Sample records for water quality issues

  1. Water quality issues and status in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlown, M.A.; Tahir, M. A.; Ashraf, M.


    Per capita water availability in Pakistan has dropped drastically during the last fifty years. Recent extended droughts have further aggravated the situation. In order to meet the shortage and crop water requirements, groundwater is being used extensively in the Indus Basin. Groundwater is also the main source of water for drinking and industrial uses. This increased pressure on groundwater has lowered the water table in many cities. It is reported that water table has dropped by more than 3 m in many cities. This excessive use of groundwater has seriously affected the quality of groundwater and has increased the incidences of water-borne diseases many folds. A recent water quality study has shown that out of 560,000 tube wells of Indus Basin, about 70 percent are pumping sodic water. The use of sodic water has in turn affected the soil health and crop yields. This situation is being further aggravated due to changes in climate and rainfall patterns. To monitor changes in surface and groundwater quality and groundwater levels, Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources has undertaken a countrywide programme of water quality monitoring. This programme covers twenty-one cities from the four provinces, five rivers, 10 storage reservoirs and lakes and two main drains of Pakistan. Under this programme a permanent monitoring network is established from where water samples are collected and analyzed once every year. The collected water samples are analyzed for aesthetic, chemical and bacteriological parameters to determine their suitability for agricultural, domestic and industrial uses. The results of the present study indicate serious contamination in many cities. Excessive levels of arsenic, fluoride and sodium have been detected in many cities. This paper highlights the major water quality issues and briefly presents the preliminary results of the groundwater analysis for major cities of Pakistan. (author)

  2. Water quality issues in southern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, O.


    There is a keen awareness of the effects of water quality on human health and behaviour in developing countries arising from well documented cases which can be found in the literature. Also in Nigeria there are various concerns about incidents of toxic waste disposal, groundwater pollution through oil spillages, waste disposal practices by agricultural, domestic and industrial activities which affect the domestic water supplies and the environment. The aims of this paper are to highlight the role of water quality in human health; provide a framework for water related health assessment, present results of case studies and recommend appropriate strategies to safeguard human health from contaminated water sources. Major health problems, other than those due to micro-biological contamination of water sources, such as cholera and typhoid, have not been reported or linked to water supplies in Nigeria. Yet there are symptoms of and growing incidences of various diseases, such as psychopathic and neurological disorders which have been linked to contaminated water supplies in developed countries. The major, minor and trace concentrations of elements in water supplies in Nigeria are usually determined in the ppm range whereas most trace elements are hazardous to human health in the ppb or μg/l levels. The reason for this state of affairs is that the instrumentation required for determination of elemental concentrations at the ppb level is not readily available to researchers. Most reports on water quality do not provide any links to the major health problems which have been demonstrated elsewhere as responsible for major pathologic and neurologic disorders, including outright fatalities. Recent studies in Europe and Japan link several diseases, including kidney failure, mood disturbance and other neurologic disorders, heart, liver and kidney damage including death from eating poisonous fish caught in polluted waters, to contamination of water supplies by heavy metals in

  3. Water quality issues associated with agricultural drainage in semiarid regions (United States)

    Sylvester, Marc A.

    High incidences of mortality, birth defects, and reproductive failure in waterfowl using Kesterson Reservoir in the San Joaquin Valley, Calif., have occurred because of the bioaccumulation of selenium from irrigation drainage. These circumstances have prompted concern about the quality of agriculture drainage and its potential effects on human health, fish and wildlife, and beneficial uses of water. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California (Berkeley, Calif.) organized a 1-day session at the 1986 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif., to provide an interdisciplinary forum for hydrologists, geochemists, and aquatic chemists to discuss the processes controlling the distribution, mobilization, transport, and fate of trace elements in source rocks, soils, water, and biota in semiarid regions in which irrigated agriculture occurs. The focus of t h e session was the presentation of research results on the source, distribution, movement, and fate of selenium in agricultural drainage.

  4. Urban drinking water quality: A survey of selected literature. Issues in urban sustainability No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pip, E


    This literature survey covers a variety of issues relating to the quality of the urban water supply. It begins with a brief historical overview, and goes on to look at the health and politics of water, including issues of contamination. Next, it discusses water quantity including the main uses to which we put our water supply, and means of regulating or charging for usage. The main part of the report deals with water quality, describing how drinking water is assessed in terms of physical, chemical and biological parameters which are deemed to be important because of health or aesthetic reasons. Municipal water treatment and distribution discusses storage and disinfection, followed by a discussion of other treatments such as fluoridation and aeration. Incidental effects of distribution looks at a variety of other related issues such as asbestos fibres or metals in water.

  5. Design of Cycle 3 of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 2013-2022: Part 1: Framework of Water-Quality Issues and Potential Approaches (United States)

    Rowe, Gary L.; Belitz, Kenneth; Essaid, Hedeff I.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Hoos, Anne B.; Lynch, Dennis D.; Munn, Mark D.; Wolock, David W.


    In 1991, the U.S. Congress established the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program to develop long-term, nationally consistent information on the quality of the Nation's streams and groundwater. Congress recognized the critical need for this information to support scientifically sound management, regulatory, and policy decisions concerning the increasingly stressed water resources of the Nation. The long-term goals of NAWQA are to: (1) assess the status of water-quality conditions in the United States, (2) evaluate long-term trends in water-quality conditions, and (3) link status and trends with an understanding of the natural and human factors that affect water quality. These goals are national in scale, include both surface water and groundwater, and include consideration of water quality in relation to both human uses and aquatic ecosystems. Since 1991, NAWQA assessments and findings have fostered and supported major improvements in the availability and use of unbiased scientific information for decisionmaking, resource management, and planning at all levels of government. These improvements have enabled agencies and stakeholders to cost-effectively address a wide range of water-quality issues related to natural and human influences on the quality of water and potential effects on aquatic ecosystems and human health ( NAWQA, like all USGS programs, provides policy relevant information that serves as a scientific basis for decisionmaking related to resource management, protection, and restoration. The information is freely available to all levels of government, nongovernmental organizations, industry, academia, and the public, and is readily accessible on the NAWQA Web site and other diverse formats to serve the needs of the water-resource community at different technical levels. Water-quality conditions in streams and groundwater are described in more than 1,700 publications (available

  6. Water quality of the river yamuna in the Delhi stretch: Key determinants and management issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trisal, Chaman; Tabassum, Tanveera; Kumar, Ritesh [Wetlands International - South Asia, New Delhi (India)


    The assessment of water quality of the River Yamuna in the Delhi stretch was carried out by determining changes in the concentration levels of 19 physico-chemical parameters. It was observed that vegetation plays an important role in acting as a biological sink for mineral nutrients, thereby restoring the water quality. It is proposed that restoration of the inundation pattern of floodplains would greatly help in re-aeration of the overlying water and re-absorption of pollutants through mud/water exchanges. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Agriculture and Water Quality. Issues in Agricultural Policy. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 548. (United States)

    Crowder, Bradley M.; And Others

    Agriculture generates byproducts that may contribute to the contamination of the United States' water supply. Any effective regulations to ban or restrict agricultural chemical or land use practices in order to improve water quality will affect the farm economy. Some farmers will benefit; some will not. Most agricultural pollutants reach surface…

  8. Groundwater Quantity and Quality Issues in a Water-Rich Region: Examples from Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Luczaj


    Full Text Available The State of Wisconsin is located in an unusually water-rich portion of the world in the western part of the Great Lakes region of North America. This article presents an overview of the major groundwater quantity and quality concerns for this region in a geologic context. The water quantity concerns are most prominent in the central sand plain region and portions of a Paleozoic confined sandstone aquifer in eastern Wisconsin. Water quality concerns are more varied, with significant impacts from both naturally occurring inorganic contaminants and anthropogenic sources. Naturally occurring contaminants include radium, arsenic and associated heavy metals, fluoride, strontium, and others. Anthropogenic contaminants include nitrate, bacteria, viruses, as well as endocrine disrupting compounds. Groundwater quality in the region is highly dependent upon local geology and land use, but water bearing geologic units of all ages, Precambrian through Quaternary, are impacted by at least one kind of contaminant.

  9. Water quality (United States)

    Aquatic animals are healthiest and grow best when environmental conditions are within certain ranges that define, for a particular species, “good” water quality. From the outset, successful aquaculture requires a high-quality water supply. Water quality in aquaculture systems also deteriorates as an...

  10. A green roof experimental site in the Mediterranean climate: the storm water quality issue. (United States)

    Gnecco, Ilaria; Palla, Anna; Lanza, Luca G; La Barbera, Paolo


    Since 2007, the University of Genoa has been carrying out a monitoring programme to investigate the hydrologic response of green roofs in the Mediterranean climate by installing a green roof experimental site. In order to assess the influence of green roofs on the storm water runoff quality, water chemistry data have been included in the monitoring programme since 2010, providing rainfall and outflow data. For atmospheric source, the bulk deposition is collected to evaluate the role of the overall atmospheric deposition in storm water runoff quality. For subsurface outflow, a maximum of 24 composite samples are taken on an event basis, thus aiming at a full characterization of the outflow hydrograph. Water chemistry data reveal that the pollutant loads associated with green roof outflow is low; in particular, solids and metal concentrations are lower than values generally observed in storm water runoff from traditional rooftops. The concentration values of chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, Fe, Ca and K measured in the subsurface outflow are significantly higher than those observed in the bulk deposition (p green roof behaviour as a sink/source of pollutants is investigated based on both concentration and mass.

  11. Water quality and water rights in Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonnell, L.J.


    The report begins with a review of early Colorado water quality law. The present state statutory system of water quality protection is summarized. Special attention is given to those provisions of Colorado's water quality law aimed at protecting water rights. The report then addresses several specific issues which involve the relationship between water quality and water use. Finally, recommendations are made for improving Colorado's approach to integrating quality and quantity concerns

  12. Water-Quality Data (United States)

    ... Water Quality? [1.7MB PDF] Past featured science... Water Quality Data Today's Water Conditions Get continuous real- ... list of USGS water-quality data resources . USGS Water Science Areas Water Resources Groundwater Surface Water Water ...

  13. Primer on Water Quality (United States)

    ... water quality. What do we mean by "water quality"? Water quality can be thought of as a measure ... is suitable for a particular use. How is water quality measured? Some aspects of water quality can be ...

  14. Addressing water quality issues on a watershed basis: a comprehensive approach for utilizing chapter 20 of the Michigan drain code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, J.P.


    There are five major watersheds in Oakland County. They are the Clinton, Flint, Huron, Rouge and Shiawassee. Included in these watersheds are 61 individual cities, villages and townships. Actions taken by one community within the watershed have a significant impact on other communities in the watershed. Consequently, a multi-community approach needs to be identified and utilized to comprehensively address public health and water quality issues. Some of the issues faced by these communities individually include stormwater management, flooding, drainage, and river and stream management. Failing septic systems, illicit connections causing groundwater contamination, and habitat and wetland degradation are also primary concerns. Finally, wastewater treatment capacity and sanitary sewer service also are regularly dealt with by these communities. Traditionally, short-term solutions to these often urgent problems required the construction of relief sewers or temporary retention structures. Unfortunately, solving the problem in one area often meant the creation of new problems downstream. Coordinating efforts among these 61 individual communities is difficult. These difficult challenges are best met with a coordinated, comprehensive plan. (author)

  15. Can integrative catchment management mitigate future water quality issues caused by climate change and socio-economic development? (United States)

    Honti, Mark; Schuwirth, Nele; Rieckermann, Jörg; Stamm, Christian


    The design and evaluation of solutions for integrated surface water quality management requires an integrated modelling approach. Integrated models have to be comprehensive enough to cover the aspects relevant for management decisions, allowing for mapping of larger-scale processes such as climate change to the regional and local contexts. Besides this, models have to be sufficiently simple and fast to apply proper methods of uncertainty analysis, covering model structure deficits and error propagation through the chain of sub-models. Here, we present a new integrated catchment model satisfying both conditions. The conceptual iWaQa model was developed to support the integrated management of small streams. It can be used to predict traditional water quality parameters, such as nutrients and a wide set of organic micropollutants (plant and material protection products), by considering all major pollutant pathways in urban and agricultural environments. Due to its simplicity, the model allows for a full, propagative analysis of predictive uncertainty, including certain structural and input errors. The usefulness of the model is demonstrated by predicting future surface water quality in a small catchment with mixed land use in the Swiss Plateau. We consider climate change, population growth or decline, socio-economic development, and the implementation of management strategies to tackle urban and agricultural point and non-point sources of pollution. Our results indicate that input and model structure uncertainties are the most influential factors for certain water quality parameters. In these cases model uncertainty is already high for present conditions. Nevertheless, accounting for today's uncertainty makes management fairly robust to the foreseen range of potential changes in the next decades. The assessment of total predictive uncertainty allows for selecting management strategies that show small sensitivity to poorly known boundary conditions. The identification

  16. Covering Water Issues Through a Climate Lens (United States)

    Freedman, A. C.


    Media portrayals of critical water issues can help or hinder decision makers' understanding of critical, complex water issues. Through a series of case studies, this presentation will provide examples of how today's media - complete with its 5-minute news cycle - has uncovered water quality scandals (Flint), investigated chronic flooding that will worsen with climate change (Houston), and more. It will also delve into why reporters often fail to convey the magnitude of water supply challenges in the West (Colorado River) and around the world (Middle East, Southeast Asia).

  17. Macroeconomic perspective on water quality and quantity issues of relevance to the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water (SEEAW)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov Andersen, Mikael; Ørsted Nielsen, Helle; Branth Pedersen, Anders

    The present case-study of Odense river basin finds that a Water Supply Tax (EPI1) only provides a tiny contribution to improving water quality, whereas a Nitrogen-tax (EPI2) has potential to accomplish the stipulated river basin management planning targets for Odense Fjord in an economically...

  18. Power quality issues current harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Mikkili, Suresh


    Power Quality Issues: Current Harmonics provides solutions for the mitigation of power quality problems related to harmonics. Focusing on active power filters (APFs) due to their excellent harmonic and reactive power compensation in two-wire (single phase), three-wire (three-phase without neutral), and four-wire (three-phase with neutral) AC power networks with nonlinear loads, the text:Introduces the APF technology, describing various APF configurations and offering guidelines for the selection of APFs for specific application considerationsCompares shunt active filter (SHAF) control strategi

  19. Accelerate Water Quality Improvement (United States)

    EPA is committed to accelerating water quality improvement and minimizing negative impacts to aquatic life from contaminants and other stressors in the Bay Delta Estuary by working with California Water Boards to strengthen water quality improvement plans.

  20. Agricultural drainage water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madani, A.; Gordon, R.


    'Full text:' Agricultural drainage systems have been identified as potential contributors of non-point source pollution. Two of the major concerns have been with nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 - -N) concentrations and bacteria levels exceeding the Maximum Acceptable Concentration in drainage water. Heightened public awareness of environmental issues has led to greater pressure to maintain the environmental quality of water systems. In an ongoing field study, three experiment sites, each with own soil properties and characteristics, are divided into drainage plots and being monitored for NO3 - -N and fecal coliforms contamination. The first site is being used to determine the impact of the rate of manure application on subsurface drainage water quality. The second site is being used to determine the difference between hog manure and inorganic fertilizer in relation to fecal coliforms and NO3-N leaching losses under a carrot rotation system. The third site examines the effect of timing of manure application on water quality, and is the only site equipped with a surface drainage system, as well as a subsurface drainage system. Each of the drains from these fields lead to heated outflow buildings to allow for year-round measurements of flow rates and water samples. Tipping buckets wired to data-loggers record the outflow from each outlet pipe on an hourly basis. Water samples, collected from the flowing drains, are analyzed for NO3 - -N concentrations using the colorimetric method, and fecal coliforms using the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. Based on this information, we will be able better positioned to assess agricultural impacts on water resources which will help towards the development on industry accepted farming practices. (author)

  1. Water quality in South San Francisco Bay, California: current condition and potential issues for the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project. (United States)

    Grenier, J Letitia; Davis, Jay A


    The SBSPRP is an extensive tidal wetland restoration project that is underway at the margin of South San Francisco Bay, California. The Project, which aims to restore former salt ponds to tidal marsh and manage other ponds for water bird support, is taking place in the context of a highly urbanized watershed and an Estuary already impacted by chemical contaminants. There is an intimate relationship between water quality in the watershed, the Bay, and the transitional wetland areas where the Project is located. The Project seeks to restore habitat for endangered and endemic species and to provide recreational opportunities for people. Therefore, water quality and bioaccumulation of contaminants in fish and wildlife is an important concern for the success of the Project. Mercury, PCBs, and PBDEs are the persistent contaminants of greatest concern in the region. All of these contaminants are present at elevated concentrations both in the abiotic environment and in wildlife. Dioxins, pyrethroids, PAHs, and selenium are also problematic. Organochlorine insecticides have historically impacted the Bay, and they remain above thresholds for concern in a small proportion of samples. Emerging contaminants, such as PFCs and non-PBDE flame retardants, are also an important water quality issue. Beyond chemical pollutants, other concerns for water quality in South San Francisco Bay exist, and include biological constituents, especially invasive species, and chemical attributes, such as dissolved oxygen and salinity. Future changes, both from within the Project and from the Bay and watershed, are likely to influence water quality in the region. Project actions to restore wetlands could worsen, improve, or not affect the already impaired water quality in South Bay. Accelerated erosion of buried sediment as a consequence of Project restoration actions is a potentially serious regional threat to South Bay water and sediment quality. Furthermore, the planned restoration of salt ponds

  2. Water Quality Analysis Simulation (United States)

    The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and man-made pollution for variious pollution management decisions.

  3. Water Quality Criteria (United States)

    EPA develops water quality criteria based on the latest scientific knowledge to protect human health and aquatic life. This information serves as guidance to states and tribes in adopting water quality standards.

  4. Water Quality Analysis Simulation (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural...

  5. Columbia River water quality monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Waste water from Hanford activities is discharged at eight points along the Hanford reach of the Columbia River. These discharges consist of backwash water from water intake screens, cooling water, river bank springs, water storage tank overflow, and fish laboratory waste water. Each discharge point is identified in an existing National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued by the EPA. Effluents from each of these outfalls are routinely monitored and reported by the operating contractors as required by their NPDES permits. Measurements of several Columbia River water quality parameters were conducted routinely during 1982 both upstream and downstream of the Hanford Site to monitor any effects on the river that may be attributable to Hanford discharges and to determine compliance with the Class A designation requirements. The measurements indicated that Hanford operations had a minimal, if any, impact on the quality of the Columbia River water

  6. Water Quality Protection Charges (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Water Quality Protection Charge (WQPC) is a line item on your property tax bill. WQPC funds many of the County's clean water initiatives including: • Restoration...

  7. Biological Water Quality Criteria (United States)

    Page contains links to Technical Documents pertaining to Biological Water Quality Criteria, including, technical assistance documents for states, tribes and territories, program overviews, and case studies.

  8. Quality assurance issues and PACS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banta, H.D.


    Quality assessment and assurance is a growing concern in all areas of health care. The concern is fueled by a body of evidence that indicates that quality of care is not optimal, and in many instances, is unacceptably low. Although different standards for quality have been proposed, health outcome

  9. Malaysia water services reform: legislative issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabsiah Abdul Wahid


    Full Text Available The latest attempt by the Malaysian government to restructure its water sector has managed to promulgate two important acts, the Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Air Negara (SPAN Act (Act 654 and the Water Services Industry Act (WSIA/Act 655; these also complicate the governing of water services and water resources in the country as they affect the sovereignty of a state’s land and water issues. In Malaysia’s federated system of governance, water resources are placed fully within the purview of each State’s government, as stated in the Waters Act 1920 (Revised 1989, while water services are straddled across the purview of both the State and Federal government (Water Supply Enactment 1955. Any reforms will remain problematic unless further analysis is carried out on the available legislation that directly impacts said reform, particularly the Waters Act and Water Supply Enactment. For example, when the Waters Act stipulates “the entire property in and control of all rivers in any State is vested solely in the Ruler of that State”, it is clear that the Federal Government has no authority whatsoever over water resources of any states. The Water Supply Enactment 1955 (adopted by several States further empowers the state’s water supply authorities to supply water to domestic and commercial consumers. Other legislation that has been enacted to govern land and water issues in the country include the Geological Act 1974 on groundwater abstraction and the Environmental Quality Act 1974 (incorporating all amendments up to 1st January 2006 on some aspects of the environmental impact of groundwater abstraction. While these legislations seemed to provide adequate coverage on the governance of groundwater abstraction; treatment, distribution and wastewater management, which form the water supply value chain in the country, are not covered. Similarly, the Sewerage Services Act 1993 covers only wastewater governance issues rather than the whole value chain

  10. Assessment of water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.


    Water is the most essential component of all living things and it supports the life process. Without water, it would not have been possible to sustain life on this planet. The total quantity of water on earth is estimated to be 1.4 trillion cubic meter. Of this, less than 1 % water, present in rivers and ground resources is available to meet our requirement. These resources are being contaminated with toxic substances due to ever increasing environmental pollution. To reduce this contamination, many countries have established standards for the discharge of municipal and industrial waste into water streams. We use water for various purposes and for each purpose we require water of appropriate quality. The quality of water is assessed by evaluating the physical chemical, biological and radiological characteristics of water. Water for drinking and food preparation must be free from turbidity, colour, odour and objectionable tastes, as well as from disease causing organisms and inorganic and organic substances, which may produce adverse physiological effects, Such water is referred to as potable water and is produced by treatment of raw water, involving various unit operations. The effectiveness of the treatment processes is checked by assessing the various parameters of water quality, which involves sampling and analysis of water and comparison with the National Quality Standards or WHO standards. Water which conforms to these standards is considered safe and palatable for human consumption. Periodic assessment of water is necessary, to ensure the quality of water supplied to the public. This requires proper sampling at specified locations and analysis of water, employing reliable analytical techniques. (author)

  11. Global Water Issues and Insights


    Grafton, Quentin R.; Wyrwoll, Paul; White , Chris; Allendes, David


    This book brings together some of the world’s leading water researchers with an especially written collection of chapters on: water economics; transboundary water; water and development; water and energy; and water concepts.

  12. Water Quality Assessment and Management (United States)

    Overview of Clean Water Act (CWA) restoration framework including; water quality standards, monitoring/assessment, reporting water quality status, TMDL development, TMDL implementation (point & nonpoint source control)

  13. Communicating water quality risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, C.W.


    Technology for detecting and understanding water quality problems and the impacts of activities on long-range groundwater quality has advanced considerably. In the past a technical solution was considered adequate but today one must consider a wide range of both technical and social factors in evaluating technical alternatives that are also acceptable social solutions. Policies developed and implemented with limited local participation generally are resisted and become ineffective if public cooperation is necessary for effective implementation. The public, the experts and the policymakers all must understand and appreciate the different perspectives present in risk policymaking. The typical model used to involve the public in policy decisions is a strategy described as the decide-announce-defend-approach. Much more acceptable to the public, but also more difficult to implement, is a strategy that calls for free flow of information within the community about the problem, policies and potential solutions. Communication about complex issues will be more successful if the communication is substantial; if it takes advantage of existing interpersonal networks and mass media; if it pays particular attention to existing audience knowledge, interest and behaviors; and if it clearly targets messages to various segments of the audience

  14. Quality of Drinking Water (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.


    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  15. Water quality diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagase, Makoto; Asakura, Yamato; Sakagami, Masaharu


    By using a model representing a relationship between the water quality parameter and the dose rate in primary coolant circuits of a water cooled reactor, forecasting for the feature dose rate and abnormality diagnosis for the water quality are conducted. The analysis model for forecasting the reactor water activity or the dose rate receives, as the input, estimated curves for the forecast Fe, Ni, Co concentration in feedwater or reactor water pH, etc. from the water quality data in the post and forecasts the future radioactivity or dose rate in the reactor water. By comparing the result of the forecast and the setting value such as an aimed value, it can be seen whether the water quality at present or estimated to be changed is satisfactory or not. If the quality is not satisfactory, it is possible to take an early countermeasure. Accordingly, the reactor water activity and the dose rate can be kept low. Further, the basic system constitution, diagnosis algorithm, indication, etc. are identical between BWR and PWR reactors, except for only the difference in the mass balance. (K.M.)

  16. Water Quality Data (WQX) (United States)

    The STORET (short for STOrage and RETrieval) Data Warehouse is a repository for water quality, biological, and physical data and is used by state environmental agencies, EPA and other federal agencies, universities, private citizens, and many others.

  17. Muscle growth and poultry meat quality issues. (United States)

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio


    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat's poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition) as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.

  18. Muscle Growth and Poultry Meat Quality Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci


    Full Text Available Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat’s poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.

  19. Purified water quality study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinka, H.; Jackowski, P.


    Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals

  20. Drinking water quality assessment. (United States)

    Aryal, J; Gautam, B; Sapkota, N


    Drinking water quality is the great public health concern because it is a major risk factor for high incidence of diarrheal diseases in Nepal. In the recent years, the prevalence rate of diarrhoea has been found the highest in Myagdi district. This study was carried out to assess the quality of drinking water from different natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps at Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district. A cross-sectional study was carried out using random sampling method in Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district from January to June,2010. 84 water samples representing natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps from the study area were collected. The physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was performed following standards technique set by APHA 1998 and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5. The result was also compared with national and WHO guidelines. Out of 84 water samples (from natural source, reservoirs and tap water) analyzed, drinking water quality parameters (except arsenic and total coliform) of all water samples was found to be within the WHO standards and national standards.15.48% of water samples showed pH (13) higher than the WHO permissible guideline values. Similarly, 85.71% of water samples showed higher Arsenic value (72) than WHO value. Further, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference (Pwater for collection taps water samples of winter (January, 2010) and summer (June, 2010). The microbiological examination of water samples revealed the presence of total coliform in 86.90% of water samples. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis of water samples were within national standard and WHO standards except arsenic. The study also found the coliform contamination to be the key problem with drinking water.

  1. Integrating Product Water Quality Effects In Holistic Assessments Of Water Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin


    economic assessment of water quality effects, production costs and environmental costs (water abstraction and CO2-emissions). Considered water quality issues include: health (dental caries, cardiovascular diseases, eczema), corrosion (lifetime of appliances, pipes), consumption of soap, and bottled water...

  2. Developing and Implementing Inquiry-Based, Water Quality Laboratory Experiments for High School Students to Explore Real Environmental Issues Using Analytical Chemistry (United States)

    Mandler, Daphna; Blonder, Ron; Yayon, Malka; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi


    This paper describes the rationale and the implementation of five laboratory experiments; four of them, intended for high-school students, are inquiry-based activities that explore the quality of water. The context of water provides students with an opportunity to study the importance of analytical methods and how they influence our everyday…

  3. Fabric quality issues related to apparel merchandising

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to develop an understanding of fabric quality related issues and research gaps relevant to apparel manufacturing and merchandising within the South African context. The specific focus is on fabric objective...

  4. Water Quality Monitoring (United States)


    With the backing of NASA, researchers at Michigan State University, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Wisconsin have begun using satellite data to measure lake water quality and clarity of the lakes in the Upper Midwest. This false color IKONOS image displays the water clarity of the lakes in Eagan, Minnesota. Scientists measure the lake quality in satellite data by observing the ratio of blue to red light in the satellite data. When the amount of blue light reflecting off of the lake is high and the red light is low, a lake generally had high water quality. Lakes loaded with algae and sediments, on the other hand, reflect less blue light and more red light. In this image, scientists used false coloring to depict the level of clarity of the water. Clear lakes are blue, moderately clear lakes are green and yellow, and murky lakes are orange and red. Using images such as these along with data from the Landsat satellites and NASA's Terra satellite, the scientists plan to create a comprehensive water quality map for the entire Great Lakes region in the next few years. For more information, read: Testing the Waters (Image courtesy Upper Great Lakes Regional Earth Science Applications Center, based on data copyright Space Imaging)

  5. Issues ignored in laboratory quality surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Jing; Li Xingyuan; Zhang Tingsheng


    According to the work requirement of the related laboratory quality surveillance in ISO17025, this paper analyzed and discussed the issued ignored in the laboratory quality surveillance. In order to solve the present problem, it is required to understand the work responsibility in the quality surveillance correctly, to establish the effective working routine in the quality surveillance, and to conduct, the quality surveillance work. The object in the quality surveillance shall be 'the operator' who engaged in the examination/calibration directly in the laboratory, especially the personnel in training (who is engaged in the examination/calibration). The quality supervisors shall be fully authorized, so that they can correctly understand the work responsibility in quality surveillance, and are with the rights for 'full supervision'. The laboratory also shall arrange necessary training to the quality supervisor, so that they can obtain sufficient guide in time and are with required qualification or occupation prerequisites. (authors)

  6. Lake Tahoe Water Quality Improvement Programs (United States)

    Information on the Lake Tahoe watershed, EPA's protection efforts, water quality issues, effects of climate, change, Lake Tahoe Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL), EPA-sponsored projects, and list of partner agencies.

  7. ``I Didn't Realize that Science Could Be So Useful'': Integrating Service Learning and Student Research on Water-Quality Issues within an Undergraduate Geoscience Curriculum (Invited) (United States)

    Lea, P. D.; Urquhart, J.


    The title quote, from a senior geoscience major, illustrates one of the important aspects of service learning. The associated authentic research experiences benefit not only learning of geoscience concepts, but also students’ perceptions of the role of science in society. For the past two years, a wide-ranging study of water-quality dynamics in the Androscoggin Lake watershed of Maine has engaged (1) introductory students and non-science majors in spring-semester courses, (2) upper-level geoscience majors in fall-semester courses, and (3) seniors undertaking independent summer research. The overall focus of the research is to understand nutrient loading to Androscoggin Lake, which receives back-flooded water from the industrialized Androscoggin River, as well as from agricultural lands in the connecting Dead River valley. Stakeholders include the local lake association, the state DEP, pulp-mill and wastewater-plant operators, and local farmers. A key element in the project is the role adopted by the student researchers vis-à-vis policy options. Following the taxonomy of Pielke (2007, The Honest Broker: Cambridge University Press), students doing service learning may serve as issue advocates, seeking to provide scientific support for the policy positions of community partners. In contrast, we have adopted explicitly the position of honest brokers who seek to understand and communicate the workings of this complex system without advocating specific policy solutions. This approach has facilitated buy-in from a larger range of stakeholders, and encouraged students to address choices in the roles and responsibilities of scientists in policy decisions—a valuable perspective for future scientists and non-scientists alike. In service-learning courses, groups of 3 to 5 students engage in a variety of sub-projects, such as lake-bottom sediment studies, nutrient sampling in streams and lakes, developing rating curves for streamflow, and calculating phosphorus fluxes

  8. Summarized water quality criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempster, P.L.; Hattingh, W.H.J.; Van Vliet, H.R.


    The available world literature from 27 sources on existing water quality criteria are summarized for the 15 main uses of water. The minimum, median and maximum specified values for 96 different determinands are included. Under each water use the criteria are grouped according to the functional significance of the determinands e.g. aesthetic/physical effects, high toxic potential, low toxic potential etc. A synopsis is included summarizing salient facts for each determinand such as the conditions under which it is toxic and its relationship to other determinands. The significance of the criteria is briefly discussed and the importance of considering functional interactions between determinands emphasized in evaluating the potential for toxic or beneficial effects. From the source literature it appears that the toxic potential, in addition to being determined by concentration, is also affected by the origin of the substance concerned, i.e. whether from natural sources or from anthropogenic pollution

  9. Large Water Cherenkov Detectors - Technical Issues -

    CERN Document Server

    Aihara, H


    We address technical issues and challenges to construct a one-megaton scale water Cherenkov detector for neutrino detection. Studies presented here are mostly based on preliminary work for Hyper Kamiokande project.

  10. Hemodialysis and water quality. (United States)

    Coulliette, Angela D; Arduino, Matthew J


    Over 383,900 individuals in the U.S. undergo maintenance hemodialysis that exposes them to water, primarily in the form of dialysate. The quality of water and associated dialysis solutions have been implicated in adverse patient outcomes and is therefore critical. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation has published both standards and recommended practices that address both water and the dialyzing solutions. Some of these recommendations have been adopted into Federal Regulations by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as part of the Conditions for Coverage, which includes limits on specific contaminants within water used for dialysis, dialysate, and substitution fluids. Chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin contaminants are health threats to dialysis patients, as shown by the continued episodic nature of outbreaks since the 1960s causing at least 592 cases and 16 deaths in the U.S. The importance of the dialysis water distribution system, current standards and recommendations, acceptable monitoring methods, a review of chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin outbreaks, and infection control programs are discussed. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. National Recommended Water Quality Criteria (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Recommended Water Quality Criteria is a compilation of national recommended water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and human health...

  12. Estimation of Water Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vetrinskaya, N.I.; Manasbayeva, A.B.


    Water has a particular ecological function and it is an indicator of the general state of the biosphere. In relation with this summary, the toxicological evaluation of water by biologic testing methods is very actual. The peculiarity of biologic testing information is an integral reflection of all totality properties of examination of the environment in position of its perception by living objects. Rapid integral evaluation of anthropological situation is a base aim of biologic testing. If this evaluation has deviations from normal state, detailed analysis and revelation of dangerous components could be conducted later. The quality of water from the Degelen gallery, where nuclear explosions were conducted, was investigated by bio-testing methods. The micro-organisms (Micrococcus Luteus, Candida crusei, Pseudomonas algaligenes) and water plant elodea (Elodea canadensis Rich) were used as test-objects. It is known that the transporting functions of cell membranes of living organisms are violated the first time in extreme conditions by difference influences. Therefore, ion penetration of elodeas and micro-organisms cells, which contained in the examination water with toxicants, were used as test-function. Alteration of membrane penetration was estimated by measurement of electrolytes electrical conductivity, which gets out from living objects cells to distillate water. Index of water toxic is ratio of electrical conductivity in experience to electrical conductivity in control. Also, observations from common state of plant, which was incubated in toxic water, were made. (Chronic experience conducted for 60 days.) The plants were incubated in water samples, which were picked out from gallery in the years 1996 and 1997. The time of incubation is 1-10 days. The results of investigation showed that ion penetration of elodeas and micro-organisms cells changed very much with influence of radionuclides, which were contained in testing water. Changes are taking place even in

  13. Water quality sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Keiko; Takahashi, Masanori; Watanabe, Atsushi; Ibe, Hidefumi.


    The sensor of the present invention can directly measure oxygen/hydrogen peroxide concentrations in reactor water under radiation irradiation condition, and it has a long life time. Namely, an oxygen sensor comprises electrodes attached on both sides of high temperature/radiation resistant ion conductive material in which ions are sufficiently diffused within a temperature range of from a room temperature to 300degC. It has a performance for measuring electromotive force caused by the difference of a partial pressure between a reference gas and a gas to be measured contained in the high temperature/radiation resistant material. A hydrogen peroxide sensor has the oxygen sensor described above, to which a filter for causing decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is attached. The sensor of the present invention can directly measure oxygen/hydrogen peroxide concentrations in a reactor water of a BWR type reactor under high temperature/radiation irradiation condition. Accordingly, accurate water quality environment in the reactor water can be recognized. As a result, determination of incore corrosion environment is established thereby enabling to attain reactor integrity, safety and long life. (I.S.)

  14. Water security-National and global issues (United States)

    Tindall, James A.; Campbell, Andrew A.


    Potable or clean freshwater availability is crucial to life and economic, environmental, and social systems. The amount of freshwater is finite and makes up approximately 2.5 percent of all water on the Earth. Freshwater supplies are small and randomly distributed, so water resources can become points of conflict. Freshwater availability depends upon precipitation patterns, changing climate, and whether the source of consumed water comes directly from desalination, precipitation, or surface and (or) groundwater. At local to national levels, difficulties in securing potable water sources increase with growing populations and economies. Available water improves living standards and drives urbanization, which increases average water consumption per capita. Commonly, disruptions in sustainable supplies and distribution of potable water and conflicts over water resources become major security issues for Government officials. Disruptions are often influenced by land use, human population, use patterns, technological advances, environmental impacts, management processes and decisions, transnational boundaries, and so forth.

  15. Diffusive transport and reaction in clay rocks: A storage (nuclear waste, CO2, H2), energy (shale gas) and water quality issue (United States)

    Charlet, Laurent; Alt-Epping, Peter; Wersin, Paul; Gilbert, Benjamin


    Clay rocks are low permeability sedimentary formations that provide records of Earth history, influence the quality of water resources, and that are increasingly used for the extraction or storage of energy resources and the sequestration of waste materials. Informed use of clay rock formations to achieve low-carbon or carbon-free energy goals requires the ability to predict the rates of diffusive transport processes for chemically diverse dissolved and gaseous species over periods up to thousands of years. We survey the composition, properties and uses of clay rock and summarize fundamental science challenges in developing confident conceptual and quantitative gas and solute transport models.

  16. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead (United States)

    Tundisi, J. G.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Ciminelli, V. S.; Barbosa, F. A.


    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for the maintenance of water quantity and water quality are the vegetation cover of watersheds, reduction of the demand and new water governance that includes integrated management, predictive evaluation of impacts, and ecosystem services. Future research needs are discussed.

  17. A Water Quality Monitoring Programme for Schools and Communities (United States)

    Spellerberg, Ian; Ward, Jonet; Smith, Fiona


    A water quality monitoring programme for schools is described. The purpose of the programme is to introduce school children to the concept of reporting on the "state of the environment" by raising the awareness of water quality issues and providing skills to monitor water quality. The programme is assessed and its relevance in the…

  18. Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality ... (United States)

    EPA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have initiated the “Village Blue” research project to provide real-time water quality monitoring data to the Baltimore community and increase public awareness about local water quality in Baltimore Harbor and the Chesapeake Bay. The Village Blue demonstration project complements work that a number of state and local organizations are doing to make Baltimore Harbor “swimmable and fishable” 2 by 2020. Village Blue is designed to build upon EPA’s “Village Green” project which provides real-time air quality information to communities in six locations across the country. The presentation, “Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality information to the Baltimore Community”, summarizes the Village Blue real-time water quality monitoring project being developed for the Baltimore Harbor.

  19. Policymakers' Reflections on Water Governance Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyeeta Gupta


    Full Text Available The two cultures theory argues that policy makers and scientists have different cultures and difficulty in communicating with each other. Others argue that there is increasing co-production of knowledge. This essay aims to assess the concerns of policy makers based on our policy work, policy-related research work, and our day-to-day experiences in terms of three questions: What are the perceived major issues for water governance? What are the major challenges in the structure of the existing global water governance approach? What is the vision for improving global water governance? This essay combines views from governmental, hybrid, inter- and non-governmental policy makers. It argues that water covers so many issues, aspects, and sectors that a key challenge is whether water should be governed as a sector or as a cross-cutting issue. It looks at how this challenge plays out within the United Nations system and leads to specific goal setting, while missing an overall visionary approach and a legally binding system of governance; within the hybrid arena, where it leads to inclusive discussion but not necessarily triggering consensus decisions; within nation states, where it has led to a loss of focus and a multitude of gaps and overlaps; and within transnational cooperative projects, where it has led to multiple interpretations of what is good practice. It then identifies a series of research questions.

  20. Risk-based water resources planning: Coupling water allocation and water quality management under extreme droughts (United States)

    Mortazavi-Naeini, M.; Bussi, G.; Hall, J. W.; Whitehead, P. G.


    The main aim of water companies is to have a reliable and safe water supply system. To fulfil their duty the water companies have to consider both water quality and quantity issues and challenges. Climate change and population growth will have an impact on water resources both in terms of available water and river water quality. Traditionally, a distinct separation between water quality and abstraction has existed. However, water quality can be a bottleneck in a system since water treatment works can only treat water if it meets certain standards. For instance, high turbidity and large phytoplankton content can increase sharply the cost of treatment or even make river water unfit for human consumption purposes. It is vital for water companies to be able to characterise the quantity and quality of water under extreme weather events and to consider the occurrence of eventual periods when water abstraction has to cease due to water quality constraints. This will give them opportunity to decide on water resource planning and potential changes to reduce the system failure risk. We present a risk-based approach for incorporating extreme events, based on future climate change scenarios from a large ensemble of climate model realisations, into integrated water resources model through combined use of water allocation (WATHNET) and water quality (INCA) models. The annual frequency of imposed restrictions on demand is considered as measure of reliability. We tested our approach on Thames region, in the UK, with 100 extreme events. The results show increase in frequency of imposed restrictions when water quality constraints were considered. This indicates importance of considering water quality issues in drought management plans.

  1. Microbiological quality of natural waters. (United States)

    Borrego, J J; Figueras, M J


    Several aspects of the microbiological quality of natural waters, especially recreational waters, have been reviewed. The importance of the water as a vehicle and/or a reservoir of human pathogenic microorganisms is also discussed. In addition, the concepts, types and techniques of microbial indicator and index microorganisms are established. The most important differences between faecal streptococci and enterococci have been discussed, defining the concept and species included. In addition, we have revised the main alternative indicators used to measure the water quality.

  2. Newspaper coverage of water issues in Australia. (United States)

    Hurlimann, Anna; Dolnicar, Sara


    The media has been found to have an impact on public debate, public opinion, and public policy agendas. Public debate, and public opinion about water conservation and water supply management projects matter because they can influence specific outcomes. For example, public opinion can potentially lead to positive behaviour, like increased water conservation, or potentially negative behaviours such as public opposition to developments such as dams or water recycling plants, which may be necessary under changing climatic conditions. It is therefore critical to understand how the media reports on water-related topics. Results from a content analysis of 1253 newspaper articles published in Australia in 2008 indicate that water-related reports are characterised by lack of inclusion of views held by various stakeholders, a low level of support of statements with scientific evidence, a low level of impartiality in the sense of reporting on opposing views and a relatively high level of hedging, meaning that the author signals that there is some uncertainly about the reported information. In sum these tendencies could theoretically culminate to work against public engagement in water issues and undermine the public's understanding of and confidence in water management measures. Proactive measures of media management are recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tritium issues in commercial pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.


    Tritium has become an important radionuclide in commercial Pressurized Water Reactors because of its mobility and tendency to concentrate in plant systems as tritiated water during the recycling of reactor coolant. Small quantities of tritium are released in routine regulated effluents as liquid water and as water vapor. Tritium has become a focus of attention at commercial nuclear power plants in recent years due to inadvertent, low-level, chronic releases arising from routine maintenance operations and from component failures. Tritium has been observed in groundwater in the vicinity of stations. The nuclear industry has undertaken strong proactive corrective measures to prevent recurrence, and continues to eliminate emission sources through its singular focus on public safety and environmental stewardship. This paper will discuss: production mechanisms for tritium, transport mechanisms from the reactor through plant, systems to the environment, examples of routine effluent releases, offsite doses, basic groundwater transport and geological issues, and recent nuclear industry environmental and legal ramifications. (authors)

  4. Utility service quality - telecommincations, electricity, water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, L. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Public Utility Research Center


    This survey of quality-of-service issues raised by regulation identifies 12 steps for promoting efficient sector performance. First, regulators must identify objectives and prioritize them. Inter-agency coordination is often required to establish targets. Regulators must also determine a process for selecting measures and an appropriate method for evaluating them. Finally, performance incentives must be established and outcomes periodically reviewed. Telecommunications, electricity, and water all have multiple dimensions of quality that warrant careful attention. (Author)

  5. Power Quality Issues on Wind Power Installations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Lund, Torsten


    offshore wind farms connected at transmission level. In this perspective, the power quality issues are divided into local issues particularly related to the voltage quality in the distribution systems and global issues related to the power system control and stability. Power quality characteristics of wind...

  6. Integrating Product Water Quality Effects In Holistic Assessments Of Water Systems


    Rygaard, Martin


    While integrated assessments of sustainability of water systems are largely focused on quantity issues, chemical use, and energy consumption, effects of the supplied water quality are often overlooked. Drinking water quality affects corrosion rates, human health, applicability of water and aesthetics. Even small changes in the chemical composition of water may accumulate large impacts on city scale. Here, a method for integrated assessment of water quality is presented. Based on dose-response...

  7. Water Quality Monitoring by Satellite (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2004


    The availability of abundant water resources in the Upper Midwest of the United States is nullified by their contamination through heavy commercial and industrial activities. Scientists have taken the responsibility of detecting the water quality of these resources through remote-sensing satellites to develop a wide-ranging water purification plan…

  8. National trends in drinking water quality violations. (United States)

    Allaire, Maura; Wu, Haowei; Lall, Upmanu


    Ensuring safe water supply for communities across the United States is a growing challenge in the face of aging infrastructure, impaired source water, and strained community finances. In the aftermath of the Flint lead crisis, there is an urgent need to assess the current state of US drinking water. However, no nationwide assessment has yet been conducted on trends in drinking water quality violations across several decades. Efforts to reduce violations are of national concern given that, in 2015, nearly 21 million people relied on community water systems that violated health-based quality standards. In this paper, we evaluate spatial and temporal patterns in health-related violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act using a panel dataset of 17,900 community water systems over the period 1982-2015. We also identify vulnerability factors of communities and water systems through probit regression. Increasing time trends and violation hot spots are detected in several states, particularly in the Southwest region. Repeat violations are prevalent in locations of violation hot spots, indicating that water systems in these regions struggle with recurring issues. In terms of vulnerability factors, we find that violation incidence in rural areas is substantially higher than in urbanized areas. Meanwhile, private ownership and purchased water source are associated with compliance. These findings indicate the types of underperforming systems that might benefit from assistance in achieving consistent compliance. We discuss why certain violations might be clustered in some regions and strategies for improving national drinking water quality.

  9. What's in Your Water? An Educator's Guide to Water Quality. (United States)

    Constabile, Kerry, Comp.; Craig, Heidi, Comp.; O'Laughlin, Laura, Comp.; Reiss, Anne Bei, Comp.; Spencer, Liz, Comp.

    This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)

  10. Water issues associated with heavy oil production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Quinn, J. J.; Environmental Science Division


    Crude oil occurs in many different forms throughout the world. An important characteristic of crude oil that affects the ease with which it can be produced is its density and viscosity. Lighter crude oil typically can be produced more easily and at lower cost than heavier crude oil. Historically, much of the nation's oil supply came from domestic or international light or medium crude oil sources. California's extensive heavy oil production for more than a century is a notable exception. Oil and gas companies are actively looking toward heavier crude oil sources to help meet demands and to take advantage of large heavy oil reserves located in North and South America. Heavy oil includes very viscous oil resources like those found in some fields in California and Venezuela, oil shale, and tar sands (called oil sands in Canada). These are described in more detail in the next chapter. Water is integrally associated with conventional oil production. Produced water is the largest byproduct associated with oil production. The cost of managing large volumes of produced water is an important component of the overall cost of producing oil. Most mature oil fields rely on injected water to maintain formation pressure during production. The processes involved with heavy oil production often require external water supplies for steam generation, washing, and other steps. While some heavy oil processes generate produced water, others generate different types of industrial wastewater. Management and disposition of the wastewater presents challenges and costs for the operators. This report describes water requirements relating to heavy oil production and potential sources for that water. The report also describes how water is used and the resulting water quality impacts associated with heavy oil production.

  11. Water Quality Monitoring Manual. (United States)

    Mason, Fred J.; Houdart, Joseph F.

    This manual is designed for students involved in environmental education programs dealing with water pollution problems. By establishing a network of Environmental Monitoring Stations within the educational system, four steps toward the prevention, control, and abatement of water pollution are proposed. (1) Train students to recognize, monitor,…

  12. Collection of Condensate Water: Global Potential and Water Quality Impacts

    KAUST Repository

    Loveless, Kolin Joseph


    Water is a valuable resource throughout the world, especially in hot, dry climates and regions experiencing significant population growth. Supplies of fresh water are complicated by the economic and political conditions in many of these regions. Technologies that can supply fresh water at a reduced cost are therefore becoming increasingly important and the impact of such technologies can be substantial. This paper considers the collection of condensate water from large air conditioning units as a possible method to alleviate water scarcity issues. Using the results of a climate model that tested data collected from 2000 to 2010, we have identified areas in the world with the greatest collection potential. We gave special consideration to areas with known water scarcities, including the coastal regions of the Arabian Peninsula, Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. We found that the quality of the collected water is an important criterion in determining the potential uses for this water. Condensate water samples were collected from a few locations in Saudi Arabia and detailed characterizations were conducted to determine the quality of this water. We found that the quality of condensate water collected from various locations and types of air conditioners was very high with conductivities reaching as low as 18 μS/cm and turbidities of 0. 041 NTU. The quality of the collected condensate was close to that of distilled water and, with low-cost polishing treatments, such as ion exchange resins and electrochemical processes, the condensate quality could easily reach that of potable water. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  13. Quality Assurance for Iraqi Bottled Water Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May George Kassir


    Full Text Available In this research the specifications of Iraqi drinking bottled water brands are investigated throughout the comparison between local brands, Saudi Arabia and the World Health Organization (WHO for bottled water standard specifications. These specifications were also compared to that of Iraqi Tap Water standards. To reveal variations in the specifications for Iraqi bottled water, and above mentioned standards some quality control tools are conducted for more than 33% of different bottled water brands (of different origins such as spring, purified,..etc in Iraq by investigating the selected quality parameters registered on their marketing labels. Results employing Minitab software (ver. 16 to generate X bar, and Pareto chart. It was found from X bar charts that the quality parameters of some drinking bottled water brands are not within Iraqi standards set by the “Central Agency for Standardization and Quality Control” such as pH values, Fe, Na, and Mg concentrations. While the comparison of previously mentioned standard specifications through radar chart many important issues are detected such as the absence of lower limits the whole bottled water quality parameters such as for Na and Mg also the radar chart shows that Iraqi bottled and tap water specifications are almost equal in their quality values. Also the same chart pictured the limited range of Iraqi specifications compared to that of Saudi Arabia, and WHO and the need to introduce other water specifications such as K, Na, etc. This confirms the need to improve Iraqi bottled water specifications since it was introduced on 2000. These results also highlighted the weakness of quality assurance activities since only 33 % of the investigated companies registered the whole water quality specifications as shown in Pareto chart. Other companies do not register any quality characteristics. Also certain companies should be stopped due to non-conforming specifications, yet these companies are

  14. Surface water quality assessment using factor analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 16, 2006 ... Surface water, groundwater quality assessment and environ- .... Urbanisation influences the water cycle through changes in flow and water ..... tion of aquatic life, CCME water quality Index 1, 0. User`s ... Water, Air Soil Pollut.

  15. [Drinking water quality and safety]. (United States)

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Anna; Miralles, Maria Josepa; Corbella, Irene; García, Soledad; Navarro, Sonia; Llebaria, Xavier


    The purpose of drinking water legislation is to guarantee the quality and safety of water intended for human consumption. In the European Union, Directive 98/83/EC updated the essential and binding quality criteria and standards, incorporated into Spanish national legislation by Royal Decree 140/2003. This article reviews the main characteristics of the aforementioned drinking water legislation and its impact on the improvement of water quality against empirical data from Catalonia. Analytical data reported in the Spanish national information system (SINAC) indicate that water quality in Catalonia has improved in recent years (from 88% of analytical reports in 2004 finding drinking water to be suitable for human consumption, compared to 95% in 2014). The improvement is fundamentally attributed to parameters concerning the organoleptic characteristics of water and parameters related to the monitoring of the drinking water treatment process. Two management experiences concerning compliance with quality standards for trihalomethanes and lead in Barcelona's water supply are also discussed. Finally, this paper presents some challenges that, in the opinion of the authors, still need to be incorporated into drinking water legislation. It is necessary to update Annex I of Directive 98/83/EC to integrate current scientific knowledge, as well as to improve consumer access to water quality data. Furthermore, a need to define common criteria for some non-resolved topics, such as products and materials in contact with drinking water and domestic conditioning equipment, has also been identified. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Ground Water Quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that Na and K were the most abundant dissolved cations in the groundwater. The. + .... concentration of phosphate (PO ) in the water. 4 samples was ...... The Effect of Copper on Some Laboratory Indices of Clarias.

  17. Industry disagrees with water quality recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begley, R.


    Industry groups are distancing themselves from recommendations on cleaning up the nation's waters issued by Water Quality 2000, a coalition of more than 80 organizations representing industry, environmental groups, government, academia, and professional and scientific societies. The report, open-quotes A National Water Agenda for the 21st Centuryclose quotes, is a result of work begun in 1989. It recommends an approach to water quality that emphasizes pollution prevention, increased individual and collective responsibility for protecting water resources, and reorienting water resource programs and institutions along natural, rather than political, watershed boundaries. It includes 85 specific recommendations, many of which are to be implemented locally. The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC; Washington) open-quotes wholeheartedly endorses not only the specific solutions offered today but the process by which these proposals were reached,close quotes says Robert W. Adler, NRDC senior attorney and vice chairman of Water Quality 2000. John B. Coleman, corporate environmental affairs manager for Du Pont and a member of the groups's steering committee, says open-quotes Du Pont and the other industry members of Water Quality 2000 are committedclose quotes to working to make continuous improvements

  18. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality. (United States)


    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality. (a) Water Quality is not guaranteed. The Secretary does not warrant the quality of water released or...

  19. 5 Water Quality.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The water quality assessment conducted in the Densu, Birim and Ayensu Basins of Ghana in the Okyeman area ... All the mean nutrient values for Densu, Birim and Ayensu were not significantly .... variability in the composition of the river.

  20. Coalbed methane produced water in China: status and environmental issues. (United States)

    Meng, Yanjun; Tang, Dazhen; Xu, Hao; Li, Yong; Gao, Lijun


    As one of the unconventional natural gas family members, coalbed methane (CBM) receives great attention throughout the world. The major associated problem of CBM production is the management of produced water. In the USA, Canada, and Australia, much research has been done on the effects and management of coalbed methane produced water (CMPW). However, in China, the environmental effects of CMPW were overlooked. The quantity and the quality of CMPW both vary enormously between coal basins or stratigraphic units in China. The unit produced water volume of CBM wells in China ranges from 10 to 271,280 L/well/day, and the concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS) ranges from 691 to 93,898 mg/L. Most pH values of CMPW are more than 7.0, showing the alkaline feature, and the Na-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-Cl are typical types of CMPW in China. Treatment and utilization of CMPW in China lag far behind the USA and Australia, and CMPW is mainly managed by surface impoundments and evaporation. Currently, the core environmental issues associated with CMPW in China are that the potential environmental problems of CMPW have not been given enough attention, and relevant regulations as well as environmental impact assessment (EIA) guidelines for CMPW are still lacking. Other potential issues in China includes (1) water quality monitoring issues for CMPW with special components in special areas, (2) groundwater level decline issues associated with the dewatering process, and (3) potential environmental issues of groundwater pollution associated with hydraulic fracturing.

  1. Climate and transboundary water management issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjonback, D.


    The potential effects of climate change on transboundary river systems, major water uses, interjurisdictional arrangements, and water issues affecting water management in the Great Plains of Canada are discussed. Three atmospheric general circulation models (GCM) have been applied for a two times carbon dioxide concentration scenario for the Saskatchewan River system. The models were the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) model, the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) model, and the Oregon State University (OSU) model. For all models, soil moisture on the plains was reduced. The GISS model predicted slightly higher runoff for plains-originating streams, and a substantial increase in runoff (32%) in the Rockies. The GFDL model predicted lower runoffs in the plains and Rockies, with some locations near the Alberta-Saskatchewan border indicating zero runoff. The OSU model results generally bracketed the GISS and GFDL results, with total runoff approximating 1951-1980 mean. The GISS model indicated an increase in net basin supply of 28%, while the GFDL model, due to lower runoff and high soil moisture defecits, showed a decrease of 38%. For policy making, monitoring, and research, the GFDL model results can provide important guidelines. Greater attention to demand management and conservation will have short-term benefits in stretching the limited water resource base to support a larger economy, while providing flexibility to cope with future climate as it evolves. 1 ref

  2. Water quality. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of gross alpha activity in non-saline waters for alpha-emitting radionuclides which are not volatile at 350 o C. It is possible to determine supported volatile radionuclides measured to an extent determined by half-life, matrix retention (of the volatile species) and the duration of measurement (counting time). The method is applicable to raw and potable waters and can be extended to saline or mineralized waters, but with a reduced sensitivity. The range of application depends on the amount of inorganic material in the water and on the performance characteristics (background count rate and counting efficiency) of the counter. The sample is acidified to stabilize it, evaporated almost to dryness, converted to the sulfate form and then ignited at 350 o C. A portion of the residue is transferred to a planchette and the alpha activity measured by counting in an alpha-particle detector or counting system previously calibrated against an alpha-emitting standard. (author)

  3. Freezing point osmometry of milk to determine the additional water content – an issue in general quality control and German food regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holz Birger


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The determination of the osmolality of aqueous samples using a freezing point osmometer is a well-established, routine laboratory method. In addition to their use in clinical and pharmaceutical laboratories, freezing point osmometers are also employed in food testing laboratories. One application is the determination of the osmolality of milk. Although cow's milk is a natural product whose water content is approximately 87%, the osmolality of milk is a significant value when the milk is collected from a larger population of animals. This value is used in milk processing to control the water content, based on the German Food Control Regulations for Milk. Results Measurement of the freezing point and osmolality of milk samples was performed with a Knauer Semi-Micro Freezing Point Osmometer. Osmolality was measured for the untreated milk samples and following their dilution (by volume with 10% and 50% water. The measurements were made after 1, 4 and 7 days to evaluate changes over time. All measurement values for the undiluted milk were spread over a small interval with an average of 271 mOsmol/kg. After mixing the milk samples with 10% water, the average decreased to 242 mOsmol/kg, while mixing with 50% water resulted in an average osmolality of 129 mOsmol/kg. There was no significant change for the osmolality within the 7 days (measurements from days 1, 4 and 7. Conclusion The results observed demonstrate clearly that the additional water content of milk can be determined easily using a freezing point osmometer. Milk samples that contain additional water have a significantly decreased osmolality, corresponding to an increased freezing point. The effect on osmolality of ageing the milk samples could not be determined in this study's time-dependent measurements.

  4. Water quality criteria for lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, N.K.


    This report is one in a series that establishes water quality criteria for British Columbia. The report sets criteria for lead to protect a number of water uses, including drinking water, freshwater and marine aquatic life, wildlife, livestock, irrigation, and recreation. The criteria are set as either maximum concentrations of total lead that should not be exceeded at any time, or average concentrations that should not be exceeded over a 30-day period. Actual values are summarized.

  5. A national look at water quality (United States)

    Gilliom, Robert J.; Mueller, David K.; Zogorski, John S.; Ryker, Sarah J.


    Most water-quality problems we face today result from diffuse "nonpoint" sources of pollution from agricultural land, urban development, forest harvesting and the atmosphere (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers et al., 1999). It is difficult to quantify nonpoint sources because the contaminants they deliver vary in composition and concentrations from hour to hour and season to season. Moreover, the nature of the contamination is complex and varied. When Congress enacted the Clean Water Act 30 years ago, attention was focused on water-quality issues related to the sanitation of rivers and streams - bacteria counts, oxygen in the water for fish, nutrients, temperature, and salinity. Now, attention is turning to the hundreds of synthetic organic compounds like pesticides used in agricultural and residential areas, volatile organics in solvents and gasoline, microbial and viral contamination, and pharmaceuticals and hormones.

  6. Water quantity and quality at the urban-rural interface (United States)

    Ge Sun; B. Graeme Lockaby


    Population growth and urban development dramatically alter natural watershed ecosystem structure and functions and stress water resources. We review studies on the impacts of urbanization on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes underlying stream water quantity and water quality issues, as well as water supply challenges in an urban environment. We conclude that...

  7. Optical sensors for water quality (United States)

    Pellerin, Brian A.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.


    Shifts in land use, population, and climate have altered hydrologic systems in the United States in ways that affect water quality and ecosystem function. Water diversions, detention in reservoirs, increased channelization, and changes in rainfall and snowmelt are major causes, but there are also more subtle causes such as changes in soil temperature, atmospheric deposition, and shifting vegetation patterns. The effects on water quality are complex and interconnected, and occur at timeframes of minutes (e.g., flash floods) to decades (e.g., evolving management practices).

  8. Gender issues in planning with water (United States)

    Bostenaru-Dan, Maria; Olga Gociman, Cristina


    buildings are endangered by demolition. At the same time, for water heritage, women built or are users of remarcable buildings. Some of these, as in case of hazards, need to take gender issues in consideration (ex. bath resorts). These are relevant for urban planning analysis by means of dedicated programmes such as SpaceSyntax. European programmes such as H2020 try to adapt their policies for gender, including in Security calls. In the genderSTE group we worked towards women and water issues in such calls policy, and there are couple of related initiatives as well which will be shown.

  9. International Liability Issues for Software Quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mead, Nancy


    This report focuses on international law related to cybercrime, international information security standards, and software liability issues as they relate to information security for critical infrastructure applications...

  10. Code quality issues in student programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuning, H.W.; Heeren, B.J.; Jeuring, J.T.


    Because low quality code can cause serious problems in software systems, students learning to program should pay attention to code quality early. Although many studies have investigated mistakes that students make during programming, we do not know much about the quality of their code. This study

  11. Klang River water quality modelling using music (United States)

    Zahari, Nazirul Mubin; Zawawi, Mohd Hafiz; Muda, Zakaria Che; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Fauzi, Nurfazila Mohd; Othman, Mohd Edzham Fareez; Ahmad, Zulkepply


    Water is an essential resource that sustains life on earth; changes in the natural quality and distribution of water have ecological impacts that can sometimes be devastating. Recently, Malaysia is facing many environmental issues regarding water pollution. The main causes of river pollution are rapid urbanization, arising from the development of residential, commercial, industrial sites, infrastructural facilities and others. The purpose of the study was to predict the water quality of the Connaught Bridge Power Station (CBPS), Klang River. Besides that, affects to the low tide and high tide and. to forecast the pollutant concentrations of the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Total Suspended Solid (TSS) for existing land use of the catchment area through water quality modeling (by using the MUSIC software). Besides that, to identifying an integrated urban stormwater treatment system (Best Management Practice or BMPs) to achieve optimal performance in improving the water quality of the catchment using the MUSIC software in catchment areas having tropical climates. Result from MUSIC Model such as BOD5 at station 1 can be reduce the concentration from Class IV to become Class III. Whereas, for TSS concentration from Class III to become Class II at the station 1. The model predicted a mean TSS reduction of 0.17%, TP reduction of 0.14%, TN reduction of 0.48% and BOD5 reduction of 0.31% for Station 1 Thus, from the result after purposed BMPs the water quality is safe to use because basically water quality monitoring is important due to threat such as activities are harmful to aquatic organisms and public health.

  12. Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) (United States)

    The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and manmade pollution for various pollution management decisions.

  13. Water Quality and Sustainable Environmental Health (United States)

    Setegn, S. G.


    Lack of adequate safe water, the pollution of the aquatic environment and the mismanagement of resources are major causes of ill-health and mortality, particularly in the developing countries. In order to accommodate more growth, sustainable fresh water resource management will need to be included in future development plans. One of the major environmental issues of concern to policy-makers is the increased vulnerability of ground water quality. The main challenge for the sustainability of water resources is the control of water pollution. To understand the sustainability of the water resources, one needs to understand the impact of future land use and climate changes on the natural resources. Providing safe water and basic sanitation to meet the Millennium Development Goals will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. A balanced approach to water resources exploitation for development, on the one hand, and controls for the protection of health, on the other, is required if the benefits of both are to be realized without avoidable detrimental effects manifesting themselves. Meeting the millennium development goals for water and sanitation in the next decade will require substantial economic resources, sustainable technological solutions and courageous political will. In addition to providing "improved" water and "basic" sanitation services, we must ensure that these services provide: safe drinking water, adequate quantities of water for health, hygiene, agriculture and development and sustainable sanitation approaches to protect health and the environment.

  14. Identification of water quality degradation hotspots in developing countries by applying large scale water quality modelling (United States)

    Malsy, Marcus; Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina


    Decreasing water quality is one of the main global issues which poses risks to food security, economy, and public health and is consequently crucial for ensuring environmental sustainability. During the last decades access to clean drinking water increased, but 2.5 billion people still do not have access to basic sanitation, especially in Africa and parts of Asia. In this context not only connection to sewage system is of high importance, but also treatment, as an increasing connection rate will lead to higher loadings and therefore higher pressure on water resources. Furthermore, poor people in developing countries use local surface waters for daily activities, e.g. bathing and washing. It is thus clear that water utilization and water sewerage are indispensable connected. In this study, large scale water quality modelling is used to point out hotspots of water pollution to get an insight on potential environmental impacts, in particular, in regions with a low observation density and data gaps in measured water quality parameters. We applied the global water quality model WorldQual to calculate biological oxygen demand (BOD) loadings from point and diffuse sources, as well as in-stream concentrations. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries i.e. Africa, Asia, and South America, as they are most affected by water pollution. Hereby, model runs were conducted for the year 2010 to draw a picture of recent status of surface waters quality and to figure out hotspots and main causes of pollution. First results show that hotspots mainly occur in highly agglomerated regions where population density is high. Large urban areas are initially loading hotspots and pollution prevention and control become increasingly important as point sources are subject to connection rates and treatment levels. Furthermore, river discharge plays a crucial role due to dilution potential, especially in terms of seasonal variability. Highly varying shares of BOD sources across

  15. Part 2: Surface water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In 1996 the surface water quality measurements were performed, according to the Agreement, at 8 profiles on the Hungarian territory and at 15 profiles on the Slovak territory. Basic physical and chemical parameters (as water temperature, pH values, conductivity, suspended solids, cations and anions (nitrates, ammonium ion, nitrites, total nitrogen, phosphates, total phosphorus, oxygen and organic carbon regime parameters), metals (iron, manganese and heavy metals), biological and microbiological parameters (coliform bacteria, chlorophyll-a, saprobity index and other biological parameters) and quality of sediment were measured

  16. Integrated Urban Water Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, W.; Harremoës, Poul


    The basic features of integrated urban water quality management by means of deterministic modeling are outlined. Procedures for the assessment of the detrimental effects in the recipient are presented as well as the basic concepts of an integrated model. The analysis of a synthetic urban drainage...... system provides useful information for water quality management. It is possible to identify the system parameters that contain engineering significance. Continuous simulation of the system performance indicates that the combined nitrogen loading is dominated by the wastewater treatment plant during dry...

  17. Work Plan for a Water Quality Model of Florida Bay

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dortch, Mark


    .... The model is required to address issues pertaining to nutrient inputs and associated impacts on water quality and sea grass, particularly as related to changes in freshwater inflows from south...

  18. Water Development: A Philosophical and Ethical Issue (United States)

    Perkins, D.


    As one reviewer said about John McPhee's Encounters With the Archdruid:"So the real issues relate to what is natural? How should lands be used? What role do humans have in using, caring for, being part of the land and can we do so responsibly?" This quote applies equally to more than just land development -- it applies to water project too. Although Marc Reisner wrote Cadillac Desert in 1986, the lessons it presents about water development are current today. Not much has changed really in the past three decades. People still live in arid places where, perhaps, they should not live. Engineers still redesign nature to meet human needs, only to find out later that there are unintended consequences. About the only thing that has changed is that today the Bureau of Reclamation and other agencies do not spend megabucks to construct huge water projects. And, insignificant by comparison, some restoration and dam removal projects have begun on a limited scale. We developed an exercise, based on selected chapters from Reisner's book and a video derived from the book, to help students develop critical thinking and ethical reasoning skills. As we did so, we realized that there was much more that could be included. The ethical dilemmas associated with water development and related engineering projects are many. So, now, the original exercise has been expanded to 7 units. The original five units are based on Cadillac Desert. The sixth is based on a recent great documentary film, DamNation. The last unit is inspired by a terrific chapter from John McPhee's 1971 book Encounters with the Archdruid. The format is that student read articles and book chapters and then write responses to questions designed to get them to reflect on what they read. So, the exercises may be assigned as homework, but for the most value there must be some significant group discussions. If all units are used, this provides several weeks of homework for students, but instructors may cherry pick the units

  19. Water quality index for assessment of water quality of river ravi at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality of River Ravi, a tributary of Indus River System was evaluated by Water Quality Index (WQI) technique. A water quality index provides a single number that expresses overall water quality at a certain location and time based on several water quality parameters. The objective of an index is to turn complex water ...

  20. Large-scale Water-related Innovative Renewable Energy Projects and the Water Framework Directive : Legal Issues and Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, S.R.W.


    This article discusses two legal issues that relate to the conflict between the interest of protecting water quality under the Water Framework Directive (WFD), versus the interest of promoting the use of innovative water-related renewable energy, with regard to the quota in the Renewable Energy

  1. Solid Wastes and Water Quality. (United States)

    DeWalle, F. B.; Chian, E. S. K.


    Presents a literature review of solid wastes and water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as: (1) environmental impacts and health aspects for waste disposal, and (2) processed and hazardous wastes. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  2. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality. (United States)


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7... POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin for water quality management and control. However, protection of the water resources of the basin from...

  3. Portable water quality monitoring system (United States)

    Nizar, N. B.; Ong, N. R.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Alcain, J. B.; Haimi, W. M. W. N.; Sauli, Z.


    Portable water quality monitoring system was a developed system that tested varied samples of water by using different sensors and provided the specific readings to the user via short message service (SMS) based on the conditions of the water itself. In this water quality monitoring system, the processing part was based on a microcontroller instead of Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) machines to receive the results. By using four main sensors, this system obtained the readings based on the detection of the sensors, respectively. Therefore, users can receive the readings through SMS because there was a connection between Arduino Uno and GSM Module. This system was designed to be portable so that it would be convenient for users to carry it anywhere and everywhere they wanted to since the processor used is smaller in size compared to the LCR machines. It was also developed to ease the user to monitor and control the water quality. However, the ranges of the sensors' detection still a limitation in this study.

  4. Water quality for liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuniwa, Fumio; Maekoya, Chiaki; Iwasaki, Hitoshi; Yano, Hiroaki; Watahiki, Kazuo.


    Purpose: To facilitate the automation of the operation for a liquid wastes processing system by enabling continuous analysis for the main ingredients in the liquid wastes accurately and rapidly. Constitution: The water quality monitor comprises a sampling pipeway system for taking out sample water for the analysis of liquid wastes from a pipeway introducing liquid wastes to the liquid wastes concentrator, a filter for removing suspended matters in the sample water and absorption photometer as a water quality analyzer. A portion of the liquid wastes is passed through the suspended matter filter by a feedpump. In this case, sulfate ions and chloride ions in the sample are retained in the upper portion of a separation color and, subsequently, the respective ingredients are separated and leached out by eluting solution. Since the leached out ingredients form ferric ions and yellow complexes respectively, their concentrations can be detected by the spectrum photometer. Accordingly, concentration for the sodium sulfate and sodium chloride in the liquid wastes can be analyzed rapidly, accurately and repeatedly by which the water quality can be determined rapidly and accurately. (Yoshino, Y.)

  5. Quality status of bottled water brands in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlown, M. A.; Tahir, M.A.


    The (PCRWR) has carried out a study to evaluate the quality of mineral water brands available in the market owing to demand of general public and consumer associations. Twenty one brands of bottled water were collected from Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Each water sample was analyzed for 24 aesthetic, physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality parameters by adopting standard analytical methods. It was observed that only 10 out of 21 brands (47.62%) were fit for drinking purpose. The remaining eleven brands (52.38%), including one imported brand, were found unsafe for human consumption. It was also concluded that present situation of water quality of bottled water is due to lack of legislation for water quality control. Hence there is a dire need for a legal organization to monitor and regulate the quality issues of bottled water industry. (author)

  6. Water You Engineering? An Activity to Develop Water-Quality Awareness (United States)

    Riskowski, Jody; Todd, Carrie Davis


    Water is one of our most precious resources. However, for many in the United States, having fresh, safe drinking water is taken for granted, and due to this perceived lack of relevance, students may not fully appreciate the luxury of having safe running water--in the home. One approach to resolving water-quality issues in the United States may…

  7. Shallow Water Optical Water Quality Buoy (United States)

    Bostater, Charles


    This NASA grant was funded as a result of an unsolicited proposal submission to Kennedy Space Center. The proposal proposed the development and testing of a shallow water optical water quality buoy. The buoy is meant to work in shallow aquatic systems (ponds, rivers, lagoons, and semi-enclosed water areas where strong wind wave action is not a major environmental During the project period of three years, a demonstration of the buoy was conducted. The last demonstration during the project period was held in November, 1996 when the buoy was demonstrated as being totally operational with no tethered communications line. During the last year of the project the buoy was made to be solar operated by large gel cell batteries. Fund limitations did not permit the batteries in metal enclosures as hoped for higher wind conditions, however the system used to date has worked continuously for in- situ operation of over 18 months continuous deployment. The system needs to have maintenance and somewhat continuous operational attention since various components have limited lifetime ages. For example, within the last six months the onboard computer has had to be repaired as it did approximately 6 months after deployment. The spectrograph had to be repaired and costs for repairs was covered by KB Science since no ftmds were available for this purpose after the grant expired. Most recently the computer web page server failed and it is currently being repaired by KB Science. In addition, the cell phone operation is currently being ftmded by Dr. Bostater in order to maintain the system's operation. The above points need to be made to allow NASA to understand that like any sophisticated measuring system in a lab or in the field, necessary funding and maintenance is needed to insure the system's operational state and to obtain quality factor. The proposal stated that the project was based upon the integration of a proprietary and confidential sensor and probe design that was developed by

  8. Product Life Cycle - Quality Management Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Majstorovic, Vidosav D.


    The strategic goal of our country is European and world integration. Within this context the management of sustainable development considered from the aspect of product’s life cycle and its quality management represents a real challenge for researchers, economy and educational system. The aim...

  9. Review on water quality sensors (United States)

    Kruse, Peter


    Terrestrial life may be carbon-based, but most of its mass is made up of water. Access to clean water is essential to all aspects of maintaining life. Mainly due to human activity, the strain on the water resources of our planet has increased substantially, requiring action in water management and purification. Water quality sensors are needed in order to quantify the problem and verify the success of remedial actions. This review summarizes the most common chemical water quality parameters, and current developments in sensor technology available to monitor them. Particular emphasis is on technologies that lend themselves to reagent-free, low-maintenance, autonomous and continuous monitoring. Chemiresistors and other electrical sensors are discussed in particular detail, while mechanical, optical and electrochemical sensors also find mentioning. The focus here is on the physics of chemical signal transduction in sensor elements that are in direct contact with the analyte. All other sensing methods, and all other elements of sampling, sample pre-treatment as well as the collection, transmission and analysis of the data are not discussed here. Instead, the goal is to highlight the progress and remaining challenges in the development of sensor materials and designs for an audience of physicists and materials scientists.

  10. Water quality data for national-scale aquatic research: The Water Quality Portal (United States)

    Read, Emily K.; Carr, Lindsay; De Cicco, Laura; Dugan, Hilary A.; Hanson, Paul C.; Hart, Julia A.; Kreft, James; Read, Jordan S.; Winslow, Luke A.


    xml:id="wrcr22485-sec-1001" numbered="no">Aquatic systems are critical to food, security, and society. But, water data are collected by hundreds of research groups and organizations, many of which use nonstandard or inconsistent data descriptions and dissemination, and disparities across different types of water observation systems represent a major challenge for freshwater research. To address this issue, the Water Quality Portal (WQP) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council to be a single point of access for water quality data dating back more than a century. The WQP is the largest standardized water quality data set available at the time of this writing, with more than 290 million records from more than 2.7 million sites in groundwater, inland, and coastal waters. The number of data contributors, data consumers, and third-party application developers making use of the WQP is growing rapidly. Here we introduce the WQP, including an overview of data, the standardized data model, and data access and services; and we describe challenges and opportunities associated with using WQP data. We also demonstrate through an example the value of the WQP data by characterizing seasonal variation in lake water clarity for regions of the continental U.S. The code used to access, download, analyze, and display these WQP data as shown in the figures is included as supporting information.

  11. Water quality data for national-scale aquatic research: The Water Quality Portal (United States)

    Read, Emily K.; Carr, Lindsay; DeCicco, Laura; Dugan, Hilary; Hanson, Paul C.; Hart, Julia A.; Kreft, James; Read, Jordan S.; Winslow, Luke


    Aquatic systems are critical to food, security, and society. But, water data are collected by hundreds of research groups and organizations, many of which use nonstandard or inconsistent data descriptions and dissemination, and disparities across different types of water observation systems represent a major challenge for freshwater research. To address this issue, the Water Quality Portal (WQP) was developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council to be a single point of access for water quality data dating back more than a century. The WQP is the largest standardized water quality data set available at the time of this writing, with more than 290 million records from more than 2.7 million sites in groundwater, inland, and coastal waters. The number of data contributors, data consumers, and third-party application developers making use of the WQP is growing rapidly. Here we introduce the WQP, including an overview of data, the standardized data model, and data access and services; and we describe challenges and opportunities associated with using WQP data. We also demonstrate through an example the value of the WQP data by characterizing seasonal variation in lake water clarity for regions of the continental U.S. The code used to access, download, analyze, and display these WQP data as shown in the figures is included as supporting information.

  12. Water quality relationships and evaluation using a new water quality index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, A.; Stevens, D.; Sehlke, G.


    Water quality is dependent on a variety of measures, including dissolved oxygen, microbial contamination, turbidity, nutrients, temperature, pH, and other constituents. Determining relationships between water quality parameters can improve water quality assessment, and watershed management. In addition, these relationships can be very valuable in case of evaluating water quality in watersheds that have few water quality data. (author)

  13. DUSEL Facility Cooling Water Scaling Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily, W D


    Precipitation (crystal growth) in supersaturated solutions is governed by both kenetic and thermodynamic processes. This is an important and evolving field of research, especially for the petroleum industry. There are several types of precipitates including sulfate compounds (ie. barium sulfate) and calcium compounds (ie. calcium carbonate). The chemical makeup of the mine water has relatively large concentrations of sulfate as compared to calcium, so we may expect that sulfate type reactions. The kinetics of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4 {center_dot} 2H20, gypsum) scale formation on heat exchanger surfaces from aqueous solutions has been studied by a highly reproducible technique. It has been found that gypsum scale formation takes place directly on the surface of the heat exchanger without any bulk or spontaneous precipitation in the reaction cell. The kinetic data also indicate that the rate of scale formation is a function of surface area and the metallurgy of the heat exchanger. As we don't have detailed information about the heat exchanger, we can only infer that this will be an issue for us. Supersaturations of various compounds are affected differently by temperature, pressure and pH. Pressure has only a slight affect on the solubility, whereas temperature is a much more sensitive parameter (Figure 1). The affect of temperature is reversed for calcium carbonate and barium sulfate solubilities. As temperature increases, barium sulfate solubility concentrations increase and scaling decreases. For calcium carbonate, the scaling tendencies increase with increasing temperature. This is all relative, as the temperatures and pressures of the referenced experiments range from 122 to 356 F. Their pressures range from 200 to 4000 psi. Because the cooling water system isn't likely to see pressures above 200 psi, it's unclear if this pressure/scaling relationship will be significant or even apparent. The most common scale minerals found in the

  14. Quality control in public participation assessments of water quality: the OPAL Water Survey. (United States)

    Rose, N L; Turner, S D; Goldsmith, B; Gosling, L; Davidson, T A


    Public participation in scientific data collection is a rapidly expanding field. In water quality surveys, the involvement of the public, usually as trained volunteers, generally includes the identification of aquatic invertebrates to a broad taxonomic level. However, quality assurance is often not addressed and remains a key concern for the acceptance of publicly-generated water quality data. The Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) Water Survey, launched in May 2010, aimed to encourage interest and participation in water science by developing a 'low-barrier-to-entry' water quality survey. During 2010, over 3000 participant-selected lakes and ponds were surveyed making this the largest public participation lake and pond survey undertaken to date in the UK. But the OPAL approach of using untrained volunteers and largely anonymous data submission exacerbates quality control concerns. A number of approaches were used in order to address data quality issues including: sensitivity analysis to determine differences due to operator, sampling effort and duration; direct comparisons of identification between participants and experienced scientists; the use of a self-assessment identification quiz; the use of multiple participant surveys to assess data variability at single sites over short periods of time; comparison of survey techniques with other measurement variables and with other metrics generally considered more accurate. These quality control approaches were then used to screen the OPAL Water Survey data to generate a more robust dataset. The OPAL Water Survey results provide a regional and national assessment of water quality as well as a first national picture of water clarity (as suspended solids concentrations). Less than 10 % of lakes and ponds surveyed were 'poor' quality while 26.8 % were in the highest water quality band. It is likely that there will always be a question mark over untrained volunteer generated data simply because quality assurance is uncertain

  15. Dam water quality study. Report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The objective of the report is to identify water quality effects attributable to the impoundment of water by dams as required by Section 524 of the Water Quality Act of 1987. The document presents a study of water quality effects associated with impoundments in the U.S.A

  16. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure... additives (e.g. chlorine and copper) that are added to the water to maintain water quality standards...

  17. Water temperature issues in the 90's and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Railsback, S.F.


    Water temperature issues are expected to receive increasing attention in the 1990s. Temperature impacts are among the most common and most expensive environmental issues requiring mitigation at water projects, but few changes in mitigation technologies and little research have occurred in the past decade. Water projects alter water temperatures because the heat balances in reservoirs and in streams with altered flows are significantly different from natural. Several emerging environmental and regulatory concerns and issues are likely to focus additional attention on temperature. Climate change, should it occur as predicted, can be expected to worsen many water temperature problems and complicate the determination of appropriate mitigation for water projects. The purposes of this paper are to review current water temperature issues and mitigation methods, to identify new and future temperature issues, and to identify research needs

  18. Water quality assessment of selected domestic water sources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, lead ion appears higher than the approved WHO and SON standard for water quality in all the sources except that of water vendors which is 0.04mg/l. It is therefore recommended that periodic monitoring of water quality, effective waste management system to improve the general water quality in the town, and ...

  19. Water quality control system and water quality control method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itsumi, Sachio; Ichikawa, Nagayoshi; Uruma, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kazuya; Seki, Shuji


    In the water quality control system of the present invention, portions in contact with water comprise a metal material having a controlled content of iron or chromium, and the chromium content on the surface is increased than that of mother material in a state where compression stresses remain on the surface by mechanical polishing to form an uniform corrosion resistant coating film. In addition, equipments and/or pipelines to which a material controlling corrosion potential stably is applied on the surface are used. There are disposed a cleaning device made of a material less forming impurities, and detecting intrusion of impurities and removing them selectively depending on chemical species and/or a cleaning device for recovering drain from various kinds of equipment to feedwater, connecting a feedwater pipeline and a condensate pipeline and removing impurities and corrosion products. Then, water can be kept to neutral purified water, and the concentrations of oxygen and hydrogen in water are controlled within an optimum range to suppress occurrence of corrosion products. (N.H.)

  20. Review of CGE models of water issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calzadilla, Alvaro; Rehdanz, Katrin; Roson, Roberto; Sartori, Martina; Tol, Richard S.J.


    Computable general equilibrium (CGE) models offer a method of studying the role of water resources and water scarcity in the context of international trade. This chapter reviews the literature on water-related CGE modeling by providing a survey that focuses on the implications of different modeling

  1. Thermal food processing: new technologies and quality issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Da-Wen


    .... The editor of Thermal Food Processing: New Technologies and Quality Issues presents a comprehensive reference through authors that assist in meeting this challenge by explaining the latest developments and analyzing the latest trends...

  2. The economics of water reuse and implications for joint water quality-quantity management (United States)

    Kuwayama, Y.


    Traditionally, economists have treated the management of water quality and water quantity as separate problems. However, there are some water management issues for which economic analysis requires the simultaneous consideration of water quality and quantity policies and outcomes. Water reuse, which has expanded significantly over the last several decades, is one of these issues. Analyzing the cost effectiveness and social welfare outcomes of adopting water reuse requires a joint water quality-quantity optimization framework because, at its most basic level, water reuse requires decision makers to consider (a) its potential for alleviating water scarcity, (b) the quality to which the water should be treated prior to reuse, and (c) the benefits of discharging less wastewater into the environment. In this project, we develop a theoretical model of water reuse management to illustrate how the availability of water reuse technologies and practices can lead to a departure from established rules in the water resource economics literature for the optimal allocation of freshwater and water pollution abatement. We also conduct an econometric analysis of a unique dataset of county-level water reuse from the state of Florida over the seventeen-year period between 1996 and 2012 in order to determine whether water quality or scarcity concerns drive greater adoption of water reuse practices.

  3. Effects of undetected data quality issues on climatological analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hunziker


    Full Text Available Systematic data quality issues may occur at various stages of the data generation process. They may affect large fractions of observational datasets and remain largely undetected with standard data quality control. This study investigates the effects of such undetected data quality issues on the results of climatological analyses. For this purpose, we quality controlled daily observations of manned weather stations from the Central Andean area with a standard and an enhanced approach. The climate variables analysed are minimum and maximum temperature and precipitation. About 40 % of the observations are inappropriate for the calculation of monthly temperature means and precipitation sums due to data quality issues. These quality problems undetected with the standard quality control approach strongly affect climatological analyses, since they reduce the correlation coefficients of station pairs, deteriorate the performance of data homogenization methods, increase the spread of individual station trends, and significantly bias regional temperature trends. Our findings indicate that undetected data quality issues are included in important and frequently used observational datasets and hence may affect a high number of climatological studies. It is of utmost importance to apply comprehensive and adequate data quality control approaches on manned weather station records in order to avoid biased results and large uncertainties.

  4. Economic Journal in Russia: Quality Assessment Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga Valentinovna Tret’yakova


    alternative to the new VAK List. The author draws a conclusion about the need to review the first results of the project and to continue working with them, because the issues identified still do not allow the RSCI list to be used as a full replacement for the VAK List. The paper propose options to expand the RSCI list. The author substantiates the necessity to expand the geography of journals included in the RSCI

  5. [Issue of population quality under economic reform]. (United States)

    Zhu, G


    Under the current economic reform program, various problems about the quality of the population have emerged; dropping out of school is one such problem. In recent years, dropping out of school, has become a prevalent phenomenon. It was estimated that between 1980 and 1987, 40 million primary and middle school students dropped out of school. Drop-outs occurred mostly in primary and middle schools and in rural areas. The reasons for dropping out can be summarized as follows: 1) families could not afford to pay for tuition, 2) students were not able to keep up with school work, and 3) families or students were influenced by other students who had dropped out. In weighing the cost and benefit of attending school, parents would decide whether or not and for how many years to send their children to school. The costs included both direct costs and opportunity costs. Children in urban areas have practically no opportunity costs, while those in rural areas do. Dropping out has been more prevalent among girls than boys. Since girls marry into other families, parents were less willing to invest in their education. On the other hand, the school curriculum gave more emphasis to preparing students for advanced studies than to relaying practical knowledge. Parents did not feel there was any advantage for their children to spend more time in school. Rural economic reform had strengthened the decision-making function of the family in the area of investment. It has also widened the gap between the rich and the poor. For less affluent families, it has become more and more difficult to bear the increasing cost of education. To deal with this problem, the author made several suggestions: 1) persuade parents to continue sending children to school 2) set regulations forbidding the employment of school age children 3) forbid schools to collect unauthorized feeds and establish scholarships to help economically disadvantaged students, 4) develop more vocational schools and change the

  6. 78 FR 20252 - Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to... (United States)


    ... Water Quality Standards; Withdrawal of Certain Federal Water Quality Criteria Applicable to California... aquatic life water quality criteria applicable to waters of New Jersey, Puerto Rico, and California's San Francisco Bay. In 1992, EPA promulgated the National Toxics Rule or NTR to establish numeric water quality...

  7. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (United States)

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  8. Assessing water quality in Lake Naivasha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndungu, J.N.


    Water quality in aquatic systems is important because it maintains the ecological processes that support biodiversity. However, declining water quality due to environmental perturbations threatens the stability of the biotic integrity and therefore hinders the ecosystem services and functions of

  9. National Water Quality Standards Database (NWQSD) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Water Quality Standards Database (WQSDB) provides access to EPA and state water quality standards (WQS) information in text, tables, and maps. This data...

  10. R2 Water Quality Portal Monitoring Stations (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Data Portal (WQP) provides an easy way to access data stored in various large water quality databases. The WQP provides various input parameters on...

  11. U.S. Midwestern Residents Perceptions of Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lois Wright Morton


    Full Text Available The plurality of conservation and environmental viewpoints often challenge community leaders and government agency staff as they seek to engage citizens and build partnerships around watershed planning and management to solve complex water quality issues. The U.S. Midwest Heartland region (covering the states of Missouri, Kansa, Iowa, and Nebraska is dominated by row crop production and animal agriculture, where an understanding of perceptions held by residents of different locations (urban, rural non-farm, and rural farm towards water quality and the environment can provide a foundation for public deliberation and decision making. A stratified random sample mail survey of 1,042 Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, and Nebraska residents (54% response rate reveals many areas of agreement among farm, rural non-farm, and those who live in towns on the importance of water issues including the importance and use of water resources; beliefs about water quality and perceptions of impaired water quality causality; beliefs about protecting local waters; and environmental attitudes. With two ordinal logistic models, we also found that respondents with strong environmental attitudes have the least confidence in ground and surface water quality. The findings about differences and areas of agreement among the residents of different sectors can provide a communication bridge among divergent viewpoints and assist local leaders and agency staff as they seek to engage the public in discussions which lead to negotiating solutions to difficult water issues.

  12. Water. State of the environment: Issue summary

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, W


    Full Text Available amongst the different national, provincial and local government agencies – some lacking in capacity and resources. The solution to the water deficit in many water management areas is not necessarily more dams and more transfer schemes, but the improvement...

  13. R2 Water Quality Portal Monitoring Stations (United States)

    The Water Quality Data Portal (WQP) provides an easy way to access data stored in various large water quality databases. The WQP provides various input parameters on the form including location, site, sampling, and date parameters to filter and customize the returned results. The The Water Quality Portal (WQP) is a cooperative service sponsored by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council (NWQMC) that integrates publicly available water quality data from the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) the EPA STOrage and RETrieval (STORET) Data Warehouse, and the USDA ARS Sustaining The Earth??s Watersheds - Agricultural Research Database System (STEWARDS).

  14. River water quality modelling: II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanahan, P.; Henze, Mogens; Koncsos, L.


    The U.S. EPA QUAL2E model is currently the standard for river water quality modelling. While QUAL2E is adequate for the regulatory situation for which it was developed (the U.S. wasteload allocation process), there is a need for a more comprehensive framework for research and teaching. Moreover......, QUAL2E and similar models do not address a number of practical problems such as stormwater-flow events, nonpoint source pollution, and transient streamflow. Limitations in model formulation affect the ability to close mass balances, to represent sessile bacteria and other benthic processes......, and to achieve robust model calibration. Mass balance problems arise from failure to account for mass in the sediment as well as in the water column and due to the fundamental imprecision of BOD as a state variable. (C) 1998 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  15. Progress and lessons learned from water-quality monitoring networks (United States)

    Myers, Donna N.; Ludtke, Amy S.


    Stream-quality monitoring networks in the United States were initiated and expanded after passage of successive federal water-pollution control laws from 1948 to 1972. The first networks addressed information gaps on the extent and severity of stream pollution and served as early warning systems for spills. From 1965 to 1972, monitoring networks expanded to evaluate compliance with stream standards, track emerging issues, and assess water-quality status and trends. After 1972, concerns arose regarding the ability of monitoring networks to determine if water quality was getting better or worse and why. As a result, monitoring networks adopted a hydrologic systems approach targeted to key water-quality issues, accounted for human and natural factors affecting water quality, innovated new statistical methods, and introduced geographic information systems and models that predict water quality at unmeasured locations. Despite improvements, national-scale monitoring networks have declined over time. Only about 1%, or 217, of more than 36,000 US Geological Survey monitoring sites sampled from 1975 to 2014 have been operated throughout the four decades since passage of the 1972 Clean Water Act. Efforts to sustain monitoring networks are important because these networks have collected information crucial to the description of water-quality trends over time and are providing information against which to evaluate future trends.

  16. Water Quality of Hills Water, Supply Water and RO Water Machine at Ulu Yam Selangor (United States)

    Ngadiman, N.; ‘I Bahari, N.; Kaamin, M.; Hamid, N. B.; Mokhtar, M.; Sahat, S.


    The rapid development resulted in the deterioration of the quality of drinking water in Malaysia. Recognizing the importance of water quality, new alternatives for drinking water such as mineral water processing from reverse osmosis (RO) machine become more popular. Hence, the demand for mineral water, natural spring water or water from the hills or mountains rose lately. More consumers believed the quality of these spring water better than other source of drinking water. However, the quality of all the drinking water sources is to meet the required quality standard. Therefore, this paper aims to measure the quality of the waters from hills, from RO machine and the water supply in Ulu Yam, Selangor Batang Kali, Malaysia. The water quality was determined based on following parameters: ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3), iron (Fe), turbidity (NTU) and pH. The results show that the water from hills has better quality compared to water supply and water from RO machine. The value of NH3 ranged from 0.03 mg/L- 0.67 mg/L; Fe was from 0.03mg/L - 0.12 mg/L, turbidity at 0.42 NTU - 0.88 NTU and pH is at 6.60 - 0.71. Based on the studied parameters, all three types of water are fit for drinking and have met the required national drinking water quality standard.

  17. Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Copeland, Claudia; Cody, Betsy


    Damage to or destruction of the nation's water supply and water quality infrastructure by terrorist attack could disrupt the delivery of vital human services in this country, threatening public health...

  18. Terrorism and Security Issues Facing the Water Infrastructure Sector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Copeland, Claudia; Cody, Betsy A


    Damage to or destruction of the nation's water supply and water quality infrastructure by a terrorist attack could disrupt the delivery of vital human services in this country, threaten public health...

  19. Water quality assessment of bioenergy production (United States)

    Rocio Diaz-Chavez; Goran Berndes; Dan Neary; Andre Elia Neto; Mamadou Fall


    Water quality is a measurement of the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of water against certain standards set to ensure ecological and/or human health. Biomass production and conversion to fuels and electricity can impact water quality in lakes, rivers, and aquifers with consequences for aquatic ecosystem health and also human water uses. Depending on...

  20. Automated monitoring of recovered water quality (United States)

    Misselhorn, J. E.; Hartung, W. H.; Witz, S. W.


    Laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system provides automatic system for online monitoring of chemical, physical, and bacteriological properties of recovered water and for signaling malfunction in water recovery system. Monitor incorporates whenever possible commercially available sensors suitably modified.

  1. Thematic issue on soil water infiltration (United States)

    Infiltration is the term applied to the process of water entry into the soil, generally by downward flow through all or part of the soil surface. Understanding of infiltration concept and processes has greatly improved, over the past 30 years, and new insights have been given into modeling of non-un...

  2. Potential impacts of changing supply-water quality on drinking water distribution: A review. (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Ya; Knibbe, Willem-Jan; Feng, Cuijie; Liu, Wentso; Medema, Gertjan; van der Meer, Walter


    Driven by the development of water purification technologies and water quality regulations, the use of better source water and/or upgraded water treatment processes to improve drinking water quality have become common practices worldwide. However, even though these elements lead to improved water quality, the water quality may be impacted during its distribution through piped networks due to the processes such as pipe material release, biofilm formation and detachment, accumulation and resuspension of loose deposits. Irregular changes in supply-water quality may cause physiochemical and microbiological de-stabilization of pipe material, biofilms and loose deposits in the distribution system that have been established over decades and may harbor components that cause health or esthetical issues (brown water). Even though it is clearly relevant to customers' health (e.g., recent Flint water crisis), until now, switching of supply-water quality is done without any systematic evaluation. This article reviews the contaminants that develop in the water distribution system and their characteristics, as well as the possible transition effects during the switching of treated water quality by destabilization and the release of pipe material and contaminants into the water and the subsequent risks. At the end of this article, a framework is proposed for the evaluation of potential transition effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Liquid microjet - a new tool for environmental water quality monitoring?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holstein, W.; Buntine, M.


    Our ability to provide real-time, cost-effective and efficient technologies for water quality monitoring remains a critical global environmental research issue. Each year, ground and surface waterways around the world, the global marine environment and the especially-fragile interzonal estuarine ecosystems are being placed under severe stress due to ever-increasing levels of pollutants entering the earth's aquasphere. An almost revolutionary breakthrough in water quality monitoring would be achieved with the development of a real-time, broad-spectrum chemical analysis technology. In this article, a real-time mass spectrometric based water quality monitoring centre around in vacuo liquid microjet injection methodologies is presented

  4. Clean water and family forest management: some emerging issues (United States)

    Peter A. Bisson


    Demand for clean water for a variety of uses will increase. Watersheds are where we live, grow crops and create various forms of industry. As the Pacific Northwest's human population expands, competition for water and the ecological goods and services that water provides will grow more intense. With this in mind it is helpful to review emerging issues that are of...

  5. Successful integration efforts in water quality from the integrated Ocean Observing System Regional Associations and the National Water Quality Monitoring Network (United States)

    Ragsdale, R.; Vowinkel, E.; Porter, D.; Hamilton, P.; Morrison, R.; Kohut, J.; Connell, B.; Kelsey, H.; Trowbridge, P.


    The Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS??) Regional Associations and Interagency Partners hosted a water quality workshop in January 2010 to discuss issues of nutrient enrichment and dissolved oxygen depletion (hypoxia), harmful algal blooms (HABs), and beach water quality. In 2007, the National Water Quality Monitoring Council piloted demonstration projects as part of the National Water Quality Monitoring Network (Network) for U.S. Coastal Waters and their Tributaries in three IOOS Regional Associations, and these projects are ongoing. Examples of integrated science-based solutions to water quality issues of major concern from the IOOS regions and Network demonstration projects are explored in this article. These examples illustrate instances where management decisions have benefited from decision-support tools that make use of interoperable data. Gaps, challenges, and outcomes are identified, and a proposal is made for future work toward a multiregional water quality project for beach water quality.



    Vinod Jena; Satish Dixit; Ravi ShrivastavaSapana Gupta; Sapana Gupta


    Water quality index (WQI) is a dimensionless number that combines multiple water quality factors into a single number by normalizing values to subjective rating curves. Conventionally it has been used for evaluating the quality of water for water resources suchas rivers, streams and lakes, etc. The present work is aimed at assessing the Water Quality Index (W.Q.I) ofpond water and the impact of human activities on it. Physicochemical parameters were monitored for the calculation of W.Q.I for ...

  7. Maintenance of Water Quality Standards in Kenya for 21. Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndege, M.M


    Water is life and therefore quality water is a pre-requisite for healthy life. There is therefore need for enhancing collective responsibility like legal framework and institutional reforms that will facilitate the maintenance of water supply. This can be achieved if the body dealing with environment is expanded to cover emerging issues of environmental concern and spell out the citizens' rights for clean environment

  8. Consumers' Perspectives on Water Issues: Directions for Educational Campaigns. (United States)

    DeLorme, Denise E.; Hagen, Scott C.; Stout, I. Jack


    Explores the relationship between population growth, development, and water resources to glean insight for environmental education campaigns. Reports high awareness and moderate concern about rapid growth and development, dissatisfaction with water resource quantity and quality, and varied water management strategies among consumers. (Contains 37…

  9. Water Quality Evaluation of Spring Waters in Nsukka, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water qualities of springs in their natural state are supposed to be clean and potable. Although, water quality is not a static condition it depends on the local geology and ecosystem, as well as human activities such as sewage dispersion, industrial pollution, use of water bodies as a heat sink, and overuse. The activities on ...

  10. 40 CFR 121.25 - Adoption of new water quality standards. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Adoption of new water quality... Administrator § 121.25 Adoption of new water quality standards. (a) In any case where: (1) A license or permit was issued without certification due to the absence of applicable water quality standards; and (2...

  11. Power quality event classification: an overview and key issues ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... used for PQ events' classifications. Various artificial intelligent techniques which are used in PQ event classification are also discussed. Major Key issues and challenges in classifying PQ events are critically examined and outlined. Keywords: Power quality, PQ event classifiers, artificial intelligence techniques, PQ noise, ...

  12. Emerging issues in environmental cracking in hot water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, P.L.; Morra, M.M.


    Extensive research and engineering application efforts have been made to understand and manage environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) in high temperature water. EAC is a complex phenomena involving dozens of important parameters, and important issues continue to emerge as careful studies have been performed. This paper summarizes a number of emerging issues, and highlights the need for improvements in experimental sophistication and for deeper probing into the nature and importance of these emerging issues. (author)

  13. Water quality and MTBE water pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buiatti, M.; Mascini, M.; Monanni, R.; Filipponi, M.; Piangoloni, A.; Mancini, G.


    The research project, here presented, was defined with the aim of evaluating the eventual presence of MTBE and the possible relative impact in water destined to human use; the territorial valence of the project was extended to the competence region n. 4 of the Tuscany water authority (AATO n. 4). University of Florence, ARPAT, AATO n. 4 and Nuove Acque SpA, in this role of manager for the integrated water cycle in the country, have productively contributed to the project [it

  14. Management of drinking water quality in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, A.A.


    Drinking water quality in both urban and rural areas of Pakistan is not being managed properly. Results of various investigations provide evidence that most of the drinking water supplies are faecally contaminated. At places groundwater quality is deteriorating due to the naturally occurring subsoil contaminants, or by anthropogenic activities. The poor bacteriological quality of drinking water has frequently resulted in high incidence of water borne diseases while subsoil contaminants have caused other ailments to consumers. This paper presents a detailed review of drinking water quality in the country and the consequent health impacts. It identifies various factors contributing to poor water quality and proposes key actions required to ensure safe drinking water supplies to consumers. (author)

  15. Comparative Assessment of Physical and Social Determinants of Water Quantity and Water Quality Concerns (United States)

    Gunda, T.; Hornberger, G. M.


    Concerns over water resources have evolved over time, from physical availability to economic access and recently, to a more comprehensive study of "water security," which is inherently interdisciplinary because a secure water system is influenced by and affects both physical and social components. The concept of water security carries connotations of both an adequate supply of water as well as water that meets certain quality standards. Although the term "water security" has many interpretations in the literature, the research field has not yet developed a synthetic analysis of water security as both a quantity (availability) and quality (contamination) issue. Using qualitative comparative and multi-regression analyses, we evaluate the primary physical and social factors influencing U.S. states' water security from a quantity perspective and from a quality perspective. Water system characteristics are collated from academic and government sources and include access/use, governance, and sociodemographic, and ecosystem metrics. Our analysis indicates differences in variables driving availability and contamination concerns; for example, climate is a more significant determinant in water quantity-based security analyses than in water quality-based security analyses. We will also discuss coevolution of system traits and the merits of constructing a robust water security index based on the relative importance of metrics from our analyses. These insights will improve understanding of the complex interactions between quantity and quality aspects and thus, overall security of water systems.

  16. Infectious Disinfection: "Exploring Global Water Quality" (United States)

    Mahaya, Evans; Tippins, Deborah J.; Mueller, Michael P.; Thomson, Norman


    Learning about the water situation in other regions of the world and the devastating effects of floods on drinking water helps students study science while learning about global water quality. This article provides science activities focused on developing cultural awareness and understanding how local water resources are integrally linked to the…

  17. Water Quality Management of Beijing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    At present, Beijing's water resources are insufficient and will become the limiting factor for sustainable development for the city in the near future. Although efforts have been made to control pollution, water quality degradation has occurred in some of the important surface water supplies, aggravating the water resource shortage. At present, approximately three quarters of the city's wastewater is discharged untreated into the urban river system, resulting in serious pollution and negatively influencing the urban landscape and quality of daily life. To counteract these measures, the city has implemented a comprehensive "Water Quality Management Plan" for the region, encompassing water pollution control, prevention of water body degradation, and improved water quality.The construction of municipal wastewater treatment plants is recognised as fundamental to controlling water pollution, and full secondary treatment is planned to be in place by the year 2015. Significant work is also required to expand the service area of the municipal sewage system and to upgrade and renovate the older sewer systems. The limitation on available water resources has also seen the emphasis shift to low water using industries and improved water conservation. Whilst industrial output has increased steadily over the past 10-15 years at around 10% per annum, industrial water usage has remained relatively constant. Part of the city's water quality management plan has been to introduce a strict discharge permit system, encouraging many industries to install on-site treatment facilities.

  18. Household characteristics affecting drinking water quality and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausar, S.; Maann, A.A.; Zafar, I.; Ali, T.


    Pakistan's water crisis, especially serious water shortages have had a great impact on the health of the general population. Today majority of Pakistanis have no access to improved water sources which force people to consume polluted drinking water that results in the shape of waterborne diseases. In addition to this, household characteristics, includes mother's education and family income, also have an impact on drinking water quality and ultimately on human health. This study was conducted in three districts of Province Punjab both in urban and rural areas. The sample size of this study was 600 females of age group 20-60 years. From the data, it was concluded that mother's education and family income were affecting drinking water quality and human health. As the mother's years of education increased, the health issues decreased. Similarly, as the level of income increased, people suffered from water related diseases decreased. (author)

  19. Smart sensors for real-time water quality monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Alex


    Sensors are being utilised to increasing degrees in all forms of industry.  Researchers and industrial practitioners in all fields seek to obtain a better understanding of appropriate processes so as to improve quality of service and efficiency.  The quality of water is no exception, and the water industry is faced with a wide array of water quality issues being present world-wide.  Thus, the need for sensors to tackle this diverse subject is paramount.  The aim of this book is to combine, for the first time, international expertise in the area of water quality monitoring using smart sensors and systems in order that a better understanding of the challenges faced and solutions posed may be available to all in a single text.

  20. Heavy Water Quality Management in HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Chul; Lee, Mun; Kim, Hi Gon; Park, Chan Young; Choi, Ho Young; Hur, Soon Ock; Ahn, Guk Hoon


    Heavy water quality management in the reflector tank is a very important element to maintain the good thermal neutron flux and to ensure the performance of reflector cooling system. This report is written to provide a guidance for the future by describing the history of the heavy water quality management during HANARO operation. The heavy water quality in the reflector tank has been managed by measuring the electrical conductivity at the inlet and outlet of the ion exchanger and by measuring pH of the heavy water. In this report, the heavy water quality management activities performed in HANARO from 1996 to 2007 ere described including a basic theory of the heavy water quality management, exchanging history of used resin in the reflector cooling system, measurement data of the pH and the electrical conductivity, and operation history of the reflector cooling system.

  1. Preliminary Study on the Impact of Water Quality and Irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mekelle University, Ethiopia (* ABSTRACT. Possible long term effects on soil salinity and crop production due to the quality of water ... As a result, the level of land productivity has declined at a faster rate and ... issues of food insecurity in the country, the government of Ethiopia designed a national.

  2. Sustainable development of water resources in Pakistan and environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakir, A.S.; Bashir, M.A


    Irrigation water represents an essential input for sustaining agricultural growth in Pakistan's arid to semi arid climate. While the surface water availability for irrigation has been more or less stagnant for the last three decades, the ground water utilization also appears to have touched the peak in most of the sweet aquifers. In the present state of inaction for the water resources development, the overall water availability is in fact declining due to progressive sedimentation of the existing storages and gradual lowering of water table in fresh ground water areas. The paper discusses major water resources concerns that threaten the sustainability of Pakistan's irrigated agriculture. The paper identifies overall water scarcity, high degree of temporal variability in river flows, lack of balancing storages and declining capacity of existing storages due to natural sedimentation as the serious concerns. Over exploitation of ground water and water quality concerns also seems to be emerging threats for environmentally sustainable irrigated agriculture in this country. The salt-water intrusion and increase in soil and ground water salinity are indicators of over exploitation of ground water for irrigation. The continuous use of poor quality ground water for irrigation is considered as one of the major causes of salinity in the area of irrigated agriculture. Indiscriminate pumping of the marginal and saline ground water can add to the root zone salinity and ultimately reduce the crop yields. The paper presents various management options for development and efficient utilization of water resources for environment friendly sustainable development of irrigated agriculture in Pakistan. These include construction of additional storage, modernization of irrigation system and effective conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources. The better soil and water management practices, saline agriculture, use of biotechnology and genetic engineering can further increase

  3. Principles and Practices of Water Quality Monitoring (United States)

    J.L. Michael


    There are many activities in forest management that may affect water quality, i.e., timber harvestine, road building,mechanical and chemical site preparation, release operations, fuel reduction,wildlife opening maintenance, etc. How severely they affect water quality depends on how well the person in charge of the operation understands the activity itself, the...

  4. Bacteriological physicochemical quality of recreational water bodies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    logical quality, and there are no guidelines (standards) towards the safe use and quality control of recreational water. Under this circumstances, it is neither possible to know the gravity of the problem, nor simple to manage the possible health related risks that are associated with the use of recreational water bodies.

  5. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality. ...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... downstream Obigbo station show: consistent time-trends in degree of contamination; linear and non-linear relationships for water quality models against total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended sediment (TSS), chloride, pH and sulphate; and non-linear relationship for streamflow and water quality transport models.

  7. Water quality evaluation of Al-Gharraf river by two water quality indices (United States)

    Ewaid, Salam Hussein


    Water quality of Al-Gharraf river, the largest branch of Tigris River south of Iraq, was evaluated by the National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NFS WQI) and the Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI) depending on 13 physical, chemical, and biological parameters of water quality measured monthly at ten stations on the river during 2015. The NSF-WQI range obtained for the sampling sites was 61-70 indicating a medium water quality. The HPI value was 98.6 slightly below the critical value for drinking water of 100, and the water quality in the upstream stations is better than downstream due to decrease in water and the accumulation of contaminants along the river. This study explains the significance of applying the water quality indices that show the aggregate impact of ecological factors in charge of water pollution of surface water and which permits translation of the monitoring data to assist the decision makers.

  8. Setting water quality criteria for agricultural water reuse purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Müller


    Full Text Available The use of reclaimed water for agricultural irrigation is practiced worldwide and will increase in the future. The definition of water quality limits is a useful instrument for the assessment of water quality regarding its suitability for irrigation purposes and the performance of wastewater treatment steps. This study elaborates water quality objectives for a water reuse project in a setting where national guidelines do not exist. Internationally established guidelines are therefore applied to the local context. Additional limits for turbidity, total suspended solids, biochemical and chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and potassium are suggested to meet the requirements of water reuse projects. Emphasis is put on water quality requirements prior to UV disinfection and nutrient requirements of cultivated crops. The presented values can be of assistance when monitoring reclaimed water quality. To facilitate the realization of water reuse projects, comprehensive and more detailed information, in particular on water quality requirements prior to disinfection steps, should be provided as well as regarding the protection of the irrigation infrastructure.

  9. Impact of RO-desalted water on distribution water qualities. (United States)

    Taylor, J; Dietz, J; Randall, A; Hong, S


    A large-scale pilot distribution study was conducted to investigate the impacts of blending different source waters on distribution water qualities, with an emphasis on metal release (i.e. corrosion). The principal source waters investigated were conventionally treated ground water (G1), surface water processed by enhanced treatment (S1), and desalted seawater by reverse osmosis membranes (RO). Due to the nature of raw water quality and associated treatment processes, G1 water had high alkalinity, while S1 and RO sources were characterized as high sulfate and high chloride waters, respectively. The blending ratio of different treated waters determined the quality of finished waters. Iron release from aged cast iron pipes increased significantly when exposed to RO and S1 waters: that is, the greater iron release was experienced with alkalinity reduced below the background of G1 water. Copper release to drinking water, however, increased with increasing alkalinity and decreasing pH. Lead release, on the other hand, increased with increasing chloride and decreasing sulfate. The effect of pH and alkalinity on lead release was not clearly observed from pilot blending study. The flat and compact corrosion scales observed for lead surface exposed to S1 water may be attributable to lead concentration less than that of RO water blends.

  10. Quality issues in the management of web information

    CERN Document Server

    Bordogna, Gloria; Jain, Lakhmi


    This research volume presents a sample of recent contributions related to the issue of quality-assessment for Web Based information in the context of information access, retrieval, and filtering systems. The advent of the Web and the uncontrolled process of documents' generation have raised the problem of declining quality assessment to information on the Web, by considering both the nature of documents (texts, images, video, sounds, and so on), the genre of documents ( news, geographic information, ontologies, medical records, products records, and so on), the reputation of information sources and sites, and, last but not least the actions performed on documents (content indexing, retrieval and ranking, collaborative filtering, and so on). The volume constitutes a compendium of both heterogeneous approaches and sample applications focusing specific aspects of the quality assessment for Web-based information for researchers, PhD students and practitioners carrying out their research activity in the field of W...

  11. Water quality in okara and its suburbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, M.T.; Imtiaz, N.; Athar, M.


    Ground water samples (70), collected from Okara and its sburbs were studied. Thirty samples were collected from municipal supply of urban areas while forty from deep water pumps of non-urban areas. The samples were investigated for various physiochemical parameters. Outcome of the study is that ground water of municipal supply area is suitable for human consumption while the water quality of non supply area is slightly brackish to saline and nitrate content is high above the acceptable levels of drinking water quality. (author)

  12. Air quality management in China: issues, challenges, and options. (United States)

    Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming


    This article analyzed the control progress and current status of air quality, identified the major air pollution issues and challenges in future, proposed the long-term air pollution control targets, and suggested the options for better air quality in China. With the continuing growth of economy in the next 10-15 years, China will face a more severe situation of energy consumption, electricity generation and vehicle population leading to increase in multiple pollutant emissions. Controlling regional air pollution especially fine particles and ozone, as well as lowering carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption will be a big challenge for the country. To protect public health and the eco-system, the ambient air quality in all Chinese cities shall attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) and ambient air quality guideline values set by the World Health Organization (WHO). To achieve the air quality targets, the emissions of SO2, NOx, PM10, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) should decrease by 60%, 40%, 50%, and 40%, respectively, on the basis of that in 2005. A comprehensive control policy focusing on multiple pollutants and emission sources at both the local and regional levels was proposed to mitigate the regional air pollution issue in China. The options include development of clean energy resources, promotion of clean and efficient coal use, enhancement of vehicle pollution control, implementation of synchronous control of multiple pollutants including SO2, NOx, VOC, and PM emissions, joint prevention and control of regional air pollution, and application of climate friendly air pollution control measures.

  13. Water quality impacts of forest fires (United States)

    Tecle Aregai; Daniel Neary


    Forest fires have been serious menace, many times resulting in tremendous economic, cultural and ecological damage to many parts of the United States. One particular area that has been significantly affected is the water quality of streams and lakes in the water thirsty southwestern United States. This is because the surface water coming off burned areas has resulted...

  14. Habitat quality, water quality and otter distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Mason


    Full Text Available Abstract In recent decades the otter (Lutra lutra has declined over much of Europe. Good habitat has been shown to be essential to otters. Specific elements of cover have been identified in some studies but the minimum cover requirements to support otter populations are not known. These are likely to vary in relation to other factors, such as disturbance. Habitat destruction has been severe in many areas of Europe. Water quantity is important to otters, especially where low flows destroy the food base, namely fish. However the minimum food requirements to support populations are not known. The main cause of the decline in otter populations is almost certainly bioaccumulating pollutants, especially PCBs. These are likely to be inhibiting recolonization in many areas. In Britain, catchment distribution of otters within regions is negatively correlated to mean PCB levels in otter spraints, and these are indicative of tissue levels. PCBs have been found in all samples studied. Current EC statutory monitoring is inadequate to protect otter populations from bioaccumulating contaminants. Standards are presented here for otter protection. More fundamental research is required to refine our understanding of the requirements of the otter. Riassunto Qualità ambientale, qualità dell'acqua e distribuzione della lontra - Negli ultimi decenni la lontra (Lutra lutra è diminuita su buona parte del suo areale europeo, dove particolarmente pesante è stata la distruzione di ambienti favorevoli. Habitat qualitativamente idonei sono essenziali per la sopravvivenza della specie. In alcuni studi, specifici parametri di copertura vegetale dei corpi idrici sono stati ritenuti importanti per la specie, ma quale sia il valore minimo di copertura riparia in grado di supportare una popolazione resta sconosciuto. I parametri di copertura variano probabilmente in relazione ad altri fattori, quali, ad

  15. Big Data and Heath Impacts of Drinking Water Quality Violation (United States)

    Allaire, M.; Zheng, S.; Lall, U.


    Health impacts of drinking water quality violations are only understood at a coarse level in the United States. This limits identification of threats to water security in communities across the country. Substantial under-reporting is suspected due to requirements at U.S. public health institutes that water borne illnesses be confirmed by health providers. In the era of `big data', emerging information sources could offer insight into waterborne disease trends. In this study, we explore the use of fine-resolution sales data for over-the-counter medicine to estimate the health impacts of drinking water quality violations. We also demonstrate how unreported water quality issues can be detected by observing market behavior. We match a panel of supermarket sales data for the U.S. at the weekly level with geocoded violations data from 2006-2015. We estimate the change in anti-diarrheal medicine sale due to drinking water violations using a fixed effects model. We find that water quality violations have considerable effects on medicine sales. Sales nearly double due to Tier 1 violations, which pose an immediate health risk, and sales increase 15.1 percent due to violations related to microorganisms. Furthermore, our estimate of diarrheal illness cases associated with water quality violations indicates that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reporting system may only capture about one percent of diarrheal cases due to impaired water. Incorporating medicine sales data could offer national public health institutes a game-changing way to improve monitoring of disease outbreaks. Since many disease cases are not formally diagnosed by health providers, consumption information could provide additional information to remedy under-reporting issues and improve water security in communities across the United States.

  16. A resilience framework for chronic exposures: water quality and ecosystem services in coastal social-ecological systems (United States)

    We outline a tailored resilience framework that applies ecosystem service concepts to coastal social-ecological systems (SES) affected by water quality degradation. Unlike acute coastal disturbances such as hurricanes or oil spills, water quality issues, particularly those relate...

  17. water quality assessment of underground and surface water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    Water quality assessment in the Ethiopian highlands is crucial owing to increasing ... and provide information for formulating appropriate framework for an integrated ... with four seasons (rainy, dry period, small rains ..... treatment. Annual conference proceedings, American Water Works ... Towns' water supply and sanitation.

  18. Assesment of the water quality and prevalence of water borne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water related diseases that were consistently reported and diagnosed for the period are cholera (3.37%), diarrhea (44.94%), dysentery (16.85%), and typhoid fever (34.83%). The quality of the water and the prevalence of water related diseases in the hospitals were casually related to the contamination of the river in the ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. W. Chan


    Full Text Available Water is one of the central issues in the 21st century in Malaysia. Of all the issues associated with water management, governance is considered of primary importance. This paper examines water governance in Malaysia and concludes that it is successful in the sense that water is served to more than 95 % of the population, water tariffs are some of the cheapest in the world, the poor is not denied access, and water supply is 24 hours per day. However, there are many areas that need improvement to achieve better governance in water management. One is to improve Government-controlled water departments by ensuring their workers are well-trained and committed to excellence, public service and integrity instead of the usual laid-back government-servant mentality. Another is to ensure politicians do not interfere in the water sector. Currently, it is widely believed that many water companies are linked to powerful politicians, making the awarding of contracts, tariffs and other management aspects non-transparent and ineffective. Ideally, politicians that govern should act on the professional advice of the water managers and not the other way around. Another area of water governance that needs to be intensified is the war against corruption. In the water sector, there should also be an all-out war on corruption at all levels of governance, in both the public and private sectors. Government should make all contracts in the water sector awarded through open tender with public consultation to ensure professionalism, fairness, transparency, accountability and good governance. Equally, all contracts and other relevant documents drawn up between the government and private companies should not be “classified” but instead be public documents available to the public for discussion, review and improvement. Another area to ensure better governance is for the government to engage and actively involved all stakeholders in the water sector, especially civil

  20. Mechanisms affecting water quality in an intermittent piped water supply. (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L


    Drinking water distribution systems throughout the world supply water intermittently, leaving pipes without pressure between supply cycles. Understanding the multiple mechanisms that affect contamination in these intermittent water supplies (IWS) can be used to develop strategies to improve water quality. To study these effects, we tested water quality in an IWS system with infrequent and short water delivery periods in Hubli-Dharwad, India. We continuously measured pressure and physicochemical parameters and periodically collected grab samples to test for total coliform and E. coli throughout supply cycles at 11 sites. When the supply was first turned on, water with elevated turbidity and high concentrations of indicator bacteria was flushed out of pipes. At low pressures (water was delivered with a chlorine residual and at pressures >17 psi.

  1. Water quality for the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, A.


    Under an umbrella labeled Water Quality 2000, 86 organizations - ranging from the Natural Resources Defense Council to the Chemical Manufacturers Association - have reached a consensus on the major water quality problems currently facing the US. Their broad-based conclusions have been released in a report entitled Challenges for the Future, which represents one step in an ongoing discussion among representatives of these diverse groups on improving water quality. Although the report presents a long-term view, William Matuszeski from EPA described the document as a superb background for the upcoming debate over reauthorization of the Clean Water Act. In general terms, the report cites the major sources of current water problems as agricultural and urban runoff, especially following storms; airborne pollutants; continued dumping of toxic wastes; accidental spills; overharvesting of fish and shellfish; habitat competition from exotic species; and land and water use practices. This article summarizes some of the findings

  2. Socioeconomic dynamics of water quality in the Egyptian Nile (United States)

    Malik, Maheen; Nisar, Zainab; Karakatsanis, Georgios


    The Nile River remains the most important source of freshwater for Egypt as it accounts for nearly all of the country's drinking and irrigation water. About 95% of the total population is accounted to live along the Banks of the Nile(1). Therefore, water quality deterioration in addition to general natural scarcity of water in the region(2) is the main driver for carrying out this study. What further aggravates this issue is the water conflict in the Blue Nile region. The study evaluates different water quality parameters and their concentrations in the Egyptian Nile; further assessing the temporal dynamics of water quality in the area with (a) the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC)(3) and (b) the Jevons Paradox (JP)(4) in order to identify water quality improvements or degradations using selected socioeconomic variables(5). For this purpose various environmental indicators including BOD, COD, DO, Phosphorus and TDS were plotted against different economic variables including Population, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Annual Fresh Water Withdrawal and Improved Water Source. Mathematically, this was expressed by 2nd and 3rd degree polynomial regressions generating the EKC and JP respectively. The basic goal of the regression analysis is to model and highlight the dynamic trend of water quality indicators in relation to their established permissible limits, which will allow the identification of optimal future water quality policies. The results clearly indicate that the dependency of water quality indicators on socioeconomic variables differs for every indicator; while COD was above the permissible limits in all the cases despite of its decreasing trend in each case, BOD and phosphate signified increasing concentrations for the future, if they continue to follow the present trend. This could be an indication of rebound effect explained by the Jevons Paradox i.e. water quality deterioration after its improvement, either due to increase of population or intensification

  3. Internet pharmacy: issues of access, quality, costs, and regulation. (United States)

    Crawford, Stephanie Y


    Internet pharmacy has been the focus of heightened interest over the past 3 years since the first major Web site was introduced in the United States. This paper addresses issues pertaining to Internet pharmacies that sell prescriptions and other products to consumers at the retail level. The Internet pharmacy industry has shifted rapidly in the short time span. This paper begins with a summary of historical considerations and the shifting organization of Internet pharmacy. The advantages and disadvantages of online pharmacy practice are listed. Issues of access, quality, and cost are described. The challenges in regulation at the state and federal levels are presented. Advice to consumers is offered regarding the use of Internet pharmacy sites for purchasing prescription drug products.

  4. GKI water quality studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D L


    GKI water quality data collected in 1978 and early 1979 was evaluated with the objective of developing preliminary characterizations of native groundwater and retort water at Kamp Kerogen, Uintah County, Utah. Restrictive analytical definitions were developed to describe native groundwater and GKI retort water in an effort to eliminate from the sample population both groundwater samples affected by retorting and retort water samples diluted by groundwater. Native groundwater and retort water sample analyses were subjected to statistical manipulation and testing to summarize the data to determine the statistical validity of characterizations based on the data available, and to identify probable differences between groundwater and retort water based on available data. An evaluation of GKI water quality data related to developing characterizations of native groundwater and retort water at Kamp Kerogen was conducted. GKI retort water and the local native groundwater both appeared to be of very poor quality. Statistical testing indicated that the data available is generally insufficient for conclusive characterizations of native groundwater and retort water. Statistical testing indicated some probable significant differences between native groundwater and retort water that could be determined with available data. Certain parameters should be added to and others deleted from future laboratory analyses suites of water samples.

  5. Surface Water Quality Monitoring Sites (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The MN Department of Agriculture (MDA) is charged with periodically collecting and analyzing water samples from selected locations throughout the state to determine...

  6. Drinking water quality concerns and water vending machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McSwane, D.Z.; Oleckno, W.A.; Eils, L.M.


    Drinking water quality is a vital public health concern to consumers and regulators alike. This article describes some of the current microbiological, chemical, and radiological concerns about drinking water and the evolution of water vending machines. Also addressed are the typical treatment processes used in water vending machines and their effectiveness, as well as a brief examination of a certification program sponsored by the National Automatic Merchandising Association (NAMA), which provides a uniform standard for the design and construction of food and beverage vending machines. For some consumers, the water dispensed from vending machines is an attractive alternative to residential tap water which may be objectionable for aesthetic or other reasons

  7. 40 CFR 130.3 - Water quality standards. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality standards. 130.3 Section... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.3 Water quality standards. A water quality standard (WQS) defines the water quality goals of a water body, or portion thereof, by designating the use or uses to be made...

  8. Value of Clean Water Resources: Estimating the Water Quality Improvement in Metro Manila, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokhrukh-Mirzo Jalilov


    Full Text Available While having many positive impacts, a tremendous economic performance and rapid industrial expansion over the last decades in the Philippines has had negative effects that have resulted in unfavorable hydrological and ecological changes in most urban river systems and has created environmental problems. Usually, these effects would not be part of a systematic assessment of urban water benefits. To address the issue, this study investigates the relationship between poor water quality and resident’s willingness to pay (WTP for improved water quality in Metro Manila. By employing a contingent valuation method (CVM, this paper estimates the benefits of the provision of clean water quality (swimmable and fishable in waterbodies of Metro Manila for its residents. Face-to-face interviews were completed with 240 randomly selected residents. Residents expressed a mean WTP of PHP102.44 (USD2.03 for a swimmable water quality (good quality and a mean WTP of PHP102.39 (USD2.03 for fishable water quality (moderate quality. The aggregation of this mean willingness-to-pay value amounted to annual economic benefits from PHP9443 billion to PHP9447 billion (approx. USD190 million per year for all taxpayers in Metro Manila. As expected, these estimates could inform local decision-makers about the benefits of future policy interventions aimed at improving the quality of waterbodies in Metro Manila.

  9. Water Quality Drivers in 11 Gulf of Mexico Estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. McCarthy


    Full Text Available Coastal water-quality is both a primary driver and also a consequence of coastal ecosystem health. Turbidity, a measure of dissolved and particulate water-quality matter, is a proxy for water quality, and varies on daily to interannual periods. Turbidity is influenced by a variety of factors, including algal particles, colored dissolved organic matter, and suspended sediments. Identifying which factors drive trends and extreme events in turbidity in an estuary helps environmental managers and decision makers plan for and mitigate against water-quality issues. Efforts to do so on large spatial scales have been hampered due to limitations of turbidity data, including coarse and irregular temporal resolution and poor spatial coverage. We addressed these issues by deriving a proxy for turbidity using ocean color satellite products for 11 Gulf of Mexico estuaries from 2000 to 2014 on weekly, monthly, seasonal, and annual time-steps. Drivers were identified using Akaike’s Information Criterion and multiple regressions to model turbidity against precipitation, wind speed, U and V wind vectors, river discharge, water level, and El Nino Southern Oscillation and North Atlantic Oscillation climate indices. Turbidity variability was best explained by wind speed across estuaries for both time-series and extreme turbidity events, although more dynamic patterns were found between estuaries over various time steps.

  10. Maui Citizen Science Coastal Water Quality Data (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A network of citizen science volunteers periodically monitors water quality at several beaches across the island of Maui in the State of Hawaii. This community-based...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 31, 2013 ... The advantages of an index include its ability to represent measurements of a ... Fair. Water quality is usually protected but occasionally threatened or ... Electrical Conductivity (EC) value is an index to represent the total.

  12. Aggradation, Degradation, and Water Quality Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    The purpose of this study is to compile a record of pertinent data and information relative to aggradation, degradation, and water quality within the system of six Missouri River mainstem reservoirs...

  13. Mobile Water Quality Information Tool, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Water quality remote sensing has grown to allow for operational monitoring of trophic status, assessment of cyanobacteria blooms, and historical and trend analysis...

  14. Carbonate chemistry, water quality, coral measurements (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Carbonate chemistry parameters (pH, total alkalinity, and pCO2), water quality parameters (Temperature, salinity, Ca, Mg, PO4, NH3 and NO3) as well as all coral...


    The demand on freshwater to sustain the needs of the growing population is of worldwide concern. Often this water is used, treated, and released for reuse by other communities. The anthropogenic contaminants present in this water may include complex mixtures of pesticides, prescription and nonprescription drugs, personal care and common consumer products, industrial and domestic-use materials and degradation products of these compounds. Although, the fate of these pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in wastewater treatment facilities is largely unknown, the limited data that does exist suggests that many of these chemicals survive treatment and some others are returned to their biologically active form via deconjugation of metabolites.Traditional water sampling methods (i.e., grab or composite samples) often require the concentration of large amounts of water to detect trace levels of PPCPs. A passive sampler, the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS), has been developed to integratively concentrate the trace levels of these chemicals, determine the time-weighted average water concentrations, and provide a method of estimating the potential exposure of aquatic organisms to these complex mixtures of waterborne contaminants. The POCIS (U.S. Patent number 6,478,961) consists of a hydrophilic microporous membrane, acting as a semipermeable barrier, enveloping various solid-phase sorbents that retain the sampled chemicals. Sampling rates f

  16. Shale Gas Development and Drinking Water Quality. (United States)

    Hill, Elaine; Ma, Lala


    The extent of environmental externalities associated with shale gas development (SGD) is important for welfare considerations and, to date, remains uncertain (Mason, Muehlenbachs, and Olmstead 2015; Hausman and Kellogg 2015). This paper takes a first step to address this gap in the literature. Our study examines whether shale gas development systematically impacts public drinking water quality in Pennsylvania, an area that has been an important part of the recent shale gas boom. We create a novel dataset from several unique sources of data that allows us to relate SGD to public drinking water quality through a gas well's proximity to community water system (CWS) groundwater source intake areas.1 We employ a difference-in-differences strategy that compares, for a given CWS, water quality after an increase in the number of drilled well pads to background levels of water quality in the geographic area as measured by the impact of more distant well pads. Our main estimate finds that drilling an additional well pad within 1 km of groundwater intake locations increases shale gas-related contaminants by 1.5–2.7 percent, on average. These results are striking considering that our data are based on water sampling measurements taken after municipal treatment, and suggest that the health impacts of SGD 1 A CWS is defined as the subset of public water systems that supplies water to the same population year-round. through water contamination remains an open question.

  17. The quality of drinking water in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kłos


    Full Text Available Introduction. An analysis of the drinking water quality and the degree of access to water supply and sewerage system in Poland was conducted. Materials and methods. Method of analysis of secondary statistical data was applied, mostly based on data available in the materials of the Central Statistical Office in Warsaw, the Waterworks Polish Chamber of Commerce in Bydgoszcz and the National Water Management in Warsaw. Result and discussion. 60 % of Poles do not trust to drink water without prior boiling. Water flowing from the taps, although widely available, is judged to be polluted, with too much fluorine or not having the appropriate consumer values (colour, smell and taste. The current water treatment systems can however improve them, although such a treatment, i.e. mainly through chlorination of water, deteriorates its quality in relation to pure natural water. The result is that fewer and fewer Poles drink water directly from the tap. They also less and less use tap water to cook food for which the bottled water is trusted more. Reason for that is that society does not trust the safety of the water supplied by the municipal water companies. The question thus is: Are they right? Tap water in Poland meets all standards since it is constantly monitored by the water companies and all relevant health services. Tap water supplied through the water supply system can be used without prior boiling. Studies have shown that only the operating parameters of water, suc h as taste, odour and hardness, are not satisfactory everywhere, different in each city, and sometimes in different districts of cities, often waking thoughts among users about its inappropriateness. The lowered water value can be easily improved at home through the use of filters. In conclusion, due to constant monitoring and investment in upgrading treatment processes, the quality of tap water has improved significantly in the last years. Conclusion. The results first allow assessing the

  18. Autonomous nutrient detection for water quality monitoring


    Maher, Damien; Cleary, John; Cogan, Deirdre; Diamond, Dermot


    The ever increasing demand for real time environmental monitoring is currently being driven by strong legislative and societal drivers. Low cost autonomous environmental monitoring systems are required to meet this demand as current monitoring solutions are insufficient. This poster presents an autonomous nutrient analyser platform for water quality monitoring. Results from a field trial of the nutrient analyser are reported along with current work to expand the range of water quality targ...

  19. Water quality in North American river systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, C.D.; Neitzel, D.A.


    This book is about water quality and other characteristics of selected ecosystems in North America. It is also about changes that have occurred in these ecosystems as a result of recent human activities-changes that result primarily from development and exploitation to sustain the needs of an ever-increasing population and the technical innovations that sustain it. Fish populations, hydrology, and water quality control efforts are discussed

  20. Applications of continuous water quality monitoring techniques for more efficient water quality research and water resources management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.C.; Velde, Y. van der; Broers, H.P.; Geer, F. van


    Understanding and taking account of dynamics in water quality is essential for adequate water quality policy and management. In conventional regional surface water and upper groundwater quality monitoring, measurement frequencies are too low to capture the short-term dynamic behavior of solute

  1. Putting people into water quality modelling. (United States)

    Strickert, G. E.; Hassanzadeh, E.; Noble, B.; Baulch, H. M.; Morales-Marin, L. A.; Lindenschmidt, K. E.


    Water quality in the Qu'Appelle River Basin, Saskatchewan is under pressure due to nutrient pollution entering the river system from major cities, industrial zones and agricultural areas. Among these stressors, agricultural activities are basin-wide; therefore, they are the largest non-point source of water pollution in this region. The dynamics of agricultural impacts on water quality are complex and stem from decisions and activities of two distinct stakeholder groups, namely grain farmers and cattle producers, which have different business plans, values, and attitudes towards water quality. As a result, improving water quality in this basin requires engaging with stakeholders to: (1) understand their perspectives regarding a range of agricultural Beneficial Management Practices (BMPs) that can improve water quality in the region, (2) show them the potential consequences of their selected BMPs, and (3) work with stakeholders to better understand the barriers and incentives to implement the effective BMPs. In this line, we held a series of workshops in the Qu'Appelle River Basin with both groups of stakeholders to understand stakeholders' viewpoints about alternative agricultural BMPs and their impact on water quality. Workshop participants were involved in the statement sorting activity (Q-sorts), group discussions, as well as mapping activity. The workshop outcomes show that stakeholder had four distinct viewpoints about the BMPs that can improve water quality, i.e., flow and erosion control, fertilizer management, cattle site management, as well as mixed cattle and wetland management. Accordingly, to simulate the consequences of stakeholder selected BMPs, a conceptual water quality model was developed using System Dynamics (SD). The model estimates potential changes in water quality at the farm, tributary and regional scale in the Qu'Appelle River Basin under each and/or combination of stakeholder selected BMPs. The SD model was then used for real

  2. Applications for remotely sensed evapotranspiration data in monitoring water quality, water use, and water security (United States)

    Anderson, Martha; Hain, Christopher; Feng, Gao; Yang, Yun; Sun, Liang; Yang, Yang; Dulaney, Wayne; Sharifi, Amir; Kustas, William; Holmes, Thomas


    Across the globe there are ever-increasing and competing demands for freshwater resources in support of food production, ecosystems services and human/industrial consumption. Recent studies using the GRACE satellite have identified severely stressed aquifers that are being unsustainably depleted due to over-extraction, primarily in support of irrigated agriculture. In addition, historic droughts and ongoing political conflicts threaten food and water security in many parts of the world. To facilitate wise water management, and to develop sustainable agricultural systems that will feed the Earth's growing population into the future, there is a critical need for robust assessments of daily water use, or evapotranspiration (ET), over a wide range in spatial scales - from field to globe. While Earth Observing (EO) satellites can play a significant role in this endeavor, no single satellite provides the combined spatial, spectral and temporal characteristics required for actionable ET monitoring world-wide. In this presentation we discuss new methods for combining information from the current suite of EO satellites to address issues of water quality, water use and water security, particularly as they pertain to agricultural production. These methods fuse multi-scale diagnostic ET retrievals generated using shortwave, thermal infrared and microwave datasets from multiple EO platforms to generate ET datacubes with both high spatial and temporal resolution. We highlight several case studies where such ET datacubes are being mined to investigate changes in water use patterns over agricultural landscapes in response to changing land use, land management, and climate forcings.

  3. Agricultural Applications for Remotely Sensed Evapotranspiration Data in Monitoring Water Use, Water Quality, and Water Security (United States)

    Anderson, M. C.; Hain, C.; Gao, F.; Yang, Y.; Sun, L.; Dulaney, W.; Sharifi, A.; Holmes, T. R.; Kustas, W. P.


    Across the U.S. and globally there are ever increasing and competing demands for freshwater resources in support of food production, ecosystems services and human/industrial consumption. Recent studies using the GRACE satellite have identified severely stressed aquifers globally, which are being unsustainably depleted due to over-extraction primarily in support of irrigated agriculture. In addition, historic droughts and ongoing political conflicts threaten food and water security in many parts of the world. To facilitate wise water management, and to develop sustainable agricultural systems that will feed the Earth's growing population into the future, there is a critical need for robust assessments of daily water use, or evapotranspiration (ET), over a wide range in spatial scales - from field to globe. While Earth Observing (EO) satellites can play a significant role in this endeavor, no single satellite provides the combined spatial, spectral and temporal characteristics required for actionable ET monitoring world-wide. In this presentation we discuss new methods for combining information from the current suite of EO satellites to address issues of water use, water quality and water security, particularly as they pertain to agricultural production. These methods fuse multi-scale diagnostic ET retrievals generated using shortwave, thermal infrared and microwave datasets from multiple EO platforms to generate ET datacubes with both high spatial and temporal resolution. We highlight several case studies where such ET datacubes are being mined to investigate changes in water use patterns over agricultural landscapes in response to changing land use, land management, and climate forcings.

  4. Small drinking water systems under spatiotemporal water quality variability: a risk-based performance benchmarking framework. (United States)

    Bereskie, Ty; Haider, Husnain; Rodriguez, Manuel J; Sadiq, Rehan


    Traditional approaches for benchmarking drinking water systems are binary, based solely on the compliance and/or non-compliance of one or more water quality performance indicators against defined regulatory guidelines/standards. The consequence of water quality failure is dependent on location within a water supply system as well as time of the year (i.e., season) with varying levels of water consumption. Conventional approaches used for water quality comparison purposes fail to incorporate spatiotemporal variability and degrees of compliance and/or non-compliance. This can lead to misleading or inaccurate performance assessment data used in the performance benchmarking process. In this research, a hierarchical risk-based water quality performance benchmarking framework is proposed to evaluate small drinking water systems (SDWSs) through cross-comparison amongst similar systems. The proposed framework (R WQI framework) is designed to quantify consequence associated with seasonal and location-specific water quality issues in a given drinking water supply system to facilitate more efficient decision-making for SDWSs striving for continuous performance improvement. Fuzzy rule-based modelling is used to address imprecision associated with measuring performance based on singular water quality guidelines/standards and the uncertainties present in SDWS operations and monitoring. This proposed R WQI framework has been demonstrated using data collected from 16 SDWSs in Newfoundland and Labrador and Quebec, Canada, and compared to the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment WQI, a traditional, guidelines/standard-based approach. The study found that the R WQI framework provides an in-depth state of water quality and benchmarks SDWSs more rationally based on the frequency of occurrence and consequence of failure events.

  5. British Columbia water quality guidelines (criteria): 1998 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, N.K.; Pommen, L.W.; Swain, L.G.


    British Columbia has developed water quality guidelines in order that water quality data can be assessed and site-specific water quality objectives can be prepared. The guidelines provide benchmarks for the assessment of water quality and setting water quality objectives. Guidelines are provided to protect the following six major water uses: drinking water, aquatic life, wildlife, recreation/aesthetics, agriculture, and industrial. Water quality encompasses the physical, chemical and biological quality of the water, sediment and biota. Among other quality criteria the guide provides maximum approved concentrations for nitrogen, aluminum, copper, cyanide, lead, mercury, and molybdenum. 30 tabs.

  6. Water quality control program in experimental circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cegalla, Miriam A.


    The Water Quality Control Program of the Experimental Circuits visualizes studying the water chemistry of the cooling in the primary and secondary circuits, monitoring the corrosion of the systems and studying the mechanism of the corrosion products transport in the systems. (author)

  7. Water Quality Standards for Coral Reef Protection (United States)

    The U.S. Clean Water Act provides a legal framework to protect coastal biological resources such as coral reefs, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows from the damaging effects of human activities. Even though many resources are protected under this authority, water quality stan...

  8. Water quality of the river Damanganga (Gujarat)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Narvekar, P.V.; Sarma, R.V.; Desai, B.N.

    Water quality (pH, suspended solids, chlorides, DO, BOD, reactive and total phosphorus, nitrates and boron) of River Damanganga which receives 0.2 mld of industrial waste into its fresh water zone through Pimparia River and 3.7 mld in its tidal zone...

  9. Hydrology and heterogeneneous distribution of water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the hydrology and heterogeneous distribution of water quality characteristics in the Lagoon of Porto-Novo between July 2014 and June 2015. The water body was stratified into 12 strata for sampling. Data and samples were collected based on season and stations. The results were analyzed in the ...

  10. Saline water intrusion toward groundwater: Issues and its control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purnama S


    Full Text Available Nowadays, saline water pollution has been gaining its importance as the major issue around the world, especially in the urban coastal area. Saline water pollution has major impact on human life and livelihood. It ́s mainly a result from static fossil water and the dynamics of sea water intrusion. The problem of saline water pollution caused by seawater intrusion has been increasing since the beginning of urban population. The problem of sea water intrusion in the urban coastal area must be anticipated as soon as possible especially in the urban areas developed in coastal zones,. This review article aims to; (i analyze the distribution of saline water pollution on urban coastal area in Indonesia and (ii analyze some methods in controlling saline water pollution, especially due to seawater intrusion in urban coastal area. The strength and weakness of each method have been compared, including (a applying different pumping patterns, (b artificial recharge, (c extraction barrier, (d injection barrier and (e subsurface barrier. The best method has been selected considering its possible development in coastal areas of developing countries. The review is based considering the location of Semarang coastal area, Indonesia. The results have shown that artificial recharge and extraction barrier are the most suitable methods to be applied in the area.

  11. Mycoflora and Water Quality index Assessment of Water Sources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    water sources (31.96 - 47.31) falls within the classification “Bad” despite the slight increase during the dry season. The quality of water in the study area is poor and portends health risk; ... tributary that originates from the New Calabar River.

  12. Determination of water quality index and portability of Iguedo stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of water quality index and portability of Iguedo stream in Edo ... has been found functional in assessing the water quality of this stream based on the ... Key words: Water quality index, physicochemical parameters, Iguedo Stream.

  13. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.


    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  14. Water quality management for Lake Mariout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Donia


    Full Text Available A hydrodynamic and water quality model was used to study the current status of the Lake Mariout subject to the pollution loadings from the agricultural drains and the point sources discharging directly to the Lake. The basic water quality modelling component simulates the main water quality parameters including the oxygen compounds (BOD, COD, DO, nutrients compounds (NH4, TN, TP, and finally the temperature, salinity and inorganic matter. Many scenarios have been conducted to improve the circulation and the water quality in the lake and to assess the spreading and mixing of the discharge effluents and its impact on the water quality of the main basin. Several pilot interventions were applied through the model in the Lake Mariout together with the upgrades of the East and West Waste Water Treatment Plants in order to achieve at least 5% reduction in the pollution loads entering the Mediterranean Sea through Lake Mariout in order to improve the institutional mechanisms for sustainable coastal zone management in Alexandria in particular to reduce land-based pollution to the Mediterranean Sea.

  15. Twin cities institutional issues study cogenerated hot water district heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, R. E.; Leas, R.; Kolb, J. O.


    Community district heating, utilizing hot water produced through electrical/thermal cogeneration, is seen as an integral part of Minnesota's Energy Policy and Conservation Plan. Several studies have been conducted which consider the technical and institutional issues affecting implementation of cogenerated district heating in the Minneapolis and St. Paul Metropolitan Area. The state of the technical art of cogenerated hot water district heating is assumed to be transferable from European experience. Institutional questions relating to such factors as the form of ownership, financing, operation, regulation, and product marketability cannot be transferred from the European experience, and have been the subject of an extensive investigation. The form and function of the Institutional Issues Study, and some of the preliminary conclusions and recommendations resulting from the study are discussed.

  16. Climate change and water quality in the Great Lakes Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Great Lakes Basin is subjected to several stresses, such as land use changes, chemical contamination, nutrient over-enrichment, alien invasive species, and acid precipitation. Climate change is now added to this list. The Water Quality Board was asked to provide advice concerning the impacts of climate change on the water quality of the Great Lakes and on how to address the issue. A White Paper was commissioned by the Board to address four key questions: (1) what are the Great Lakes water quality issues associated with climate change, (2) what are potential impacts of climate change on beneficial uses, (3) how might impacts vary across the Great Lakes region, and (4) what are the implications for decision making. The conclusions and findings of the White Paper were then discussed at a workshop held in May 2003. Part 1 of the document provides an executive summary. The advice of the Water Quality Board was based on the findings of the White Paper and presented in Part 2. Part 3 presented the White Paper, while a summary of the workshop was provided in Part 4. A presentation on cross border tools and strategies was also presented by a workshop participant.

  17. Quality-control design for surface-water sampling in the National Water-Quality Network (United States)

    Riskin, Melissa L.; Reutter, David C.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Mueller, David K.


    The data-quality objectives for samples collected at surface-water sites in the National Water-Quality Network include estimating the extent to which contamination, matrix effects, and measurement variability affect interpretation of environmental conditions. Quality-control samples provide insight into how well the samples collected at surface-water sites represent the true environmental conditions. Quality-control samples used in this program include field blanks, replicates, and field matrix spikes. This report describes the design for collection of these quality-control samples and the data management needed to properly identify these samples in the U.S. Geological Survey’s national database.

  18. Transboundary water issues: The Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna River Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Debasri; Goswami, A.B.; Bose, Balaram


    Sharing of water of transboundary rivers among riparian nations has become a cause of major concern in different parts of the globe for quite sometime. The issue in the recent decades has been transformed into a source of international tensions and disputes resulting in strained relationships between riparian nations. Conflicts over sharing of water of the international rivers, like the Tigris, Euphrates and Jordan in the Middle East, the Nile in Northern Africa, the Mekong in South-East Asia, the Ganga-Brahmaputra-Meghna in the Indian subcontinent are widely known. The present paper discusses the water sharing -issue in the Ganga- Brahmaputra-Meghna basin located in the Indian sub continent covering five sovereign countries (namely India, Nepal, China, Bhutan and Bangladesh). Rapidly growing population, expanding agricultural and industrial activities besides the impacts of climate change have resulted in stressed condition in the arena of fresh water availability in the basin. Again occurrence of arsenic in sub-surface water in the lower reaches of the basin in India and Bangladesh has also added a new dimension to the problem. All the rivers of the GBM system exhibit wide variations between peak and lean flows as major part of the basin belongs to the monsoon region, where 80%-90 % of annual rainfall is concentrated in 4-5 months of South -West monsoon in the subcontinent. Over and above, the rivers in GBM system carry huge loads of sediments along with the floodwater and receive huge quantum of different kinds of wastes contaminating the water of the rivers. Again high rate of sedimentation of the major rivers and their tributaries have been affecting not only the carrying capacity of the rivers but also drastically reduced their retention capacity. Almost every year during monsoon about 27% and nearly 60% of the GBM basin lying in India and Bangladesh respectively experience flood. The year round navigation in many rivers has also been affected. All these have

  19. Spectral Band Characterization for Hyperspectral Monitoring of Water Quality (United States)

    Vermillion, Stephanie C.; Raqueno, Rolando; Simmons, Rulon


    A method for selecting the set of spectral characteristics that provides the smallest increase in prediction error is of interest to those using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) to monitor water quality. The spectral characteristics of interest to these applications are spectral bandwidth and location. Three water quality constituents of interest that are detectable via remote sensing are chlorophyll (CHL), total suspended solids (TSS), and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Hyperspectral data provides a rich source of information regarding the content and composition of these materials, but often provides more data than an analyst can manage. This study addresses the spectral characteristics need for water quality monitoring for two reasons. First, determination of the greatest contribution of these spectral characteristics would greatly improve computational ease and efficiency. Second, understanding the spectral capabilities of different spectral resolutions and specific regions is an essential part of future system development and characterization. As new systems are developed and tested, water quality managers will be asked to determine sensor specifications that provide the most accurate and efficient water quality measurements. We address these issues using data from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) and a set of models to predict constituent concentrations.

  20. 40 CFR 130.6 - Water quality management plans. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management plans. 130.6... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.6 Water quality management plans. (a) Water quality management (WQM... and certified and approved updates to those plans. Continuing water quality planning shall be based...

  1. Private drinking water quality in rural Wisconsin. (United States)

    Knobeloch, Lynda; Gorski, Patrick; Christenson, Megan; Anderson, Henry


    Between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, Wisconsin health departments tested nearly 4,000 rural drinking water supplies for coliform bacteria, nitrate, fluoride, and 13 metals as part of a state-funded program that provides assistance to low-income families. The authors' review of laboratory findings found that 47% of these wells had an exceedance of one or more health-based water quality standards. Test results for iron and coliform bacteria exceeded safe limits in 21% and 18% of these wells, respectively. In addition, 10% of the water samples from these wells were high in nitrate and 11% had an elevated result for aluminum, arsenic, lead, manganese, or strontium. The high percentage of unsafe test results emphasizes the importance of water quality monitoring to the health of nearly one million families including 300,000 Wisconsin children whose drinking water comes from a privately owned well.

  2. Water Resources of Tajikistan and Water Use Issues in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Mukhabbatov


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the formation and use of water resources in Tajikistan. The natural and geographic conditions as well as distribution of water resources across the economic regions are analyzed. It is stressed that after breakup of the Soviet Union the water use issues in Central Asia have acquired the dimensions of the interstate economic and political problems. Demographic growth, activation of desertification, global warming make most relevant the issue of equitable redistribution of water resources as the most valuable resource for economy.

  3. Australian coal prospects and response to air quality issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cain, D.A.


    Australia is unique in its high dependency on coal as a domestic energy source and as a major export commodity. Coal provides about 41% of Australia's primary energy and is the country's largest export. Australia's domestic air quality issues and standards are reviewed and current Australian research aimed at reducing emissions from both bituminous and brown coal combustion is summarized. Australia's greenhouse policy is also discussed. The future role of coal in the world, particularly in the Asia-Pacific region, where three quarters of Australia's coal exports are sold, is reviewed. Forecasts of the world import demand for both metallurgical coal and thermal coal to the year 2000 are provided. The supply capacity of major coal exporting countries in summarized and estimates of export coal market shares in 2000 given. Finally, the future of Australia's domestic use of coal is discussed, in the light of climate change concerns

  4. User’s manual to update the National Wildlife Refuge System Water Quality Information System (WQIS) (United States)

    Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Vishy, Chad J.; Hinck, Jo Ellen; Finger, Susan E.; Higgins, Michael J.; Kilbride, Kevin


    National Wildlife Refuges may have impaired water quality resulting from historic and current land uses, upstream sources, and aerial pollutant deposition. National Wildlife Refuge staff have limited time available to identify and evaluate potential water quality issues. As a result, water quality–related issues may not be resolved until a problem has already arisen. The National Wildlife Refuge System Water Quality Information System (WQIS) is a relational database developed for use by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service staff to identify existing water quality issues on refuges in the United States. The WQIS database relies on a geospatial overlay analysis of data layers for ownership, streams and water quality. The WQIS provides summary statistics of 303(d) impaired waters and total maximum daily loads for the National Wildlife Refuge System at the national, regional, and refuge level. The WQIS allows U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service staff to be proactive in addressing water quality issues by identifying and understanding the current extent and nature of 303(d) impaired waters and subsequent total maximum daily loads. Water quality data are updated bi-annually, making it necessary to refresh the WQIS to maintain up-to-date information. This manual outlines the steps necessary to update the data and reports in the WQIS.

  5. Quality Assurance Issues for Therapeutic Application of Radioactive Microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezarn, William A.


    The use of radioactive microspheres for the treatment of hepatic cancer is a procedure that raises unique quality assurance (QA) concerns. The greatest of these concerns is the coordination of the responsibilities among the medical team members from interventional radiology, radiation oncology, nuclear medicine, and medical physics. A single QA practice and procedure guidance document does not currently exist that addresses the range of issues of concern for radioactive microspheres. A small sampling of QA issues of concern include imaging QA, procedure-specific imaging protocols, detector calibration, activity measurement, radiation safety, patient dose calculations, and patient-specific QA. Some of the items listed have historically been the responsibility of a single team member, and other items have been concerns for all. A procedural overview of the therapeutic application of radioactive microspheres is presented to illustrate the broad, team-based QA approach necessary to safely and effectively deliver this type of treatment. From this overview, the reader will be able to customize the local QA protocol to meet the local division of responsibilities

  6. In Brief: Improving Mississippi River water quality (United States)

    Showstack, Randy


    If water quality in the Mississippi River and the northern Gulf of Mexico is to improve, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) needs to take a stronger leadership role in implementing the federal Clean Water Act, according to a 16 October report from the U.S. National Research Council. The report notes that EPA has failed to use its authority to coordinate and oversee activities along the river. In addition, river states need to be more proactive and cooperative in efforts to monitor and improve water quality, and the river should be monitored and evaluated as a single system, the report indicates. Currently, the 10 states along the river conduct separate and widely varying water quality monitoring programs. ``The limited attention being given to monitoring and managing the Mississippi's water quality does not match the river's significant economic, ecological, and cultural importance,'' said committee chair David A. Dzombak, director of the Steinbrenner Institute for Environmental Education and Research at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa. The report notes that while measures taken under the Clean Water Act have successfully reduced much point source pollution, nutrient and sediment loads from nonpoint sources continue to be significant problems. For more information, visit the Web site:

  7. Spiritual issues and quality of life assessment in cancer care. (United States)

    Efficace, Fabio; Marrone, Robert


    Being diagnosed with cancer forces most human beings to face their own death. The comfortable sense of both invulnerability and immortality is shattered, making the patient thoroughly aware that life is finite and limited. Approaching death, cancer patients commonly embark on an inner journey involving a search for meaning as well as a reordering of priorities involving physical, psychological, social, and spiritual needs. Although interest in the role of spirituality, relating to both adjustment to cancer and the overall quality of life of cancer patients, has increased in recent years, most of the commonly used quality of life (QOL) instruments in oncology typically do not include spiritual issues. In this article, it is argued that assessing QOL effectively should involve all aspects of the personality, including mind, body, and spirit as well. This article also reviews recent studies, which have shown that spiritual well-being, although a many-sided and difficult construct to define, is closely related to the QOL of cancer patients. It is also suggested that further research is needed to understand how the new focus on spirituality can contribute to a more comprehensive assessment of patient's QOL in cancer care.

  8. Mass Digitisation by Libraries: Issues concerning Organisation, Quality and Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Verheusen


    Full Text Available Ever since the world-wide web made it possible to display graphics on the Internet, libraries have been scanning their older documents and pictures to provide access to them. From the middle of the 1990s thousands of libraries of all sizes began scanning parts of their collections, provided these with metadata and made them available on the web. The emphasis in these first, rather small, digitisation projects was on experimenting with different techniques for both scanning and building interfaces for the Internet. Along the way, methods for quality assurance, project management and business models became more professional. In line with the progress made in the field of digitisation, a profound knowledge of best practices has been developed. However, this knowledge is not available for all cultural heritage institutions who want to digitise their collections. Most of the smaller institutions lack experience and, moreover, the means to digitise in an efficient way. At the same time, the larger libraries are moving towards large-scale digitisation of historical texts while Google has already digitised millions of books from several libraries around the world. Although many libraries welcome the unprecedented access to all this information, Google has also been criticized for the inferior quality of their images, the emphasis on the English language, the violation of copyright laws and the lack of attention for preservation issues. The question therefore arises: can libraries do better than Google?

  9. Urban Surface Water Quality, Flood Water Quality and Human Health Impacts in Chinese Cities. What Do We Know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhan Rui


    Full Text Available Climate change and urbanization have led to an increase in the frequency of extreme water related events such as flooding, which has negative impacts on the environment, economy and human health. With respect to the latter, our understanding of the interrelationship between flooding, urban surface water and human health is still very limited. More in-depth research in this area is needed to further strengthen the process of planning and implementation of responses to mitigate the negative health impacts of flooding in urban areas. The objective of this paper is to assess the state of the research on the interrelationship between surface water quality, flood water quality and human health in urban areas based on the published literature. These insights will be instrumental in identifying and prioritizing future research needs in this area. In this study, research publications in the domain of urban flooding, surface water quality and human health were collated using keyword searches. A detailed assessment of these publications substantiated the limited number of publications focusing on the link between flooding and human health. There was also an uneven geographical distribution of the study areas, as most of the studies focused on developed countries. A few studies have focused on developing countries, although the severity of water quality issues is higher in these countries. The study also revealed a disparity of research in this field across regions in China as most of the studies focused on the populous south-eastern region of China. The lack of studies in some regions has been attributed to the absence of flood water quality monitoring systems which allow the collection of real-time water quality monitoring data during flooding in urban areas. The widespread implementation of cost effective real-time water quality monitoring systems which are based on the latest remote or mobile phone based data acquisition techniques is recommended

  10. Review: Characterization, evolution, and environmental issues of karst water systems in Northern China (United States)

    Liang, Yongping; Gao, Xubo; Zhao, Chunhong; Tang, Chunlei; Shen, Haoyong; Wang, Zhiheng; Wang, Yanxin


    In Northern China, karst systems in widely distributed carbonate rocks are one of the most important water supplies for local inhabitants. Constrained by the specific geological and geomorphological conditions, most karst water in this region is discharged as individual or groups of springs. This paper summarizes the characteristics, chemistry, and environmental quality of these karst systems in Northern China. Five structural models of karst water systems were identified based on the relationships between the karst geological strata and karst groundwater flow fields. These specific structural models may closely relate to the attendant environmental geological issues and consistent risks from pollution. Over the past 40 years, the karst water systems in Northern China have suffered from various environmental problems, including deteriorating water quality, the drying up of springs, a continuous decline in the level of karst water, and so on. Based on the field investigation and previous data, a preliminary summary is provided of the environmental problems related to the development and evolutionary trends of karst water in this region. The results highlight the significant challenges associated with karst water, and it is essential that all segments of society be made aware of the situation in order to demand change. In addition, the study provides a scientific basis for the management, protection, and sustainable utilization of karst water resources.

  11. Water and water quality management in the cholistan desert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlown, M.A.; Chaudhry, M.A.


    Water scarcity is the main problem in Cholistan desert. Rainfall is scanty and sporadic and groundwater is saline in most of the area. Rainwater is collected in man made small storages, locally called tobas during rainy season for human and livestock consumption. These tobas usually retain rainwater for three to four months at the maximum, due to small storage capacity and unfavorable location. After the tobas become dry, people use saline groundwater for human and livestock consumption where marginal quality groundwater is available. In complete absence of water they migrate towards canal irrigated areas till the next rains. During migration humans and livestock suffer from hunger, thirst and diseases. In order to overcome this problem Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources (PCRWR) has introduced improved designs of tobas. The PCRWR is collecting more than 13.0 million cubic meter rainwater annually from only ninety hectare catchment area. As a result, water is available for drinking of human and livestock population as well as to wild life through out the year for the village of Dingarh in Cholistan desert. However, water collected in these tobas is usually muddy and full of impurities. To provide good quality drinking water to the residents of Cholistan, PCRWR has launched a Project under which required quantity of drinkable water will be provided at more than seventy locations by rainwater harvesting, pumping of good and marginal quality groundwater and desalination of moderately saline water through Reverse Osmosis Plants. After the completion of project, more then 380 million gallons of fresh rainwater and more than 1300 million gallons of good and marginal quality groundwater will be available annually. Intervention to collect the silt before reaching to the tobas are also introduced, low cost filter plants are designed and constructed on the tobas for purification of water. (author)

  12. Shale gas development impacts on surface water quality in Pennsylvania (United States)

    Olmstead, Sheila M.; Muehlenbachs, Lucija A.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Chu, Ziyan; Krupnick, Alan J.


    Concern has been raised in the scientific literature about the environmental implications of extracting natural gas from deep shale formations, and published studies suggest that shale gas development may affect local groundwater quality. The potential for surface water quality degradation has been discussed in prior work, although no empirical analysis of this issue has been published. The potential for large-scale surface water quality degradation has affected regulatory approaches to shale gas development in some US states, despite the dearth of evidence. This paper conducts a large-scale examination of the extent to which shale gas development activities affect surface water quality. Focusing on the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania, we estimate the effect of shale gas wells and the release of treated shale gas waste by permitted treatment facilities on observed downstream concentrations of chloride (Cl−) and total suspended solids (TSS), controlling for other factors. Results suggest that (i) the treatment of shale gas waste by treatment plants in a watershed raises downstream Cl− concentrations but not TSS concentrations, and (ii) the presence of shale gas wells in a watershed raises downstream TSS concentrations but not Cl− concentrations. These results can inform future voluntary measures taken by shale gas operators and policy approaches taken by regulators to protect surface water quality as the scale of this economically important activity increases. PMID:23479604

  13. Drinking Water Quality Assessment in Tetova Region


    B. H. Durmishi; M. Ismaili; A. Shabani; Sh. Abduli


    Problem statement: The quality of drinking water is a crucial factor for human health. The objective of this study was the assessment of physical, chemical and bacteriological quality of the drinking water in the city of Tetova and several surrounding villages in the Republic of Macedonia for the period May 2007-2008. The sampling and analysis are conducted in accordance with State Regulation No. 57/2004, which is in compliance with EU and WHO standards. A total of 415 samples were taken for ...

  14. Monitoring water quality by remote sensing (United States)

    Brown, R. L. (Principal Investigator)


    The author has identified the following significant results. A limited study was conducted to determine the applicability of remote sensing for evaluating water quality conditions in the San Francisco Bay and delta. Considerable supporting data were available for the study area from other than overflight sources, but short-term temporal and spatial variability precluded their use. The study results were not sufficient to shed much light on the subject, but it did appear that, with the present state of the art in image analysis and the large amount of ground truth needed, remote sensing has only limited application in monitoring water quality.

  15. An ANN application for water quality forecasting. (United States)

    Palani, Sundarambal; Liong, Shie-Yui; Tkalich, Pavel


    Rapid urban and coastal developments often witness deterioration of regional seawater quality. As part of the management process, it is important to assess the baseline characteristics of the marine environment so that sustainable development can be pursued. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used to predict and forecast quantitative characteristics of water bodies. The true power and advantage of this method lie in its ability to (1) represent both linear and non-linear relationships and (2) learn these relationships directly from the data being modeled. The study focuses on Singapore coastal waters. The ANN model is built for quick assessment and forecasting of selected water quality variables at any location in the domain of interest. Respective variables measured at other locations serve as the input parameters. The variables of interest are salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and chlorophyll-alpha. A time lag up to 2Delta(t) appeared to suffice to yield good simulation results. To validate the performance of the trained ANN, it was applied to an unseen data set from a station in the region. The results show the ANN's great potential to simulate water quality variables. Simulation accuracy, measured in the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (R(2)), ranged from 0.8 to 0.9 for the training and overfitting test data. Thus, a trained ANN model may potentially provide simulated values for desired locations at which measured data are unavailable yet required for water quality models.

  16. BARC's efforts towards maintenance of water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, P.R.


    Some of the studies pursued at the Environmental Survey Laboratories (ESLs) established at the site of nuclear installations in India are discussed. Each site has its special features and these ESLs monitor radioactive pollution in the environment including Man. The major objective of the surveillance programme at nuclear sites is the maintenance of water quality. Environmental investigations carried out to collect data on individual organisms, recipient water characteristics, thermal pollution and its effect on fish are described. (K.M.)

  17. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.


    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column

  18. Water quality maintaining device of power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Minoru; Inami, Ichiro.


    The device of the present invention reduces the amount of leaching materials of ion exchange resins from a water processing system of a BWR tyep plant, improves the water quality of reactor water to maintain the water at high purity. That is, steams used for power generation are condensated in a condensate system. A condensate filter and a condensate desalter for cleaning the condensates are disposed. A resin storage hopper is disposed for supplying the ion exchange resins to the water processing system. A device for supplying a nitrogen gas or an inert gas is disposed in the hopper. With such a constitution, the ion exchange resins in the water processing system are maintained in a nitrogen gas or inert gas atmosphere or at a low dissolved oxygen level in an operation stage in the power plant. Accordingly, degradation of the ion exchange resins in the water processing system is suppressed and the amount of the leaching material from the resins is reduced. As a result, the amount of the resins leached into the reactor is reduced, so that the reactor water quality can be maintained at high purity. (I.S.)

  19. Monitoring and Assessment of Youshui River Water Quality in Youyang (United States)

    Wang, Xue-qin; Wen, Juan; Chen, Ping-hua; Liu, Na-na


    By monitoring the water quality of Youshui River from January 2016 to December 2016, according to the indicator grading and the assessment standard of water quality, the formulas for 3 types water quality indexes are established. These 3 types water quality indexes, the single indicator index Ai, single moment index Ak and the comprehensive water quality index A, were used to quantitatively evaluate the quality of single indicator, the water quality and the change of water quality with time. The results show that, both total phosphorus and fecal coliform indicators exceeded the standard, while the other 16 indicators measured up to the standard. The water quality index of Youshui River is 0.93 and the grade of water quality comprehensive assessment is level 2, which indicated that the water quality of Youshui River is good, and there is room for further improvement. To this end, several protection measures for Youshui River environmental management and pollution treatment are proposed.

  20. Managing water quality under drought conditions in the Llobregat River Basin. (United States)

    Momblanch, Andrea; Paredes-Arquiola, Javier; Munné, Antoni; Manzano, Andreu; Arnau, Javier; Andreu, Joaquín


    The primary effects of droughts on river basins include both depleted quantity and quality of the available water resources, which can render water resources useless for human needs and simultaneously damage the environment. Isolated water quality analyses limit the action measures that can be proposed. Thus, an integrated evaluation of water management and quality is warranted. In this study, a methodology consisting of two coordinated models is used to combine aspects of water resource allocation and water quality assessment. Water management addresses water allocation issues by considering the storage, transport and consumption elements. Moreover, the water quality model generates time series of concentrations for several pollutants according to the water quality of the runoff and the demand discharges. These two modules are part of the AQUATOOL decision support system shell for water resource management. This tool facilitates the analysis of the effects of water management and quality alternatives and scenarios on the relevant variables in a river basin. This paper illustrates the development of an integrated model for the Llobregat River Basin. The analysis examines the drought from 2004 to 2008, which is an example of a period when the water system was quantitative and qualitatively stressed. The performed simulations encompass a wide variety of water management and water quality measures; the results provide data for making informed decisions. Moreover, the results demonstrated the importance of combining these measures depending on the evolution of a drought event and the state of the water resources system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in 1976...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Keiter; John Ruple; Heather Tanana


    Commercial scale oil shale and oil sands development will require water, the amount of which will depend on the technologies adopted and the scale of development that occurs. Water in oil shale and oil sands country is already in scarce supply, and because of the arid nature of the region and limitations on water consumption imposed by interstate compacts and the Endangered Species Act, the State of Utah normally does not issue new water rights in oil shale or oil sands rich areas. Prospective oil shale and oil sands developers that do not already hold adequate water rights can acquire water rights from willing sellers, but large and secure water supplies may be difficult and expensive to acquire, driving oil shale and oil sands developers to seek alternative sources of supply. Produced water is one such potential source of supply. When oil and gas are developed, operators often encounter ground water that must be removed and disposed of to facilitate hydrocarbon extraction. Water produced through mineral extraction was traditionally poor in quality and treated as a waste product rather than a valuable resource. However, the increase in produced water volume and the often-higher quality water associated with coalbed methane development have drawn attention to potential uses of produced water and its treatment under appropriations law. This growing interest in produced water has led to litigation and statutory changes that must be understood and evaluated if produced water is to be harnessed in the oil shale and oil sands development process. Conversely, if water is generated as a byproduct of oil shale and oil sands production, consideration must be given to how this water will be disposed of or utilized in the shale oil production process. This report explores the role produced water could play in commercial oil shale and oil sands production, explaining the evolving regulatory framework associated with produced water, Utah water law and produced water regulation

  3. Water quality indexing for predicting variation of water quality over time

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    water, and expressing them to non-technical people may not always be easy. ... parameters for a case study; dissolved oxygen, pH, total coliforms, ... Several national agencies responsible for water supply and water pollution, have strongly .... good quality and required proper treatment if it were to be consumed as potable.

  4. Development of a Portable Water Quality Analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán COMINA


    Full Text Available A portable water analyzer based on a voltammetric electronic tongue has been developed. The system uses an electrochemical cell with two working electrodes as sensors, a computer controlled potentiostat, and software based on multivariate data analysis for pattern recognition. The system is suitable to differentiate laboratory made and real in-situ river water samples contaminated with different amounts of Escherichia coli. This bacteria is not only one of the main indicators for water quality, but also a main concern for public health, affecting especially people living in high-burden, resource-limiting settings.

  5. Sustainable River Water Quality Management in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Al-Mamun


    Full Text Available Ecological status of Malaysia is not as bad as many other developing nations in the world. However, despite the enforcement of the Environmental Quality Act (EQA in 1974, the water quality of Malaysian inland water (especially rivers is following deteriorating trend. The rivers are mainly polluted due to the point and non-point pollution sources. Point sources are monitored and controlled by the Department of Environment (DOE, whereas a significant amount of pollutants is contributed by untreated sullage and storm runoff. Nevertheless, it is not too late to take some bold steps for the effective control of non-point source pollution and untreated sullage discharge, which play significant roles on the status of the rivers. This paper reviews the existing procedures and guidelines related to protection of the river water quality in Malaysia.  There is a good possibility that the sewage and effluent discharge limits in the Environmental Quality Act (EQA may pose hindrance against achieving good quality water in the rivers as required by the National Water Quality Standards (NWQS. For instance, Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N is identified as one of the main pollutants to render many of the rivers polluted but it was not considered in the EQA as a monitoring parameter until the new regulations published in 2009.  Surprisingly, the new regulation for sewage and industrial effluent limits set allowable NH3-N concentration quite high (5 mg/L, which may result in low Water Quality Index (WQI values for the river water. The water environment is a dynamic system. Periodical review of the monitoring requirements, detecting emerging pollutants in sewage, effluent and runoff, and proper revision of water quality standards are necessary for the management of sustainable water resources in the country. ABSTRAK: Satus ekologi Malaysia tidak seburuk kebanyakan negara membangun lain di dunia. Walaupun Akta Kualiti Alam Sekitar (EQA dikuatkuasakan pada tahun 1974

  6. Madawaska River water management review : issues, concerns, solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Public consultations were held by the Public Advisory Committee, the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources (MNR) and Ontario Hydro (OH) Working Group and Steering Committee, in an effort to develop a water management system for the Madawaska River, that would address public interests such as public safety, maintenance of the aquatic ecosystem and hydroelectric power generation. Provision of long-term opportunities for broad public involvement in the river's management was an additional objective. The report emphasizes the importance of limiting conflicts between hydroelectric generation and recreation/tourism on the Madawaska River, which runs within the Madawaska Highlands, Algonquin Provincial Park and the Upper Ottawa Valley. The major competing uses for water management in the Madawaska River are: (1) hydroelectric generation, (2) flood control, (3) recreation and tourism, and (4) fish and aquatic ecosystems. Each of these are described in detail, with details of the responses to the issue description and recommended actions

  7. Drinking water quality of Sukkur municipal corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandhar, I.A.; Ansari, A.K.


    SMC (Sukkur Municipal Corporation) supply the (filtered/settled) water for domestic purpose to the consumers, through intermittent water supply, from Phases I to IV. The water supply distribution network is underground and at most places pass parallel to sewerage lines. The grab sampling technique was followed for collecting representative samples. The official US-EPA and standard methods of water analysis have been used for drinking water quality analysis. DR/2000 spectrophotometer has been used for monitoring: Nitrates, Fluorides, Sulfates, Copper, Chromium, Iron and manganese. The trace metals Cr/sup 6/, Fe/sup 2+/ and other contaminants like; Turbidity and TSS (Total Suspended Solids) have been found higher than World Health Organization (WHO-1993) guideline values. (author)

  8. Klamath River Basin water-quality data (United States)

    Smith, Cassandra D.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Orzol, Leonard L.; Sobieszczyk, Steven


    The Klamath River Basin stretches from the mountains and inland basins of south-central Oregon and northern California to the Pacific Ocean, spanning multiple climatic regions and encompassing a variety of ecosystems. Water quantity and water quality are important topics in the basin, because water is a critical resource for farming and municipal use, power generation, and for the support of wildlife, aquatic ecosystems, and endangered species. Upper Klamath Lake is the largest freshwater lake in Oregon (112 square miles) and is known for its seasonal algal blooms. The Klamath River has dams for hydropower and the upper basin requires irrigation water to support agriculture and grazing. Multiple species of endangered fish inhabit the rivers and lakes, and the marshes are key stops on the Pacific flyway for migrating birds. For these and other reasons, the water resources in this basin have been studied and monitored to support their management distribution.

  9. AFRRI TRIGA Reactor water quality monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Mark; George, Robert; Spence, Harry; Nguyen, John


    AFRRI has started a water quality monitoring program to provide base line data for early detection of tank leaks. This program revealed problems with growth of algae and bacteria in the pool as a result of contamination with nitrogenous matter. Steps have been taken to reduce the nitrogen levels and to kill and remove algae and bacteria from the reactor pool. (author)

  10. Quality assurance plan, Westinghouse Water Reactor Divisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The Quality Assurance Program used by Westinghouse Nuclear Energy Systems Water Reactor Divisions is described. The purpose of the program is to assure that the design, materials, and workmanship on Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) equipment meet applicable safety requirements, fulfill the requirements of the contracts with the applicants, and satisfy the applicable codes, standards, and regulatory requirements.


    Management of nonpoint sources (NPS) of nutrients may reduce discharge levels more cost effectively than can additional controls on point sources (PS); water quality trading (WQT), where a PS buys nutrient or sediment reductions from an NPS, may be an alternative means for the PS...


    Twenty-one participants from Europe, North America and China convened in Chongqing, China, October 12-14, 2005, for the Eighth International Symposium in Fish Physiology, Toxicology and Water Quality. The subject of the meeting was "Hypoxia in vertebrates: Comparisons of terrestr...

  13. Compost improves urban soil and water quality (United States)

    Construction in urban zones compacts the soil, which hinders root growth and infiltration and may increase erosion, which may degrade water quality. The purpose of our study was to determine the whether planting prairie grasses and adding compost to urban soils can mitigate these concerns. We simula...


    Scientists from ten countries presented papers at the Fifth International Symposium on Fish Physiology, Toxicology, and Water Quality, which was held on the campus of the city University of Hong Kong on November 10-13, 1998. These Proceedings include 23 papers presented in sessi...

  15. Evaluating Water Quality in a Suburban Environment (United States)

    Thomas, S. M.; Garza, N.


    A water quality analysis and modeling study is currently being conducted on the Martinez Creek, a small catchment within Cibolo watershed, a sub-basin of the San Antonio River, Texas. Several other major creeks, such as Salatrillo, Escondido, and Woman Hollering merge with Martinez Creek. Land use and land cover analysis shows that the major portion of the watershed is dominated by residential development with average impervious cover percentage of approximately 40% along with a some of agricultural areas and brushlands. This catchment is characterized by the presence of three small wastewater treatment plants. Previous site visits and sampling of water quality indicate the presence of algae and fecal coliform bacteria at levels well above state standards at several locations in the catchment throughout the year. Due to the presence of livestock, residential development and wastewater treatment plants, a comprehensive understanding of water quality is important to evaluate the sources and find means to control pollution. As part of the study, a spatial and temporal water quality analyses of conventional parameters as well as emerging contaminants, such as veterinary pharmaceuticals and microbial pathogens is being conducted to identify critical locations and sources. Additionally, the Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN (HSPF) will be used to identify best management practices that can be incorporated given the projected growth and development and feasibility.

  16. Water quality criteria for hexachloroethane: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, K.A.; Hovatter, P.S.; Ross, R.H.


    The available data regarding the environmental fate, aquatic toxicity, and mammalian toxicity of hexachloroethane, which is used in military screening smokes, were reviewed. The USEPA guidelines were used to generate water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and its uses and of human health. 16 tabs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona FRONE


    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight some of the main issues raised by developing and implementing the most appropriate approach to water pricing, and to induce a sustainable water management. Therefore, we define the concept and utility of water demand management as one objective of efficient water pricing. Next we analyse the basic economics and some important theoretical insights of water pricing. We further with state the main four inter-correlated principles of sustainable water pricing (full-cost recovery, economic efficiency,equity and administrative feasability and the trends and challenges of their actual implementing in the water pricing policy of Romania and other EU countries. We end with a review of opinions, personal conclusions and recommendations on the actual opportunity, effectiveness and role of efficient water pricing in fulfilling the goals of sustainabilty.

  18. Storm water and wastewater management for improving water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, Floris; Vojinovic, Zoran; Heikoop, Rick

    Climate change and urbanization will increase the frequency and magnitude of urban flooding and water quality problems in many regions of the world. In coastal and delta areas like The Netherlands and the Philippines, where urbanization is often high, there has been an increase in the adoption of

  19. Urban and peri-urban agricultural production in Beijing municipality and its impact on water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Wijk, van M.S.; Cheung, X.; Hu, Y.; Diepen, van C.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Keulen, van H.; Lu, C.H.; Roeter, R.


    This paper reviews water use and water resource issues in Beijing Municipality, the main trends in the agricultural production systems in and around the city with respect to land use, input use, production and economic role, and the impacts of agricultural activities on water quality. Rapid

  20. The WIPP Water Quality Sampling Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhland, D.; Morse, J.G.; Colton, D.


    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a Department of Energy facility, will be used for the underground disposal of wastes. The Water Quality Sampling Program (WQSP) is designed to obtain representative and reproducible water samples to depict accurate water composition data for characterization and monitoring programs in the vicinity of the WIPP. The WQSP is designed to input data into four major programs for the WIPP project: Geochemical Site Characterization, Radiological Baseline, Environmental Baseline, and Performance Assessment. The water-bearing units of interest are the Culebra and Magneta Dolomite Members of the Rustler Formation, units in the Dewey Lake Redbeds, and the Bell Canyon Formation. At least two chemically distinct types of water occur in the Culebra, one being a sodium/potassium chloride water and the other being a calcium/magnesium sulfate water. Water from the Culebra wells to the south of the WIPP site is distinctly fresher and tends to be of the calcium/magnesium sulfate type. Water in the Culebra in the north and around the WIPP site is distinctly fresher and tends to be of the sodium/potassium chloride type and is much higher in total dissolved solids. The program, which is currently 1 year old, will continue throughout the life of the facility as part of the Environmental Monitoring Program

  1. SF Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund: Projects and Accomplishments (United States)

    San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) projects listed here are part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  2. Water quality of the Chhoti Gandak River using principal component ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ; therefore water samples were collected to analyse its quality along the entire length of Chhoti Gandak. River. The principal components of water quality are controlled by lithology, gentle slope gradient, poor drainage, long residence of water, ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Inside the Ciomad Massive appears a unique lake in Romania, with an exclusive precipitations alimentation regime. The lake’s origin and the morphometric elements, together with the touristic activity, determine the water’s quality and characteristics. Water status evaluation was realized using random samples taken between the years 2005 and 2010. Qualitative parameters indicate the existence of a clear water lake, belonging to ultra-oligotrophic faze. This is because the crater is covered with forest and the surface erosion is very poor. Also the aquatic vegetation is rare. From all analyzed indicators, only ammonium and total mineral nitrogen have higher values during last years. In the future, the lake needs a higher protection against water quality degradation.

  4. General measures and quality of life issues in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Sarkar


    Full Text Available Psoriasis generally does not affect survival but has significant detrimental effect on quality of life (QOL, which may be comparable to that of ischemic heart disease, diabetes, depression, and cancer. The foremost important thing in the management of psoriasis is counseling of the patient. The clinician needs to be empathetic and spend adequate time with the patient and educating the patient about psoriasis. Clinicians should make it clear to the patient that the primary goal of treatment is control of the disease rather than cure. Eating a balanced and low glycemic diet could be an important adjuvant factor in the prevention and treatment of moderate nonpustular psoriasis. Obese people are more likely to have severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis than people with an average body mass index. Dietary supplementation with oily fish, rich in n-3 fatty acids, in psoriasis had shown mixed results in trials. Promising results have been documented for parenteral application of n-3 fatty acid, but not with oral supplementation. Increased smoking or alcohol abuse increases the risk of developing psoriasis and may influence disease severity, and hence must be avoided. Soaking in warm water with bath oil can be done in extensive psoriasis for hydration and emollient effect, and bland soaps or soap substitutes should be used; antiseptics should be avoided as they may irritate the skin. Relatively small, localized patches of psoriasis may improve with occlusion, i.e., waterproof adhesive dressings. The use of emollients is an internationally accepted standard adjunctive to the treatment of psoriasis. Dermatology Life Quality Index is a psychometrically sound and responsive measure of psoriasis-specific outcomes and most comprehensively captures the impact of clinical signs and symptoms on patient's well-being.

  5. Quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities in the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Huffman, Raegan L.; Barton, Cynthia


    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Mission Area of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the Washington Water Science Center (WAWSC) in conducting water-quality activities. This qualityassurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the WAWSC for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities complement the quality-assurance plans for surface-water and groundwater activities at the WAWSC.

  6. South Asia transboundary water quality monitoring workshop summary report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betsill, Jeffrey David; Littlefield, Adriane C.; Luetters, Frederick O.; Rajen, Gaurav


    The Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in several regions as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group made up of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and the United States convened in Kathmandu, Nepal, from February 17-23,2002. The workshop was held to further develop the South Asia Transboundary Water Quality Monitoring (SATWQM) project. The project is sponsored in part by the CMC located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico through funding provided by the US. Department of State, Regional Environmental Affairs Office, American Embassy, Kathmandu, Nepal, and the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. This report summarizes the SATWQM project, the workshop objectives, process and results. The long-term interests of the participants are to develop systems for sharing regional environmental information as a means of building confidence and improving relations among South Asian countries. The more immediate interests of the group are focused on activities that foster regional sharing of water quality data in the Ganges and Indus River basins. Issues of concern to the SATWQM network participants include studying the impacts from untreated sewage and industrial effluents, agricultural run-off, salinity increases in fresh waters, the siltation and shifting of river channels, and the environmental degradation of critical habitats such as wetlands, protected forests, and endangered aquatic species conservation areas. The workshop focused on five objectives: (1) a deepened understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of additional regional and national government and non-government organizations in South Asia involved in river water quality monitoring; (3) identification

  7. Light Water Reactor Generic Safety Issues Database (LWRGSIDB). User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    resolved in other plants and which can be used in reassessing the safety of individual operating plants. The IAEA-TECDOC-1044, Generic Safety Issues for Nuclear Power Plants with Light Water Reactors and Measures Taken for Their Resolution (September 1998), is a compilation of such safety issues which is based on broad international experience. This compilation is one element within the framework of IAEA activities to assist Member States in reassessing the safety of operating nuclear power plants. It is a compilation not only of the generic safety issues identified in nuclear power plants but also, in almost all cases, the measures taken to resolve these issues. The safety issues, which are generic in nature with regard to light water reactors (LWRs), and the measures taken for their resolution, are intended for use as a reference in the reassessment of the safety of operating plants.The information contained in the main body of the TECDOC has been used to establish a database. This database has search, query and report functions. This information is thus available in an electronic form which can be selectively queried and with which reports can be produced according to the requirements of the user. The database also enables the IAEA to update the data periodically on the basis of information made available by Member States

  8. Evaluation of Ravi river water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, K.; Ali, W.


    Investigation from 1989 to 1998 on river Ravi pollution was carried out to study the effects of wastewater discharges on its water quality in relation to its various water use. The sources of pollution entering the river between Syphon (20 Km upstream) and Balloki Head works (75 Km downstream) includes Upper Chenab Canal (U.C.) which bring industrial effluents through Deg municipal swage from the city of Lahore. Investigation revealed that the flow in the river are highly variable with time during the year U.C. canal with a capacity of 220 m/sup 3//S at the tail and Qadiarabad (Q.B.) Link canal with a capacity of 410 m3/S are mainly responsible for higher flows during dry season. A desecrating trend has been observed in the D.O. Levels indicating increasing pollution. Over times D.O values are above 4 mg/l indicating recovery due to dilution biodegradation and aeration. An increasing trend has been observed in Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), suspended solids, total dissolved solids and indicator organisms. Even with the discharges of pollutions from U.C. canal, Hudiara Nullah and city sewage, BOD at Balloki was unexpectedly low. It was investigated that because of pollution free Q.B. link canal which joins the river just before Balloki Head works makes the water diluted, which accounted for low BOD. Water of river Ravi meet the chemical water quality requirement for irrigation. However the water quality does not meet the coliform and faecal coliform criteria for most water use. (orig../A.B.)

  9. Water-Energy-Food Nexus: Compelling Issues for Geophysical Research (United States)

    Akhbari, M.; Grigg, N. S.; Waskom, R.


    The joint security of water, food, and energy systems is an urgent issue everywhere, and strong drivers of development and land use change, exacerbated by climate change, require new knowledge to achieve integrated solution using a nexus-based approach to assess inter-dependencies. Effective research-based decision support tools are essential to identify the major issues and interconnections to help in implementation of the nexus approach. The major needs are models and data to clearly and unambiguously present decision scenarios to local cooperative groups of farmers, electric energy generators and water officials for joint decisions. These can be developed by integrated models to link hydrology, land use, energy use, cropping simulation, and optimization with economic objectives and socio-physical constraints. The first step in modeling is to have a good conceptual model and then to get data. As the linking of models increases uncertainties, each one should be supplied with adequate data at suitable spatial and temporal resolutions. Most models are supplied with data by geophysical scientists, such as hydrologists, geologists, atmospheric scientists, soil scientists, and climatologists, among others. Outcomes of a recently-completed project to study the water-energy-food nexus will be explained to illuminate the model and data needs to inform future management actions across the nexus. The project included a workshop of experts from government, business, academia, and the non-profit sector who met to define and explain nexus interactions and needs. An example of the findings is that data inconsistencies among sectors create barriers to integrated planning. A nexus-based systems model is needed to outline sectoral inter-dependencies and identify data demands and gaps. Geophysical scientists can help to create this model and take leadership on designing data systems to facilitate sharing and enable integrated management.

  10. Assessing water quality of rural water supply schemes as a measure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing water quality of rural water supply schemes as a measure of service ... drinking water quality parameters were within the World Health Organization ... Besides, disinfection of water at the household level can be an added advantage.

  11. Quality and Control of Water Vapor Winds (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.


    Water vapor imagery from the geostationary satellites such as GOES, Meteosat, and GMS provides synoptic views of dynamical events on a continual basis. Because the imagery represents a non-linear combination of mid- and upper-tropospheric thermodynamic parameters (three-dimensional variations in temperature and humidity), video loops of these image products provide enlightening views of regional flow fields, the movement of tropical and extratropical storm systems, the transfer of moisture between hemispheres and from the tropics to the mid- latitudes, and the dominance of high pressure systems over particular regions of the Earth. Despite the obvious larger scale features, the water vapor imagery contains significant image variability down to the single 8 km GOES pixel. These features can be quantitatively identified and tracked from one time to the next using various image processing techniques. Merrill et al. (1991), Hayden and Schmidt (1992), and Laurent (1993) have documented the operational procedures and capabilities of NOAA and ESOC to produce cloud and water vapor winds. These techniques employ standard correlation and template matching approaches to wind tracking and use qualitative and quantitative procedures to eliminate bad wind vectors from the wind data set. Techniques have also been developed to improve the quality of the operational winds though robust editing procedures (Hayden and Veldon 1991). These quality and control approaches have limitations, are often subjective, and constrain wind variability to be consistent with model derived wind fields. This paper describes research focused on the refinement of objective quality and control parameters for water vapor wind vector data sets. New quality and control measures are developed and employed to provide a more robust wind data set for climate analysis, data assimilation studies, as well as operational weather forecasting. The parameters are applicable to cloud-tracked winds as well with minor

  12. Impact of shale gas development on regional water quality. (United States)

    Vidic, R D; Brantley, S L; Vandenbossche, J M; Yoxtheimer, D; Abad, J D


    Unconventional natural gas resources offer an opportunity to access a relatively clean fossil fuel that could potentially lead to energy independence for some countries. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing make the extraction of tightly bound natural gas from shale formations economically feasible. These technologies are not free from environmental risks, however, especially those related to regional water quality, such as gas migration, contaminant transport through induced and natural fractures, wastewater discharge, and accidental spills. We review the current understanding of environmental issues associated with unconventional gas extraction. Improved understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants of concern and increased long-term monitoring and data dissemination will help manage these water-quality risks today and in the future.

  13. Bromine and water quality – Selected aspects and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winid, Bogumiła


    Bromine is a microelement present in waters, both in inorganic and in a wide range of organic compounds, though at lower concentrations. Typically, concentrations of organobromine compounds in waters are several orders of magnitude lower than of bromides. Two issues are addressed in the paper: the influence of bromides on the quality of treated waters and organobromines as contaminants of natural waters. Bromide presence in treated water gives rise to formation of potentially mutagenic disinfection by-products (DBPs). Registered amounts of DBPs in potable waters, exceeding the admissible levels, and the published data on DBPs in waters used for leisure and recreation activities, clearly indicate the health risk. Major sources are identified and registered concentrations of EDB, DBCB, methyl bromide, bromacil and PBDEs in the aquatic environment are summarized. The effects of bromide on DBPs formation and numerous examples of organobromine contamination of the aquatic environment indicate that the presence of bromides and organobromine compounds in the aquatic environment will have to be given more consideration, for several reasons. Firstly, larger amounts of bromide are present in saline and contaminated waters and the proportion of such waters being handled is increasing. Similarly, the processes of water purification, treatment and disinfection are now playing a major role. Secondly, emissions from manufacturing of bromine-containing materials growing, due to, inter alia, intensive development of the electronic industry and the plastic manufacturing sector. Thirdly, bromine compounds are also used as medicine ingredients. There is now a growing awareness of the presence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. Fourth, low bromide concentrations in hypergene zones may be modified in the future, partly because of the climate changes, which may give rise to difficulties with water treatment systems. Water quality standards having relevance to water used for

  14. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - MO 2009 Stream Team Volunteer Water Quality Monitoring Sites (SHP) (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set shows the monitoring locations of trained Volunteer Water Quality Monitors. A monitoring site is considered to be a 300 foot section of stream channel....

  15. Water quality management in shrimp aquaculture ponds using remote water quality logging system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreepada, R.A.; Kulkarni, S.; Suryavanshi, U.; Ingole, B.S.; Drensgstig, A.; Braaten, B.

    Currently an institutional co-operation project funded by NORAD is evaluating different environmental management strategies for sustainable aquaculture in India. A brief description of a remote water quality logging system installed in shrimp ponds...

  16. Water Quality Vocabulary Development and Deployment (United States)

    Simons, B. A.; Yu, J.; Cox, S. J.


    Semantic descriptions of observed properties and associated units of measure are fundamental to understanding of environmental observations, including groundwater, surface water and marine water quality. Semantic descriptions can be captured in machine-readable ontologies and vocabularies, thus providing support for the annotation of observation values from the disparate data sources with appropriate and accurate metadata, which is critical for achieving semantic interoperability. However, current stand-alone water quality vocabularies provide limited support for cross-system comparisons or data fusion. To enhance semantic interoperability, the alignment of water-quality properties with definitions of chemical entities and units of measure in existing widely-used vocabularies is required. Modern ontologies and vocabularies are expressed, organized and deployed using Semantic Web technologies. We developed an ontology for observed properties (i.e. a model for expressing appropriate controlled vocabularies) which extends the NASA/TopQuadrant QUDT ontology for Unit and QuantityKind with two additional classes and two properties (see accompanying paper by Cox, Simons and Yu). We use our ontology to populate the Water Quality vocabulary with a set of individuals of each of the four key classes (and their subclasses), and add appropriate relationships between these individuals. This ontology is aligned with other relevant stand-alone Water Quality vocabularies and domain ontologies. Developing the Water Quality vocabulary involved two main steps. First, the Water Quality vocabulary was populated with individuals of the ObservedProperty class, which was determined from a census of existing datasets and services. Each ObservedProperty individual relates to other individuals of Unit and QuantityKind (taken from QUDT where possible), and to IdentifiedObject individuals. As a large fraction of observed water quality data are classified by the chemical substance involved, the

  17. Westinghouse Water Reactor Divisions quality assurance plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Quality Assurance Program used by Westinghouse Water Reactor Divisions is described. The purpose of the program is to assure that the design, materials, and workmanship on Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) equipment meet applicable safety requirements, fulfill the requirements of the contracts with the applicants, and satisfy the applicable codes, standards, and regulatory requirements. This program satisfies the NRC Quality Assurance Criteria, 10CFR50 Appendix B, to the extent that these criteria apply to safety related NSSS equipment. Also, it follows the regulatory position provided in NRC regulatory guides and the requirements of ANSI Standard N45.2.12 as identified in this Topical Report

  18. Quality Assessment of Ground Water in Dhamar City, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hefdallah Al Aizari


    Full Text Available Chemical and statistical regression analysis on groundwater at five fields (17 sampling wells located in Dhamar city, the central highlands of Yemen, was carried out. Samples were collected from the ground water supplies (tube wells during the year 2015. Physical parameters studied include (values between bracket s represents the measured mean values temperature (T, 25°, total dissolved solids (TDS, 271.47, pH (7.5, and electrical conductivity (EC, 424.18. The chemical parameters investigated include total hardness (TH, 127.45, calcium (Ca2+, 32.89, magnesium (Mg2+, 11.03, bicarbonate (HCO3̶, 143.84, sulphate (SO42-, 143.84, sodium (Na+, 35.11, potassium (K+, 6.28 and Chloride (Cl ̵, 22.69. The results were compared with drinking water quality standards issued by Yemen standards for drinking water. Except for T° and pH, all other measured parameters fall below the minimum permissible limits. The correlation between various physio-chemical parameters of the studied water wells was performed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA method. The obtained results show that all water samples are potable and can be safely used for both drinking and irrigation purposes. This comes in agreement with the public notion about groundwater of Dhamar Governorate. Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR values were calculated and found below 3 except for one drill. The results revealed that systematic calculations of correlation coefficients between water parameters and regression analysis provide a useful means for rapid monitoring of water quality.International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-6, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2017, page: 56-71

  19. Water Quality Protection from Nutrient Pollution: Case ... (United States)

    Water bodies and coastal areas around the world are threatened by increases in upstream sediment and nutrient loads, which influence drinking water sources, aquatic species, and other ecologic functions and services of streams, lakes, and coastal water bodies. For example, increased nutrient fluxes from the Mississippi River Basin have been linked to increased occurrences of seasonal hypoxia in northern Gulf of Mexico. Lake Erie is another example where in the summer of 2014 nutrients, nutrients, particularly phosphorus, washed from fertilized farms, cattle feedlots, and leaky septic systems; caused a severe algae bloom, much of it poisonous; and resulted in the loss of drinking water for a half-million residents. Our current management strategies for point and non-point source nutrient loadings need to be improved to protect and meet the expected increased future demands of water for consumption, recreation, and ecological integrity. This presentation introduces management practices being implemented and their effectiveness in reducing nutrient loss from agricultural fields, a case analysis of nutrient pollution of the Grand Lake St. Marys and possible remedies, and ongoing work on watershed modeling to improve our understanding on nutrient loss and water quality. Presented at the 3rd International Conference on Water Resource and Environment.

  20. Chemical drinking water quality in Ghana: Water costs and scope for advanced treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossiter, Helfrid M.A.; Owusu, Peter A.; Awuah, Esi; MacDonald, Alan M.; Schaefer, Andrea I.


    . Those issues need to be addressed in combination with water quality, coordinated water supply provision and possible treatment to ensure sustainability of improved water resources.

  1. Chemical drinking water quality in Ghana: Water costs and scope for advanced treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossiter, Helfrid M.A. [School of Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL (United Kingdom); Owusu, Peter A.; Awuah, Esi [Department of Civil Engineering, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana); MacDonald, Alan M. [British Geological Survey, Murchison House, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3LA (United Kingdom); Schaefer, Andrea I., E-mail: [School of Engineering, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL (United Kingdom)


    resources to repair and maintain equipment. Those issues need to be addressed in combination with water quality, coordinated water supply provision and possible treatment to ensure sustainability of improved water resources.

  2. Chemical drinking water quality in Ghana: water costs and scope for advanced treatment. (United States)

    Rossiter, Helfrid M A; Owusu, Peter A; Awuah, Esi; Macdonald, Alan M; Schäfer, Andrea I


    issues need to be addressed in combination with water quality, coordinated water supply provision and possible treatment to ensure sustainability of improved water resources. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Microbial water quality of treated water and raw water sources in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial water quality is an essential aspect in the provision of potable water for domestic use. The provision of adequate amounts of safe water for domestic purposes has become difficult for most municipalities mandated to do so in Zimbabwe. Morton-Jaffray Treatment Plant supplies potable water to Harare City and ...

  4. 40 CFR 130.4 - Water quality monitoring. (United States)


    ... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.4 Water quality monitoring. (a) In accordance with section 106(e)(1...; developing and reviewing water quality standards, total maximum daily loads, wasteload allocations and load... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality monitoring. 130.4...

  5. 40 CFR 130.8 - Water quality report. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality report. 130.8 Section... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.8 Water quality report. (a) Each State shall prepare and submit biennially to the Regional Administrator a water quality report in accordance with section 305(b) of the Act...

  6. Hydrological and Water Quality Characteristics of Rivers Feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FDC analysis showed that over 80% of the time, all rivers in the study area would not meet the target community's water demand, without the dams in place. Water quality assessments show biological contamination as the major water quality problem. Significant seasonal variation in water quality is evident, with the dry ...

  7. A multivariate analysis of water quality in lake Naivasha, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndungu, J.N.; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Fulanda, B.; Kitaka, N.; Mathooko, J.M.


    Water quality information in aquatic ecosystems is crucial in setting up guidelines for resource management. This study explores the water quality status and pollution sources in Lake Naivasha, Kenya. Analysis of water quality parameters at seven sampling sites was carried out from water samples

  8. 7 CFR 634.23 - Water quality plan. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality plan. 634.23 Section 634.23 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING RURAL CLEAN WATER PROGRAM Participant RCWP Contracts § 634.23 Water quality plan. (a) The participant's water quality plan, developed with technical assistance by the NRCS or its...

  9. 9 CFR 108.11 - Water quality requirements. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality requirements. 108.11... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.11 Water quality requirements. A certification from the appropriate water pollution control agency, that the establishment is in compliance with applicable water quality control...

  10. 77 FR 71191 - 2012 Recreational Water Quality Criteria (United States)


    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-OW-2011-0466; FRL 9756-2] 2012 Recreational Water Quality... Recreational Water Quality Criteria. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 304(a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is announcing the availability of the 2012 Recreational Water Quality...

  11. Water quality in New Zealand's planted forests: A review (United States)

    Brenda R. Baillie; Daniel G. Neary


    This paper reviewed the key physical, chemical and biological water quality attributes of surface waters in New Zealand’s planted forests. The purpose was to: a) assess the changes in water quality throughout the planted forestry cycle from afforestation through to harvesting; b) compare water quality from planted forests with other land uses in New Zealand; and c)...

  12. Pollution induced tidal variability in water quality of Mahim Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Sabnis, M.M.

    Variability of water quality due to release of wastewater in Mahim Estuary (Maharashtra, India) and associated nearshore waters is discussed. The mixing of low salinity contaminated estuary water with high salinity bay water was considerably...

  13. Microbial load in indoor sport environments: new quality issues by molecular biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Romano Spica


    Full Text Available

    The quality of hygiene found in sporting environments represents an emergent requirement in societies of industrialised countries.

    Besides safety issues, the microbial load of indoor air, water and surfaces affects comfort and performance. Recent studies have identified fungi as the quantitatively most important component, of unhealthy indoor air.

    Few studies have been carried out regarding indoor sport, recreational and rehabilitative facilities, such as swimming pools, saunas and spas. The aim of our study is to determine the extent of fungal and microbial contamination in indoor swimming pool environments, by means of both morphological and molecular typing of isolated species.

    Establishment of appropriate standardised monitoring procedures prevents infections and improves quality.

  14. Quality of life issues relating to endocrine treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P


    for measuring health-related quality of life should assess both overall and disease-specific quality of life. Data from two large studies of bicalutamide monotherapy show that this non-steroidal antiandrogen is associated with significant health-related quality of life advantages in the treatment of patients...

  15. Software Quality and Copyright: Issues in Computer-Assisted Instruction. (United States)

    Helm, Virginia

    The two interconnected problems of educational quality and piracy are described and analyzed in this book, which begins with an investigation of the accusations regarding the alleged dismal quality of educational software. The reality behind accusations of rampant piracy and the effect of piracy on the quality of educational software is examined…

  16. Climate Change Impact Assessment for Sustainable Water Quality Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Pin Tung


    Full Text Available The goal of sustainable water quality management is to keep total pollutant discharges from exceeding the assimilation capacity of a water body. Climate change may influence streamflows, and further alter assimilation capacity and degrade river sustainability. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the effect of climate change on sustainable water quality management and design an early warning indicator to issue warnings on river sustainability. A systematic assessment procedure is proposed here, including a weather generation model, the streamflow component of GWLF, QUAL2E, and an optimization model. The Touchen creek in Taiwan is selected as the study area. Future climate scenarios derived from projections of four global climate models (GCMs and two pollutant discharge scenarios, as usual and proportional to population, are considered in this study. The results indicate that streamflows may very likely increase in humid seasons and decrease in arid seasons, respectively. The reduction of streamflow in arid seasons may further degrade water quality and assimilation capacity. In order to provide warnings to trigger necessary adaptation strategies, an early warning indicator is designed and its 30-year moving average is calculated. Finally, environmental monitoring systems and methods to prioritize adaptation strategies are discussed for further studies in the future.

  17. Accounting for potassium and magnesium in irrigation water quality assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Oster


    Full Text Available Irrigation with treated wastewater is expected to increase significantly in California during the coming decade as a way to reduce the impact of drought and mitigate water transfer issues. To ensure that such wastewater reuse does not result in unacceptable impacts on soil permeability, water quality guidelines must effectively address sodicity hazard. However, current guidelines are based on the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR and thus assume that potassium (K and magnesium (Mg, which often are at elevated concentrations in recycled wastewaters, pose no hazard, despite many past studies to the contrary. Recent research has established that the negative effects of high K and Mg concentrations on soil permeability are substantial and that they can be accounted for by a new irrigation water quality parameter, the cation ratio of structural stability (CROSS, a generalization of SAR. We show that CROSS, when suitably optimized, correlates strongly with a standard measure of soil permeability reduction for an agricultural soil leached with winery wastewater, and that it can be incorporated directly into existing irrigation water quality guidelines by replacing SAR.

  18. Water Quality Index for measuring drinking water quality in rural Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Akter, Tahera; Jhohura, Fatema Tuz; Akter, Fahmida; Chowdhury, Tridib Roy; Mistry, Sabuj Kanti; Dey, Digbijoy; Barua, Milan Kanti; Islam, Md Akramul; Rahman, Mahfuzar


    Public health is at risk due to chemical contaminants in drinking water which may have immediate health consequences. Drinking water sources are susceptible to pollutants depending on geological conditions and agricultural, industrial, and other man-made activities. Ensuring the safety of drinking water is, therefore, a growing problem. To assess drinking water quality, we measured multiple chemical parameters in drinking water samples from across Bangladesh with the aim of improving public health interventions. In this cross-sectional study conducted in 24 randomly selected upazilas, arsenic was measured in drinking water in the field using an arsenic testing kit and a sub-sample was validated in the laboratory. Water samples were collected to test water pH in the laboratory as well as a sub-sample of collected drinking water was tested for water pH using a portable pH meter. For laboratory testing of other chemical parameters, iron, manganese, and salinity, drinking water samples were collected from 12 out of 24 upazilas. Drinking water at sample sites was slightly alkaline (pH 7.4 ± 0.4) but within acceptable limits. Manganese concentrations varied from 0.1 to 5.5 mg/L with a median value of 0.2 mg/L. The median iron concentrations in water exceeded WHO standards (0.3 mg/L) at most of the sample sites and exceeded Bangladesh standards (1.0 mg/L) at a few sample sites. Salinity was relatively higher in coastal districts. After laboratory confirmation, arsenic concentrations were found higher in Shibchar (Madaripur) and Alfadanga (Faridpur) compared to other sample sites exceeding WHO standard (0.01 mg/L). Of the total sampling sites, 33 % had good-quality water for drinking based on the Water Quality Index (WQI). However, the majority of the households (67 %) used poor-quality drinking water. Higher values of iron, manganese, and arsenic reduced drinking water quality. Awareness raising on chemical contents in drinking water at household level is required to

  19. Water-quality impact assessment for hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniil, E.I.; Gulliver, J.; Thene, J.R.


    A methodology to assess the impact of a hydropower facility on downstream water quality is described. Negative impacts can result from the substitution of discharges aerated over a spillway with minimally aerated turbine discharges that are often withdrawn from lower reservoir levels, where dissolved oxygen (DO) is typically low. Three case studies illustrate the proposed method and problems that can be encountered. Historic data are used to establish the probability of low-dissolved-oxygen occurrences. Synoptic surveys, combined with downstream monitoring, give an overall picture of the water-quality dynamics in the river and the reservoir. Spillway aeration is determined through measurements and adjusted for temperature. Theoretical computations of selective withdrawal are sensitive to boundary conditions, such as the location of the outlet-relative to the reservoir bottom, but withdrawal from the different layers is estimated from measured upstream and downstream temperatures and dissolved-oxygen profiles. Based on field measurements, the downstream water quality under hydropower operation is predicted. Improving selective withdrawal characteristics or diverting part of the flow over the spillway provided cost-effective mitigation solutions for small hydropower facilities (less than 15 MW) because of the low capital investment required

  20. Water quality diagnosis system for power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Hiroo; Fukumoto, Toshihiko


    An AI diagnose system for the water quality control of a BWR type reactor is divided into a general diagnosing section for generally classifying the water quality conditions of the plant depending on a causal relation between the symptom of the water quality abnormality and its causes, generally diagnosing the position and the cause of the abnormality and ranking the items considered to be the cause, and a detail diagnosing section for a further diagnosis based on the result of the diagnosis in the former section. The general diagnosing section provides a plurality of threshold values showing the extent of the abnormality depending on the cause to the causal relation between the causes and the forecast events previously formed depending on the data of process sensors in the plant. Since the diagnosis for the abnormality and normality is given not only as an ON or OFF mode but also as the extent thereof, it can enter the detailed diagnosis in the most plausible order, based on a plurality of estimated causes, to enable to find the case and take a counter-measure in an early stage. (N.H.)

  1. Qualification issues for advanced light-water reactor protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korsah, K.; Clark, R.L.; Antonescu, C.


    The instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems in advanced reactors will make extensive use of digital controls, microprocessors, multiplexing, and fiber optic transmission. Elements of these advances in I ampersand C have been implemented on some current operating plants. However, the widespread use of the above technologies, as well as the use of artificial intelligence with minimum reliance on human operator control of reactors, highlights the need to develop standards for qualifying the I ampersand C used in the next generation of nuclear power plants. As a first step in this direction, the protection system I ampersand C for present-day plants was compared to that proposed for advanced light-water reactors (ALWRs). An evaluation template was developed by assembling a configuration of a safety channel instrument string for a generic ALWR, then comparing the impact of environmental stressors on that string to their effect on an equivalent instrument string from an existing light-water reactor. The template was then used to suggest a methodology for the qualification of microprocessor-based protection systems. The methodology identifies standards/regulatory guides (or lack thereof) for the qualification of microprocessor-based safety I ampersand C systems. This approach addresses in part issues raised in NRC policy document SECY-91-292, which recognizes that advanced I ampersand C systems for the nuclear industry are ''being developed without consensus standards. as the technology available for design is ahead of the technology that is well understood through experience and supported by application standards.''

  2. Role of water quality assessments in hospital infection control: Experience from a new oncology center in eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkrishna Bhalchandra


    Full Text Available Water quality assessment and timely intervention are essential for health. Microbiology, total dissolved solids (TDS and free residual chlorine were measured for water quality maintenance in an oncology center in India. Impact of these interventions over a period of 22 months has been demonstrated with four cardinal events. Pseudomonas in hospital water was controlled by adequate chlorination, whereas high TDS in the central sterile supply department water was corrected by the installation of electro-deionization plant. Contaminated bottled water was replaced using quality controlled hospital supply. Timely detection and correction of water-related issues, including reverse osmosis plant was possible through multi-faceted approach to water quality.

  3. Drinking water quality assessment and corrosion mitigation in the hospital water supply system of Chacas Village (Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Bigoni


    Full Text Available Rural hospitals in developing countries often lack appropriate water treatments to assure their water needs. In these facilities, due to water different uses and its use with medical equipment, water quality problems can cause very hazardous situations. In particular, corrosion of water distribution systems is a common issue that can cause unwanted changes in water quality and failures of the distribution system’s pipes. These considerations suggest that a complete monitoring program and water treatments to control and guarantee the water quality would be required in each health-care facility. This study assessed the quality of the water at the rural hospital of Chacas (Peru as measured via specific physical-chemical and microbiological parameters. The results show that the chemical and microbiological qualities of the water generally worsen from catchment to the hospital’s taps. Moreover, this work investigated the effects of a dolomite limestone filter installed to adjust the quality of the water distributed at the hospital and thereby mitigate the water’s corrosiveness. Corrosion indices were calculated to provide useful information on the water’s corrosiveness and positive results were obtained in reducing corrosiveness after the installation of the dolomite filter.

  4. quality assessment of sachet and bottled water soldin gboko, benue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Water is an essential part of human nutrition, both directly as ... The effect of storage on the quality of sachet water produced within Port ... WHO limits for drinking water quality, except for pH. ... Sample. Source. K1. Barna Sachet Water. K2. Fresh life Sachet Water. K3 ..... The high iron content may be because, the treatment.

  5. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 71.600 shall meet the applicable minimum health requirements for drinking water established by the...

  6. Seasonal variations of ground water quality and its agglomerates by water quality index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharma


    Full Text Available Water is a unique natural resource among all sources available on earth. It plays an important role in economic development and the general well-being of the country. This study aimed at using the application of water quality index in evaluating the ground water quality innorth-east area of Jaipur in pre and post monsoon for public usage. Total eleven physico–chemical characteristics; total dissolved solids, total hardness,chloride, nitrate, electrical conductance, sodium, fluorideand potassium, pH, turbidity, temperature were analyzed and observed values were compared with standard values recommended by Indian standard and World Health Organization. Most of parameter show higher value than permissible limit in pre and post monsoon. Water quality index study showed that drinking water in Amer (221.58,277.70, Lalawas (362.74,396.67, Jaisinghpura area (286.00,273.78 were found to be highly contaminated due to high value of total dissolved solids, electrical conductance, total hardness, chloride, nitrate and sodium.Saipura (122.52, 131.00, Naila (120.25, 239.86, Galta (160.9, 204.1 were found to be moderately contaminated for both monsoons. People dependent on this water may prone to health hazard. Therefore some effective measures are urgently required to enhance the quality of water in these areas.

  7. Seasonal variations of ground water quality and its agglomerates by water quality index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Chhipa, R.C.


    Water is a unique natural resource among all sources available on earth. It plays an important role in economic development and the general well-being of the country. This study aimed at using the application of water quality index in evaluating the ground water quality in north-east area of Jaipur in pre and post monsoon for public usage. Total eleven physico–chemical characteristics; total dissolved solids, total hardness,chloride, nitrate, electrical conductance, sodium, fluoride and potassium, p H, turbidity, temperature) were analyzed and observed values were compared with standard values recommended by Indian standard and World Health Organization. Most of parameter show higher value than permissible limit in pre and post monsoon. Water quality index study showed that drinking water in Amer (221.58,277.70), Lalawas (362.74,396.67), Jaisinghpura area (286.00, 273.78) were found to be highly contaminated due to high value of total dissolved solids, electrical conductance, total hardness, chloride, nitrate and sodium. Saipura (122.52, 131.00), Naila (120.25, 239.86), Galta (160.9, 204.1) were found to be moderately contaminated for both monsoons. People dependent on this water may prone to health hazard. Therefore some effective measures are urgently required to enhance the quality of water in these areas.

  8. Quality-assurance and data-management plan for water-quality activities in the Kansas Water Science Center, 2014 (United States)

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Bennett, Trudy J.; Foster, Guy M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Putnam, James E.


    As the Nation’s largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey is relied on to collect high-quality data, and produce factual and impartial interpretive reports. This quality-assurance and data-management plan provides guidance for water-quality activities conducted by the Kansas Water Science Center. Policies and procedures are documented for activities related to planning, collecting, storing, documenting, tracking, verifying, approving, archiving, and disseminating water-quality data. The policies and procedures described in this plan complement quality-assurance plans for continuous water-quality monitoring, surface-water, and groundwater activities in Kansas.

  9. Application of Nemerow Index Method and Integrated Water Quality Index Method in Water Quality Assessment of Zhangze Reservoir (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Feng, Minquan; Hao, Xiaoyan


    [Objective] Based on the water quality historical data from the Zhangze Reservoir from the last five years, the water quality was assessed by the integrated water quality identification index method and the Nemerow pollution index method. The results of different evaluation methods were analyzed and compared and the characteristics of each method were identified.[Methods] The suitability of the water quality assessment methods were compared and analyzed, based on these results.[Results] the water quality tended to decrease over time with 2016 being the year with the worst water quality. The sections with the worst water quality were the southern and northern sections.[Conclusion] The results produced by the traditional Nemerow index method fluctuated greatly in each section of water quality monitoring and therefore could not effectively reveal the trend of water quality at each section. The combination of qualitative and quantitative measures of the comprehensive pollution index identification method meant it could evaluate the degree of water pollution as well as determine that the river water was black and odorous. However, the evaluation results showed that the water pollution was relatively low.The results from the improved Nemerow index evaluation were better as the single indicators and evaluation results are in strong agreement; therefore the method is able to objectively reflect the water quality of each water quality monitoring section and is more suitable for the water quality evaluation of the reservoir.

  10. Microbiological and physicochemical quality of drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Chee Ling; Zalifah, M.K.; Norrakiah, A.S.


    This study was conducted on the water samples collected before and after filtration treatment was given. Five types of filtered drinking water (A1, B1, C1, D1 and E2) were chosen randomly from houses in Klang Valley for analyses. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of filtered drinking water by looking into microbiological aspect and several physicochemical analyses such as turbidity, pH and total suspended solid (TSS). The microbiological analyses were performed to trace the presence of indicator organisms and pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All of the water did not comply with the regulations of Food Act as consisted of more than 10 3 -10 4 cfu/ mL for total plate count. However, the total coliforms and E. coli were detected lower than 4 cfu/ mL and not exceeding the maximum limit of Food Act. While the presence of S. faecalis and P. aeruginosa were negative in all samples. The pH value was slightly acidic (pH -4 - 2.2 x 10 -3 mg/ L) and the turbidity for all the samples were recorded below 1 Nephelometric Turbidity units (NTU) thus, complying with the regulations. All the water samples that undergo the filtration system were fit to be consumed. (author)

  11. Forest fires and air quality issues in southern Europe (United States)

    Ana Isabel Miranda; Enrico Marchi; Marco Ferretti; Millán M. Millán


    Each summer forest fires in southern Europe emit large quantities of pollutants to the atmosphere. These fires can generate a number of air pollution episodes as measured by air quality monitoring networks. We analyzed the impact of forest fires on air quality of specific regions of southern Europe. Data from several summer seasons were studied with the aim of...

  12. Management of poor quality irrigation water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Change, M.H.; Leghari, A.M.; Sipio, Q.A.


    The effect of poor quality drainage effluent on moderately saline sodic, medium textured soil at different growth stages of wheat and cotton is reported. The irrigation treatments were: I) All canal irrigations, II) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent (EC = 3 dS m1) after four weeks sowing of the crop, III) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent after seven weeks sowing of the crop, and IV) one irrigation of 75 mm with saline drainage effluent after ten weeks sowing of the crop. The treatments receiving saline water gave significant decrease in crop yields as compared to canal irrigation treatment. The higher yield of wheat and seed cotton was recorded T1 followed by T2, T3 and T4. The trend of produce was T1< T2< T3< T4 respectively. Electrical conductivity of the soil (Ece) in T1 was decreased and in other three treatments was increased, whereas, pH decreased in T1 and T2. The SAR of soil decreased in all the treatments as compared with initial values. Treatment receiving an irrigation with saline water after four weeks of sowing (T2) was better in reducing soil salinity as compared to treatments receiving such water after 7 or 10 weeks os sowing. Poor quality water (EC = 3 d Sm/sup -1/) can be managed for irrigation after four weeks of swing of crops provided certain soil and water management practices like good seed bed preparation and proper drainage measures are adopted. (author)

  13. The development of water quality methods within ecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of water quality methods within ecological Reserve ... Water Act (NWA, No 36 of 1998), the ecological Reserve is defined as the quality and quantity ... provide ecologically important flow-related habitat, or geomorphological ...

  14. Water Quality Assessment and Total Maximum Daily Loads Information (ATTAINS) (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Assessment TMDL Tracking And Implementation System (ATTAINS) stores and tracks state water quality assessment decisions, Total Maximum Daily Loads...

  15. A stochastic dynamic programming model for stream water quality ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    constraints of the water quality management problem; (ii) a water quality simulation model ... of acceptance and limited implementation of optimisation techniques. .... The response of river system to these sources of pollution can be integrated ...

  16. Composite measures of watershed health from a water quality perspective (United States)

    Water quality data at gaging stations are typically compared with established federal, state, or local water quality standards to determine if violations (concentrations of specific constituents falling outside acceptable limits) have occurred. Based on the frequency and severity...

  17. Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of upstream industrial effluents on irrigation water quality, soils and ... Knowledge of irrigation water quality is critical to predicting, managing and reducing salt ... Presence of heavy metals in concentration higher than the recommended ...

  18. Ethical issues in using data from quality management programs. (United States)

    Nerenz, David R


    Since the advent of formal, data-driven quality improvement programs in health care in the late 1980s and early 1990s, there are have been questions raised about requirements for ethical committee review of quality improvement activities. A form of consensus emerged through a series of articles published between 1996 and 2007, but there is still significant variation among ethics review committees and individual project leaders in applying broad policies on requirements for committee review and/or written informed consent by participants. Recent developments in quality management, particularly the creation and use of multi-site disease registries, have raised new questions about requirements for review and consent, since the activities often have simultaneous research and quality improvement goals. This article discusses ways in which policies designed for local quality improvement projects and data bases may be adapted to apply to multi-site registries and research projects related to them.

  19. Power quality and reliability issues in a deregulated energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggins, M.J.


    The challenge of maintaining power quality and reliability in Ontario's new competitive electricity market was the focus of this paper. The intention of Ontario's deregulation is to lower costs and give customers more power and choice. However, some fear that costs pressures may lead to poorer quality. This paper reviewed the causes, costs, and responsibilities, and made some suggestions concerning how customers can protect their interests as the market opens. It was suggested that in order to assure power quality, especially during the transition period, customers need to take care to design their systems and equipment to tolerate some quality variations. Conversely, utilities need to strive for at least minimum industry standards under most conditions. Contracts should be carefully crafted, with responsibilities for reliability and quality clearly stated. 2 refs

  20. Consideration of important technical issues for advanced light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thadani, A.C.; Perch, R.L.


    Early in the design and review process of the Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWR), the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in recognition of the importance of defense-in-depth focused its attention on lessons learned from the operating experience, research and other studies as well as addressing the challenges from severe accidents. The Commission issued the Policy Statement on Safety Goals for the Operations of Nuclear Power Plants on August 4, 1986. This policy statement focused on the risks to the public from nuclear power plant operations with the objective of establishing goals that broadly define an acceptable level of radiological risk that might be imposed on the public as a result of nuclear power plant operation. The Commission recognizes the importance of mitigating the consequences of a core-melt accident and continues to emphasize features such as containment and siting in less populated areas as integral parts of the defense-in-depth concept associated with its accident prevention and mitigation philosophy. In its Severe Accident Policy statement, the Commission expressed its expectation that vendors engage in designing new standard plants should address severe accidents during the design stage to take full advantage of insights gained by providing design features to further reduce the likelihood of severe accidents from occurring and, in the unlikely occurrence of a severe accident, mitigating their consequences. Incorporating insights and design features during the design phase can be cost effective when compared to modifications to existing plants. The staff has used this guidance to apply defense-in-depth philosophy in focusing attention on severe accident considerations. This paper discusses some of the key prevention and mitigation issues the NRC has focused its efforts, including emerging technologies being applied to new reactor designs

  1. Water Quality, Mitigation Measures of Arsenic Contamination and Sustainable Rural Water Supply Options in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Arsenic contamination of groundwater has created a serious public health issue in Bangladesh and West Bengal (India, because groundwater is widely used for drinking, household and agriculture purposes. Given the magnitude of the problem of groundwater contamination facing Bangladesh, effective, acceptable and sustainable solutions are urgently required. Different NGOs (Non-government organizations and research organizations are using their extensive rural networks to raise awareness and conduct pilot projects. The implication of the results from the previous studies is robust, but coastly arsenic reduction technologies such as activated alumina technology, and As and Fe removal filters may find little social acceptance, unless heavily subsidized. This review paper analysed the quality of surface water and ground water, all mitigation measures and the most acceptable options to provide sustainable access to safe- water supply in the rural ares of Bangladesh. Although there are abundant and different sources of surface water, they can not be used for drinking and hosehold purposes due to lack of sanitation, high faecal coliform concentration, turibidity and deterioration of quality of surface water sources. There are a few safe surface water options; and also there are several methods available for removal of arsenic and iron from groundwater in large conventional treatments plants. This review paper presented a short description of the currently available and most sustainable technologies for arsenic and iron removal, and alternative water supply options in the rural areas.

  2. Prescription drugs: issues of cost, coverage, and quality. (United States)

    Copeland, C


    This Issue Brief closely examines expenditures on prescription drugs, and discusses their potential to substitute for other types of health care services. In addition, it describes employer coverage of prescription drugs, direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs, and potential legislation affecting the prescription drug market. Prescription drug expenditures grew at double-digit rates during almost every year since 1980, accelerating to 14.1 percent in 1997. In contrast, total national health expenditures, hospital service expenditures, and physician service expenditures growth rates decreased from approximately 13 percent in 1980 to less than 5 percent in 1997. Private insurance payments for prescription drugs increased 17.7 percent in 1997, after growing 22.1 percent in 1995 and 18.3 percent in 1996. This growth in prescription drug payments compares with 4 percent or less overall annual growth in private insurance payments for each of those three years. From 1993 to 1997, the overwhelming majority of the increases in expenditures on prescription drugs were attributable to increased volume, mix, and availability of pharmaceutical products. In 1997, these factors accounted for more than 80 percent of the growth in prescription drug expenditures. A leading explanation for the sharp growth in drug expenditures is that prescription drugs are a substitute for other forms of health care. While it is difficult to determine the extent to which this substitution occurs, various studies have associated cost savings with the use of pharmaceutical products in treating specific diseases. Evidence suggests that more appropriate utilization of prescription drugs has the potential to lower total expenditures and improve the quality of care. Also, some studies indicate the U.S. health care system needs to improve the way patients use and physicians prescribe current medications. Prescription drug plans offered by employers are likely to undergo changes to ensure that

  3. Water Quality Monitoring of Inland Waters using Meris data (United States)

    Potes, M.; Costa, M. J.; Salgado, R.; Le Moigne, P.


    The successful launch of ENVISAT in March 2002 has given a great opportunity to understand the optical changes of water surfaces, including inland waters such as lakes and reservoirs, through the use of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS). The potential of this instrument to describe variations of optically active substances has been examined in the Alqueva reservoir, located in the south of Portugal, where satellite spectral radiances are corrected for the atmospheric effects to obtain the surface spectral reflectance. In order to validate this spectral reflectance, several field campaigns were carried out, with a portable spectroradiometer, during the satellite overpass. The retrieved lake surface spectral reflectance was combined with limnological laboratory data and with the resulting algorithms, spatial maps of biological quantities and turbidity were obtained, allowing for the monitoring of these water quality indicators. In the framework of the recent THAUMEX 2011 field campaign performed in Thau lagoon (southeast of France) in-water radiation, surface irradiation and reflectance measurements were taken with a portable spectrometer in order to test the methodology described above. At the same time, water samples were collected for laboratory analysis. The two cases present different results related to the geographic position, water composition, environment, resources exploration, etc. Acknowledgements This work is financed through FCT grant SFRH/BD/45577/2008 and through FEDER (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade - COMPETE) and National funding through FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia in the framework of projects FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-007122 (PTDC / CTE-ATM / 65307 / 2006) and FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-009303 (PTDC/CTE-ATM/102142/2008). Image data has been provided by ESA in the frame of ENVISAT projects AOPT-2423 and AOPT-2357. We thank AERONET investigators for their effort in establishing and maintaining Évora AERONET

  4. Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System (United States)

    Singh, Pratik

    Change in Water Cycle- Important Issue on Climate Earth System PRATIK KUMAR SINGH1 1BALDEVRAM MIRDHA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,JAIPUR (RAJASTHAN) ,INDIA Water is everywhere on Earth and is the only known substance that can naturally exist as a gas, liquid, and solid within the relatively small range of air temperatures and pressures found at the Earth's surface.Changes in the hydrological cycle as a consequence of climate and land use drivers are expected to play a central role in governing a vast range of environmental impacts.Earth's climate will undergo changes in response to natural variability, including solar variability, and to increasing concentrations of green house gases and aerosols.Further more, agreement is widespread that these changes may profoundly affect atmospheric water vapor concentrations, clouds and precipitation patterns.As we know that ,a warmer climate, directly leading to increased evaporation, may well accelerate the hydrological cycle, resulting in an increase in the amount of moisture circulating through the atmosphere.The Changing Water Cycle programmer will develop an integrated, quantitative understanding of the changes taking place in the global water cycle, involving all components of the earth system, improving predictions for the next few decades of regional precipitation, evapotranspiration, soil moisture, hydrological storage and fluxes.The hydrological cycle involves evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and runoff. NASA's Aqua satellite will monitor many aspects of the role of water in the Earth's systems, and will do so at spatial and temporal scales appropriate to foster a more detailed understanding of each of the processes that contribute to the hydrological cycle. These data and the analyses of them will nurture the development and refinement of hydrological process models and a corresponding improvement in regional and global climate models, with a direct anticipated benefit of more accurate weather and

  5. Use of cyanobacteria to assess water quality in running waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douterelo, I.; Perona, E.; Mateo, P.


    Epilithic cyanobacterial communities in rivers in the province of Madrid (Spain) and their relationship with water quality were studied. Sampling locations above and below outlets for sewage effluent and other wastes from human settlements were selected. We aimed to evaluate the use of cyanobacteria as potential indicators of pollution in running waters. Large increases in nutrient concentrations were always observed at downstream sampling sites. A decrease in species richness and the Margalef diversity index were associated with these increases in nutrient load. Differences in cyanobacterial community structure were also observed. A higher proportion of cyanobacteria belonging to the Oscillatoriales order predominated at sampling sites with higher nutrient content. However, Nostocales species were more abundant at upstream sites characterized by lower nutrient load than at downstream locations. The soluble reactive phosphate (SRP) had a threshold effect on cyanobacterial biomass: a decrease in phycobiliprotein content as SRP increased, reaching a minimum, followed by an increase in abundance. This increase may be attributed to hypertrophic conditions in those locations. Our results and literature data confirm the suitability of this phototroph community for monitoring eutrophication in rivers - Taxonomic composition of cyanobacteria is a sensitive indicator of river water quality

  6. Use of cyanobacteria to assess water quality in running waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douterelo, I.; Perona, E.; Mateo, P


    Epilithic cyanobacterial communities in rivers in the province of Madrid (Spain) and their relationship with water quality were studied. Sampling locations above and below outlets for sewage effluent and other wastes from human settlements were selected. We aimed to evaluate the use of cyanobacteria as potential indicators of pollution in running waters. Large increases in nutrient concentrations were always observed at downstream sampling sites. A decrease in species richness and the Margalef diversity index were associated with these increases in nutrient load. Differences in cyanobacterial community structure were also observed. A higher proportion of cyanobacteria belonging to the Oscillatoriales order predominated at sampling sites with higher nutrient content. However, Nostocales species were more abundant at upstream sites characterized by lower nutrient load than at downstream locations. The soluble reactive phosphate (SRP) had a threshold effect on cyanobacterial biomass: a decrease in phycobiliprotein content as SRP increased, reaching a minimum, followed by an increase in abundance. This increase may be attributed to hypertrophic conditions in those locations. Our results and literature data confirm the suitability of this phototroph community for monitoring eutrophication in rivers - Taxonomic composition of cyanobacteria is a sensitive indicator of river water quality.

  7. Problems with provision: barriers to drinking water quality and public health in rural Tasmania, Australia. (United States)

    Whelan, Jessica J; Willis, Karen


    Access to safe drinking water is essential to human life and wellbeing, and is a key public health issue. However, many communities in rural and regional parts of Australia are unable to access drinking water that meets national standards for protecting human health. The aim of this research was to identify the key issues in and barriers to the provision and management of safe drinking water in rural Tasmania, Australia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key local government employees and public health officials responsible for management of drinking water in rural Tasmania. Participants were asked about their core public health duties, regulatory responsibilities, perceptions and management of risk, as well as the key barriers that may be affecting the provision of safe drinking water. This research highlights the effect of rural locality on management and safety of fresh water in protecting public health. The key issues contributing to problems with drinking water provision and quality identified by participants included: poor and inadequate water supply infrastructure; lack of resources and staffing; inadequate catchment monitoring; and the effect of competing land uses, such as forestry, on water supply quality. This research raises issues of inequity in the provision of safe drinking water in rural communities. It highlights not only the increasing need for greater funding by state and commonwealth government for basic services such as drinking water, but also the importance of an holistic and integrated approach to managing drinking water resources in rural Tasmania.

  8. Water quality in vicinity of Fenton Hill Site, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purtymun, W.D.; Adams, W.H.; Owens, J.W.


    The water quality at nine surface water stations, eight ground water stations, and the drilling operations at the Fenton Hill Site have been studied as a measure of the environmental impact of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory geothermal experimental studies in the Jemez Mountains. Surface water quality in the Jemez River drainage area is affected by the quality of the inflow from thermal and mineral springs. Ground water discharges from the Cenozoic Volcanics are similar in chemical quality. Water in the main zone of saturation penetrated by test hole GT-2 is highly mineralized, whereas water in the lower section of the hole, which is in granite, contains a higher concentration of uranium

  9. Environmental Setting and Implications on Water Quality, Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado and Utah (United States)

    Apodaca, Lori E.; Driver, Nancy E.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Spahr, Norman E.


    The Upper Colorado River Basin in Colorado and Utah is 1 of 60 study units selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program, which began full implementation in 1991. Understanding the environmental setting of the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit is important in evaluating water-quality issues in the basin. Natural and human factors that affect water quality in the basin are presented, including an overview of the physiography, climatic conditions, general geology and soils, ecoregions, population, land use, water management and use, hydrologic characteristics, and to the extent possible aquatic biology. These factors have substantial implications on water-quality conditions in the basin. For example, high concentrations of dissolved solids and selenium are present in the natural background water conditions of surface and ground water in parts ofthe basin. In addition, mining, urban, and agricultural land and water uses result in the presence of certain constituents in the surface and ground water of the basin that can detrimentally affect water quality. The environmental setting of the study unit provides a framework of the basin characteristics, which is important in the design of integrated studies of surface water, ground water, and biology.

  10. The Water Quality in Rio Highlights the Global Public Health Concern Over Untreated Sewage Disposal (United States)

    Water quality issues in Rio have been widely publicized because of the 2016 Olympics. Recent concerns about polluted waters that athletes may be exposed to highlights the conditions that more than a billion people globally are exposed to daily. Despite these unhealthy conditions,...

  11. Product development for catering - how to integrate issues on nutrition, quality and environment in the products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard


    Overview of the experience with integration of issues on nutrition, quality and environment from a development and technology assessment project about product development for the catering sector......Overview of the experience with integration of issues on nutrition, quality and environment from a development and technology assessment project about product development for the catering sector...

  12. 40 CFR 35.2102 - Water quality management planning. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... Administrator shall first determine that the project is: (a) Included in any water quality management plan being implemented for the area under section 208 of the Act or will be included in any water quality management plan...

  13. 40 CFR 35.2023 - Water quality management planning. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality management planning. 35... to the States to carry out water quality management planning including but not limited to: (1... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2023 Water quality...

  14. 78 FR 54517 - Water Quality Standards Regulatory Clarifications (United States)


    ... 131 Water Quality Standards Regulatory Clarifications; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 131 [EPA-HQ-OW-2010-0606; FRL-9839-7] RIN 2040-AF 16 Water Quality Standards... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing changes to the federal water quality standards (WQS...

  15. 40 CFR 35.2111 - Revised water quality standards. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revised water quality standards. 35... stream segments which have not, at least once since December 29, 1981, had their water quality standards...) The State has in good faith submitted such water quality standards and the Regional Administrator has...

  16. Trophic state categorisation and assessment of water quality in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, water quality information is crucial in setting up guidelines for freshwater ... water quality in the Manjirenji Dam was generally fair, with a CCME value averaging 78.1, ... The current water quality data set for the Manjirenji Dam is vital for ...

  17. Nationwide assessment of nonpoint source threats to water quality (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Pamela Froemke


    Water quality is a continuing national concern, in part because the containment of pollution from nonpoint (diffuse) sources remains a challenge. We examine the spatial distribution of nonpoint-source threats to water quality. On the basis of comprehensive data sets for a series of watershed stressors, the relative risk of water-quality impairment was estimated for the...

  18. Quality of life issues relating to endocrine treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P


    Recent interest has focused on the use of hormone therapy in prostate cancer for both the management of patients with non-metastatic disease and as a neoadjuvant or adjuvant to curative therapies. This has resulted in patients with fewer symptoms being treated for longer periods of time. Endocrine...... treatments for prostate cancer, such as castration, combined androgen blockade and non-steroidal antiandrogen monotherapy, have shown similar results in terms of time to progression and survival. The main difference between these treatments is their impact on patients' quality of life. Instruments...... for measuring health-related quality of life should assess both overall and disease-specific quality of life. Data from two large studies of bicalutamide monotherapy show that this non-steroidal antiandrogen is associated with significant health-related quality of life advantages in the treatment of patients...

  19. Introduction to the Special Issue: Water Grabbing? Focus on the (Reappropriation of Finite Water Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyla Mehta


    Full Text Available Recent large-scale land acquisitions for agricultural production (including biofuels, popularly known as 'land grabbing', have attracted headline attention. Water as both a target and driver of this phenomenon has been largely ignored despite the interconnectedness of water and land. This special issue aims to fill this gap and to widen and deepen the lens beyond the confines of the literature’s still limited focus on agriculture-driven resource grabbing. The articles in this collection demonstrate that the fluid nature of water and its hydrologic complexity often obscure how water grabbing takes place and what the associated impacts on the environment and diverse social groups are. The fluid properties of water interact with the 'slippery' nature of the grabbing processes: unequal power relations; fuzziness between legality and illegality and formal and informal rights; unclear administrative boundaries and jurisdictions, and fragmented negotiation processes. All these factors combined with the powerful material, discursive and symbolic characteristics of water make 'water grabbing' a site for conflict with potential drastic impacts on the current and future uses and benefits of water, rights as well as changes in tenure relations.

  20. Studies of Columbia River water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Johanson, P.A.; Baca, R.G.; Hilty, E.L.


    The program to study the water quality of the Columbia River consists of two separate segments: sediment and radionuclide transport and temperature analysis. Quasi-two dimensional (longitudinal and vertical directions) mathematical simulation models were developed for determining radionuclide inventories, their variations with time, and movements of sediments and individual radionuclides in the freshwater region of the Columbia River below Priest Rapids Dam. These codes are presently being applied to the river reach between Priest Rapids and McNary Dams for the initial sensitivity analysis. In addition, true two-dimensional (longitudinal and lateral directions) models were formulated and are presently being programmed to provide more detailed information on sediment and radionuclide behavior in the river. For the temperature analysis program, river water temperature data supplied by the U. S. Geological Survey for six ERDA-sponsored temperature recording stations have been analyzed and cataloged on storage devices associated with ERDA's CDC 6600 located at Richland, Washington

  1. Chemical application strategies to protect water quality. (United States)

    Rice, Pamela J; Horgan, Brian P; Barber, Brian L; Koskinen, William C


    Management of turfgrass on golf courses and athletic fields often involves application of plant protection products to maintain or enhance turfgrass health and performance. However, the transport of fertilizer and pesticides with runoff to adjacent surface waters can enhance algal blooms, promote eutrophication and may have negative impacts on sensitive aquatic organisms and ecosystems. Thus, we evaluated the effectiveness of chemical application setbacks to reduce the off-site transport of chemicals with storm runoff. Experiments with water soluble tracer compounds confirmed an increase in application setback distance resulted in a significant increase in the volume of runoff measured before first off-site chemical detection, as well as a significant reduction in the total percentage of applied chemical transported with the storm runoff. For example, implementation of a 6.1 m application setback reduced the total percentage of an applied water soluble tracer by 43%, from 18.5% of applied to 10.5% of applied. Evaluation of chemographs revealed the efficacy of application setbacks could be observed with storms resulting in lesser (e.g. 100 L) and greater (e.g. > 300 L) quantities of runoff. Application setbacks offer turfgrass managers a mitigation approach that requires no additional resources or time inputs and may serve as an alternative practice when buffers are less appropriate for land management objectives or site conditions. Characterizing potential contamination of surface waters and developing strategies to safeguard water quality will help protect the environment and improve water resource security. This information is useful to grounds superintendents for designing chemical application strategies to maximize environmental stewardship. The data will also be useful to scientists and regulators working with chemical transport and risk models. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Potential impacts of changing supply-water quality on drinking water distribution : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Ya; Knibbe, Willem Jan; Feng, Cuijie; Liu, Wentso; Medema, Gertjan; van der Meer, Walter

    Driven by the development of water purification technologies and water quality regulations, the use of better source water and/or upgraded water treatment processes to improve drinking water quality have become common practices worldwide. However, even though these elements lead to improved water

  3. 76 FR 16285 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water... (United States)


    ... DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan To Update Water Quality Criteria for Toxic Pollutants in the Delaware... or ``Commission'') approved amendments to its Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive...

  4. Microbial quality of drinking water from groundtanks and tankers at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drinking water quality was investigated at source and corresponding point-of-use in 2 peri-urban areas receiving drinking water either by communal water tanker or by delivery directly from the distribution system to household-based groundtanks with taps. Water quality variables measured were heterotrophic bacteria, total ...

  5. Assessment of Groundwater Quality of Ilorin Metropolis using Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    ABSTRACT: Groundwater as a source of potable water is becoming more important in ... The parameters used for calculating the water quality index include the following: pH, total hardness, total ... Generally, water pollution not only affects water quality ..... regardless of the natural geology and human activities, it has.

  6. Effects of urbanization on water quality variables along urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on water quality of permanent and temporary water bodies along the urban and suburban gradients of Chennai City, South India. Water samples were analyzed for their major elements and nutrients. The results indicated that the response of water quality variables was different when compared to urban ...

  7. Quality of life and sexuality issues in aging women. (United States)

    Birkhäuser, M H


    Quality of life may decrease after menopause. Hormone replacement therapy remains the first-line and most effective treatment for menopausal symptoms and improvement of low quality of life due to estrogen deficiency. The decrease of health-related quality of life in women suffering from cardiovascular disease may be superimposed on the decrease of quality of life induced by menopause itself. Postmenopausal women with acute cardiovascular disease have a significantly higher probability of death than men of the same age. Quality of life predicts long-term mortality. A myocardial infarction does not automatically interdict sexual activity. The Princeton guidelines classify patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases in three categories. Most patients belong to the low-risk category. In general, these patients can be safely encouraged to initiate or resume sexual activity or to receive treatment for sexual dysfunction. Patients at intermediate (or indeterminate) levels of risk should further receive cardiologic evaluation to be classified into either the low- or high-risk group. Patients in the high-risk category have to be stabilized by specific treatment for their cardiac condition before resumption of sexual activity, or initiation of treatment for sexual dysfunction.

  8. Assessment of water quality in distribution networks through the lens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Apr 2, 2016 ... method, which identifies the regions with relatively poor water quality and highlights the potential locations for ... intelligent decision-making based on the results and the imple- ... A water supply system where water is treated.

  9. Assessment of drinking water quality using principal component ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of drinking water quality using principal component analysis and partial least square discriminant analysis: a case study at water treatment plants, ... water and to detect the source of pollution for the most revealing parameters.

  10. Increased Mercury Bioaccumulation Follows Water Quality Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogle, M.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.


    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of aquatic habitats made to reduce or eliminate ecological risks can sometimes have unforeseen consequences. Environmental management activities on the U.S. Dept. of Energy reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,have succeeded in improving water quality in streams impacted by discharges fi-om industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. The diversity and abundance of pollution-sensitive components of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of three streams improved after new waste treatment systems or remedial actions reduced inputs of various toxic chemicals. Two of the streams were known to be mercury-contaminated from historical spills and waste disposal practices. Waterborne mercury concentrations in the third were typical of uncontaminated systems. In each case, concentrations of mercury in fish, or the apparent biological availability of mercury increased over the period during which ecological metrics indicated improved water quality. In the system where waterborne mercury concentrations were at background levels, increased mercury bioaccumulation was probably a result of reduced aqueous selenium concentrations; however, the mechanisms for increased mercury accumulation in the other two streams remain under investigation. In each of the three systems, reduced inputs of metals and inorganic anions was followed by improvements in the health of aquatic invertebrate communities. However, this reduction in risk to aquatic invertebrates was accompanied by increased risk to humans and piscivorous wildlife related to increased mercury concentrations in fish.

  11. Increased Mercury Bioaccumulation Follows Water Quality Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogle, M.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.


    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of aquatic habitats made to reduce or eliminate ecological risks can sometimes have unforeseen consequences. Environmental management activities on the U.S. Dept. of Energy reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,have succeeded in improving water quality in streams impacted by discharges fi-om industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. The diversity and abundance of pollution-sensitive components of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of three streams improved after new waste treatment systems or remedial actions reduced inputs of various toxic chemicals. Two of the streams were known to be mercury-contaminated from historical spills and waste disposal practices. Waterborne mercury concentrations in the third were typical of uncontaminated systems. In each case, concentrations of mercury in fish, or the apparent biological availability of mercury increased over the period during which ecological metrics indicated improved water quality. In the system where waterborne mercury concentrations were at background levels, increased mercury bioaccumulation was probably a result of reduced aqueous selenium concentrations; however, the mechanisms for increased mercury accumulation in the other two streams remain under investigation. In each of the three systems, reduced inputs of metals and inorganic anions was followed by improvements in the health of aquatic invertebrate communities. However, this reduction in risk to aquatic invertebrates was accompanied by increased risk to humans and piscivorous wildlife related to increased mercury concentrations in fish

  12. Safe and high quality food production using low quality waters and improved irrigation systems and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai


    uneven irrigation patterns can increase the water use efficiency as well as the quality of vegetable crops. Furthermore, recent innovations in the water treatment and irrigation industry have shown potential for the use of low quality water resources, such as reclaimed water or surface water in peri...

  13. Economics of Water Quality Protection from Nonpoint Sources: Theory and Practice


    Ribaudo, Marc; Horan, Richard D.; Smith, Mark E.


    Water quality is a major environmental issue. Pollution from nonpoint sources is the single largest remaining source of water quality impairments in the United States. Agriculture is a major source of several nonpoint-source pollutants, including nutrients, sediment, pesticides, and salts. Agricultural nonpoint pollution reduction policies can be designed to induce producers to change their production practices in ways that improve the environmental and related economic consequences of produc...

  14. Guest Editorial Special Issue on Power Quality in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero, Josep M.


    -healing from power disturbances, efficient energy management, automation based on ICT and advanced metering infrastructures (smart metering), integration of distributed power generation, renewable energy resources and storage units as well as high power quality and reliability. In this regard, the concept...

  15. Quality of life issues and measurement in patients with psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan X


    Full Text Available Xi Tan1, Steven R Feldman2, Rajesh Balkrishnan11Department of Clinical, Social and Administrative Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Department of Dermatology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USAAbstract: Psoriasis is a chronic immunologic disease characterized by red papules and plaques with a silver colored scale. The impact of psoriasis on patients’ overall quality of life is significant, broad, and deep, including effects on emotional wellbeing, psychological stress, self-esteem, relationship, work, social activities, financial burden, and even physical function. Although there are various measures available for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQoL in research studies, there is no consensus on which measure is best to use in clinical practice or for research comparing different treatments. Choosing treatments based on patients’ specific individual preferences, goal-orientation, and close, attentive cooperation between patients and their doctors may be an effective strategy that can be applied to improve patients’ quality of life.Keywords: treatment, health related quality of life, HRQoL

  16. Total Quality Management: Empirical, Conceptual, and Practical Issues. (United States)

    Hackman, J. Richard; Wageman, Ruth


    Total quality management (TQM) has become a U.S. social movement. This commentary analyzes the writings of W. Edwards Deming, Joseph Juran, and Kaoru Ishikawa to assess TQM's coherence, distinctiveness, and likely perseverance. Rhetoric is winning over substance, unrelated interventions are being herded under the TQM banner, and research is not…

  17. Test Code Quality and Its Relation to Issue Handling Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Athanasiou, D.; Nugroho, A.; Visser, J.; Zaidman, A.


    Automated testing is a basic principle of agile development. Its benefits include early defect detection, defect cause localization and removal of fear to apply changes to the code. Therefore, maintaining high quality test code is essential. This study introduces a model that assesses test code

  18. Living PSA issues in France on pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewailly, J.; Deriot, S.; Dubreuil Chambardel, A.; Francois, P.; Magne, L.


    Two Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs) carried out in France on 900 and 1300 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor units ended in 1990. These PSAs determined the core damage frequency for all plant operating conditions ranging from cold shutdown for refuelling to full power operation. Since 1990, these PSAs have been used increasingly as tools for applications such as accident precursor analysis, risk-based Technical Specifications, and maintenance optimization. In turn, these applications are used to enhance the initial PSAs. The notion of a ''living'' PSA which can be used and updated is slowly taking form. The accident precursor analysis consists in applying PSA event trees to obtain quick information on the potential consequences of a precursor event and on the corresponding probabilities of occurrence. A feedback on PSAs is provided by comparing them with actual operating incidents. The computation of the allowed outage time during power operation, based on the computerized models of Probabilistic Safety Assessments, requires adjustments: calculation of hourly risk of core damage under different reactor conditions without equipment unavailabilities. The proposed method also turns out to be an aid in determining the safe shutdown condition and procedure. Furthermore, when introducing a sufficient level of detail, PSA reliability models make it possible to compute contributions and to perform sensitivity studies in order to highlight those components for which a maintenance effort should be made. From the experience acquired up to now, there was felt to be a strong need to create guidelines for using PSAs that would simplify their implementation by the experts in charge of determining Technical Specifications, of maintenance programs, etc. who are not generally specialists in PSAs. For this purpose, it is necessary to improve the intelligibility of the models made in order for them to be used and to offer user's guides adapted to each application. Documents

  19. Does the water reuse affect the fish growth, welfare quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štěpán Lang


    Full Text Available The fish production in aquaculture is growing from year to year. However capacities of current aquaculture facilities are limited. So the need of intensification of old facilities and building new intensive facilities is obvious. The high intensity of fish culture generates some questions. Could water reuse affect fish growth, welfare, health or quality of final product? A lot of research was performed for this issue but just a few works compared water reuse systems (RAS versus flow thru systems (FTS. A problem with CO2 oversaturation was solved by shallow diffusers. Fin erosion seems to be a problem of high stocking density and system hygienic but it is not related directly to water reuse. A few papers were written about biochemical blood stress markers but it was mostly aimed to acute crowding or changes were found at extreme stocking densities over 124 kg.m3 for rainbow trout and 70 kg.m3 for sea bass. The fish are able to accustom to increased noise produced by RAS equipment very fast so it don’t affect fish negatively. There wasn’t found any prove of main water reuse to fish influence in the available literature. All results indicates that if the ecological parameters are kept in natural range for the fish reared in RAS, there is no negative effect of water reuse on fish.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Present paper approach the issue of assessing the water quality of tributaries located in the upper basin of the river Mureş, taking into account changes in the value of biotic indices. In this sense, have been selected the next five biotic indices: Ephemeroptera Plecoptera Trichoptera index (EPT, Total Invertebrates index (T, Chironomidae index (Ch, EPT / Total invertebrates index (EPT / T, EPT / Chironomidae index (EPT / Ch and % Chironomidae index (% Chironomidae. Considering all these indices, it was found existence of a medium to best quality water in Mureş tributaries from Harghita Mountains and a good quality water which comes from the Maramureş Mountains and Transylvania Plateau.

  1. Social Justice and Water Issues in the 21st Century (United States)

    Boyer, E. W.; Fowler, L.


    Water resources are critical to human and ecosystem health. Population growth, land use changes, and environmental changes are intensifying stresses on water resources throughout the world. Increasing and competing demands for water require decision-making about water management and allocation to support multiple and competing uses. Further, climatic variability and periods of floods and drought are threats to humans, ecosystems, and economies. Inequalities in the distribution of water resources and access to safe and affordable water abound, greatly affecting communities. Here, we provide examples aiming to bridge the gap between social justice and environmental science literacy through college-level course work in watershed hydrology and management and in water law and policy. Examples are drawn considering water use, water pollution, and water governance. For example, we explore relationships between water governance (e.g., via land ownership and policy), land use (e.g., food production), water use (e.g., irrigation of agricultural lands), water pollution (e.g., pollution of surface and ground waters with agricultural nutrient runoff), and societal well-being (e.g., effects on communities). Course outcomes include increased social awareness, increased knowledge of water resources, and increased scientific literacy.

  2. Nuclear technology education in Mongolia: Issues of quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davaa, S.; Khuukhenkhuu, G.


    The Nuclear Research Centre (NRC) at the National University of Mongolia, founded in 1965, is the only educational and research institution in Mongolia that carries out fundamental and applied low energy nuclear physics research. The main activities of the NRC are described in the Mission, Strategic Goals, and Objectives Statement of the NRC ( The mission of the Nuclear Research Center is to be the leading national institution that conducts both training and research/development to obtain new information and results, to develop new methodology and technology in fundamental and applied nuclear physics, and also to develop equipment and devices. In order to implement quality management in nuclear technology training activities and conduct quality assurance, the Bachelor's education program has been required to create a self evaluation and the first copy of the report had been produced. It is a common perception that the main mechanism of higher education quality assurance is the internal quality management, and quality external monitoring. Therefore a general model used in most countries for higher education quality assurance. This model's main device is internal and external evaluation. The external evaluation has responsibility to improve accreditation, responsibility/commitment. Based on its self evaluation, the organization will develop its quality plan and, combined with external evaluation conclusions, will be lead toward quality improvement. The most important part of quality assessment is the use of external experts' assessment. Our nuclear research center is the only educational and research institution in the country, and, thus, it is impossible to find respectable independent experts (who do not get involved in our operations). In order to hire reputable foreign expert there are several obstacles: It is not easy to find a person who would know not only nuclear technology training but also do the benchmarking based on our

  3. Evolution of China's water issues as framed in Chinese mainstream media (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Xiong, Y.; Zhang, Z.


    There is an urgent need globally to trigger fundamental societal changes in water use away from existing unsustainable paradigms. This paper attempts to understand the evolution of newspaper coverage of water issues in China by analyzing water-related articles in a major national newspaper People's Daily during 1946-2012 using a content analysis approach. The major findings include: 1) water issues have been in relatively important positions in the newspaper; 2) water issues reporting in China has experienced three stages: 1946- the middle of 1980s: flood and drought control and water for food; the middle of 1980s to 1997: water for economic development; and 1998 to the present: water for the environmental sustainability and economic development; 3) water issue reporting in the People's Daily clearly reflected China's top-down water resources management system, no "real" public opinions on water were reported during the study period; 4) The People's Daily is just a wind vane of Chinese mainstream values and policies on water. These findings supported the realist assumption that the societal changes on water issues in China were triggered by a multitude of factors including the biophysical pressure (floods and droughts), political campaign (the Cultural Revolution), macro-economic reform (Reform and Opening-up), water institutional arrangement (the Water Law) and water management reform (the No. 1 Central Document on water reform).

  4. Predicting Causes of Data Quality Issues in a Clinical Data Research Network. (United States)

    Khare, Ritu; Ruth, Byron J; Miller, Matthew; Tucker, Joshua; Utidjian, Levon H; Razzaghi, Hanieh; Patibandla, Nandan; Burrows, Evanette K; Bailey, L Charles


    Clinical data research networks (CDRNs) invest substantially in identifying and investigating data quality problems. While identification is largely automated, the investigation and resolution are carried out manually at individual institutions. In the PEDSnet CDRN, we found that only approximately 35% of the identified data quality issues are resolvable as they are caused by errors in the extract-transform-load (ETL) code. Nonetheless, with no prior knowledge of issue causes, partner institutions end up spending significant time investigating issues that represent either inherent data characteristics or false alarms. This work investigates whether the causes (ETL, Characteristic, or False alarm) can be predicted before spending time investigating issues. We trained a classifier on the metadata from 10,281 real-world data quality issues, and achieved a cause prediction F1-measure of up to 90%. While initially tested on PEDSnet, the proposed methodology is applicable to other CDRNs facing similar bottlenecks in handling data quality results.

  5. Assessment of water supply system and water quality of Lighvan village using water safety plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Pourakbar


    Full Text Available Background: Continuous expansion of potable water pollution sources is one of the main concerns of water suppliers, therefore measures such as water safety plan (WSP, have been taken into account to control these sources of pollution. The aim of this study was to identify probable risks and threatening hazards to drinking water quality in Lighvan village along with assessment of bank filtration of the village. Methods: In the present study all risks and probable hazards were identified and ranked. For each of these cases, practical suggestions for removing or controlling them were given. To assess potable water quality in Lighvan village, sampling was done from different parts of the village and physicochemical parameters were measured. To assess the efficiency of bank filtration system of the village, independent t test was used to compare average values of parameters in river and treated water. Results: One of the probable sources of pollution in this study was domestic wastewater which threatens water quality. The results of this study show that bank filtration efficiency in water supply of the village is acceptable. Conclusion: Although Bank filtration imposes fewer expenses on governments, it provides suitable water for drinking and other uses. However, it should be noted that application of these systems should be done after a thorough study of water pollution level, types of water pollutants, soil properties of the area, soil percolation and system distance from pollutant sources.

  6. Towards benchmarking an in-stream water quality model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available A method of model evaluation is presented which utilises a comparison with a benchmark model. The proposed benchmarking concept is one that can be applied to many hydrological models but, in this instance, is implemented in the context of an in-stream water quality model. The benchmark model is defined in such a way that it is easily implemented within the framework of the test model, i.e. the approach relies on two applications of the same model code rather than the application of two separate model codes. This is illustrated using two case studies from the UK, the Rivers Aire and Ouse, with the objective of simulating a water quality classification, general quality assessment (GQA, which is based on dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand and ammonium. Comparisons between the benchmark and test models are made based on GQA, as well as a step-wise assessment against the components required in its derivation. The benchmarking process yields a great deal of important information about the performance of the test model and raises issues about a priori definition of the assessment criteria.

  7. Plastic packaged microcircuits: Quality, reliability, and cost issues (United States)

    Pecht, Michael G.; Agarwal, Rakesh; Quearry, Dan


    Plastic encapsulated microcircuits (PEMs) find their main application in commercial and telecommunication electronics. The advantages of PEMs in cost, size, weight, performance, and market lead-time, have attracted 97% of the market share of worldwide microcircuit sales. However, PEMs have always been resisted in US Government and military applications due to the perception that PEM reliability is low. This paper surveys plastic packaging with respect to the issues of reliability, market lead-time, performance, cost, and weight as a means to guide part-selection and system-design.

  8. Effect of gamma-ray on olive fruits quality, enzyme activities and issued oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejri, Sonia


    The results described in the present work concern the study of changes in gamma ray irradiated olive fruit (Tunisian variety: C hemlali ) quality along the storage time processing and the quality of olive oil issued. The study focused on the changes related to the microbiological, physico-chemical properties, as well as pectinase activities in olive after irradiation. We also have been interested in the final product quality after oil extraction. The results of non irradiated olives were presented for comparative purposes. Mature olive fruits were treated with 0.5, 1 and 1.5 kGy gamma ray radiation. Olive fruits were then stored for one month. Irradiation at 1.5 kGy allows the almost total destruction of the total aerobic germs, yeasts and moulds. Concerning physico-chemical parameters, the increase of the dose level generated an improvement in water retention capacity and decreased the rate of polysaccharides hydrolyzes olives. Moreover, the irradiation dose of 0.5 kGy induced the increase in pectinase activities thanks to the improvement of the protein extraction yield. The gamma ray irradiation of olive fruit seems to not decrease olive oil oxidative stability in the studied samples. Finally, gamma ray radiation was able to improve the yield of extraction of the oil and insaponifiable fraction as polyphenols and beta carotenes. (Author)

  9. Security Issues for Information Quality on Mobile Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Ramona ANDRISESCU


    Full Text Available Mobile devices are used everywhere, from making acall to store huge volume of information. But together withdevices shrinking and rise of storage space on a single device webring to mind the problem of trusting the stored information.Trusting the information and assuring its quality meansknowing the security threats these devices face and measuresthat should be taken. Many questions rise from here like “Whathappens when a mobile device is used by several persons andespecially employees?”, “Is that information reliable andoriginal?”, “Who is responsible for a device and its security?”.We are going to see in this paper that information quality can beassured even on portable devices by using the adequate securitymeasures.

  10. Bottled Water: United States Consumers and Their Perceptions of Water Quality


    Hu, Zhihua; Morton, Lois Wright; Mahler, Robert L.


    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report...

  11. Hydroeconomic optimization of reservoir management under downstream water quality constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo


    water quantity and water quality management and minimizes the total costs over a planning period assuming stochastic future runoff. The outcome includes cost-optimal reservoir releases, groundwater pumping, water allocation, wastewater treatments and water curtailments. The optimization model uses......), and the resulting minimum dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration is computed with the Streeter-Phelps equation and constrained to match Chinese water quality targets. The baseline water scarcity and operational costs are estimated to 15.6. billion. CNY/year. Compliance to water quality grade III causes a relatively...

  12. [CAP quality management system in clinical laboratory and its issue]. (United States)

    Tazawa, Hiromitsu


    The CAP (College of American Pathologists) was established in 1962 and, at present, CAP-accredited laboratories include about 6000 institutions all over the world, mainly in the U.S. The essential purpose of CAP accreditation is high quality reservation and improvement of clinical laboratory services for patient care, and is based on seven points, listed below. (1) Establishment of a laboratory management program and laboratory techniques to assure accuracy and improve overall quality of laboratory services. (2) Maintenance and improvement of accuracy objectively by centering on a CAP survey. (3) Thoroughness in safety and health administration. (4) Reservation of the performance of laboratory services by personnel and proficiency management. (5) Provision of appropriate information to physicians, and contribution to improved quality of patient care by close communication with physicians (improvement in patient care). (6) Reduction of running costs and personnel costs based on evidence by employing the above-mentioned criteria. (7) Reduction of laboratory error. In the future, accreditation and/or certification by organizations such as CAP, ISO, etc., may become a requirement for providing any clinical laboratory services in Japan. Taking the essence of the CAP and the characteristics of the new international standard, ISO151589, into consideration, it is important to choose the best suited accreditation and/or certification depending of the purpose of clinical laboratory.



    Aillery, Marcel P.; Gollehon, Noel R.; Johansson, Robert C.; Kaplan, Jonathan D.; Key, Nigel D.; Ribaudo, Marc


    Animal waste from confined animal feeding operations is a potential source of air and water quality degradation from evaporation of gases, runoff to surface water, and leaching to ground water. This report assesses the potential economic and environmental tradeoffs between water quality policies and air quality policies that require the animal agriculture sector to take potentially costly measures to abate pollution. A farm-level analysis of hog farms estimates the economic and environmental ...

  14. Surface water-quality assessment of the lower Kansas River basin, Kansas and Nebraska; project description (United States)

    Stamer, J.K.; Jordan, P.R.; Engberg, R.A.; Dugan, J.T.


    In 1986 the U.S. Geological Survey began a National Water-Quality Assessment Program to: (1) provide nationally consistent descriptions of the current status of water quality for a large, diverse, and geographically distributed part of the Nation 's surface water resources; (2) where possible, define trends in water quality; and (3) identify and describe the relation between water quality and natural and land use factors. This report describes the pilot study of the lower Kansas River basin, which is one of four surface water pilot studies that will be used to test, and modify as necessary, assessment concepts and approaches in preparation for future full implementation of the national program. Water quality issues in the lower Kansas River basin are dominated by possible nonpoint sources of contamination from agricultural land, with issues including: (1) large sediment discharge in the streams and sediment deposition in the reservoirs caused by intensive cultivation of row crops and subsequent erosion; (2) occurrence of pesticides in streams and reservoirs that could impair the suitability of water for aquatic life and has the potential for impairing the water 's suitability for public supply; (3) bacterial contamination caused by runoff from pastureland and feedlot operations and municipal wastewater discharges; and (4) nutrient enrichment of reservoirs. Data from fixed stations will be used to determine frequency distributions of constituent concentrations and mass balances of constituents between stations. Subbasin or river reach studies will provide a better understanding of the origin, movement, and fate of potential contaminants. (Lantz-PTT)

  15. Water Quality Assessment for Deep-water Channel area of Guangzhou Port based on the Comprehensive Water Quality Identification Index Method (United States)

    Chen, Yi


    The comprehensive water quality identification index method is able to assess the general water quality situation comprehensively and represent the water quality classification; water environment functional zone achieves pollution level and standard objectively and systematically. This paper selects 3 representative zones along deep-water channel of Guangzhou port and applies comprehensive water quality identification index method to calculate sea water quality monitoring data for different selected zones from year 2006 to 2014, in order to investigate the temporal variation of water quality along deep-water channel of Guangzhou port. The comprehensive water quality level from north to south presents an increased trend, and the water quality of the three zones in 2014 is much better than in 2006. This paper puts forward environmental protection measurements and suggestions for Pearl River Estuary, provides data support and theoretical basis for studied sea area pollution prevention and control.

  16. Water-quality assessment of the Central Arizona Basins, Arizona and northern Mexico; environmental setting and overview of water quality (United States)

    Cordy, Gail E.; Rees, Julie A.; Edmonds, Robert J.; Gebler, Joseph B.; Wirt, Laurie; Gellenbeck, Dorinda J.; Anning, David W.


    the southern part. Ground water is the primary water supply in most of Arizona and the only source of drinking water used by communities in the southern half of the study area. Years of overpumping have caused water tables in basin fill to drop below once-perennial streams leaving streambeds dry, water too deep to pump economically, pumping of poorer quality water with depth, and earth fissures resulting from subsidence after dewatering of sediments. Natural processes-such as leaching of trace elements and major ions from geologic formations-and human activities-such as mining, agriculture, and urban development-have major effects on the quality of surface-water and ground-water resources in the Central Arizona Basins study area. Surface-water quality standards in Arizona are based on the designated use of the water such as full or partial body contact, fish consumption, aquatic and wildlife uses, and agriculture. Maintaining the biological integrity (health) of surface waters in Arizona is an important part of ensuring that these waters are suitable for designated uses. Important water-quality issues for surface water that are somewhat unique to Arizona include: (1) streamflows and riparian environments sustained by effluent from municipal wastewater-treatment plants that contains high concentrations of nutrients, potentially toxic trace elements and organic compounds, and fecal bacteria; (2) industrial, mining, agricultural, and municipal sources of contamination from Mexico; and (3) unpredictable high flows from major summer thunder storms causing stream-channel changes; high suspended-sediment concentrations and loads; sewage overflows; and breaching, erosion, and washout of landfills and mining operations. The quality of water in aquifers that are protected for drinking- water use is subject to standards that are in most cases equal to or more stringent than the primary drinking-water regulations of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The general che

  17. Modeling of Water Quality 'Almendares River'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domínguez Catasús, Judith


    The river Almendares, one of the most important water bodies of the Havana City, is very polluted. The analysis of parameters as dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand is very helpful for the studies aimed to the recovery of the river. There is a growing recognition around the word that the water quality models are very useful tools to plan sanitary strategies for the handling of the contamination. In the present work, the advective, steady- state Streeter and Phelps model was validated to simulate the effect of the multiple-point and distributed sources on the carbonaceous oxygen demand, NH4 and dissolved oxygen. For modeling purposes the section of the river located between the point where the waste water treatment station Maria del Carmen discharges to the river and the Bridge El Bosque, was divided in 11 segments. The use of the 99mTc and the Rodamine WT as tracers allowed determining the hydrodynamic parameters necessary for modeling purposes. The validated model allows to predict the effect of the sanitary strategies on the water quality of the river. The main conclusions are: 1. The model Streeter and Phelps calibrated and validated in the Almendares between the confluence of the channel 'María del Carmen' and bridge the Forest of Havana, described in more than 90% The behavior of the dissolved oxygen and BODn (in terms of ammonia), and more than 85%, the carbonaceous demand oxygen, which characterizes the process of purification. 2. Model validation Streeter and Phelps, indicates that implicit conceptual model is appropriate. This refers primarily to the considerations relating to the calculation of the kinetic constants and the DOS, the segmentation used, to the location of the discharges and the Standing been about them, to the river morphology and hydrodynamic parameters . 3. The calibration procedure Streeter and Phelps model that determines the least-squares Kr-Kd pair that best fits the OD and uses this Kr to model BOD gets four% increase in


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir P. Borisenkov


    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to reveal the reasons of deterioration of education quality at the Soviet and Post-Soviet school and, adopting the best experience of the countries that are recognised as world leaders in education; to plan the solution ways to current problems and situation at the Russian school. Methods. The principle of a historicism that expresses the necessity of concrete historical studying of the public phenomena is put in a basis of methodology of the research conducted by the author; it includes pedagogical phenomena (in the course of its origin, its development and transformation, taking into account variety of its communications, dependences and mediations. The concrete methods used in work, are typical for theoretical research: the analysis, an estimation and reduction in system of the empirical and generalised material on the selected theme. Large corpus of the scientific literature is studied. The data of the published international researches on education in which our country is widely involved (PISA, TIMSS, and also the national researches undertaken in the USA, Great Britain and other countries are considered. Methods of expert estimations, and direct supervision of educational process in secondary and higher educational institutions are applied. Results. The general characteristic of evolution of quality of the Russian education is presented during the Soviet and Post-Soviet periods. The factors which have had negative influence on quality of school training during the various periods are revealed. The estimation of the reasons which have caused failures of school reforms, carried out in the USSR in the 60–80s and within two last decades in modern Russia is given. The concurrent important positive shifts in this sphere, taking place in the same years are noted. Results of the international researches on education (PISA and TIMSS are presented; the scoring of Russia among other states is defined, following



    Vladimir P. Borisenkov


    The aim of the investigation is to reveal the reasons of deterioration of education quality at the Soviet and Post-Soviet school and, adopting the best experience of the countries that are recognised as world leaders in education; to plan the solution ways to current problems and situation at the Russian school. Methods. The principle of a historicism that expresses the necessity of concrete historical studying of the public phenomena is put in a basis of methodology of the research conducted...

  20. 42 CFR 494.40 - Condition: Water and dialysate quality. (United States)


    ... demonstrate the following: (a) Standard: Water purity. Water and equipment used for dialysis meets the water... Boulevard, Suite 400, Arlington, VA 22201-4598. (b) Standard: Chlorine/chloramines. (1) The water treatment... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Water and dialysate quality. 494.40...

  1. Interactions of water quality and integrated groundwater management: Examples from the United States and Europe: Chapter 14 (United States)

    Warner, Kelly L.; Barataud, Fabienne; Hunt, Randall J.; Benoit, Marc; Anglade, Juliette; Borchardt, Mark A.


    Groundwater is available in many parts of the world, but the quality of the water may limit its use. Contaminants can limit the use of groundwater through concerns associated with human health, aquatic health, economic costs, or even societal perception. Given this broad range of concerns, this chapter focuses on examples of how water quality issues influence integrated groundwater management. One example evaluates the importance of a naturally occurring contaminant Arsenic (As) for drinking water supply, one explores issues resulting from agricultural activities on the land surface and factors that influence related groundwater management, and the last examines unique issues that result from human-introduced viral pathogens for groundwater-derived drinking water vulnerability. The examples underscore how integrated groundwater management lies at the intersections of environmental characterization, engineering constraints, societal needs, and human perception of acceptable water quality. As such, water quality factors can be a key driver for societal decision making.

  2. The maladies of water and war: addressing poor water quality in Iraq. (United States)

    Zolnikov, Tara Rava


    Water is essential in providing nutrients, but contaminated water contributes to poor population health. Water quality and availability can change in unstructured situations, such as war. To develop a practical strategy to address poor water quality resulting from intermittent wars in Iraq, I reviewed information from academic sources regarding waterborne diseases, conflict and war, water quality treatment, and malnutrition. The prevalence of disease was high in impoverished, malnourished populations exposed to contaminated water sources. The data aided in developing a strategy to improve water quality in Iraq, which encompasses remineralized water from desalination plants, health care reform, monitoring and evaluation systems, and educational public health interventions.

  3. Indices of quality surface water bodies in the planning of water resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Miranda, Juan Pablo


    Full Text Available This paper considers a review of the literature major and significant methods of quality indices of water applied in surface water bodies, used and proposed for assessing the significance of parameters of water quality in the assessment of surface water currents and they are usually used in making decisions for intervention and strategic prevention measures for those responsible for the conservation and preservation of watersheds where these water bodies belong. An exploratory methodology was applied to realize the conceptualization of each water quality index. As a result, it is observed that there are several important methods for determining the water quality index applied in surface water bodies.

  4. 75 FR 41106 - Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan to Update Water... (United States)


    ... DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Amendments to the Water Quality Regulations, Water Code and Comprehensive Plan to Update Water Quality Criteria for Toxic Pollutants in the Delaware... hold a public hearing to receive comments on proposed amendments to the Commission's Water Quality...

  5. Microbial quality of agricultural water in Central Florida


    Topalcengiz, Zeynal; Strawn, Laura K.; Danyluk, Michelle D.


    The microbial quality of water that comes into the edible portion of produce is believed to directly relate to the safety of produce, and metrics describing indicator organisms are commonly used to ensure safety. The US FDA Produce Safety Rule (PSR) sets very specific microbiological water quality metrics for agricultural water that contacts the harvestable portion of produce. Validation of these metrics for agricultural water is essential for produce safety. Water samples (500 mL) from six a...

  6. Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality (United States)

    Lathrop, Richard G., Jr.


    This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions.

  7. Evaluation of global water quality - the potential of a data- and model-driven analysis (United States)

    Bärlund, Ilona; Flörke, Martina; Alcamo, Joseph; Völker, Jeanette; Malsy, Marcus; Kaus, Andrew; Reder, Klara; Büttner, Olaf; Katterfeld, Christiane; Dietrich, Désirée; Borchardt, Dietrich


    The ongoing socio-economic development presents a new challenge for water quality worldwide, especially in developing and emerging countries. It is estimated that due to population growth and the extension of water supply networks, the amount of waste water will rise sharply. This can lead to an increased risk of surface water quality degradation, if the wastewater is not sufficiently treated. This development has impacts on ecosystems and human health, as well as food security. The United Nations Member States have adopted targets for sustainable development. They include, inter alia, sustainable protection of water quality and sustainable use of water resources. To achieve these goals, appropriate monitoring strategies and the development of indicators for water quality are required. Within the pre-study for a 'World Water Quality Assessment' (WWQA) led by United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), a methodology for assessing water quality, taking into account the above-mentioned objectives has been developed. The novelty of this methodology is the linked model- and data-driven approach. The focus is on parameters reflecting the key water quality issues, such as increased waste water pollution, salinization or eutrophication. The results from the pre-study show, for example, that already about one seventh of all watercourses in Latin America, Africa and Asia show high organic pollution. This is of central importance for inland fisheries and associated food security. In addition, it could be demonstrated that global water quality databases have large gaps. These must be closed in the future in order to obtain an overall picture of global water quality and to target measures more efficiently. The aim of this presentation is to introduce the methodology developed within the WWQA pre-study and to show selected examples of application in Latin America, Africa and Asia.

  8. Application of multivariate statistical techniques in the water quality assessment of Danube river, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voza Danijela


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to evaluate the quality of the Danube River in its course through Serbia as well as to demonstrate the possibilities for using three statistical methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Factor Analysis (FA and Cluster Analysis (CA in the surface water quality management. Given that the Danube is an important trans-boundary river, thorough water quality monitoring by sampling at different distances during shorter and longer periods of time is not only ecological, but also a political issue. Monitoring was carried out at monthly intervals from January to December 2011, at 17 sampling sites. The obtained data set was treated by multivariate techniques in order, firstly, to identify the similarities and differences between sampling periods and locations, secondly, to recognize variables that affect the temporal and spatial water quality changes and thirdly, to present the anthropogenic impact on water quality parameters.

  9. Improving Water Quality With Conservation Buffers (United States)

    Lowrance, R.; Dabney, S.; Schultz, R.


    Conservation buffer technologies are new approaches that need wider application. In-field buffer practices work best when used in combination with other buffer types and other conservation practices. Vegetative barriers may be used in combination with edge-of-field buffers to protect and improve their function and longevity by dispersing runoff and encouraging sediment deposition upslope of the buffer. It's important to understand how buffers can be managed to help reduce nutrient transport potential for high loading of nutrients from manure land application sites, A restored riparian wetland buffer retained or removed at least 59 percent of the nitrogen and 66 percent of the phosphorus that entered from an adjacent manure land application site. The Bear Creek National Restoration Demonstration Watershed project in Iowa has been the site of riparian forest buffers and filter strips creation; constructed wetlands to capture tile flow; stream-bank bioengineering; in-stream structures; and controlling livestock grazing. We need field studies that test various widths of buffers of different plant community compositions for their efficacy in trapping surface runoff, reducing nonpoint source pollutants in subsurface waters, and enhancing the aquatic ecosystem. Research is needed to evaluate the impact of different riparian grazing strategies on channel morphology, water quality, and the fate of livestock-associated pathogens and antibiotics. Integrating riparian buffers and other conservation buffers into these models is a key objective in future model development.

  10. Effects of gamma radiation on raspberries: safety and quality issues. (United States)

    Verde, S Cabo; Trigo, M J; Sousa, M B; Ferreira, A; Ramos, A C; Nunes, I; Junqueira, C; Melo, R; Santos, P M P; Botelho, M L


    There is an ever-increasing global demand from consumers for high-quality foods with major emphasis placed on quality and safety attributes. One of the main demands that consumers display is for minimally processed, high-nutrition/low-energy natural foods with no or minimal chemical preservatives. The nutritional value of raspberry fruit is widely recognized. In particular, red raspberries are known to demonstrate a strong antioxidant capacity that might prove beneficial to human health by preventing free radical-induced oxidative stress. However, food products that are consumed raw, are increasingly being recognized as important vehicles for transmission of human pathogens. Food irradiation is one of the few technologies that address both food quality and safety by virtue of its ability to control spoilage and foodborne pathogenic microorganisms without significantly affecting sensory or other organoleptic attributes of the food. Food irradiation is well established as a physical, nonthermal treatment (cold pasteurization) that processes foods at or nearly at ambient temperature in the final packaging, reducing the possibility of cross contamination until the food is actually used by the consumer. The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of gamma radiation on raspberries in order to assess consequences of irradiation. Freshly packed raspberries (Rubus idaeus L.) were irradiated in a (60)Co source at several doses (0.5, 1, or 1.5 kGy). Bioburden, total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, physicochemical properties such as texture, color, pH, soluble solids content, and acidity, and sensorial parameters were assessed before and after irradiation and during storage time up to 14 d at 4°C. Characterization of raspberries microbiota showed an average bioburden value of 10(4) colony-forming units (CFU)/g and a diverse microbial population predominantly composed of two morphological types (gram-negative, oxidase-negative rods, 35%, and filamentous fungi, 41

  11. Industrial pollution and the management of river water quality: a model of Kelani River, Sri Lanka. (United States)

    Gunawardena, Asha; Wijeratne, E M S; White, Ben; Hailu, Atakelty; Pandit, Ram


    Water quality of the Kelani River has become a critical issue in Sri Lanka due to the high cost of maintaining drinking water standards and the market and non-market costs of deteriorating river ecosystem services. By integrating a catchment model with a river model of water quality, we developed a method to estimate the effect of pollution sources on ambient water quality. Using integrated model simulations, we estimate (1) the relative contribution from point (industrial and domestic) and non-point sources (river catchment) to river water quality and (2) pollutant transfer coefficients for zones along the lower section of the river. Transfer coefficients provide the basis for policy analyses in relation to the location of new industries and the setting of priorities for industrial pollution control. They also offer valuable information to design socially optimal economic policy to manage industrialized river catchments.

  12. The case for regime-based water quality standards (United States)

    G.C. Poole; J.B. Dunham; D.M. Keenan; S.T. Sauter; D.A. McCullough; C. Mebane; J.C. Lockwood; D.A. Essig; M.P. Hicks; D.J. Sturdevant; E.J. Materna; S.A. Spalding; J. Risley; M. Deppman


    Conventional water quality standards have been successful in reducing the concentration of toxic substances in US waters. However, conventional standards are based on simple thresholds and are therefore poorly structured to address human-caused imbalances in dynamic, natural water quality parameters, such as nutrients, sediment, and temperature. A more applicable type...

  13. Assessment of Irrigation Water Quality and Suitability for Irrigation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A number of factors like geology, soil, effluents, sewage disposal and other environmental conditions in which the water stays or moves and interacts are among the factors that affect the quality of irrigation water. This study was conducted to determine the quality and suitability of different water sources for irrigation purpose ...

  14. Microbial quality of drinking water from groundtanks and tankers at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 23, 2013 ... A lack of infrastructure, coupled .... munity tankers and its relationship to health outcomes in light of water quality ... delivery, taps at the eThekwini Water and Sanitation laboratory ... relationship between drinking water quality, health, hygiene ... over a 2-week period from the point-of-use and source of each.

  15. Ground water quality evaluation in Beed city, Maharashtra, India ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was undertaken to assess the quality of ground water in Beed district of Maharashtra taking both physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters into consideration. The present investigation is aimed to calculate Water Quality Index (WQI) of ground water and to assess the impact of pollutants due to agriculture ...

  16. National Water Quality Inventory, 1975 Report to Congress. (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    This document summarizes state submissions and provides a national overview of water quality as requested in Section 305(b) of the 1972 Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments (P.L. 92-500). This report provides the first opportunity for states to summarize their water quality and to report to EPA and Congress. Chapters of this report deal…

  17. Marine water-quality management in South- Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taljaard, Susan


    Full Text Available In South Africa the ultimate goal in water quality management is to keep the water resources suitable for all ''beneficial uses''. Beneficial uses provide a basis for the derivation of water quality guidelines, which, for South Africa, are defined...

  18. Modelling a water purification process for quality monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der F.H.; Luca, S.; Overal, G.; Dubbeldam, J.L.A.; Di Bucchianico, A.; Jongbloed, G.; Dubbeldam, J.; Groenevelt, W.; Heemink, A.W.; Lahaye, D.; Meerman, C.; Meulen, van der F.


    This paper deals with a quality engineering problem introduced by ‘Waterlaboratorium Noord’ (WLN) situated at the Netherlands. In-terest lies in determining an optimal sampling frequency that provides suÿcient information on the water quality in a drinking water purifica-tion plant. The water

  19. Assessment of the water quality parameters in relation to fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical indices of water body changed seasonally and this necessitated an investigation to assess the water quality parameters of Osinmo reservoir in relation to its fish species. The water quality parameters were measured using standard methods. Results obtained show that the reservoir is alkaline in nature with ...

  20. Monitoring drinking water quality in South Africa: Designing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa, the management and monitoring of drinking water quality is governed by policies and regulations based on international standards. Water Service Authorities, which are either municipalities or district municipalities, are required to submit information regarding water quality and the management thereof ...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet the...

  2. EPA Office of Water (OW): STORET Water Quality Monitoring Stations NHDPlus Indexed Dataset (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage and Retrieval for Water Quality Data (STORET and the Water Quality Exchange, WQX) defines the methods and the data systems by which EPA compiles monitoring...

  3. EPA Office of Water (OW): STORET Water Quality Monitoring Stations Source Dataset (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage and Retrieval for Water Quality Data (STORET and the Water Quality Exchange, WQX) defines the methods and the data systems by which EPA compiles monitoring...

  4. Water Quality and Quantity in Intermittent and Continuous Piped Water Supplies in Hubli-Dharwad, India


    Kumpel, Emily Katherine


    In at least 45 low- and middle-income countries, piped water systems deliver water for limited durations. Few data are available of the impact of intermittent water supply (IWS) on the water quality and quantity delivered to households. This thesis examines the impact of intermittently supplied piped water on the quality and quantity of water delivered to residential taps in Hubli-Dharwad, India, when compared to continuous piped water supply. A framework for understanding the pathways throug...

  5. Report: Quality Control Review of EPA OIG Reports Issued in Fiscal Year 2015 (United States)

    Report #16-N-0223, July 18, 2016. OIG reports issued in FY 2015 demonstrated high levels of compliance with OIG quality assurance procedures, and received average compliance scores of 90 percent or greater.

  6. Issues of the presence of parasitic protozoa in surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawrylik Eliza


    This paper focuses on the problem of the presence of parasitic protozoa in surface waters. Characteristics of the most frequently recognized pathogens responsible for water-borne outbreaks were described, as well as sources of contamination and surface waters contamination due to protozoa of the genus Cryptosporidium and Giardia were presented. The methods of destroying the cysts and oocysts of parasitic protozoa used nowadays in the world were also presented in a review.

  7. Three issues in consumer quality perception and acceptance of dairy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Bech-Larsen, Tino; Bredahl, Lone


    in communication provided. Drawing on five different empirical studies on consumer quality perception of dairy products, three issues related to the communication on credence quality dimensions are discussed: providing credible information, the role of consumer attitudes, and inference processes in quality......It is argued that consumer quality perception of dairy products is characterised by four major dimensions: hedonic, health-related, convenience-related and process-related quality. Two of these, viz. health and process-related quality, are credence dimensions, ie, a matter of consumer trust...

  8. Water resilient green cities in Africa Newsletter issue 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Li; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Fryd, Ole


    recharge and provide additional ecosystem services to the benefit of the citizens’ everyday life. Cities in Africa, like Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Dar es Salam, Tanzania, do not have adequate city-wide conventional urban water systems like centralized, pipe-based water supply, drainage and sanitation......Many cities around the world are exploring green infrastructures with landscape-based systems as solutions to complement the limited capacity or extend the conventional water systems. In addition to improving flood protection, these landscape-based systems can support water supply, groundwater...

  9. Groundwater quality data from the National Water-Quality Assessment Project, May 2012 through December 2013 (United States)

    Arnold, Terri L.; Desimone, Leslie A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Lindsey, Bruce D.; Barlow, Jeannie R.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Kingsbury, James A.; Belitz, Kenneth


    Groundwater-quality data were collected from 748 wells as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Project of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Program from May 2012 through December 2013. The data were collected from four types of well networks: principal aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for public water supply; land-use study networks, which assess land-use effects on shallow groundwater quality; major aquifer study networks, which assess the quality of groundwater used for domestic supply; and enhanced trends networks, which evaluate the time scales during which groundwater quality changes. Groundwater samples were analyzed for a large number of water-quality indicators and constituents, including major ions, nutrients, trace elements, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, and radionuclides. These groundwater quality data are tabulated in this report. Quality-control samples also were collected; data from blank and replicate quality-control samples are included in this report.

  10. Mass imbalances in EPANET water-quality simulations (United States)

    Davis, Michael J.; Janke, Robert; Taxon, Thomas N.


    EPANET is widely employed to simulate water quality in water distribution systems. However, in general, the time-driven simulation approach used to determine concentrations of water-quality constituents provides accurate results only for short water-quality time steps. Overly long time steps can yield errors in concentration estimates and can result in situations in which constituent mass is not conserved. The use of a time step that is sufficiently short to avoid these problems may not always be feasible. The absence of EPANET errors or warnings does not ensure conservation of mass. This paper provides examples illustrating mass imbalances and explains how such imbalances can occur because of fundamental limitations in the water-quality routing algorithm used in EPANET. In general, these limitations cannot be overcome by the use of improved water-quality modeling practices. This paper also presents a preliminary event-driven approach that conserves mass with a water-quality time step that is as long as the hydraulic time step. Results obtained using the current approach converge, or tend to converge, toward those obtained using the preliminary event-driven approach as the water-quality time step decreases. Improving the water-quality routing algorithm used in EPANET could eliminate mass imbalances and related errors in estimated concentrations. The results presented in this paper should be of value to those who perform water-quality simulations using EPANET or use the results of such simulations, including utility managers and engineers.

  11. Remote Sensing of Water Quality in Multipurpose Reservoirs: Case Study Applications in Indonesia, Mexico, and Uruguay (United States)

    Miralles-Wilhelm, F.; Serrat-Capdevila, A.; Rodriguez, D.


    This research is focused on development of remote sensing methods to assess surface water pollution issues, particularly in multipurpose reservoirs. Three case study applications are presented to comparatively analyze remote sensing techniquesforo detection of nutrient related pollution, i.e., Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Chlorophyll, as this is a major water quality issue that has been identified in terms of pollution of major water sources around the country. This assessment will contribute to a better understanding of options for nutrient remote sensing capabilities and needs and assist water agencies in identifying the appropriate remote sensing tools and devise an application strategy to provide information needed to support decision-making regarding the targeting and monitoring of nutrient pollution prevention and mitigation measures. A detailed review of the water quality data available from ground based measurements was conducted in order to determine their suitability for a case study application of remote sensing. In the first case study, the Valle de Bravo reservoir in Mexico City reservoir offers a larger database of water quality which may be used to better calibrate and validate the algorithms required to obtain water quality data from remote sensing raw data. In the second case study application, the relatively data scarce Lake Toba in Indonesia can be useful to illustrate the value added of remote sensing data in locations where water quality data is deficient or inexistent. The third case study in the Paso Severino reservoir in Uruguay offers a combination of data scarcity and persistent development of harmful algae blooms. Landsat-TM data was obteined for the 3 study sites and algorithms for three key water quality parameters that are related to nutrient pollution: Chlorophyll-a, Total Nitrogen, and Total Phosphorus were calibrated and validated at the study sites. The three case study applications were developed into capacity building/training workshops

  12. Measuring tourists' satisfaction with quality of life issues at an arts festival


    Petzer, Daniel; Kruger, Philippus


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure tourists' satisfaction with quality of life issues at an arts festival - the Aardklop National Arts Festival in Potchefstroom. Problem investigated: Understanding satisfaction with quality of life issues could assist Festival organizers and other businesses to improve services for tourists by tailoring these to meet their needs. Satisfied tourists spread positive word-of-mouth communication and are more likely to return in the futur...

  13. The Economic Value of Changes in Water Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Kejser

    Water quality is from both a European and Danish perspective challenged by private use of the resource. The public good characteristics of the resource require that regulation should internalize the non-market values of water quality, in order to reach an optimal level from a welfare economic...... perspective. Valuation using stated preference techniques to value changes in ecosystem services has been widely used to estimate values of water quality. However, heterogeneity in values exists across different groups in the population. The objective of this PhD-thesis is to explore two different kinds...... of preference heterogeneity, when valuing changes in water quality. The PhD thesis consists of four papers all related to heterogeneity in the public preferences for water quality improvements. Papers referred to as 1, 2 and 3 are based on a discrete choice experiment (DCE) on water quality improvements...

  14. Global modelling of river water quality under climate change (United States)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Franssen, Wietse H. P.; Yearsley, John R.


    Climate change will pose challenges on the quality of freshwater resources for human use and ecosystems for instance by changing the dilution capacity and by affecting the rate of chemical processes in rivers. Here we assess the impacts of climate change and induced streamflow changes on a selection of water quality parameters for river basins globally. We used the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and a newly developed global water quality module for salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand. The modelling framework was validated using observed records of streamflow, water temperature, chloride, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand for 1981-2010. VIC and the water quality module were then forced with an ensemble of bias-corrected General Circulation Model (GCM) output for the representative concentration pathways RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 to study water quality trends and identify critical regions (hotspots) of water quality deterioration for the 21st century.

  15. 75 FR 4173 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters (United States)


    ... Part III Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 131 Water Quality Standards for the State of...-HQ-OW-2009-0596; FRL-9105-1] RIN 2040-AF11 Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is proposing numeric nutrient water quality criteria to protect aquatic...

  16. Assessment of the Quality of Water Treated and Distributed By the Akwa Ibom State Water Company


    N. O. Eddy; A. S. Ekop


    The quality of water treated and distributed by the Akwa Ibom Water Company has been assessed by analyzing samples of water collected from different distribution points for their physiochemical parameters, major ions, nutrients and bacteriological quality. The observed values were compared with standard values given by the World Health Organization for portable water. The quality of the analysed water is found fit for human consumption.

  17. Water poverty indicators: conceptual problems and policy issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molle, F.; Mollinga, P.P.


    In the wake of a growing concern about both the unchecked rise of poverty and the local and global consequences of water scarcity, the relationships between water and poverty are the object of a sprawling literature. Indicators are presented as indispensable tools for informing and orienting

  18. Air quality in Malaysia: impacts, management issues and future challenges. (United States)

    Awang, M B; Jaafar, A B; Abdullah, A M; Ismail, M B; Hassan, M N; Abdullah, R; Johan, S; Noor, H


    Observations have been made on the long-term trends of major air pollutants in Malaysia including nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, the ozone and total suspended particulate matter (particularly PM10), and sulfur dioxide, emitted from industrial and urban areas from early 1970s until late 1998. The data show that the status of atmospheric environment in Malaysia, in particular in highly industrialized areas such as Klang Valley, was determined both by local and transboundary emissions and could be described as haze and non-haze periods. During the non-haze periods, vehicular emissions accounted for more than 70% of the total emissions in the urban areas and have demonstrated two peaks in the diurnal variations of the aforementioned air pollutants, except ozone. The morning 'rush-hour' peak was mainly due to vehicle emissions, while the late evening peak was mainly attributed to meteorological conditions, particularly atmospheric stability and wind speed. Total suspended particulate matter was the main pollutant with its concentrations at few sites often exceeding the Recommended Malaysia Air Quality Guidelines. The levels of other pollutants were generally within the guidelines. Since 1980, six major haze episodes were officially reported in Malaysia: April 1983, August 1990, June 1991, October 1991, August to October 1994, and July to October 1997. The 1997 haze episode was the worst ever experienced by the country. Short-term observations using continuous monitoring systems during the haze episodes during these periods clearly showed that suspended particulate matter (PM10) was the main cause of haze and was transboundary in nature. Large forest fires in parts of Sumatra and Kalimantan during the haze period, clearly evident in satellite images, were identified as the probable key sources of the widespread heavy haze that extended across Southeast Asia from Indonesia to Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei. The results of several studies have also provided strong

  19. Statistical Framework for Recreational Water Quality Criteria and Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halekoh, Ulrich


    recreational governmental authorities controlling water quality. The book opens with a historical account of water quality criteria in the USA between 1922 and 2003. Five chapters are related to sampling strategies and decision rules. Chapter 2 discusses the dependence of decision-making rules on short...... modeling exploiting additional information like meteorological data can support the decision process as shown in Chapter 10. The question of which information to extract from water sample analyses is closely related to the task of risk assessment for human health. Beach-water quality is often measured......Administrators of recreational waters face the basic tasks of surveillance of water quality and decisions on beach closure in case of unacceptable quality. Monitoring and subsequent decisions are based on sampled water probes and fundamental questions are which type of data to extract from...

  20. Patient issues in health research and quality of care: an inventory and data synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, G.J.; Visse, M.A.; Boer, P.; Abma, T.A.


    Aim The purpose of this review is to generate an inventory of issues that matter from a patient perspective in health research and quality of care. From these issues, criteria will be elicited to support patient(s) (groups) in their role as advisor or advocate when appraising health research, health

  1. Advances in high temperature water chemistry and future issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millett, P.J.


    This paper traces the development of advances in high temperature water chemistry with emphasis in the field of nuclear power. Many of the water chemistry technologies used in plants throughout the world today would not have been possible without the underlying scientific advances made in this field. In recent years, optimization of water chemistry has been accomplished by the availability of high temperature water chemistry codes such as MULTEQ. These tools have made the science of high temperature chemistry readily accessible for engineering purposes. The paper closes with a discussion of what additional scientific data and insights must be pursued in order to support the further development of water chemistry technologies for the nuclear industry. (orig.)

  2. Issues of the presence of parasitic protozoa in surface waters (United States)

    Hawrylik, Eliza


    Parasitic protozoa are very numerous organisms in the environment that play an important role in the spread of water-borne diseases. Water-borne epidemics caused by parasitic protozoa are noted throughout the world. Within these organisms, intestinal protozoa of the genera Cryptosporidium and Giardia are ones of the most serious health hazards for humans. This paper focuses on the problem of the presence of parasitic protozoa in surface waters. Characteristics of the most frequently recognized pathogens responsible for water-borne outbreaks were described, as well as sources of contamination and surface waters contamination due to protozoa of the genus Cryptosporidium and Giardia were presented. The methods of destroying the cysts and oocysts of parasitic protozoa used nowadays in the world were also presented in a review.

  3. Refining models for quantifying the water quality benefits of improved animal management for use in water quality trading (United States)

    Water quality trading (WQT) is a market-based approach that allows point sources of water pollution to meet their water quality obligations by purchasing credits from the reduced discharges from other point or nonpoint sources. Non-permitted animal operations and fields of permitted animal operatio...

  4. Assessment of quality of drinking water in Amasaman, Accra (Ghana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarcoo, G.; Hodgson, I. O. A.; Ampofo, J. A.; Cobbina, S. J.; Koku, J. E.


    The physico-chemical and microbial quality attributes of untreated water samples from hand dug wells and treated water delivered by tankers (mobile services) were assessed to determine the susceptibility of Amasaman community to water borne diseases. The physico-chemical parameters of all the water sources for domestic use were within the World Health Organization (WHO) drinking water guidelines and Ghana Standards (GS), with the exception of turbidity and colour which showed higher values for the well waters. With respect to the microbial quality, the waters from the hand-dug wells and tanker services showed presence of both total and faecal coliforms, at levels higher than WHO and GS values of zero counts per 100 mL for drinking water. The poor microbial quality (presence of coliform bacteria) of all the water samples suggested susceptibility and exposure of the community to waterborne diseases on continuously drinking the available water. (au)

  5. use of geographic information system and water quality index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Key words: spatial distribution, GIS, WQI, groundwater quality, Hewane, Tigray, Ethiopia. Introduction ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 6 No.2 2013 ..... insignificant role in the water quality assessment.

  6. Water quality of hydrologic bench marks; an indicator of water quality in the natural environment (United States)

    Biesecker, James E.; Leifeste, Donald K.


    Water-quality data, collected at 57 hydrologic bench-mark stations in 37 States, allow the definition of water quality in the 'natural' environment and the comparison of 'natural' water quality with water quality of major streams draining similar water-resources regions. Results indicate that water quality in the 'natural' environment is generally very good. Streams draining hydrologic bench-mark basins generally contain low concentrations of dissolved constituents. Water collected at the hydrologic bench-mark stations was analyzed for the following minor metals: arsenic, barium, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, and zinc. Of 642 analyses, about 65 percent of the observed concentrations were zero. Only three samples contained metals in excess of U.S. Public Health Service recommended drinking-water standards--two selenium concentrations and one cadmium concentration. A total of 213 samples were analyzed for 11 pesticidal compounds. Widespread but very low-level occurrence of pesticide residues in the 'natural' environment was found--about 30 percent of all samples contained low-level concentrations of pesticidal compounds. The DDT family of pesticides occurred most commonly, accounting for 75 percent of the detected occurrences. The highest observed concentration of DDT was 0.06 microgram per litre, well below the recommended maximum permissible in drinking water. Nitrate concentrations in the 'natural' environment generally varied from 0.2 to 0.5 milligram per litre. The average concentration of nitrate in many major streams is as much as 10 times greater. The relationship between dissolved-solids concentration and discharge per unit area in the 'natural' environment for the various physical divisions in the United States has been shown to be an applicable tool for approximating 'natural' water quality. The relationship between dissolved-solids concentration and discharge per unit area is applicable in all the physical

  7. Water Quality Drivers in 11 Gulf of Mexico Estuaries


    Matthew J. McCarthy; Daniel B. Otis; Pablo Méndez-Lázaro; Frank E. Muller-Karger


    Coastal water-quality is both a primary driver and also a consequence of coastal ecosystem health. Turbidity, a measure of dissolved and particulate water-quality matter, is a proxy for water quality, and varies on daily to interannual periods. Turbidity is influenced by a variety of factors, including algal particles, colored dissolved organic matter, and suspended sediments. Identifying which factors drive trends and extreme events in turbidity in an estuary helps environmental managers and...

  8. Assessing Interdisciplinary Learning and Student Activism in a Water Issues Course (United States)

    Mueller, Anja; Juris, Stephen J.; Willermet, Cathy; Drake, Eron; Upadhaya, Samik; Chhetri, Pratik


    In response to a request from a campus student organization, faculty from three fields came together to develop and teach an integrated interdisciplinary course on water issues and social activism. This course, "Water as Life, Death, and Power," brought together issues from the fields of anthropology, biology and chemistry to explore…

  9. Drinking Water Quality in Hospitals and Other Buildings (United States)

    Drinking water quality entering large buildings is generally adequately controlled by the water utility, but localized problems may occur within building or “premise” plumbing. Particular concerns are loss of disinfectant residual and temperature variability, which may enhance pa...

  10. ground water quality evaluation in beed city, maharashtra, india

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Khatib Afsar


    Dec 18, 2013 ... to assess the quality of ground water in Beed district of Maharashtra taking both physico-chemical .... All ideal value s (Vio) are taken as zero for the drinking water ..... Conference: Ustron, Poland, 2004, Routledge, New York.

  11. Bacteriological quality of bottled water sold on the Ghanaian market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological quality of bottled water sold on the Ghanaian market. ... Consumption of bottled water is increasing rapidly in developing countries especially among ... limits set by WHO guidelines and therefore safe for human consumption.

  12. Pollution characteristics and water quality in the Visakhapatnam harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; Raju, G.R.K.; Babu, T.B.

    The impact of organic pollution on the quality of waters in the Visakhapatnam harbour has been studied over a year at 8 stations. The enrichment of nutrients in these waters enhances the eutrophication. The construction of outer harbour retards...

  13. Physico-Chemical and microbial water quality assessment of Densu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality assessment conducted in the Densu basin of Ghana between July ... High nutrient loads observed in the basin were due to domestic, agricultural and ... a pattern which is an intermediate between fresh and sea water systems.

  14. Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Monitoring Using Satellite Imagery, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Work done at Water Resources Center, University of Minnesota has demonstrated the feasibility of performing regional assessment of lake water quality using Landsat...

  15. Quality of Sachet Water Produced at Tarkwa, Ghana*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 1, 2015 ... Keywords: Sachet water quality, Protozoan organisms, Faecal coliforms. 1 Introduction. In Ghana ... problems to water production because of the ensuing high pollution ...... Mexico Institute of Mining and. Technology, USA in ...

  16. Study on water quality around mangrove ecosystem for coastal rehabilitation (United States)

    Guntur, G.; Sambah, A. B.; Arisandi, D. M.; Jauhari, A.; Jaziri, A. A.


    Coastal ecosystems are vulnerable to environmental degradation including the declining water quality in the coastal environment due to the influence of human activities where the river becomes one of the input channels. Some areas in the coastal regions of East Java directly facing the Madura Strait indicate having experienced the environmental degradation, especially regarding the water quality. This research was conducted in the coastal area of Probolinggo Regency, East Java, aiming to analyze the water quality as the basis for coastal rehabilitation planning. This study was carried out using survey and observation methods. Water quality measurement results were analyzed conforming to predetermined quality standards. The coastal area rehabilitation planning as a means to restore the degraded water quality parameters is presumably implemented through mangrove planting. Thus, the mangrove mapping was also devised in this research. Based on 40 sampling points, the results illustrate that according to the quality standard, the water quality in the study area is likely to be deteriorated. On account of the mapping analysis of mangrove distribution in the study area, the rehabilitation of the coastal zone can be done through planning the mangrove forest plantation. The recommended coastal area maintenance is a periodic water quality observation planning in the river region which is divided into three zones to monitor the impact of fluctuating changes in land use or human activities on the coastal water quality.

  17. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - Water Pollution Control Facilities (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Water Pollution Control Facility is a DEP primary facility type related to the Water Pollution Control Program. The sub-facility types related to Water Pollution...

  18. Water Quality Assessment of Selected Domestic Water Sources

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nwokem et al. ... were collected in clean sterilized plastic bottles in the rainy ... centers often depend on the water vendors for domestic water supply ... MATERIALS AND METHODS .... water balance problems for individual aquatic organisms.

  19. Water quality problems associated with intermittent water supply. (United States)

    Tokajian, S; Hashwa, F


    A controlled study was conducted in Lebanon over a period of 12 months to determine bacterial regrowth in a small network supplying the Beirut suburb of Naccache that had a population of about 3,000. The residential area, which is fed by gravity, is supplied twice a week with chlorinated water from two artesian wells of a confined aquifer. A significant correlation was detected between the turbidity and the levels of heterotrophic plate count bacteria (HPC) in the samples from the distribution network as well as from the artesian wells. However, a negative significant correlation was found between the temperature and the HPC count in the samples collected from the source. A statistically significant increase in counts, possibly due to regrowth, was repeatedly established between two sampling points lying on a straight distribution line but 1 km apart. Faecal coliforms were detected in the source water but none in the network except during a pipe breakage incident with confirmed Escherichia coli reaching 40 CFU/100 mL. However, coliforms such as Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter agglomerans, E. cloacae and E. skazakii were repeatedly isolated from the network, mainly due to inadequate chlorination. A second controlled study was conducted to determine the effect of storage on the microbial quality of household storage tanks (500 L), which were of two main types - galvanized cast iron and black polyethylene. The mean bacterial count increased significantly after 7 d storage in both tank types. A significant difference was found in the mean HPC/mL between the winter and the summer. Highest counts were found April-June although the maximum temperature was reported later in the summer. A positive correlation was established between the HPC/mL and pH, temperature and storage time.

  20. Drinking water treatment plant costs and source water quality: An updated case study (2013-2016) (United States)

    Watershed protection can play an important role in producing safe drinking water. However, many municipalities and drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) lack the information on the potential benefits of watershed protection as an approach to improving source water quality. This...

  1. Study of Water Quality in Rural Regions of Northeastern Iran


    Saeid Nazemi; Jaber Yeganeh; Shima Mohammad Khani


    Background: Providing Safe drinking water is a prime concerninany community. This analytical study was carried out to evaluate the microbial quality of drinking water in rural areas of northeastern Iran. Methods: The water microbial quality was determined in all villages (a population of 53047 people), in 3 rounds and based on 3 measurements, i.e. Total Coliform, Fecal Coliform, and Heterotrophic Plate Count. Census method was used for studying water distribution system too. Results: Re...

  2. Quality assessment of drinking water from different sources in Lafia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treated pipe borne water, sachet water and water sold in open containers were also investigated. Standard plate count technique, multiple tube fermentation technique, and membrane filtration technique were employed in determining the microbial quality of the water. The study showed uniform temperature range of 27.5 to ...

  3. Bacteriological quality of sachet water produced and sold in Teshie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to good quality drinking water is a challenge in most towns and cities in Ghana and households have for years depended on other sources of water to supplement their activities. The introduction of sachet water to consumers was to provide safe, hygienic and affordable instant drinking water to the public. Although ...

  4. Assessment of Water Supply Quality in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patronage of water of questionable qualities in the study area due to the failure of the Anambra State Water Corporation to provide potable water supply in Awka and environs prompted this research work. Various water sources patronized in the study area were collected and subjected to physical, chemical and ...

  5. Pure water syndrome: Bacteriological quality of Sachet- packed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pure water syndrome: Bacteriological quality of Sachet- packed drinking water ... of fecal contamination and inadequate water treatment or no treatment at all. ... of hygiene criteria were present in the range of 98 and 106 cfu/100ml of water ...

  6. Water quality report of Nordrhein-Westfalen 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, W.; Holbeck, I.; Vogt, K.


    The water quality in Nordrhein-Westfalen improved in 1991. The report, compiled in cooperation with the 8 state Authorities for Water and Waste Management and the Land Authority for the Fishing Industry, shows that water purification measures are successful, and that the technical standard of surface water monitoring in Nordrhein-Westfalen is remarkably high. (orig.) [de

  7. Fitting probability distributions to component water quality data from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatment of water is carried out to make the available water meet the standards for its intended use. Such use may be for drinking and other household needs, industries,livestock rearing or fisheries etc. poor quality water is commonly treated to ensure potability. Potable water should be free from unpleasant tastes and ...

  8. Perchlorate Contamination of Drinking Water: Regulatory Issues and Legislative Actions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tiemann, Mary


    .... It also has been found in milk and many foods. Because of this widespread occurrence, concern over the potential health risks of perchlorate exposure has increased, and some states, water utilities, and Members of Congress have urged...

  9. The assessment of khorramabad River water quality with National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index and Zoning by GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdolrahim Yusefzadeh


    Full Text Available Background : Rivers are a fraction of flowing waters in the worlds and one of the important sources of water for different consumptions such as agricultural, drinking and industrial uses. The aim of this study was to assess water quality of the Khorramrood River in Khorramabad by NSFWQI index. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, quality parameters needed for NASWQI index calculation such as BOD5, dissolved oxygen (DO, total nitrate, fecal coliform, pH, total phosphate, temperature, turbidity and total suspended solids content were measured for six months (from July to December 2012using standard methods at six selected stations. The river zoning conducted by GIS software. Results: According to the results obtained through this study, the highest and the lowest water quality value was observed in stations 1 and 6 with NSFWQI indexes 82 water with good quality, 42 water with bad quality, respectively. With moving toward last station (from 1 to 6 station water pollution increased. Conclusion: Results of the study indicated that water quality index NSFWQI is a good index to identify the effect of polluter sources on the river water. Based on the average of the index NSFWQI, water quality in station one was good, in the second, third and fourth stations were mediocre and the fifth and sixth stations had bad quality. These results allow to make decisions about monitoring and controlling water pollution sources, as well as provide different efficient uses of it by relevant authorities.

  10. Quality of water resources of the Ouachita National Forest, Arkansas (United States)

    Cole, Elizabeth F.; Morris, E.E.


    Surface water and groundwater quality was documented in the Ouachita National Forest by collecting surface water quality data at 15 points and groundwater quality data at 11 sites from April 1984 through August 1985. The data were compared to drinking water standards and the results are tabulated. Surface water in the Ouachita National Forest is relatively abundant. It is low in mineralization and chemically suitable for most uses with minimal treatment. Groundwater is relatively scarce. The low yields of wells limit the use of groundwater primarily to domestic use. The water is chemically suitable for most purposes but may require treatment for the removal of iron. (Peters-PTT)


    The purpose of this Issue Paper is to provide to those involved in assessing remediation technologies for specific sites basic technical information on the use of steam injection for the remediation of soils and aquifers that are contaminated by volatile or semivolatile organic c...

  12. Methods for computing water-quality loads at sites in the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Network (United States)

    Lee, Casey J.; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Crawford, Charles G.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.


    The U.S. Geological Survey publishes information on concentrations and loads of water-quality constituents at 111 sites across the United States as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Network (NWQN). This report details historical and updated methods for computing water-quality loads at NWQN sites. The primary updates to historical load estimation methods include (1) an adaptation to methods for computing loads to the Gulf of Mexico; (2) the inclusion of loads computed using the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) method; and (3) the inclusion of loads computed using continuous water-quality data. Loads computed using WRTDS and continuous water-quality data are provided along with those computed using historical methods. Various aspects of method updates are evaluated in this report to help users of water-quality loading data determine which estimation methods best suit their particular application.

  13. Assessment of Water Quality for Human Consumption in the Venezuelan Community of San Valentin, Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irguin A. Bracho-Fernández


    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the suitability of the water for human consumption in the community of San Valentin which is located in the sector of Ancon Bajo II, in the municipality of Maracaibo in Venezuela. Ten samples of different water supply sources were tested and evaluated from the physical, chemical and bacteriological points of view. The standard method was used for the analysis. The test results were compared with the values set by Venezuelan Drinking Water Quality Standards and water quality catalogues issued by the World Health Organization. It is concluded that the water supply pipe requires an overall conventional treatment for purification while pit water requires desalinization treatment. Irragorry ravine is highly contaminated so it is not an alternative water supply source.

  14. Optimizing basin-scale coupled water quantity and water quality management with stochastic dynamic programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Claus; Liu, Suxia; Mo, Xingguo


    Few studies address water quality in hydro-economic models, which often focus primarily on optimal allocation of water quantities. Water quality and water quantity are closely coupled, and optimal management with focus solely on either quantity or quality may cause large costs in terms of the oth......-er component. In this study, we couple water quality and water quantity in a joint hydro-economic catchment-scale optimization problem. Stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) is used to minimize the basin-wide total costs arising from water allocation, water curtailment and water treatment. The simple water...... quality module can handle conservative pollutants, first order depletion and non-linear reactions. For demonstration purposes, we model pollutant releases as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and use the Streeter-Phelps equation for oxygen deficit to compute the resulting min-imum dissolved oxygen...

  15. Water quality degradation effects on freshwater availability: Impacts to human activities (United States)

    Peters, N.E.; Meybeck, Michel


    The quality of freshwater at any point on the landscape reflects the combined effects of many processes along water pathways. Human activities on all spatial scales affect both water quality and quantity. Alteration of the landscape and associated vegetation has not only changed the water balance, but typically has altered processes that control water quality. Effects of human activities on a small scale are relevant to an entire drainage basin. Furthermore, local, regional, and global differences in climate and water flow are considerable, causing varying effects of human activities on land and water quality and quantity, depending on location within a watershed, geology, biology, physiographic characteristics, and climate. These natural characteristics also greatly control human activities, which will, in turn, modify (or affect) the natural composition of water. One of the most important issues for effective resource management is recognition of cyclical and cascading effects of human activities on the water quality and quantity along hydrologic pathways. The degradation of water quality in one part of a watershed can have negative effects on users downstream. Everyone lives downstream of the effects of some human activity. An extremely important factor is that substances added to the atmosphere, land, and water generally have relatively long time scales for removal or clean up. The nature of the substance, including its affinity for adhering to soil and its ability to be transformed, affects the mobility and the time scale for removal of the substance. Policy alone will not solve many of the degradation issues, but a combination of policy, education, scientific knowledge, planning, and enforcement of applicable laws can provide mechanisms for slowing the rate of degradation and provide human and environmental protection. Such an integrated approach is needed to effectively manage land and water resources.

  16. Applying Machine Learning and High Performance Computing to Water Quality Assessment and Prediction


    Ruijian Zhang; Deren Li


    Water quality assessment and prediction is a more and more important issue. Traditional ways either take lots of time or they can only do assessments. In this research, by applying machine learning algorithm to a long period time of water attributes’ data; we can generate a decision tree so that it can predict the future day’s water quality in an easy and efficient way. The idea is to combine the traditional ways and the computer algorithms together. Using machine learning algorithms, the ass...

  17. Agriculture — A river runs through it — The connections between agriculture and water quality (United States)

    Capel, Paul D.; McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Coupe, Richard H.; Grey, Katia M.; Amenumey, Sheila E.; Baker, Nancy T.; Johnson, Richard L.


    Sustaining the quality of the Nation’s water resources and the health of our diverse ecosystems depends on the availability of sound water-resources data and information to develop effective, science-based policies. Effective management of water resources also brings more certainty and efficiency to important economic sectors. Taken together, these actions lead to immediate and longterm economic, social, and environmental benefits that make a difference to the lives of the almost 400 million people projected to live in the United States by 2050.In 1991, Congress established the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) to address where, when, why, and how the Nation’s water quality has changed, or is likely to change in the future, in response to human activities and natural factors. Since then, NAWQA has been a leading source of scientific data and knowledge used by national, regional, state, and local agencies to develop science-based policies and management strategies to improve and protect water resources used for drinking water, recreation, irrigation, energy development, and ecosystem needs. Plans for the third decade of NAWQA (2013–23) address priority water-quality issues and science needs identified by NAWQA stakeholders, such as the Advisory Committee on Water Information and the National Research Council, and are designed to meet increasing challenges related to population growth, increasing needs for clean water, and changing land-use and weather patterns.This report is one of a series of publications, The Quality of Our Nation’s Waters, which describes major findings of the NAWQA Project on water-quality issues of regional and national concern and provides science-based information for assessing and managing the quality of our groundwater resources. Other reports in this series focus on occurrence and distribution of nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds in streams and groundwater, the effects of

  18. Management of source and drinking-water quality in Pakistan. (United States)

    Aziz, J A


    Drinking-water quality in both urban and rural areas of Pakistan is not being managed properly. Results of various investigations provide evidence that most of the drinking-water supplies are faecally contaminated. At places groundwater quality is deteriorating due to the naturally occurring subsoil contaminants or to anthropogenic activities. The poor bacteriological quality of drinking-water has frequently resulted in high incidence of waterborne diseases while subsoil contaminants have caused other ailments to consumers. This paper presents a detailed review of drinking-water quality in the country and the consequent health impacts. It identifies various factors contributing to poor water quality and proposes key actions required to ensure safe drinking-water supplies to consumers.

  19. Water quality of Cisadane River based on watershed segmentation (United States)

    Effendi, Hefni; Ayu Permatasari, Prita; Muslimah, Sri; Mursalin


    The growth of population and industrialization combined with land development along river cause water pollution and environmental deterioration. Cisadane River is one of the river in Indonesia where urbanization, industrialization, and agricultural are extremely main sources of pollution. Cisadane River is an interesting case for investigating the effect of land use to water quality and comparing water quality in every river segment. The main objectives with this study were to examine if there is a correlation between land use and water quality in Cisadane River and there is a difference in water quality between the upstream section of Cisadane River compared with its downstream section. This study compared water quality with land use condition in each segment of river. Land use classification showed that river segment that has more undeveloped area has better water quality compared to river segment with developed area. in general, BOD and COD values have increased from upstream to downstream. However, BOD and COD values do not show a steady increase in each segment Water quality is closely related to the surrounding land use.Therefore, it can not be concluded that the water quality downstream is worse than in the upstream area.

  20. Quality analysis in pressurized water reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darolles, J.F.


    An integrated system which has been set up to administrate and analyze the quality is described. This system is in actual operation. The basic principles for quality analysis system are traceability, i.e., identification, location and history of fuel components and quality evaluation during manufacturing. The quality analysis system operates in the following areas: data recording and transmission, data processing, quality file generation. The interest of such a system may be noted particularly in manufacturing, for the constitution of quality files, the design of products and the processing of data from irradiated fuel assemblies [fr

  1. Water quality status and trends in the United States (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Werkheiser, William H.; Ahuja, Satinder


    Information about water quality is vital to ensure long-term availability and sustainability of water that is safe for drinking and recreation and suitable for industry, irrigation, fish, and wildlife. Protecting and enhancing water quality is a national priority, requiring information on water-quality status and trends, progress toward clean water standards, continuing problems, and emerging challenges. In this brief review, we discuss U.S. Geological Survey assessments of nutrient pollution, pesticides, mixtures of organic wastewater compounds (known as emerging contaminants), sediment-bound contaminants (like lead and DDT), and mercury, among other contaminants. Additionally, aspects of land use and current and emerging challenges associated with climate change are presented. Climate change must be considered, as water managers continue their efforts to maintain sufficient water of good quality for humans and for the ecosystem.

  2. Comparison of 2002 Water Year and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado (United States)

    Spahr, N.E.


    Introduction: Population growth and changes in land-use practices have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with local sponsors, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, and Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations, stations that are considered as long term and stations that are rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions have changed over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short term concerns. Another group of stations (rotational group 2) will be chosen and sampled beginning in water year 2004. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality sampling in the upper Gunnison River basin. This summary includes data collected during water year 2002. The introduction provides a map of the sampling locations, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water year 2002 are compared to historical data (data collected for this network since 1995), state water-quality standards, and federal water-quality guidelines

  3. Reconceptualising water quality governance to incorporate knowledge and values: Case studies from Australian and Brazilian Indigenous communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate A. Berry


    Full Text Available This paper examines the significance of knowledge and values for water quality and its governance. Modernist approaches to the governance of water quality in rivers and lakes need to be reconceptualised and overhauled. The problems include: perceiving water only as a physical and chemical liquid, defining quality in narrow terms, rendering water knowledge as invisible, boiling down water values to uses of presumed economic importance and limiting how and by whom objectives are set or actions taken. In addressing the need to reframe water quality governance, and as a counter to the objectification of water quality, we propose a framework that explicitly recognises the significance of knowledge and values relating to water. While our framework could apply to other contexts under the influence of modernist water-management regimes, here we pay particular attention to the relevance of the water knowledge, values and governance of water quality by Indigenous people. In the second half of the paper we address issues related to Indigenous water-quality governance in two countries, Brazil and Australia, showing some of the ways in which, despite enormous obstacles, Indigenous communities re-work governance structures through their engagements with water quality and pay attention to water knowledge and values.

  4. Quality and Quality Assurance in Ethiopian Higher Education. Critical Issues and Practical Implications.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahsay, M.


    This book critically examines quality and quality assurance in the Ethiopian higher education context. More specifically, the main research problem that guided the study was: ‘how and under what circumstances do the public Universities in Ethiopia assure quality of their education, and what

  5. Comparison Between Water Quality Index (WQI) and Biological Water Quality Index (BWQI) for Water Quality Assessment: Case Study of Melana River, Johor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Zaiha Arman; Mohd Ismid Mohd Said; Shamila Azman; Muhammad Hazim Mat Hussin


    A study of water quality in Melana River, Johor was carried out in three consecutive months (March - May 2012). This study aims to determine the comparative results through biological monitoring as well as conventional method (physical and chemical analysis). Assessment is carried out through collection and identification of the biological indicator which comprises of macro benthos based on Biological Water Quality Index (BWQI). Comparison was done based on two methods namely invertebrate analysis and also laboratory analysis. For invertebrate analysis, Melana River consist of three types of Family groups namely Nymphs, Larvae and Molluscs. The result for Water Quality Index (WQI) and also Biological Water Quality Index (BWQI) analysis showed that the level of Melana River is polluted and classified in Class III. This study shows that even though different methods were used, the similar results were obtained for both rivers and can be applied to any river to identify their level of cleanliness. (author)

  6. Tracking and forecasting the Nation’s water quality - Priorities and strategies for 2013-2023 (United States)

    Rowe, Gary L.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Woodside, Michael D.


    Water-quality issues facing the Nation are growing in number and complexity, and solutions are becoming more challenging and costly. Key factors that affect the quality of our drinking water supplies and ecosystem health include contaminants of human and natural origin in streams and groundwater; excess nutrients and sediment; alteration of natural streamflow; eutrophication of lakes, reservoirs, and coastal estuaries; and changes in surface and groundwater quality associated with changes in climate, land and water use, and management practices. Tracking and forecasting the Nation's water quality in the face of these and other pressing water-quality issues are important goals for 2013-2023, the third decade of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. In consultation with stakeholders and the National Research Council, a new strategic Science Plan has been developed that describes a strategy for building upon and enhancing assessment of the Nation's freshwater quality and aquatic ecosystems. The plan continues strategies that have been central to the NAWQA program's long-term success, but it also makes adjustments to the monitoring and modeling approaches NAWQA will use to address critical data and science information needs identified by stakeholders. This fact sheet describes surface-water and groundwater monitoring and modeling activities that will start in fiscal year 2013. It also provides examples of the types of data and information products planned for the next decade, including (1) restored monitoring for reliable and timely status and trend assessments, (2) maps and models that show the distribution of selected contaminants (such as atrazine, nitrate, and arsenic) in streams and aquifers, and (3) Web-based modeling tools that allow managers to evaluate how water quality may change in response to different scenarios of population growth, climate change, or land-use management.

  7. The German Final Repository Konrad for Low and Intermediate Level Waste with Negligible Heat Generation - Water Law Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boetsch, W.; Grundler, D.; Kugel, K.; Brennecke, P.; Steyer, S.


    A survey on the conceptual realization of the requirements due to water law aspects within the license the KONRAD repository for radioactive waste with negligible heat generation in Germany is given [1]. The regulatory decision for the implementation and operation of the repository KONRAD includes, among other things, water law issues. In particular, the KONRAD license includes waste requirements concerning non-radioactive hazardous material (waste package constituents) which have to be considered producing KONRAD waste packages. The intended philosophy of waste acceptance and waste package quality assurance measures to be considered by the KONRAD site operator as well as by the waste producer will be presented. It will demonstrate the selected procedure of the waste declaration and acceptance and describe the structure and logic of tools and aids to comply with the legal requirements of the license and its collateral clause issued under water law. (authors)

  8. A global scientific literature of research on water quality indices: trends, biases and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Ribeiro Alves


    Full Text Available AIM: Water quality has been the subject of many recent studies, moreover, the physical, chemical and biological parameters of water are used to investigate water quality and can be combined into a single index, the Water Quality Index (WQI, for use by water resource managers and the general public. The aim of this study was to use scientometrics to evaluate how water quality has been addressed in the international scientific literature. METHOD: For the quantitative analysis of the publications on WQI, we used the search database SCOPUS ( The search was performed using the words "QUALIT* WATER* INDEX*" in papers published in all databases (through 2011. RESULTS: We found 554 articles that dealt with the use of WQI the number of publications has increased significantly over the last 20 years. India had the most studies, with 177 articles, followed by China, Brazil and the United States. These four countries together published 57% of studies on WQI. We generated 15 linear models to explain the number of publication by study sit (country. According to the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC, the best model to explain the number of publications by country was the model that combined Sanitation and Public Supply. CONCLUSION: Finally, this paper presents the state of scientific literature on WQI and demonstrates the growing interest of the scientific community in this issue, which is certainly due to the importance of the quantity and quality of water for human supply, economics, health and the conservation of water resources.

  9. Solid Waste and Water Quality Management Models for Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone, Nepal.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manfredi, Emanuela Chiara; Flury, Bastian; Viviano, Gaetano; Thakuri, Sudeep; Khanal, Sanjay Nath; Jha, Pramod Kumar; Maskey, Ramesh Kumar; Kayastha, Rijan Bhakta; Kafle, Kumud Raj; Bhochhibhoya, Silu; Ghimire, Narayan Prasad; Shrestha, Bharat Babu; Chaudhary, Gyanendra; Giannino, Francesco; Carteni, Fabrizio; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Salerno, Franco


    The problem of supporting decision- and policy-makers in managing issues related to solid waste and water quality was addressed within the context of a participatory modeling framework in the Sagarmatha National Park and Buffer Zone in Nepal. We present the main findings of management-oriented

  10. Identification and assessment of potential water quality impact factors for drinking-water reservoirs. (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang


    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

  11. Application of Water Quality and Ecology Indices of Benthic Macroinvertebrate to Evaluate Water Quality of Tertiary Irrigation in Malang District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desi Kartikasari


    Full Text Available This research aims to determine the water quality of tertiary irrigation in several subdistricts in Malang, namely Kepanjen, Karangploso, and Tumpang. The water quality depends on the water quality indices (National Sanitation Foundation’s-NSF Indices and O’Connor’s Indices based on variables TSS, TDS, pH, DO, and Nitrate concentrate and ecological indices of benthic macroinvertebrate (Diversity Indices Shannon-Wiener, Hilsenhof Biotic Indices-HBI, Average Score per Taxon-ASPT which is calculated by Biological Monitoring Working Party-BMWP, Ephemeroptera Indices, Plecoptera, Trichoptera-EPT. Observation of the physico-chemical water quality and benthic macroinvertebrate on May 2012 to April 2013. The sampling in each subdistrict was done at two selected stations in tertiary irrigation channel with three plot at each station. The data of physico-chemical quality of water were used to calculate the water quality indices, while the benthic macroinvertebrate data were used to calculate the ecological indices. The research findings showed that 27 taxa of benthic macroinvertebrates belong 10 classes were found in the three subdistrict. The pH, DO, Nitrate, TSS and TDS in six tertiary irrigation channels in Malang still met the water quality standards based on Government Regulation No. 82 of 2001 on Management of Water Quality and Water Pollution Control Class III. Based on NSF-WQI indices and O'Connor's Indices, water qualities in these irrigation channels were categorized into medium or moderate (yellow to good (green category. However, based on benthic macroinvertebrate communities which was used to determine the HBI, the water quality in the irrigation channels were categorized into the fair category (fairly significant organic pollution to fairly poor (significant organic pollution, while based on the value of ASPT, the water were categorized into probable moderate pollution to probable severe pollution. The irrigation water which was

  12. Coal mining and water quality: Criciuma's case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Lincoln


    The coal mining in the Santa Catarina Coal-Basin started in 1885 and since them it has been causing serious damage to the environment, specially the water resources, causing several problems like sedimentation and acidification of the rivers that supply the region, and compromising the agricultural-industry and fishery. The mining is also responsible for several professional diseases. The region was considered, in 1980, the '14th Critical Area' to the Pollution Control and Environmental Quality Conservation. Only in the beginning of the 80's, after the publication of the 917 Interministerial Resolution (July, 1982), the first official actions were taken, in order to minimize the environmental impact due to the coal mining industry. With that scenario, the region was chosen as one of the study areas of the 'National Center of Control of Mining Pollution', derived from an agreement between the Departamento Nacional de Producao Mineral - DNPM and the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). The present study is part of the set of studies that have been realized in the region, with the aim of evaluating the environmental impact caused by the coal mining industry, and to suggest actions (to the miners) in order to minimize the environmental problems. This study presents a review of the occupation process of the Criciuma region, its connection to the coal industry, the progress of the mineral and environmental legislation, and the periodic monitoring of environmental parameters (physic-chemical analysis of the Mae Luzia and Sangao rivers, and the drainage from two coal mines) during the period of three years. This period began before the setting of environmental restrictions, going up to after the adoption of reclamation actions. The results allow to conclude that, during the period studied, there was no improvement in the river water characteristics, despite the adoption of reclamation actions. This behaviour may be due to the following factors: there are several

  13. Water Quality Considerations on the Rise as the Use of Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems Widens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Hartog


    Full Text Available Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR is a promising method of increasing water availability in water stressed areas by subsurface infiltration and storage, to overcome periods of drought, and to stabilize or even reverse salinization of coastal aquifers. Moreover, MAR could be a key technique in making alternative water resources available, such as reuse of communal effluents for agriculture, industry and even indirect potable reuse. As exemplified by the papers in this Special Issue, consideration of water quality plays a major role in developing the full potential for MAR application, ranging from the improvement of water quality to operational issues (e.g., well clogging or sustainability concerns (e.g., infiltration of treated waste water. With the application of MAR expanding into a wider range of conditions, from deserts to urban and coastal areas, and purposes, from large scale strategic storage of desalinated water and the reuse of waste water, the importance of these considerations are on the rise. Addressing these appropriately will contribute to a greater understanding, operational reliability and acceptance of MAR applications, and lead to a range of engineered MAR systems that help increase their effectiveness to help secure the availability of water at the desired quality for the future.

  14. Material Issues of Blanket Systems for Fusion Reactors - Compatibility with Cooling Water - (United States)

    Miwa, Yukio; Tsukada, Takashi; Jitsukawa, Shiro

    Environmental assisted cracking (EAC) is one of the material issues for the reactor core components of light water power reactors(LWRs). Much experience and knowledge have been obtained about the EAC in the LWR field. They will be useful to prevent the EAC of water-cooled blanket systems of fusion reactors. For the austenitic stainless steels and the reduced-activation ferritic/martensitic steels, they clarifies that the EAC in a water-cooled blanket does not seem to be acritical issue. However, some uncertainties about influences on water temperatures, water chemistries and stress conditions may affect on the EAC. Considerations and further investigations elucidating the uncertainties are discussed.

  15. European community light water reactor safety research projects. Experimental issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Research programs on light water reactor safety currently carried out in the European Community are presented. They cover: accident conditions (LOCA, ECCS, core meltdown, external influences, etc...), fault and accident prevention and means of mitigation, normal operation conditions, on and off site implications and equipment under severe accident conditions, and miscellaneous subjects

  16. Issues of governance in water resource management and spatial planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocco de Campos Pereira, R.C.; Schweitzer, R.


    This paper describes governance arrangements in regional spatial planning and water resources management at the regional level from a normative point of view. It discusses the need to integrate spatial planning and resources management in order to deliver socially sustainable integral territorial

  17. Flexibility in water management as an intra-organisational issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wessel, van M.; Buuren, van R.; Woerkum, van C.


    This paper is a case study of a team of Dutch water managers who saw that to achieve flexibility in planning they needed to engage with organisational control requirements. Rather than approaching flexibility normatively, as much planning literature does, this paper presents a case of flexibility

  18. A conceptual framework for effectively anticipating water-quality changes resulting from changes in agricultural activities (United States)

    Capel, Paul D.; Wolock, David M.; Coupe, Richard H.; Roth, Jason L.


    Agricultural activities can affect water quality and the health of aquatic ecosystems; many water-quality issues originate with the movement of water, agricultural chemicals, and eroded soil from agricultural areas to streams and groundwater. Most agricultural activities are designed to sustain or increase crop production, while some are designed to protect soil and water resources. Numerous soil- and water-protection practices are designed to reduce the volume and velocity of runoff and increase infiltration. This report presents a conceptual framework that combines generalized concepts on the movement of water, the environmental behavior of chemicals and eroded soil, and the designed functions of various agricultural activities, as they relate to hydrology, to create attainable expectations for the protection of—with the goal of improving—water quality through changes in an agricultural activity.The framework presented uses two types of decision trees to guide decision making toward attainable expectations regarding the effectiveness of changing agricultural activities to protect and improve water quality in streams. One decision tree organizes decision making by considering the hydrologic setting and chemical behaviors, largely at the field scale. This decision tree can help determine which agricultural activities could effectively protect and improve water quality in a stream from the movement of chemicals, or sediment, from a field. The second decision tree is a chemical fate accounting tree. This decision tree helps set attainable expectations for the permanent removal of sediment, elements, and organic chemicals—such as herbicides and insecticides—through trapping or conservation tillage practices. Collectively, this conceptual framework consolidates diverse hydrologic settings, chemicals, and agricultural activities into a single, broad context that can be used to set attainable expectations for agricultural activities. This framework also enables

  19. Overview of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program (United States)

    Leahy, P.P.; Thompson, T.H.


    The Nation's water resources are the basis for life and our economic vitality. These resources support a complex web of human activities and fishery and wildlife needs that depend upon clean water. Demands for good-quality water for drinking, recreation, farming, and industry are rising, and as a result, the American public is concerned about the condition and sustainability of our water resources. The American public is asking: Is it safe to swim in and drink water from our rivers or lakes? Can we eat the fish that come from them? Is our ground water polluted? Is water quality degrading with time, and if so, why? Has all the money we've spent to clean up our waters, done any good? The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program was designed to provide information that will help answer these questions. NAWQA is designed to assess historical, current, and future water-quality conditions in representative river basins and aquifers nationwide. One of the primary objectives of the program is to describe relations between natural factors, human activities, and water-quality conditions and to define those factors that most affect water quality in different parts of the Nation. The linkage of water quality to environmental processes is of fundamental importance to water-resource managers, planners, and policy makers. It provides a strong and unbiased basis for better decisionmaking by those responsible for making decisions that affect our water resources, including the United States Congress, Federal, State, and local agencies, environmental groups, and industry. Information from the NAWQA Program also will be useful for guiding research, monitoring, and regulatory activities in cost effective ways.

  20. Bridging Water Issue Knowledge Gaps between the General Public and Opinion Leaders (United States)

    Lamm, Kevan W.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Carter, Hannah S.


    Global conflicts have rapidly made water the most contentious issue in the world today. Considering water drives health, industry, recreation, and the agricultural food system it is no surprise that it has become such a hot topic. As a result, the general public has an increased interest in water-focused policy; policy that can have a large impact…

  1. Quality of Waters of Aquifer Webs of Biskra Region | Bouchemal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Controlling the quality of water distributed together with sound resource management is a factor of economic and social development. Also, the chemistry and knowledge of geological and hydrogeological aquifer, the object of this work, we identify the water quality examined through physical-chemical parameters. The study ...

  2. Quality assessment of drinking water in Temeke District (part II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality studied includes pH, chloride, nitrate and total hardness levels. The concentrations of total hardness in mg CaCO3/L and chloride were obtained by titration method while the nitrate concentration levels were determined by spectrophotometer. Tap water was found to be of high quality than other sources in ...

  3. Anthropogenic impacts on the water quality of Aba River, southeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anthropogenic impacts on the water quality of Aba River, southeast Nigeria. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... of Aba River, southeast Nigeria was studied in four stations from November 2014 to August 2015 to identify the major anthropogenic activities and their impact on the water quality.

  4. Development of Water Quality Modeling in the United States (United States)

    This presentation describes historical trends in water quality model development in the United States, reviews current efforts, and projects promising future directions. Water quality modeling has a relatively long history in the United States. While its origins lie in the work...

  5. Particulate fingerprinting of water quality in the distribution system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Particles in the distribution system play an important role in the perception? Not clear what is meant) of drinking water quality, particularly in association with discolouration. In The Netherlands the water quality in the distribution system is traditionally monitored by turbidity measurements. However, turbidity is hard to quantify ...

  6. Linkages between forest soils and water quality and quantity (United States)

    Daniel G. Neary; George G. Ice; C. Rhett Jackson


    The most sustainable and best quality fresh water sources in the world originate in forest ecosystems. The biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of forest soils are particularly well suited to delivering high quality water to streams, moderating stream hydrology, and providing diverse aquatic habitat. Forest soils feature litter layers and...


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 11, 2013 ... Benthic macroinvertebrate based assessment of water quality in the ... of the upper Awash River had low water quality status which is likely to be ..... Frydenborg, R., McCarron, E., White, J.S. and ... A framework for biological.

  8. Lake Chini Water Quality Assessment Using Multivariate Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, A.K.; Shuhaimi, Othman M.; Lim, E.C.; Aziz, Z.A.


    An analysis was undertaken using the multivariate approach to determine the important water quality for shallow lake water quality assessment. Fourteen water quality parameters which includes biological, physical and chemical components were collected monthly over twelve month period. The data were analysed using factor analysis which involves identification of factor correlation, factor extraction and factor permutations. The first process involved the clustering of high correlation parameters into its respective factor and the removal of parameters that have more than one factor. Agglomerative hierarchy (HACA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were also used to exhibit the important factors that has significant influence on lake water quality. The analysis showed that Lake Chini water quality was determined by more than one factor. The results indicated that the biological and chemical (nutrients) components have significant influence in determining the lake water quality. The biological parameters namely BOD5, COD, chlorophyll a and chemical (nitrate and orthophosphate) are important parameters in Lake Chini. All analysis demonstrated the importance of biological and chemical water quality components in the determination of Lake Chini water quality. (author)

  9. An assessment of water quality of Angaw River in Southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality of the Angaw river were investigated at three different locations on the river. A range of water quality variables were measured in the river over a period of 12 months. The river was characterized by high ionic content. Relatively higher levels of ionic constituents occurred at ...

  10. Hydrology and water quality characteristics of a stressed lotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hydrology and water quality of Aiba stream were investigated from November 2012 to April 2013 on monthly basis. This was with a view to assessing the status of the stream sequel to its last study which indicated a poor physico-chemical water quality. Four sampling stations were established for the study along the ...

  11. A Two-Year Water Quality Monitoring Curriculum. (United States)

    Glazer, Richard B.; And Others

    The Environmental Protection Agency developed this curriculum to train technicians to monitor water quality. Graduates of the program should be able to monitor municipal, industrial, and commercial discharges; test drinking water for purity; and determine quality of aquatic environments. The program includes algebra, communication skills, biology,…

  12. Monitoring Water Quality in the Future, Volume 3: Biomonitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart D de; ECO


    In general terms the problems with the existing water quality monitoring approach concern effective and efficient monitoring strategies. In 1993 the project "Monitoring water quality in the future" started in order to address these problems which will only increase in the future. In the framework of

  13. Impacts of extreme flooding on riverbank filtration water quality. (United States)

    Ascott, M J; Lapworth, D J; Gooddy, D C; Sage, R C; Karapanos, I


    Riverbank filtration schemes form a significant component of public water treatment processes on a global level. Understanding the resilience and water quality recovery of these systems following severe flooding is critical for effective water resources management under potential future climate change. This paper assesses the impact of floodplain inundation on the water quality of a shallow aquifer riverbank filtration system and how water quality recovers following an extreme (1 in 17 year, duration >70 days, 7 day inundation) flood event. During the inundation event, riverbank filtrate water quality is dominated by rapid direct recharge and floodwater infiltration (high fraction of surface water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) >140% baseline values, >1 log increase in micro-organic contaminants, microbial detects and turbidity, low specific electrical conductivity (SEC) 400% baseline). A rapid recovery is observed in water quality with most floodwater impacts only observed for 2-3 weeks after the flooding event and a return to normal groundwater conditions within 6 weeks (lower fraction of surface water, higher SEC, lower DOC, organic and microbial detects, DO). Recovery rates are constrained by the hydrogeological site setting, the abstraction regime and the water quality trends at site boundary conditions. In this case, increased abstraction rates and a high transmissivity aquifer facilitate rapid water quality recoveries, with longer term trends controlled by background river and groundwater qualities. Temporary reductions in abstraction rates appear to slow water quality recoveries. Flexible operating regimes such as the one implemented at this study site are likely to be required if shallow aquifer riverbank filtration systems are to be resilient to future inundation events. Development of a conceptual understanding of hydrochemical boundaries and site hydrogeology through monitoring is required to assess the suitability of a prospective riverbank filtration

  14. Impact of Past Land Use Changes on Drinking Water Quantity and Quality in Ljubljana Aquifer (United States)

    Bracic Zeleznik, Branka; Cencur Curk, Barbara


    Most of the practical problems that we face today with the on-site management of drinking water sources and distribution of healthy drinking water, originate from past actions, interventions and political decisions. In Ljubljana, the capital of the Republic of Slovenia, underlying groundwater is the main drinking water source. The main threat to drinking water sources is constant input of pollutant loads from roads, roofs, sewers, industry and agricultural areas. The main problems are directly and indirectly related to the significant decrease of groundwater level and deterioration of groundwater quality observed in the last decades as an effect of land use practices under varying climate conditions. The Vodovod-Kanalizacija Public Utility is responsible for water supply of the city residents as well as for management of the water supply system, its surveillance and maintenance. In the past, the Ljubljana Municipality was responsible for the protection of water resources and the first delineation of groundwater protection areas was issued in Decree in 1955. In 2004 a Decree on the water protection zones for the aquifer of Ljubljansko polje on the state level was issued and passed the competences of proclamation of the water protection zones to the state. Spatial planning is a domain of The Municipality and land use is limited according to water protection legislation. For several observation wells long-time data sets about groundwater levels and quality are available, which enable us to analyse changes in groundwater quantity and quality parameters. From the data it is obvious that climate variations are affecting groundwater recharge. In addition, changing of land use affects groundwater quality. In spite of the Decree on the water protection there is a heavy pressure of investors to change land use plans and regulations on protection zones, which causes every day problems in managing the drinking water source. Groundwater management in Ljubljana demands strong

  15. Ground-water quality assessment of the central Oklahoma Aquifer, Oklahoma; project description (United States)

    Christenson, S.C.; Parkhurst, D.L.


    In April 1986, the U.S. Geological Survey began a pilot program to assess the quality of the Nation's surface-water and ground-water resources. The program, known as the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program, is designed to acquire and interpret information about a variety of water-quality issues. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project is one of three ground-water pilot projects that have been started. The NAWQA program also incudes four surface-water pilot projects. The Central Oklahoma aquifer project, as part of the pilot NAWQA program, will develop and test methods for performing assessments of ground-water quality. The objectives of the Central Oklahoma aquifer assessment are: (1) To investigate regional ground-water quality throughout the aquifer in the manner consistent with the other pilot ground-water projects, emphasizing the occurrence and distribution of potentially toxic substances in ground water, including trace elements, organic compounds, and radioactive constituents; (2) to describe relations between ground-water quality, land use, hydrogeology, and other pertinent factors; and (3) to provide a general description of the location, nature, and possible causes of selected prevalent water-quality problems within the study unit; and (4) to describe the potential for water-quality degradation of ground-water zones within the study unit. The Central Oklahoma aquifer, which includes in descending order the Garber Sandstone and Wellington Formation, the Chase Group, the Council Grove Group, the Admire Group, and overlying alluvium and terrace deposits, underlies about 3,000 square miles of central Oklahoma and is used extensively for municipal, industrial, commercial, and domestic water supplies. The aquifer was selected for study by the NAWQA program because it is a major source for water supplies in central Oklahoma and because it has several known or suspected water-quality problems. Known problems include concentrations of arsenic, chromium

  16. Water quality in the Okavango Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 12, 2010 ... Their interactions with light, water, dissolved nutrients and suspended solids determine .... water, which are essential for various metabolic processes in. Figure 2 ..... 1993). Arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, and mercury are the.

  17. Quantitative risk-based approach for improving water quality management in mining. (United States)

    Liu, Wenying; Moran, Chris J; Vink, Sue


    The potential environmental threats posed by freshwater withdrawal and mine water discharge are some of the main drivers for the mining industry to improve water management. The use of multiple sources of water supply and introducing water reuse into the mine site water system have been part of the operating philosophies employed by the mining industry to realize these improvements. However, a barrier to implementation of such good water management practices is concomitant water quality variation and the resulting impacts on the efficiency of mineral separation processes, and an increased environmental consequence of noncompliant discharge events. There is an increasing appreciation that conservative water management practices, production efficiency, and environmental consequences are intimately linked through the site water system. It is therefore essential to consider water management decisions and their impacts as an integrated system as opposed to dealing with each impact separately. This paper proposes an approach that could assist mine sites to manage water quality issues in a systematic manner at the system level. This approach can quantitatively forecast the risk related with water quality and evaluate the effectiveness of management strategies in mitigating the risk by quantifying implications for production and hence economic viability.

  18. Examination of water quality changes during transportation of different fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Nemeth


    Full Text Available Introduction The growth of population is increasing intensively (7.3 billion people in 2015 and it generates growing importance of fish farming. Primarily, fish meat could provide protein requirements for population so more and more attention must be paid to each sections of farming, for example fish transportation. A badly organized transportation technology can significantly reduce high quality stocks which were produced over several years. Deterioration of transport may occur on each fish distinctly. Bacterial or fungal diseases appear either immediately or days later. During our work, changes in several freshwater (peaceful or predator fish species (of different ages were monitored and analyzed during transport. There were two reasons why we examined the main physical and chemical parameters of the water. On one hand, we were curious to know how much the individuals exposed to heavy loads, which we tried to identify with some stress tests. On the other hand, we would develop a national water carrier monitoring system for the practice. Materials and methods Delivery technologies (foil sack and transport tankers used in practice was applied in the experiment of the study in a real road transport. The physical and chemical data were monitored and checked with the use of multiparameter instruments and photometrial tests. Physiological and stress tests were analyzed from blood plasma of each fish, primarily plasma glucose determination was used. Results After analysis of examined fish species and each ages, it is obvious that either short or long delivery times we choose physical and chemical properties of the transport water would change dramatically, even adequate oxygen balance was ensured. Values of individuals exposed to stress were more significant compared to baseline values. Conclusion We could define concrete changes in key parameters of the transport water with the number of realtime transport implementation which is a good help to

  19. Environmental Quality Standards in the EC-Water Framework Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jirka, Gerhard H.; Burrows, Richard; Larsen, Torben


    The "combined approach" in the new EC-Water Framework Directive(WFD) consisting of environmental quality standards in addition to emission limit values promises improvements in the quality characteristics of surface water. However, the specification of where in the water body the environmental...... quality standards apply is missing in the WFD. The omission will limit its administrative implementation. A clear mixing zone regulation is needed so that the quality objectives of the WFD are not jeopardized. This need is demonstrated using the examples of point source discharges into rivers and coastal...

  20. Water Quality Assessment of Ayeyarwady River in Myanmar (United States)

    Thatoe Nwe Win, Thanda; Bogaard, Thom; van de Giesen, Nick


    Myanmar's socio-economic activities, urbanisation, industrial operations and agricultural production have increased rapidly in recent years. With the increase of socio-economic development and climate change impacts, there is an increasing threat on quantity and quality of water resources. In Myanmar, some of the drinking water coverage still comes from unimproved sources including rivers. The Ayeyarwady River is the main river in Myanmar draining most of the country's area. The use of chemical fertilizer in the agriculture, the mining activities in the catchment area, wastewater effluents from the industries and communities and other development activities generate pollutants of different nature. Therefore water quality monitoring is of utmost importance. In Myanmar, there are many government organizations linked to water quality management. Each water organization monitors water quality for their own purposes. The monitoring is haphazard, short term and based on individual interest and the available equipment. The monitoring is not properly coordinated and a quality assurance programme is not incorporated in most of the work. As a result, comprehensive data on the water quality of rivers in Myanmar is not available. To provide basic information, action is needed at all management levels. The need for comprehensive and accurate assessments of trends in water quality has been recognized. For such an assessment, reliable monitoring data are essential. The objective of our work is to set-up a multi-objective surface water quality monitoring programme. The need for a scientifically designed network to monitor the Ayeyarwady river water quality is obvious as only limited and scattered data on water quality is available. However, the set-up should also take into account the current socio-economic situation and should be flexible to adjust after first years of monitoring. Additionally, a state-of-the-art baseline river water quality sampling program is required which