbon dynamics, food web structure and reclamation strategies in Athabasca oil sands wetlands (CFRAW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciborowski, J.J.; Dixon, G.; Foote, L.; Liber, K.; Smits, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    The remediation and ecology of oilsands constructed wetlands was discussed with reference to a project known as the Carbon dynamics, Food web structure and Reclamation strategies in Athabasca oil sands Wetlands (CFRAW). This joint project between 7 mining partners and 5 universities documents how tailings in constructed wetlands modify maturation leading to natural conditions in a reclaimed landscape. Since wetlands are expected to make up 20-50 per cent of the final reclamation landscape of areas surface mined for oil sands in northeastern Alberta, the project focuses on how quickly wetlands amended with reclamation materials approach the conditions seen in reference wetland systems. This study provided a conceptual model of carbon pathways and budgets to evaluate how the allocation of carbon among compartments changes as newly formed wetlands mature in the boreal system. It is likely that succession and community development will accelerate if constructed wetlands are supplemented with stockpiled peat or topsoil. The bitumens and naphthenic acids found in wetlands constructed with mine tailings materials are initially toxic, but may ultimately serve as an alternate source of carbon once they degrade or are metabolized by bacteria. This study evaluated the sources, biological uptake, pathways, and movement through the food web of materials used by the biota in constructed wetlands, with particular reference to how productivity of new wetlands is maintained. Net ecosystem productivity is being monitored along with rates of organic carbon accumulation from microbial, algal, and macrophyte production, and influx of outside materials. The rates of leaf litter breakdown and microbial respiration are also being monitored to determine how constituents speed or slow food web processes of young and older wetlands. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope measurements indicate which sources are incorporated into the food web as wetlands age, and how this influences community

  12. Tritium enrichment and measurement of groundwater in western nile delta and greater cairo water stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, W.M.M.M.

    1990-01-01

    Water is the limiting factor for land reclamation plans and establishing new communities . Therefore water management policy and the exploitation of every possible water resources are very important in order to cope with the growing population. Groundwater is a very important water resource for agricultural and drinking purposes. However, the wise water management policy should take into consideration that groundwater could be either recharge able or not depending on the connection of the aquifer with surface water resources . If water is not recharged; then it is subject to be exhausted after a certain time period. Even if water is recharge able the rate of water pumping should not exceed the water recharge rate. Therefore, the basic questions of the water origin and recharge time should be answered before starting any land reclamation or drinking water project

  13. Results on reuse of reclaimed shower water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verostko, Charles E.; Garcia, Rafael; Pierson, Duane L.; Reysa, Richard P.; Irbe, Robert

    1986-01-01

    The Waste Water Recovery System that has been used in conjunction with a microgravity whole body shower to test a closed loop shower water reclamation system applicable to the NASA Space Station employs a Thermoelectric Integrated Hollow Fiber Membrane Evaporation Subsystem. Attention is given to the suitability of a Space Shuttle soap for such crew showers, the effects of shower water on the entire system, and the purification qualities of the recovered water. The chemical pretreatment of the shower water for microorganism control involved activated carbon, mixed ion exchange resin beds, and iodine bactericide dispensing units. The water was recycled five times, demonstrating the feasibility of reuse.

  14. Water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is without a doubt on of the greatest threats to the human species and has all the potential to destabilise world peace. Falling water tables are a new phenomenon. Up until the development of steam and electric motors, deep groudwater...

  15. Water

    OpenAIRE

    Hertie School of Governance

    2010-01-01

    All human life depends on water and air. The sustainable management of both is a major challenge for today's public policy makers. This issue of Schlossplatz³ taps the streams and flows of the current debate on the right water governance.

  16. Changes in ecosystem carbon pool and soil CO2 flux following post-mine reclamation in dry tropical environment, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahirwal, Jitendra; Maiti, Subodh Kumar; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Open strip mining of coal results in loss of natural carbon (C) sink and increased emission of CO 2 into the atmosphere. A field study was carried out at five revegetated coal mine lands (7, 8, 9, 10 and 11years) to assess the impact of the reclamation on soil properties, accretion of soil organic C (SOC) and nitrogen (N) stock, changes in ecosystem C pool and soil CO 2 flux. We estimated the presence of C in the tree biomass, soils, litter and microbial biomass to determine the total C sequestration potential of the post mining reclaimed land. To determine the C sequestration of the reclaimed ecosystem, soil CO 2 flux was measured along with the CO 2 sequestration. Reclaimed mine soil (RMS) fertility increased along the age of reclamation and decreases with the soil depths that may be attributed to the change in mine soils characteristics and plant growth. After 7 to 11years of reclamation, SOC and N stocks increased two times. SOC sequestration (1.71MgCha -1 year -1 ) and total ecosystem C pool (3.72MgCha -1 year -1 ) increased with the age of reclamation (CO 2 equivalent: 13.63MgCO 2 ha -1 year -1 ). After 11years of reclamation, soil CO 2 flux (2.36±0.95μmolm -2 s -1 ) was found four times higher than the natural forest soils (Shorea robusta Gaertn. F). The study shows that reclaimed mine land can act as a source/sink of CO 2 in the terrestrial ecosystem and plays an important role to offset increased emission of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. TIME TRAKING THE EVOLUTION OF THE FACULTY OF LAND RECLAMATION AND ENVIROMENTAL ENGINEERINF BUCHAREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Slave

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Deformation is the changing relationship between the points subjected to the stresses building. Measuring displacements and deformations may have a construction absolute or relative. Situation corresponds to the relative measurements of the near or distance measure of two or more points in the building. Corresponding absolute position shift points when construction is measured against a set of fixed points, located outside the zone of influence of the strain construction and soil foundation, forming a general reference. Building of Faculty of Land Reclamation and Environmental Engineering in Bucharest is subject to a request under its operating conditions determined and suffered displacement and strain in linear time. This paper aims show how the design evolved over the past five years.

  18. Management techniques evaluation for sodic soils reclamation in the Valle Calido del Alto Magadalena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro Rodriguez, Ricardo; Maria Caicedo, Antonio; Amezquita Collazos, Edgar

    1996-01-01

    An experiment was carried out at La Palmita farm, located within the irrigation district USOCOELLO, in El Espinal, Tolima, Vereda Guasimal-Pasoancho, on a soil classified as Typical Ustropept in advanced state of sodification, in order to reestablish its sustainable productive potential. Three techniques were evaluated as follows: drains spacing (50 and 100 meters), type of drains (pipes and gravel) and chemical correctives (sulfur and gypsum) plus a characteristic management in each stage of the reclamation process. After two semesters and by using rice as crop, the exchangeable sodium decreased in about 40% in the first layer, which brought the soil from a sodica condition to normal. Statistical differences were found between drains spacing and chemical correctives with best results or a spacing of 100 m and when sulfur was used as corrective. The process will continue until the hydrodynamic characteristics from 20 to 30 cm deep are reestablished as well as the nutritional balance throughout the soil profile

  19. Knight Mine reclamation: a study of revegetation difficulties in a semi-arid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNearny, R.L.; Wheeler, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of the difficulties associated with the re-establishment of reclamation vegetation on a dry underground coal mine site in southern Utah, USA, is presented. Precipitation amounts, seed mix, seed bed preparation techniques, and soil properties all appeared to be adequate for vegetation establishment at the site. However, failure of repeated revegetation efforts in a redisturbed area of the mine site may have been due to higher soil salinity levels in the area, which may have given 'Kochia scoparia' an initial competitive advantage. Lack of soil moisture and allelopathic effects due to the dense carpet of 'Kochi' may have also contributed to the continued lack of revegation success. 14 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs

  20. LANDSAT remote sensing: observations of an Appalachian mountaintop surface coal mining and reclamation operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The potential benefits of using LANDSAT remote sensing data by state agencies as an aide in monitoring surface coal mining operations are reviewed. A mountaintop surface mine in eastern Kentucky was surveyed over a 5 year period using satellite multispectral scanner data that were classified by computer analyses. The analyses were guided by aerial photography and by ground surveys of the surface mines procured in 1976. The application of the LANDSAT data indicates that: (1) computer classification of the various landcover categories provides information for monitoring the progress of surface mining and reclamation operations, (2) successive yearly changes in barren and revegetated areas can be qualitatively assessed for surface mines of 100 acres or more of disrupted area, (3) barren areas consisting of limestone and shale mixtures may be recognized, and revegetated areas in various stages of growth may be identified against the hilly forest background

  1. Reclamation of a molecular beam epitaxy system and conversion for oxide epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carver, Alexander G.; Henderson, Walter; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2008-01-01

    An early 1980s vintage molecular beam epitaxy system, a Varian Gen II system, originally used for HgCdTe epitaxy, was converted into a system capable of growing thin-film complex metal oxides. The nature of some of the alternative oxides requires a thorough cleaning and, in some cases, complete replacement of system components. Details are provided regarding the chemistry of the etchants used, safety requirements for properly handling, and disposal of large quantities of etchants and etch by-products, and components that can be reused versus components that require replacement are given. Following the given procedures, an ultimate base pressure of 2x10 -10 Torr was obtained. Films grown in the system after reclamation contained no evidence of previously present materials down to the detection limit of secondary ion mass spectrometry

  2. Integrated sulphur management : gas, oil sands, reclamation and the challenges of fluctuating demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineau, R.

    2009-01-01

    International Commodities Export Corporation is a privately held company that provides fully integrated service offerings to add maximum value in designing, building, owning, and operating sulphur assets. The company also offers in-house, engineering, procurement and project management, as well as supply management, transportation and distribution services. It also has expertise in marine transportation. This presentation discussed integrated sulphur management, with particular focus on gas, oil sands, reclamation and the challenges of fluctuating demand. The presentation provided an overview of the sulphur market and oil sands sulphur. Key considerations for oil sands producers were also presented. The challenges of fluctuating demand include price and volume considerations; logistics; geography and distance to market; export/offshore versus domestic/United States; seasonal considerations; and an inelastic sulphur market. The presentation concluded with a status update of ICEC's initiative and the advantages of Prince Rupert, an economically viable export infrastructure to producers without onsite forming facilities. figs

  3. Paths toward reclamation: therapeutic jurisprudence and the regulation of medical practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian; Flynn, Joanna

    2004-08-01

    Much about what used to be termed "disciplinary" investigations and hearings is being revisited in the modern era. Therapeutic jurisprudence enables informed and sensitive awareness to potentially therapeutic and counter-therapeutic effects of both investigations and hearings conducted by medical regulatory authorities. This article analyses key aspects of authorities' processes from the perspective of notifiers/complainants and practitioners. Using developments at the Victorian Medical Practitioners Board as a base, it addresses issues of both investigative procedures and decision-making at formal and informal hearings, as well as the ramifications of re-hearings for the integrity of peer review informed regulation. It argues that where reclamation of practitioners is possible (namely where impropriety is not of the most serious order), there is much that is constructive about a focus upon enhancement of performance and competence levels, rather than the traditional preoccupation with whether registered status needs to be affected as a result of practitioner conduct.

  4. Handling of CFC's - on-site recycling versus off-site reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gras, S.

    1993-01-01

    Most contractors will be doing both programs to one degree or another. There will be times when the refrigerant is brand new, when a very minor problem requires servicing and the CFCs will be put right back in with no concerns about quality. There will be other times that it makes more sense to have the gas reclaimed because of burn-out. Where equipment reliability is a prerequisite and the quality of the gas is imperative, the CFC management process should be through a reclamation center. Contractors can do this themselves or deal with a low cost/no cost CFC service that will do it for them. Both options have their merits and on every recovery occasion the contractor will have to make a judgement call. They are, after all, the ones that will carry all the associated risks and responsibilities. Let's hope they make the right decisions, and within the context of good CFC management

  5. Study for reclamation of land occupied by solar evaporation pond at UCIL, Bhopal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, K V; Patil, M R; Swaminathan, R

    2001-12-01

    Solar Evaporation Ponds (SEP) were used by Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL), Bhopal for storage of wastewater containing high concentrations of inorganic chemicals especially chlorides. Area occupied by the SEPs had to be recovered due to closure of the plant. A prerequisite to the reclamation of the SEP area is a study of adjoining soil and groundwater, which may be contaminated due to possible leakage in the pond. Surface soil, subsurface soil and groundwater samples were collected and analysed. The electrical conductivity method was employed inside the pond to test for leak in the geo-membrane liner. This was further confirmed by physically checking the liners. Based on the wet period, total rainfall and evaporation rate of the region, drying of remaining wastewater by spreading in dry ponds followed by pond dismantling was scheduled.

  6. Reclamation of greater than Class C sealed sources at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, R.G.; Jones, S.W.

    1995-01-01

    One of the important overriding themes of the Los Alamos National Laboratory as a world-class scientific institution is to utilize its expertise in enhancing the long-term welfare of society by minimizing negative side effects of nuclear technology over the past five decades. The Los Alamos National Laboratory is therefore committed to the use of its technical competencies and nuclear facilities, developed through programs in the areas of defense and civilian nuclear research, to support activities which will benefit the United States as a whole. As such, this paper discusses the organizational details and requirements of the Neutron Source Reclamation Program at Los Alamos. This program has as its mission the retrieval, interim storage, and chemical reprocessing of 238 PuBe, 239 PuBe and 24l AmBe neutron sources residing in the hands of private companies and industries, academic institutions, and various state and Federal government agencies

  7. Bioremediation: is it the solution to reclamation of heavy oil contaminated soils in the Canadian climate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, R.; Nicholson, P.; Varga, M.; Boadi, D.; Yang, A.

    1997-01-01

    The issue of bioremediation of heavy oil contaminated soils in cold climates was discussed. No model of the bioremediation system for cold climates exists. Environmental groups use three environmental concepts as the basis to evaluate petroleum activities: (1) cradle to grave responsibility, (2) the precautionary principle, and (3) sustainable development. The reclamation of an abandoned petroleum production facility must meet stringent standards. Most sites are contaminated with weathered hydrocarbons, brine and other chemicals that have been used at the location. Bioremediation, either in-situ or ex-situ, is one of the lowest cost remediation techniques available and has been used extensively by the downstream petroleum industry in warm climates. However, there are many unresolved issues with the use of bioremediation in cold climates, for heavy or weathered crude oil products and in areas of clay or other low permeability. Some of these unresolved issues are highlighted

  8. Application of pressure assisted forward osmosis for water purification and reuse of reverse osmosis concentrate from a water reclamation plant

    KAUST Repository

    Jamil, Shazad; Jeong, Sanghyun; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2016-01-01

    ) pretreatment and HCl softening were used to reduce organic fouling and scaling prior to application of PAFO. It reduced total organic carbon (TOC) and total inorganic carbon (TIC) by around 90% and 85%, respectively from untreated ROC. Subsequently, this led

  9. Local Authority Empowerment towards Quality Living Environment for Coastal Reclamation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusup Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Good urban governance administration system is the key to a successful physical planning development. A local authority of a local government concentrates on planning administration and executes the policies and strategies either the federal or state, or even the local’s policies and strategies. Based on its characteristic as the lowest level of government, it becomes the best authority to regulate and monitor the development process within their territory. The significance of a local authority in providing quality living environment invites various academia and professionals to ponder the best urban governance system at a local level. However, there are issues with regards to financial and technical capacity of a local authority, its legal limitation and development instrument adopted in providing urban services for coastal reclamation area in Malaysia. The aim of this paper is to investigate the capability of local authorities in Malaysia in implementing their function as drawn by the legislation. Hence, this paper examines the roles and functions of a local authority as the lowest level of government administration agency in providing urban services; collecting revenue; safeguarding the physical environment in Malaysia, particularly when dealing with development in a coastal reclamation area. Primary data collection was gathered through face-to-face interview sessions involving government agencies and stakeholders. Legal documents, policies and development plans were then analysed to support the primary data for further understanding of the issues concerning the capacity of a local authority especially when providing urban services within its area. The study is expected to provide a new approach to local authorities in Malaysia in providing quality living environment in terms of development procedure, the role and function, legal empowerment, and decentralisation of function particularly in enhancing the current practices at local level.

  10. Neutron activation, k0-- method, as a tool for Phytoremediation studies and reclamation of degraded areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, George; Menezes, Maria Angela de Barros C.

    2007-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a technology that can be considered as a relatively recent one, although it is based on knowledge that has been gathered and accumulated for a long time. One advantage of phytoremediation is its relatively low cost, but, as it must rely on plant growth, its results might be quite slow to be achieved, specially in countries with temperate climate, which is not the case of vast areas of Brazilian territory. One of the aims of phytoremediation is the search of plants that are hyperaccumulators, i.e., that are capable of accumulating pollutants and/or contaminants in high concentrations, of which the fern Pteris vittata is a fine example, considering arsenic accumulation. The possibilities of exploring Brazilian native flora for this purpose demand no further comments. The reclamation of degraded areas demands might not necessarily rely only on species and/or varieties that are hyperaccumulators, but also on taxa that are resistant to a given pollutant or a mixture of pollutants. In this case, a precise analysis of the environment is fundamental, specially to ascertain, for sure, that some toxic element is not present. In this work, species known to accumulate arsenic from Brazilian native flora like Indian mustard (Brassica juncea) and Mirabilis jalapa were grown and exposed to arsenic. After that, they were lyophilised and analysed by means of the k 0- standardization method using the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 reactor at CDTN/CNEN. Certified reference material were also analysed to verify the accuracy of the method. The advantages of neutron activation, k 0- method, a multi-elemental analysis technique, in phytoremediation and reclamation of degraded areas, are discussed in the present paper. (author)

  11. Occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in an advanced wastewater reclamation plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin; Flowers, Riley C; Weinberg, Howard S; Singer, Philip C

    2011-10-15

    The occurrence of nineteen pharmaceutically active compounds and personal care products was followed monthly for 12 months after various stages of treatment in an advanced wastewater reclamation plant in Gwinnett County, GA, U.S.A. Twenty-four hour composite samples were collected after primary clarification, activated sludge biological treatment, membrane filtration, granular media filtration, granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption, and ozonation in the wastewater reclamation plant. Compounds were identified and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after solid-phase extraction. Standard addition methods were employed to compensate for matrix effects. Sixteen of the targeted compounds were detected in the primary effluent; sulfadimethoxine, doxycycline, and iopromide were not found. Caffeine and acetaminophen were found at the highest concentrations (∼10(5) ng/L), followed by ibuprofen (∼10(4) ng/L), sulfamethoxazole and DEET (∼10(3) ng/L). Most of the other compounds were found at concentrations on the order of hundreds of ng/L. After activated sludge treatment and membrane filtration, the concentrations of caffeine, acetaminophen, ibuprofen, DEET, tetracycline, and 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) had decreased by more than 90%. Erythromycin and carbamazepine, which were resistant to biological treatment, were eliminated by 74 and 88%, on average, by GAC. Primidone, DEET, and caffeine were not amenable to adsorption by GAC. Ozonation oxidized most of the remaining compounds by >60%, except for primidone and DEET. Of the initial 16 compounds identified in the primary effluent, only sulfamethoxazole, primidone, caffeine and DEET were frequently detected in the final effluent, but at concentrations on the order of 10-100 ng/L. Removal of the different agents by the various treatment processes was related to the physical-chemical properties of the

  12. Study of RC method on reclamation project in the uranium mine (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaka, Kaoru; Tanaka, Masaru; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Tokizawa, Takayuki; Sato, Kazuhiko; Koga, Osamu

    2008-12-01

    To obtain public understanding on the uranium mining sites reclamation at Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center, it is necessary to conduct appropriate Risk Communication (RC). In this study, to discuss the appropriate Risk communication method on the uranium mining sites reclamation, comparative investigation of risk communication cases which concern the siting of solid waste management facilities and nuclear facilities, and questionnaire survey on the risk perception of landfill were conducted. As a result of comparative investigation, information disclosure and the information supplement are important factor to obtain public trust on the siting plan and developer (government and company). However, it is necessary not only to offer information but also to foster information literacy at the same time. In the cases of best practice on consensus-building toward siting of facilities, there was suggestion that is importance to set up the public participation opportunity at an early planning stage to avoid adversary relationship between stakeholders. As assumption of the public participation, it is necessary the safety assurance of the siting plan and regional development plan cover a long period. As a result of questionnaire survey. It was shown that the almost people worried about health and the environmental impact of radioactive waste; moreover, there are a lot of ratios of the peoples who felt a dangerous and scary sensuously. Public trust on government was very low, Over 60 percent does not trust 'countermeasures at the accident' and nearly 70 percent does not trust the information disclosure at the accident'. 'Questions concern on public trust: countermeasures at the accident, information disclosure at the accident, environmental standard, and environmental technology show significant correlation with risk perception of landfill site. (author)

  13. 43 CFR 404.51 - Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Water Supply Program reviewed by the Administration? 404.51 Section 404.51 Public Lands: Interior... SUPPLY PROGRAM Feasibility Studies § 404.51 Are proposed projects under the Rural Water Supply Program... the Reclamation's Rural Water Supply Program. This includes review under Executive Order 12322 to...

  14. Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sanmuga Priya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation through aquatic macrophytes treatment system (AMATS for the removal of pollutants and contaminants from various natural sources is a well established environmental protection technique. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes, a worst invasive aquatic weed has been utilised for various research activities over the last few decades. The biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in minimising various contaminants present in the industrial wastewater is well studied. The present review quotes the literatures related to the biosorption capacity of the water hyacinth in reducing the concentration of dyestuffs, heavy metals and minimising certain other physiochemical parameters like TSS (total suspended solids, TDS (total dissolved solids, COD (chemical oxygen demand and BOD (biological oxygen demand in textile wastewater. Sorption kinetics through various models, factors influencing the biosorption capacity, and role of physical and chemical modifications in the water hyacinth are also discussed.

  15. THE ESTIMATION OF SOME CHANGES OF SOIL PHYSICAL STATE UNDER THE EFFECT OF LAND RECLAMATION TECHNOLOGIES, IN THE CONDITION OF SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE IN BAIA-MOLDOVA DEPPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Moca

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In the pedo-climatic conditions of Suceava County that extends on a total surface of 855 300 ha, the balance of agricultural land affected by humidity excess with temporar or permanent character is differenciated from south to north and from east to west, between 30 % till 40%, which means almost 100 000 ha. On these soils with underground water or pluvial excess hydro ameliorative drainage systems have been installed, associated to a complex agroameliorative works. For long effect estimation of the underground drainage asociated with the agropedoameliorative works upon the some physical and hydrophysical characteristics, there were analyzed the soil and the environment conditions from Baia field. For this reason, we analyzed the agrophysical conditions for luvisol albic pseudogleic (SRCS-1980, respectively luvosol albic stagnic-glosic (SRTS-2003 albic luvosoil drained and cultivated, after a period of 28 years (1978-2006 use. The obtained data regarding to te water balance and the evolution of the major physical properties of soil, under the influence of drainage and amelioration works, put into evidence in the first stage (1978-1986 a general improvement of the aerohidrycal state and physical-chemical conditioning. In the next two experimental cycles of 10 years each, have been noticed a increased of compaction degree of soil drained and cultivated on 0-30 cm depth, from weak loose to moderately compaction depending on the remanence of the reclamation technologies.

  16. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Buckeye Reclamation Landfill Site, Belmont County, OH. (First remedial action), August 1991. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The 658-acre Buckeye Reclamation site contains a 50-acre former landfill in Richland Township, Belmont County, Ohio. Land use in the area is predominantly agricultural, rural residential, and strip mining. A total of 46 domestic wells and springs are located within 1 mile of the site. The original topography of the valley has been altered by coal mining and landfill operations. Solid industrial wastes also were disposed of with municipal wastes elsewhere in the landfill. In 1980, the Waste Pit was filled with sludge, mine spoil, and overburden soil; covered with soil and garbage; and seeded. Results of the RI indicate various levels of contamination in all media sampled, except air. The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses the remediation of contaminated leachate and ground water and eliminates exposure to contaminated surface soil. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and ground water are VOCs including benzene, TCE, and toluene; other organics including PAHs; and metals including arsenic, chromium, beryllium, and lead. The selected remedial action for the site is included

  17. 78 FR 27256 - Quarterly Status Report of Water Service, Repayment, and Other Water-Related Contract Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Division, Bureau of Reclamation, P.O. Box 25007, Denver, Colorado 80225-0007; telephone 303-445-2888... and Industrial NMISC New Mexico Interstate Stream Commission O&M Operation and Maintenance P-SMBP Pick...) for irrigation use in exchange for the transfer of out-of-stream water rights from the Little...

  18. 78 FR 63491 - Central Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Valley Project Improvement Act, Water Management Plans AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The following Water Management Plans are available for review: Westside... project contractors using best available cost-effective technology and best management practices.'' These...

  19. Integrated mined-area reclamation and land-use planning. Volume 3C. A case study of surface mining and reclamation planning: Georgia Kaolin Company Clay Mines, Washington County, Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guernsey, J L; Brown, L A; Perry, A O

    1978-02-01

    This case study examines the reclamation practices of the Georgia Kaolin's American Industrial Clay Company Division, a kaolin producer centered in Twiggs, Washington, and Wilkinson Counties, Georgia. The State of Georgia accounts for more than one-fourth of the world's kaolin production and about three-fourths of U.S. kaolin output. The mining of kaolin in Georgia illustrates the effects of mining and reclaiming lands disturbed by area surface mining. The disturbed areas are reclaimed under the rules and regulations of the Georgia Surface Mining Act of 1968. The natural conditions influencing the reclamation methodologies and techniques are markedly unique from those of other mining operations. The environmental disturbances and procedures used in reclaiming the kaolin mined lands are reviewed and implications for planners are noted.

  20. Advanced characterisation of organic matter in oil sands and tailings sands used for land reclamation by Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, M.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Wilkes, H.

    2012-04-01

    The Athabasca region of northern Alberta, Canada, is home to deposits of oil sands containing vast amounts (~ 173 billion barrels) of heavily biodegraded petroleum. Oil sands are recovered by surface mining or by in situ steam injection. The extraction of bitumen from oil sands by caustic hot water processing results in large volumes of fluid tailings, which are stored in on-site settling basins. There the tailings undergo a compaction and dewatering process, producing a slowly densifying suspension. The released water is recycled for extraction. The fine tailings will be reclaimed as either dry or wet landscapes. [1] To produce 1 barrel of crude oil, 2 tons of oil sand and 2 - 3 tons of water (including recycled water) are required. [2] Open pit mining and the extraction of the bitumen from the oil sands create large and intense disturbances of different landscapes. The area currently disturbed by mining operations covers about 530 km2 and the area of tailing ponds surpasses 130 km2. An issue of increasing importance is the land remediation and reclamation of oil sand areas in Canada and the reconstruction of these disturbed landscapes back to working ecosystems similar to those existing prior to mining operations. An important issue in this context is the identification of oil sand-derived organic compounds in the tailings, their environmental behaviour and the resulting chances and limitations with respect to land reclamation. Furthermore the biodegradation processes that occur in the tailings and that could lead to a decrease in hazardous organic compounds are important challenges, which need to be investigated. This presentation will give a detailed overview of our compositional and quantitative characterisation of the organic matter in oil sand, unprocessed and processed mature fine tailings samples as well as in tailings sands used as part of land reclamation. The analytical characterisation is based on the extraction of the soluble organic matter, its

  1. Cover systems in the Athabasca oil sands : a summary of the Green Bullet and ten years of reclamation research at Syncrude Canada Ltd.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kane, M. [O' Kane Consultants Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed the use of a dry cover system over oil sand tailings as land reclamation strategy. Dry covers can range from a single layer of earthen material to several layers of different material types, including native soils, non-reactive tailings or waste rock, geosynthetic materials, and oxygen consuming organic materials. The 3 prototype covers used in the Athabasca deposit in northern Alberta include peat, glacial till and sedge-sphagnum open bog (SSOB). The hydraulic role of the covers was described. This presentation also described how the physical reclamation works, with particular reference to how the area is contoured to ensure proper drainage. Soil and vegetation assessments are undertaken to ensure the reclamation amendments are achieving the goals of the reclamation plan. tabs., figs.

  2. Cover systems in the Athabasca oil sands : a summary of the Green Bullet and ten years of reclamation research at Syncrude Canada Ltd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kane, M.

    2010-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation discussed the use of a dry cover system over oil sand tailings as land reclamation strategy. Dry covers can range from a single layer of earthen material to several layers of different material types, including native soils, non-reactive tailings or waste rock, geosynthetic materials, and oxygen consuming organic materials. The 3 prototype covers used in the Athabasca deposit in northern Alberta include peat, glacial till and sedge-sphagnum open bog (SSOB). The hydraulic role of the covers was described. This presentation also described how the physical reclamation works, with particular reference to how the area is contoured to ensure proper drainage. Soil and vegetation assessments are undertaken to ensure the reclamation amendments are achieving the goals of the reclamation plan. tabs., figs.

  3. Towards sustainable water management in Algeria

    KAUST Repository

    Drouiche, Nadjib

    2012-12-01

    Algeria aspires to protect its water resources and to provide a sustainable answer to water supply and management issues by carrying out a national water plan. This program is in line with all projects the Algerian Government is implementing to improve its water sector performance. The water strategy focuses on desalination for the coastal cities, medium-sized dams to irrigate the inland mountains and high plateau, and ambitious water transfer projects interconnecting Algeria\\'s 65 dams to bring water to water scarce parts of the country. Waste water treatment and water reclamation technologies are also highly sought after. The main objective of the country\\'s water policy consists on providing sufficient potable water for the population supply. This objective is undertaken by increasing the water resources and availability. © 2012 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Topography and Surface Soil Cover on Erosion for Mining Reclamation: The Experimental Spoil Heap at El Machorro Mine (Central Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Moreno, Cristina; Martín Duque, J. F.; Nicolau, J. M.; Hernando, N.; Sanz, M. A.; Sánchez Castillo, L.

    2013-01-01

    Mining reclamation tries to reduce environmental impacts, including accelerated runoff, erosion and sediment load in the nearby fluvial networks and their ecosystems. This study compares the effects of topography and surface soil cover on erosion on man-made slopes coming from surface mining reclamation in Central Spain. Two topographic profiles, linear and concave, with two surface soil covers, subsoil and topsoil, were monitored for two hydrologic years. Sediment load, rill development and ...

  5. Reclamation after oil and gas development does not speed up succession or plant community recovery in big sagebrush ecosystems in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottler, Caitlin M.; Burke, Ingrid C.; Palmquist, Kyle A.; Bradford, John B.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2018-01-01

    Article for intended outlet: Restoration Ecology. Abstract: Reclamation is an application of treatment(s) following a disturbance to promote succession and accelerate the return of target conditions. Previous studies have framed reclamation in the context of succession by studying its effectiveness in re-establishing late-successional plant communities. Re-establishment of these plant communities is especially important and potentially challenging in regions such as drylands and shrub steppe ecosystems where succession proceeds slowly. Dryland shrub steppe ecosystems are frequently associated with areas rich in fossil-fuel energy sources, and as such the need for effective reclamation after disturbance from fossil-fuel-related energy development is great. Past research in this field has focused primarily on coal mines; few researchers have studied reclamation after oil and gas development. To address this research gap and to better understand the effect of reclamation on rates of succession in dryland shrub steppe ecosystems, we sampled oil and gas wellpads and adjacent undisturbed big sagebrush plant communities in Wyoming, USA and quantified the extent of recovery for major functional groups on reclaimed and unreclaimed (recovered via natural succession) wellpads relative to the undisturbed plant community. Reclamation increased the rate of recovery for all forb and grass species as a group and for perennial grasses, but did not affect other functional groups. Rather, analyses comparing recovery to environmental variables and time since wellpad abandonment showed that recovery of other groups were affected primarily by soil texture and time since wellpad abandonment. This is consistent with studies in other ecosystems where reclamation has been implemented, suggesting that reclamation may not help re-establish late-successional plant communities more quickly than they would re-establish naturally.

  6. Direct potable reuse – a feasible water management option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lahnsteiner

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct potable reuse (DPR can be more economic than indirect potable reuse as no environmental buffer is needed and conveyance and blending of the purified water with other potable sources is basically less expensive. Long-term experience in Windhoek (48 years shows that treated domestic sewage can be safely and cost-efficiently utilized for potable reclamation (0.72 €/m3. A multiple barrier strategy is employed in order to attain the highest possible safety levels. There are three types of barriers: non-treatment, treatment and operational barriers. In recent years, new DPR schemes have been implemented in South Africa and in the USA, and the major difference between all the new reclamation processes and the Windhoek New Goreangab water reclamation plant lies in the employment of desalination process units. This topic and other issues, such as the use of ozone and biological activated carbon filtration, are addressed. Reclamation process optimization (increase in sustainability and the attainment of greater public acceptance are the major challenges facing the promotion of DPR, which should become a common and widely used water management option within the next 5–10 years.

  7. Influence factors of risk perception of radiation and its background. Questionnaire survey for reclamation project in the uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaka, Kaoru; Gofuku, Akio; Tanaka, Masaru; Tokizawa, Takayuki; Sato, Kazuhiko; Koga, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    To obtain public understanding on the uranium mining sites reclamation at Ningyo-toge Environmental Engineering Center, it is necessary to conduct appropriate Risk Communication (RC). In this study, to discuss the appropriate Risk communication method on the uranium mining sites reclamation, we conducted questionnaire survey and text analysis. The results of the text analysis are as follows: (1) The main elements of the concern of radiation are the uneasiness to oncogenesis or a health effect. (2) The trusts for technology or scientists are the main elements of the reliance for the standard of radiation, in the group which shows low-sense of ownership, hatred for radioactive ray has a strong impact relatively. (author)

  8. Assessment of landfill reclamation and the effects of age on the combustion of recovered municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, G A [Lancaster Environmental Foundation, PA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarized the Lancaster county Solid Waste Management Authorities`s (LCSWMA)landfill reclamation activities, ongoing since 1991. All aspects have been analyzed from the manpower and equipment requirements at the landfill to the operational impacts felt at the LCSWMA Resource Recovery Facility (RRF) where the material is delivered for processing. Characteristics of the reclaimed refuse and soil recovered from trommeling operations are discussed as are results of air monitoring performed at the landfill excavation site and the RRF. The report also discusses the energy value of the reclaimed material and compares this value with those obtained for significantly older reclaimed waste streams. The effects of waste age on the air emissions and ash residue quality at the RRF are also provided. The report concludes by summarizing the project benefits and provides recommendations for other landfill reclamation operations and areas requiring further research.

  9. The Identification of Land Utilization in Coastal Reclamation Areas in Tianjin Using High Resolution Remote Sensing Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Y.; Cao, Y.; Tian, H.; Han, Z.

    2018-04-01

    In recent decades, land reclamation activities have been developed rapidly in Chinese coastal regions, especially in Bohai Bay. The land reclamation areas can effectively alleviate the contradiction between land resources shortage and human needs, but some idle lands that left unused after the government making approval the usage of sea areas are also supposed to pay attention to. Due to the particular features of land coverage identification in large regions, traditional monitoring approaches are unable to perfectly meet the needs of effectively and quickly land use classification. In this paper, Gaofen-1 remotely sensed satellite imagery data together with sea area usage ownership data were used to identify the land use classifications and find out the idle land resources. It can be seen from the result that most of the land use types and idle land resources can be identified precisely.

  10. The International Competition for the Reclamation of the Hiriya Landfill: A National Israeli Symbol in the ‘Global’ Arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Alon-Mozes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent international competition for the reclamation of the Hiriya landfill (2004, located in the centre of Israel’s metropolitan area, was the climax of a fiveyear project, in which the fifty-year-old landfill (1948–1998, Israel’s largest, became the focus of international artistic, planning and design activities.This paper discusses the Hiriya project in order to explore the reciprocity between local activity within the field of landscape architecture and the global arena of landscape architecture practice, focusing specifically on the reclamation of marginal landscapes.For many years, Hiriya served as a symbol of Zionists’ environmental neglect. Therefore, unsurprisingly, the reclamation of the site and the design of the metropolitan park surrounding it became a national symbol of regeneration, involving world-renowned experts. By examining the planning process, and particularly the recent design competition, this paper explores the relationship between the local and the global, and significantly, the difficulty of bridging these opposing stands visà- vis landscape reclamation. The design process proved that, to be part of the global arena, it is not enough to bring in foreign designers and let them play according to local rules. It requires frankness toward greater  global cultural changes that are beyond the sole activity of design. The design proposals exemplify complex and rich interpretations of local and global ideas by both local and foreign designers, but ultimately proving that at times, outsiders are more successful in grasping the site’s genius loci than locals. 

  11. A decision support system using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) for the optimal environmental reclamation of an open-pit mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascetin, A.

    2007-04-01

    The selection of an optimal reclamation method is one of the most important factors in open-pit design and production planning. It also affects economic considerations in open-pit design as a function of plan location and depth. Furthermore, the selection is a complex multi-person, multi-criteria decision problem. The group decision-making process can be improved by applying a systematic and logical approach to assess the priorities based on the inputs of several specialists from different functional areas within the mine company. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP) can be very useful in involving several decision makers with different conflicting objectives to arrive at a consensus decision. In this paper, the selection of an optimal reclamation method using an AHP-based model was evaluated for coal production in an open-pit coal mine located at Seyitomer region in Turkey. The use of the proposed model indicates that it can be applied to improve the group decision making in selecting a reclamation method that satisfies optimal specifications. Also, it is found that the decision process is systematic and using the proposed model can reduce the time taken to select a optimal method.

  12. Numerical Analysis of Soil Settlement Prediction and Its Application In Large-Scale Marine Reclamation Artificial Island Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Jie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In an artificial island construction project based on the large-scale marine reclamation land, the soil settlement is a key to affect the late safe operation of the whole field. To analyze the factors of the soil settlement in a marine reclamation project, the SEM method in the soil micro-structural analysis method is used to test and study six soil samples such as the representative silt, mucky silty clay, silty clay and clay in the area. The structural characteristics that affect the soil settlement are obtained by observing the SEM charts at different depths. By combining numerical calculation method of Terzaghi’s one-dimensional and Biot’s two-dimensional consolidation theory, the one-dimensional and two-dimensional creep models are established and the numerical calculation results of two consolidation theories are compared in order to predict the maximum settlement of the soils 100 years after completion. The analysis results indicate that the micro-structural characteristics are the essential factor to affect the settlement in this area. Based on numerical analysis of one-dimensional and two-dimensional settlement, the settlement law and trend obtained by two numerical analysis method is similar. The analysis of this paper can provide reference and guidance to the project related to the marine reclamation land.

  13. Conditions of Thermal Reclamation Process Realization on a Sample of Spent Moulding Sand from an Aluminum Alloy Foundry Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łucarz M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of thermal reclamation of spent moulding sands originating from an aluminum alloy foundry plant are presented in this paper. Spent sands were crushed by using two methods. Mechanical fragmentation of spent sand chunks was realized in the vibratory reclaimer REGMAS. The crushing process in the mechanical device was performed either with or without additional crushing-grinding elements. The reclaimed material obtained in this way was subjected to thermal reclamations at two different temperatures. It was found that a significant binder gathering on grain surfaces favors its spontaneous burning, even in the case when a temperature lower than required for the efficient thermal reclamation of furan binders is applied in the thermal reclaimer. The burning process, initiated by gas burners in the reclaimer chamber, generates favorable conditions for self-burning (at a determined amount of organic binders on grain surfaces. This process is spontaneously sustained and decreases the demand for gas. However, due to the significant amount of binder, this process is longer than in the case of reclaiming moulding sand prepared with fresh components.

  14. Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Electric Lines Reclamation in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curcuruto, S.; Elia, L.; Franchi, A.; Andreuccetti, D.; D'Amore, M.; Martuzzi, M.; Vecchia, P.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: In Italy is now in preparation a specific decree with the aim to regulate the electromagnetic pollution produced by sources operating at frequency until to 100 kHz; in the application field of the rule, the most important sources are the electric lines and relative plants which operate at 50 Hz frequency. In the respect of the precautionary principle, the Italian approach is to define different reference values to protect the population also by long term effects in addition to acute effects: exposition limits, attention values, quality objectives; respectively, 100 μT, 0.5 μT and 0.2 μT. To support this choice, the Ministry of the Environment asked ANPA, in co-operation with other bodies at national level, to produce a study about the costs of the necessary reclamation measures on the electric lines to respect the new limits and their comparison with the expected sanitary benefits. Only the leukaemia cases are considered to estimate the sanitary benefits; for the costs, the technical solutions more frequently adopted by the managers of the lines and the plants have been evaluated. This report shows the results of the study, which presents as element of weakness a knowledge of the exposed Italian population at different levels of magnetic field that cannot be truly representative. (author)

  15. Geophysical experiments for the pre-reclamation assessment of industrial and municipal waste landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balia, R.; Littarru, B.

    2010-03-01

    Two examples of combined application of geophysical techniques for the pre-reclamation study of old waste landfills in Sardinia, Italy, are illustrated. The first one concerned a mine tailings basin and the second one a municipal solid waste landfill; both disposal sites date back to the 1970-80s. The gravity, shallow reflection, resistivity and induced polarization methods were employed in different combinations at the two sites, and in both cases useful information on the landfill's geometry has been obtained. The gravity method proved effective for locating the boundaries of the landfill and the shallow reflection seismic technique proved effective for the precise imaging of the landfill's bottom; conversely the electrical techniques, though widely employed for studying waste landfills, provided mainly qualitative and debatable results. The overall effectiveness of the surveys has been highly improved through the combined use of different techniques, whose individual responses, being strongly dependent on their specific basic physical characteristic and the complexity of the situation to be studied, did not show the same effectiveness at the two places.

  16. Developing the Guidelines for Reclamation to Forest Vegetation in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straker, J. [Integral Ecology Group Ltd., Victoria, BC (Canada); Cumulative Environmental Management Association, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada). Reclamation Working Group, Terrestrial Subgroup; Donald, G. [Donald Functional and Applied Ecology Inc., Victoria, BC (Canada); Cumulative Environmental Management Association, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada). Reclamation Working Group, Terrestrial Subgroup

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed the development process behind and the structure of the Guidelines for Reclamation to Forest Vegetation in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region. The advances present in the second edition, published in 2010, were described relative to the first edition, which was published in 1998. Oils sands mining companies are mandated to use the manual under the Alberta Environmental Protection and Enhancement Act. The paper provided an overview of the structure of the second edition and presented the process used to develop the second edition. It also described the planning approaches for revegetative treatments and the planning guidance of overstory and understory species selection. The methods for evaluating revegetative success were also described with particular reference to plant community composition and soil salinity indicators as examples of indicator development. The goal of the manual is to provide guidance on re-establishing the vegetation component of upland ecosystems on reclaimed landscapes and on evaluating the success of the re-establishment, assuming that the reclaimed plant communities should have species characteristic of native plant communities in the region, that the trends of vegetation community and structure development on reclaimed land should be similar to native plant communities in the region, and that the reclaimed ecosystems should have development trajectories that satisfy land-use objectives and provide resilience against natural disturbances. 15 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  17. Study of aquatic macroinvertebrate communities exposed to buckeye reclamation landfill drainage wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemm, D.J.; Thoeny, W.T.; McCarthy, H.W.

    1995-01-01

    The Buckeye Reclamation Landfill (BRL), a Superfund site, incorporates approximately 50 acres of a 658 acre tract of land. The BRL consists of past underground mining voids, including some surface-mined lands, and mine refuse piles from processed bituminous coal. The area was subsequently used as a nonhazardous public and municipal solid waste landfill, and industrial sludge and liquid wastes were also deposited in an impoundment in the northern section of the landfill. The entire landfill area was completely covered with soil and revegetated in the late 1980's and early 1990's. The BRL produces acidic and highly mineralized drainage causing a widespread problem of serious mine drainage pollution in the watershed. A study was undertaken to assess the exposure of pollutants to the macroinvertebrate assemblages and to determine the extent of pollution of the BRL watershed. Samples were collected from ten sites in 1995. Nine systematic and spatial transect samples were taken at each collection site for macroinverbrates with a 595 microm mesh, modified kick net from riffle/run and glide/pool habitats of streams above and below the BRL watershed. All macroinverbrates were identified to the lowest taxonomic level possible. The levels for total Zn ranged from 22--604 microg/L; pH ranged from 4.4 to 8.1. The data distinguished the exposed sites receiving landfill leachates and sedimentation runoff from the less impacted sites

  18. Landfill aeration in the framework of a reclamation project in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello

    2014-03-01

    In situ aeration by means of the Airflow technology was proposed for landfill conditioning before landfill mining in the framework of a reclamation project in Northern Italy. A 1-year aeration project was carried out on part of the landfill with the objective of evaluating the effectiveness of the Airflow technology for landfill aerobization, the evolution of waste biological stability during aeration and the effects on leachate and biogas quality and emissions. The main outcomes of the 1-year aeration project are presented in the paper. The beneficial effect of the aeration on waste biological stability was clear (63% reduction of the respiration index); however, the effectiveness of aeration on the lower part of the landfill is questionable, due to the limited potential for air migration into the leachate saturated layers. During the 1-year in situ aeration project approx. 275 MgC were discharged from the landfill body with the extracted gas, corresponding to 4.6 gC/kgDM. However, due to the presence of anaerobic niches in the aerated landfill, approx. 46% of this amount was extracted as CH4, which is higher than reported in other aeration projects. The O2 conversion quota was lower than reported in other similar projects, mainly due to the higher air flow rates applied. The results obtained enabled valuable recommendations to be made for the subsequent application of the Airflow technology to the whole landfill. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Metal concentrations in earthworms from sewage sludge-amended soils at a strip mine reclamation site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietz, R.I.; Peterson, J.R.; Prater, J.E.; Zenz, D.R.

    A 3-yr study of earthworms was initiated in selected mine soil and nonmined fields at a Fulton County, IL land reclamation site. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of the land application of anaerobically digested sewage sludge, used to reclaim the site, on heavy metal accumulations in earthworms. Two species of earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea tuberculata, were identified in the sludge-amended and nonamended, nonmined fields sampled. Only A. tuberculata was found in the sludge-amended and nonamended mine soil fields sampled. Earthworm metal concentrations generally increased with time in all the sampled fields. The decreasing order of metal accumulation by earthworms in all sludge-amended fields sampled was Cu > Cd > Ni > Cr > Pb > Zn. Sewage sludge applications to fields on both land types resulted in significant accumulations of Cd, Cu, and Zn. Land type (mine soil vs. nonmined) significantly affected earthworm Zn concentrations, with levels being higher in all nonmined fields sampled. Earthworm Cd and Cu accumulations in all fields sampled were significantly related to the current amounts of sludge-applied metals, the amount applied since the previous sampling. Concentrations of Ni, Cr, and Pb in earthworms were not significantly related to sewage sludge applications during the 1975 to 1977 sampling period. The higher Cd and Cu concentrations in earthworms from sludge-amended fields may pose a potential hazard to predators.

  20. Space Reclamation for Uncoordinated Checkpointing in Message-Passing Systems. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Min

    1993-01-01

    Checkpointing and rollback recovery are techniques that can provide efficient recovery from transient process failures. In a message-passing system, the rollback of a message sender may cause the rollback of the corresponding receiver, and the system needs to roll back to a consistent set of checkpoints called recovery line. If the processes are allowed to take uncoordinated checkpoints, the above rollback propagation may result in the domino effect which prevents recovery line progression. Traditionally, only obsolete checkpoints before the global recovery line can be discarded, and the necessary and sufficient condition for identifying all garbage checkpoints has remained an open problem. A necessary and sufficient condition for achieving optimal garbage collection is derived and it is proved that the number of useful checkpoints is bounded by N(N+1)/2, where N is the number of processes. The approach is based on the maximum-sized antichain model of consistent global checkpoints and the technique of recovery line transformation and decomposition. It is also shown that, for systems requiring message logging to record in-transit messages, the same approach can be used to achieve optimal message log reclamation. As a final topic, a unifying framework is described by considering checkpoint coordination and exploiting piecewise determinism as mechanisms for bounding rollback propagation, and the applicability of the optimal garbage collection algorithm to domino-free recovery protocols is demonstrated.

  1. Colloidal behavior of goethite nanoparticles modified with humic acid and implications for aquifer reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiraferri, Alberto; Saldarriaga Hernandez, Laura Andrea; Bianco, Carlo; Tosco, Tiziana; Sethi, Rajandrea, E-mail: rajandrea.sethi@polito.it [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Land, Environment, and Infrastructure Engineering (DIATI) (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    Nanosized colloids of iron oxide adsorb heavy metals, enhance the biodegradation of contaminants, and represent a promising technology to clean up contaminated aquifers. Goethite particles for aquifer reclamation were recently synthesized with a coating of humic acids to reduce aggregation. This study investigates the stability and the mobility in porous media of this material as a function of aqueous chemistry, and it identifies the best practices to maximize the efficacy of the related remediation. Humic acid-coated nanogoethite (hydrodynamic diameter ∼90 nm) displays high stability in solutions of NaCl, consistent with effective electrosteric stabilization. However, particle aggregation is fast when calcium is present and, to a lesser extent, also in the presence of magnesium. This result is rationalized with complexation phenomena related to the interaction of divalent cations with humic acid, inducing rapid flocculation and sedimentation of the suspensions. The calcium dose, i.e., the amount of calcium ions with respect to solids in the dispersion, is the parameter governing stability. Therefore, more concentrated slurries may be more stable and mobile in the subsurface than dispersions of low particle concentration. Particle concentration during field injection should be thus chosen based on concentration and proportion of divalent cations in groundwater.

  2. Formation of Mesoherpetobionts Communities on a Reclamated Coal Open Pit Dump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzyanin, Sergey; Eremeeva, Natalya

    2017-11-01

    The structure of the mesoherpetobionts arthropod communities of the reclamated dump of the Krasnobrodsky coal pit (Kemerovo region, Russia) has been studied. It was established that the pioneer grouping of mesoherpetobionts arthropod represented by classes of Chilopoda, Arachnida and Insecta-Ectognatha has been formed on the dump for two years after the soil deposition. From the Arachnida, the species of the order Aranei are the most active in the stocking of the dumps. From the class Chilopoda, the species of Lithobiomorpha appear the first on the dump. Insects from the following three orders, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera and especially Coleoptera take the main part in the expansion of dumps and the formation of primary communities. Among the Coleoptera, the beetles of the family of Carabidae (44 species, dynamic density 22.9 specimens/10 trapped per day) dominate. From them, small or medium-sized species are mainly involved in stocking the dumps. There are significant differences in the complexes of ground dump carabid beetles in comparison with the control group, differing in species composition of dominant species, species richness and species diversity parameters

  3. Geophysical experiments for the pre-reclamation assessment of industrial and municipal waste landfills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balia, R; Littarru, B

    2010-01-01

    Two examples of combined application of geophysical techniques for the pre-reclamation study of old waste landfills in Sardinia, Italy, are illustrated. The first one concerned a mine tailings basin and the second one a municipal solid waste landfill; both disposal sites date back to the 1970–80s. The gravity, shallow reflection, resistivity and induced polarization methods were employed in different combinations at the two sites, and in both cases useful information on the landfill's geometry has been obtained. The gravity method proved effective for locating the boundaries of the landfill and the shallow reflection seismic technique proved effective for the precise imaging of the landfill's bottom; conversely the electrical techniques, though widely employed for studying waste landfills, provided mainly qualitative and debatable results. The overall effectiveness of the surveys has been highly improved through the combined use of different techniques, whose individual responses, being strongly dependent on their specific basic physical characteristic and the complexity of the situation to be studied, did not show the same effectiveness at the two places

  4. Influence of Reclamation Process on the Ecological Quality of Reclaim Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dereń M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, there were presented results of research on influence of reclamation process on the ecological quality of reclaim sand with furan resin used in nonferrous foundry. The quality of reclaimed sand is mainly define by two group of chemical substances from elution of reclaimed sand: Dissolves Organic Carbon (DOC and Total Dissolves Solids (TDS. Reclaimed sand used in test was prepared in experimental thermal reclaimer and mechanical vibration reclaimer REGMAS installed in Faculty of Foundry Engineering at University Of Science and Technology in Krakow. The reference point is molding sand shaking out and crumble in jaw crusher. Test of elution was made in accredited laboratory in Center For Research and Environmental Control in Katowice up to the standard with Dissolves Organic Carbon (DOC - PN-EN 1484:1999; Total Dissolves Solids (TDS - PN-EN 15216:2010. The standard for elution test is PN-EN 12457- 4:2006. Except that we were made loss of ignition test, to check how many resin was rest on sand grains.

  5. Reclamation of Cr-contaminated or Cu-contaminated agricultural soils using sunflower and chelants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicatelli, Angela; Guarino, Francesco; Castiglione, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    Chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu) are pollutants with a strong environmental impact. "Green biotechnology" as phytoremediation represents a sustainability opportunity for soil reclamation. In this study, we evaluated the possibility to reclaim agricultural soils located in the Solofrana valley, contaminated by Cr or Cu. Chromium contamination derives by repeated flooding events of Solofrana rivers containing Cr because of leather tanning plants, while Cu soil pollution was due to the use of Cu-rich pesticides in agriculture. Both metals showed a very low bioavailability. In order to perform an assisted phytoremediation of polluted fields, we carried out a preliminary ex situ experimentation testing for the first time sunflowers (cv. Pretor) and chelants (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and/or ethylene diamine disuccinate (EDDS)), useful when metal bioavailability is low. No symptoms of toxicity were observed in sunflowers grown on both soils, while biomass was improved when EDDS was added. Cr and Cu bioavailability was only slightly enhanced by chelants at the end of the treatments. Both Cr and Cu were mainly accumulated in the roots; moreover, Cu was also translocated to the aboveground organs in the presence of EDTA. The ex situ experimentation demonstrated that assisted phytoremediation is a very slow process not useful in the case of persistent pollution.

  6. The effect of soil biodiversity on soil quality after agricultural reclamation at the eastern coast of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohan; Yang, Jianghua; Pu, Lijie; Chen, Xinjian

    2017-04-01

    Large area of tidal flats in Chinese coast has been reclaimed to support agriculture and urban development because of rapid population and economic growth. Knowledge of soil development mechanisms is essential for efficient management of land resources in coastal zone. So far, most studies have focused on consequences of soil physico-chemical properties on soil quality evolution after tideland reclamation for cultivation; yet a large part of soil bioprocess drives many soil processes. The effect of organism composition on the performance of soil development remains unclear. The purpose of our work was to reveal the organism composition change and its influence on soil quality impotent. In this study, we choose seven reclamation districts along a chronosequence in eastern coast of China, which were respectively reclaimed in 1956, 1971, 1980, 1997, 2009, 2013 and unenclosed tidal flat. The latest districts reclaimed in 2013 were left to succession fallow which were covered with halophytic vegetation and the rest districts were agriculturally managed. Soil samples at 0-20 cm were collected in each district. Soil physical, chemical and biological properties and wheat yields were measured. The result showed after the transformation from tidal flat to cropland, longer tillage time (>5 year) lead to higher soil clay and silt, SOC contents and lower bulk density, while soil clay and C contents declined within the first 5 years after reclamation. Agricultural reclamation significantly improved SOC contents of 0-20 cm depth form 0.11±0.05% to 0.77±0.10%. It needs about 35 years to achieve stable yield level after reclamation. Meanwhile, the soil community composition changed strongly over time. More significant relationships were found among soil physicochemical properties and bacteria community. And the variation trend of soil community richness (chao1) is similar to soil C contents, dropped at first 5 years and then significantly increased. Our results indicate that the

  7. Technical feasibility study of a low-cost hybrid PAC-UF system for wastewater reclamation and reuse: a focus on feedwater production for low-pressure boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosa, Mutiu Kolade; Jami, Mohammed Saedi; Alkhatib, Ma'an Fahmi R; Majozi, Thokozani

    2016-11-01

    This study has applied the concept of the hybrid PAC-UF process in the treatment of the final effluent of the palm oil industry for reuse as feedwater for low-pressure boilers. In a bench-scale set-up, a low-cost empty fruit bunch-based powdered activated carbon (PAC) was employed for upstream adsorption of biotreated palm oil mill effluent (BPOME) with the process conditions: 60 g/L dose of PAC, 68 min of mixing time and 200 rpm of mixing speed, to reduce the feedwater strength, alleviate probable fouling of the membranes and thus improve the process flux (productivity). Three polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membranes of molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 1, 5 and 10 kDa were investigated in a cross-flow filtration mode, and under constant transmembrane pressures of 40, 80, and 120 kPa. The permeate qualities of the hybrid processes were evaluated, and it was found that the integrated process with the 1 kDa MWCO UF membrane yielded the best water quality that falls within the US EPA reuse standard for boiler-feed and cooling water. It was also observed that the permeate quality is fit for extended reuse as process water in the cement, petroleum and coal industries. In addition, the hybrid system's operation consumed 37.13 Wh m -3 of energy at the highest applied pressure of 120 kPa, which is far lesser than the typical energy requirement range (0.8-1.0 kWh m -3 ) for such wastewater reclamation.

  8. Application of TIE's in assessing toxicity associated with oil sands process waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKinnon, M.

    1998-01-01

    The hot water digestion process which separates bitumen from oil sands produces large volumes of process-affected waters which are extremely toxic to aquatic organisms. At Syncrude Canada's northeastern Alberta plant, the toxic waters are contained on the site and none are discharged. Organic acids, hydrocarbons and salts are leached into the tailings waters. A toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) test was used to confirm the main contributors to the acute toxicity in these waters. A battery bioassay approach as well as field and laboratory testing was used to understand the source, pathway and duration of the toxicity. Bioassays helped in developing ways in which to mitigate toxicity issues in both reclamation and operational waters. It was demonstrated that natural bioremediation of process-affected waters can reduce acute and chronic toxicity. The long term reclamation impacts of these waters has yet to be determined

  9. Evaluation of alternative groundwater-management strategies for the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Project, Oregon and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Brian J.; Gannett, Marshall W.

    2014-01-01

    The water resources of the upper Klamath Basin, in southern Oregon and northern California, are managed to achieve various complex and interconnected purposes. Since 2001, irrigators in the Bureau of Reclamation Klamath Irrigation Project (Project) have been required to limit surface-water diversions to protect habitat for endangered freshwater and anadromous fishes. The reductions in irrigation diversions have led to an increased demand for groundwater by Project irrigators, particularly in drought years. The potential effects of sustained pumping on groundwater and surface-water resources have caused concern among Federal and state agencies, Indian tribes, wildlife groups, and groundwater users. To aid in the development of a viable groundwater-management strategy for the Project, the U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with the Klamath Water and Power Agency and the Oregon Water Resources Department, developed a groundwater-management model that links groundwater simulation with techniques of constrained optimization. The overall goal of the groundwater-management model is to determine the patterns of groundwater pumping that, to the extent possible, meet the supplemental groundwater demands of the Project. To ensure that groundwater development does not adversely affect groundwater and surface-water resources, the groundwater-management model includes constraints to (1) limit the effects of groundwater withdrawal on groundwater discharge to streams and lakes that support critical habitat for fish listed under the Endangered Species Act, (2) ensure that drawdowns do not exceed limits allowed by Oregon water law, and (3) ensure that groundwater withdrawal does not adversely affect agricultural drain flows that supply a substantial portion of water for irrigators and wildlife refuges in downslope areas of the Project. Groundwater-management alternatives were tested and designed within the framework of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement (currently [2013

  10. Surface hydrology of drainage basins disturbed by surface mining and reclamation, central Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Infilration capacity of newly reclaimed minesoils is uniformly low (< 1 cm/hr) and generally increases (up to 6 cm/hr) with age, the magnitude of increase being dependent on soil characteristics and vegetation. In drainage basins with lower rates of infiltration recovery (< 2 cm/hr), infiltration-excess overland flow is the dominant runoff process. Increased peek runoff rate and stream power in the basins are sufficient to initiate drainage network evolution, with phases of network expansion and abstraction. In contrast, in basins where infiltration recovery is greater than 2 cm/hr, the hydrologic system is initially dominated by infiltration-excess overland flow but evolves toward a system dominated by saturation overland flow. Drainage development is limited to skeletal network initiation and elongation and occurs during the early period of infiltration-excess dominated flow conditions. Total runoff remains essentially constant due to increased proportions of return flow, reflected in the extended and less steep recession limb of saturation-dominated storm hydrographs. The results of this study are applicable to hydrologic prediction for purposes of surface mine permitting and reclamation design. Previously limited availability of rainfall-runoff data from watersheds disturbed by surface mining preclude adequate calibration of empirical methods, such as the runoff curve number method, or evaluation of a more sophisticated approach, such as the use of distributed hydrologic models, for hydrologic prediction. Runoff curve numbers calibrated by means of rainfall-runoff data from the study drainage basins indicate that presently accepted methods of determining curve numbers, using pre-mine soil classification, underestimate total runoff by as much as 50%

  11. Review on the Significance of Local Plan for Coastal Reclamation Development: The Case of Malacca, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Nor Syafa’ah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A Development Plan acts as a planning and controlling instrument that helps to guide in decision making of current and future development. Therefore, in the Malaysian Town and Country Planning Act 1976 (Act 172, the provision of development plan from each level of the planning administration is stated in the Act under Section 6B till Section 16B. In examining the significance of one of the many development plans in Malaysia, i.e. the local plan, this paper therefore, focuses on the provision of a local plan by the Local Planning Authority (LPA of the said area. This paper, thus, aims to evaluate the Central Malacca Local Plan since Malacca is currently experiencing rapid growth in development along the coastal area. The primary data was obtained from interviews with the related planning authorities via face-to-face method. While, secondary data was gathered from related legal documents, policies and guidelines, as well as the existing development plan for the purpose of an in-depth data. Findings revealed incapability of the existing local plan to assist the development control in deciding the planning permission for reclaimed area. The existing local plan shows no zoning for coastal reclamation area because of the rapid growing development and time consuming procedure to amend the local plan according to the Act 172. In addition, the Act 172 and the process in amending the local plan should be more flexible and able to address the current issue efficiently. Finally, the paper concludes with a suggestion for further exploration in order to achieve an operative development process and functioning practice of the local plan.

  12. Environmental-economic evaluation of the filling and reclamation process in the bay of Santander, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendrero, A.; Díaz de Terán, J. R.; Salinas, J. M.

    1981-11-01

    The historical development of a process of reclamation of intertidal areas in an estuary has been quantitatively studied by means of old engravings, maps, navagation charts, and aerial photographs. These show that about 83 percent of the natural coastline of the estuary has disappeared, nearly two-thirds of its intertidal area has been covered, and over 40 percent of its volume has been lost. The rate of this artificial process is several tens of times faster than that of the natural sedimentation. Extrapolation of the observed trends shows that, if these continue, the intertidal areas would disappear completely in 31 to 105 years. Theoretical calculations based on comparisons with other estuaries show that the accumulated loss in the productivity of living matter (in the form of primary producers), since the process started about 140 years ago, could reach 1.5·1010 kg. This could represent, considering several possible food chains, the equivalent of the food necessary to sustain several thousand people for life. An economic analysis of the impact of the process has been made by considering, first, the decrease in fish and shellfish catches in the bay (using historical data and data about present clam productivity) and the decrease in its aesthetic quality and recreational potential. These were determined by means of interviews with the population to obtain a “demand curve” for the willingness to pay for the preservation and use of the bay. Second, the price of the man-made land obtained was considered. The data obtained show that the economic losses would offset the benefits within 10 to 30 years.

  13. [Heavy Metals Accmultio in the Caofeidian Reclamation Soils: Indicated by Soil Magnetic Susceptibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yong; Zhou, Qian; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Hai-bo; Hu, Xue-feng; Luo, Yong-ming

    2016-04-15

    The environmental magnetism method has been widely applied to identify soil heavy metal pollution, which is characterized by simplicity, efficiency, non-destructivity and sensitivity. The present study used magnetic susceptibility to assess the accumulation of heavy metals in soils of the Caofeidian industrial zone which is a typical reclamation area in northern China. The study area was divided into three sub-zones based on the function, including industrial zone, living zone, natural tidal flat and wetland. A total of 35 topsoil samples (0-10 cm) and 3 soil profiles were collected from the three sub-zones. Magnetic susceptibility (X(lf)), iron oxide (Fe2O3) contents and heavy metals contents (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb, Mn and V) of the samples were analyzed. The results showed that X(lf) values and heavy metals contents exhibited higher spatial variability in the top soil of the industrial zone, indicating the severe impacts of industrial activities. In the soil profiles of the industrial and living zones, all heavy metals were enriched to different degrees in the upper layer (0-20 cm). However, there was no significant change of heavy metal contents in the soil profiles of tidal flat which was far from the industrial area. The X(lf) value was significantly (P soil. This indicated that X(lf) could be used as an indicator for heavy metal accumulation in the industrial zone. However, the X(lf) value was not suitable to be an indicator to show the heavy metal accumulation in the soils of living zone and natural tidal flat. This might be associated with the different sources of magnetic materials among the different sub-zones and the special characteristics of the soils in the tidal flat and wetland.

  14. Sudangrass (Sorghum Sudanense Pers. in the Reclamation of Technosols in the Stanari Mining Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malić Nenad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The surface exploitation of mineral raw materials inevitably changes the environment, thus resulting in soil degradation. This paper presents the results of growing sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense Pers. in the reclaimed Deposol (technosols in the Stanari Coal Mine area. Green manuring was the cultural practice used for sudangrass growing and land reclamation. The purpose of this research is to increase the amount of organic matter in the Deposol surface layer. The research was performed within a two-year period (2009-2010 at the experimental (technosol site of the Stanari Coal Mine, located on the inside part of the overburden deposition site, near the Raskovac pit. The research of green manuring included a two-factor experiment with four replications. Two cultivars of sudangrass (Factor A were used with three fertilization treatments (Factor B. The soil analyses indicated a sandy and low fertile soil. The experimental plot Deposol showed favorable physical properties, whereas its chemical and biological properties proved very unfavourable. The highest yield of biomass (29.15 t ha-1, as well as the dry matter (10.30 t ha-1, was recorded in the cultivar ‘Piper Sweet’ (in 2009, which was completely treated with mineral fertilizers. The lowest yields of biomass (2.05 t ha-1 and dry matter (0.95 t ha-1 were observed in the cultivar ‘Srem’ in 2010. Statistically significant differences were found between the treatments applied, emphasizing that only certain cultivars of sudangrass and types of fertilization (encompassing reasonably high amounts of nitrogen can significantly increase the amount of organic matter in Deposol.

  15. Jatropha curcas : a biodiesel plant in reclamation of silica mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, K.; Tiwari, A.; Singh, V.K. [Centre for Social Forestry and Eco-Rehabilitation, Allahabad (India); Dubey, K.P. [Allahabad Forest Division, Allahabad (India); Negi, S.S. [Forest Research Inst. Uttaranchal (India)

    2006-07-01

    India's aggregate mineral production in 1999-2000 was approximately 550 million tonnes, contributed from 3,100 producing coal, lignite, limestone, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead and zinc. Over 80 per cent of the mineral production comes from open pit mines. While silica sand can be found in several Indian states, the major mines of quality silica sand are in the Allahabad District of the Uttar Pradesh State. For the past 3 decades, extensive open pit silica mining activities have caused significant damage to the forests and productivity of the region. As such, the reclamation of this mining area has become a priority to impede environmental hazards and restore ecological balance. A critical measure in reclaiming this mining area involves the appropriate selection of species that will adapt to climatic and local soil conditions. The oil plant Jatropha curcas is a drought resistant large shrub or tree that has the advantage of rapid growth on marginal land and the ability to reclaim problematic lands. It also has a high level of carbon absorption from the atmosphere, which is stored in the woody tissues of the plant to help build up of soil carbon. As such, the crop earns carbon credits. This paper reported on a plantation trial in the silica mine area of Shankargarh in Allahabad District where the growth performance of different provenances of Jatropha curcas was investigated under rain fed conditions. The plant was shown to offer the option of both cultivating wastelands and to produce vegetable oil suitable for conversion to bio-diesel and other economically important by products as an alternative resource of rural income in poverty-stricken areas. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  16. Paste backfill of shallow mine workings for land reclamation in Canmore, Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predika, R.; Beattie, A.; Beddoes, R.

    2008-01-01

    The coal mining history in Canmore, Alberta was presented along with reclamation activities that mine regulators carried out following closure of the mines after nearly 100 years of underground mining. The 7 seams that were mined commercially extend over distances of a few hundred feet and have been displaced by faults. Voids and collapsed rubble in shallow underground workings pose a risk of potential ground subsidence that can affect the stability of surface structures and infrastructure, including the planned development of the proposed Three Sisters Mountain Village on land above the abandoned mines. The village includes plans for 10,000 residential homes, 2 golf courses, and a resource centre. A mine works mitigation program involved drilling primary injection boreholes on a 15 m grid pattern to map the constraint zones in order to gain a better perspective of the subsidence issues as well as the effects of subsidence on structural stress and public safety. When determining mitigation criteria, various land uses and ranges of subsidence hazards were considered to be compatible with each land use. A paste backfill composed of aggregate from a locally available till overburden site was mixed with cement and injected into the void spaces. This paper described the cemented paste backfill injection method; confirmatory methods; maximum volume and pressure criteria; survey for ground uplift; and borehole camera and manual checks for cemented paste backfill in adjacent boreholes. Quality control testing was carried out by means of slump tests. It was concluded that cemented paste backfill mix could be used successfully to stabilize abandoned mine workings for land recovery. 8 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs

  17. Risk management of viral infectious diseases in wastewater reclamation and reuse: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Daisuke; Amarasiri, Mohan; Hata, Akihiko; Watanabe, Toru; Katayama, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Inappropriate usage of reclaimed wastewater has caused outbreaks of viral infectious diseases worldwide. International and domestic guidelines for wastewater reuse stipulate that virus infection risks are to be regulated by the multiple-barrier system, in which a wastewater treatment process composed of sequential treatment units is designed based on the pre-determined virus removal efficiency of each unit. The objectives of this review were to calculate representative values of virus removal efficiency in wastewater treatment units based on published datasets, and to identify research topics that should be further addressed for improving implementation of the multiple-barrier system. The removal efficiencies of human noroviruses, rotaviruses and enteroviruses in membrane bioreactor (MBR) and conventional activated sludge (CAS) processes were obtained by a systematic review protocol and a meta-analysis approach. The log10 reduction (LR) of norovirus GII and enterovirus in MBR were 3.35 (95% confidence interval: 2.39, 4.30) and 2.71 (1.52, 3.89), respectively. The LR values of rotavirus, norovirus GI and GII in CAS processes were 0.87 (0.20, 1.53), 1.48 (0.96, 2.00) and 1.35 (0.52, 2.18), respectively. The systematic review process eliminated a substantial number of articles about virus removal in wastewater treatment because of the lack of information required for the meta-analysis. It is recommended that future publications should explicitly describe their treatment of left-censored datasets. Indicators, surrogates and methodologies appropriate for validating virus removal performance during daily operation of wastewater reclamation systems also need to be identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The WaterHub at Emory University: Campus Resiliency through Decentralized Reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Daniel; Lohan, Eric; Baldwin, Tim

    2018-02-01

      In the spring of 2015, Emory University in Atlanta, GA, commissioned an innovative campuswide water reclamation and reuse system known as the WaterHub®. Treating up to 400,000 gallons each day, the system can recycle the equivalent of two-thirds of the University's wastewater production and reduce the campus water footprint by up to 40 percent.One of the first district-scale water reuse systems in North America, the WaterHub mines wastewater from the campus sewer system and repurposes it for beneficial reuse on campus. In its first year of operation, the facility has treated more than 80 million gallons of campus wastewater and is expected to save millions of dollars in utility costs for the University over the next 20 years. The system represents a new age in commercial-scale water management in which onsite, urban water reclamation facilities may be a new norm.

  19. Performance characterization of water recovery and water quality from chemical/organic waste products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, W. M.; Rogers, T. D.; Chowdhury, H.; Cullingford, H. S.

    1989-01-01

    The water reclamation subsystems currently being evaluated for the Space Shuttle Freedom are briefly reviewed with emphasis on a waste water management system capable of processing wastes containing high concentrations of organic/inorganic materials. The process combines low temperature/pressure to vaporize water with high temperature catalytic oxidation to decompose volatile organics. The reclaimed water is of potable quality and has high potential for maintenance under sterile conditions. Results from preliminary experiments and modifications in process and equipment required to control reliability and repeatability of system operation are presented.

  20. DEVISING STRATEGIES FOR RECLAMATION OF DERELICT SITES DUE TO MINING OF RESIDUAL SOIL (“SAIBRO” AT UBATUBA, NORTH COAST OF SÃO PAULO STATE, BRAZIL: THE VIEWS AND ROLES OF THE STAKEHOLDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio José Ferreira

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Between the late 60's and early 90's intensive exploitation of residual soil for civil construction took place in the municipality of Ubatuba, North Coast of São Paulo State. Tropical climatic conditions associated with a hilly landscape bordered by the Atlantic Ocean gave rise to thick (10-30m weathering profiles derived from Precambrian granitic-gneissic rocks. Exploitation of large volumes of this material required only very simple technology, which on the other hand has caused highly adverse environmental impacts, such asdeforestation, soil erosion, land instability hazards, scenic eterioration, pollution and disturbance of local water flow regime. This paper deals with the devising of strategies thus identifying stakeholders and describing their roles both on the dereliction and reclamation processes related with residual soil exploitation. The evaluation approach focused on the analysis of the regulatory framework and its practical implications and issues in terms of licensing for mining operations, commercialization of construction materials, and the relations of such mining activities with regional and urban planning. A survey of stakeholderviewpoints was successfully achieved through a two-day workshop. The attendance included decision-makers, officials and representatives of governmental and regulatory bodies (Federal, State and Municipal, environmental research institutions, private miners (entrepreneurs and consultants, public attorney, and NGOs. The outcomes have ndicated that State and local authorities properly managed to stop illegal exploitation of residual soil in the early 90´s. However no land reclamation was undertaken until present. One of the main problems would be related with the procedures for mining and environmental licensing that were considered to be too complex and long (usually involving up to seven decisional instances and 2,5 years in average. Other key issues and needs identified included: aorganization of a