WorldWideScience

Sample records for water quality impacts

  1. Agroecosystem Impacts on Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedy, R. C.; Scanlon, B. R.

    2010-12-01

    Agroecosystems can have large scale impacts on soil water and groundwater quality by mobilizing salts into underlying aquifers through enhanced recharge and increasing chemical loading to systems through fertilizer applications and irrigation water. Crop evapotranspiration is similar to desalinization in that root-water uptake excludes most salts, and soil-water salinity levels may build up when water drainage or percolation through the root zone is insufficient to flush accumulated salts. The objective of this study was to evaluate impacts of agroecosystems on soil water and groundwater quality using data from the US High Plains and California Central Valley. Natural ecosystems accumulated large reservoirs of salts in unsaturated soils in the southern High Plains and southern part of the Central Valley. Increased recharge under rainfed and irrigated agriculture mobilized these salt reservoirs into the underlying aquifer in the southern High Plains, increasing groundwater salinity, particularly chloride and sulfate. Deficit irrigation in the southern High Plains has created large salt bulges in the unsaturated zone because of insufficient irrigation to flush these salts into the underlying aquifer. Irrigation in both the High Plains and Central Valley regions has markedly increased groundwater nitrate levels, particularly in irrigated areas because of higher fertilizer applications. Agroecosystem impacts on water quality reflect a delicate balance between water and salt cycles and crop production should be managed to minimize negative environmental impacts.

  2. Collection of Condensate Water: Global Potential and Water Quality Impacts

    KAUST Repository

    Loveless, Kolin Joseph

    2012-12-28

    Water is a valuable resource throughout the world, especially in hot, dry climates and regions experiencing significant population growth. Supplies of fresh water are complicated by the economic and political conditions in many of these regions. Technologies that can supply fresh water at a reduced cost are therefore becoming increasingly important and the impact of such technologies can be substantial. This paper considers the collection of condensate water from large air conditioning units as a possible method to alleviate water scarcity issues. Using the results of a climate model that tested data collected from 2000 to 2010, we have identified areas in the world with the greatest collection potential. We gave special consideration to areas with known water scarcities, including the coastal regions of the Arabian Peninsula, Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. We found that the quality of the collected water is an important criterion in determining the potential uses for this water. Condensate water samples were collected from a few locations in Saudi Arabia and detailed characterizations were conducted to determine the quality of this water. We found that the quality of condensate water collected from various locations and types of air conditioners was very high with conductivities reaching as low as 18 μS/cm and turbidities of 0. 041 NTU. The quality of the collected condensate was close to that of distilled water and, with low-cost polishing treatments, such as ion exchange resins and electrochemical processes, the condensate quality could easily reach that of potable water. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  3. Water quality impacts of forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecle Aregai; Daniel Neary

    2015-01-01

    Forest fires have been serious menace, many times resulting in tremendous economic, cultural and ecological damage to many parts of the United States. One particular area that has been significantly affected is the water quality of streams and lakes in the water thirsty southwestern United States. This is because the surface water coming off burned areas has resulted...

  4. Impacts of extreme flooding on riverbank filtration water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascott, M J; Lapworth, D J; Gooddy, D C; Sage, R C; Karapanos, I

    2016-06-01

    Riverbank filtration schemes form a significant component of public water treatment processes on a global level. Understanding the resilience and water quality recovery of these systems following severe flooding is critical for effective water resources management under potential future climate change. This paper assesses the impact of floodplain inundation on the water quality of a shallow aquifer riverbank filtration system and how water quality recovers following an extreme (1 in 17 year, duration >70 days, 7 day inundation) flood event. During the inundation event, riverbank filtrate water quality is dominated by rapid direct recharge and floodwater infiltration (high fraction of surface water, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) >140% baseline values, >1 log increase in micro-organic contaminants, microbial detects and turbidity, low specific electrical conductivity (SEC) 400% baseline). A rapid recovery is observed in water quality with most floodwater impacts only observed for 2-3 weeks after the flooding event and a return to normal groundwater conditions within 6 weeks (lower fraction of surface water, higher SEC, lower DOC, organic and microbial detects, DO). Recovery rates are constrained by the hydrogeological site setting, the abstraction regime and the water quality trends at site boundary conditions. In this case, increased abstraction rates and a high transmissivity aquifer facilitate rapid water quality recoveries, with longer term trends controlled by background river and groundwater qualities. Temporary reductions in abstraction rates appear to slow water quality recoveries. Flexible operating regimes such as the one implemented at this study site are likely to be required if shallow aquifer riverbank filtration systems are to be resilient to future inundation events. Development of a conceptual understanding of hydrochemical boundaries and site hydrogeology through monitoring is required to assess the suitability of a prospective riverbank filtration

  5. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  6. Cross-sectoral conflicts for water under climate change: the need to include water quality impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Vliet, van, A.J.H.; Ludwig, F.; P. Kabat

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase pressures on water use between different sectors (e.g. agriculture, energy, industry, domestic uses) and ecosystems. While climate change impacts on water availability have been studied widely, less work has been done to assess impacts on water quality. This study proposes a modelling framework to incorporate water quality in analyses of cross-sectoral conflicts for water between human uses and ecosystems under climate change and socio-economic changes. ...

  7. Identification and assessment of potential water quality impact factors for drinking-water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

    2014-06-10

    Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

  8. Impact of fish pond harvest on water quality especially on

    OpenAIRE

    FREIDINGER, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the impact of fish pond harvest on water quality especially on concentration of suspended solids and phosphorous. Goal of the study is to contribute to ongoing discussion about carp aquaculture's role in fresh water pollution. Sampling was carried out in five carp ponds in the Třeboňsko Protected Landscape Area. Main monitored parameters were concentration of suspended solids and total phosphorous during pond drainage and fish harvest.Results of the study confirmed...

  9. Impacts of climate change on surface water quality in relation to drinking water production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpla, I; Jung, A-V; Baures, E; Clement, M; Thomas, O

    2009-11-01

    Besides climate change impacts on water availability and hydrological risks, the consequences on water quality is just beginning to be studied. This review aims at proposing a synthesis of the most recent existing interdisciplinary literature on the topic. After a short presentation about the role of the main factors (warming and consequences of extreme events) explaining climate change effects on water quality, the focus will be on two main points. First, the impacts on water quality of resources (rivers and lakes) modifying parameters values (physico-chemical parameters, micropollutants and biological parameters) are considered. Then, the expected impacts on drinking water production and quality of supplied water are discussed. The main conclusion which can be drawn is that a degradation trend of drinking water quality in the context of climate change leads to an increase of at risk situations related to potential health impact.

  10. Cross-sectoral conflicts for water under climate change: the need to include water quality impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Ludwig, F.; Kabat, P.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase pressures on water use between different sectors (e.g. agriculture, energy, industry, domestic uses) and ecosystems. While climate change impacts on water availability have been studied widely, less work has been done to assess impacts on water quality. This

  11. Cross-sectoral conflicts for water under climate change: the need to include water quality impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Ludwig, F.; Kabat, P.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase pressures on water use between different sectors (e.g. agriculture, energy, industry, domestic uses) and ecosystems. While climate change impacts on water availability have been studied widely, less work has been done to assess impacts on water quality. This st

  12. Identification and Assessment of Potential Water Quality Impact Factors for Drinking-Water Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Gu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate, were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

  13. WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS OF AGRICULTURALLY IMPACTED TIDAL BLACKBIRD CREEK, DELAWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Stone

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Blackbird Creek, Delaware is a small watershed in northern Delaware that has a significant proportion of land designated for agricultural land use. The Blackbird Creek water monitoring program was initiated in 2012 to assess the condition of the watershed’s habitats using multiple measures of water quality. Habitats were identified based on percent adjacent agricultural land use. Study sites varying from five to fourteen were sampled biweekly during April and November, 2012-2015. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis and generalized linear modeling. Results from these first four years of data documented no significant differences in water quality parameters (dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, salinity, inorganic nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, orthophosphate, alkalinity, and turbidity between the two habitats, although both orthophosphate and turbidity were elevated beyond EPA-recommended values. There were statistically significant differences for all of the parameters between agriculture seasons. The lack of notable differences between habitats suggests that, while the watershed is generally impacted by agricultural land use practices, there appears to be no impact on the surface water chemistry. Because there were no differences between habitats, it was concluded that seasonal differences were likely due to basic seasonal variation and were not a function of agricultural land use practices.

  14. Potential impacts of changing supply-water quality on drinking water distribution: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Zhang, Ya; Knibbe, Willem-Jan; Feng, Cuijie; Liu, Wentso; Medema, Gertjan; van der Meer, Walter

    2017-06-01

    Driven by the development of water purification technologies and water quality regulations, the use of better source water and/or upgraded water treatment processes to improve drinking water quality have become common practices worldwide. However, even though these elements lead to improved water quality, the water quality may be impacted during its distribution through piped networks due to the processes such as pipe material release, biofilm formation and detachment, accumulation and resuspension of loose deposits. Irregular changes in supply-water quality may cause physiochemical and microbiological de-stabilization of pipe material, biofilms and loose deposits in the distribution system that have been established over decades and may harbor components that cause health or esthetical issues (brown water). Even though it is clearly relevant to customers' health (e.g., recent Flint water crisis), until now, switching of supply-water quality is done without any systematic evaluation. This article reviews the contaminants that develop in the water distribution system and their characteristics, as well as the possible transition effects during the switching of treated water quality by destabilization and the release of pipe material and contaminants into the water and the subsequent risks. At the end of this article, a framework is proposed for the evaluation of potential transition effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of Yangtze river water transfer on the water quality of the Lixia river watershed, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxue Ma

    Full Text Available To improve water quality and reduce the negative impacts of sudden inputs of water pollution in the Lixia River watershed, China, a series of experimental water transfers from the Yangtze River to the Lixia River were conducted from 2 December 2006 to 7 January 2007. Water samples were collected every six days at 55 monitoring sites during this period. Eight water parameters (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, chemical oxygen demand (COD, potassium permanganate index (CODMn, ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N, electrical conductivity (EC, and water transparency (WT were analyzed to determine changes in nutrient concentrations during water transfers. The comprehensive pollution index (Pi and single-factor (Si evaluation methods were applied to evaluate spatio-temporal patterns of water quality during water transfers. Water quality parameters displayed different spatial and temporal distribution patterns within the watershed. Water quality was improved significantly by the water transfers, especially for sites closer to water intake points. The degree of improvement is positively related to rates of transfer inflow and drainage outflow. The effects differed for different water quality parameters at each site and at different water transfer times. There were notable decreases in NH4+-N, DO, COD, and CODMn across the entire watershed. However, positive effects on EC and pH were not observed. It is concluded that freshwater transfers from the Yangtze River can be used as an emergency measure to flush pollutants from the Lixia River watershed. Improved understanding of the effects of water transfers on water quality can help the development and implementation of effective strategies to improve water quality within this watershed.

  16. Assessment of human impact on water quality along Manyame River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirivashe P. Masere

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Human activities such as urbanization, agriculture, sewage treatment and industrialization are affecting water resources both quantitatively and qualitatively. The impact of these activities were studied by measuring and determining the concentration and values of eight selected water quality parameters namely nitrates, phosphates, copper, iron, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD, dissolved oxygen (DO, pH and turbidity along Manyame River, in the Manyame Catchment. Thirty five sites were sampled from the source of the river which is at Seke Dam, along Manyame River and on the tributaries (Ruwa, Nyatsime, Mukuvisi and Marimba just before they join the river. The 35 sites were categorized into 5 groups (A, B, C, D and E with group A and E being the upstream and downstream of Manyame. The analysis of results was undertaken using a simple one-way ANOVA with group as the only source of variation. Turbidity values, nitrate and phosphate concentrations were found to be higher than the Zimbabwe National Water Authority (ZINWA maximum permissible standards for surface waters. DO saturation in the downstream groups was less than 75% (ZINWA standard. Agricultural and urban runoff and sewage effluent were responsible of the high nutrient levels and turbidity, which in turn, reduced the dissolved oxygen (DO.

  17. Water Quality Impacts of Pure Chlorine Dioxide Pretreatment at the Roanoke County (Virginia) Water Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ellenberger, Christine Spada

    1999-01-01

    WATER QUALITY IMPACTS OF PURE CHLORINE DIOXIDE PRETREATMENT AT THE ROANOKE COUNTY (VIRGINIA) WATER TREATMENT PLANT by Christine S. Ellenberger Dr. Robert C. Hoehn, Chairman (ABSTRACT) Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) was included in the Spring Hollow Water Treatment Plant (Roanoke County, Virginia) to oxidize manganese and iron, prevent tastes and odors, and avoid the formation of excessive halogenated disinfection by-products. A state-of-the-art, gas:solid ClO2 generation system ...

  18. Investigation of potential water quality and quantity impacts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... From South African and international experience, it is known that coal mining has a pronounced ... New data regarding water quality and acid-base potential for the different geological areas ...

  19. Proactive modeling of water quality impacts of extreme precipitation events in a drinking water reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeznach, Lillian C; Hagemann, Mark; Park, Mi-Hyun; Tobiason, John E

    2017-10-01

    Extreme precipitation events are of concern to managers of drinking water sources because these occurrences can affect both water supply quantity and quality. However, little is known about how these low probability events impact organic matter and nutrient loads to surface water sources and how these loads may impact raw water quality. This study describes a method for evaluating the sensitivity of a water body of interest from watershed input simulations under extreme precipitation events. An example application of the method is illustrated using the Wachusett Reservoir, an oligo-mesotrophic surface water reservoir in central Massachusetts and a major drinking water supply to metropolitan Boston. Extreme precipitation event simulations during the spring and summer resulted in total organic carbon, UV-254 (a surrogate measurement for reactive organic matter), and total algae concentrations at the drinking water intake that exceeded recorded maximums. Nutrient concentrations after storm events were less likely to exceed recorded historical maximums. For this particular reservoir, increasing inter-reservoir transfers of water with lower organic matter content after a large precipitation event has been shown in practice and in model simulations to decrease organic matter levels at the drinking water intake, therefore decreasing treatment associated oxidant demand, energy for UV disinfection, and the potential for formation of disinfection byproducts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of land use on water quality in the Likangala catchment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of land use on water quality in the Likangala catchment, southern Malawi. ... land use, were analysed for physical, chemical and biological contamination. ... Keywords: environment, urbanisation, waste management, water pollution, ...

  1. Water Quality Deterioration in Artificial Lake: Their Impact and Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Azlina Abd Aziz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Seven sampling stations were identified to determine the status of water quality in Cempaka Lake, Bandar Baru Bangi within two sampling periods of June 2010 and August 2010. The objectives of the study are to identify and classify the current water quality in the lake. A total of twelve water quality parameters have been analyzed in-situ and ex-situ and classified under WQI and NWQS classifications, four parameters were analyzed using HYDROLAB meter DataSonde, eight parameters were analyzed under the standard of the HACH and APHA methods. The results are pH  between 6.13 to 6.92, DO 1.63 to 4.94 mg/L, temperature 26.02 to 28.37 ºC, conductivity of 94 to 213mS/cm, BOD  0.38 up to 2.4 mg/L, NH3-N  2.00 to 2.84 mg/L, phosphate 0.21 to 0.56 mg/L, sulphate 21 to 35 mg/L, COD 9.3 to 69 mg/L, TSS of 1.8 to 33.3 mg/L, oil and grease 5.7 to 11.8 mg/L  and hardness 13.89 to 35.57 mg/L. Based on this classification, the water quality of Cempaka Lake was classified as Class II and III. The results are clearly shown that the majority of the water quality parameters in the study area are more polluted during the first sampling compared to the second sampling. Cempaka Lake has been contaminated due to residential activities, clinic centres, restaurants, petrol pump stations that release discharge into streams, rivers and eventually the lake become a brownish color and a smell of ammonia.

  2. Climate Change Impacts on US Water Quality Using Two Models: HAWQS and US Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Fant

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and freshwater quality are well-linked. Changes in climate result in changes in streamflow and rising water temperatures, which impact biochemical reaction rates and increase stratification in lakes and reservoirs. Using two water quality modeling systems (the Hydrologic and Water Quality System; HAWQS and US Basins, five climate models, and two greenhouse gas (GHG mitigation policies, we assess future water quality in the continental U.S. to 2100 considering four water quality parameters: water temperature, dissolved oxygen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. Once these parameters are aggregated into a water quality index, we find that, while the water quality models differ under the baseline, there is more agreement between future projections. In addition, we find that the difference in national-scale economic benefits across climate models is generally larger than the difference between the two water quality models. Both water quality models find that water quality will more likely worsen in the East than in the West. Under the business-as-usual emissions scenario, we find that climate change is likely to cause economic impacts ranging from 1.2 to 2.3 (2005 billion USD/year in 2050 and 2.7 to 4.8 in 2090 across all climate and water quality models.

  3. Climate Change Impact Assessment for Sustainable Water Quality Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Pin Tung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of sustainable water quality management is to keep total pollutant discharges from exceeding the assimilation capacity of a water body. Climate change may influence streamflows, and further alter assimilation capacity and degrade river sustainability. The purposes of this study are to evaluate the effect of climate change on sustainable water quality management and design an early warning indicator to issue warnings on river sustainability. A systematic assessment procedure is proposed here, including a weather generation model, the streamflow component of GWLF, QUAL2E, and an optimization model. The Touchen creek in Taiwan is selected as the study area. Future climate scenarios derived from projections of four global climate models (GCMs and two pollutant discharge scenarios, as usual and proportional to population, are considered in this study. The results indicate that streamflows may very likely increase in humid seasons and decrease in arid seasons, respectively. The reduction of streamflow in arid seasons may further degrade water quality and assimilation capacity. In order to provide warnings to trigger necessary adaptation strategies, an early warning indicator is designed and its 30-year moving average is calculated. Finally, environmental monitoring systems and methods to prioritize adaptation strategies are discussed for further studies in the future.

  4. Impact of shale gas development on regional water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidic, R D; Brantley, S L; Vandenbossche, J M; Yoxtheimer, D; Abad, J D

    2013-05-17

    Unconventional natural gas resources offer an opportunity to access a relatively clean fossil fuel that could potentially lead to energy independence for some countries. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing make the extraction of tightly bound natural gas from shale formations economically feasible. These technologies are not free from environmental risks, however, especially those related to regional water quality, such as gas migration, contaminant transport through induced and natural fractures, wastewater discharge, and accidental spills. We review the current understanding of environmental issues associated with unconventional gas extraction. Improved understanding of the fate and transport of contaminants of concern and increased long-term monitoring and data dissemination will help manage these water-quality risks today and in the future.

  5. Environmental impact of leachate characteristics on water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumar, Sampath Kumar Mandyam; Nagaraja, Balasubramanya

    2011-07-01

    Improper urbanization and industrialization are causing a critical stress on groundwater quality in urban areas of the developing countries. The present study under investigation describes the pollution caused by leachate from a waste management site in southwestern Bangalore city causing pollution of the surface water and groundwater reserves. The characterization of 20 groundwater samples and Haralukunte lake sample indicated high pollution of these water reserves by leachate entry into the groundwater and surface water sources. The study area focuses around the solid waste management site, carrying out bio-composting and vermi-composting of municipal solid waste. Further investigations on the severe health problems faced by the public in the study area has revealed a clear pointer towards the usage of polluted water for rearing live-stock, farming, and domestic activities. The characterization of the leachate with high values of BOD at 1,450 mg/l, TDS at 17,200 mg/l, nitrates at 240 mg/l, and MPN at 545/100 ml indicates a clear nuisance potential, which has been substantiated by the characterization of lake water sample with chlorides at 3,400 mg/l, TDS at 8,020 mg/l, and lead and cadmium at 0.18 and 0.08 mg/l, respectively. Analysis of groundwater samples shows alarming physicochemical values closer to the waste disposal site and relatively reduced values away from the source of the waste management site. Bureau of Indian Standards have been adapted as the benchmark for the analysis and validation of observed water quality criteria.

  6. IMPACT OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURING ON THE QUALITY OF NATURAL WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Cel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Poland, due to the estimated shale gas deposits amounting to 346-768 billion m3 has become one of the most attractive regions for shale gas exploration in Europe. Throughout the period 2010-2015, 72 exploratory drillings have been made (as of 4.01.2016 while hydraulic fracturing was carried out 25 times. Employing new drilling and shale gas prospecting technologies raises a question pertaining to their impact on the environment. The number of chemical compounds used (approximately 2000 for the production of new technological fluids may potentially pollute the environment. The fact that the composition of these fluids remains undisclosed hinders the assessment of their impact on the environment and devising optimal methods for managing this type of waste. The presented work indicates the chemical compounds which may infiltrate to groundwater, identified on the basis of technological fluids characteristics, as well as the review of studies pertaining to their impact on potable water carried out in the United States. The study focused on marking heavy metals, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, chlorides and sulphates in the surface waters collected in proximity of Lewino well.

  7. Detecting acid precipitation impacts on lake water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftis, Jim C.; Taylor, Charles H.

    1989-09-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency is planning to expand its long-term monitoring of lakes that are sensitive to acid deposition effects. Effective use of resources will require a careful definition of the statistical objectives of monitoring, a network design which balances spatial and temporal coverage, and a sound approach to data analysis. This study examines the monitoring objective of detecting trends in water quality for individual lakes and small groups of lakes. Appropriate methods of trend analysis are suggested, and the power of trend detection under seasonal (quarterly) sampling is compared to that of annual sampling. The effects of both temporal and spatial correlation on trend detection ability are described.

  8. Impacts of aquatic macrophytes configuration modes on water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiakai; Liu, Jinglan; Zhang, Rong; Zou, Yuqi; Wang, Huihui; Zhang, Zhenming

    2014-01-01

    Constructed wetland technology is regarded as an important ecological restoration technology and used widely in sewage disposal. In order to give them a wider scope of application and to improve their performance in water restoration, the current experiment was designed. Four aquatic macrophytes (dwarf cattail (TM), yellow-flowered iris (WI), water shallot (ST) and watermifoil (MS)) were picked and planted in artificial floating islands (AFIs) in different configurations (TM + WI, ST + MS and TM + WI + MS) and two patterns, radiation pattern (RP) and annular pattern (AP), for a 60-day experiment. Then, water quality and growth were monitored every 10 days. The results indicate that the different configurations performed diversely on waste water purification. First, a composite plant configuration removed more pollutant than a single one with the same total increment of biomass. Second, the plant configuration of MS + ST was most effective in total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) or PO4(3-) removal, and TM + IW + MS was good at chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NO3(-) removal. However, different patterns comprised from the same species had a certain effect on absorption of pollutants. Generally speaking, plant configurations with a RP were better than an AP in purification. Accordingly, these provided the methods for the pollution wetland restoration.

  9. Water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquatic animals are healthiest and grow best when environmental conditions are within certain ranges that define, for a particular species, “good” water quality. From the outset, successful aquaculture requires a high-quality water supply. Water quality in aquaculture systems also deteriorates as an...

  10. Managing agricultural phosphorus to minimize water quality impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Sharpley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Eutrophication of surface waters remains a major use-impairment in many countries, which, in fresh waters, is accelerated by phosphorus (P inputs from both point (e.g., municipal waste water treatment plants and nonpoint sources (e.g., urban and agricultural runoff. As point sources tend to be easier to identify and control, greater attention has recently focused on reducing nonpoint sources of P. In Brazil, agricultural productivity has increased tremendously over the last decade as a consequence, to a large extent, of increases in the use of fertilizer and improved land management. For instance, adoption of the “4R” approach (i.e., right rate, right time, right source, and right placement of P to fertilizer management can decrease P runoff. Additionally, practices that lessen the risk of runoff and erosion, such as reduced tillage and cover crops will also lessen P runoff. Despite these measures P can still be released from soil and fluvial sediment stores as a result of the prior 10 to 20 years’ management. These legacy sources can mask the water quality benefits of present-day conservation efforts. Future remedial efforts should focus on developing risk assessment indices and nonpoint source models to identify and target conservation measures and to estimate their relative effectiveness. New fertilizer formulations may more closely tailor the timing of nutrient release to plant needs and potentially decrease P runoff. Even so, it must be remembered that appropriate and timely inputs of fertilizers are needed to maintain agricultural productivity and in some cases, financial support might also be required to help offset the costs of expensive conservation measures.

  11. Urban and peri-urban agricultural production in Beijing municipality and its impact on water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Wijk, van M.S.; Cheung, X.; Hu, Y.; Diepen, van C.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Keulen, van H.; Lu, C.H.; Roeter, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews water use and water resource issues in Beijing Municipality, the main trends in the agricultural production systems in and around the city with respect to land use, input use, production and economic role, and the impacts of agricultural activities on water quality. Rapid urbaniza

  12. Urban and peri-urban agricultural production in Beijing municipality and its impact on water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Wijk, van M.S.; Cheung, X.; Hu, Y.; Diepen, van C.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Keulen, van H.; Lu, C.H.; Roeter, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews water use and water resource issues in Beijing Municipality, the main trends in the agricultural production systems in and around the city with respect to land use, input use, production and economic role, and the impacts of agricultural activities on water quality. Rapid

  13. Impact of Untreated Sedimentation Tank Sludge Water Recycle on Water Quality During Treatment of Low Turbidity Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronggang Xu; Yongpeng Xu; Fuyi Cui; Li He; Dong Wang; Qingfeng Su

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of this research is to examine the impact of untreated sedimentation tank sludge water ( USTSW) recycle on water quality during treatment of low turbidity water in coagulation—sedimentation processes. 950 mL of raw water and different concentrations of 50 mL USTSW are injected into six 1 000 mL beakers without coagulant.The results indicate that USTSW characterized as accumulated suspended solids and organic matter has active ingredients, which possess the equivalent function of coagulant. The optimal blended water turbidity is in the range of 10-20 NTU, within which USTSW recycle achieves the highest save coagulant rate. The mechanism of strengthening coagulation effect when USTSW recycle mainly depends on the chemical effect and physical effect. What is more, through scanning electron microscopy ( SEM) , it is found that the floc structures with USTSW recycle are more compact than those without USTSW recycle. Besides, the water quality parameters of color, NH3⁃N, CODMn , UV254 , total aluminum, total manganese when USTSW recycle is better than the raw water without recycle, indicating that USTSW recycle can improve water quality with strengthening coagulation effect.

  14. Global impacts of conversions from natural to agricultural ecosystems on water resources: Quantity versus quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B.R.; Jolly, I.; Sophocleous, M.; Zhang, L.

    2007-01-01

    [1] Past land use changes have greatly impacted global water resources, with often opposing effects on water quantity and quality. Increases in rain-fed cropland (460%) and pastureland (560%) during the past 300 years from forest and grasslands decreased evapotranspiration and increased recharge (two orders of magnitude) and streamflow (one order of magnitude). However, increased water quantity degraded water quality by mobilization of salts, salinization caused by shallow water tables, and fertilizer leaching into underlying aquifers that discharge to streams. Since the 1950s, irrigated agriculture has expanded globally by 174%, accounting for ???90% of global freshwater consumption. Irrigation based on surface water reduced streamflow and raised water tables resulting in waterlogging in many areas (China, India, and United States). Marked increases in groundwater-fed irrigation in the last few decades in these areas has lowered water tables (???1 m/yr) and reduced streamflow. Degradation of water quality in irrigated areas has resulted from processes similar to those in rain-fed agriculture: salt mobilization, salinization in waterlogged areas, and fertilizer leaching. Strategies for remediating water resource problems related to agriculture often have opposing effects on water quantity and quality. Long time lags (decades to centuries) between land use changes and system response (e.g., recharge, streamflow, and water quality), particularly in semiarid regions, mean that the full impact of land use changes has not been realized in many areas and remediation to reverse impacts will also take a long time. Future land use changes should consider potential impacts on water resources, particularly trade-offs between water, salt, and nutrient balances, to develop sustainable water resources to meet human and ecosystem needs. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Quantifying Impact of Biofeedstock Production on Hydrology/Water Quality in Midwest USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaubey, Indrajeet; Engel, Bernard; Thomas, Mark; Raj, Cibin; Saraswat, Dharmendra

    2010-05-01

    The production of biofeedstocks for biofuels is likely to impact the hydrology and water quality of watersheds. Communities potentially impacted are increasingly concerned, and at present, little is known regarding the magnitude of impacts of biofeedstock production on hydrology and water quality. We have initiated a national facilitation project to answer the following questions: What are the unintended environmental consequences of increased corn production to meet biofuel demands? What are the environmental impacts of various second generation biofeedstock production systems to meet cellulosic ethanol demands? Would the management of cropping systems involving corn silage meet cellulosic ethanol demands with minimal environmental impact? What are the broad-scale water quality implications of energy crops, such as switchgrass, grown for bioenergy production on highly erodible soils? This presentation will discuss development of multi-regional agricultural land management practices that can be implemented to mitigate potential negative environmental impacts associated with biofeedstock production while meeting the biofuel production demand. Specifically, we will discuss how watershed scale modeling can be utilized to evaluate the environmental impacts of various biofeedstock production strategies. We will also discuss regional differences in alternative biofeedstock production and associated hydrologic/water quality impacts.

  16. Persistent Urban Impacts on Surface Water Quality Mediated by Stormwater Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, R. S.; Brooks, P. D.; Neilson, B. T.; Bowen, G. J.; Jameel, M. Y.; Hall, S. J.; Eiriksson, D.; Millington, M. R.; Gelderloos, A.

    2016-12-01

    Growing population centers along mountain watersheds put added stress on sensitive hydrologic systems and create water quality impacts downstream. We examined the mountain-to-urban transition in watersheds on Utah's Wasatch Front to identify mechanisms by which urbanization impacts water resources. Rivers in the Wasatch flow from the mountains directly into an urban landscape, where they are subject to channelization, stormwater runoff systems, and urban inputs to water quality from sources such as road salt and fertilizer. As part of an interdisciplinary effort within the iUTAH project, multiple synoptic surveys were performed and a variety of measurements were made, including basic water chemistry along with discharge, water isotopes, and nutrients. Red Butte Creek, a stream in Salt Lake City, does not show significant urban impact to water quality until several kilometers after it enters the city where concentrations of solutes such as chloride and nitrate more than triple in a gaining reach. Groundwater springs discharging to this gaining section demonstrate urban-impacted water chemistry, suggesting that during baseflow a contaminated alluvial aquifer significantly controls stream chemistry. By combining hydrometric and hydrochemical observations we were able to estimate that these groundwater springs were 17-20% urban runoff. We were then able to predict the chemistry of urban runoff that feeds into the alluvial aquifer. Samples collected from storm culverts, roofs, and asphalt during storms had chemistry values within the range of those predicted by the mixing model. This evidence that urbanization affects the water quality of baseflow through impacted groundwater suggests that stormwater mitigation may not be sufficient for protecting urban watersheds, and quantifying these persistent groundwater mediated impacts is necessary to evaluate the success of restoration efforts. By comparing these results from Red Butte Creek with similar studies from other

  17. Integrated Modelling on Flow and Water Quality Under the Impacts of Climate Change and Agricultural Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHI, J.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is expected to have a significant impact on flooding in the UK, inducing more intense and prolonged storms. Frequent flooding due to climate change already exacerbates catchment water quality. Land use is another contributing factor to poor water quality. For example, the move to intensive farming could cause an increase in faecal coliforms entering the water courses. In an effort to understand better the effects on water quality from land use and climate change, the hydrological and estuarine processes are being modelled using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), linked to a 2-D hydrodynamic model DIVAST(Depth Integrated Velocity and Solute Transport). The coupled model is able to quantify how much of each pollutant from the catchment reaches the harbour and the impact on water quality within the harbour. The work is focused on the transportation and decay of faecal coliforms from agricultural runoff into the rivers Frome and Piddle in the UK. The impact from the agricultural land use and activities on the catchment river hydrology and water quality are evaluated. The coupled model calibration and validation showed the good model performance on flow and faecal coliform in the watershed and estuary.

  18. The impact of physico-chemical water quality parameters on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    from water samples and PCR amplified using universal bacterial primer pairs. PCR products ... riorated due to constant disposal of industrial and domestic waste into the river. Salinisation .... to 16S rRNA sequences in the National Center of Biotechnology ..... composition in Central European running waters examined by.

  19. Impacts of forest to urban land conversion and ENSO phase on water quality of a public water supply reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    We used coupled watershed and reservoir models to evaluate the impacts of deforestation and ENSO phase on drinking water quality. Source water total organic carbon (TOC) is especially important due to the potential for production of carcinogenic disinfection byproducts (DBPs). The Environmental Flui...

  20. Impact of sewage discharges on coastal water quality of Mumbai, India: present and future scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Mardikar, Trupti; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-07-01

    The simulation study assesses the impact of sewage discharges on the present and predicted water quality of the Mumbai coast using MIKE 21. Water quality parameters in terms of dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and faecal coliform (FC) are checked against specified standards. The simulation is validated for the present coastal hydrodynamics and observed water quality parameters. The validated model is further used for predicting scenarios in terms of upgradation in a pumping station and improvement in wastewater collection, treatment level and disposal systems. The water quality of the existing coastal environment does not conform to the stipulated standards but improves considerably in the prediction scenarios. However, despite a marked improvement in FC, it is not as per desired standards as no treatment for bacteria removal is considered. The simulation study emphasizes the need for exploring options like the reuse or recycle of treated effluent, as an effort for water conservation.

  1. Potential impacts of climate change on water quality in a shallow reservoir in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Lai, Shiyu; Gao, Xueping; Xu, Liping

    2015-10-01

    To study the potential effects of climate change on water quality in a shallow reservoir in China, the field data analysis method is applied to data collected over a given monitoring period. Nine water quality parameters (water temperature, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen) and three climate indicators for 20 years (1992-2011) are considered. The annual trends exhibit significant trends with respect to certain water quality and climate parameters. Five parameters exhibit significant seasonality differences in the monthly means between the two decades (1992-2001 and 2002-2011) of the monitoring period. Non-parametric regression of the statistical analyses is performed to explore potential key climate drivers of water quality in the reservoir. The results indicate that seasonal changes in temperature and rainfall may have positive impacts on water quality. However, an extremely cold spring and high wind speed are likely to affect the self-stabilising equilibrium states of the reservoir, which requires attention in the future. The results suggest that land use changes have important impact on nitrogen load. This study provides useful information regarding the potential effects of climate change on water quality in developing countries.

  2. The Impact of Microbial Communities on Water Quality in an Acid Mine Drainage Impacted Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, G. R.; Rademacher, L. K.; Faul, K. L.; Brunell, M.; Burmeister, K. C.

    2011-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from the former Leona Heights Sulfur mine in Oakland, CA, contributes toxic levels of Cu, Cd, and Zn and elevated levels of Fe2+ and SO42- to downstream reaches of Lion Creek via Leona Creek. To investigate the extent of AMD and its relationship to microbial community structure, water samples were collected from three tributaries (two natural, and one with AMD) as well as the inlet and outlet of Lake Aliso (a reservoir downstream of the confluence of the three tributaries) beginning in July 2009. Lake Aliso was dammed in the late 1800s but since the early 1990s it has been full during the dry season and drained during the wet season, thus dramatically altering the geochemical conditions on a seasonal basis. Natural waters from Lion Creek and Horseshoe Creek tributaries dilute the water from Leona Creek, thus reducing concentrations of major ions and metals below toxic levels before water discharges into Lake Aliso. Precipitation events lead to episodes of increased mobilization of Cu and Cd in Leona Creek and produce toxic levels of these metals below the confluence with Lion Creek. Tributary mixing calculations suggest that even though Leona Creek contributes the smallest volume of water of the three tributaries, it is the main source of metals entering Lake Aliso. The input of the metal-rich AMD from Leona Creek changes the redox conditions of Lion Creek. In addition, Lake Aliso has a significant impact on water quality in the Lion Creek watershed. Observations of temperature, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen in lake depth profiles indicate that Lake Aliso is stratified during the dry season when the lake is full. Based on concentration differences between the inlet and outlet of the lake, Na, Mg, SO42-, Ca, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cu and Ni are removed from the water while K, As, Pb and Fe are mobilized when Lake Aliso is full. Geochemical modeling using PhreeqcI suggests the deposition of minerals containing the metals that are being removed

  3. Impact of rainfall temporal resolution on urban water quality modelling performance and uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, Bastian Johann; Rodríguez, Juan Pablo; Maksimović, Cedo; McIntyre, Neil

    2013-01-01

    A key control on the response of an urban drainage model is how well the observed rainfall records represent the real rainfall variability. Particularly in urban catchments with fast response flow regimes, the selection of temporal resolution in rainfall data collection is critical. Furthermore, the impact of the rainfall variability on the model response is amplified for water quality estimates, as uncertainty in rainfall intensity affects both the rainfall-runoff and pollutant wash-off sub-models, thus compounding uncertainties. A modelling study was designed to investigate the impact of altering rainfall temporal resolution on the magnitude and behaviour of uncertainties associated with the hydrological modelling compared with water quality modelling. The case study was an 85-ha combined sewer sub-catchment in Bogotá (Colombia). Water quality estimates showed greater sensitivity to the inter-event variability in rainfall hyetograph characteristics than to changes in the rainfall input temporal resolution. Overall, uncertainties from the water quality model were two- to five-fold those of the hydrological model. However, owing to the intrinsic scarcity of observations in urban water quality modelling, total model output uncertainties, especially from the water quality model, were too large to make recommendations for particular model structures or parameter values with respect to rainfall temporal resolution.

  4. Impacts by point and diffuse micropollutant sources on the stream water quality at catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M. F.; Eriksson, E.; Binning, P. J.; Bjerg, P. L.

    2012-04-01

    The water quality of surface waters is threatened by multiple anthropogenic pollutants and the large variety of pollutants challenges the monitoring and assessment of the water quality. The aim of this study was to characterize and quantify both point and diffuse sources of micropollutants impacting the water quality of a stream at catchment scale. Grindsted stream in western Jutland, Denmark was used as a study site. The stream passes both urban and agricultural areas and is impacted by severe groundwater contamination in Grindsted city. Along a 12 km reach of Grindsted stream, the potential pollution sources were identified including a pharmaceutical factory site with a contaminated old drainage ditch, two waste deposits, a wastewater treatment plant, overflow structures, fish farms, industrial discharges and diffuse agricultural and urban sources. Six water samples were collected along the stream and analyzed for general water quality parameters, inorganic constituents, pesticides, sulfonamides, chlorinated solvents, BTEXs, and paracetamol and ibuprofen. The latter two groups were not detected. The general water quality showed typical conditions for a stream in western Jutland. Minor impacts by releases of organic matter and nutrients were found after the fish farms and the waste water treatment plant. Nickel was found at concentrations 5.8 - 8.8 μg/l. Nine pesticides and metabolites of both agricultural and urban use were detected along the stream; among these were the two most frequently detected and some rarely detected pesticides in Danish water courses. The concentrations were generally consistent with other findings in Danish streams and in the range 0.01 - 0.09 μg/l; except for metribuzin-diketo that showed high concentrations up to 0.74 μg/l. The groundwater contamination at the pharmaceutical factory site, the drainage ditch and the waste deposits is similar in composition containing among others sulfonamides and chlorinated solvents (including vinyl

  5. Modelling the impacts of agricultural management practices on river water quality in Eastern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sam D; He, Yi; Hiscock, Kevin M

    2016-09-15

    Agricultural diffuse water pollution remains a notable global pressure on water quality, posing risks to aquatic ecosystems, human health and water resources and as a result legislation has been introduced in many parts of the world to protect water bodies. Due to their efficiency and cost-effectiveness, water quality models have been increasingly applied to catchments as Decision Support Tools (DSTs) to identify mitigation options that can be introduced to reduce agricultural diffuse water pollution and improve water quality. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to the River Wensum catchment in eastern England with the aim of quantifying the long-term impacts of potential changes to agricultural management practices on river water quality. Calibration and validation were successfully performed at a daily time-step against observations of discharge, nitrate and total phosphorus obtained from high-frequency water quality monitoring within the Blackwater sub-catchment, covering an area of 19.6 km(2). A variety of mitigation options were identified and modelled, both singly and in combination, and their long-term effects on nitrate and total phosphorus losses were quantified together with the 95% uncertainty range of model predictions. Results showed that introducing a red clover cover crop to the crop rotation scheme applied within the catchment reduced nitrate losses by 19.6%. Buffer strips of 2 m and 6 m width represented the most effective options to reduce total phosphorus losses, achieving reductions of 12.2% and 16.9%, respectively. This is one of the first studies to quantify the impacts of agricultural mitigation options on long-term water quality for nitrate and total phosphorus at a daily resolution, in addition to providing an estimate of the uncertainties of those impacts. The results highlighted the need to consider multiple pollutants, the degree of uncertainty associated with model predictions and the risk of

  6. Anthropogenic impacts on water pollution and water quality in the Harlem River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Harlem River, a 9.3 mile long natural straight, connects the Hudson and East Rivers in New York City. It had been historically used for swimming, fishing, boating. Anthropogenic impacts have degraded water quality, limiting current aquatic activity in the river. Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharge rainwater mixed with untreated sewage during or following rainfall and can contain illness-causing bacteria. It is not safe for swimming, fishing or boating especially in rainstorms. CSOs water samples were collected during rainstorms, and analyzed in the laboratories of the Chemistry and Biology Department, Bronx Community College, City University of New York. Results showed elevated bacteria/pathogen and nutrient levels. Most recent data showed an ammonia concentration of 2.6 mg/L on July 30, 2015 during a heavy afternoon thunderstorm, and an ammonia level 2.7mg/L during tropical storm Arthur on July 2, 2014. Both significantly exceeded the EPA regulation level for NYC waters of 0.23mg/L. Phosphate levels peaked at 0.197 mg/L during a heavy thunderstorm on Apr 28, 2011, which was much higher than regulated level of 0.033 mg/L. Turbidity was 319 FAU during the July 30 2015 heavy thunderstorm, and was 882 FAU during tropical storm Arthur; which was significantly higher than regulation level of 5.25 FAU. CSOs collected during a recent heavy rainstorm on Oct 28, 2015, showed fecal coliform of 1 million MPN/100ml, E.Coli. of 60,000 MPN/100ml, and enterococcus of 65,000 MPN/100ml; which exceeded regulated levels of fecal coliform-200 MPN/100ml, E.Coli.-126 MPN/100ml, enterococcus-104 MPN/100ml. It is critical to reduce CSOs, restore ecosystem and improve water quality of the Harlem River. Green wall, green roof, and wetland had been used to reduce stormwater runoff & CSOs in the Bronx River; these green infrastructures are going to be used along the Harlem River waterfront as well. The goal of this research is to make the Harlem River swimmable and fishable again in

  7. Assessing the Impact of Active Land Management in Mitigating Wildfire Threat to Source Water Supply Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladon, K. D.; Silins, U.; Emelko, M. B.; Flannigan, M.; Dupont, D.; Robinne, F.; Wang, X.; Parisien, M. A.; Stone, M.; Thompson, D. K.; Tymstra, C.; Schroeder, D.; Kienzle, S. W.; Anderson, A.

    2014-12-01

    The vast majority of surface water supplies in Alberta originates in forested regions of the province, and supports approximately 94 municipal utilities, 208 communities, and 67% of the provincial population. These surface water supplies are highly vulnerable to contamination inputs and changing water conditions associated with wildfires. A provincial scale risk analysis framework is being used to investigate the magnitude and likelihood of wildfire occurrence in source water regions to evaluate the potential for altered water quality and quantity. The initial analysis identified which forested regions and which municipal drinking water treatment facilities are most at risk from wildfire. The efficacy of several current and potential landscape treatments to mitigate wildfire threats, along with the likely outcome of these treatments on mitigation of potential impacts of wildfire to drinking water treatment, are being modeled. A Monte Carlo modeling approach incorporating wildfire regime characteristics is used to simulate the ignition and growth of wildfires and generate outcome distributions for the different mitigation strategies. Cumulative changes in water quality at large river basin scales are being modeled and linked to water treatment impacts with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). A critical foundation of this approach is the close interaction of a large, trans-disciplinary team of researchers capable of integrating highly diverse issues of landscape wildfire dynamics, cross-scale water supply issues, and their linkage to downstream risks to drinking water treatment engineering.

  8. Water for utilities: climate change impacts on water quality and water availability for utilities in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwolsman, J.J.G.; Vliet, van M.T.H.; Bonte, M.; Gorski, N.; Flörke, M.; Eisner, S.; Ludwig, F.

    2011-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of the consequences of changing water availability for production of drinking water, the manufacturing industry and power production in Europe, due to climate change and socio-economic developments. The report is based up on projections of demographic and

  9. Impact-based integrated real-time control for improvement of the Dommel River water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, J.; Benedetti, L.; Klein, de J.J.M.; Nopens, I.; Amerlinck, Y.; Nieuwenhuijzen, van A.F.; Flameling, T.; Zanten, van O.; Weijers, S.

    2013-01-01

    The KALLISTO project aims at finding cost-efficient sets of measures to meet the Water Framework Directive (WFD) derived goals for the river Dommel. Within the project, both acute and long term impacts of the urban wastewater system on the chemical and ecological quality of the river are studied

  10. Numerical Study of Wind Shielding Impacts on Water Quality in a Tropical Urban Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Haiyan; Xing, Zikun; Chua, Lloyd

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we investigate the impact of wind shielding effect on hydrodynamics and water quality in Marina reservoir, a tropical lake located in downtown Singapore. This kind of urban lakes are usually smaller and shallower comparing with naturally formed ones and therefore, subject to a higher degree of interaction with wind. To establish wind field over the lake surface, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling was conducted to simulate seasonal impacts of two dominant monsoon seasons, in which the prevailing wind patterns interact very differently with urban landscape. The CFD model results were then used as input to a 3D lake hydrodynamics and water quality model to study the impacts to the hydrodynamics and water quality in the lake. By comparing simulations using uniform and spatial variable wind field, this study demonstrates that wind forcing variability in urban reservoirs that arise from shielding effects can have significant impacts on the thermal stratification and mixing, and phytoplankton distribution in both vertical and horizontal directions. There exist significant seasonal differences in wind field, hydrodynamics and water quality between the northeast and southwest monsoon seasons. This work is supported by the Singapore National Research Foundation (project 1002-IRIS-09).

  11. Assessing the Long-Term Impacts of Water Quality Outreach and Education Efforts on Agricultural Landowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Smith, Douglas B.; McEvoy, Jamie P.

    2011-01-01

    We assess the long-term effectiveness of outreach and education efforts associated with a water quality improvement project in a watershed located in northern Utah, USA. Conducted 15 years after the original project began, our research examines the lasting impacts of different extension activities on landowners' motivations to participate and…

  12. The impact of municipal landfill on surface and ground water quality in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nyengera

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Leachate from Richmond municipal landfill, underlain by the Matsheumhlope unconfined aquifer in Bulawayo city and its consequent water resource quality impacts are evaluated. Leachate samples from collection ponds and water samples from a stream, and up and down-gradient boreholes fromthe landfill were tested for nine pollutants. The leachate pollutants found in both surface and ground water included metals (Fe, Pb and Hg and organic compounds that are hazardous to both human and the environmental health. Borehole water quality compliance with the relevant national and international regulations is reported. From borehole water samples, only chloride and nitrate with concentrations of 56.9 mg/ℓ and 2.26 mg/ℓ, respectively, were within the World Health Organisation (WHO recommended limits for drinking water of 250 mg/ℓ and 10 mg/ℓ, respectively. Lead and mercury concentrations of 0.22 mg/ℓ and 0.04 mg/ℓ were 10 times higher than WHO guidelines of 0.01 and 0.001 mg/ℓ, respectively. Both landfill and informal settlement activities near the landfill impact negatively to water resources quality in the area. City council should minimize waste by recycling, pre-treat collected leachate and drill monitoring wells around the landfill to check possible leachate leaks to water resources and take remedial actions, such assubmerged leachate combustion and evaporation.

  13. A statistical assessment of the impact of land uses on surface water quality indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeboonruang, Uma

    2012-06-30

    The release of wastewater from various land uses is threatening the quality of surface water. Different land uses pose varying degrees of danger to water resources. The hazardous extent of each activity depends on the amount and characteristics of the wastewater. The concept of the contamination potential index (CPI) of an activity is introduced and applied here. The index depends on the quantity of wastewater from a single source and on various chemicals in the waste whose concentrations are above allowable standards. The CPI concept and the land use impact assessment are applied to the surface water conditions in Nakhon Nayok Province in the central region of Thailand. The land uses considered in this study are residential area, industrial zone, in-season and off-season rice farming, and swine and poultry livestock. Multiple linear regression analysis determines the impact of the CPIs of these land uses on certain water quality characteristics, i.e., total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, phosphate, and chloride concentrations, using CPIs and previous water quality measurements. The models are further verified according to the current CPIs and measured concentrations. The results of the backward and forward modeling show that the land uses that affect water quality are off-season rice farming, raising poultry, and residential activity. They demonstrate that total dissolved solids and conductivity are reasonable parameters to apply in the land use assessment.

  14. Impacts by point and diffuse micropollutant sources on the stream water quality at catchment scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Fjendbo; Eriksson, Eva; Binning, Philip John

    2012-01-01

    pollution sources were identified including a pharmaceutical factory site with a contaminated old drainage ditch, two waste deposits, a wastewater treatment plant, overflow structures, fish farms, industrial discharges and diffuse agricultural and urban sources. Six water samples were collected along...... impacts by releases of organic matter and nutrients were found after the fish farms and the waste water treatment plant. Nickel was found at concentrations 5.8 – 8.8 g/l. Nine pesticides and metabolites of both agricultural and urban use were detected along the stream; among these were the two most......The water quality of surface waters is threatened by multiple anthropogenic pollutants and the large variety of pollutants challenges the monitoring and assessment of the water quality. The aim of this study was to characterize and quantify both point and diffuse sources of micropollutants...

  15. Watershed scale impacts bioenergy production on hydrology and water quality using SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAJ, C.; Chaubey, I.; Engel, B.; Trybula, E.

    2011-12-01

    The currently enforced US biofuel scenario to meet the cap of 36 billion gallons of ethanol by 2022 can potentially alter existing land use and crop management practices. The crop residues, such as, corn stover and cellulosic perennial energy crops are expected to play a significant role in meeting ethanol production goals. The possible land use and land management practice changes induce concerns over the environmental impacts of these bioenergy crop production scenarios both in terms of water availability and water quality. This study aims to estimate potential impacts of various plausible land and crop management scenarios for biofuel production, on watershed scale hydrology and water quality. The scenarios for evaluation includes impacts of corn stover removal at different removal rates and likely energy crop scenarios such as, (1) energy crops in pasture and range land use areas (2) energy crops in highly erodible soils (3) energy crops in low row crop productive fields (marginal lands); and (4) combinations of these scenarios. The distributed hydrological model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) will be used to simulate energy crops growth, hydrology and water quality. The watershed scale analysis will be done in Wildcat Creek basin, which is located in North-Central Indiana, USA.

  16. Global Access to Safe Water: Accounting for Water Quality and the Resulting Impact on MDG Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Kyle; LoBuglio, Joe; Bartram, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring of progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) drinking water target relies on classification of water sources as “improved” or “unimproved” as an indicator for water safety. We adjust the current Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) estimate by accounting for microbial water quality and sanitary risk using the only-nationally representative water quality data currently available, that from the WHO and UNICEF “Rapid Assessment of Drinking Water Quality”. A principal components analysis (PCA) of national environmental and development indicators was used to create models that predicted, for most countries, the proportions of piped and of other-improved water supplies that are faecally contaminated; and of these sources, the proportions that lack basic sanitary protection against contamination. We estimate that 1.8 billion people (28% of the global population) used unsafe water in 2010. The 2010 JMP estimate is that 783 million people (11%) use unimproved sources. Our estimates revise the 1990 baseline from 23% to 37%, and the target from 12% to 18%, resulting in a shortfall of 10% of the global population towards the MDG target in 2010. In contrast, using the indicator “use of an improved source” suggests that the MDG target for drinking-water has already been achieved. We estimate that an additional 1.2 billion (18%) use water from sources or systems with significant sanitary risks. While our estimate is imprecise, the magnitude of the estimate and the health and development implications suggest that greater attention is needed to better understand and manage drinking water safety. PMID:22690170

  17. Global Access to Safe Water: Accounting for Water Quality and the Resulting Impact on MDG Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe LoBuglio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of progress towards the Millennium Development Goal (MDG drinking water target relies on classification of water sources as “improved” or “unimproved” as an indicator for water safety. We adjust the current Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP estimate by accounting for microbial water quality and sanitary risk using the only-nationally representative water quality data currently available, that from the WHO and UNICEF “Rapid Assessment of Drinking Water Quality”. A principal components analysis (PCA of national environmental and development indicators was used to create models that predicted, for most countries, the proportions of piped and of other-improved water supplies that are faecally contaminated; and of these sources, the proportions that lack basic sanitary protection against contamination. We estimate that 1.8 billion people (28% of the global population used unsafe water in 2010. The 2010 JMP estimate is that 783 million people (11% use unimproved sources. Our estimates revise the 1990 baseline from 23% to 37%, and the target from 12% to 18%, resulting in a shortfall of 10% of the global population towards the MDG target in 2010. In contrast, using the indicator “use of an improved source” suggests that the MDG target for drinking-water has already been achieved. We estimate that an additional 1.2 billion (18% use water from sources or systems with significant sanitary risks. While our estimate is imprecise, the magnitude of the estimate and the health and development implications suggest that greater attention is needed to better understand and manage drinking water safety.

  18. Spatio-temporal variability and the impact of Phailin on water quality of Chilika lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Saroja K.; Muduli, Pradipta R.; Mohanty, Bita; Behera, Alaya T.; Mallick, Suprava; Das, Abhijit; Samal, R. N.; Rastogi, Gurdeep; Pattnaik, Ajit K.

    2017-03-01

    Chilika, Asia's largest brackish water lagoon was studied for 4 years (2011-2015) to understand the variability of water quality and the impact of a very severe cyclone storm ;Phailin; (Category-5). During the study period environmental variables exhibited a significant variation among sectors, seasons, and years (pwater quality. The overall 'water quality Index' indicated that the ecological health of the Chilika lagoon was ;Good;. The Phailin had a notable impact on water quality as substantiated by the trends of several parameters. The decrease in nitrate and phosphate after Phailin was attributed to dilution by low nutrient freshwater flux from major rivers whereas, the significant increase in reactive silicate was attributed to mixing of silicate enriched fresh water. Post Phailin increase in dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a was attributed to wind-induced mixing and resuspension of benthic chlorophyll respectively. A substantial change of nutrient stoichiometry and decrease in photic depth after Phailin resulted a pull down of primary productivity in the Chilika lagoon.

  19. The impact of conifer harvesting on stream water quality: the Afon Hafren, mid-Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Results for long term water quality monitoring are described for the headwaters of the principal headwater stream of the River Severn, the Afon Hafren. The results are linked to within-catchment information to describe the influence of conifer harvesting on stream and shallow groundwater quality. A 19-year record of water quality data for the Hafren (a partially spruce forested catchment with podzolic soil shows the classic patterns of hydrochemical change in relation to concentration and flow responses for upland forested systems. Progressive felling of almost two-thirds of the forest over the period of study resulted in little impact from harvesting and replanting in relation to stream water quality. However, at the local scale, a six years’ study of felling indicated significant release of nitrate into both surface and groundwater; this persisted for two or three years before declining. The study has shown two important features. Firstly, phased felling has led to minimal impacts on stream water. This contrasts with the results of an experimental clear fell for the adjacent catchment of the Afon Hore where a distinct water quality deterioration was observed for a few years. Secondly, there are localised zones with varying hydrology that link to groundwater sources with fracture flow properties. This variability makes extrapolation to the catchment scale difficult without very extensive monitoring. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to strong support for the use of phased felling-based management of catchments and the complexities of within catchment processes. Keywords: deforestation, water quality, acidification, pH, nitrate, alkalinity, ANC, aluminium, dissolved organic carbon, Plynlimon, forest, spruce, Afon Hafren, podzol

  20. Impact of water extractable arabinoxylan from rye bran on the frozen steamed bread dough quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei; Tao, Han; Jin, Zhengyu; Xu, Xueming

    2016-06-01

    Impact of water extractable arabinoxylan from rye bran on frozen steamed bread dough quality was investigated in terms of the bread characteristics, ice crystallization, yeast activity as well as the gluten molecular weight distribution and glutenin macropolymer content in the present study. Results showed that water extractable arabinoxylan significantly improved bread characteristics during the 60-day frozen storage. Less water was crystallized in the water extractable arabinoxylan dough during storage, which could explain the alleviated yeast activity loss. For all the frozen dough samples, more soluble high molecular weight (Mw ≈ 91,000-688,000) and low molecular weight (Mw ≈ 91,000-16,000) proteins were derived from glutenin macropolymer depolymerization. Nevertheless, water extractable arabinoxylan dough developed higher glutenin macropolymer content with lowered level of soluble low molecular weight proteins throughout the storage. This study suggested water extractable arabinoxylan from rye bran had great potential to be served as an effective frozen steamed bread dough improver.

  1. Impacts on water quality and biota from natural acid rock drainage in Colorado's Lake Creek watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, D.A.; Sares, Matthew A.; Policky, Greg A.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Church, Stanley E.

    2006-01-01

    Colorado's Lake Creek watershed hosts natural acid rock drainage that significantly impacts surface water, streambed sediment, and aquatic life. The source of the ARD is a group of iron-rich springs that emerge from intensely hydrothermally altered, unexploited, low-grade porphyry copper mineralization in the Grizzly Peak Caldera. Source water chemistry includes pH of 2.5 and dissolved metal concentrations of up to 277 mg/L aluminum, 498 mg/L iron, and 10 mg/L copper. From the hydrothermally altered area downstream for 27 kilometers to Twin Lakes Reservoir, metal concentrations in streambed sediment are elevated and the watershed experiences locally severe adverse impacts to aquatic life due to the acidic, metal-laden water. The water and sediment quality of Twin Lakes Reservoir is sufficiently improved that the reservoir supports a trout fishery, and remnants of upstream ARD are negligible.

  2. Model design for predicting extreme precipitation event impacts on water quality in a water supply reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, M.; Jeznach, L. C.; Park, M. H.; Tobiason, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    Extreme precipitation events such as tropical storms and hurricanes are by their nature rare, yet have disproportionate and adverse effects on surface water quality. In the context of drinking water reservoirs, common concerns of such events include increased erosion and sediment transport and influx of natural organic matter and nutrients. As part of an effort to model the effects of an extreme precipitation event on water quality at the reservoir intake of a major municipal water system, this study sought to estimate extreme-event watershed responses including streamflow and exports of nutrients and organic matter for use as inputs to a 2-D hydrodynamic and water quality reservoir model. Since extreme-event watershed exports are highly uncertain, we characterized and propagated predictive uncertainty using a quasi-Monte Carlo approach to generate reservoir model inputs. Three storm precipitation depths—corresponding to recurrence intervals of 5, 50, and 100 years—were converted to streamflow in each of 9 tributaries by volumetrically scaling 2 storm hydrographs from the historical record. Rating-curve models for concentratoin, calibrated using 10 years of data for each of 5 constituents, were then used to estimate the parameters of a multivariate lognormal probability model of constituent concentrations, conditional on each scenario's storm date and streamflow. A quasi-random Halton sequence (n = 100) was drawn from the conditional distribution for each event scenario, and used to generate input files to a calibrated CE-QUAL-W2 reservoir model. The resulting simulated concentrations at the reservoir's drinking water intake constitute a low-discrepancy sample from the estimated uncertainty space of extreme-event source water-quality. Limiting factors to the suitability of this approach include poorly constrained relationships between hydrology and constituent concentrations, a high-dimensional space from which to generate inputs, and relatively long run

  3. Water-Quality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Quality? [1.7MB PDF] Past featured science... Water Quality Data Today's Water Conditions Get continuous real- ... list of USGS water-quality data resources . USGS Water Science Areas Water Resources Groundwater Surface Water Water ...

  4. Impact on Hydrological Flows and Water Quality Using the Swat Model - the Case of Piracicaba Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, M. R.; Rocha, H.

    2013-05-01

    Understanding the functionality of water cycle in Brazilian ecosystems is one of the factors that generate the power to formulate smart strategies for biodiversity conservation and sustainable productivity in agro-ecosystems, promoting the generation of information that support the demands of occupation. Good policy formulation of land use depends on the expected climate change in the coming decades, as well as, surface cover and management must adapt to the socio-economic regional vocations so as to cause minimal impact. The changes in the land use influence the quantity and quality of water, contributing to floods and environmental changes. Additionally, climate change and variability, either natural or manmade cause, directly affect the human life. One of the main effects of weather occurs in the runoff generated in the basins, which in turn affects the water supply and demand in various sectors such as supply, irrigation and energy. The results Will show the impacts of climate variability on water resources (quantity and quality) to the Piracicaba watershed, through numerical modeling SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), developed with the objective to analyze the impacts of changes in land use on runoff and underground production of sediment and water quality. The results of this proposal will provide information to answer better understanding of the ecological functionality and freshwater ecosystems in Brazil, and particularly in the study region in the state of São Paulo, increase the predictability of the Earth's climate system, from knowledge of the response of terrestrial biota to different forms of climate variability and increased knowledge of alternative socio-economic adaptation of terrestrial biota and climate change.

  5. Impacts by point and diffuse micropollutant sources on the stream water quality at catchment scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Fjendbo; Eriksson, Eva; Binning, Philip John

    2012-01-01

    pollution sources were identified including a pharmaceutical factory site with a contaminated old drainage ditch, two waste deposits, a wastewater treatment plant, overflow structures, fish farms, industrial discharges and diffuse agricultural and urban sources. Six water samples were collected along...... impacts by releases of organic matter and nutrients were found after the fish farms and the waste water treatment plant. Nickel was found at concentrations 5.8 – 8.8 g/l. Nine pesticides and metabolites of both agricultural and urban use were detected along the stream; among these were the two most...... at the pharmaceutical factory site, the drainage ditch and the waste deposits is similar in composition containing among others sulfonamides and chlorinated solvents (including vinyl chloride). Vinyl chloride concentrations surpassed Danish stream water quality criteria with a factor 10. The largest chemical impact...

  6. Impact of Urbanization and Industrialization upon Surface Water Quality: A Pilot Study of Panzhihua Mining Town

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanguo Teng; Jie Yang; Rui Zuo; Jinsheng Wang

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the impact of urbanization and industrialization on surface water quality,a pilot study of Panzhihua (攀枝花) mining town was carried out.The urbanization of Panzhihua region was dominated by industry development and population growth.The level of urbanization showed that it was 18.44% in 1965,and reached 45.99% in 1983.Then,it reached 53.71% in 2005,so the urbanization process was very rapid in Panzhihua region.In the process of industrialization,the level of industrialization was fluctuated at around 70% from 1965 to 2005,which was influenced by mining,extracting,and smelting production.In the processes of urbanization,population growth caused an increase in life pollution sources,and an amount of effluents bearing coliform,COD (chemical oxygen demand),NH4+-N,and BOD5 (five-day biological oxygen demand) were released into Jinsha (金沙) River,which could cause decline in the surface water quality.While in the processes of industrialization (especially industrial scale expansion),more effluent bearing heavy metals could cause degradation of surface water quality.Thus,the measures,such as adjusting industry structure,optimizing the cleaning technology,and controlling pollution sources,should be enhanced to alleviate the current state of water quality exacerbation.

  7. Assessing Ecological Impacts of Shrimp and Sewage Effluent: Biological Indicators with Standard Water Quality Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. B.; O'Donohue, M. J.; Udy, J.; Dennison, W. C.

    2001-01-01

    Despite evidence linking shrimp farming to several cases of environmental degradation, there remains a lack of ecologically meaningful information about the impacts of effluent on receiving waters. The aim of this study was to determine the biological impact of shrimp farm effluent, and to compare and distinguish its impacts from treated sewage effluent. Analyses included standard water quality/sediment parameters, as well as biological indicators including tissue nitrogen (N) content, stable isotope ratio of nitrogen (δ 15N), and amino acid composition of inhabitant seagrasses, mangroves and macroalgae. The study area consisted of two tidal creeks, one receiving effluent from a sewage treatment plant and the other from an intensive shrimp farm. The creeks discharged into the western side of Moreton Bay, a sub-tropical coastal embayment on the east coast of Australia. Characterization of water quality revealed significant differences between the creeks, and with unimpacted eastern Moreton Bay. The sewage creek had higher concentrations of dissolved nutrients (predominantly NO-3/NO-2 and PO3-4, compared to NH+4 in the shrimp creek). In contrast, the shrimp creek was more turbid and had higher phytoplankton productivity. Beyond 750 m from the creek mouths, water quality parameters were indistinguishable from eastern Moreton Bay values. Biological indicators detected significant impacts up to 4 km beyond the creek mouths (reference site). Elevated plant δ 15N values ranged from 10·4-19·6‰ at the site of sewage discharge to 2·9-4·5‰ at the reference site. The free amino acid concentration and composition of seagrass and macroalgae was used to distinguish between the uptake of sewage and shrimp derived N. Proline (seagrass) and serine (macroalgae) were high in sewage impacted plants and glutamine (seagrass) and alanine (macroalgae) were high in plants impacted by shrimp effluent. The δ 15N isotopic signatures and free amino acid composition of inhabitant

  8. Cladophora in the Great Lakes: Impacts on beach water quality and human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhougstraete, M.P.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.; Rose, J.B.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    Cladophora in the Great Lakes grows rapidly during the warm summer months, detaches, and becomes free-floating mats as a result of environmental conditions, eventually becoming stranded on recreational beaches. Cladophora provides protection and nutrients, which allow enteric bacteria such as Escherichia coli, enterococci, Shigella, Campylobacter, and Salmonella to persist and potentially regrow in the presence of the algae. As a result of wind and wave action, these microorganisms can detach and be released to surrounding waters and can influence water quality. Enteric bacterial pathogens have been detected in Cladophora mats; E. coli and enterococci may populate to become part of the naturalized microbiota in Cladophora; the high densities of these bacteria may affect water quality, resulting in unnecessary beach closures. The continued use of traditional fecal indicators at beaches with Cladophora presence is inadequate at accurately predicting the presence of fecal contamination. This paper offers a substantial review of available literature to improve the knowledge of Cladophora impacts on water quality, recreational water monitoring, fecal indicator bacteria and microorganisms, and public health and policy.

  9. Modelling the impacts of Combined Sewer Overflows on the river Seine water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Stéphanie; Mouchel, Jean-Marie; Servais, Pierre; Flipo, Nicolas; Poulin, Michel; Blanc, Stéphanie; Chabanel, Matthieu; Paffoni, Catherine

    2007-04-01

    To achieve the objectives of the European Water Framework Directive (EWFD), the Seine basin Water Authority has constructed a number of prospective scenarios forecasting the impact of planned investments in water quality. Paris and its suburbs were given special attention because of their impact on the river Seine. Paris sewer system and overflow control is of major concern in future management plans. The composition and fate of the urban effluents have been characterized through numerous in situ samplings, laboratory experiments and modelling studies. The PROSE model was especially designed to simulate the impact on the river of both permanent dry-weather effluents and of highly transient Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO). It was also used to represent the impact of Paris at large spatial and temporal scales. In addition to immediate effects on oxygen levels, heavy particulate organic matter loads that settle downstream of the outlets contribute to permanent oxygen consumption. Until the late 90s, the 50 km long reach of the Seine inside Paris was permanently affected by high oxygen consumption accounting for 112% of the flux upstream of the city. 20% of this demand resulted from CSO. However, the oxygenation of the system is strong due to high phytoplankton activity. As expected, the model results predict a reduction of both permanent dry-weather effluents and CSOs in the future that will greatly improve the oxygen levels (concentrations higher than 7.3 mgO(2) L(-1), 90% of the time instead of 4.0 mgO(2) L(-1) in the late 90s). The main conclusion is that, given the spatial and temporal extent of the impact of many CSOs, water quality models should take into account the CSOs in order to be reliable.

  10. Impacts of waste from concentrated animal feeding operations on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, J.; Libra, B.; Weyer, P.; Heathcote, S.; Kolpin, D.; Thorne, P.S.; Wichman, M.

    2007-01-01

    Waste from agricultural livestock operations has been a long-standing concern with respect to contamination of water resources, particularly in terms of nutrient pollution. However, the recent growth of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) presents a greater risk to water quality because of both the increased volume of waste and to contaminants that may be present (e.g., antibiotics and other veterinary drugs) that may have both environmental and public health importance. Based on available data, generally accepted livestock waste management practices do not adequately or effectively protect water resources from contamination with excessive nutrients, microbial pathogens, and pharmaceuticals present in the waste. Impacts on surface water sources and wildlife have been documented in many agricultural areas in the United States. Potential impacts on human and environmental health from long-term inadvertent exposure to water contaminated with pharmaceuticals and other compounds are a growing public concern. This workgroup, which is part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, identified needs for rigorous ecosystem monitoring in the vicinity of CAFOs and for improved characterization of major toxicants affecting the environment and human health. Last, there is a need to promote and enforce best practices to minimize inputs of nutrients and toxicants from CAFOs into freshwater and marine ecosystems.

  11. Integrated impact assessment of climate change, land use, and adaptation policies on water quality in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautvetter, Helen; Schoenhart, Martin; Parajaka, Juraj; Schmid, Erwin; Zessner, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is one of the major challenges of our time and adds considerable stress to the human society and environment. A change in climate will not only shift general weather patterns, but might also increase the recurrence of extreme weather events such as drought and heavy rainfall. These changes in climatic conditions will affect the quality and quantity of water resources both directly as well as indirectly through autonomous adaptation by farmers (e.g. cultivar choices, fertilization intensity or soil management). This will influence the compliance with the good ecological and chemical status according to the EU Water Framework Directive. We present results from an integrated impact modelling framework (IIMF) to tackle those direct and indirect impacts and analyze policy options for planned adaptation in agricultural land use and sustainable management of land and water resources until 2040. The IIMF is the result of an interdisciplinary collaboration among economists, agronomists, and hydrologists. It consists of the bio-physical process model EPIC, the regional land use optimization model PASMA[grid], the quantitative precipitation/runoff TUWmodel and the surface water emission model MONERIS. Scenarios have been developed and parameterized in collaboration with stakeholders in order to facilitate multi-actor knowledge transfer. The set of climate change scenarios until 2040 includes three scenarios with equal temperature changes but varying precipitation patterns. They are combined with potential socio-economic and policy development. The latter include water protection measures on fertilization management, soil management, or crop rotation choices. We will presented the development of interfaces among the research, the definition of scenarios and major scenario results for Austria. We will focus on nutrient emissions to surface waters, which are the major link between the different models. The results, available at watershed level indicate the

  12. Groundwater quality across scales: impact on nutrient transport to large water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürr, Hans; Moosdorf, Nils; Mallast, Ulf

    2017-04-01

    High concentrations of dissolved nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in groundwater are an increasing concern in many areas of the world. Especially regions with high agriculture impact see widespread declining groundwater quality, with considerable uncertainty mainly regarding the impact of phosphorus (P). Implications reach from direct impacts on different water users to discharge of nutrient-rich groundwater to rivers, lakes and coastal areas, where it can contribute to eutrophication, hypoxia or harmful algal blooms. While local-scale studies are abundant and management options exist, quantitative approaches at regional to continental scales are scarce and frequently have to deal with data inconsistencies or are temporally sparse. Here, we present the research framework to combine large databases of local groundwater quality to data sets of climatical, hydrological, geological or landuse parameters. Pooling of such information, together with robust methods such as water balances and groundwater models, can provide constraints such as upper boundaries and likely ranges of nutrient composition in various settings, or for the nutrient transport to large water bodies. Remote Sensing can provide spatial information on the location of groundwater seepage. Results will eventually help to identify focus areas and lead to improved understanding of the role of groundwater in the context of global biogeochemical cycles.

  13. Climate change and wetland loss impacts on a western river's water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Records, R. M.; Arabi, M.; Fassnacht, S. R.; Duffy, W. G.; Ahmadi, M.; Hegewisch, K. C.

    2014-11-01

    An understanding of potential stream water quality conditions under future climate is critical for the sustainability of ecosystems and the protection of human health. Changes in wetland water balance under projected climate could alter wetland extent or cause wetland loss (e.g., via increased evapotranspiration and lower growing season flows leading to reduced riparian wetland inundation) or altered land use patterns. This study assessed the potential climate-induced changes to in-stream sediment and nutrient loads in the snowmelt-dominated Sprague River, Oregon, western US. Additionally, potential water quality impacts of combined changes in wetland water balance and wetland area under future climatic conditions were evaluated. The study utilized the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) forced with statistical downscaling of general circulation model (GCM) data from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) using the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) method. Our findings suggest that, in the Sprague River, (1) mid-21st century nutrient and sediment loads could increase significantly during the high-flow season under warmer, wetter climate projections or could change only nominally in a warmer and somewhat drier future; (2) although water quality conditions under some future climate scenarios and no wetland loss may be similar to the past, the combined impact of climate change and wetland losses on nutrient loads could be large; (3) increases in stream total phosphorus (TP) concentration with wetland loss under future climate scenarios would be greatest at high-magnitude, low-probability flows; and (4) loss of riparian wetlands in both headwaters and lowlands could increase outlet TP loads to a similar degree, but this could be due to distinctly different mechanisms in different parts of the watershed.

  14. Climate change and wetland loss impacts on a Western river's water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Records

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of potential stream water quality conditions under future climate is critical for the sustainability of ecosystems and protection of human health. Changes in wetland water balance under projected climate could alter wetland extent or cause wetland loss. This study assessed the potential climate-induced changes to in-stream sediment and nutrients loads in the historically snow melt-dominated Sprague River, Oregon, Western United States. Additionally, potential water quality impacts of combined changes in wetland water balance and wetland area under future climatic conditions were evaluated. The study utilized the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT forced with statistical downscaling of general circulation model (GCM data from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5 using the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA method. Our findings suggest that in the Sprague River (1 mid-21st century nutrient and sediment loads could increase significantly during the high flow season under warmer-wetter climate projections, or could change only nominally in a warmer and somewhat drier future; (2 although water quality conditions under some future climate scenarios and no wetland loss may be similar to the past, the combined impact of climate change and wetland losses on nutrient loads could be large; (3 increases in stream total phosphorus (TP concentration with wetland loss under future climate scenarios would be greatest at high-magnitude, low-probability flows; and (4 loss of riparian wetlands in both headwaters and lowlands could increase outlet TP loads to a similar degree, but this could be due to distinctly different mechanisms in different parts of the watershed.

  15. Impacts of alum residues from Morton Jaffray Water Works on water quality and fish, Harare, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muisa, Norah; Hoko, Zvikomborero; Chifamba, Portia

    Metal pollution of freshwater due to human activities is a major problem confronting most urban centres in developing countries. This study determined the extent to which aluminium in the residues from Morton Jaffray Water Works in Harare were affecting the water quality of Manyame River and Lake Manyame. The study also measured aluminium bioaccumulation in Nile Tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) which is of importance to the commercial fisheries industry in Zimbabwe. Depth integrated water, and sediment grab samples and adult fish were collected per site in January and March, 2010. A total of six sites were selected on the Manyame River and in Lake Manyame. The levels of Total Aluminium (Al) were determined in sediments, water and fish tissues (liver, kidney, gill and muscle). Total solids, total dissolved solids, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen and temperature were also determined in water and residues. The texture of the sediments was also assessed. Aluminium concentration in water ranged from 2.19 mg/L to 68.93 mg/L during both sampling campaigns surpassing permissible maximum concentration limits of 0.087 to 0.75 mg/L suggested by the Environmental Protection Agency and African Union. The site upstream of the discharge point of the residues always had the lowest levels though it was higher than acceptable levels indicated above, thus suggesting the existence of other sources of aluminium in the catchment besides Morton Jaffray Water Works. However, there was a 10-fold and 100-fold increase in levels of aluminium in water and sediments, respectively, at the site 100 m downstream of the discharge point on the Manyame River. Mean aluminium concentrations in water and sediments at this site averaged 68.93 ± 61.74 mg/L and 38.18 ± 21.54 mg/L in water and 103.79 ± 55.96 mg/L and 131.84 ± 16.48 mg/L in sediments in sampling campaigns 1 and 2, respectively. These levels were significantly higher than levels obtained from all the other sites during both sampling

  16. The link between water quality and tidal marshes in a highly impacted estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meire, Patrick; Maris, Tom; van Damme, Stefan; Jacobs, Sander; Cox, Tom; Struyf, Eric

    2010-05-01

    The Schelde estuary is one of the most heavily impacted estuaries in Europe. During several decades, untreated waste water from large cities (e.g. Brussels, Antwerp, Valenciennes, Lille) and industries was discharged in the river. As a result, the Schelde estuary has the reputation of being one of the most polluted estuaries in Europe. For a long time (approx. 1950 - 1995) all forms of higher life (macro-invertebrates and fish) were absent in the fresh and brackish parts of the estuary. Due to European legislation, a large part of the sewage water is now treated resulting in a significant recovery of water quality in the estuary. However, next to water quality, the estuary also suffered serious habitat losses during the last decades, mostly due to economic development and changing hydrological conditions causing more erosion. Over the last fifteen years, the management of the estuary has changed fundamentally. It is now more and more focused on the restoration of ecosystem services. In this presentation we will document the changes in water quality over the last 50 years and summarize recent work on the role of tidal marshes on water quality within the freshwater part of the Schelde estuary. Our results stress the important of taking into account ecosystem services and habitat restoration for long-term estuarine management. .After decades of high inorganic nutrient concentrations and recurring anoxia and hypoxia, we observed a paradoxical increase in chlorophyll-a concentrations with decreasing nutrient inputs, indicating a regime shift. Our results indicate that the recovery of a hypereutrophied systems towards a classical eutrophied state, needs the reduction of waste loads below certain thresholds. Paradoxically, phytoplankton production was inhibited by high ammonia or low oxygen concentrations. The system state change is accompanied by large fluctuations in oxygen concentrations. The improved water quality resulted in a remarkable recovery of different groups

  17. The impact of agricultural Best Management Practices on water quality in a North German lowland catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Q D; Schmalz, B; Fohrer, N

    2011-12-01

    Research on water quality degradation caused by point and diffuse source pollution plays an important role in protecting the environment sustainably. Implementation of Best Management Practices (BMPs) is a conventional approach for controlling and mitigating pollution from diffuse sources. The objectives of this study were to assess the long-term impact of point and diffuse source pollution on sediment and nutrient load in a lowland catchment using the ecohydrological model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of BMPs for water quality improvement in the entire catchment. The study area, Kielstau catchment, is located in the North German lowlands. The water quality is not only influenced by the predominating agricultural land use in the catchment as cropland and pasture, but also by six municipal wastewater treatment plants. Diffuse entries as well as punctual entries from the wastewater treatment plants are implemented in the model set-up. Results from model simulations indicated that the SWAT model performed satisfactorily in simulating flow, sediment, and nutrient load in a daily time step. Two approaches to structural and nonstructural BMPs have been recommended in relation to cost and effectiveness of BMPs in this study. These BMPs include extensive land use management, grazing management practice, field buffer strip, and nutrient management plan. The results showed that BMPs would reduce fairly the average annual load for nitrate and total nitrogen by 8.6% to 20.5%. However, the implementation of BMPs does not have much impact on reduction in the average annual load of sediment and total phosphorus at the main catchment outlet. The results obtained by implementing those BMPs ranged from 0.8% to 4.9% and from 1.1% to 5.3% for sediment and total phosphorus load reduction, respectively. This study also reveals that reduction only in one type of BMP did not achieve the target value for water quality according to the

  18. Environmental impact of municipal dumpsite leachate on ground-water quality in Jawaharnagar, Rangareddy, Telangana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soujanya Kamble, B.; Saxena, Praveen Raj

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the impact of dumpsite leachate on ground-water quality of Jawaharnagar village. Leachate and ground-water samples were investigated for various physico-chemical parameters viz., pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), carbonates (CO3 2-), bicarbonates (HCO3 -), nitrates (NO3 -), and sulphates (SO4 2-) during dry and wet seasons in 2015 and were reported. The groundwater was hard to very hard in nature, and the concentrations of total dissolved solids, chlorides, and nitrates were found to be exceeding the permissible levels of WHO drinking water quality standards. Piper plots revealed that the dominant hydrochemical facies of the groundwater were of calcium chloride (CaCl2) type and alkaline earths (Ca2+ and Mg2+) exceed the alkali (Na+ and SO4 2-), while the strong acids (Cl- and SO4 2-) exceed the weak acids (CO3 2- and HCO3 -). According to USSL diagram, all the ground-water samples belong to high salinity and low-sodium type (C3S1). Overall, the ground-water samples collected around the dumpsite were found to be polluted and are unfit for human consumption but can be used for irrigation purpose with heavy drainage and irrigation patterns to control the salinity.

  19. The impact of climate change on the water quality of the Rhine river

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bokhoven, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this research the effect of hydrological extremes on water quality are studied for the Rhine River, in order to assess potential water quality effects of climate change. The water quality of the Rhine was studied for the periods 1975-1977 and 1987-2005. During these periods eight hydrological

  20. Horns Rev offshore wind power farm. Environmental impact assessment on water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Per

    2000-05-15

    As part of an overall Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) undertaken in connection with a planned 150 MW offshore wind farm at Horns Rev, an assessment was made of the effects the wind farm would have on the water quality in the area. This EIA study was drawn up in accordance with the guidelines laid down by the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy in the publication 'Guidelines for the preparation of EIA studies for offshore wind farms'. Horns Rev is situated off Blaevands Huk, which is Denmark's most westerly point. It is a shallow reef with water depths between 2 and 9 metres and is primarily composed of sand, gravel and pebbles. Only local and minor changes are anticipated in connection with the currents, sediments and wave conditions during the production phase. These will occur in the immediate vicinity of the individual foundations. For these reasons, no changes are expected in the water quality. This also includes also the pelagic primary production and the occurrence of plankton in the area. Increased local copper contamination of phytoplankton and zooplankton may be expected during the production phase, as a result of the total annual discharge of 206 kg copper from the slip-rings in the wind turbines. The contamination will potentially result in a local reduction of the pelagic primary production and changes in the species composition of the plankton. The wind turbines will be sandblasted and painted once during their lifetime, as part of the routine maintenance. The sandblasting and painting will lead to a temporary spill of paint, paint waste and sand. The impacts on water quality and plankton production are unknown. It is recommended that factors such as the toxicity of the paint be investigated, and that spills and the impact of waste be reduced as much as possible. The water quality and the plankton in the wind farm area and along the cable line's passage to shore through the international protected area, will only be

  1. Assessment of climate change impacts on hydrology and water quality with a watershed modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuzhou; Ficklin, Darren L; Liu, Xiaomang; Zhang, Minghua

    2013-04-15

    The assessment of hydrologic responses to climate change is required in watershed management and planning to protect water resources and environmental quality. This study is designed to evaluate and enhance watershed modeling approach in characterizing climate change impacts on water supply and ecosystem stressors. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was selected as a base model, and improved for the CO2 dependence of potential evapotranspiration and stream temperature prediction. The updated model was applied to quantify the impacts of projected 21st century climate change in the northern Coastal Ranges and western Sierra Nevada, which are important water source areas and aquatic habitats of California. Evapotranspiration response to CO2 concentration varied with vegetation type. For the forest-dominated watersheds in this study, only moderate (1-3%) reductions on evapotranspiration were predicted by solely elevating CO2 concentration under emission scenarios A2 and B1. Modeling results suggested increases in annual average stream temperature proportional to the projected increases in air temperature. Although no temporal trend was confirmed for annual precipitation in California, increases of precipitation and streamflow during winter months and decreases in summers were predicted. Decreased streamflow during summertime, together with the higher projected air temperature in summer than in winter, would increase stream temperature during those months and result in unfavorable conditions for cold-water species. Compared to the present-day conditions, 30-60 more days per year were predicted with average stream temperature >20°C during 2090s. Overall, the hydrologic cycle and water quality of headwater drainage basins of California, especially their seasonality, are very sensitive to projected climate change. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Soil Erosion and Surface Water Quality Impacts of Natural Gas Development in East Texas, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew McBroom

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to greater demands for hydrocarbons and improvements in drilling technology, development of oil and natural gas in some regions of the United States has increased dramatically. A 1.4 ha natural gas well pad was constructed in an intermittent stream channel at the Alto Experimental Watersheds in East Texas, USA (F1, while another 1.1 ha well pad was offset about 15 m from a nearby intermittent stream (F2. V-notch weirs were constructed downstream of these well pads and stream sedimentation and water quality was measured. For the 2009 water year, about 11.76 cm, or almost 222% more runoff resulted from F1 than F2. Sediment yield was significantly greater at F1, with 13,972 kg ha−1 yr−1 versus 714 kg ha−1yr−1 at F2 on a per unit area disturbance basis for the 2009 water year. These losses were greater than was observed following forest clearcutting with best management practices (111–224 kg ha−1. Significantly greater nitrogen and phosphorus losses were measured at F1 than F2. While oil and gas development can degrade surface water quality, appropriate conservation practices like retaining streamside buffers can mitigate these impacts.

  3. Impacts of biofuels production alternatives on water quantity and quality in the Iowa River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Liu, S.

    2012-01-01

    Corn stover as well as perennial grasses like switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and miscanthus are being considered as candidates for the second generation biofuel feedstocks. However, the challenges to biofuel development are its effects on the environment, especially water quality. This study evaluates the long-term impacts of biofuel production alternatives (e.g., elevated corn stover removal rates and the potential land cover change) on an ecosystem with a focus on biomass production, soil erosion, water quantity and quality, and soil nitrate nitrogen concentration at the watershed scale. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was modified for setting land cover change scenarios and applied to the Iowa River Basin (a tributary of the Upper Mississippi River Basin). Results show that biomass production can be sustained with an increased stover removal rate as long as the crop demand for nutrients is met with appropriate fertilization. Although a drastic increase (4.7–70.6%) in sediment yield due to erosion and a slight decrease (1.2–3.2%) in water yield were estimated with the stover removal rate ranging between 40% and 100%, the nitrate nitrogen load declined about 6–10.1%. In comparison to growing corn, growing either switchgrass or miscanthus can reduce sediment erosion greatly. However, land cover changes from native grass to switchgrass or miscanthus would lead to a decrease in water yield and an increase in nitrate nitrogen load. In contrast to growing switchgrass, growing miscanthus is more productive in generating biomass, but its higher water demand may reduce water availability in the study area.

  4. GIS based water quality indexing of Malad creek, Mumbai (India): an impact of sewage discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Ritesh; Bhattacharyya, Tapas; Joshi, Rucha R; Dhage, S S; Sohony, R A

    2011-04-01

    Malad creek is one of the most heavily polluted water bodies in Mumbai, India. Presently, creek receives wastewater and sewage from open drains and nallahs as well as partially treated wastewater from treatment facilities. The objective of the present study was to assess and classify the water quality zones spatially and temporally based on physico-chemical and bacteriological analysis. For this, GIS based methodology was integrated with water quality indexing, according to National Sanitation Foundation. Nine water quality parameters were considered to generate the indices that represent the overall status of creek water quality. Based on field observations and spatial distribution of water quality, various options were suggested for improvement in water quality of the creek.

  5. Impact of water quality and irrigation management on organic greenhouse horticulture

    OpenAIRE

    Dorais, M.; Alsanius, B.W.; de Voogt, W.; Pepin, S; Tuzel, Hakki; Tuzel, Yuksel; Möller, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Water quality and water supply are essential for organic greenhouse grown crops to prevent soil contaminationby undesirable chemicals and microorganisms, while providing a sufficient amount of water for plant growth.The absence of natural precipitation combined with higher evapotranspiration due to higher temperatureand longer cropping period requires an adequate supply of water. Water quality is commonly defined by itschemical, physical, and biological attributes. It is closely linked to the...

  6. The environmental impact of climate change adaptation on land use and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fezzi, Carlo; Harwood, Amii R.; Lovett, Andrew A.; Bateman, Ian J.

    2015-03-01

    Encouraging adaptation is an essential aspect of the policy response to climate change. Adaptation seeks to reduce the harmful consequences and harness any beneficial opportunities arising from the changing climate. However, given that human activities are the main cause of environmental transformations worldwide, it follows that adaptation itself also has the potential to generate further pressures, creating new threats for both local and global ecosystems. From this perspective, policies designed to encourage adaptation may conflict with regulation aimed at preserving or enhancing environmental quality. This aspect of adaptation has received relatively little consideration in either policy design or academic debate. To highlight this issue, we analyse the trade-offs between two fundamental ecosystem services that will be impacted by climate change: provisioning services derived from agriculture and regulating services in the form of freshwater quality. Results indicate that climate adaptation in the farming sector will generate fundamental changes in river water quality. In some areas, policies that encourage adaptation are expected to be in conflict with existing regulations aimed at improving freshwater ecosystems. These findings illustrate the importance of anticipating the wider impacts of human adaptation to climate change when designing environmental policies.

  7. Extent and persistence of secondary water quality impacts after enhanced reductive bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Robert C.; Jason M. Tillotson,; Ng, Gene-Hua Crystal.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Kent, Douglas B.; Curtis, Gary P.

    2017-01-01

    Electron donor (ED) addition can be very effective in stimulating enhanced reductive bioremediation (ERB) of a wide variety of groundwater contaminants. However, ERB can result in Secondary Water Quality Impacts (SWQIs) including decreased levels of dissolved oxygen (O2), nitrate (NO3- ), and sulfate (SO42- ), and elevated levels of dissolved manganese (Mn2+), dissolved iron (Fe2+), methane (CH4), sulfide (S2- ), organic carbon, and naturally occurring hazardous compounds (e.g., arsenic). Fortunately, this ‘plume’ of impacted groundwater is usually confined within the original contaminant plume and is unlikely to adversely impact potable water supplies. This report summarizes available information on processes controlling the production and natural attenuation of SWQI parameters and can be used as a guide in understanding the magnitude, areal extent, and duration of SWQIs in ERB treatment zones and the natural attenuation of SWQI parameters as the dissolved solutes migrate downgradient with ambient groundwater flow. This information was compiled from a wide variety of sources including a survey and statistical analysis of SWQIs from 47 ERB sites, geochemical model simulations, field studies at sites where organic-rich materials have entered the subsurface (e.g., wastewater, landfill leachate, and hydrocarbon plumes), and basic information on physical, chemical, and biological processes in the subsurface. This information is then integrated to provide a general conceptual model of the major processes controlling SWQI production and attenuation.

  8. A watershed scale assessment of the impacts of suburban turf management on runoff water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, M.; Inamdar, S. P.; Barton, S.; Duke, J.; Tallamy, D.; Bruck, J.

    2014-12-01

    Steadily increasing rates of urbanization have raised concerns about the negative impacts of urban runoff on receiving surface water quality. These concerns have been further amplified by landscaping paradigms that encourage high-input, intensively-managed and mono-culture turf and lawn landscapes. We conducted a watershed-scale assessment of turf management practices on water quality vis-à-vis less-intensive management practices that preserve and enhance more diverse and native vegetation. The study treatments with existing/established vegetation and landscaping practices included turf, urban, forest, meadow, and a mixed site with a professional golf course. Stream water sampling was performed during baseflow and storm events. Highest nutrient (nitrate and total nitrogen) concentrations in runoff were observed for the mixed watershed draining the golf course. In contrast, nutrient concentrations in baseflow from the turf watershed were lower than expected and were comparable to those measured in the surrounding meadow and forest sites. Runoff losses from the turf site may have been minimal due to the optimal quality of management implemented. Total nitrogen concentrations from the turf site increased sharply during the first storms following fertilization, suggesting that despite optimal management there exists a risk for nutrient runoff following fertilization. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations from the turf site were elevated and aromatic in content while the mixed watershed site yielded more labile DOM. Overall, this study suggests that turf lawns, when managed properly, pose minimal environmental risk to surrounding surface waters. Based on the results of this study, providing homeowners with increased information regarding best management practices for lawn maintenance may serve as a cost-efficient method for reducing suburban runoff pollution.

  9. The Impact of Impervious Surface on Water Quality and Its Threshold in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakkwan Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The change in the impervious-pervious balance has significantly altered the stream water quality, and thus the threshold of the impervious surface area in the watershed has been an active research topic for many years. The objective of this study is to verify the correlation between impervious surfaces and water quality and to determine the threshold of the percentage of the impervious surface area (PISA for diagnosing the severity of future stream water quality problems in the watershed as well as regulating the PISA in Korea. Statistical results indicated that the PISA is a suitable indicator of water quality at the watershed scale and can illustrate the water quality problems caused by the impervious surface. In addition, the results from this study suggest that controlling the PISA within about 10% in watersheds is a fundamental strategy to mitigate the degradation of water quality.

  10. Watershed-scale Hydrology and Water Quality Impact of Switchgrass Intercropping in Southern Managed Pine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chescheir, G. M.; Birgand, F.; Allen, E.; Bennett, E.; Carter, T.; Dobbs, N.; Muwamba, A.; Amatya, D. M.; Youssef, M.; Nettles, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    The use of marginal land for cellulosic biofuel crop production is an attractive solution to preserve agricultural land for food production. The space available between rows of young loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) trees offers enough light to support growth of biofuel crops for several years. A five year field study was conducted to assess the hydrology and water quality impacts of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) intercropping with pine trees in watersheds of the southeastern US. Paired-watershed studies were replicated in Mississippi and Alabama on upland sites, and in North Carolina on a flat lowland site. In each state, the impact of switchgrass intercropping was assessed from differences in water and nutrient yields from contiguous 20-40 ha watersheds established as: conventional young pine plantation, switchgrass intercropped in young pine plantation, switchgrass only, and mid-rotation mature pine plantation. A total of 14 watersheds were equipped with continuous flow monitoring stations, flow proportional water samplers, groundwater wells, soil moisture sensors and weather stations. Data collection continued through a two year pre-treatment period, a one year treatment period when field operations were conducted to establish switchgrass, and a two year post-treatment period when the established switchgrass was fertilized and harvested annually. Our results showed that significant increases in total suspended solids (TSS) and nitrogen (N) loading occurred during the treatment periods at the upland sites in MS and AL. During the post treatment periods, TSS and N loading decreased to levels near those observed in pretreatment. At the lowland site, only nitrogen loading was increased during the treatment period. Concentrations of TSS at the lowland site were two orders of magnitude lower than those observed at the upland sites and were not significantly affected by the treatment. Inherent flow variability between watersheds within sites made detection of subtle

  11. Evaluation of the Impacts of Land Use on Water Quality: A Case Study in The Chaohu Lake Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been widely accepted that there is a close relationship between the land use type and water quality. There have been some researches on this relationship from the perspective of the spatial configuration of land use in recent years. This study aims to analyze the influence of various land use types on the water quality within the Chaohu Lake Basin based on the water quality monitoring data and RS data from 2000 to 2008, with the small watershed as the basic unit of analysis. The results indicated that there was significant negative correlation between forest land and grassland and the water pollution, and the built-up area had negative impacts on the water quality, while the influence of the cultivated land on the water quality was very complex. Besides, the impacts of the landscape diversity on the indicators of water quality within the watershed were also analyzed, the result of which indicated there was a significant negative relationship between them. The results can provide important scientific reference for the local land use optimization and water pollution control and guidance for the formulation of policies to coordinate the exploitation and protection of the water resource.

  12. Evaluation of the impacts of land use on water quality: a case study in the Chaohu Lake Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Zhan, Jinyan; Yan, Haiming; Wu, Feng; Deng, Xiangzheng

    2013-01-01

    It has been widely accepted that there is a close relationship between the land use type and water quality. There have been some researches on this relationship from the perspective of the spatial configuration of land use in recent years. This study aims to analyze the influence of various land use types on the water quality within the Chaohu Lake Basin based on the water quality monitoring data and RS data from 2000 to 2008, with the small watershed as the basic unit of analysis. The results indicated that there was significant negative correlation between forest land and grassland and the water pollution, and the built-up area had negative impacts on the water quality, while the influence of the cultivated land on the water quality was very complex. Besides, the impacts of the landscape diversity on the indicators of water quality within the watershed were also analyzed, the result of which indicated there was a significant negative relationship between them. The results can provide important scientific reference for the local land use optimization and water pollution control and guidance for the formulation of policies to coordinate the exploitation and protection of the water resource.

  13. Impact of partially treated sewage effluent on the water quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Key Words: Malaysian Water Quality Index, Sewage, Wastewater treatment plant, Epie ... physico-chemical and biological characteristics of the surface water samples collected at four ... the most recipient of industrial and municipal wastes.

  14. Impacts of Forest to Urban Land Conversion and ENSO Phase on Water Quality of a Public Water Supply Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Elias

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We used coupled watershed and reservoir models to evaluate the impacts of deforestation and l Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO phase on drinking water quality. Source water total organic carbon (TOC is especially important due to the potential for production of carcinogenic disinfection byproducts (DBPs. The Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC reservoir model is used to evaluate the difference between daily pre- and post- urbanization nutrients and TOC concentration. Post-disturbance (future reservoir total nitrogen (TN, total phosphorus (TP, TOC and chlorophyll-a concentrations were found to be higher than pre-urbanization (base concentrations (p < 0.05. Predicted future median TOC concentration was 1.1 mg·L−1 (41% higher than base TOC concentration at the source water intake. Simulations show that prior to urbanization, additional water treatment was necessary on 47% of the days between May and October. However, following simulated urbanization, additional drinking water treatment might be continuously necessary between May and October. One of six ENSO indices is weakly negatively correlated with the measured reservoir TOC indicating there may be higher TOC concentrations in times of lower streamflow (La Niña. There is a positive significant correlation between simulated TN and TP concentrations with ENSO suggesting higher concentrations during El Niño.

  15. Environmental impact of coal mining and coal seam gas production on surface water quality in the Sydney basin, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Strezov, V; Davies, P; Wright, I

    2017-08-01

    The extraction of coal and coal seam gas (CSG) will generate produced water that, if not adequately treated, will pollute surface and groundwater systems. In Australia, the discharge of produced water from coal mining and related activities is regulated by the state environment agency through a pollution licence. This licence sets the discharge limits for a range of analytes to protect the environment into which the produced water is discharged. This study reports on the impact of produced water from coal mine activities located within or discharging into high conservation environments, such as National Parks, in the outer region of Sydney, Australia. The water samples upstream and downstream from the discharge points from six mines were taken, and 110 parameters were tested. The results were assessed against a water quality index (WQI) which accounts for pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, total phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen and E .coli. The water quality assessment based on the trace metal contents against various national maximum admissible concentration (MAC) and their corresponding environmental impacts was also included in the study which also established a base value of water quality for further study. The study revealed that impacted water downstream of the mine discharge points contained higher metal content than the upstream reference locations. In many cases, the downstream water was above the Australia and New Zealand Environment Conservation Council and international water quality guidelines for freshwater stream. The major outliers to the guidelines were aluminium (Al), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). The WQI of surface water at and downstream of the discharge point was lower when compared to upstream or reference conditions in the majority of cases. Toxicology indices of metals present in industrial discharges were used as an additional tool to assess water quality, and the newly

  16. Biochar impact on water infiltration and water quality through a compacted subsoil layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soils in the SE USA Coastal Plain region frequently have a compacted subsoil layer (E horizon), which is a barrier for water infiltration. Four different biochars were evaluated to increase water infiltration through a compacted horizon from a Norfolk soil (fine-loamy, kaolinitic...

  17. Spatial scale and seasonal dependence of land use impacts on riverine water quality in the Huai River basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Xiang; Wu, Bi; Pan, Guoyan; Xu, Jing; Wu, Shaofei

    2017-07-19

    Land use pattern is an effective reflection of anthropic activities, which are primarily responsible for water quality deterioration. A detailed understanding of relationship between water quality and land use is critical for effective land use management to improve water quality. Linear mixed effects and multiple regression models were applied to water quality data collected from 2003 to 2010 from 36 stations in the Huai River basin together with topography and climate data, to characterize the land use impacts on water quality and their spatial scale and seasonal dependence. The results indicated that the influence of land use categories on specific water quality parameter was multiple and varied with spatial scales and seasons. Land use exhibited strongest association with dissolved oxygen (DO) and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentrations at entire watershed scale and with total phosphorus (TP) and fluoride concentrations at finer scales. However, the spatial scale, at which land use exerted strongest influence on instream chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) levels, varied with seasons. In addition, land use composition was responsible for the seasonal pattern observed in contaminant concentrations. COD, NH3-N, and fluoride generally peaked during dry seasons in highly urbanized regions and during rainy seasons in less urbanized regions. High proportion of agricultural and rural areas was associated with high nutrient contamination risk during spring. The results highlight the spatial scale and seasonal dependence of land use impacts on water quality and can provide scientific basis for scale-specific land management and seasonal contamination control.

  18. An Assessment of Factors Having Impact on Water Quality in Water Supply Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auksė Amosenkienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Water samples were collected from Vilnius drinking water distribution system fed by treated and different groundwater. Parameters related to bacterial growth have been measured considering these samples: temperature, concentration of free residual chlorine, ammonium, nitrates and nitrites. Results showed that treated groundwater was less susceptible to favour bacterial growth in the pipelines. The obtained results also showed that the potential growth induced by the distribution of treated water could be reduced if: ammonium levels were below 0.5 mg/l at the outlet of the water treatment plant; biological ammonium removal treatment implementation should reduce the levels of the nitrates and nitrites of the treated supplied water. Article in Lithuanian

  19. Road traffic impact on urban water quality: a step towards integrated traffic, air and stormwater modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah Shorshani, Masoud; Bonhomme, Céline; Petrucci, Guido; André, Michel; Seigneur, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Methods for simulating air pollution due to road traffic and the associated effects on stormwater runoff quality in an urban environment are examined with particular emphasis on the integration of the various simulation models into a consistent modelling chain. To that end, the models for traffic, pollutant emissions, atmospheric dispersion and deposition, and stormwater contamination are reviewed. The present study focuses on the implementation of a modelling chain for an actual urban case study, which is the contamination of water runoff by cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the Grigny urban catchment near Paris, France. First, traffic emissions are calculated with traffic inputs using the COPERT4 methodology. Next, the atmospheric dispersion of pollutants is simulated with the Polyphemus line source model and pollutant deposition fluxes in different subcatchment areas are calculated. Finally, the SWMM water quantity and quality model is used to estimate the concentrations of pollutants in stormwater runoff. The simulation results are compared to mass flow rates and concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn measured at the catchment outlet. The contribution of local traffic to stormwater contamination is estimated to be significant for Pb and, to a lesser extent, for Zn and Cd; however, Pb is most likely overestimated due to outdated emissions factors. The results demonstrate the importance of treating distributed traffic emissions from major roadways explicitly since the impact of these sources on concentrations in the catchment outlet is underestimated when those traffic emissions are spatially averaged over the catchment area.

  20. Impacts of fertilization on water quality of a drained pine plantation: a worse case scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray J. Beltran; Devendra M. Amatya; Mohamed Youssef; Martin Jones; Timothy J. Skaggs Callahan

    2010-01-01

    Intensive plantation forestry will be increasingly important in the next 50 yr to meet the high demand for domestic wood in the United States. However, forest management practices can substantially infl uence downstream water quality and ecology. Th is study analyses, the eff ect of fertilization on effl uent water quality of a low gradient drained coastal pine...

  1. Impact of water quality change on corrosion scales in full and partially replaced lead service lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundChanges in water qualities have been associated with an increase in lead release from full and partial lead service lines (LSLs), such as the cases of Washington D.C. or more recently of Flint (Mi). Water qualities affect the mineralogy of the scales. Furthermore, follo...

  2. Spatial impact of organic matters from point sources on stream water quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wen-bao; CHEN Dong-mei

    2009-01-01

    To get a better understanding of the spatial impact of organic discharges on stream water quality, a "scenario-testing" approach was proposed to examine how a change in plant treatment efficiency would affect dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration along a stream. An "upper-lower" boundary technique was applied to conduct sensitivity analysis to observe the responses of DO concentration to different DO-related parameters. The results show a non-linear discrepancy of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and DO concentration among different treatment scenarios, which indicates the higher the efficiency of the plant treatment, the shorter the time the stream needs to recover. The sensitivity analysis reveals that the larger the amount of the waste discharge, the more sensitive the BOD to the biological removal parameter. In addition, the DO is more sensitive to the biological removal pa-rameter than to the reaeration parameter.

  3. Environmental Impact Assessment of the Alto Yuna Multipurpose Project Topical Report on Water Quality Life Fish in the Affected Water bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, D.; Almanzar, L.; Bækken, T.

    2003-01-01

    The report gives a description of the baseline status of the water quality, aquatic life, and fish in the water bodies that will be affected by the planned river regulation scheme. It analyses the impacts on these water items both during the construction phase and in the following operation phase. At the end the report gives recommendations for abatement measures to minimise the negative impacts on the aquatic environment from the project, again both in the construction phase and in the follo...

  4. Groundwater Impacts on Urban Surface Water Quality in the Lowland Polder Catchments of the Amsterdam City Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Yu, L.; Van Breukelen, B. M.; Broers, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    Surface water quality in the Amsterdam area is suffering from high nutrient levels. The sources and transport mechanisms of these nutrients are unclear due to the complex hydrology of the highly manipulated urban and sub-urban polder catchments. This study aimed at identifying the impact of groundwater on surface water quality in the polder catchments of the greater Amsterdam city area. Therefore, we exploited the dense groundwater and surface water monitoring networks to explain spatial patterns in surface water chemistry and their relations with landscape characteristics and groundwater impact. We selected and statistically analyzed 23 variables for 144 polders, covering a total area of 700 km2. Our dataset includes concentrations of total-N, total-P, ammonium, nitrate, bicarbonate, sulfate, calcium, and chloride in surface water and groundwater, seepage rate, elevation, paved area percentage, surface water area percentage, and soil type (calcite, humus and clay percentages). Our results show that nutrient levels in groundwater were generally much higher than in surface water and often exceeded the surface water Environmental Quality Standards (EQSs). This indicates that groundwater is a large potential source of nutrients in surface water. High correlations (R2 up to 0.88) between solutes in both water compartments and close similarities in their spatial patterns confirmed the large impact of groundwater on surface water quality. Groundwater appeared to be a major source of chloride, bicarbonate and calcium in surface water and for N and P, leading to exceeding of EQSs in surface waters. In dry periods, the artificial redistribution of excess seepage water from deep polders to supply water to infiltrating polders further distributes the N and P loads delivered by groundwater over the area.

  5. Impact of home industries on water quality in a tributary of the Marimba River, Harare: implications for urban water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvungi, A.; Hranova, R. K.; Love, D.

    Sustainable use of water resources requires the integration of demand management with source quality management. The City of Harare is a case in point, where wastewater and runoff from the city flow into its reservoirs. Little has yet been established on the quality of runoff from home industries in the high-density urban environment. In Harare, most of these are located close to streams draining into the city’s reservoirs. The impact of runoff from different land uses on water quality in a tributary of the Marimba River, Kuwadzana high-density suburb, Harare, was assessed. The water quality from two sub-catchments, one of which contained home industries and residential areas and the other, which contained residential areas only, was compared over the 2001-2002 rainy season. It was found that phosphate (1.08 mg/l), TKN (3.2 mg/l), ammonia (1.14 mg/l), faecal coliforms (1000/100 ml), iron (6.9 mg/l), and lead (0.53 mg/l) were the major water quality pollutants. The SCS-SA model was used to estimate the runoff in different sampling points. Pollution loads for certain parameters were, on average, four times higher in the sub-catchment containing home industries (287 kg total phosphates, 319 kg TKN nitrate, 115 kg ammonia, 744 kg iron and 41 kg lead), than in the sub-catchment containing residential areas only (74kg total phosphates, 50 kg TKN nitrate, 21 kg ammonia, 138 kg iron and 12 kg lead). This is due to the higher runoff volumes from the area containing the home industries, while the pollution concentrations at both representative points where not statistically different. Accordingly, it is recommended that the City authorities should reassess current practice and make provision for sewer and drainage systems and adequate disposal of solid and hazardous wastes in areas zoned for home industries and to improve the solid waste management in high-density areas. Efforts should be made to control the storage of materials and scrap in these areas. Most importantly

  6. Understanding the Impact of Intensive Horticulture Land-Use Practices on Surface Water Quality in Central Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith K. Muriithi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid expansion of commercial horticulture production and related activities contribute to declining surface water quality. The study sought to understand the impacts on select rivers in Laikipia and Meru, production hotspots. The specific aims were (1 to identify prevailing surface water quality by examining variations of 14 physico-chemical parameters, and (2 to categorize measured surface water quality parameters into land use types highlighting potential pollutant source processes. Water samples were collected in July and August 2013 along 14 rivers in the study area. The data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA and discriminant analysis (DA. Principal components (PCs explained 70% of the observed total variability of water quality, indicating a prevalence of heavy metal traces (cadmium, phosphate, and zinc. These were linked to the rigorous use of phosphate fertilizers and copper-based agrochemicals in intensive farming. DA provided four significant (p < 0.05 discriminant functions, with 89.5% correct assignment enabling the association of land use with observed water quality. Concentrations of dissolved solids, electro-conductivity, and salinity spiked at locations with intensive small-scale and large-scale horticulture. Understanding the impacts of intensive commercial horticulture and land use practices on water quality is critical to formulating ecologically sound watershed management and pollution abatement plans.

  7. The impacts of NOM from on the water quality of the streams and lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hee; Lee, Soohyung; Lee, Junbae; Khan, Jong beom; Lee, Seyong; Lee, Yunkyung; Hur, Jin; Lee, Hanseam; Shin, Hyunsang

    2016-04-01

    The COD levels of the Lake Daechung, one of a major source of drinking water, have been increased since 1994 whereas the BOD levels have been decreased. Those increases raise the concerns about the effectiveness of water treatment system or the unmanageable contaminant sources such as ROMs (Refractory Organic Matters). Nine basic water quality factors such as COD, TOC, DOC, T-N, T-P, etc. (every week) and NOM (Natural Organic Matters, every month) in the up and down streams of Juwon and Pumgok and related junction with the Lake Daechung were monitored from June to Nov., 2015 in order to investigate the impacts on the water quality of the Lake Daechung. Resulting from the monitoring, the increases in the COD, TOC and DOC suggested that the heavy rainfall (>50 mm/day) could lead to the influx of ROM to the streams. Furthermore, increases in the EE intensities of EEM in July, Aug., and Sep., suggested that the rainfall would deliver the terrestrial ROM to the streams. However, it is difficult to recognize the similar changes in the lake Daechung due to the larger water capacity. The water samples collected from streams during the rainy period were fractionated using XAD columns and pH adjustment. The DOC composition(%) of humic and fulvic fraction in upstream of which basin was composed by forestry were higher than those in downstream affected by various land uses implying that more organic materials in upstream would be originated from the forestry than those in downstream. and hydrophilic The increases in the DOC of the related fractions, SUVA and EEM of the samples collected during the rainy season implied that heavy rainfall would lead for the terrestrial NOM to enter the streams whereas the concentration of the biopolymer were increased in the streams during the dry season. In summary, this study suggested that the ROM originated from forestry could be entered in the streams and some of anthropogenic chemicals such as biocide and nitrophenols accumulated in the

  8. Impacts of Future Land-Use Change on Nitrogen Leaching and Global Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiyappan, P.; Barman, R.; Jain, A. K.; McIsaac, G.; Lawrence, P.

    2011-12-01

    experiments to examine the influence of cropland expansion and N-deposition on NO3-NH4-leaching, and its impact on water quality at a global scale. These experiments will be conducted based on the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) protocols, to be used in the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). We will also evaluate the modeled estimates of N-leaching based on site specific observations from multiple sites. This study will provide insights on future water resources and water quality at a global scale.

  9. Impact of water quality and irrigation management on organic greenhouse horticulture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorais, M.; Alsanius, B.W.; Voogt, W.; Pepin, S.; Tuzel, Hakki; Tuzel, Yuksel; Möller, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Water quality and water supply are essential for organic greenhouse grown crops to prevent soil contamination by undesirable chemicals and microorganisms, while providing the correct amount of water required for plant growth. The absence of natural precipitation combined with higher evapotranspirati

  10. Spatio-Temporal Impacts of Biofuel Production and Climate Variability on Water Quantity and Quality in Upper Mississippi River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Deb

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Impact of climate change on the water resources of the United States exposes the vulnerability of feedstock-specific mandated fuel targets to extreme weather conditions that could become more frequent and intensify in the future. Consequently, a sustainable biofuel policy should consider: (a how climate change would alter both water supply and demand; and (b in turn, how related changes in water availability will impact the production of biofuel crops; and (c the environmental implications of large scale biofuel productions. Understanding the role of biofuels in the water cycle is the key to understanding many of the environmental impacts of biofuels. Therefore, the focus of this study is to model the rarely explored interactions between land use, climate change, water resources and the environment in future biofuel production systems. Results from this study will help explore the impacts of the US biofuel policy and climate change on water and agricultural resources. We used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT to analyze the water quantity and quality consequences of land use and land management related changes in cropping conditions (e.g., more use of marginal lands, greater residue harvest, increased yields, plus management practices due to biofuel crops to meet the Renewable Fuel Standard target on water quality and quantity.

  11. Water Quality Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Our water quality sampling program is to determine the quality of Moosehorn's lakes and a limited number of streams. Water quality is a measure of the body of water,...

  12. Assessment of typical natural processes and human activities' impact on the quality of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurilić, Sanja Mrazovac; Ulniković, Vladanka Presburger; Marić, Nenad; Vasiljević, Milenko

    2015-11-01

    This paper provides insight into the quality of groundwater used for public water supply on the territory of Temerin municipality (Vojvodina, Serbia). The following parameters were measured: color, turbidity, pH, KMnO4 consumption, total dissolved solids (TDS), EC, NH4+, Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, Fe, Mn, As, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO4(2-), HCO3-, K+, and Na+. The correlations and ratios among parameters that define the chemical composition were determined aiming to identify main processes that control the formation of the chemical composition of the analyzed waters. Groundwater from three analyzed sources is Na-HCO3 type. Elevated organic matter content, ammonium ion content, and arsene content are characteristic for these waters. The importance of organic matter decay is assumed by positive correlation between organic matter content and TDS, and HCO3- content. There is no evidence that groundwater chemistry is determined by the depth of captured aquifer interval. The main natural processes that control the chemistry of all analyzed water are cation exchange and feldspar weathering. The dominant cause of As concentration in groundwater is the use of mineral fertilizers and of KMnO4 in urban area. The concentration of As and KMnO4 in the observed sources is inversely proportional to the distance from agricultural land and urban area. 2D model of distribution of As and KMnO4 is done, and it is applicable in detecting sources of pollution. By using this model, we can quantify the impact of certain pollutants on unfavorable content of some parameters in groundwater.

  13. Designing bioenergy crop buffers to mitigate nitrous oxide emissions and water quality impacts from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.; Negri, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    There is a strong societal need to evaluate and understand the environmental aspects of bioenergy production, especially due to the significant increases in production mandated by many countries, including the United States. Bioenergy is a land-based renewable resource and increases in production are likely to result in large-scale conversion of land from current uses to bioenergy crop production; potentially causing increases in the prices of food, land and agricultural commodities as well as disruption of ecosystems. Current research on the environmental sustainability of bioenergy has largely focused on the potential of bioenergy crops to sequester carbon and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and possible impacts on water quality and quantity. A key assumption in these studies is that bioenergy crops will be grown in a manner similar to current agricultural crops such as corn and hence would affect the environment similarly. This study presents a systems approach where the agricultural, energy and environmental sectors are considered as components of a single system, and bioenergy crops are used to design multi-functional agricultural landscapes that meet society’s requirements for food, energy and environmental protection. We evaluate the production of bioenergy crop buffers on marginal land and using degraded water and discuss the potential for growing cellulosic bioenergy crops such as miscanthus and switchgrass in optimized systems such that (1) marginal land is brought into productive use; (2) impaired water is used to boost yields (3); clean freshwater is left for other uses that require higher water quality; and (4) feedstock diversification is achieved that helps ecological sustainability, biodiversity, and economic opportunities for farmers. The process-based biogeochemical model DNDC was used to simulate crop yield, nitrous oxide production and nitrate concentrations in groundwater when bioenergy crops were grown in buffer strips adjacent to

  14. Impacts of rainfall events on runoff water quality in an agricultural environment in temperate areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpla, Ianis; Baurès, Estelle; Jung, Aude-Valérie; Thomas, Olivier

    2011-04-01

    Since a rise in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations has been observed for surface waters at least over the last two decades, a change in weather conditions (temperature and precipitations) has been proposed to partly explain this increase. While the majority of DOC delivery from soils to stream occurs during rainfall events, a better understanding of the rainfall influence on DOC release is needed. This study has been conducted in Brittany, western France, on agricultural experimental plots receiving either cattle manure (CM) or pig slurry (PS) as fertilizers in accordance with local practices. Each plot was instrumented with a flow meter and an auto sampler for runoff measurements. The results show that export of DOC during high intensity events is higher than during lower intensity rainfalls. Fertilization has a noticeable impact on total organic carbon (TOC) fluxes with an increase of five to seven folds for PS and CM respectively. If TOC shock load occurs shortly after the rainfall peak, DOC maximum appears with the first flush of the event. Organic carbon (OC) is mainly under colloidal (41.2%) and soluble (23.9%) forms during the first stage of a rainfall event and a control of rainfall intensity on OC colloidal transport is suggested. These findings highlight the potential risk of receiving water quality degradation due to the increase of heavier rainfall events with climate change in temperate areas.

  15. Hydrologic and water-quality impacts of agricultural land use changes incurred from bioenergy policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhulu; Anar, Mohammad J.; Zheng, Haochi

    2015-06-01

    The US Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 has contributed to widespread changes in agricultural land uses. The impact of these land use changes on regional water resources could also be significant. Agricultural land use changes were evaluated for the Red River of the North Basin, an international river basin shared by the US and Canada. The influence of the land use change on spring snowmelt flooding and downstream water quality was also assessed using watershed modeling. The planting areas for corn and soybean in the basin increased by 62% and 18%, while those for spring wheat, forest, and pasture decreased by 30%, 18%, and 50%, from 2006 to 2013. Although the magnitude of spring snowmelt peak flows in the Red River did not change from pre-EISA to post-EISA, our uncertainty analysis of the normalized hydrographs revealed that the downstream streamflows had a greater variability under the post-EISA land use scenario, which may lead to greater uncertainty in predicting spring snowmelt floods in the Red River. Hydrological simulation also showed that the sediment and nutrient loads at the basin's outlet in the US and Canada border increased under the post-EISA land use scenario, on average sediment increasing by 2.6%, TP by 14.1%, nitrate nitrogen by 5.9%, and TN by 9.1%.

  16. Assessing local water quality in Saudi Arabia and its impact on food safety

    KAUST Repository

    Alsalah, Dhafer

    2014-12-01

    Saudi Arabia produces a majority of its fruits and vegetables locally in small-scale production farms. These farms utilize groundwater as the main source of irrigation water. The water-regulating authorities in Saudi Arabia rely on traditional culturing methods to monitor coliforms as indicators of microbial contamination. These methods are time-consuming, do not address the sources of contamination, and do not permit assessment on the associated health risk. To address these knowledge gaps, the study investigates the sources of contamination in eight wells northeast of Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The study focuses on the potential impact on groundwater quality due to a nearby chicken farm and urban runoffs from human residential areas. Besides performing conventional methods to determine nutrient content and to enumerate coliforms, quantitative PCR using four host-associated primer sets were used to distinguish microbial contamination from humans and livestock. High-throughput sequencing was also performed to determine the relative abundance of several genera associated with opportunistic pathogens. Bacterial isolates were cultivated from the vegetable samples harvested from these farms, and were characterized for their phylogenetic identities. Lastly, the study collates the information to perform quantitative microbial risk assessment due to ingesting antibiotic-resistant Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis in these vegetable samples.

  17. Reactive transport modeling of secondary water quality impacts due to anaerobic bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, G. H. C.; Bekins, B. A.; Kent, D. B.; Borden, R. C.; Tillotson, J.

    2014-12-01

    Bioremediation using electron donor addition produces reducing conditions in an aquifer that promote the anaerobic biodegradation of contaminants such as chlorinated solvents. There is growing concern about secondary water quality impacts (SWQIs) triggered by the injection of electron donors, due to redox reactions with electron acceptors other than the target contaminant. Secondary plumes, including those with elevated concentrations of Mn(II), Fe(II), and CH4, may create long-lasting impairment of water quality. Understanding conditions that control the production and attenuation of SWQIs is needed for guiding responsible bioremediation strategies that limit unintended consequences. Using a reactive transport model developed with data from long-term anaerobic biodegradation monitoring sites, we simulate diverse geochemical scenarios to examine the sensitivity of secondary plume extent and persistence to a range of aquifer properties and treatment implementations. Data compiled from anaerobic bioremediation sites, which include variable physical and geochemical relationships, provide the basis for the conditions evaluated. Our simulations show that reduced metal and CH4 plumes may be significantly attenuated due to immobilization (through sorption and/or precipitation) and outgassing, respectively, and that recovery time to background conditions depends strongly on the chemical forms of reduced metals on sediments. Unsurprisingly, scenarios that do not easily allow outgassing (e.g. deeper injections) led to higher CH4 concentrations, and scenarios with higher hydraulic conductivity produced more dilute concentrations of secondary species. Results are sensitive to the assumed capacity for Fe(II) sorption and reductive dissolution rates of Fe(III) oxides, which control Fe(II) concentrations. Simulations also demonstrated the potential importance of chemical reactions between different secondary components. For example, limited CH4 loss from outgassing and Fe

  18. Land use impacts on lake water quality in Alytus region (Lithuania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Laukonis, Rymvidas

    2016-04-01

    Land use has important impacts on soils, surface and ground water quality. Urban agricultural areas are an important source of pollutants, which can reach lakes through surface runoff and underground circulation. Human intervention in the landscape is one of the major causes pollution and land degradation, thus it is very important to understand the impacts of and use on environment and if they have some spatial pattern (Pereira et al., 2013, 2015; Brevik et al., 2016). The identification of the spatial pattern of lakes pollution is in Alytus area (Lithuania) is fundamental, since they provide an important range of ecosystem services to local communities, including food and recreational activities. Thus, the degradation of these environments can induce important economic losses. In this context, it is import to identify the areas with high pollutant accumulation and the environmental and human factors responsible for it. The objective of this work is to study identify the amount of some important nutrients resultant from human activities in lake water quality in Alytus region (Lithuania). Alytus region is located in southern part of Lithuania and has an approximate area of 40 km2. Inside this region we analyzed several water quality parameters of 55 lakes, including, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), suspended materials (SM), water clarity (WC) biochemical oxygen demand (BDO), total phosphorous (TP), total Nitrogen (TN), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), as other environmental variables as altitude, lake maximum deep (MD), lake area and land use according Corine land cover classification (CLC2006). Previous to data analysis, data normality and homogeneity of the variances, was assessed with the Shapiro-wilk and Leven's test, respectively. The majority of the data did not respect the Gaussian distribution and the heteroscedasticity, even after a logarithmic, and box-cox transformation. Thus, in this work we used the logarithmic transformed data to do a principal

  19. Water quality degradation effects on freshwater availability: Impacts to human activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, N.E.; Meybeck, Michel

    2000-01-01

    The quality of freshwater at any point on the landscape reflects the combined effects of many processes along water pathways. Human activities on all spatial scales affect both water quality and quantity. Alteration of the landscape and associated vegetation has not only changed the water balance, but typically has altered processes that control water quality. Effects of human activities on a small scale are relevant to an entire drainage basin. Furthermore, local, regional, and global differences in climate and water flow are considerable, causing varying effects of human activities on land and water quality and quantity, depending on location within a watershed, geology, biology, physiographic characteristics, and climate. These natural characteristics also greatly control human activities, which will, in turn, modify (or affect) the natural composition of water. One of the most important issues for effective resource management is recognition of cyclical and cascading effects of human activities on the water quality and quantity along hydrologic pathways. The degradation of water quality in one part of a watershed can have negative effects on users downstream. Everyone lives downstream of the effects of some human activity. An extremely important factor is that substances added to the atmosphere, land, and water generally have relatively long time scales for removal or clean up. The nature of the substance, including its affinity for adhering to soil and its ability to be transformed, affects the mobility and the time scale for removal of the substance. Policy alone will not solve many of the degradation issues, but a combination of policy, education, scientific knowledge, planning, and enforcement of applicable laws can provide mechanisms for slowing the rate of degradation and provide human and environmental protection. Such an integrated approach is needed to effectively manage land and water resources.

  20. Assessment of impacts of agricultural and climate change scenarios on watershed water quantity and quality, and crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshager, Awoke D.; Gassman, Philip W.; Schoof, Justin T.; Secchi, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    Modeling impacts of agricultural scenarios and climate change on surface water quantity and quality provides useful information for planning effective water, environmental and land use policies. Despite the significant impacts of agriculture on water quantity and quality, limited literature exists that describes the combined impacts of agricultural land use change and climate change on future bioenergy crop yields and watershed hydrology. In this study, the soil and water assessment tool (SWAT) eco-hydrological model was used to model the combined impacts of five agricultural land use change scenarios and three downscaled climate pathways (representative concentration pathways, RCPs) that were created from an ensemble of eight atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs). These scenarios were implemented in a well-calibrated SWAT model for the intensively farmed and tiled Raccoon River watershed (RRW) located in western Iowa. The scenarios were executed for the historical baseline, early century, mid-century and late century periods. The results indicate that historical and more corn intensive agricultural scenarios with higher CO2 emissions consistently result in more water in the streams and greater water quality problems, especially late in the 21st century. Planting more switchgrass, on the other hand, results in less water in the streams and water quality improvements relative to the baseline. For all given agricultural landscapes simulated, all flow, sediment and nutrient outputs increase from early-to-late century periods for the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 climate scenarios. We also find that corn and switchgrass yields are negatively impacted under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios in the mid- and late 21st century.

  1. Microbial impact of small tributaries on water and shellfish quality in shallow coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, P; Le Saux, J C; Dumas, F; Caprais, M P; Le Guyader, S F; Pommepuy, M

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of small tributaries on seawater and shellfish quality in coastal area subjected to brief episodes leading to fecal contamination. Escherichia coli and F-RNA-specific bacteriophages were selected as fecal indicators and astroviruses were chosen as being representative of pathogens in the human population during winter viral epidemics. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model was built to simulate the current and dispersion in the model domain, which includes areas uncovered at low tide. The model also includes decay rates to simulate microorganism behavior and assess the influence of fecal input on shellfish quality. The originality lies in the fact that specific features of the study area were considered. Modeling results indicate limited particle movements and long flushing times at the back of the bay, where shellfish are farmed. Computational results showed that under normal conditions, i.e. 94% of the time, when rainfall was less than 10 mm per day, the sector shows acceptable water quality. These results are in agreement with shellfish concentration measured in the field. Under high flow conditions, high concentrations of fecal indicators and astrovirus were measured in the river and tributaries. The corresponding fluxes were over 50 times higher than under normal weather conditions. The location of the shellfish beds near the coast makes them vulnerable and fecal indicators and viruses were detected in shellfish after short rainfall events. Our modeling approach makes a contribution to shellfish management and consumer protection, by indicating the "risk period" as defined by EU regulations. Molecular development such as viral quantification in conjunction with model developments will help to prevent shellfish contamination and thus provide safer products to consumers and an effective tool for shellfish producers.

  2. [Impacts of reclaimed water irrigation of urban lawn on groundwater quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiao-Huan; Chen, Wei-Ping; Wang, Xiao-Ke; Ren, Yu-Fen; Zhang, Ye

    2012-12-01

    Based on long-term monitoring of groundwater and irrigation water quality, the dynamics of the main physicochemical property and pollutant concentration of groundwater influenced by reclaimed water irrigation were examined in this study. The results of our five-year continuous study showed that the ammonium nitrogen concentration in reclaimed water ranged 0.05-65.4 mg x L(-1) with an average of 12.0 mg x L(-1), which exceeded the urban miscellaneous water quality standards for urban greening (GB/T 18920-2002). The total nitrogen in reclaimed water averaged at 28.3 mg x L(-1), ranging from 2.56 mg x L(-1) to 78.0 mg x L(-1), which was also relatively high. The groundwater quality indexes were normal with small fluctuations under tap-water irrigation. The influence of lawn irrigation with reclaimed water on the groundwater water quality was significant in the shallow well with a depth of 6 m, but not obvious in the deep well with a depth of 20 m. The greatest change was found in the enhanced value of nitrate concentration. The nitrate nitrogen concentration in shallow underground water had significantly positive correlation but lagging with the concentration of dissolved nitrogen in the irrigation reclaimed water, which indicated that lawn irrigation with reclaimed water might cause nitrate nitrogen pollution in shallow underground water. Therefore, considering the huge water consumption for the urban greening, it is suggested that the criteria of reclaimed water reuse should be further improved to avoid the risk of environmental pollution.

  3. Explore the impacts of river flow and quality on biodiversity for water resources management by AI techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fi-John; Tsai Tsai, Wen-Ping; Chang, Li-Chiu

    2016-04-01

    Water resources development is very challenging in Taiwan due to her diverse geographic environment and climatic conditions. To pursue sustainable water resources development, rationality and integrity is essential for water resources planning. River water quality and flow regimes are closely related to each other and affect river ecosystems simultaneously. This study aims to explore the complex impacts of water quality and flow regimes on fish community in order to comprehend the situations of the eco-hydrological system in the Danshui River of northern Taiwan. To make an effective and comprehensive strategy for sustainable water resources management, this study first models fish diversity through implementing a hybrid artificial neural network (ANN) based on long-term observational heterogeneity data of water quality, stream flow and fish species in the river. Then we use stream flow to estimate the loss of dissolved oxygen based on back-propagation neural networks (BPNNs). Finally, the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is established for river flow management over the Shihmen Reservoir which is the main reservoir in this study area. In addition to satisfying the water demands of human beings and ecosystems, we also consider water quality for river flow management. The ecosystem requirement takes the form of maximizing fish diversity, which can be estimated by the hybrid ANN. The human requirement is to provide a higher satisfaction degree of water supply while the water quality requirement is to reduce the loss of dissolved oxygen in the river among flow stations. The results demonstrate that the proposed methodology can offer diversified alternative strategies for reservoir operation and improve reservoir operation strategies for producing downstream flows that could better meet both human and ecosystem needs as well as maintain river water quality. Keywords: Artificial intelligence (AI), Artificial neural networks (ANNs), Non

  4. Mitigation scenario analysis: modelling the impacts of changes in agricultural management practices on surface water quality at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sam; He, Yi; Hiscock, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    Increasing human pressures on the natural environment through the demand for increased agricultural productivity have exacerbated and deteriorated water quality conditions within many environments due to an unbalancing of the nutrient cycle. As a consequence, increased agricultural diffuse water pollution has resulted in elevated concentrations of nutrients within surface water and groundwater bodies. This deterioration in water quality has direct consequences for the health of aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity, human health, and the use of water as a resource for public water supply and recreation. To mitigate these potential impacts and to meet commitments under the EU Drinking Water and Water Framework Directives, there is a need to improve our understanding of the impacts that agricultural land use and management practices have on water quality. Water quality models are one of the tools available which can be used to facilitate this aim. These simplified representations of the physical environment allow a variety of changes to be simulated within a catchment, including for example changes in agricultural land use and management practices, allowing for predictions of the impacts of those measures on water quality to be developed and an assessment to be made of their effectiveness in improving conditions. The aim of this research is to apply the water quality model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to the Wensum catchment (area 650 km2), situated in the East of England, to predict the impacts of potential changes in land use and land management practices on water quality as part of a process to select those measures that in combination will have the greatest potential to improve water quality. Model calibration and validation is conducted at three sites within the catchment against observations of river discharge and nitrate and total phosphorus loads at a monthly time-step using the optimisation algorithm SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Version 2

  5. Urban and peri-urban agricultural production in Beijing Municipality and its impact on water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepen, van C.A.; Wijk, van M.S.; Xu Cheng,; Roetter, R.P.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Yanxia Hu,; Changhe Lu,; Keulen, van H.; Wolf, J.

    2003-01-01

    For Beijing Municipality the quantity of available water resources and the quality of the available water have become matters of concern. This is caused by the rapid urbanization and the strong intensification of the agricultural sector. In this literature review for Beijing Municipality the followi

  6. Urban and peri-urban agricultural production in Beijing Municipality and its impact on water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepen, van C.A.; Wijk, van M.S.; Xu Cheng,; Roetter, R.P.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Yanxia Hu,; Changhe Lu,; Keulen, van H.; Wolf, J.

    2003-01-01

    For Beijing Municipality the quantity of available water resources and the quality of the available water have become matters of concern. This is caused by the rapid urbanization and the strong intensification of the agricultural sector. In this literature review for Beijing Municipality the

  7. Impact of environmental factors on maintaining water quality of Bakreswar reservoir, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moitreyee Banerjee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Reservoirs and dams are engineered systems designed to serve purposes like supply of drinking water as well as other commercial and industrial use. A thorough assessment of water quality for these systems is thus necessary. The present study is carried out at Bakreswar reservoir, in Birbhum district, which was created by the dam, built on Bakreswar River. The major purpose of the reservoir is the supply of drinking water to the surrounding villages and Bakreswar Thermal Power Station. Water samples were collected fortnightly from three different stations of the reservoir. Physical and chemical factors like dissolved oxygen, atmospheric temperature, pH, conductivity, salinity, solar radiation, water temperature, alkalinity, hardness, chloride, productivity etc. were analysed using standard procedure. Abundance data is calculated for four major groups of zooplanktons (Cladocera, Copepoda, Ostracoda, and Rotifera with the software PAST 2.1. Multivariate statistical analysis like PCA, hierarchical cluster and CCA are performed in order to predict the temporal variation in the water quality factors using SPSS 20. Distinct seasonal variation was found for environmental factors and zooplankton groups. Bakreswar reservoir has good assemblage of zooplankton and distinct temporal variation of environmental factors and its association with zooplankton predicts water quality condition. These results could help in formulating proper strategies for advanced water quality management and conservation of reservoir ecosystem. Key elements for growth and sustenance of the system can then be evaluated and this knowledge can be further applied for management purposes.

  8. Impacts of biofuel-based land-use change on water quality and sustainability in a Kansas watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth in ethanol production in the United States has sparked interest in potential land-use change and the associated environmental impacts that may occur in order to accommodate the increasing demand for grain feedstocks. In this study water quality and sustainability indicators are used to ev...

  9. Zonal management of multi-purposes groundwater utilization based on water quality and impact on the aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Ching-Fang; Chen, Jui-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater is widely used for drinking, irrigation, and aquaculture in the Pingtung Plain, Southwestern Taiwan. The overexploitation and poor quality of groundwater in some areas of the Pingtung Plain pose great challenges for the safe use and sustainable management of groundwater resources. Thus, establishing an effective management plan for multi-purpose groundwater utilization in the Pingtung Plain is imperative. Considerations of the quality of the groundwater and potential impact on the aquifer of groundwater exploitation are paramount to multi-purpose groundwater utilization management. This study proposes a zonal management plan for the multi-purpose use of groundwater in the Pingtung Plain. The zonal management plan is developed by considering the spatial variability of the groundwater quality and the impact on the aquifer, which is defined as the ratio of the actual groundwater extraction rate to transmissivity. A geostatistical Kriging approach is used to spatially delineate the safe zones based on the water quality standards applied in the three groundwater utilization sectors. Suitable zones for the impact on the aquifer are then spatially determined. The evaluation results showing the safe water quality zones for the three types of utilization demands and suitable zones for the impact on aquifer are integrated to create a zonal management map for multi-purpose groundwater utilization which can help government administrators to establish a water resource management strategy for safe and sustainable use of groundwater to meet multi-purpose groundwater utilization requirements in the Pingtung Plain.

  10. The impact of topographical characteristics and land use change on the quality of Umbaniun micro-watershed water resources, Meghalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllbor Rymbai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A watershed is a geohydrological unit draining at a common point. Such natural unit has evolved through rain water interaction with land mass, typically comprising arable land, non-arable land and natural drainage lines in rain-fed areas. Sustainable production depends on the health, vitality and purity of a particular environment in which land and water are important constituents. A pilot study was thus undertaken to study the geomorphology, land-use systems and their impact on water resource management on the Meghalaya Umbaniun micro-watershed. In this Micro-watershed (3951.18 ha, water body covers an area of 5.69ha (0.14%. The paper highlights the linkage between geomorphology, land use systems and its impact on quality of water resources on the Umbaniun Micro-Watershed, Meghalaya. Topographical and physical-chemical characteristics, such as pH, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and water temperature, were used as environmental degradation indicators

  11. Water availability, water quality water governance: the future ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundisi, J. G.; Matsumura-Tundisi, T.; Ciminelli, V. S.; Barbosa, F. A.

    2015-04-01

    The major challenge for achieving a sustainable future for water resources and water security is the integration of water availability, water quality and water governance. Water is unevenly distributed on Planet Earth and these disparities are cause of several economic, ecological and social differences in the societies of many countries and regions. As a consequence of human misuse, growth of urbanization and soil degradation, water quality is deteriorating continuously. Key components for the maintenance of water quantity and water quality are the vegetation cover of watersheds, reduction of the demand and new water governance that includes integrated management, predictive evaluation of impacts, and ecosystem services. Future research needs are discussed.

  12. Long term impact of PAH contamination in soils on the water quality in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateuille, David; Evrard, Olivier; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Chevreuil, Marc; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    2014-05-01

    the contamination of water bodies, the influence of soil erosion and particle transfer on their physico-chemical properties was investigated. Indeed, a sharp increase of PAH concentration in particles was observed between soils and suspended sediment in the investigated subcatchments. A rise in organic carbon content and a decrease in the mean size of particles were observed between soils and suspended sediment. Those results show that particle sorting occurs during erosion and transportation processes and these changes explain the strong impact of soil contamination on water quality in rivers.

  13. Water quality monitoring of an international wetland at Harike, Punjab and its impact on biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasmit; Walia, Harpreet; Mabwoga, Samson Okongo; Arora, Saroj

    2015-10-01

    The present study entails the investigation of mutagenic and genotoxic effect of surface water samples collected from 13 different sites of the Harike wetland using the histidine reversion point mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (TA98) strain and plasmid nicking assay using pBR322, respectively. The physicochemical characterization of water samples using different parameters was conducted for water quality monitoring. Heavy metal analysis was performed to quantify the toxic components present in water samples. It was observed that although the water samples of all the sites demonstrated mutagenic as well as genotoxic activity, the effect was quite significant with the water samples from sites containing water from river Satluj, i.e., site 1 (upstream Satluj river), site 2 (Satluj river) and site 3 (reservoir Satluj). The high level of pollution due to industrial effluents and agricultural run-off at these sites may engender the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of water samples.

  14. Water quality monitoring of an international wetland at Harike, Punjab and its impact on biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Jasmit; Walia, Harpreet; Mabwoga, Samson Okongo; Arora, Saroj

    2017-06-01

    The present study entails the investigation of mutagenic and genotoxic effect of surface water samples collected from 13 different sites of the Harike wetland using the histidine reversion point mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (TA98) strain and plasmid nicking assay using pBR322, respectively. The physicochemical characterization of water samples using different parameters was conducted for water quality monitoring. Heavy metal analysis was performed to quantify the toxic components present in water samples. It was observed that although the water samples of all the sites demonstrated mutagenic as well as genotoxic activity, the effect was quite significant with the water samples from sites containing water from river Satluj, i.e., site 1 (upstream Satluj river), site 2 (Satluj river) and site 3 (reservoir Satluj). The high level of pollution due to industrial effluents and agricultural run-off at these sites may engender the genotoxicity and mutagenicity of water samples.

  15. The impact of cattle access on ecological water quality in streams: Examples from agricultural catchments within Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, E; Turner, J N; Rymszewicz, A; O'Sullivan, J J; Bruen, M; Lawler, D; Lally, H; Kelly-Quinn, M

    2016-03-15

    Unrestricted cattle access to rivers and streams represent a potentially significant localised pressure on freshwater systems. However there is no consensus in the literature on the occurrence and extent of impact and limited research has examined the effects on aquatic biota in the humid temperate environment examined in the present study. Furthermore, this is one of the first times that research consider the potential for cattle access impacts in streams of varying water quality in Northern Europe. We investigated the effects of cattle access on macroinvertebrate communities and deposited fine sediment levels, in four rivers of high/good and four rivers of moderate water quality status which drain, low gradient, calcareous grassland catchments in Ireland. We assessed the temporal variability in macroinvertebrates communities across two seasons, spring and autumn. Site specific impacts were evident which appeared to be influenced by water quality status and season. All four high/good water status rivers revealed significant downstream changes in community structure and at least two univariate metrics (total richness and EPT richness together with taxon, E and EPT abundance). Two of the four moderate water status rivers showed significant changes in community structure, abundance and richness metrics and functional feeding groups driven in the main by downstream increases in collectors/gatherers, shredders and burrowing taxa. These two moderate water status rivers had high or prolonged livestock activity. In view of these findings, the potential for some of these sites to achieve at least high/good water quality status, as set out in the EU Water Framework Directive, may be compromised. The results presented highlight the need for additional research to further define the site specific factors and livestock management practices, under different discharge conditions, that increase the risk of impact on aquatic ecology due to these cattle-river interactions.

  16. Impact of anthropogenic activities on water quality of Lidder River in Kashmir Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Irfan; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    The pristine waters of Kashmir Himalaya are showing signs of deterioration due to multiple reasons. This study researches the causes of deteriorating water quality in the Lidder River, one of the main tributaries of Jhelum River in Kashmir Himalaya. The land use and land cover of the Lidder catchment were generated using multi-spectral, bi-seasonal IRS LISS III (October 2005 and May 2006) satellite data to identify the extent of agriculture and horticulture lands that are the main non-point sources of pollution at the catchment scale. A total of 12 water quality parameters were analyzed over a period of 1 year. Water sampling was done at eight different sampling sites, each with a varied topography and distinct land use/land cover, along the length of Lidder River. It was observed that water quality deteriorated during the months of June-August that coincides with the peak tourist flow and maximal agricultural/horticultural activity. Total phosphorus, orthophosphate phosphorus, nitrate nitrogen, and ammoniacal nitrogen showed higher concentration in the months of July and August, while the concentration of dissolved oxygen decreased in the same period, resulting in deterioration in water quality. Moreover, tourism influx in the Lidder Valley shows a drastic increase through the years, and particularly, the number of tourists visiting the valley has increased in the summer months from June to September, which is also responsible for deteriorating the water quality of Lidder River. In addition to this, the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides in the agriculture and horticulture lands during the growing season (June-August) is also responsible for the deteriorating water quality of Lidder River.

  17. Impact of Water-Vending Kiosks and Hygiene Education on Household Drinking Water Quality in Rural Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opryszko, Melissa C.; Guo, Yayi; MacDonald, Luke; MacDonald, Laura; Kiihl, Samara; Schwab, Kellogg J.

    2013-01-01

    Innovative solutions are essential to improving global access to potable water for nearly 1 billion people. This study presents an independent investigation of one alternative by examining for-profit water-vending kiosks, WaterHealth Centers (WHCs), in rural Ghana to determine their association with household drinking water quality. WHCs' design includes surface water treatment using filtration and ultraviolet light disinfection along with community-based hygiene education. Analyses of water samples for Escherichia coli and household surveys from 49 households across five villages collected one time per year for 3 years indicate that households using WHCs had improved water quality compared with households using untreated surface water (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 0.07, 95% confidence interval = 0.02, 0.21). However, only 38% of households used WHCs by the third year, and 60% of those households had E. coli in their water. Recontamination during water transport and storage is an obstacle to maintaining WHC-vended water quality. PMID:23382168

  18. Impact of biomass burning on surface water quality in Southeast Asia through atmospheric deposition: field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundarambal, P.; Balasubramanian, R.; Tkalich, P.; He, J.

    2010-03-01

    Atmospheric nutrients have recently gained attention as a significant additional source of new nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading to the ocean. The effect of atmospheric N on marine productivity depends on the biological availability of both inorganic and organic N and P forms. During October 2006, the regional smoke haze episode in Southeast Asia (SEA) that resulted from uncontrolled forest fires in Sumatra and Borneo blanketed large tracts of the region. In this work, we determined the composition of nutrients in aerosols and rainwater during haze and non-haze periods to assess their impacts on aquatic ecosystem in SEA for the first time. We compared atmospheric dry and wet deposition of N and P species in aerosol and rainwater in Singapore between haze and non haze periods. Air mass back trajectories showed that large-scale forest and peat fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan were a significant source of atmospheric nutrients to aquatic environments in Singapore and SEA region on hazy days. It was observed that the average concentrations of nutrients increased approximately by a factor of 3 to 8 on hazy days when compared with non-hazy days. The mean dry atmospheric fluxes (g/m2/year) of TN and TP observed during hazy and non-hazy days were 4.77±0.775 and 0.3±0.082, and 0.91±0.471 and 0.046±0.01, respectively. The mean wet deposition fluxes (g/m2/year) of TN and TP were 12.2±3.53 and 0.726±0.074, and 2.71±0.989 and 0.144±0.06 for hazy and non-hazy days, respectively. The occurrences of higher concentrations of nutrients from atmospheric deposition during smoke haze episodes may have adverse consequences on receiving aquatic ecosystems with cascading impacts on water quality.

  19. Impact of urbanization on water quality and chemical flux in urban streams: implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushey, J. T.; Aragon-jose, A. T.; Perkins, C.; Lancaster, N.; Ulatowski, G.

    2012-12-01

    Contaminant source and biogeochemical processes are altered in urban ecosystems. Given the high impervious cover and altered hydrologic cycle, contaminant mobilization is particularly important during high discharge events. Many urban systems not only receive contaminant loading from stormwater, but also receive sewage contributions from combined sewer overflows (CSOs). Additionally, biogeochemical processes are altered by the changing chemistry and flashier hydrology. Management of contaminant loading often ignores these temporal shifts in speciation as well as the alteration of fate processes within the receiving water body, further compounding the difficult and challenging problem that many municipalities face of assessing ecological impacts. To assess potential changes in loading and chemical speciation we have collected stream water and sediment samples in the Park River sewershed (Hartford, CT) during base flow and events to assess potential for contaminant loading and mobilization. Six events have been collected to date. Trace metal, TSS and DOC concentrations increased with discharge. However, trace metal concentrations and flux values reflected the degree of urbanization and industry present in the watersheds. All samples contained low DOC with the majority of the flux occurring in the particulate phase. Dissolved transport with DOC, particularly for Hg, decreased with urbanization; however, the dominant phase, dissolved versus particulate, varied by storm. The degree of urbanization also increased TN flux as well as the distribution among N chemical species, with urbanized systems increasing in the NOx fraction. The altered watershed processes was also evident in an analysis of dissolved organic matter binding, with stormwater contributions contributing to higher microbial organic matter fractions as determined by EEMs. This shift in DOM quality has been linked to end member source contributions including forest, stormwater and sewage. Particulate

  20. Impacts of Catfish Effluents on Water Quality Parameters of Majidun Stream, South-West, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Omofunmi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a great concern about the level of safety of surface waters, especially in developing countries where there is an exponential increase in water pollution and water-borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of catfish pond effluents on water quality of stream water where five catfish farms were located. Water samples were taken on monthly basis, 20 cm of below water surface from the streams that receive effluents from neighboring fishponds. Water quality indicators like dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, nitrate, nitrite, water temperature, ammonia and Hydrogen ion Concentration (pH were examined in the sampled waters in accordance with the American Public Health Association standards. The average values of water quality indicators examined at effluents and non-effluents discharged sites of the stream indicated that water (24.6 ± 0.2, 24.2 ±0.1, (7.29±0.30, 7.30±0.10, (6.90±0.4, 7.07±0.1 mg/l, (0.40±0.04, 0.27±0.01, (3.77±0.26, 2.34±0.16 mg/l, (3.59±0.11, 2.80±0.02 mg/l and (3.51±0.24, 2.46±0.21 mg/l at (p≥0.05 respectively for temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and BODs. They were significant differences (P 0.05 excepts temperature and pH, between values obtained at effluents discharged and non-effluents discharged sites, indicating that improper discharges of catfish pond effluents could resulted into environmental contamination

  1. Crowdsourcing Water Quality Data

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    Using mobile phone technologies coupled with water quality testing, there is great opportunity to increase the awareness of water quality throughout rural and urban communities in developing countries. Whether the focus is on empowering citizens with information about the quality of water they use in daily life or providing scientific data to water managers to help them deliver safe water to the ...

  2. Impact of marine tourism on the recreational water quality of Muk Island, Trang Province, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwat Tanyaros

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the water consisting of several parameters in the surrounding area of Muk Island were examined. Reference surface water was also concurrently sampled at stations located outside the recreational area stations. Relative modifications (RM in the recreational area stations water quality were assessed as the difference between the magnitude of a specific parameter recorded at the recreational area stations and the concurrently recorded value of the parameter at the reference station, relative to the mean value at the reference station. In this study, the specific parameters of dissolved oxygen (DO concentration, total suspended solids (TSS, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN = NO-2 + NO-23 + NH+3 and orthophosphate(PO-34 were shown to be significantly modified in December and April, but non-significantly modified inSeptember. The total coliform bacteria (TC and fecal coliform (FC in seawater at the recreational area stations were found to be higher than the coastal water quality standard. With a water quality criteria based coastal water quality standard fortourism, a significant but not dangerous level of pollution was observed in this area. TC and FC were the most significant pollutants in the recreational area stations.

  3. The impact of hygiene and localised treatment on the quality of drinking water in Masaka, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwimpuhwe, Monique; Reddy, Poovendhree; Barratt, Graham; Bux, Faizal

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of waterborne diseases has been attributed to the lack of safe water, inadequate sanitation and hygiene. This study evaluated socio-demographic factors, microbiological quality of water at source and point of use (POU) at households, water handling and sanitation practices in a rural Rwandan community. Thirty five water samples from the source, Nyabarongo River, and water at point of use (POU) treated with the Slow Sand Filter (SSF) and Sûr'Eau methods, were analysed for total coliform and faecal coliform counts. Turbidity was measured in household samples. A structured questionnaire regarding water collection, storage, usage and waterborne disease awareness was administered to 324 women. Despite the significant reduction in coliforms and faecal coliforms from the Nyabarongo River following treatment using either SSF or Sûr'Eau, the water at point of use was found to be unsafe for human consumption. The frequency of diarrheal diseases were significantly higher among people who did not wash hands before food preparation (P = 0.002) and after using a toilet (P = 0.007) than among those who did. There was a statistically significant association between education levels and water treatment practices at the households (P < 0.05). Participants had limited knowledge regarding water storage practices for prevention of household water contamination. A combination of treatment methods with appropriate water handling should be considered. In addition, education is a fundamental precursor to advocating water treatment at POU.

  4. Small drains, big problems: the impact of dry weather runoff on shoreline water quality at enclosed beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippy, Megan A; Stein, Robert; Sanders, Brett F; Davis, Kristen; McLaughlin, Karen; Skinner, John F; Kappeler, John; Grant, Stanley B

    2014-12-16

    Enclosed beaches along urban coastlines are frequent hot spots of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) pollution. In this paper we present field measurements and modeling studies aimed at evaluating the impact of small storm drains on FIB pollution at enclosed beaches in Newport Bay, the second largest tidal embayment in Southern California. Our results suggest that small drains have a disproportionate impact on enclosed beach water quality for five reasons: (1) dry weather surface flows (primarily from overirrigation of lawns and ornamental plants) harbor FIB at concentrations exceeding recreational water quality criteria; (2) small drains can trap dry weather runoff during high tide, and then release it in a bolus during the falling tide when drainpipe outlets are exposed; (3) nearshore turbulence is low (turbulent diffusivities approximately 10(-3) m(2) s(-1)), limiting dilution of FIB and other runoff-associated pollutants once they enter the bay; (4) once in the bay, runoff can form buoyant plumes that further limit vertical mixing and dilution; and (5) local winds can force buoyant runoff plumes back against the shoreline, where water depth is minimal and human contact likely. Outdoor water conservation and urban retrofits that minimize the volume of dry and wet weather runoff entering the local storm drain system may be the best option for improving beach water quality in Newport Bay and other urban-impacted enclosed beaches.

  5. Evaluating the effect of river restoration techniques on reducing the impacts of outfall on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mant, Jenny; Janes, Victoria; Terrell, Robert; Allen, Deonie; Arthur, Scott; Yeakley, Alan; Morse, Jennifer; Holman, Ian

    2015-04-01

    Outfalls represent points of discharge to a river and often contain pollutants from urban runoff, such as heavy metals. Additionally, erosion around the outfall site results in increased sediment generation and the release of associated pollutants. Water quality impacts from heavy metals pose risks to the river ecosystem (e.g. toxicity to aquatic habitats). Restoration techniques including establishment of swales, and the re-vegetation and reinforcement of channel banks aim to decrease outfall flow velocities resulting in deposition of pollutants and removal through plant uptake. Within this study the benefits of river restoration techniques for the removal of contaminants associated with outfalls have been quantified within Johnson Creek, Portland, USA as part of the EPSRC funded Blue-Green Cities project. The project aims to develop new strategies for protecting hydrological and ecological values of urban landscapes. A range of outfalls have been selected which span restored and un-restored channel reaches, a variety of upstream land-uses, and both direct and set-back outfalls. River Habitat Surveys were conducted at each of the sites to assess the level of channel modification within the reach. Sediment samples were taken at the outfall location, upstream, and downstream of outfalls for analysis of metals including Nickel, Lead, Zinc, Copper, Iron and Magnesium. These were used to assess the impact of the level of modification at individual sites, and to compare the influence of direct and set-back outfalls. Concentrations of all metals in the sediments found at outfalls generally increased with the level of modification at the site. Sediment in restored sites had lower metal concentrations both at the outfall and downstream compared to unrestored sites, indicating the benefit of these techniques to facilitate the effective removal of pollutants by trapping of sediment and uptake of contaminants by vegetation. However, the impact of restoration measures varied

  6. Climate Change Impacts and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Effects on US Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change will have potentially significant effects on freshwater quality due to increases in river and lake temperatures, changes in the magnitude and seasonality of river runoff, and more frequent and severe extreme events. These physical impacts will in turn have economic...

  7. Impact of marble industry effluents on water and sediment quality of Barandu River in Buner District, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulk, Shahi; Azizullah, Azizullah; Korai, Abdul Latif; Khattak, Muhammad Nasir Khan

    2015-02-01

    Industries play an important role in improving the living standard but at the same time cause several environmental problems. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the impact of industries on the quality of environment. In the present study, the impact of marble industry effluents on water and sediment quality of Barandu River in Buner District, Pakistan was evaluated. Water and sediment samples were collected at three different sampling sites (upstream, industrial, and downstream sites) from Barandu River and their physicochemical properties were inter-compared. In addition, different marble stones and mix water (wastewater) from marble industry were analyzed. The measured physicochemical parameters of river water including pH, electrical conductivity (EC), alkalinity, total hardness, Ca and Mg hardness, total dissolved solid (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), sulfates (SO4 (2-)), sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), nitrites (NO2 (-)), nitrate (NO3 (-)), chloride (Cl(-)), calcium (Ca(2+)), and magnesium (Mg(2+)) were found to be significantly altered by effluent discharges of marble industries. Similarly, heavy metal concentrations in both water and sediments of the river were significantly increased by marble industry wastewater. It is concluded that large quantities of different pollutants are added to Barandu River due to direct disposal of marble industry effluents which degrades its quality. Therefore, it is recommended that direct disposal of marble industry wastewater should be banned and all effluents must be properly treated before discharging in the river water.

  8. Variability in the chemistry of private drinking water supplies and the impact of domestic treatment systems on water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ander, E L; Watts, M J; Smedley, P L; Hamilton, E M; Close, R; Crabbe, H; Fletcher, T; Rimell, A; Studden, M; Leonardi, G

    2016-12-01

    Tap water from 497 properties using private water supplies, in an area of metalliferous and arsenic mineralisation (Cornwall, UK), was measured to assess the extent of compliance with chemical drinking water quality standards, and how this is influenced by householder water treatment decisions. The proportion of analyses exceeding water quality standards were high, with 65 % of tap water samples exceeding one or more chemical standards. The highest exceedances for health-based standards were nitrate (11 %) and arsenic (5 %). Arsenic had a maximum observed concentration of 440 µg/L. Exceedances were also high for pH (47 %), manganese (12 %) and aluminium (7 %), for which standards are set primarily on aesthetic grounds. However, the highest observed concentrations of manganese and aluminium also exceeded relevant health-based guidelines. Significant reductions in concentrations of aluminium, cadmium, copper, lead and/or nickel were found in tap waters where households were successfully treating low-pH groundwaters, and similar adventitious results were found for arsenic and nickel where treatment was installed for iron and/or manganese removal, and successful treatment specifically to decrease tap water arsenic concentrations was observed at two properties where it was installed. However, 31 % of samples where pH treatment was reported had pH drinking water regulations), suggesting widespread problems with system maintenance. Other examples of ineffectual treatment are seen in failed responses post-treatment, including for nitrate. This demonstrates that even where the tap waters are considered to be treated, they may still fail one or more drinking water quality standards. We find that the degree of drinking water standard exceedances warrant further work to understand environmental controls and the location of high concentrations. We also found that residents were more willing to accept drinking water with high metal (iron and manganese) concentrations

  9. How is the River Water Quality Response to Climate Change Impacts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. T.; Willems, P.

    2015-12-01

    Water quality and its response to climate change have been become one of the most important issues of our society, which catches the attention of many scientists, environmental activists and policy makers. Climate change influences the river water quality directly and indirectly via rainfall and air temperature. For example, low flow decreases the volume of water for dilution and increases the residence time of the pollutants. By contrast, high flow leads to increases in the amount of pollutants and sediment loads from catchments to rivers. The changes in hydraulic characteristics, i.e. water depth and velocity, affect the transportation and biochemical transformation of pollutants in the river water body. The high air temperature leads to increasing water temperature, shorter growing periods of different crops and water demands from domestic households and industries, which eventually effects the level of river pollution. This study demonstrates the quantification of the variation of the water temperature and pollutant concentrations along the Molse Neet river in the North East of Belgium as a result of the changes in the catchment rainfall-runoff, air temperature and nutrient loads. Firstly, four climate change scenarios were generated based on a large ensemble of available global and regional climate models and statistical downscaling based on a quantile perturbation method. Secondly, the climatic changes to rainfall and temperature were transformed to changes in the evapotranspiration and runoff flow through the conceptual hydrological model PDM. Thirdly, the adjustment in nutrient loads from agriculture due to rainfall and growing periods of crops were calculated by means of the semi-empirical SENTWA model. Water temperature was estimated from air temperature by a stochastic model separating the temperature into long-term annual and short-term residual components. Next, hydrodynamic and water quality models of the river, implemented in InfoWorks RS, were

  10. Stream Hydrology and Water Quality Impacts of Contrasting Urban Stormwater Mitigation Strategies: Centralized Versus Distributed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban land cover is commonly associated with degraded stream habitat including flashier hydrology, increased pollutant export, and lower ecological health , collectively termed “urban stream syndrome.” Pollutant export from urban areas can also contribute to water quality issues...

  11. Overview of biofilm formation in distribution systems and its impact on the deterioration of water quality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Momba, MNB

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available and significance of biofilms on the microbial quality of drinking water. The review addresses the main factors governing the formation of biofilms such as the types of disinfectants and residual concentrations, resistance of bacteria to disinfectants, the influence...

  12. Quantifying impacts of coupled chemical and physical heterogeneity on water quality evolution during Aquifer Storage and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, H.; Descourvieres, C.; Seibert, S.; Harris, B.; Atteia, O.; Siade, A. J.; Prommer, H.

    2014-12-01

    Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is an important water management option in water-scarce regions. During wet periods surplus water is injected into suitable aquifers for storage and later recovery. ASR sites are, however, also ideal natural laboratories that provide opportunities for studying coupled physical and geochemical processes and water quality evolution at field-scale under well-controlled hydrological conditions. In this study, we use reactive transport modelling to assess the impacts of physical and chemical heterogeneities on the water quality evolution during the injection of oxic surface water into the anoxic, pyrite-bearing Leederville aquifer in Perth, Western Australia. Physical heterogeneity was identified from geophysical well logs and time lapse temperature logs. Those data were used to define the spatial, depth-varying alternation of three lithofacies (sandstone, siltstone and clay). Chemical heterogeneity was incorporated through distinct chemical zones, based on data derived from a comprehensive pre-trial geochemical characterization and from dedicated laboratory respirometer experiments. Calibration of flow and conservative transport parameters was constrained by the spatially varying measured chloride breakthrough behavior. Subsequent reactive transport modeling discerned the key geochemical processes that affected the water quality evolution during ASR. Clearly identified processes included oxidation of pyrite, mineralization of sedimentary organic carbon, ion exchange, dissolution of calcite and precipitation of ferrihydrite and siderite. We use the calibrated model to analyze the individual and the combined effects of the physical and chemical heterogeneities on the chemical composition of the recovered water during ASR.

  13. GOLD MINING IN IGUN IJESHA, SOUTHWEST NIGERIA: IMPACTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR WATER QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Ayantobo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in Igun-Ijesha, Osun State, Nigeria to determine the likely hotspots of water contamination for future treatment trials. Water quality analyses were based on physico-chemical and heavy metal parameters of surface and ground water collected from the study community. A total of thirty-eight water samples were collected between September 2012 and February 2013 and analyzed using standard procedures. Concentrations of heavy metals were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Results showed that water samples within the gold mining community are contaminated and the hydrochemistry varied with seasons. The values of magnesium, turbidity, total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity and pH during the period of sampling ranged 3.1-42.1 mg/L, 0-150 NTU, 30-560 mg/L, 80-1192 µS/cm and 5.95-8.55 respectively. Chloride, nitrate, phosphate, sulphate and sodium data were within the stipulated limits set by the Nigerian Standards for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ. Heavy metal contents of the groundwater were generally higher than those from surface water sampled within the mining district. The values of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc, ranged from 0.01-1.20, 0.05-0.52, 0.80-34.80, 0.09-4.30, 0.09-8.30, 0.05-3.94, 0.05-19.6 and 1.80-29.90 mg/L respectively. Most of these metals have values exceeding the international and national recommended limits. The daily intake of water in the study area poses a potential health threat from long-term exposure to heavy-metals. The study suggests that water safety plans should be developed to safeguard water resource and public health within the mining community.

  14. Promoting household water treatment through women's self help groups in Rural India: assessing impact on drinking water quality and equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Matthew C; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent

  15. Promoting household water treatment through women's self help groups in Rural India: assessing impact on drinking water quality and equity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C Freeman

    Full Text Available Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC of drinking water samples (source and household were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk, and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the

  16. Promoting Household Water Treatment through Women's Self Help Groups in Rural India: Assessing Impact on Drinking Water Quality and Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Matthew C.; Trinies, Victoria; Boisson, Sophie; Mak, Gregory; Clasen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Household water treatment, including boiling, chlorination and filtration, has been shown effective in improving drinking water quality and preventing diarrheal disease among vulnerable populations. We used a case-control study design to evaluate the extent to which the commercial promotion of household water filters through microfinance institutions to women's self-help group (SHG) members improved access to safe drinking water. This pilot program achieved a 9.8% adoption rate among women targeted for adoption. Data from surveys and assays of fecal contamination (thermotolerant coliforms, TTC) of drinking water samples (source and household) were analyzed from 281 filter adopters and 247 non-adopters exposed to the program; 251 non-SHG members were also surveyed. While adopters were more likely than non-adopters to have children under 5 years, they were also more educated, less poor, more likely to have access to improved water supplies, and more likely to have previously used a water filter. Adopters had lower levels of fecal contamination of household drinking water than non-adopters, even among those non-adopters who treated their water by boiling or using traditional ceramic filters. Nevertheless, one-third of water samples from adopter households exceeded 100 TTC/100ml (high risk), and more than a quarter of the filters had no stored treated water available when visited by an investigator, raising concerns about correct, consistent use. In addition, the poorest adopters were less likely to see improvements in their water quality. Comparisons of SHG and non-SHG members suggest similar demographic characteristics, indicating SHG members are an appropriate target group for this promotion campaign. However, in order to increase the potential for health gains, future programs will need to increase uptake, particularly among the poorest households who are most susceptible to disease morbidity and mortality, and focus on strategies to improve the correct, consistent

  17. Impact of biomass burning on ocean water quality in Southeast Asia through atmospheric deposition: field observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundarambal, P.; Balasubramanian, R.; Tkalich, P.; He, J.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric nutrients have recently gained considerable attention as a significant additional source of new nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loading to the ocean. The effect of atmospheric macro nutrients on marine productivity depends on the biological availability of both inorganic and organic N and P forms. During October 2006, the regional smoke haze episodes in Southeast Asia (SEA) that resulted from uncontrolled forest and peat fires in Sumatra and Borneo blanketed large parts of the region. In this work, we determined the chemical composition of nutrients in aerosols and rainwater during hazy and non-hazy days to assess their impacts on aquatic ecosystem in SEA for the first time. We compared atmospheric dry and wet deposition of N and P species in aerosol and rainwater in Singapore between hazy and non-hazy days. Air mass back trajectories showed that large-scale forest and peat fires in Sumatra and Kalimantan were a significant source of atmospheric nutrients to aquatic environments in Singapore and SEA region on hazy days. It was observed that the average concentrations of nutrients increased approximately by a factor of 3 to 8 on hazy days when compared with non-hazy days. The estimated mean dry and wet atmospheric fluxes (mg/m2/day) of total nitrogen (TN) were 12.72 ± 2.12 and 2.49 ± 1.29 during non-hazy days and 132.86 ± 38.39 and 29.43 ± 10.75 during hazy days; the uncertainty estimates are represented as 1 standard deviation (1σ) here and throughout the text. The estimated mean dry and wet deposition fluxes (mg/m2/day) of total phosphorous (TP) were 0.82 ± 0.23 and 0.13 ± 0.03 for non-hazy days and 7.89 ± 0.80 and 1.56 ± 0.65 for hazy days. The occurrences of higher concentrations of nutrients from atmospheric deposition during smoke haze episodes may have adverse consequences on receiving aquatic ecosystems with cascading impacts on water quality.

  18. Impacts of population growth and economic development on water quality of a lake: case study of Lake Victoria Kenya water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Dauglas Wafula; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Fengting

    2014-04-01

    Anthropogenic-induced water quality pollution is a major environmental problem in freshwater ecosystems today. As a result of this, eutrophication of lakes occurs. Population and economic development are key drivers of water resource pollution. To evaluate how growth in the riparian population and in the gross domestic product (GDP) with unplanned development affects the water quality of the lake, this paper evaluates Lake Victoria Kenyan waters basin. Waters quality data between 1990 and 2012 were analyzed along with reviews of published literature, papers, and reports. The nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), soluble phosphorus (PO4-P), chlorophyll a, and Secchi transparencies were evaluated as they are key water quality indicators. The NO3-N increased from 10 μg l(-1) in 1990 to 98 μg 1(-1) in 2008, while PO4-P increased from 4 μg l(-1) in 1990 to 57 μg l(-1) in 2008. The population and economic growth of Kenya are increasing with both having minimums in 1990 of 24.143 million people and 12.18 billion US dollars, to maximums in 2010 of 39.742 million people and 32.163 billion US dollars, respectively. A Secchi transparency is reducing with time, indicating an increasing pollution. This was confirmed by an increase in aquatic vegetation using an analysis of moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images of 2000 and 2012 of Kenyan waters. This study found that increasing population and GDP increases pollution discharge thus polluting lakes. One of major factors causing lake water pollution is the unplanned or poor waste management policy and service.

  19. Assessment of water quality and genotoxic impact by toxic metals in Geophagus brasiliensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Cássio Resende; Carvalho, Stephan Malfitano; Araujo, Galber Rodrigues; Souto, Henrique Nazareth; Bonetti, Ana Maria; Morelli, Sandra; Campos Júnior, Edimar Olegário

    2016-06-01

    This study used the pearl cichlid Geophagus brasiliensis as a bioindicator to survey the health of the aquatic environment on four sites (P1, P2, P3 and P4) of the Mumbuca stream located at Monte Carmelo/MG, Brazil. The selection of different sites was made with reference to the gradient of urban activity and via physicochemical and biological evaluation of water quality and genotoxicity. The water quality index was classified as 'good' for P1 and P4, regular in P2 and 'poor' for P3. The micronuclei (MN) frequency obtained from blood analysis was in agreement with the water quality, such that the higher values of MN were detected in sites evaluated as poor. Water degradation conditions worsen according to the flow of the stream over the sites P1, P2 and P3, but for site P4, located after the Monte Carmelo Sewage Treatment Plant, improvements in the micronuclei frequency are detected. Our results showed high levels of potentially toxic metals (chromium, lead, aluminum and nickel) in specific stream sites (P2 and P3). We suggest that the micronuclei induction in G. brasiliensis could be due to the presence of these compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Water Quality Standards Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Standards Handbook is a compilation of the EPA's water quality standards (WQS) program guidance including recommendations for states, authorized tribes, and territories in reviewing, revising, and implementing WQS.

  1. Water Quality Monitoring Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Water Quality Monitoring Site identifies locations across the state of Vermont where water quality data has been collected, including habitat, chemistry, fish and/or...

  2. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural...

  3. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and man-made pollution for variious pollution management decisions.

  4. The impact of irrigation on the quality of drainage water in a new irrigation district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Villar Mir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The water quality of two agricultural drainage systems was monitored over two irrigation seasons in order to determine the sustainability of a new area of irrigated land (the Algerri-Balager irrigation district located in the northeast of Spain. The average electrical conductivity of the drainage water was around 4 dS·m-1, and the waters were enriched with boron, phosphorous and nitrate. Drainage represented 17% of total applied irrigation water (measured leached fraction and is considered necessary to minimize the risk of soil salinization in semiarid environments. The most common ions in the drainage waters were magnesium, sulphate, and calcium and others related with dissolved soil minerals present in the area. The presence of Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and pesticides was negligible. The information provided by this research was very useful for the irrigation district, and it’s transferable to other irrigation districts, as it could help to improve agricultural practices and be used to control the quality and quantity of irrigation drainage.

  5. Yield and Water Quality Impacts of Field-Scale Integration of Willow into a Continuous Corn Rotation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumpf, Colleen; Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, Maria Cristina; Campbell, Patty; Cacho, Julian

    2017-07-01

    Agricultural landscape design has gained recognition by the international environmental and development community as a strategy to address multiple goals in land, water, and ecosystem service management; however, field research is needed to quantify impacts on specific local environments. The production of bioenergy crops in specific landscape positions within a grain-crop field can serve the dual purpose of producing cellulosic biomass (nutrient recovery) while also providing regulating ecosystem services to improve water quality (nutrient reduction). The effectiveness of such a landscape design was evaluated by the strategic placement of a 0.8-ha short-rotation shrub willow ( Seemen) bioenergy buffer along marginal soils in a 6.5-ha corn ( L.) field in a 6-yr field study in central Illinois. The impact of willow integration on water quality (soil water, shallow groundwater leaching, and crop nutrient uptake) and quantity (soil moisture and transpiration) was monitored in comparison with corn in the willow's first cycle of growth. Willows significantly reduced nitrate leachate in shallow subsurface water by 88% while maintaining adequate nutrient and water usage. Results suggest that willows offer an efficient nutrient-reduction strategy and may provide additional ecosystem services and benefits, including enhanced soil health. However, low values for calculated willow biomass will need to be readdressed in the future as harvest data become available to understand contributing factors that affected productivity beyond nutrient availability. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Estimating the impact of air temperature and relative humidity change on the water quality of Lake Manzala, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan A.H. Sallam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available By the late eighties the problem of climate change and its possible impacts had become an issue of global concern. Climate variables play an important role in controlling the water circulation and the water quality of lakes either as freshwater reservoirs, or as brackish lagoons. In Egypt, Lake Manzala is the largest and the most productive lake of the northern coastal lakes. In this study, continuous measurement data from the Real Time Water Quality Monitoring stations in Lake Manzala was statistically analyzed to determine the regional and seasonal variations of the selected water quality parameters in relation to changes in two climate variables: air temperature and relative humidity. Simple formulas are elaborated using the DataFit software to predict the selected water quality parameters of the Lake including Power of Hydrogen (pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Turbidity, and Chlorophyll as a function of air temperature and relative humidity. It was revealed that there is a measured relation between air temperature and relative humidity and the pH, DO, EC and TDS parameters and there is no significant effect on the other two parameters: turbidity and chlorophyll.

  7. The anthropogenic impact on water quality of the river Danube in Serbia: Microbiological analysis and genotoxicity monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolarević S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to examine the impact of urban wastewaters on the water quality of the Danube River in Serbia. Samples of water and sediments for microbiological analysis and genotoxicity monitoring were collected from 6 sites during spring and/or autumn 2010. Sanitary analysis, i.e. enumeration of total and fecal coliforms and intestinal enterococci, indicated moderate to critical fecal contamination, while organic load assessment (oligotroph to heterotroph ratio, index of phosphatase activity revealed the category of moderately polluted water. Mercury-resistant bacteria were detected in all water samples, with high numbers at locations positioned downstream of Belgrade. There was no correlation of the microbiological parameters of the sediment and water samples. Genotoxicity monitoring, performed by the comet assay on hemocytes of mussels Sinanodonta woodiana, indicated a significant increase of DNA damage in mussels collected from the studied sites compared with the control group.

  8. Optimal implementation of green infrastructure practices to reduce adverse impacts of urban areas on hydrology and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Collingsworth, P.; Pijanowski, B. C.; Engel, B.

    2016-12-01

    Nutrient loading from Maumee River watershed is a significant reason for the harmful algal blooms (HABs) problem in Lake Erie. Although studies have explored strategies to reduce nutrient loading from agricultural areas in the Maumee River watershed, the nutrient loading in urban areas also needs to be reduced. Green infrastructure practices are popular approaches for stormwater management and useful for improving hydrology and water quality. In this study, the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment-Low Impact Development 2.1 (L-THIA-LID 2.1) model was used to determine how different strategies for implementing green infrastructure practices can be optimized to reduce impacts on hydrology and water quality in an urban watershed in the upper Maumee River system. Community inputs, such as the types of green infrastructure practices of greatest interest and environmental concerns for the community, were also considered during the study. Based on community input, the following environmental concerns were considered: runoff volume, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Phosphorous (TP), Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), and Nitrate+Nitrite (NOx); green infrastructure practices of interest included rain barrel, cistern, green roof, permeable patio, porous pavement, grassed swale, bioretention system, grass strip, wetland channel, detention basin, retention pond, and wetland basin. Spatial optimization of green infrastructure practice implementation was conducted to maximize environmental benefits while minimizing the cost of implementation. The green infrastructure practice optimization results can be used by the community to solve hydrology and water quality problems.

  9. Assessing the Impact of Maneuver Training on NPS Pollution and Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    and Development Program (SERDP). The publication of this report does not indicate endorsement by the Department of Defense, nor should the contents...NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Pollution and Water Quality DACA 72-03-C-0014 SI-1339Steichen, James, M. Hutchinson, Stacy, L. Zhang, Naiqian. Hutchinson, J, M, Shawn. Oviatt, Charles

  10. Metal-Microbial Interactions in Toronto Sunnyside Beach: Impact on Water Quality and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plach, J. M.; Elliott, A.; Warren, L. A.

    2009-05-01

    Assessing recreational water quality requires a fundamental understanding of metal-microbial interactions and the key biogeochemical processes occurring in urban public beaches. Metals play an important role in the distribution and virulence (e.g. resistance) of microorganisms in water systems. In turn, microorganisms have a significant influence on metal cycling, thus affecting metal mobility, bioavailability and toxicity in the aquatic environment. Bacteria adhere to floc, small suspended mineral-bacterial aggregates, in aquatic systems resulting in high-density floc-associated bacterial biofilm communities. These nanoparticulate bacterial microhabitats are important environmental sinks for metals and potential reservoirs for antibiotic resistant and pathogenic bacteria. The objectives of this study are to identify and quantify (1) metal distributions among suspended floc, bed sediment and water-column aqueous compartments (2) important biogeochemical processes influencing metal cycling and (3) linkages between floc metals and the occurrence of floc associated antibiotic resistant bacteria and pathogens across a series of variably contaminated aquatic systems. Results of this project will provide new diagnostic indicators of pathogens in recreational water systems and aid in the development of public health policies to improve water quality and reduce water borne infectious disease. Here, results will be presented assessing the metal and microbial community dynamics in samples collected from Toronto's Sunnyside Beach (May 13 and August 20), an urban public beach on Lake Ontario. Water column, floc and bed sediments near and offshore were analyzed for physico-chemical characteristics and metal concentrations. Floc were imaged using DAPI and FISH to assess microbial community structure. Results to date, characterizing the linkages amongst bacteria, metal contaminant concentrations and sediment partitioning and system physico-chemical conditions will be discussed.

  11. Sperm in hot water: direct and indirect thermal challenges interact to impact on brown trout sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenkes, Miriam; Fitzpatrick, John L; Ozolina, Karlina; Shiels, Holly A; Nudds, Robert L

    2017-07-15

    Climate change alters the thermal habitat of aquatic species on a global scale, generating novel environmental challenges during all life stages, including reproduction. Changes in water temperature profoundly influence the performance of ectothermic aquatic organisms. This is an especially crucial issue for migratory fish, because they traverse multiple environments in order to reproduce. In externally fertilizing migratory fish, gametes are affected by water temperature indirectly, within the reproductive organ in which they are produced during migration, as well as directly, upon release into the surrounding medium at the spawning grounds. Both direct (after release) and indirect (during production) thermal impacts on gamete quality have been investigated, but never in conjunction. Here, we assessed the cumulative influence of temperature on brown trout, Salmo trutta, sperm quality during sperm production (male acclimation temperature) as well as upon release (sperm activation water temperature) on two consecutive dates during the brown trout spawning season. Early in the season, warm acclimation of males reduced their fertilization probability (lower sperm velocity) when compared with cold-acclimated males, especially when the activation water temperature was also increased beyond the thermal optimum (resulting in a lower proportion of motile sperm with lower velocity). Later in the season, sperm quality was unaffected by acclimation temperature and thermal sensitivity of sperm was reduced. These results give novel insights into the complex impacts of climate change on fish sperm, with implications for the reproduction and management of hatchery and wild trout populations in future climate scenarios. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Impacts on quality-induced water scarcity: drivers of nitrogen-related water pollution transfer under globalization from 1995 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Liyang; Cai, Wenjia; Jiang, Yongkai; Wang, Can

    2016-07-01

    Globalization enables the transfer of impacts on water availability. We argue that the threat should be evaluated not only by decrease of quantity, but more importantly by the degradation of water quality in exporting countries. Grouping the world into fourteen regions, this paper establishes a multi-region input-output framework to calculate the nitrogen-related grey water footprint and a water quality-induced scarcity index caused by pollution, for the period of 1995 to 2009. It is discovered that grey water embodied in international trade has been growing faster than total grey water footprint. China, the USA and India were the three top grey water exporters which accounted for more than half the total traded grey water. Dilemma rose when China and India were facing highest grey water scarcity. The EU and the USA were biggest grey water importers that alleviated their water stress by outsourcing water pollution. A structural decomposition analysis is conducted to study the drivers to the evolution of virtual flows of grey water under globalization during the period of 1995 to 2009. The results show that despite the technical progress that offset the growth of traded grey water, structural effects under globalization including both evolution in the globalized economic system and consumption structure, together with consumption volume made a positive contribution. It is found that the structural effect intensified the pollution-induced water scarcity of exporters as it generally increased all nations’ imported grey water while resulting in increases in only a few nations’ exported grey water, such as Brazil, China and Indonesia. At last, drawing from the ‘cap-and-trade’ and ‘boarder-tax-adjustment’ schemes, we propose policy recommendations that ensure water security and achieve environmentally sustainable trade from both the sides of production and consumption.

  13. Tsunamis: Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Landslides Tornadoes Tsunamis Volcanoes Wildfires Winter Weather Tsunamis: Water Quality Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... about testing should be directed to local authorities. Water for Drinking, Cooking, and Personal Hygiene Safe water ...

  14. Impacts of land use and population density on seasonal surface water quality using a modified geographically weighted regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Mei, Kun; Dahlgren, Randy A; Wang, Ting; Gong, Jian; Zhang, Minghua

    2016-12-01

    As an important regulator of pollutants in overland flow and interflow, land use has become an essential research component for determining the relationships between surface water quality and pollution sources. This study investigated the use of ordinary least squares (OLS) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models to identify the impact of land use and population density on surface water quality in the Wen-Rui Tang River watershed of eastern China. A manual variable excluding-selecting method was explored to resolve multicollinearity issues. Standard regression coefficient analysis coupled with cluster analysis was introduced to determine which variable had the greatest influence on water quality. Results showed that: (1) Impact of land use on water quality varied with spatial and seasonal scales. Both positive and negative effects for certain land-use indicators were found in different subcatchments. (2) Urban land was the dominant factor influencing N, P and chemical oxygen demand (COD) in highly urbanized regions, but the relationship was weak as the pollutants were mainly from point sources. Agricultural land was the primary factor influencing N and P in suburban and rural areas; the relationship was strong as the pollutants were mainly from agricultural surface runoff. Subcatchments located in suburban areas were identified with urban land as the primary influencing factor during the wet season while agricultural land was identified as a more prevalent influencing factor during the dry season. (3) Adjusted R(2) values in OLS models using the manual variable excluding-selecting method averaged 14.3% higher than using stepwise multiple linear regressions. However, the corresponding GWR models had adjusted R(2) ~59.2% higher than the optimal OLS models, confirming that GWR models demonstrated better prediction accuracy. Based on our findings, water resource protection policies should consider site-specific land-use conditions within each watershed to

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa population structure revisited under environmental focus: impact of water quality and phage pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selezska, Katherina; Kazmierczak, Marlon; Müsken, Mathias; Garbe, Julia; Schobert, Max; Häussler, Susanne; Wiehlmann, Lutz; Rohde, Christine; Sikorski, Johannes

    2012-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa attracts research attention as a common opportunistic nosocomial pathogen causing severe health problems in humans. Nevertheless, its primary habitat is the natural environment. Here, we relate the genetic diversity of 381 environmental isolates from rivers in northern Germany to ecological factors such as river system, season of sampling and different levels of water quality. From representatives of 99 environmental clones, also in comparison with 91 clinical isolates, we determined motility phenotypes, virulence factors, biofilm formation, serotype and the resistance to seven environmental P.aeruginosa phages. The integration of genetic, ecological and phenotypic data showed (i) the presence of several extended clonal complexes (ecc) which are non-uniformly distributed across different water qualities, and (ii) a correlation of the hosts' serotype composition with susceptibility towards distinct groups of environmental phages. For at least one ecc (eccB), we assumed the ecophysiological differences on environmental water adaptation and phage resistance to be so distinct as to reinforce an environmentally driven cladogenic split from the remainder of P.aeruginosa. In summary, we conclude that the majority of the microevolutionary population dynamics of P.aeruginosa were shaped by the natural environment and not by the clinical habitat. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. The impacts of conifer harvesting on runoff water quality: a regional survey for Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Major, minor and trace element chemistry of runoff at stormflow and baseflow from 67 catchments (2 to 5 ha in area has been determined to investigate the effects of clear felling and replanting of conifers on stream water quality across Wales. Samples, collected by local forestry workers (Forest Enterprise staff on a campaign basis on up to eight occasions, were for 16 mature first rotation standing forest: the remainder represented areas completely clear felled from less than one to up to forty years previously. As the waters drain acidic and acid sensitive soils, acidic runoff is often encountered. However, higher pH values with associated positive alkalinities and base cation enrichments are observed due to the influence of weathering reactions within the bedrock. There is little systematic variation in water quality between baseflow and stormflow for each site indicating a complex and erratic contribution of waters from the soil and underlying parent material. 80% or more of the data points show hardly any changes with felling time, but there are a few outlier points with much higher concentrations that provide important information on the processes operative. The clearest outlier felling response is for nitrate at five of the more recently felled sites on brown earth, gley and podzolic soil types. ANC, the prime indicator of stream acidity, shows a diverse response from both high to low outlier values (>+400 to -300 μEq/l. In parallel to nitrate, aluminium, potassium and barium concentrations are higher in waters sampled up to 4 years post felling, but the time series response is even less clear than that for nitrate. Cadmium, zinc and lead and lanthanides/actinides show large variations from site to site due to localized vein ore-mineralization in the underlying bedrock. The survey provides a strong indication that forest harvesting can have marked local effects on some chemical components of runoff for the first four years after felling

  17. The impacts of conifer harvesting on runoff water quality: a regional survey for Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C.; Reynolds, B.; Wilkinson, J.; Hill, T.; Neal, M.; Hill, S.; Harrow, M.

    Major, minor and trace element chemistry of runoff at stormflow and baseflow from 67 catchments (2 to 5 ha in area) has been determined to investigate the effects of clear felling and replanting of conifers on stream water quality across Wales. Samples, collected by local forestry workers (Forest Enterprise staff) on a campaign basis on up to eight occasions, were for 16 mature first rotation standing forest: the remainder represented areas completely clear felled from less than one to up to forty years previously. As the waters drain acidic and acid sensitive soils, acidic runoff is often encountered. However, higher pH values with associated positive alkalinities and base cation enrichments are observed due to the influence of weathering reactions within the bedrock. There is little systematic variation in water quality between baseflow and stormflow for each site indicating a complex and erratic contribution of waters from the soil and underlying parent material. 80% or more of the data points show hardly any changes with felling time, but there are a few outlier points with much higher concentrations that provide important information on the processes operative. The clearest outlier felling response is for nitrate at five of the more recently felled sites on brown earth, gley and podzolic soil types. ANC, the prime indicator of stream acidity, shows a diverse response from both high to low outlier values (>+400 to -300 μEq/l). In parallel to nitrate, aluminium, potassium and barium concentrations are higher in waters sampled up to 4 years post felling, but the time series response is even less clear than that for nitrate. Cadmium, zinc and lead and lanthanides/actinides show large variations from site to site due to localized vein ore-mineralization in the underlying bedrock. The survey provides a strong indication that forest harvesting can have marked local effects on some chemical components of runoff for the first four years after felling but that this is

  18. Anthropogenic impacts on the distribution and biodiversity of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality of the Langat River, Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrina, M Z; Yap, C K; Rahim Ismail, A; Ismail, A; Tan, S G

    2006-07-01

    A study of the impacts of anthropogenic activities on the distribution and biodiversity of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality of the Langat River (Peninsular Malaysia) was conducted. Four pristine stations from the upstream and 4 stations at the downstream receiving anthropogenic impacts were selected along the river. For 4 consecutive months (March-June 1999), based on the Malaysian DOE (Malaysia Environmental Quality Report 2000, Department of Environment, Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment Malaysia. Maskha Sdn. Bhd. Kuala Lumpur, 86pp; Malaysia Environmental Quality Report 2001, Department of Environment, Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment Malaysia) water quality index classes, the upstream stations recorded significantly (Pquality indices than those of the downstream. The total number of macrobenthic taxa and their overall richness indices and diversity indices were significantly (Pbioindicator concept for Malaysian rivers. Some sensitive (Trichopteran caddisflies and Ephemeraptera) and resistant species (Oligochaeta such as Limnodrilus spp.) are identified as potential bioindicators of clean and polluted river ecosystems, respectively, for Malaysian rivers.

  19. Landscape configuration is the primary driver of impacts on water quality associated with agricultural expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Hamel, Perrine; Sharp, Richard; Kowal, Virgina; Wolny, Stacie; Sim, Sarah; Mueller, Carina

    2016-07-01

    Corporations and other multinational institutions are increasingly looking to evaluate their innovation and procurement decisions over a range of environmental criteria, including impacts on ecosystem services according to the spatial configuration of activities on the landscape. We have developed a spatially explicit approach and modeled a hypothetical corporate supply chain decision representing contrasting patterns of land-use change in four regions of the globe. This illustrates the effect of introducing spatial considerations in the analysis of ecosystem services, specifically sediment retention. We explored a wide variety of contexts (Iowa, USA; Mato Grosso, Brazil; and Jiangxi and Heilongjiang in China) and these show that per-area representation of impacts based on the physical characterization of a region can be misleading. We found two- to five-fold differences in sediment export for the same amount of habitat conversion within regions characterized by similar physical traits. These differences were mainly determined by the distance between land use changes and streams. The influence of landscape configuration is so dramatic that it can override wide variation in erosion potential driven by physical factors like soil type, slope, and climate. To minimize damage to spatially-dependent ecosystem services like water purification, sustainable sourcing strategies should not assume a direct correlation between impact and area but rather allow for possible nonlinearity in impacts, especially in regions with little remaining habitat and highly variable hydrological connectivity.

  20. Water quality: Historic values and impact of drilling activities during FY 1988 at the reference repository location in southeastern Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, P.A.; Teel, S.S.; Raymond, J.R.; Bierschenk, W.H.

    1988-03-01

    The purpose of the Environmental Monitoring Program was to monitor the characterization activities related to the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) at boreholes DC-24CX and DC-25CX and document any environmental impacts as a result of these activities including contamination and/or degradation of the aquifer water quality from the invasion of drilling fluids into the formation and surface contamination from the disposal of drilling fluid at the land surface. The first phase of this program involved describing the baseline water quality at the Reference Repository Location (RRL) including data for spring and surface waters, and both the unconfined and confined aquifers. The second phase involved the collection and analysis of samples collected during drilling operations at wells DC-24CX and DC-25CX. Five surface water and 25 spring sampling sites were designated for chemical and radiological background data collection for BWIP. Chemical and radiological background data from 61 wells that obtain water from the unconfined aquifers indicate that the chemistry of these aquifers is similar to the spring and surface water samples. However, some of the wells show contamination from existing operations and past operations of various facilities on the Hanford Site. These contaminants are both chemical and radiological in nature with nitrate as the primary chemical constituent and tritium as the major radiological constituent. 20 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. Drivers of Microbial Risk for Direct Potable Reuse and de Facto Reuse Treatment Schemes: The Impacts of Source Water Quality and Blending

    OpenAIRE

    Rabia M. Chaudhry; Kerry A. Hamilton; Haas, Charles N.; Nelson, Kara L.

    2017-01-01

    Although reclaimed water for potable applications has many potential benefits, it poses concerns for chemical and microbial risks to consumers. We present a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) Monte Carlo framework to compare a de facto water reuse scenario (treated wastewater-impacted surface water) with four hypothetical Direct Potable Reuse (DPR) scenarios for Norovirus, Cryptosporidium, and Salmonella. Consumer microbial risks of surface source water quality (impacted by 0–100% ...

  2. Impact on diarrhoeal illness of a community educational intervention to improve drinking water quality in rural communities in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Toro Graciela I

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waterborne disease is a major risk for small water supplies in rural settings. This study was done to assess the impact of an educational intervention designed to improve water quality and estimate the contribution of water to the incidence of diarrhoeal disease in poor rural communities in Puerto Rico a two-part study was undertaken. Methods An educational intervention was delivered to communities relying on community water supplies. This intervention consisted of student operators and administrators supervising and assisting community members who voluntarily "operate" these systems. These voluntary operators had no previous training and were principally concerned with seeing that some water was delivered. The quality of that water was not something they either understood or addressed. The impact of this intervention was measured through water sampling for standard bacteriological indicators and a frank pathogen. In addition, face-to-face epidemiological studies designed to determine the base-line occurrence of diarrhoeal disease in the communities were conducted. Some 15 months after the intervention a further epidemiological study was conducted in both the intervention communities and in control communities that had not received any intervention. Results Diarrhoeal illness rates over a four week period prior to the intervention were 3.5%. Salmonella was isolated from all of 5 distributed samples prior to intervention and from only 2 of 12 samples after the intervention. In the 15 months follow-up study, illness rates were lower in the intervention compared to control communities (2.5% vs 3.6%% (RR = 0.70, 95%CI 0.43, 1.15, though this was not statistically significant. However, in the final Poisson regression model living in an intervention system (RR = 0.318; 95%CI 0.137 - 0.739 and owning a dog (RR = 0.597, 95%CI 0.145 - 0.962 was negatively associated with illness. Whilst size of system (RR = 1.006, 95%CI 1.001 - 1

  3. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil)

    KAUST Repository

    Roth, Florian

    2016-03-30

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ13Corg and δ15N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6 km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  4. Impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall on water quality in the coastal zone of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, F; Lessa, G C; Wild, C; Kikuchi, R K P; Naumann, M S

    2016-05-15

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic signatures of suspended particulate organic matter and seawater biological oxygen demand (BOD) were measured along a coastal transect during summer 2015 to investigate pollution impacts of a high-discharge submarine sewage outfall close to Salvador, Brazil. Impacts of untreated sewage discharge were evident at the outfall site by depleted δ(13)Corg and δ(15)N signatures and 4-fold increased BOD rates. Pollution effects of a sewage plume were detectable for more than 6km downstream from the outfall site, as seasonal wind- and tide-driven shelf hydrodynamics facilitated its advective transport into near-shore waters. There, sewage pollution was detectable at recreational beaches by depleted stable isotope signatures and elevated BOD rates at high tides, suggesting high bacterial activity and increased infection risk by human pathogens. These findings indicate the urgent necessity for appropriate wastewater treatment in Salvador to achieve acceptable standards for released effluents and coastal zone water quality.

  5. Assessing impact of climate and land use change on water quality in two contrasting meso-scale catchments in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowski, Pawel; Kardel, Ignacy; Ksiezniak, Marta; Berezowski, Tomasz; Okruszko, Tomasz; Mezghani, Abdelkader; Dobler, Andreas; Piniewski, Mikolaj

    2016-04-01

    The Upper Narew (4280 km2) and the Barycz (5520 km2) are two Polish, meso-scale, lowland catchments, contrasting in terms of land use, water management and water quality. Semi-distributed process-based SWAT model was applied in both catchments for assessment of climate change impact on selected water quality parameters. The model setup was developed based on high-resolution inputs, e.g. 5 km gridded precipitation and temperature dataset and 30 m Landsat8-based land cover map. Multi-site calibration and validation against observed discharge, sediment loads and nutrients loads (nitrogen and phosphorus compounds) gave predominantly satisfactory goodness-of-fit measures which enabled further model use for scenario analysis. Impact of land use on water quality can be assessed by comparing nutrients loads and concentrations simulated for the current conditions between two contrasting catchments. Both specific loads and concentrations of major nitrogen and phosphorous forms were on average 80-100% higher in the Barycz than in the Upper Narew catchment. This is a result of more intensive agricultural practices taking place in the Barycz, unlike the Upper Narew where agriculture is mostly extensive. Large parts of the Barycz catchment have been designed as the Nitrates Vulnerable Zones and since 2007 there are legal restrictions concerning agricultural practices in these areas. Nine GCM-RCM runs projected to the year 2100 for RCP 4.5 and 8.5 provided within the EURO-CORDEX experiment were first bias-corrected using quantile mapping method and then used as an ensemble of climate change scenarios in SWAT. Precipitation projections were largely consistent in showing an increasing precipitation trend, present particularly in winter and spring, in both catchments. This clearly affected the hydrological and biogeochemical cycle and resulted in higher projected water yield, increased erosion, and elevated nitrogen and phosphorus emission to water bodies. The rate of change caused

  6. Water quality impact assessment of agricultural Beneficial Management Practices (BMPs) simulated for a regional catchment in Quebec, Eastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Alain N.; Hallema, Dennis W.; Gumiere, Silvio J.; Savary, Stéphane; Hould Gosselin, Gabriel

    2014-05-01

    Water quality has become a matter of increasing concern over the past four decades as a result of the intensification of agriculture, and more particularly so in Canada where agriculture has evolved into the largest non-point source of surface water pollution. The Canadian WEBs project (Watershed Evaluation of Beneficial Management Practices, BMPs) was initiated in order to determine the efficiency of BMPs in improving the surface water quality of rural catchments, and the economic aspects related to their implementation on the same scale. In this contribution we use the integrated watershed modelling platform GIBSI (Gestion Intégrée des Bassins versants à l'aide d'un Système Informatisé) to evaluate the effects of various BMPs on sediment and nutrient yields and, in close relation to this, the surface water quality for the Beaurivage River catchment (718 km2) in Quebec, eastern Canada. A base scenario of the catchment is developed by calibrating the different models of the GIBSI platform, namely HYDROTEL for hydrology, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) for soil erosion, the Erosion-Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC) of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for contaminant transport and fate, and QUAL2E for stream water quality. Four BMPs were analysed: (1) vegetated riparian buffer strips, (2) precision slurry application, (3) transition of all cereal and corn fields to grassland (grassland conversion), and (4) no-tillage on corn fields. Simulations suggest that riparian buffer strips and grassland conversion are more effective in terms of phosphorus, nitrogen and sediment load reduction than precision slurry application and no-tillage on corn fields. The results furthermore indicate the need for a more profound understanding of sediment dynamics in streams and on riparian buffer strips.

  7. Impact of lining material on chemical and microbial irrigation water quality of Nubaria canal, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Azzam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effect of lining material (cement of Nubaria canal (Beheira Governorate, Egypt on its water quality. Methods: Trace metal ions (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd and bacterial indictors for water samples collected from two types of stations (lined and unlined during successive four seasons were analyzed. The effect of lining on bacterial indicators; total viable bacterial count at 22 and 37 °C, total coliform, fecal coliform and fecal streptococci and presence of some bacterial species were studied. Results: Bacterial indicators and trace metals showed seasonal variations, where the highest values were recorded during summer. A significant reduction for Cu (P < 0.05, Zn (P < 0.01 and Cd (P < 0.001 was recorded in lined stations compared to those of unlined ones. Bacterial indicators recorded the lowest counts in lined stations during all seasons, while there was a significant reduction (P < 0.05 between total coliform values (1.70 ± 0.50 in lined stations and unlined ones (3.57 ± 1.01 during summer. Escherichia coli bacteria were predominant in water samples of Nubaria canal, where it recorded 34.4% of bacterial isolates. Conclusions: Lined material plays a role for reducing the bacterial growth and metals concentration, therefore the lining of canal helps in preventing the discharge of sewage pollution into canal.

  8. Water quality assessment of an unusual ritual well in Bangladesh and impact of mass bathing on this quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabed, H; Suely, A; Faruq, G; Sahu, J N

    2014-02-15

    A sacred ritual well with continuously discharging of methane gas through its water body was studied for physicochemical and microbiological quality in three seasons and during ritual mass bathing. Most of the physicochemical parameters showed significant seasonal variations (P<0.05) and a sharp fluctuation during mass bathing. Dissolved oxygen (DO) was found negatively correlated with temperature (r=-0.384, P<0.05), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) (r=-0.58, P<0.001) and ammonia (r=-0.738, P<0.001), while BOD showed positive correlation with chemical oxygen demand (COD) (r=0.762, P<0.001) and ammonia (r=0.83, P<0.001). Simple regression analysis also yielded significant linear relationship in DO vs. temperature (r(2)=0.147, P<0.05), DO vs. ammonia (r(2)=0.544, P<0.001) and BOD vs. DO (r(2)=0.336, P<0.001). A total of eight microbial indicators were studied and found that all of them increased unusually during mass bathing comparing with their respective seasonal values. Total coliforms (TC) were found positively correlated with fecal coliforms (FC) (r=0.971), FC with Escherichia coli (EC) (r=0.952), EC with intestinal enterococci (IE) (r=0.921), fecal streptococci (FS) with IE (r=0.953) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) (r=0.946), which were significant at P<0.001. Some regression models showed significant linear relationship at P<0.001 with r(2) value of 0.943 for FC vs. TC, 0.907 for EC vs. FC, 0.869 for FS vs. FC, 0.848 for IE vs. EC and 0.909 for IE vs. FS. The overall results found in this study revealed that well water is suitable for bathing purpose but the religious activity considerably worsen its quality.

  9. Impact on Water Quality of Nandoni Water Reservoir Downstream of Municipal Sewage Plants in Vhembe District, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabulani Ray Gumbo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The deterioration of water quality in our freshwater sources is on the increase worldwide and, in South Africa, mostly due to the discharge of municipal sewage effluent. Here we report on the use of principal component analysis, coupled with factor and cluster analysis, to study the similarities and differences between upstream and downstream sampling sites that are downstream of municipal sewage plants. The contribution of climatic variables, air temperature, humidity, and rainfall were also evaluated with respect to variations in water quality at the sampling sites. The physicochemical and microbial values were higher than the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF and World Health Organization (WHO guidelines. The cluster analysis showed the presence of two clusters for each of the Mvudi, Dzindi, and Luvuvhu Rivers and Nandoni reservoir sampling sites. The principal component analysis (PCA accounted for 40% of the water quality variation and was associated strongly with pH, electrical conductivity, calcium, magnesium, chloride, bromide, nitrate, and total coliform, and negatively with rainfall, which represented Mvudi downstream and was attributed to the Thohoyandou sewage plant. The PCA accounted for 54% of the variation and was associated strongly with electrical conductivity, sulfate; total dissolved solids, fluoride, turbidity, nitrate, manganese, alkalinity, magnesium, and total coliform represented Dzindi downstream, with inflows from the Vuwani sewage plant and agriculture. The PCA accounted for 30% of the variation and was associated strongly with total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, magnesium, fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, total coliform average air temperature, and total rainfall, and negatively associated with manganese and bromide represented Luvuvhu upstream and was associated with commercial agriculture. The PCA accounted for 21% of the variation and was associated strongly with turbidity, alkalinity, magnesium

  10. Predicting impacts of increased CO₂ and climate change on the water cycle and water quality in the semiarid James River Basin of the Midwestern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shuguang; Gallant, Alisa L

    2012-07-15

    Emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols from human activities continue to alter the climate and likely will have significant impacts on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and water quality, especially in arid and semiarid regions. We applied an improved Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to evaluate impacts of increased atmospheric CO(2) concentration and potential climate change on the water cycle and nitrogen loads in the semiarid James River Basin (JRB) in the Midwestern United States. We assessed responses of water yield, soil water content, groundwater recharge, and nitrate nitrogen (NO(3)-N) load under hypothetical climate-sensitivity scenarios in terms of CO(2), precipitation, and air temperature. We extended our predictions of the dynamics of these hydrological variables into the mid-21st century with downscaled climate projections integrated across output from six General Circulation Models. Our simulation results compared against the baseline period 1980 to 2009 suggest the JRB hydrological system is highly responsive to rising levels of CO(2) concentration and potential climate change. Under our scenarios, substantial decrease in precipitation and increase in air temperature by the mid-21st century could result in significant reduction in water yield, soil water content, and groundwater recharge. Our model also estimated decreased NO(3)-N load to streams, which could be beneficial, but a concomitant increase in NO(3)-N concentration due to a decrease in streamflow likely would degrade stream water and threaten aquatic ecosystems. These results highlight possible risks of drought, water supply shortage, and water quality degradation in this basin. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Predicting Impacts of Increased CO2 and Climate Change on the Water Cycle and Water Quality in the Semiarid James River Basin of the Midwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang; Gallant, Alisa L.

    2012-01-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols from human activities continue to alter the climate and likely will have significant impacts on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and water quality, especially in arid and semiarid regions. We applied an improved Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to evaluate impacts of increased atmospheric CO2 concentration and potential climate change on the water cycle and nitrogen loads in the semiarid James River Basin (JRB) in the Midwestern United States. We assessed responses of water yield, soil water content, groundwater recharge, and nitrate nitrogen (NO3–N) load under hypothetical climate-sensitivity scenarios in terms of CO2, precipitation, and air temperature. We extended our predictions of the dynamics of these hydrological variables into the mid-21st century with downscaled climate projections integrated across output from six General Circulation Models. Our simulation results compared against the baseline period 1980 to 2009 suggest the JRB hydrological system is highly responsive to rising levels of CO2 concentration and potential climate change. Under our scenarios, substantial decrease in precipitation and increase in air temperature by the mid-21st century could result in significant reduction in water yield, soil water content, and groundwater recharge. Our model also estimated decreased NO3–N load to streams, which could be beneficial, but a concomitant increase in NO3–N concentration due to a decrease in streamflow likely would degrade stream water and threaten aquatic ecosystems. These results highlight possible risks of drought, water supply shortage, and water quality degradation in this basin.

  12. Water Quality Protection Charges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Water Quality Protection Charge (WQPC) is a line item on your property tax bill. WQPC funds many of the County's clean water initiatives including: • Restoration...

  13. Impacts of Land Use on Surface Water Quality in a Subtropical River Basin: A Case Study of the Dongjiang River Basin, Southeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Ding

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between land use and surface water quality is necessary for effective water management. We estimated the impacts of catchment-wide land use on water quality during the dry and rainy seasons in the Dongjiang River basin, using remote sensing, geographic information systems and multivariate statistical techniques. The results showed that the 83 sites can be divided into three groups representing different land use types: forest, agriculture and urban. Water quality parameters exhibited significant variations between the urban-dominated and forest-dominated sites. The proportion of forested land was positively associated with dissolved oxygen concentration but negatively associated with water temperature, electrical conductivity, permanganate index, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and chlorophyll-a. The proportion of urban land was strongly positively associated with total nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen concentrations. Forested and urban land use had stronger impacts on water quality in the dry season than in the rainy season. However, agricultural land use did not have a significant impact on water quality. Our study indicates that urban land use was the key factor affecting water quality change, and limiting point-source waste discharge in urban areas during the dry season would be critical for improving water quality in the study area.

  14. Impact of sediments resuspension on metal solubilization and water quality during recurrent reservoir sluicing management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frémion, Franck; Courtin-Nomade, Alexandra [Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France); Bordas, François, E-mail: francois.bordas@unilim.fr [Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France); Lenain, Jean-François [Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France); Jugé, Philippe [CETU – ELMIS Ingénieries, Université François Rabelais, , 60 Rue du Plat d' Étain, 37000 Tours (France); Kestens, Tim [EDF – DPIH, Unité de Production Centre, 19 bis avenue de la Révolution, BP 406, 87012 Limoges Cedex (France); Mourier, Brice [Groupement de Recherche Eau Sol Environnement, Université de Limoges, 123 avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France)

    2016-08-15

    In dam contexts, sluicing operations can be performed to reestablish sediments continuity, as proposed by the EU Water Framework Directive, as well as to preserve the reservoirs' water storage capacity. Such management permits the rapid release of high quantities of reservoir sediments through the opening of dam bottom valves. This work aims to study the impact of such operation on the evolution of environmental physicochemical conditions notably changes in dissolved metallic elements concentrations (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) through field and laboratory investigations. Results were interpreted in terms of concentrations and fluxes, and compared with data collected on an annual basis regarding both suspended matter and metallic elements. The release of high quantities of sediments (4,500 tons dry weight in 24 h), with concentrations representing up to 300 times the inter-annual mean suspended sediments discharge, significantly modified water parameters, notably solid/liquid (S/L) ratio, pH and redox conditions. Despite the fact that they are mainly trapped in stable phases, a clear increase of the solubilized metals content was measured, representing up to 60 times the maximum values of current exploitation. This solubilization is related to desorption phenomena from sediments through changes in chemical equilibriums as highlighted by laboratory characterizations and experiments. These chemical modifications are mainly attributed to S/L ratio variations. Indeed, the low S/L ratios (≤ 1.3 g·L{sup −1}) measured in situ are typically the ones for which metals solubilization is the highest, as shown by laboratory experiments. Additional thermodynamic modeling highlighted that the decrease in pH measured during the operation favors the release of the free forms of metallic elements (Al and Cu), and decreases the OM complexation influence. These changes, either in term of physical conditions or speciation, increasing metals long term

  15. A Framework to Evaluate the Impact of Armourstones on the Chemical Quality of Surface Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrendorf, Dierk-Steffen; Brinkmann, Corinna; Fabricius, Anne-Lena; Meermann, Björn; Pelzer, Juergen; Ecker, Dennis; Renner, Monika; Schmid, Harald; Ternes, Thomas A.; Heininger, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Today, basic requirements for construction works include the protection of human health and of the environment. In the tension area between economic demands, circular flow economy and environmental safety, a link between the results from standardized leaching tests and the respective environmental quality standards must be created. To derive maximum release limits of metals and metalloids for armourstones in hydraulic engineering, this link is accomplished via a simple model approach. By treating natural materials and industrial by-products the same way, the article delivers an overview on the recent regulative situation in Europe as well as describes and discusses an innovative approach to derive maximum release limits for monolithic construction products in hydraulic engineering on a conceptual level. On a practical level, a list of test parameters is derived by connecting an extensive dataset (seven armourstone materials with five repetitions and 31 elements tested with the worldwide applied dynamic surface leaching test) with surface water quality standards and predicted no effect concentrations. Finally, the leaching tests results are compared with the envisaged maximum release limits, offering a direct comparison between natural materials and industrial by-products. PMID:28060850

  16. Impact of temperature and storage duration on the chemical and odor quality of military packaged water in polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greifenstein, Michael, E-mail: Michael.Greifenstein@us.army.mil [Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); White, Duvel W., E-mail: duvel.white@us.army.mil [Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Stubner, Alex, E-mail: alex.stubner@usuhs.edu [Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Hout, Joseph, E-mail: joseph.hout@usuhs.edu [Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Whelton, Andrew J., E-mail: ajwhelton@southalabama.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, 3021 Shelby Hall, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The impact of temperature and storage time on military packaged water (MPW) quality was examined at four temperatures (23.0 °C to 60.0 °C) for 120 days. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles were filled in California and Afghanistan with unbuffered water treated by reverse osmosis. The US military's water pH long-term potability standard was exceeded, and US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water pH and odor intensity limits were also exceeded. During a 70 day exposure period, Port Hueneme MPW total organic carbon and total trihalomethane levels increased from < 0.25 mg/L to 2.0 ± 0.0 mg/L and < 0.05 μg/L to 51.5 ± 2.1 μg/L, respectively. PET released organic contaminants into MPW and residual disinfectant generated trihalomethane contaminants. After 14 days at 37.7 °C and 60.0 °C, Afghanistan MPW threshold odor number values were 8.0 and 8.6, respectively. Total organic carbon concentration only increased with exposure duration at 60.0 °C. Acetaldehyde and formaldehyde contaminants were not detected likely due to the high method detection limits applied in this study. Phthalate contaminants detected and their maximum levels were butylbenzylphthalate (BBP) 0.43 μg/L, di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) 0.38 μg/L, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) 0.6 μg/L, and diethylphthalate (DEP) 0.32 μg/L. Antimony was only detected in 60.0 °C Afghanistan MPW on Day 28 and beyond, and its maximum concentration was 3.6 ± 0.3 μg/L. No antimony was found in bottles exposed to lesser temperatures. Environmental health, PET synthesis and bottle manufacturers, and bottle users can integrate results of this work to improve health protective decisions and doctrine. - Highlights: • Temperature and storage time impacted military bottled water quality up to 60 °C. • The chemical quality of water bottled in California and Afghanistan was affected. • Drinking water pH and odor intensity limits were also

  17. Water treatments in semi-closed cooling circuits and their impact on the quality of effluents discharged by CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Santos Leite Cima Gomes, J; Kleiner, S

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to assess the impact of the discharges of the semi-closed water cooling circuits of CERN (European Center for Nuclear Research) on the overall quality of CERN's effluents, taking as guidelines the international legislation supported on the knowledge of the water systems of CERN. In order to reach this goal, a thorough analysis of the functioning of the semi-closed water cooling systems of CERN's particle accelerators was done, as well as, an analysis of the treatment that is done to prevent the proliferation of bacteria such as Legionella. The products used in these water treatments, as well as their impact, were also researched. In addition, a study of the applicable regulation to CERN's effluent was done. This study considered not only the regulation of France and Switzerland (CERN's host states) but also the international regulation from the European community, Portugal Germany, Spain, U.S. and Canada, having in view a better understanding of the limit values of the parameter...

  18. Quality Measurement Impact Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services is required to assess the impact of consensus-endorsed quality and efficiency measures used in federal...

  19. Impacts of climate and land use changes on the water quality of a small Mediterranean catchment with intensive viticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa, D; Nunes, J P; Keizer, J J; Abrantes, N

    2017-05-01

    Studies that address the potential effects of climate and land use changes on surface water quality are scarce in the Mediterranean region. In the present work, the impacts of climate and land use changes on nutrient and copper exports from a humid Mediterranean catchment (São Lourenço) were evaluated using the SWAT model. SWAT reproduced reasonably well total nitrogen (TN), phosphorus (TP) and copper (Cu) exports in São Lourenço, providing an adequate baseline scenario as well as a suitable model parameterization for assessing the impacts of climate and land use changes under the A1B and B1 emission scenarios for the end of the 21st century (2071-2100). Land use changes scenarios were generated along the same storylines as climate change scenarios to assess the combined effects of the two stressors. Climate changes itself led to a decline in annual TN and TP exports under both emission scenarios mostly due to a decrease in runoff and erosion induced by a reduction in rainfall, but it hardly affected Cu exports largely due to its strong immobilization in soils. Land use changes per se resulted in an increase in streamflow, but the changes in water quality varied markedly according to the scenarios. A substantial decrease in TN, TP and Cu exports was observed under scenario A1B, due to a reduction in vineyard areas. Under scenario B1, however, TP exports decreased much less while TN exports hardly changed, reflecting differences in the preferential transport pathways of these compounds. Cu exports also remained the same, as no changes occurred in the vineyard areas. The combination of climate and land use change scenarios revealed additive impacts on the exports of all three contaminants, emphasizing the importance of integrated approaches to define adaptive land management practices that can ensure the future sustainability of Mediterranean water resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of water quality and irrigation management on soil salinization in the Drâa valley of Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beff, L.; Descamps, C.; Dufey, J.; Bielders, C.

    2009-04-01

    Under the arid climatic conditions of the Drâa valley in southern Morocco, irrigation is essential for crop production. Two sources of water are available to farmers: (1) moderate salinity water from the Oued Drâa (classified as C3-S1 in the USDA irrigation water classification diagram) which is available only a few times per year following discrete releases from the Mansour Eddahbi dam, and (2) high salinity water from wells (C4-S2). Soil salinization is frequently observed, principally on plots irrigated with well water. As Oued water is available in insufficient amounts, strategies must be devised to use well and Oued water judiciously, without inducing severe salinization. The salinization risk under wheat production was evaluated using the HP1 program (Jacques and Šimůnek, 2005) for different combinations of the two main water sources, different irrigation frequencies and irrigation volumes. The soil was a sandy clay loam (topsoil) to sandy loam (40 cm depth). Soil hydrodynamic properties were derived from in situ measurements and lab measurements on undisturbed soil samples. The HP1 model was parameterized for wheat growth and 12 scenarios were run for 10 year periods using local climatic data. Water quality was measured or estimated on the basis of water samples in wells and various Oueds, and the soil chemical properties were determined. Depending on the scenario, soil salinity in the mean root zone increased from less than 1 meq/100g of soil to more than 5 meq/100g of soil over a ten year period. Salt accumulation was more pronounced at 45 cm soil depth, which is half of the maximum rooting depth, and when well water was preferentially used. Maximum crop yield (water transpired / potential water transpired) was achieved for five scenarios but this implied the use of well water to satisfy the crop water requirements. The usual Drâa Valley irrigation scenario, with five, 84 mm dam water applications per year, lead to a 25% yield loss. Adding the amount

  1. Reactive transport modeling of geochemical controls on secondary water quality impacts at a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Gene-Hua Crystal.; Bekins, Barbara A.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Baedecker, Mary Jo; Bennett, Philip C.; Amos, Richard T.; Herkelrath, William N.

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation of organic amendments and contaminants in aquifers can trigger secondary water quality impacts that impair groundwater resources. Reactive transport models help elucidate how diverse geochemical reactions control the spatiotemporal evolution of these impacts. Using extensive monitoring data from a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota (USA), we implemented a comprehensive model that simulates secondary plumes of depleted dissolved O2 and elevated concentrations of Mn2+, Fe2+, CH4, and Ca2+ over a two-dimensional cross section for 30 years following the spill. The model produces observed changes by representing multiple oil constituents and coupled carbonate and hydroxide chemistry. The model includes reactions with carbonates and Fe and Mn mineral phases, outgassing of CH4 and CO2 gas phases, and sorption of Fe, Mn, and H+. Model results demonstrate that most of the carbon loss from the oil (70%) occurs through direct outgassing from the oil source zone, greatly limiting the amount of CH4 cycled down-gradient. The vast majority of reduced Fe is strongly attenuated on sediments, with most (91%) in the sorbed form in the model. Ferrous carbonates constitute a small fraction of the reduced Fe in simulations, but may be important for furthering the reduction of ferric oxides. The combined effect of concomitant redox reactions, sorption, and dissolved CO2 inputs from source-zone degradation successfully reproduced observed pH. The model demonstrates that secondary water quality impacts may depend strongly on organic carbon properties, and impacts may decrease due to sorption and direct outgassing from the source zone.

  2. Hydrogeomorphological and water quality impacts of oil palm conversion and logging in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo: a multi-catchment approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Rory; Nainar, Anand; Bidin, Kawi; Higton, Sam; Annammala, Kogilavani; Blake, William; Luke, Sarah; Murphy, Laura; Perryman, Emily; Wall, Katy; Hanapi, Jamil

    2016-04-01

    The last three decades have seen a combination of logging and land-use change across most of the rainforest tropics. This has involved conversion to oil palm across large parts of SE Asia. Although much is now known about the hydrological and sediment transport impacts of logging, relatively little is known about how impacts of oil palm conversion compare with those of logging. Furthermore little is known about the impacts of both on river morphology and water quality. This paper reports some findings of the first phase of a ten-year large-scale manipulative multi-catchment experiment (part of the SAFE - Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems - Project), based in the upper part of the Brantian Catchment in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo; the project is designed to assess the degree to which adverse impacts of oil palm conversion (on erosion, downstream channel change, water quality and river ecology) might be reduced by retaining buffer zones of riparian forest of varying width from zero to 120 metres. Ten 2 km2 catchments of contrasting land use history have been instrumented since 2011 to record discharge, turbidity, conductivity and water temperature at 5-minute intervals. These comprise 6 repeat-logged catchments being subjected in 2015-16 to conversion to oil palm with varying riparian forest widths; a repeat-logged 'control' catchment; an old regrowth catchment; an oil palm catchment; and a primary forest catchment. In addition, (1) monthly water samples from the catchments have been analysed for nitrates and phosphates, (2) channel cross-sectional change along each stream has been monitored at six-monthly intervals and (3) supplementary surveys have been made of downstream bankfull channel cross-sectional size and water chemistry at a wider range of catchment sites, and (4) sediment cores have been taken and contemporary deposition monitored at a hierarchical network of sites in the large Brantian catchment for geochemical analysis and dating to establish the

  3. Water quality assessment of bioenergy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocio Diaz-Chavez; Goran Berndes; Dan Neary; Andre Elia Neto; Mamadou Fall

    2011-01-01

    Water quality is a measurement of the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of water against certain standards set to ensure ecological and/or human health. Biomass production and conversion to fuels and electricity can impact water quality in lakes, rivers, and aquifers with consequences for aquatic ecosystem health and also human water uses. Depending on...

  4. The impact of traditional coffee processing on river water quality in Ethiopia and the urgency of adopting sound environmental practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Abebe; Kassahun, Yared; Addis, Taffere; Assefa, Fassil; Amsalu, Aklilu; Legesse, Worku; Kloos, Helmut; Triest, Ludwig

    2012-11-01

    Although waste from coffee processing is a valuable resource to make biogas, compost, and nutrient-rich animal food, it is usually dumped into nearby water courses. We carried out water quality assessment at 44 sampling sites along 18 rivers that receive untreated waste from 23 coffee pulping and processing plants in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Twenty upstream sampling sites free from coffee waste impact served as control, and 24 downstream sampling sites affected by coffee waste were selected for comparison. Physicochemical and biological results revealed a significant river water quality deterioration as a result of disposing untreated coffee waste into running water courses. During coffee-processing (wet) season, the highest organic load (1,900 mg/l), measured as biochemical oxygen demand, depleted dissolved oxygen (DO) to a level less than 0.01 mg/l, and thus curtailed nitrification. During off season, oxygen started to recuperate and augmented nitrification. The shift from significantly elevated organic load and reduced DO in the wet season to increased nitrate in the off season was found to be the determining factor for the difference in macroinvertebrate community structure as verified by ordination analysis. Macroinvertebrate diversity was significantly reduced in impacted sites during the wet season contrary to the off season. However, there was a significant difference in the ratio of sensitive to pollution-tolerant taxa in the off season, which remained depreciated in the longer term. This study highlights the urgency of research exploring on the feasibility of adopting appropriate pollution abatement technologies to implement ecologically sound coffee-processing systems in coffee-growing regions of Ethiopia.

  5. Impact of effluents from a car battery manufacturing plant in Nigeria on water, soil, and food qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Asomugha, Rose; Afonne, Onyenmechi Johnson; Anisi, C N; Obi, Ejeatuluchukwualo; Dioka, Chudi Emma

    2004-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of effluents from a car battery manufacturing plant in Nnewi, Nigeria, on water, soil, and food qualities. The authors analyzed heavy metals mercury, arsenic, lead, cadmium and nickel in tap and cassava waters, soil, dried cassava tuber, and edible fruit samples from the company, using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Other parameters the authors analyzed include pH, electrical conductivity (EC), salinity (SAL), total hardness (TH), biological oxygen demand (BOD), volatile and non-volatile solids, and bacterial and fungal loads of the soil samples. Results show that lead had the highest concentration in all the samples, with the soil samples having the highest lead concentration (38-12 ppm, 102 ppm) and the water samples having the lowest (0.02-0.20 ppm). Mercury had the lowest concentration (<0.0002 ppm) in all the samples. Soil sample B had the highest concentration of all the metals tested. Cassava water had higher levels of EC, SAL, TH, BOD, and volatile and nonvolatile solids, but lower pH than tap water. Bacterial loads were higher than fungal loads in all the soil samples. Because there was moderate contamination of the environment by some of the metals studied, with lead being exceptionally high and above the specified international standards, the authors recommend control measures to reduce lead exposure to the local populace within and around this industry.

  6. Irrigation water quality assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing demands on fresh water supplies by municipal and industrial users means decreased fresh water availability for irrigated agriculture in semi arid and arid regions. There is potential for agricultural use of treated wastewaters and low quality waters for irrigation but this will require co...

  7. Quality of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  8. Quality of Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  9. Modeling Climate and Management Change Impacts on Water Quality and In-Stream Processes in the Elbe River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Hesse

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eco-hydrological water quality modeling for integrated water resources management of river basins should include all necessary landscape and in-stream nutrient processes as well as possible changes in boundary conditions and driving forces for nutrient behavior in watersheds. The study aims to assess possible impacts of the changing climate (ENSEMBLES climate scenarios and/or land use conditions on resulting river water quantity and quality in the large-scale Elbe river basin by applying a semi-distributed watershed model of intermediate complexity (SWIM with implemented in-stream nutrient (N+P turnover and algal growth processes. The calibration and validation results revealed the ability of SWIM to satisfactorily simulate nutrient behavior at the watershed scale. Analysis of 19 climate scenarios for the whole Elbe river basin showed a projected increase in temperature (+3 °C and precipitation (+57 mm on average until the end of the century, causing diverse changes in river discharge (+20%, nutrient loads (NO3-N: −5%; NH4-N: −24%; PO4-P: +5%, phytoplankton biomass (−4% and dissolved oxygen concentration (−5% in the watershed. In addition, some changes in land use and nutrient management were tested in order to reduce nutrient emissions to the river network.

  10. Impacts of urban life on water quality and fish larvae communities in two creeks of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claíde Lorena Reis de Souza

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of anthropogenic activities in Belém City, Brazilian Amazon, by comparing water quality and fish larvae communities in two creeks that flow into the Guamá River. One creek crossed a poor and crowded suburb of Belém while the other was located in an island section that was declared an Environmental Protected Area in 1997. Two sampling points were set in each creek and monitored over eight hours once every three months over a one–year period. Strong variations of water quality were registered all year long and at all tides in Belém’s mainland creek, along with, among other things, a very high number of thermotolerant coliforms. Few larvae were found. The water was considered unsuitable for human use and activities as well as for aquatic life. The island creek presented early signs of bacterial and nutrient contaminations during the rainy season, probably partly related to non-point source pollution. In both creeks, larvae communities were almost exclusively composed of clupeiforms. All larval development stages were encountered. Higher densities and proportion of newly hatched larvae were registered during the dry season and associated with the presence of nitrate. The results of the study show that adequate sewage and drainage systems must be developed in the city and suggest that it would be useful to conduct an integrated ambient monitoring study in Combú Creek.

  11. Solid Wastes and Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWalle, F. B.; Chian, E. S. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of solid wastes and water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers areas such as: (1) environmental impacts and health aspects for waste disposal, and (2) processed and hazardous wastes. A list of 80 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. [Drinking water quality and safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gutiérrez, Anna; Miralles, Maria Josepa; Corbella, Irene; García, Soledad; Navarro, Sonia; Llebaria, Xavier

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of drinking water legislation is to guarantee the quality and safety of water intended for human consumption. In the European Union, Directive 98/83/EC updated the essential and binding quality criteria and standards, incorporated into Spanish national legislation by Royal Decree 140/2003. This article reviews the main characteristics of the aforementioned drinking water legislation and its impact on the improvement of water quality against empirical data from Catalonia. Analytical data reported in the Spanish national information system (SINAC) indicate that water quality in Catalonia has improved in recent years (from 88% of analytical reports in 2004 finding drinking water to be suitable for human consumption, compared to 95% in 2014). The improvement is fundamentally attributed to parameters concerning the organoleptic characteristics of water and parameters related to the monitoring of the drinking water treatment process. Two management experiences concerning compliance with quality standards for trihalomethanes and lead in Barcelona's water supply are also discussed. Finally, this paper presents some challenges that, in the opinion of the authors, still need to be incorporated into drinking water legislation. It is necessary to update Annex I of Directive 98/83/EC to integrate current scientific knowledge, as well as to improve consumer access to water quality data. Furthermore, a need to define common criteria for some non-resolved topics, such as products and materials in contact with drinking water and domestic conditioning equipment, has also been identified. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating the Impact of Low Impact Development (LID Practices on Water Quantity and Quality under Different Development Designs Using SWAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijin Seo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Low Impact Development (LID practices on urban runoff and pollutants have proven to be positive in many studies. However, the effectiveness of LID practices can vary depending on different urban patterns. In the present study, the performance of LID practices was explored under three land uses with different urban forms: (1 a compact high-density urban form; (2 a conventional medium-density urban form; and (3 a conservational medium-density urban form. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT was used and model development was performed to reflect hydrologic behavior by the application of LID practices. Rain gardens, permeable pavements, and rainwater harvesting tanks were considered for simulations, and a modeling procedure for the representation of LID practices in SWAT was specifically illustrated in this context. Simulations were done for each land use, and the results were compared and evaluated. The application of LID practices demonstrated a decrease in surface runoff and pollutant loadings for all land uses, and different reductions were represented in response to the land uses with different urban forms on a watershed scale. In addition, the results among post-LIDs scenarios generally showed lower values for surface runoff and nitrate in the compact high-density urban land use and for total phosphorus in the conventional medium-density urban land use compared to the other land uses. We suggest effective strategies for implementing LID practices.

  14. Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Water Quality in a Tidal Estuarine System Using a Three-Dimensional Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Cheng Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is one of the key factors affecting the future quality and quantity of water in rivers and tidal estuaries. A coupled three-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model has been developed and applied to the Danshuei River estuarine system in northern Taiwan to predict the influences of climate change on water quality. The water quality model considers state variables including nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, and phytoplankton as well as dissolved oxygen, and is driven by a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The hydrodynamic water quality model was validated with observational salinity distribution and water quality state variables. According to the analyses of statistical error, predictions of salinity, dissolved oxygen, and nutrients from the model simulation quantitatively agreed with the observed data. The validated model was then applied to predict water quality conditions as a result of projected climate change effects. The simulated results indicated that the dissolved oxygen concentration was projected to significantly decrease whereas nutrients will increase because of climate change. Moreover, the dissolved oxygen concentration was lower than 2 mg/L in the main stream of the Danshuei River estuary and failed to meet the water quality standard. An appropriate strategy for effective water quality management for tidal estuaries is needed given the projected persistent climate trends.

  15. Predicting impacts of increased CO{sub 2} and climate change on the water cycle and water quality in the semiarid James River Basin of the Midwestern USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Yiping, E-mail: ywu@usgs.gov [ASRC Research and Technology Solutions, contractor to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, SD 57198 (United States); Liu, Shuguang, E-mail: sliu@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, SD 57198 (United States); Geographic Information Science Center of Excellence, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States); Gallant, Alisa L., E-mail: gallant@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, Sioux Falls, SD 57198 (United States); Geographic Information Science Center of Excellence, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007 (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols from human activities continue to alter the climate and likely will have significant impacts on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and water quality, especially in arid and semiarid regions. We applied an improved Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to evaluate impacts of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration and potential climate change on the water cycle and nitrogen loads in the semiarid James River Basin (JRB) in the Midwestern United States. We assessed responses of water yield, soil water content, groundwater recharge, and nitrate nitrogen (NO{sub 3}-N) load under hypothetical climate-sensitivity scenarios in terms of CO{sub 2}, precipitation, and air temperature. We extended our predictions of the dynamics of these hydrological variables into the mid-21st century with downscaled climate projections integrated across output from six General Circulation Models. Our simulation results compared against the baseline period 1980 to 2009 suggest the JRB hydrological system is highly responsive to rising levels of CO{sub 2} concentration and potential climate change. Under our scenarios, substantial decrease in precipitation and increase in air temperature by the mid-21st century could result in significant reduction in water yield, soil water content, and groundwater recharge. Our model also estimated decreased NO{sub 3}-N load to streams, which could be beneficial, but a concomitant increase in NO{sub 3}-N concentration due to a decrease in streamflow likely would degrade stream water and threaten aquatic ecosystems. These results highlight possible risks of drought, water supply shortage, and water quality degradation in this basin. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We used a modified version of SWAT to more accurately simulate the effects of CO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our sensitivity analysis indicated this basin is very responsive to climate change. Black

  16. Water Quality Data (WQX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The STORET (short for STOrage and RETrieval) Data Warehouse is a repository for water quality, biological, and physical data and is used by state environmental agencies, EPA and other federal agencies, universities, private citizens, and many others.

  17. What impact might mitigation of diffuse nitrate pollution have on river water quality in a rural catchment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Michael G

    2012-10-30

    Observations of river flow, river quality and solar radiation were collated to assess the degree to which light and nutrients may be limiting phytoplankton growth at seven sites in the River Ouse catchment in NE England under average conditions. Hydraulic information derived from river network model applications was then used to determine where river water has sufficient residence time above the tidal limit to facilitate bloom development. A nitrate model (NALTRACES) was developed to estimate the impact of land management change on mean river nitrate concentrations. Applications of this model showed that although agricultural activity contributes substantially to nitrate loads in the Ouse it is likely to have little impact on phytoplankton growth, which could still occur extensively in its absence given favourable sunny and dry conditions. As an example of a means of controlling light availability, establishing full riparian tree cover would appear to be a considerably more effective management scenario than suppressing inputs to the river of nitrate or phosphorus. Any actions should be prioritised in headwater areas such as the upper reaches of the Swale and Ure tributaries. These conclusions are in broad agreement with those arising from more detailed simulations at daily resolution using the QUESTOR river quality model. The combination of simple modelling approaches applied here allows an initial identification of suitable spatially-targeted options for mitigating against phytoplankton blooms which can be applied more widely at a regional or national level.

  18. Impact of forest harvesting on water quality and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter in Eastern Canadian Boreal Shield lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Glaz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Forestry activities in the Canadian Boreal region have increased in the last decades, raising concerns about their potential impact on aquatic ecosystems. Water quality and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM were measured over a three-year period in eight Eastern Boreal Shield lakes: four lakes were studied before, one and two years after forest harvesting (perturbed lakes and compared with four undisturbed reference lakes (unperturbed lakes sampled at the same time. ANOVAs showed a significant increase in total phosphorus (TP in perturbed lakes when the three sampling dates were considered and in DOC concentrations when considering one year before and one year after the perturbation only. At one year post-clear cutting DOC concentrations were about 15 % greater in the perturbed lakes at ~15 mg C L−1 compared to 12.5 mg C L−1 in the unperturbed lakes. In contrast, absorbance and fluorescence measurements showed that all metrics remained within narrow ranges compared to the range observed in natural waters, indicating that forest harvesting did not affect the nature of DOM characterised with spectroscopic techniques. Multivariate statistical analysis showed lakes to be significantly different one year after the perturbation. These results confirm an impact of forestry activities one year after the perturbation. However, this effect seems to be mitigated two years after, indicating that the system shows high resilience and may be able to return to its original condition.

  19. Impacts of fertilizer additions on water quality of a drained pine plantation in North Carolina. A worst case scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray J. Beltran; Devendra M. Amatya; Martin Jones; R. Wayne Skaggs; William Neal Reynolds; Timothy J. Callahan; Jami E. Nettles

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. Intensive plantation forestry will be increasingly important in the next 50 years to meet the high demand for domestic wood in the US. However, forestry management practices can substantially influence downstream water quality and ecology. In this study, the effect of fertilization on drainage water quality of a coastal pine plantation located in Carteret...

  20. The impact of two oil spill events on the water quality along coastal area of Kenting National Park, southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Chi; Tew, Kwee Siong; Ho, Ping-Ho; Hsieh, Hung-Yen; Meng, Pei-Jie

    2017-02-18

    In 2009, the container ship Colombo Queen and the oil tanker W-O BUDMO grounded off Jialeshui and Houwan, respectively, in southern Taiwan. Water quality was monitored at each site to evaluate the environmental impact caused by the resulting oil spills. The results show that the PAHs, turbidity, and other nutrients increased shortly after oil spill, however levels of these parameters eventually returned to baseline levels. On the other hand, DO saturation, pH and chl. a decreased initially, reached maxima after 10days, and returned to the baseline levels after 14days. The chl. a concentration, pH and DO saturation fluctuated in a similar pattern at both sites during the oil spills, likely driven by algal blooms. In this study, we documented a full environmental recovery at coastal areas before, during and after the oil spills.

  1. EPANET water quality model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossman, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    EPANET represents a third generation of water quality modeling software developed by the U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division, offering significant advances in the state of the art for network water quality analysis. EPANET performs extended period simulation of hydraulic and water quality behavior within water distribution systems. In addition to substance concentration, water age and source tracing can also be simulated. EPANET includes a full featured hydraulic simulation model that can handle various types of pumps, valves, and their control rules. The water quality module is equipped to handle constituent reactions within the bulk pipe flow and at the pipe wall. It also features an efficient computational scheme that automatically determines optimal time steps and pipe segmentation for accurate tracking of material transport over time. EPANET is currently being used in the US to study such issues as loss of chlorine residual, source blending and trihalomethane (THM) formation, how altered tank operation affects water age, and total dissolved solids (TDS) control for an irrigation network.

  2. The Impact of Water Quality, Corrosion Inhibitors and Plumbing Age on Copper Release in Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency promulgated the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) in 1991, which established a copper action level of 1.3 mg/L in the consumers’ tap water. As a result, researchers have examined the effects of water chemistry on the solubility of copper to esta...

  3. Reactive transport modeling of long-term secondary water quality impacts of a crude oil spill at Bemidji, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, G. C.; Bekins, B. A.; Cozzarelli, I.; Baedecker, M. J.; Amos, R. T.

    2012-12-01

    The groundwater impacts from a crude oil pipeline rupture in 1979 near Bemidji, Minnesota, have been continuously and intensively investigated for almost 30 years. Previous studies on the resulting plume have significantly contributed to the understanding of natural attenuation processes. The Bemidji site also offers valuable insights on the potential long-term impacts caused by anaerobic bioremediation approaches such as electron donor addition. There has been increased concern about the "secondary impacts" of electron donor addition - including groundwater plumes with reduced dissolved oxygen and elevated levels of methane and other dissolved inorganic components - yet long term information is not yet available at remediation sites. Bemidji provides an example of long term water quality changes resulting from anaerobic biodegradation. While previous Bemidji modeling efforts have largely focused on the fate of the crude oil, we provide a modeling study that aims to also properly represent further evolution of the plume. This requires more comprehensive modeling than has been previously carried out at the site. We have implemented the reactive transport model PHT3D for 2-dimensional simulations that include not only kinetic degradation of organic carbon via redox reactions, but also represent mineral phases, sorption processes, out-gassing of methane and CO2, full carbonate chemistry, and re-oxidation reactions. The model is constrained using a full suite of observations on various oil constituents and dissolved and solid components that span the 30 years since the spill - a uniquely extensive data set on long term conditions. The secondary impacts at Bemidji consist of a plume containing significant methane, depleted dissolved oxygen, and dissolved iron. Our work demonstrates that the secondary plume evolution is very sensitive to the proper characterization of the electron donor (organic carbon) source, naturally-occurring mineral electron acceptors, and

  4. Quantifying tap-to-household water quality deterioration in urban communities in Vellore, India: The impact of spatial assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon Falconi, Tania M; Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Mohan, Venkata Raghava; Francis, Mark R; Kattula, Deepthi; Sarkar, Rajiv; Ward, Honorine; Kang, Gagandeep; Balraj, Vinohar; Naumova, Elena N

    2017-01-01

    Municipal water sources in India have been found to be highly contaminated, with further water quality deterioration occurring during household storage. Quantifying water quality deterioration requires knowledge about the exact source tap and length of water storage at the household, which is not usually known. This study presents a methodology to link source and household stored water, and explores the effects of spatial assumptions on the association between tap-to-household water quality deterioration and enteric infections in two semi-urban slums of Vellore, India. To determine a possible water source for each household sample, we paired household and tap samples collected on the same day using three spatial approaches implemented in GIS: minimum Euclidean distance; minimum network distance; and inverse network-distance weighted average. Logistic and Poisson regression models were used to determine associations between water quality deterioration and household-level characteristics, and between diarrheal cases and water quality deterioration. On average, 60% of households had higher fecal coliform concentrations in household samples than at source taps. Only the weighted average approach detected a higher risk of water quality deterioration for households that do not purify water and that have animals in the home (RR=1.50 [1.03, 2.18], p=0.033); and showed that households with water quality deterioration were more likely to report diarrheal cases (OR=3.08 [1.21, 8.18], p=0.02). Studies to assess contamination between source and household are rare due to methodological challenges and high costs associated with collecting paired samples. Our study demonstrated it is possible to derive useful spatial links between samples post hoc; and that the pairing approach affects the conclusions related to associations between enteric infections and water quality deterioration.

  5. Analysis of benthic macroinvertebrates and biotic indices to evaluate water quality in rivers impacted by mining activities in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvial I.E.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Catchments in the semiarid regions are especially susceptible to environmental perturbation associated with water scarcity, hydrological variations and overuse by anthropogenic activities. Using multivariate analysis to relate environmental and biological data, and diversity and biotic indices (ChBMWP, ChIBF, we analyzed the macroinvertebrate composition of 12 rivers of the semiarid region of northern Chile. A non-metric multidimensional scaling for macroinvertebrate taxa and a principal component analysis for environmental variables strongly separated upstream sites (e.g. Vacas Heladas and Malo Rivers, which presented low pH and high dissolved metal concentrations, from other sites. Effectively, CCA showed that metals and low pH, associated with the altitudinal gradient, determined the distributional patterns of macroinvertebrates in the Elqui catchment. The causes of these particular conditions could be related to geological processes and human impact. The biotic indices applied to the sampling sites corroborated and reflected these characteristics, with La Laguna and Turbio Rivers showing a diverse macroinvertebrate community and moderate to good water quality, and the Claro River showing favorable conditions for the development of aquatic biota, indicating its better quality relative to other stations. To the middle and low part of the basin, a change in the composition of the community was observed, with species that suggest an impact by an increase in organic matter, due to agricultural activities and urban settlements concentrated in this area. Our results suggest that macroinvertebrate taxa in northern Chile may be exceptional species, adapted to unfavorable geochemical conditions, and emphasize the need for protection of the semiarid basins of the region.

  6. Impact of a silver layer on the membrane of tap water filters on the microbiological quality of filtered water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruderek Juliane

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria in the hospital's drinking water system represent a risk for the acquisition of a nosocomial infection in the severely immunocompromised host. Terminal tap water filters may be used to prevent nosocomial Legionnaires' disease. We present data from water samples using an improved kind of tap water filters. Methods In a blinded study on an intermediate care unit of the thoracic surgery department, a modified type of the Germlyser water filter (Aqua-Free Membrane Technology with a newly-introduced silver layer on the filtration membrane was compared to its preceding type without such a layer on 15 water outlets. We determined growth of Legionella, other pathogenic bacteria, and the total heterotrophic plate count in unfiltered water and filtered water samples after filter usage intervals of 1 through 4 weeks. Results A total of 299 water samples were tested. Twenty-nine of the 60 unfiltered water samples contained Legionella of various serogroups (baseline value. In contrast, all samples filtered by the original water filter and all but one of the water samples filtered by the modified filter type remained Legionella-free. No other pathogenic bacteria were detected in any filtered sample. The total plate count in water samples increased during use of both kinds of filters over time. However, for the first 7 days of use, there were significantly fewer water samples containing >100 CFU per mL when using the new filter device compared with the older filters or taps with no filter. No advantage was seen thereafter. Conclusion The use of this type of terminal water filter is an appropriate method to protect immunocompromised patients from water-borne pathogens such as Legionella.

  7. Purified water quality study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinka, H.; Jackowski, P.

    2000-04-03

    Argonne National Laboratory (HEP) is examining the use of purified water for the detection medium in cosmic ray sensors. These sensors are to be deployed in a remote location in Argentina. The purpose of this study is to provide information and preliminary analysis of available water treatment options and associated costs. This information, along with the technical requirements of the sensors, will allow the project team to determine the required water quality to meet the overall project goals.

  8. Changing the spatial location of electricity generation to increase water availability in areas with drought: a feasibility study and quantification of air quality impacts in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacsi, Adam P.; Alhajeri, Nawaf S.; Webster, Mort D.; Webber, Michael E.; Allen, David T.

    2013-09-01

    The feasibility, cost, and air quality impacts of using electrical grids to shift water use from drought-stricken regions to areas with more water availability were examined. Power plant cooling represents a large portion of freshwater withdrawals in the United States, and shifting where electricity generation occurs can allow the grid to act as a virtual water pipeline, increasing water availability in regions with drought by reducing water consumption and withdrawals for power generation. During a 2006 drought, shifting electricity generation out of the most impacted areas of South Texas (∼10% of base case generation) to other parts of the grid would have been feasible using transmission and power generation available at the time, and some areas would experience changes in air quality. Although expensive, drought-based electricity dispatch is a potential parallel strategy that can be faster to implement than other infrastructure changes, such as air cooling or water pipelines.

  9. Drinking water quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, J; Gautam, B; Sapkota, N

    2012-09-01

    Drinking water quality is the great public health concern because it is a major risk factor for high incidence of diarrheal diseases in Nepal. In the recent years, the prevalence rate of diarrhoea has been found the highest in Myagdi district. This study was carried out to assess the quality of drinking water from different natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps at Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district. A cross-sectional study was carried out using random sampling method in Arthunge VDC of Myagdi district from January to June,2010. 84 water samples representing natural sources, reservoirs and collection taps from the study area were collected. The physico-chemical and microbiological analysis was performed following standards technique set by APHA 1998 and statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11.5. The result was also compared with national and WHO guidelines. Out of 84 water samples (from natural source, reservoirs and tap water) analyzed, drinking water quality parameters (except arsenic and total coliform) of all water samples was found to be within the WHO standards and national standards.15.48% of water samples showed pH (13) higher than the WHO permissible guideline values. Similarly, 85.71% of water samples showed higher Arsenic value (72) than WHO value. Further, the statistical analysis showed no significant difference (Pwater for collection taps water samples of winter (January, 2010) and summer (June, 2010). The microbiological examination of water samples revealed the presence of total coliform in 86.90% of water samples. The results obtained from physico-chemical analysis of water samples were within national standard and WHO standards except arsenic. The study also found the coliform contamination to be the key problem with drinking water.

  10. Water quality monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conio, O. [Azienda Mediterranea Gas e Acqua spa, Genua (Italy)

    1998-12-31

    By involving institutions and rules, and technology as well, water resources management presents remarkable complexity. In institutions such a complexity is due to division of competence into monitoring activities, quality control, water utility supply and water treatment. As far as technology goes, complexity results from a wide range of physical, chemical and biological requisites, which define water quality according to specific water uses (for populations, farms, factories). Thus it`s necessary to have reliable and in-time environmental data, so to fulfil two complementary functions: 1) the control of any state of emergency, such as floods and accidental pollution, in order to take immediate measures by means of timely available information; 2) the mid- and long-term planning of water resources, so to achieve their reclamation, conservation and exploitation. An efficient and reliable way to attain these goals is to develop integrated continuous monitoring systems, which allow to control the quality of surface and underground water, the flow of bodies of water and those weather conditions that directly affect it. Such systems compose an environmental information network, which enables to collect and process data relative to the state of the body of water, its aquifer, and the weather conditions.

  11. Impact of water quality on chlorine demand of corroding copper (Supplement)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Copper is widely used in drinking water premise plumbing system materials. In buildings such as hospitals, large and complicated plumbing networks make it difficult...

  12. Impacts of converting low-intensity pastureland to high-intensity bioenergy cropland on the water quality of tropical streams in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Ricardo Hideo; Cassiano, Carla Cristina; Filoso, Solange; Ferraz, Silvio Frosini de Barros; Camargo, Plínio Barbosa de; Martinelli, Luiz Antônio

    2017-04-15

    In Brazil, the cultivation of bioenergy crops is expanding at an accelerated rate. Most of this expansion has occurred over low-intensity pasture and is considered sustainable because it does not involve deforestation of natural vegetation. However, the impacts on the water quality of headwater streams are poorly understood, especially with regard to the influence of land use patterns in the watershed. In this study, we investigated the effects of land-use conversion on the water quality of streams draining sugarcane fields and examined whether the preservation of forested areas at the top of the headwaters would help mitigate the negative impacts of intensive agriculture. Water samples were collected in two paired catchments in southeastern Brazil, which is one of the largest sugarcane production regions in the world. Our results show significant differences in the water quality of streams predominantly draining the pasture or the sugarcane field. Several parameters commonly used to indicate water quality, such as the concentrations of nitrate and suspended solids, were significantly higher in the sugarcane than in the pasture stream. Differences in water quality between the streams draining predominantly pasture or sugarcane fields were accentuated during the wet season. The preservation of forests surrounding the headwater streams was associated with overall better water quality conditions, such as lower nitrate concentrations and temperature of the stream water. We concluded that forest conservation in the headwater agricultural catchments is an important factor preventing water quality degradation in tropical streams. Therefore, we strongly recommend the preservation of robust riparian forests in the headwaters of tropical watersheds with intensive agriculture. More studies on the effects of best agricultural practices in bioenergy crops can greatly improve our capacity to prevent the degradation of water quality in the tropical waterways as intensive

  13. Impact of Animal Waste Application on Runoff Water Quality in Field Experimental Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal waste from dairy and poultry operations is an economical and commonly used fertilizer in the state of Louisiana. The application of animal waste to pasture lands not only is a source of fertilizer, but also allows for a convenient method of waste disposal. The disposal of animal wastes on land is a potential nonpoint source of water degradation. Water degradation and human health is a major concern when considering the disposal of large quantities of animal waste. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of animal waste application on biological (fecal coliform, Enterobacter spp. and Escherichia coli and physical/chemical (temperature, pH, nitrate nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, copper, zinc, and sulfate characteristics of runoff water in experimental plots. The effects of the application of animal waste have been evaluated by utilizing experimental plots and simulated rainfall events. Samples of runoff water were collected and analyzed for fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. Chemical analysis was performed following standard test protocols. An analysis of temperature, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen, iron, copper, phosphate, potassium, sulfate, zinc and bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as presented in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater [1]. In the experimental plots, less time was required in the tilled broiler litter plots for the measured chemicals to decrease below the initial pre-treatment levels. A decrease of over 50% was noted between the first and second rainfall events for sulfate levels. This decrease was seen after only four simulated rainfall events in tilled broiler litter plots whereas broiler litter plots required eight simulated rainfall events to show this same type of reduction. A reverse trend was seen in the broiler litter plots and the tilled broiler plots for potassium

  14. Climate Change Impact on the Hydrology and Water Quality of a Small Partially-Irrigated Agricultural Lowland Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, A.; Kroes, J.; van Vliet, M. T.; Blenkinsop, S.; Broers, H.

    2010-12-01

    have accumulated in the top soil, the concentrations in the Keersop stream under present day climate react to groundwater level fluctuations. As a result of lower groundwater levels under future climate scenarios, the transport of Cd and Zn towards surface water is projected to decrease. The mass balance of Cd and Zn for the catchment changes towards more storage (adsorption to the soil) and less leaching. Overall, the soils in the catchment function as a sink for Cd and Zn, both under baseline and future climate conditions. In conclusion, climate change leads to an intensification of the soil-plant-atmosphere coupling and a slowing-down of the groundwater system. This results in a positive impact on a limited aspect of surface water quality. To provide useful advice to water managers on the impact of future climate on water quality, all aspects of water quality should be considered.

  15. Impact of Increased Corn Production on Ground Water Quality and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we use a complex coupled modeling system to assess the impacts of increased corn production on groundwater. In particular, we show how the models provide new information on the drivers of contamination in groundwater, and then relate pollutant concentration change...

  16. Impact of urban chemical pollution on water quality in small, rural and effluent-dominated Mediterranean streams and rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandaric, Ladislav; Mor, Jordi-René; Sabater, Sergi; Petrovic, Mira

    2017-09-19

    The impact and occurrence of wastewater (treated and untreated) derived pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) have been investigated in small, rural and effluent-dominated tributaries of the lower Ebro River located in the North-Eastern Spain (Catalonia). We have observed the predominant effect of stream flow and consequently dilution factor on the concentration levels of detected PhACs that combined with the absence of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) resulted in 12 times higher concentrations in streams with direct discharge of untreated wastewater. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) were the most ubiquitous compounds, in terms of both individual concentration and frequency of detection. In the sites impacted by raw wastewater, acetaminophen and ibuprofen showed the highest concentrations among all analyzed PhACs, reaching concentrations up to 7.78μgL(-1) and 2.66μgL(-1), respectively. However, PhACs detected in the sites impacted by treated wastewater showed generally lower concentration levels and frequencies of detection. Also, effluent-dominated streams showed higher concentration levels of PhACs due to a generally lower stream flows and small dilution factors. However, concentration levels of detected PhACs were dependent on the hydraulic travel time and distance from the discharge point and related with the in-stream attenuation. As a result, this study highlights the combined impact of hydrological and chemical stressors on the water quality of the rural Mediterranean aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. IMPACT OF REALIZED IMS SYSTEM IN PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF WATER ON QUALITY OF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Todorović

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper from the assessments: the satisfaction of the citizens with the services PUC "Waterworks and Sewerage" and the total time interruption in water supply, appreciating their importance, we carried out the assessment of the implemented IMS PUC "Waterworks and Sewerage" in Kragujevac.

  18. Zimbabwean mine dumps and their impacts on river water quality a reconnaissance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meck, Maideyi; Love, David; Mapani, Benjamin

    Zimbabwe has a substantial number of mines and 67 minerals have been mined in the country since 1900 but at present only 30 different minerals are being mined. Exploitation of a variety of ores, in rocks of diverse composition, provides the potential for a range of pollution problems. The severity and extent of contamination differs with the type of minerals mined. This paper presents part of the results of a broad study, carried out across Zimbabwe, which assessed the potential of different mine tailings dumps to cause environmental problems. The dumps considered in the study were divided into six dump types, namely: gold-mine dumps, base-metal mine dumps (dumps associated with the mining of nickel, zinc, copper and lead), minor-metals mine dumps (dumps associated with mining of antimony, arsenic, and selenium), platinum-group metal mine dumps, chromite and asbestos mine dumps, and sulphur (pyrite) mine dumps. The elemental chemistry of the dumps and physical characteristics (pH, total dissolved solids) of the dumps, tailings’ leachates, and stream waters around the dumps were used to assess the potential of the dumps to pollute water bodies. Samples were collected in both the dry and wet seasons. The dispersion and pollution patterns were derived from Eh-pH conditions around the dumps after considering the mobility of the elements present in these dumps under different Eh-pH conditions. In this paper potential to pollute is considered as the likelihood of the elements to disperse under the prevailing conditions at the dump. The concentrations of elements, type of elements and the potential dispersion and pollution patterns from each dump were used to characterise potential risk of water pollution associated with the different dump types. The results showed a slight increase in concentrations of most elements studied in downstream waters compared to upstream waters. The dump conditions varied from acidic to alkaline, and so the elements studied have different

  19. Impact of intensive agricultural practices on drinking water quality in the Evros region (NE Greece) by GIS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, C; Mandalos, P; Vantarakis, A

    2008-08-01

    Chemical fertilizers are used extensively in modern agriculture, in order to improve yield and productivity of agricultural products. However, nutrient leaching from agricultural soil into groundwater resources poses a major environmental and public health concern. The Evros region is one of the largest agricultural areas in Northern Greece, extending over 1.5 million acres of cultivated land. Many of its drinking water resources are of groundwater origin and lie within agricultural areas. In order to assess the impact of agricultural fertilizers on drinking water quality in this region, tap-water samples from 64 different locations were collected and analyzed for the presence of nitrates (NO(3)(-)), nitrites (NO(2)(-)), ammonium (NH(4)(+)), sulfate (SO(4)(-2)) and phosphate (PO(4)(-3)). These chemicals were selected based on the information that ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and inorganic phosphate were the primary fertilizers used in local crop production. NO(3)(-), SO(4)(-2) and PO(4)(-3) levels exceeding accepted values were recorded in 6.25, 4.70 and 9.38% of all sampling points, respectively. NO(2)(-) and NH(4)(+) concentrations, on the other hand, were inside the permitted range. The data generated were introduced into a geographic information system (GIS) program for computer analysis and projection maps representing afflicted areas were created. Our results indicate a profound geographic correlation in the surface distribution of primary contaminants in areas of intensified agricultural production. Thus, drinking water pollution in these areas can be attributed to excessive fertilizer use from agricultural sources.

  20. Assessing environmental impacts on stream water quality: the use of cumulative flux and cumulative flux difference approaches to deforestation of the Hafren Forest, mid-Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for examining the impacts of disturbance on stream water quality based on paired catchment “controlâ€? and “responseâ€? water quality time series is described in relation to diagrams of cumulative flux and cumulative flux difference. The paper describes the equations used and illustrates the patterns expected for idealised flux changes followed by an application to stream water quality data for a spruce forested catchment, the Hore, subjected to clear fell. The water quality determinands examined are sodium, chloride, nitrate, calcium and acid neutralisation capacity. The anticipated effects of felling are shown in relation to reduction in mist capture and nitrate release with felling as well as to the influence of weathering and cation exchange mechanisms, but in a much clearer way than observed previously using other approaches. Keywords: Plynlimon, stream, Hore, acid neutralisation capacity, calcium, chloride, nitrate, sodium, cumulative flux, flux

  1. Impact of Mount St. Helens eruption on hydrology and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonelli, J. E.; Taylor, H. E.; Klein, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens in southeast Washington resulted in a pronounced effect on the surface and ground water resources of the state. In response to the volcanic activity, the U.S. Geological Survey intensified statewide surface and ground water sampling programs to determine the nature and magnitude of the volcanic-induced variations. Streams to the east of Mount St. Helens received the major ash fallout. Chemical effects were best noted in smaller streams sampled 60 to 70 miles northeast of Mount St. Helens. The chemical variations observed were pronounced but short lived. Sulfate and chloride increases in anionic composition were prevalent immediately following the eruption; however, the original bicarbonate predominance was again attained within several days. Suspended iron and aluminum concentrations were similarly elevated during the period of greatest ash deposition (highest turbidity); however, the dissolved concentrations remained relatively constant. Depressions of pH were minor and short lived. Streams draining to the south, tributaries to the Columbia river, showed little observable changes in water chemistry. Streams draining to the west (Toutle river and its tributaries) were compositionally affected by the various volcanic activities. Chloride and sulfate anion percentage exceeded the bicarbonate percentage up to one month following the eruption period. Streams and lakes sampled in the immediate vicinity of Mount St. Helens, in addition to trace metals, contained organic compounds derived from decomposing wood buried in the debris deposits. This organic material may constitute a significant source of organic compounds to surface and ground water for some time to come.

  2. Monitoring Watershed Water Quality Impacts on Near-Shore Coral Reef Ecosystems in American Samoa using NASA Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaby, A.; Price, J.; Minovitz, D.; Makely, L.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Schmidt, C.; Guild, L. S.; Palacios, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Land use changes can greatly increase erosion and sediment loads reaching watersheds and downstream coastal waters. In coastal environments with steep terrain and small drainage basins, sedimentation directly influences water quality in near-shore marine environments. Poor water quality indicators (i.e., dissolved nutrients and high particulates) affect coral calcification, photosynthesis, and coral cover. The abundance, recruitment, and biodiversity of American Samoa's coral reefs have been heavily affected by population growth, land cover change, pollution, and sediment influx. Monitoring, managing, and protecting these fragile ecosystems remains difficult due to limited resource availability, steep terrain, and local land ownership. Despite extensive field hours, traditional field and lab-based water quality research produces temporally and spatially limited datasets. Using a 'ridge to reef' effort, this project built a management tool to assess coral reef vulnerability using land use, hydrology, water quality, and coral reef cover in American Samoa to provide local agencies and partners with spatial representation of water quality parameters and site-specific implications for coral reef vulnerability. This project used land cover classified from Landsat 7 and 8 images, precipitation data from NOAA, and physical ocean factors from Terra MODIS. Changes in land cover from 2000 to 2014 were also estimated using Landsat imagery. Final products were distributed to partners to enhance water quality management, community outreach, and coral reef conservation.

  3. Safety impact of piled municipal solid waste dumps in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region on water quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The safety of water quality in the Three Gorges Reservoir(TGR)is very important.Protections and remediation of environment safety are very crucial for guaranteeing TGR environmental quality.When piled municipal solid waste(MSW) dumps are submerged without treatment,pollutants in the MSW will leach into the water and threaten the water safety of the reservoir.Based on the surveys of the amount,distribution and characteristics of piled MSW in the TGR area,this study focusing on the MSW dumps at the water leve...

  4. Examining the Secondary Impacts of Biostimulation on Water Quality and Sustained Bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capiro, N. L.; Marcet, T. F.; Yang, Y.; Gaeth, S. P.; Loeffler, F. E.; Pennell, K. D.

    2015-12-01

    Anaerobic bioremediation typically relies on electron donor addition, which supports reductively dechlorinating bacteria, but also stimulates other microbial groups including methanogens, and sulfate- and metal-reducers. This microbial activity can impact groundwater geochemistry and hydrology. For example, ferric iron- and sulfate-reducing bacteria generate ferrous iron and hydrogen sulfide, respectively, causing iron(II) monosulfide (FeS) mineralization that can restrict or block pore throats. The impacts of potential FeS precipitation, and subsequent oxidation caused by infiltration of oxic groundwater, on porous media permeability of were investigated through a series of column and aquifer cell studies. FeS precipitation-caused permeability and porosity losses ranged from 0 - 73% and 1.2 - 7.2%, respectively, and this impact was most apparent in soils with high organic carbon content. In aquifer cell studies, FeS precipitation caused local reductions in permeability, which led to zones of hydraulic isolation and preferential flow paths. Further, microbial activity following biostimulation can also lower groundwater pH through the formation of organic acids and CO2, and the release of hydrochloric acid during dechlorination reactions. An obvious concern is activity loss of chlorinated ethene-detoxifying Dehalococcoides mccartyi (Dhc) strains, which are active at circumneutral pH, but show reduced dechlorination activity below pH 6.5. A series of batch reactors were established to explore the consequences of pH reduction on dechlorinating isolates and a Dhc-containing consortium. No tetrachloroethene (PCE) dechlorination occurred at pH 5.5 unless solids were added, suggesting that certain solids enable Dhc activity in low pH groundwater. The consortium exposed to pH 5.5 dechlorinated PCE-to-vinyl chloride (VC) upon transfer to pH 7; however, VC-to-ethene dechlorination activity did not recover, suggesting that VC-dechlorinating Dhc strains are particularly

  5. Impact of sewage treatment plants and combined sewer overflow basins on the microbiological quality of surface water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechenburg, A; Koch, Ch; Classen, Th; Kistemann, Th

    2006-01-01

    In a small river catchment, microbiological quality of different sewage treatment plants under regular conditions and in case of heavy rainfall, when combined sewage overflow basins (CSOs) are activated, was examined regarding microbial indicators and pathogens. In the watercourse, no self-cleaning effects could be observed. Small compact treatment plants discharge treated wastewater with a poor microbiological quality compared to river water quality and the quality of treated wastewater of larger plants. During storm water events, concentrations of microorganisms downstream of sewer overflows were approximately two logs higher than during dry weather conditions. Concentrations of parasites decreased slowly during the overflow, in parallel to filterable matter and particle-bound substances. The annual load of microorganisms originating from CSOs significantly exceeds the load from treated effluent of the sewage plants. Thus, an improved hygienic quality of the water course could be achieved by preventing overflows and by enhancing sewage treatment plants.

  6. Water and Planktonic Quality of a Palm Oil Effluent Impacted River in Ondo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Adedeji

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available -1. The dissolved oxygen content of water rarely went below 3.0 mg L-1 and rarely above 7.0 mg L-1 irrespective of sampling location. Quantitatively, the levels of Fe and Cu with a mean concentration ranging between 3.07?1.58 and 10.35?3.33 mg L-1 were the major elements in the water sample while Na, K, Ca, Mg with mean concentrations between 1.05?0.02 and 4.10?1.65 mg L-1 were the minor elements. Irrespective of the site of sample collection on the river, the concentrations of Cr, Ni, Pb and P (-1 occurred in trace amounts. The phytoplanktonic flora of River Oluwa showed an extensive overlap between the sites due to homogenous climatic and environmental conditions. The recorded taxa consists of ten chlorophytes, five species of diatoms, three cyanophycean species and one euglenophyte. The zooplanktonic fauna consists of six species of rotifers. Spirogyra fluviatilis and Ulothrix zonata were the dominant green algae (Chlorophyta irrespective of the location while Synedra sp. and Fragillaria crotonensis were the dominant diatoms (Bacillariophyta. Quantitatively, samples collected from the Oluagbo and Ebute-Ire locations had significantly higher (p

  7. Galvanic Corrosion of Lead by Iron (Oxyhydr)Oxides: Potential Impacts on Drinking Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueman, Benjamin F; Sweet, Gregory A; Harding, Matthew D; Estabrook, Hayden; Bishop, D Paul; Gagnon, Graham A

    2017-06-20

    Lead exposure via drinking water remains a significant public health risk; this study explored the potential effects of upstream iron corrosion on lead mobility in water distribution systems. Specifically, galvanic corrosion of lead by iron (oxyhydr)oxides was investigated. Coupling an iron mineral cathode with metallic lead in a galvanic cell increased lead release by 531 μg L(-1) on average-a 9-fold increase over uniform corrosion in the absence of iron. Cathodes were composed of spark plasma sintered Fe3O4 or α-Fe2O3 or field-extracted Fe3O4 and α-FeOOH. Orthophosphate immobilized oxidized lead as insoluble hydroxypyromorphite, while humic acid enhanced lead mobility. Addition of a humic isolate increased lead release due to uniform corrosion by 81 μg L(-1) and-upon coupling lead to a mineral cathode-release due to galvanic corrosion by 990 μg L(-1). Elevated lead in the presence of humic acid appeared to be driven by complexation, with (208)Pb and UV254 size-exclusion chromatograms exhibiting strong correlation under these conditions (R(2)average = 0.87). A significant iron corrosion effect was consistent with field data: lead levels after lead service line replacement were greater by factors of 2.3-4.7 at sites supplied by unlined cast iron distribution mains compared with the alternative, lined ductile iron.

  8. Water quality assessment in the Mexican Caribbean: Impacts on the coastal ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Terrones, Laura M.; Null, Kimberly A.; Ortega-Camacho, Daniela; Paytan, Adina

    2015-07-01

    Coastal zones are dominated by economically important ecosystems, and excessive urban, industrial, agricultural, and tourism activities can lead to rapid degradation of those habitats and resources. Groundwater in the Eastern Yucatan Peninsula coastal aquifer discharges directly into the coastal ocean affecting the coral reefs, which are part of the Mesoamerican Coral Reef System. The composition and impacts of groundwater were studied at different coastal environments around Akumal (SE Yucatan Peninsula). Radium isotopes and salinity were used to quantify fresh groundwater and recirculated seawater contributions to the coastal zone. Excess Ra distribution suggests spatially variable discharge rates of submarine groundwater. High NO3- levels and high coliform bacteria densities indicate that groundwater is polluted at some sites. Dissolved phosphorous content is elevated in the winter and during the high tourism season, likely released from untreated sewage discharge and from aquifer sediments under reducing conditions.

  9. Process water usage and water quality in poultry processing equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The operation of poultry processing equipment was analyzed to determine the impact of water reduction strategies on process water quality. Mandates to reduce the consumption of process water in poultry processing facilities have created the need to critically examine water usage patterns and develop...

  10. Stream Water Quality Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — QUAL2K (or Q2K) is a river and stream water quality model that is intended to represent a modernized version of the QUAL2E (or Q2E) model (Brown and Barnwell 1987).

  11. Influence of the Pearl River estuary and vertical mixing in Victoria Harbor on water quality in relation to eutrophication impacts in Hong Kong waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kedong; Harrison, Paul J

    2007-06-01

    This study presents water quality parameters such as nutrients, phytoplankton biomass and dissolved oxygen based on 11 years of water quality data in Victoria Harbor and examined how the Pearl River estuary discharge in summer and year round sewage discharge influenced these parameters. Nutrients in Victoria Harbor were strongly influenced by both the Pearl River and sewage effluent, as indicated by the high NO(3) inputs from the Pearl River in summer and higher NH(4) and PO(4) in Victoria Harbor than both its sides. N:P ratios were low in the dry season, but increased to >16:1 in the wet season, suggesting that P is potentially the most limiting nutrient in this area during the critical period in the summer. Although there were generally high nutrients, the phytoplankton biomass was not as high as one would expect in Victoria Harbor. In fact, there were high concentrations of chl near the bottom well below the photic zone. Salinity near the bottom was lower in Victoria Harbor than at the two entrances to Victoria Harbor, suggesting strong vertical mixing within Victoria Harbor. Therefore, strong vertical mixing and horizontal advection appear to play an important role in significantly reducing eutrophication impacts in Victoria Harbor. Consequently, dissolved oxygen near the bottom was low in summer, but only occasionally dipped to 2 mgL(-1) despite the high organic loading from sewage effluent.

  12. Safe Drinking Water and Satisfaction with Environmental Quality of Life in Some Oil and Gas Industry Impacted Cities of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejechi, E. O.; Ejechi, B. O.

    2008-01-01

    The availability and safety of drinking water and the environmental quality of life was investigated in five cities located in an oil-producing area of Nigeria using questionnaire-based scales, discussion and laboratory tests. Polythene-packaged sachet water and commercial and non-commercial private boreholes largely met the drinking water…

  13. Impact of seawater-quality and water treatment procedures on the active bacterial assemblages at two desalination sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manes, C-L de O; Barbe, C; West, N J; Rapenne, S; Lebaron, P

    2011-07-15

    Inorganic and organic compounds, particles and microorganisms in intake waters are mainly responsible for fouling of reverse osmosis membranes, which reduces the efficiency of the desalination process. The characterization of seawater quality to better predict its fouling potential remains a challenge for the desalination field and little is known about the seasonal variability of water quality parameters in the coastal waters used to supply desalination plants. In this study, standard water quality methods were combined with flow cytometry and molecular methods (16S rRNA sequencing and fingerprinting) to assess in parallel, the physicochemical properties, the microbial abundance and the active microbial community composition of the intake waters and their associated pretreated waters at two desalination sites from July 2007 to July 2008. The overall assessment of quality parameters revealed that microfiltration followed by slow sand filtration were the most efficient in removing microorganisms than the conventional dual media filtration routinely used in full-scale desalination plants, and that all treatments were inefficient for organic matter reduction. Temporal variation of the environmental parameters such as temperature, turbidity and silt density index only moderately affected the bacterial community structure in raw waters, but that interestingly, water treatment compartments changed the composition and diversity of the metabolically active bacterial populations and thus create distinct ecological post-treatment niches.

  14. Impact of pesticide use by smallholder farmers on water quality in the Wakiso District, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltramare, Christelle; Weiss, Frederik T.; Atuhaire, Aggrey; Staudacher, Philipp; Niwagaba, Charles; Stamm, Christian

    2017-04-01

    As in many tropical countries, farmers of the Wakiso District rely on heavy use of pesticides to protect crops and animals. This may impair human and environmental health due to poor application techniques, misuse of pesticide bins or diffuse pesticide losses from the treated fields during intense tropical rainstorms. The extent of pollution in different environmental compartments however, are generally only poorly documented. The same holds true for quantitative data on the relevance of different transport pathways of pesticides into the environment. Part of the limited knowledge is caused by the demanding sampling and analytical techniques that are necessary to obtain robust data on the actual pollution status. Especially in surface waters, pesticide concentration may vary rapidly in time such that grab samples may yield a very incomplete picture. This incompleteness was often enhanced because of limited analytical windows that covered only a small fraction of the pesticides actually used. In this presentation, we describe an approach to overcome these limitations to a large extent by using three different passive sampling devices and two broad analytical techniques (GC-MS/MS, LC HR-MS) that allow the quantification of about 260 different pesticides. We will present how these approaches are implemented in the catchment area of the Wakiso District in Uganda. This area is intensively used by smallholder farmers who grow a large set of different crops. Diffuse losses are expected to occur mainly during the two rainy seasons (March to May and September to November). Accordingly, the study will focus on this situation.

  15. Drought-resistant cereals: impact on water sustainability and nutritional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, W T B

    2015-08-01

    This review uses production and climate data to examine global and local production trends that can be related to events such as drought. UK grain quality data is also available and provides an overview of trends in protein content. Literature surveys show a consistent reduction in grain size due to the effects of temperature and/or drought. A review of gene expression studies showed that most genes involved in starch synthesis are down regulated under heat stress. Net protein production is also reduced under heat and/or drought stress but apparently to a lesser degree as the reduction in grain mass is larger, resulting in an increase in protein concentration. Modelling has suggested that adaptation could be achieved by moving production to more extreme latitudes but other research suggests that simply transferring germplasm from one region to another is unlikely to be successful. Another review has identified drought tolerance phenotypes that could be used to breed more drought tolerant crops. At the time of the review, the authors concluded that phenotypic selection was generally preferable to forms of marker-assisted breeding and have used the approach to produce drought tolerant wheat cultivars. Transgenic approaches have also been shown to improve drought tolerance under controlled environment conditions but there are no results to show how well these results translate into improved crop performance under field conditions. The recent advances in genomic data and detecting marker-trait associations suggest that marker-assisted breeding will play a much more important role in breeding drought tolerant cereals in the future.

  16. Extending one-dimensional models for deep lakes to simulate the impact of submerged macrophytes on water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachse, R.; Petzoldt, T.; Blumstock, M.; Moreira, S.; Pätzig, M.; Rücker, J.; Janse, J.H.; Mooij, W.M.; Hilt, S.

    2014-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes can stabilise clear water conditions in shallow lakes. However, many existing models for deep lakes neglect their impact. Here, we tested the hypothesis that submerged macrophytes can affect the water clarity in deep lakes. A one-dimensional, vertically resolved macrophyte mode

  17. The Impact of Traditional Septic Tank Soakaway Systems and the Effects of Remediation on Water Quality in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilroy, Kate; Keggan, Mary; Barrett, Maria; Dubber, Donata; Gill, Laurence W.; O'Flaherty, Vincent

    2014-05-01

    occurrence using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) assays (Kildare et al., 2007). The abundance of both archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA and of several functional nitrification and denitrification genes (i.e., amoA, nirS, nirK, and nosZ) is also being determined and compared in both sites. Ultimately, this novel project aims to assess the effectiveness of remediation at reducing the risk of pathogen transport and nitrate loading to local ground and surface waters. Results from both sites suggest low permeability subsoil prevents the even distribution of effluent through the receiving subsoil, forcing it instead to flow laterally via distinct pathways such as sand lenses and nearby drainage routes. This affects the ability of the subsoil to sufficiently treat the percolating effluent. Initial results from the remediation of the existing systems to alternative low pressure systems indicate a positive impact towards the groundwater quality of both sites. This step towards a better understanding of the factors influencing microbial denitrification and the behaviour of pathogens in sensitive environments aids in identifying management options for reducing nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and nitrate (NO3-) leaching; and for enhanced protection of public health.

  18. Impact of Shrimp Farm Effluent on Water Quality in Coastal Areas of the World Heritage-Listed Ha Long Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuyet D. Bui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Shrimp farming has rapidly developed in coastal areas of the World Heritage-listed Ha Long Bay since the last decade. Effluent discharged from shrimp farms with high levels of nutrient waste may cause eutrophication in receiving waterways. Therefore, assessing water quality at tidal creeks receiving shrimp farm effluent in coastal areas of Ha Long Bay supports environmental protection and decision making for sustainable development of the region. Approach: Water samples were collected at 3 different locations for spatial assessment: inside sections of creeks directly receiving farm effluent (IEC, from main creeks adjacent to points of effluent discharge outside concentrated shrimp farms (OEC and a few kilometers away from shrimp farm (ASF. Samples were taken on 3 occasions for temporal assessment. Parameters related to nutrient waste from shrimp farms, including: Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN, Nitrite-Nitrogen (NO2-N, Nitrate-Nitrogen (NO3-N, Total Phosphorus (TP, Dissolved Orthophosphate (PO4-P, Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Total Suspended Solid (TSS, Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a, Temperature, Salinity, pH and Dissolved Oxygen (DO were determined using standard methods. Results: There were statistically significant differences in the concentrations of TAN, NO2-N, NO3-N, TP, PO4-P, BOD, COD and Chl-a among IEC, OEC, ASF and the levels of these parameters increased after shrimp crops, especially after the main shrimp crop of the season in North Vietnam. The concentrations of TAN, NO3-N, TP, BOD, COD, Chl-a, TSS at IEC sites were higher than recommended for protecting aquatic ecosystems. Principal Component Analysis (PCA efficiently summarized patterns of co-variation in water quality parameters among locations and study times. Conclusion/Recommendations: The findings of this study indicate that greater awareness of the environmental impacts of shrimp farms is required if this industry is to be sustainable

  19. Assessment of dam impacts on river flow regimes and water quality: a case study of the Huai River Basin in P. R. China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jun; ZHANG Yong-yong; WANG Gang-sheng

    2008-01-01

    The Huai River Basin is a unique area in P.R.China with the highest densities of population and water projects. It is also subject to the most serious water pollution. We proposed a distributional SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model coupled with a water quality-quantity balance model to evaluate dam impacts on river flow regimes and water quality in the middle and upper reaches of the Huai River Basin. We calibrated and validated the SWAT model with data from 29 selected cross-sections in four typical years (1971, 1981, 1991 and 1999) and used scenario analysis to compensate for the unavailability of historical data regarding uninterrupted river flows before dam and floodgate construction, a problem of prediction for ungauged basins. The results indicate that dam and floodgate operations tended to reduce runoff, decrease peak value and shift peaking time.The contribution of water projects to river water quality deterioration in the concerned river system was between 0 to 40%, while pollutant discharge contributed to 60% to 100% of the water pollution. Pollution control should therefore be the key to the water quality rehabilitation in the Huai River Basin.

  20. Impact of using paper mill sludge for surface-mine reclamation on runoff water quality and plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipitalo, M.J.; Bonta, J.V. [USDA ARS, Coshocton, OH (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Paper mills generate large amounts of solid waste consisting of fibrous cellulose, clay, and lime. Paper mill Sludge (PMS) can improve reclamation of surface-coal mines where low pH and organic-carbon levels in the spoil cover material can inhibit revegetation. When applied at high rates, however, PMS may adversely impact the quality of surface runoff. Therefore, we applied PMS at 0, 224, and 672 dry Mg ha{sup -1} to 22.1 x 4.6-m plots at a recently mined site and monitored runoff for a total of 13 mo. The zero-rate plots served as controls and received standard reclamation consisting of mulching with hay and fertilization at planting. Compared to the control plots, PMS reduced runoff fourfold to sixfold and decreased erosion from 47 Mg ha{sup -1} to < 1 Mg ha{sup -1}. Most of the reduction occurred in the 2.5 mo before the plots were planted. Flow-weighted average dissolved oxygen concentrations in runoff from plots at the 224 and 672 Mg ha{sup -1} rates, however, were much lower ({<=} 0.4 vs. 8.2 mg L{sup -1}) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was much higher for the 672 Mg ha{sup -1} rate plots than the control plots during the pre-plant period (7229 vs. 880 mg L{sup -1}). There were few noteworthy differences in water quality among treatments post-planting, but plant dry-matter yields were greater for the PMS plots than for the controls. The 672 Mg ha{sup -1} rate did not increase COD or nutrient loads compared to the 224 Mg ha{sup -1} rate and may have more persistent beneficial effects by increasing soil organic carbon levels and pH to a greater extent.

  1. The Impacts of Water Quality and Food Availability on Children's Health in West Africa: A Spatial Analysis Using Remotely Sensed Data and Small-Scale Water Quality Data and Country-level Health Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, L.; Grace, K.; Lloyd, B.

    2015-12-01

    As the global climate changes and the populations of many African countries grow, ensuring clean drinking water and food has become a pressing concern. Because of their vulnerability to malnutrition and food insecurity, children face the greatest risk for adverse health outcomes related to climate change. Vulnerability, however, is highly variable, with some children in food insecure communities showing healthy growth, while some children in food secure communities show signs of malnutrition. In West Africa, Burkina Faso faces high levels of child malnutrition, loses to farmland and a large share of the population have no access to clean water. Because the overwhelming majority of children rely on locally grown, rainfed agriculture and well/surface water, the combined impact of climate change and population growth decreases water availability and farmland per person. However, there is notable community and individual variation in malnutrition levels suggesting that there are important coping strategies that vulnerable families may use to secure their children's health. No spatially relevant analysis of water and food insecurity and children's health exists for Burkina Faso. The goal of this research is to identify and quantify the combined and inter-related impact of unsafe drinking water and community-level food availability on the physical health outcomes of Burkinabe children under five years of age. To accomplish this goal we rely on a publically available highly detailed, geo-referenced data set (Demographic and Health Survey (DHS)) to provide information on measures of childhood malnutrition and details on parental characteristics related to children's health. Information on water source (covered/uncovered well, piped water, etc.) and water quality (measures of arsenic and pollution) comes from DHS along with a recently collected geo-referenced US Agency for International Development (USAID) data set. Critical information on food production, environmental

  2. Integrated Urban Water Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, W.; Harremoës, Poul

    1995-01-01

    weather, while the overflow from the combined sewer system plays a minor role. Oxygen depletion in urban rivers is caused by intermittent discharges from both sewer system and wastewater treatment plant. Neglecting one of them in the evaluation of the environmental impact gives a wrong impression of total......The basic features of integrated urban water quality management by means of deterministic modeling are outlined. Procedures for the assessment of the detrimental effects in the recipient are presented as well as the basic concepts of an integrated model. The analysis of a synthetic urban drainage...... system provides useful information for water quality management. It is possible to identify the system parameters that contain engineering significance. Continuous simulation of the system performance indicates that the combined nitrogen loading is dominated by the wastewater treatment plant during dry...

  3. Water quality evaluation of Al-Gharraf river by two water quality indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewaid, Salam Hussein

    2016-12-01

    Water quality of Al-Gharraf river, the largest branch of Tigris River south of Iraq, was evaluated by the National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NFS WQI) and the Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI) depending on 13 physical, chemical, and biological parameters of water quality measured monthly at ten stations on the river during 2015. The NSF-WQI range obtained for the sampling sites was 61-70 indicating a medium water quality. The HPI value was 98.6 slightly below the critical value for drinking water of 100, and the water quality in the upstream stations is better than downstream due to decrease in water and the accumulation of contaminants along the river. This study explains the significance of applying the water quality indices that show the aggregate impact of ecological factors in charge of water pollution of surface water and which permits translation of the monitoring data to assist the decision makers.

  4. National Recommended Water Quality Criteria

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Recommended Water Quality Criteria is a compilation of national recommended water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic life and human health...

  5. Quantification of BMPs Selection and Spatial Placement Impact on Water Quality Controlling Plans in Lower Bear River Watershed, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salha, A. A.; Stevens, D. K.

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the watershed-management program in Box Elder County, Utah set by Utah Division of Water Quality (UDEQ) is to evaluate the effectiveness and spatial placement of the implemented best-management practices (BMP) for controlling nonpoint-source contamination at watershed scale. The need to evaluate the performance of BMPs would help future policy and program decisions making as desired end results. The environmental and costs benefits of BMPs in Lower Bear River watershed have seldom been measured beyond field experiments. Yet, implemented practices have rarely been evaluated at the watershed scale where the combined effects of variable soils, climatic conditions, topography and land use/covers and management conditions may significantly change anticipated results and reductions loads. Such evaluation requires distributed watershed models that are necessary for quantifying and reproducing the movement of water, sediments and nutrients. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model is selected as a watershed level tool to identify contaminant nonpoint sources (critical zones) and areas of high pollution risks. Water quality concerns have been documented and are primarily attributed to high phosphorus and total suspended sediment concentrations caused by agricultural and farming practices (required load is 460 kg/day of total phosphorus based on 0.075 mg/l and an average of total suspended solids of 90 mg/l). Input data such as digital elevation model (DEM), land use/Land cover (LULC), soils, and climate data for 10 years (2000-2010) is utilized along with observed water quality at the watershed outlet (USGS) and some discrete monitoring points within the watershed. Statistical and spatial analysis of scenarios of management practices (BMP's) are not implemented (before implementation), during implementation, and after BMP's have been studied to determine whether water quality of the two main water bodies has improved as required by the LBMR watershed's TMDL

  6. Hemodialysis and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulliette, Angela D; Arduino, Matthew J

    2013-01-01

    Over 383,900 individuals in the U.S. undergo maintenance hemodialysis that exposes them to water, primarily in the form of dialysate. The quality of water and associated dialysis solutions have been implicated in adverse patient outcomes and is therefore critical. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation has published both standards and recommended practices that address both water and the dialyzing solutions. Some of these recommendations have been adopted into Federal Regulations by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services as part of the Conditions for Coverage, which includes limits on specific contaminants within water used for dialysis, dialysate, and substitution fluids. Chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin contaminants are health threats to dialysis patients, as shown by the continued episodic nature of outbreaks since the 1960s causing at least 592 cases and 16 deaths in the U.S. The importance of the dialysis water distribution system, current standards and recommendations, acceptable monitoring methods, a review of chemical, bacterial, and endotoxin outbreaks, and infection control programs are discussed.

  7. Creation of Emergent Sandbar Habitat (ESH) in the Headwaters of Lewis and Clark Lake and the Impacts on Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    reservoir. Strong winds and associated wave action are factors that increase bank erosion and re-suspension of sediments, silts and other colloidal... powerplants , 3) ambient monitoring of the lower Missouri River, and 4) intensive water quality survey of Lewis and Clark Lake (2nd year of a planned 3

  8. Study of impacts of floods on the water quality in an arid zone: the case of the Tarim River in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean de la Paix, Mupenzi; Lanhai, Li; Xi, Chen; Varenyam, Achal; Anming, Bao

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the study undertaken at the Tarim River Basin in Northwest China to analyze impacts of flooding on water quality. It was shown that irregular rainfall was the cause of flash floods that affected many ecosystems and eroded soils. Simulation results and the existence of relationships between flood volume and flood peak allowed potential model application that included flood peak estimation. The analysis of water pollution through sample sediment was helped by spectroscopy techniques and it was found that the flood was the main cause of many chemical elements in water. The floods affected the quality of water in the Tarim River where it was slightly basic with pH = 8.1 before flooding and acidic with pH = 6.9 after flooding.

  9. Projected impact of climate change and chemical emissions on the water quality of the European rivers Rhine and Meuse: A drinking water perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjerps, Rosa M A; Ter Laak, Thomas L; Zwolsman, Gertjan J J G

    2017-12-01

    Low river discharges of the rivers Rhine and Meuse are expected to occur more often and more prolonged in a changing climate. During these dry periods the dilution of point sources such as sewage effluents is reduced leading to a decline in chemical water quality. This study projects chemical water quality of the rivers Rhine and Meuse in the year 2050, based on projections of chemical emissions and two climate scenarios: moderate and fast climate change. It focuses on specific compounds known to be relevant to drinking water production, i.e. four pharmaceuticals, a herbicide and its metabolite and an artificial sweetener. Hydrological variability, climate change, and increased emission show a significant influence on the water quality in the Rhine and Meuse. The combined effect of changing future emissions of these compounds and reduced dilution due to climate change has leaded to increasing (peak) concentrations in the river water by a factor of two to four. Current water treatment efficiencies in the Netherlands are not sufficient to reduce these projected concentrations in drinking water produced from surface water below precautionary water target values. If future emissions are not sufficiently reduced or treatment efficiencies are not improved, these compounds will increasingly be found in drinking water, albeit at levels which pose no threat to human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Impact of SPA therapy with sulphureous mineral water on quality of life and psychological distress in chronic plaque psoriasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, M; Filippelli, A

    2014-01-01

    The plaque psoriasis, one of the most common form of psoriasis, is a chronic inflammatory disease. This pathology can cause devastating effects on quality of life and social relations with significant physical and psychological distress. Currently among the therapeutic agents available for the treatment of psoriasis is including SPA therapy, whose mechanism of action is only partially known, as well as very few studies examined the impact of this therapy on the quality of life. On the basis of these considerations, the research analyzed the effectiveness of SPA bath therapy (BLT) and its impact on quality of life and psychological distress in patients suffering from chronic plaque psoriasis. The study was conducted on 35 patients with chronic plaque psoriasis: 23% male and 77% female; mean age:56 ± 19 years; age range:17-85 years. The subjects were treated, for 2 weeks, with sulphureous SPA bath therapy from Terme of Telese SpA (Benevento-Italy). At the beginning and at the end of the SPA treatment considered was evaluated: the itching symptom (using NRS scale); the PASI Index; the impact on quality of life (using SF-36 and DLQI questionnaires) and on psychological distress (using ZUNG -tests). At the end of the SPA treatment, the mean values ± SD, compared to baseline, have showed a significant (p 1.0 ± 1.0) and PASI score (4 ± 4-->1.7 ± 2) with an improvement in quality of life and psichological distress as demonstrated by SF-36, DLQI and ZUNG tests. The data of this research show that the sulphureous SPA bath therapy can be considered very useful in patients with mild-to-moderate psoriasis for the improving of the quality of life and social relationship.

  11. Impacts of climate change and socio-economic scenarios on flow and water quality of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) river systems: low flow and flood statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, P G; Barbour, E; Futter, M N; Sarkar, S; Rodda, H; Caesar, J; Butterfield, D; Jin, L; Sinha, R; Nicholls, R; Salehin, M

    2015-06-01

    The potential impacts of climate change and socio-economic change on flow and water quality in rivers worldwide is a key area of interest. The Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) is one of the largest river basins in the world serving a population of over 650 million, and is of vital concern to India and Bangladesh as it provides fresh water for people, agriculture, industry, conservation and for the delta system downstream. This paper seeks to assess future changes in flow and water quality utilising a modelling approach as a means of assessment in a very complex system. The INCA-N model has been applied to the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna river systems to simulate flow and water quality along the rivers under a range of future climate conditions. Three model realisations of the Met Office Hadley Centre global and regional climate models were selected from 17 perturbed model runs to evaluate a range of potential futures in climate. In addition, the models have also been evaluated using socio-economic scenarios, comprising (1) a business as usual future, (2) a more sustainable future, and (3) a less sustainable future. Model results for the 2050s and the 2090s indicate a significant increase in monsoon flows under the future climates, with enhanced flood potential. Low flows are predicted to fall with extended drought periods, which could have impacts on water and sediment supply, irrigated agriculture and saline intrusion. In contrast, the socio-economic changes had relatively little impact on flows, except under the low flow regimes where increased irrigation could further reduce water availability. However, should large scale water transfers upstream of Bangladesh be constructed, these have the potential to reduce flows and divert water away from the delta region depending on the volume and timing of the transfers. This could have significant implications for the delta in terms of saline intrusion, water supply, agriculture and maintaining crucial ecosystems such

  12. THE EFFECTS OF ABATTOIR WASTE ON WATER QUALITY IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    This paper examined the impact of abattoir wastes on water quality around an abattoir ... Aluminium (Al) Cyanide (Cn), Boron (B), and Nickel (Ni)., as well as some physical and chemical ... Key words: Abattoir; Wastes; Water quality, Pollution.

  13. Impacts of a flash flood on drinking water quality: case study of areas most affected by the 2012 Beijing flood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Rubao; An, Daizhi; Lu, Wei; Shi, Yun; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Can; Zhang, Ping; Qi, Hongjuan; Wang, Qiang

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we present a method for identifying sources of water pollution and their relative contributions in pollution disasters. The method uses a combination of principal component analysis and factor analysis. We carried out a case study in three rural villages close to Beijing after torrential rain on July 21, 2012. Nine water samples were analyzed for eight parameters, namely turbidity, total hardness, total dissolved solids, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, total bacterial count, and total coliform groups. All of the samples showed different degrees of pollution, and most were unsuitable for drinking water as concentrations of various parameters exceeded recommended thresholds. Principal component analysis and factor analysis showed that two factors, the degree of mineralization and agricultural runoff, and flood entrainment, explained 82.50% of the total variance. The case study demonstrates that this method is useful for evaluating and interpreting large, complex water-quality data sets.

  14. Impacts of a flash flood on drinking water quality: case study of areas most affected by the 2012 Beijing flood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubao Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a method for identifying sources of water pollution and their relative contributions in pollution disasters. The method uses a combination of principal component analysis and factor analysis. We carried out a case study in three rural villages close to Beijing after torrential rain on July 21, 2012. Nine water samples were analyzed for eight parameters, namely turbidity, total hardness, total dissolved solids, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, total bacterial count, and total coliform groups. All of the samples showed different degrees of pollution, and most were unsuitable for drinking water as concentrations of various parameters exceeded recommended thresholds. Principal component analysis and factor analysis showed that two factors, the degree of mineralization and agricultural runoff, and flood entrainment, explained 82.50% of the total variance. The case study demonstrates that this method is useful for evaluating and interpreting large, complex water-quality data sets.

  15. Impact of mixed land-use practices on the microbial water quality in a subtropical coastal watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhanbei; He, Zhenli; Zhou, Xuxia; Powell, Charles A; Yang, Yuangen; He, Li Ming; Stoffella, Peter J

    2013-04-01

    Surface runoff water is an important non-point source of fecal pollution to downstream water; however, there is a lack of systematic studies on the microbial quality of surface runoff water from watersheds with mixed land uses. In this study water samples from 12 surface runoff holding water bodies (SRW), which collected runoff from various patterns of land use within the St. Lucie watershed along the southeastern coastline of Florida, were collected monthly for 22 months. The concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and frequency of detection of Salmonella and host specific markers (HF183, CF128, CF193, and HS-esp) were determined, and their associations with land use, rainfall, and water physico-chemical parameters were investigated. Higher FIB concentrations were observed from urban land and cattle ranch sites. Within the same primary land use pattern, different sub-patterns did not have the same level of FIB: golf communities contributed less to fecal pollution than residential areas, and plant nursery sites contained relative higher FIB concentrations than other agricultural sites. Salmonella, CF128, and CF193 markers were more frequently detected from the cattle ranch sites. In contrast the frequency of detecting human specific markers (HF183 and HS-esp) was much higher in residential sites. Rainfall positively affected the concentration of FIB and occurrence of Salmonella, possibly by providing more inputs or mobilizing the sources from sediments. Water temperature, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and nutrient levels were positively correlated with FIB concentrations and occurrence in SRW, possibly by promoting their growth and survival. This study indicated the need for site specific mitigation strategies to improve SRW and downstream water quality.

  16. Impact of using raw or fermented manure as fish feed on microbial quality of water and fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagham Elsaidy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbial water and fish quality was assessed due to feeding of chicken manure (CM and fermented chicken manure (FCM to fish in ponds, using Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus which were classified into 7 groups (G. Each group received different mixtures of CM or FCM with fish ration (FR, 0:100, 25:75, 50:50 and 100:0 (%CM or FCM:% FR. The obtained results revealed that total bacterial count (TBC and total coliform count (TCC were significantly high at P ⩽ 0.05 in CM than both FCM and fish ration (FR. Escherichia coli and Salmonella were isolated from CM but not from FCM or FR. Additionally, TBC and TCC were significantly high at P ⩽ 0.05 at water and fish samples raised at CM ponds followed by FCM ponds in comparison with FR. Both E. coli and Salmonella were isolated from water and fish raised in ponds receiving either CM or FCM with higher incidence in those with CM. However all water and fish samples examined were free from E-coli O157: H7. The obtained results, proved the influence of CM on water and fish quality and recommend the use of FCM as a bacteriologically safe fish pond fertilizer.

  17. Hydrological and water quality impact assessment of a Mediterranean limno-reservoir under climate change and land use management scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Navarro, Eugenio; Trolle, Dennis; Martínez-Pérez, Silvia; Sastre-Merlín, Antonio; Jeppesen, Erik

    2014-02-01

    Water scarcity and water pollution constitute a big challenge for water managers in the Mediterranean region today and will exacerbate in a projected future warmer world, making a holistic approach for water resources management at the catchment scale essential. We expanded the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model developed for a small Mediterranean catchment to quantify the potential effects of various climate and land use change scenarios on catchment hydrology as well as the trophic state of a new kind of waterbody, a limno-reservoir (Pareja Limno-reservoir), created for environmental and recreational purposes. We also checked for the possible synergistic effects of changes in climate and land use on water flow and nutrient exports from the catchment. Simulations showed a noticeable impact of climate change in the river flow regime and consequently the water level of the limno-reservoir, especially during summer, complicating the fulfillment of its purposes. Most of the scenarios also predicted a deterioration of trophic conditions in the limno-reservoir. Fertilization and soil erosion were the main factors affecting nitrate and total phosphorus concentrations. Combined climate and land use change scenarios showed noticeable synergistic effects on nutrients exports, relative to running the scenarios individually. While the impact of fertilization on nitrate export is projected to be reduced with warming in most cases, an additional 13% increase in the total phosphorus export is expected in the worst-case combined scenario compared to the sum of individual scenarios. Our model framework may help water managers to assess and manage how these multiple environmental stressors interact and ultimately affect aquatic ecosystems.

  18. Modelling the impacts of climate change on hydrology and water quality in a mediterranean limno-reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molina-Navarro, Euginio; Trolle, Dennis; Martinez-Pérez, Silvia

    Assessment Tool (SWAT) model developed for a small Mediterranean catchment to quantify the potential effects of various climate change scenarios on catchment hydrology as well as the trophic state of a new kind of waterbody, a limno-reservoir (Pareja Limno-reservoir), created for environmental...... in the Pareja Limno-reservoir and a switch from an oligo-mesotrophic to a mesotrophic state, which may threaten the maintenance of a favourable water quality. Our model framework may help water managers to assess and manage how climate change affects aquatic ecosystems....

  19. Impact of Practice Change on Runoff Water Quality and Vegetable Yield—An On-Farm Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunasekhar Nachimuthu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensive agricultural practices in farming systems in eastern Australia have been identified as a contributor to the poor runoff water quality entering the Great Barrier Reef (GBR. A field investigation was carried out to measure the off-farm water quality and productivity in a coastal farming system in northeastern Australia. Two vegetable crops (capsicum and zucchini were grown in summer 2010–2011 and winter 2011 respectively using four different management practices (Conventional—plastic mulch, bare inter-row conventional tillage and commercial fertilizer inputs; Improved—improved practice with plastic mulch, inter-row vegetative mulch, zonal tillage and reduced fertilizer rates; Trash mulch—improved practice with cane-trash or forage-sorghum mulch with reduced fertilizer rates, minimum or zero tillage; and Vegetable only—improved practice with Rhodes grass or forage-sorghum mulch, minimum or zero tillage, reduced fertilizer rates. Results suggest improved and trash mulch systems reduced sediment and nutrient loads by at least 50% compared to conventional systems. The residual nitrate nitrogen in soil accumulated at the end-of-break crop cycle was lost by deep drainage before the subsequent sugarcane crop could utilize it. These results suggest that future research into establishing the linkages between deep drainage, groundwater quality and lateral movement into adjacent streams is needed. The improvement in runoff water quality was accompanied by yield reductions of up to 55% in capsicum and 57% in zucchini under trash mulch systems, suggesting a commercially unacceptable trade-off between water quality and productivity for a practice change. The current study has shown that variations around improved practice (modified nutrient application strategies under plastic mulch, but with an inter-space mulch to minimize runoff and sediment loss may be the most practical solution to improve water quality and maintain productivity

  20. Water chemistry and poultry processing water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the influences of water chemistry on the quality of process water used in immersion chillers. During commercial poultry processing the bird carcasses come in direct contact with process water during washing and chilling operations. Contamination of the process water with bacteria...

  1. The impact of water quality changes on the socio-economic system of the Guadiana Estuary: an assessment of management options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Helena E. Guimarães

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Tourism related to bathing has a growing economic importance in the Guadiana Estuary in southern Spain and Portugal. Polls of local public opinion showed an awareness of potential and current threats to the aquatic environment posed by regulation of river flow and untreated/poorly-treated urban sewage discharge. Because of this strong concern for water quality, it was selected as the policy issue for our application of the Systems Approach Framework (SAF. We developed an integrated simulation model of the Guadiana estuarine system in which the ecological system and socioeconomic components are linked by means of beach eco-label (Blue Flag Award through its dependence on fecal bacterial thresholds. We quantified the socioeconomic impacts of water quality through an Economic Base Model that is used to portray the effect of increasing employment on resident population as a result of change in coastal water quality. A Cost-Benefit Analysis provides monetary indicators for scenario evaluation. It includes a monetary valuation of changes in water quality on human welfare using a Contingent Valuation Method. Because the population has a strong seasonal influence on the wastewater discharge into the estuary, we were able to simulate the feedback loop between the human activities that control water quality and those that benefit from it. We organized a critical evaluation of our efforts with the stakeholders, which allowed us to better understand their perceptions of the strengths, limitations, and opportunities for future SAF applications. Here we describe several aspects of our efforts that demonstrate the potential value of the SAF to environmental managers and stakeholders in clarifying some of the causal mechanisms, management options, and costs for resolution of the conflictual problem between water quality and tourism in the Guadiana estuary.

  2. Applicability of MIKE 21 to assess temporal and spatial variation in water quality of an estuary under the impact of effluent from an industrial estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paliwal, Ritu; Patra, Rashmi R

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at analysing the impact of wastewater load of industrial units in Haldia on the water quality of the Hoogly estuary using numerical modelling techniques. Modelling was never attempted in this region because it was generally felt that simulating such a complex system would not be easy with limited data availability but MIKE 21, a hydrodynamic and water quality model, was used to simulate BOD and DO profiles in the study area and simulation provided reasonably good predictions. A scenario assessment was also carried by increasing the flows from various sources to understand the site-specific relationships between pollution sources and water quality conditions and also to calculate the assimilative capacity of Hoogly with respect to waste discharged from the industrial units at Haldia. The results suggested that water quality of the canal towards closed Oil Jetty was highly deteriorated due to stagnant pond condition and discharges from a refinery. But large part of the canal was found to be well drained under tidal influence as a consequence of which both DO and BOD conform to the prescribed water quality standards most of the times. The impact of industrial waste load on the Hoogly was found to be negligible and the radius of influence was limited to about 200-300 m across the estuary and about 1.6 km along the shore during ebb conditions. Assimilative capacity of the region was estimated to be 837 kg/d as against the present load of 121 kg/d. The study suggested that the estuary had good dilution capacity and intense tidal mixing helped in rapidly diluting the pollutants.

  3. A water quality analysis system to evaluate the impact of agricultural activities on N outflow in river basins in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Makoto Takeuchi; Sunao Itahashi; Masanori Saito

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a personal-computer-based water quality analysis system for river basins. The system estimates potential N outflow by model and calculates actual N outflow from monitoring data. For the former it uses the potential load factor method to estimate annual nitrogen load from various sources and runoff potential from each area of land in a basin. For the latter it analyzes water quality monitoring data in relation to meteorological data. We used the system to analyze N outflow in basins around Lake Kasumigaura and the Yahagi River in central Honshu, Japan. The land around Lake Kasumigaura is rather flat, and about 25% is periodically flooded for rice and lotus cultivation. The land around the Yahagi River is mountainous, and much less land is flooded. In the Yahagi River basin the actual N outflow agreed closely with the potential. However, the actual N outflow in the basin around Lake Kasumigaura was much less than the potential, suggesting that a large part of the N load is denitrified in flooded soils. This further indicates that a sequence of different land uses including flooded rice fields is an important factor determining N outflow in basins in Japan. On the basis of the above analyses, we incorporated a denitrification model into the system that enables us to estimate N balance in a designated basin;this system may be helpful in the formulation of scenarios of land use andsoil management for improving water quality.

  4. Wildfire Impacts on Water Quality, Macroinvertebrates and Trout: An Initial Survey After the West Fork Complex Fire in the Upper Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, A.; Knipper, K. R.; Randall, J.; Hogue, T. S.

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires affect water quality in the disrupted watershed, which can devastate the aquatic ecosystem including sensitive trout (Salmonidae) and macroinvertebrate species. The West Fork Fire Complex consumed 88,724 acres of forest in the state of Colorado during the summer of 2013. The majority (88%) of the burn area was comprised of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmanii) trees killed previously by Spruce Beetle (Ips spp.). Damage to the soils was of moderate to high severity in the majority of the area (60%). The recent fire surrounded the Rio Grande, affecting water quality and habitat critical to insects and fish. The water quality of the Rio Grande (above and below the burn) and some of the effected tributaries is currently being monitored for both quality and quantity. Parameters important to the survival of aquatic life, such as flow, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, turbidity, nutrients, and suspended and dissolved metals are being monitored along the Rio Grande and in tributaries. Macroinvertebrate and fish populations are sampled in the same locations. First year observations showed the ecosystem to be relatively resilient, with stable water quality and survival of insects and fish. However, an intense monsoon season this summer is driving extensive sediments into tributaries from steep, severely burned hillslopes. These monsoon events have caused acute and dramatic fish kills, where hundreds of trout were reported killed in one tributary in a single day event. Turbidity was observed as high as 488 NTU in the impacted stream with fish kill, whereas the turbidity was 25 NTU in a neighboring tributary outside of the burn area. Salmonids can be negatively impacted by relatively low turbidity, with prior studies noting that the turbidity threshold for rainbow trout is 70 NTU. Continued monitoring of water quality, macroinvertebrate populations, and fish populations is being undertaken to determine

  5. Impact of Vegetation on Main Hydrological Processes:A Field Study and Its Implication for Water Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG You-kuan; Keith Schilling

    2004-01-01

    The impact of vegetation cover on groundwater table was assessed with the observed water level fluctuations at two monitored wells installed on a bare ground and a vegetated land, respectively. Substantial differences in water table behavior were observed under two land cover scenarios. In general, the water level in the east grass (EG) well was lower and had much less response to rainfall events than the WNG well mainly due to the difference in the land cover. The effect of vegetation was to lower the water level in the EG well through ET and thus reduce groundwater recharge, which in turn reduced the chemical loads to the creek. The daily and accumulative ET values were estimated with both the Penman-Monteith method and a water table recession model. It is suggested that while the Penman-Monteith method closely modeled hourly ET cycles during the day, it underestimated actual ET during an intensive mid-summer growing period, and especially underestimated actual ET when the water table was close to the land surface. With the water table recession model, the amount of ET was estimated at its maximum ET of 7.6 mm when the water table was near the ground surface and then decreases exponentially to zero around day 33 during a dry period with the accumulative ET of 93.9 mm, or 2.84 mm/day. The results from this study clearly demonstrate that land use and vegetation coverage have significant effects on ET, groundwater recharge and implications for a basin-scale water cycle and chemical loads to rivers and streams.

  6. Impact assessment of various parameters polluting Ganga water in Kolkata Region: a study for quality evaluation and environmental implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkait, Swarnali; Ganguly, Madhumita; Aktar, Wasim; Sengupta, Doipayan; Chowdhury, Ashim

    2009-08-01

    The quality of sewage-sludge samples obtained in Kolkata region was evaluated. Both sewage water and sludge components were analyzed for a number of physico-chemical, microbiological parameters using standard laboratory procedures, some heavy metals by AAS method and pesticide contents by GC method. Some of the physical and chemical constituents of the samples are within the allowable levels while the rest are not. The samples are rich in nutrients and have suitable pH for agricultural uses. In terms of Electrical Conductivity and Sodium Adsorption Ratio, sewage water is not suitable for irrigation. Fecal and coliform bacterial population is high in all samples. Pesticide and heavy metals in some places are alarming. So sewage-sludge produced in Kolkata cannot be used for agricultural purpose without any treatment. Thus proper care, maintenance, treatment and disposal of sewage water and sludge are most vital and should be the prime thrust for the nation.

  7. Characterization of recharge and flow behaviour of different water sources in Gunung Kidul and its impact on water quality based on hydrochemical and physico-chemical monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiche, Elisabeth; Hochschild, Maren; Haryono, Eko; Neumann, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Karst aquifers are important water resources but highly vulnerable due to their heterogeneous and complex characteristics. Various hydrological aspects (recharge, flow behaviour) have to be known in detail to develop a sustainable concept for water collection, distribution and treatment. In the karst area of Gunung Sewu (Java, Indonesia) such a concept was to be implemented within a German-Indonesian joint IWRM project. The basic hydrogeological conditions and water quality aspects were characterized on a regional scale through hydrochemical monitoring of springs, wells, subsurface and surface rivers. More detailed information about the recharge, flow and storage behaviour was obtained from high resolution monitoring of T, EC and discharge in one large underground river system. The water quality is well below any guideline values with regard to inorganic pollutants during dry season. During rainy season, dissolved Al concentrations are frequently above the Indonesian guideline value. Slow matrix flow is the most important recharge component during dry season, thus assuring the year-round water availability in the subsurface karst. During rainy season, quick infiltration of the surface water is a dominant recharge component. Rapid response of discharge, T and EC to heavy rain suggests the presence of point recharge that feeds a highly karstfied conduit system with fast conduit flow and short transit time of water. The strong variations in discharge and hydrochemistry are particularly challenging for technical water usage and treatment facilities. Piston flow is indicated to be the third important flow component and is induced by heavy rainfall.

  8. Channel incision and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, F. D.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed development often triggers channel incision that leads to radical changes in channel morphology. Although morphologic evolution due to channel incision has been documented and modeled by others, ecological effects, particularly water quality effects, are less well understood. Furthermore, environmental regulatory frameworks for streams frequently focus on stream water quality and underemphasize hydrologic and geomorphic issues. Discharge, basic physical parameters, solids, nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), chlorophyll and bacteria were monitored for five years at two sites along a stream in a mixed cover watershed characterized by rapid incision of the entire channel network. Concurrent data were collected from two sites on a nearby stream draining a watershed of similar size and cultivation intensity, but without widespread incision. Data sets describing physical aquatic habitat and fish fauna of each stream were available from other studies. The second stream was impacted by watershed urbanization, but was not incised, so normal channel-floodplain interaction maintained a buffer zone of floodplain wetlands between the study reach and the urban development upstream. The incised stream had mean channel depth and width that were 1.8 and 3.5 times as large as for the nonincised stream, and was characterized by flashier hydrology. The median rise rate for the incised stream was 6.4 times as great as for the nonincised stream. Correlation analyses showed that hydrologic perturbations were associated with water quality degradation, and the incised stream had levels of turbidity and solids that were two to three times higher than the nonincised, urbanizing stream. Total phosphorus, total Kjeldahl N, and chlorophyll a concentrations were significantly higher in the incised stream, while nitrate was significantly greater in the nonincised, urbanizing stream (p Ecological engineering of stream corridors must focus at least as much energy on mediating hydrologic

  9. Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have initiated the “Village Blue” research project to provide real-time water quality monitoring data to the Baltimore community and increase public awareness about local water quality in Baltimore Harbor and the Chesapeake Bay. The Village Blue demonstration project complements work that a number of state and local organizations are doing to make Baltimore Harbor “swimmable and fishable” 2 by 2020. Village Blue is designed to build upon EPA’s “Village Green” project which provides real-time air quality information to communities in six locations across the country. The presentation, “Real-time water quality monitoring and providing water quality information to the Baltimore Community”, summarizes the Village Blue real-time water quality monitoring project being developed for the Baltimore Harbor.

  10. Modelling of Buckingham Canal water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, S A; Khan, F I; Sentilvelan, K; Shabudeen, A

    2002-10-01

    The paper presents a case study of the modelling of the water quality of a canal situated in a petrochemical industrial complex, which receives wastewaters from Madras Refineries Limited (MRL), and Madras Fertilizers Limited (MFL). The canal well known Buckingham Canal which passes through Chennai (Madras), India has been modelled using the software QUAL2E-UNCAS. After testing and validation of the model, simulations have been carried out. The exercise enables forecasting the impacts of different seasons, base flows, and waste water inputs on the water quality of the Buckingham Canal. It also enables development of water management strategies.

  11. Water Quality Assessment Tool 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Water Quality Assessment Tool project was developed to assess the potential for water-borne contaminants to adversely affect biota and habitats on Service lands.

  12. Microbiological quality of natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, J J; Figueras, M J

    1997-12-01

    Several aspects of the microbiological quality of natural waters, especially recreational waters, have been reviewed. The importance of the water as a vehicle and/or a reservoir of human pathogenic microorganisms is also discussed. In addition, the concepts, types and techniques of microbial indicator and index microorganisms are established. The most important differences between faecal streptococci and enterococci have been discussed, defining the concept and species included. In addition, we have revised the main alternative indicators used to measure the water quality.

  13. Metabolite Profiling of Barley Grains Subjected to Water Stress: To Explain the Genotypic Difference in Drought-Induced Impacts on Malting Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojian Wu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Grain weight and protein content will be reduced and increased, respectively, when barley is subjected to water stress after anthesis, consequently deteriorating the malt quality. However, such adverse impact of water stress differs greatly among barley genotypes. In this study, two Tibetan wild barley accessions and two cultivated varieties differing in water stress tolerance were used to investigate the genotypic difference in metabolic profiles during grain-filling stage under drought condition. Totally, 71 differently accumulated metabolites were identified, including organic acids, amino acids/amines, and sugars/sugar alcohols. Their relative contents were significantly affected by water stress for all genotypes and differed distinctly between the wild and cultivated barleys. The principal component analysis of metabolites indicated that the Tibetan wild barley XZ147 possessed a unique response to water stress. When subjected to water stress, the wild barley XZ147 showed the most increase of β-amylase activity among the four genotypes, as a result of its higher lysine content, less indole-3-acetic acid (IAA biosynthesis, more stable H2O2 homeostasis, and more up-regulation of BMY1 gene. On the other hand, XZ147 had the most reduction of β-glucan content under water stress than the other genotypes, which could be explained by the faster grain filling process and the less expression of β-glucan synthase gene GSL7. All these results indicated a great potential for XZ147 in barley breeding for improving water stress tolerance.

  14. Seawater Intrusion Impacts on the Water Quality of the Groundwater on theNorthwest Coast of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdelkader T; Askri, Brahim

    2016-08-01

    The groundwater aquifer in the coastal region of the northwest of Oman has been used extensively since the early 1980s for agricultural, industrial and municipal purposes. The over pumping of this reservoir has led to the intrusion of seawater and therefore to the deterioration of the groundwater quality. In this study, an investigation was carried out in the southern part of this region to identify the quality of groundwater, to understand the main sources of groundwater mineralisation, and to check the suitability of groundwater for drinking and irrigation. The spatial distributions and temporal variations of groundwater level and electrical conductivity were studied for the period from 1982 to 2005 using data collected from 225 wells. In addition, groundwater samples were collected recently in 2012 from eight wells and analysed for pH, EC, and major ions to understand the sources of dissolved ions and assess the chemical quality of the groundwater. The study area was divided into two strips parallel to the coastline, A and B, located in the discharge and recharge parts of the aquifer, respectively. Results showed a significant increase in the degree of water mineralisation in the direction of south to north following the regional flow direction. Results showed also that the groundwater in the last area could be used for irrigation with little danger of exchangeable sodium while this aquifer is unsuitable for irrigation in the discharge area because it presents a very high salinity hazard.

  15. Retrospective analysis of associations between water quality and toxic blooms of golden alga (Prymnesium parvum) in Texas reservoirs: Implications for understanding dispersal mechanisms and impacts of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Reynaldo; Dawson, D.; VanLandeghem, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    Toxic blooms of golden alga (GA, Prymnesium parvum) in Texas typically occur in winter or early spring. In North America, they were first reported in Texas in the 1980s, and a marked range expansion occurred in 2001. Although there is concern about the influence of climate change on the future distribution of GA, factors responsible for past dispersals remain uncertain. To better understand the factors that influence toxic bloom dispersal in reservoirs, this study characterized reservoir water quality associated with toxic GA blooms since 2001, and examined trends in water quality during a 20-year period bracketing the 2001 expansion. Archived data were analyzed for six impacted and six nonimpacted reservoirs from two major Texas basins: Brazos River and Colorado River. Data were simplified for analysis by pooling spatially (across sampling stations) and temporally (winter, December-February) within reservoirs and generating depth-corrected (1 m) monthly values. Classification tree analysis [period of record (POR), 2001-2010] using salinity-associated variables (specific conductance, chloride, sulfate), dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, temperature, total hardness, potassium, nitrate+nitrite, and total phosphorus indicated that salinity best predicts the toxic bloom occurrence. Minimum estimated salinities for toxic bloom formation were 0.59 and 1.02 psu in Brazos and Colorado River reservoirs, respectively. Principal component analysis (POR, 2001-2010) indicated that GA habitat is best defined by higher salinity relative to nonimpacted reservoirs, with winter DO and pH also being slightly higher and winter temperature slightly lower in impacted reservoirs. Trend analysis, however, did not reveal monotonic changes in winter water quality of GA-impacted reservoirs during the 20-year period (1991-2010) bracketing the 2001 dispersal. Therefore, whereas minimum levels of salinity are required for GA establishment and toxic blooms in Texas reservoirs, the lack of trends in

  16. Monitoring of impact of anthropogenic inputs on water quality of mangrove ecosystem of Uran, Navi Mumbai, west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, Prabhakar R

    2013-10-15

    Surface water samples were collected from substations along Sheva creek and Dharamtar creek mangrove ecosystems of Uran (Raigad), Navi Mumbai, west coast of India. Water samples were collected fortnightly from April 2009 to March 2011 during spring low and high tides and were analyzed for pH, Temperature, Turbidity, Total solids (TS), Total dissolved solids (TDS), Total suspended solids (TSS), Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Carbon dioxide (CO2), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), Salinity, Orthophosphate (O-PO4), Nitrite-nitrogen (NO2-N), Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), and Silicates. Variables like pH, turbidity, TDS, salinity, DO, and BOD show seasonal variations. Higher content of O-PO4, NO3-N, and silicates is recorded due to discharge of domestic wastes and sewage, effluents from industries, oil tanking depots and also from maritime activities of Jawaharlal Nehru Port Trust (JNPT), hectic activities of Container Freight Stations (CFS), and other port wastes. This study reveals that water quality from mangrove ecosystems of Uran is deteriorating due to industrial pollution and that mangrove from Uran is facing the threat due to anthropogenic stress.

  17. Impact of hydroelectric projects on river environment: Analysis of water quality changes in Ningxia Reach of Yellow River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Dongpo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the relationship between hydroelectric projects and the river environment is analyzed. Recently, the large-scale regulation of runoff by large hydroelectric projects in the Ningxia Reach of the Yellow River has altered natural runoff processes, causing an increase in the probability of low discharge and an overall adjustment of riverbed evolution and river characteristics. During low-flow years, the combined effects of these two changes can weaken the self-purification capacity and reduce the water environmental capacity of the river. This is one of the main reasons for the recent decrease of water quality in the Ningxia Reach. This research shows that it is necessary to implement river training projects to maintain stable flow paths, not only for adjusting river regimes and for flood control, but also for increasing the self-purification capacity and the water environmental capacity of the river. Methods and proposals for coordinating the operation of hydroelectric projects with the protection of the river environment are presented in the interest of promoting sustainable development.

  18. Impact of hydroelectric projects on river environment: Analysis of water quality changes in Ningxia Reach of Yellow River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Dongpo; Lu Ruili; Song Yongjun; Yan Jun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the relationship between hydroelectric projects and the river environment is analyzed. Recently, the large-scale regulation of runoff by large hydroelectric projects in the Ningxia Reach of the Yellow River has altered natural runoff processes, causing an increase in the probability of low discharge and an overall adjustment of riverbed evolution and river characteristics. During low-flow years, the combined effects of these two changes can weaken the self-purification capacity and reduce the water environmental capacity of the river. This is one of the main reasons for the recent decrease of water quality in the Ningxia Reach. This research shows that it is necessary to implement river training projects to maintain stable flow paths, not only for adjusting river regimes and for flood control, but also for increasing the self-purification capacity and the water environmental capacity of the river. Methods and proposals for coordinating the operation of hydroelectric projects with the protection of the river environment are presented in the interest of promoting sustainable development.

  19. Fertilizer Use and Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This booklet presents informative materials on fertilizer use and water quality, specifically in regard to environmental pollution and protection in Illinois. The five chapters cover these topics: Fertilizer and Water Quality, Fertilizer Use, Fertilizers and the Environment, Safety Practices, and Fertilizer Management Practices. Key questions are…

  20. Fertilizer Use and Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This booklet presents informative materials on fertilizer use and water quality, specifically in regard to environmental pollution and protection in Illinois. The five chapters cover these topics: Fertilizer and Water Quality, Fertilizer Use, Fertilizers and the Environment, Safety Practices, and Fertilizer Management Practices. Key questions are…

  1. Modeling Water Quality in Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liren Yu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports a PC software, used in a Windows-based environment, which was developed based on the first order reaction of Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD and a modified Streeter and Phelps equation, in order to simulate and determine the variations of Dissolved Oxygen (DO and of the BOD along with the studied river reaches. The software considers many impacts of environmental factors, such as the different type of discharges (concentrated or punctual source, tributary contribution, distributed source, nitrogenous BOD, BOD sedimentation, photosynthetic production and benthic demand of oxygen, and so on. The software has been used to model the DO profile along one river, with the aim to improve the water quality through suitable engineering measure.

  2. Impact of human activities on the physico-chemical quality of surface water and groundwater in the north of Marrakech (Morocco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oufline, Rachid; Hakkou, Rachid; Hanich, Lahoucine; Boularbah, Ali

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of three sources of pollution (landfill leachate, wastewater and mining activities) on the physico-chemical characteristics of surface water and groundwater in the northern region of Marrakech (Morocco). Numerous groundwater samples and surface water (Tensift River) samples were collected during the dry season and analysed. The groundwater samples had a high conductivity, which varied between 0.95 and 7.40 mS/cm; the conductivity of the surface water samples varied between 1.31 and 15.84 mS/cm. pH varied between 6.64 and 8.10 for groundwater and between 6.70 and 8.40 for surface water. The results showed that groundwater and surface water had a degraded quality in the region. Principal component analysis (PCA) enabled identification of the impact of pollution sources by combining the upstream and the downstream points. These results also showed that, in the study area, the effect of wastewater and the mine were dominated those of the landfill.

  3. The impacts of urbanisation and climate change on urban flooding and urban water quality: A review of the evidence concerning the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Miller

    2017-08-01

    New hydrological insights: There is a lack of nationally research focused on the dual impacts of climate change and urbanisation on flooding and water quality in UK urban areas. This is despite there being a clear acceptance that flood risk is increasing, water quality is generally not meeting desirable levels, and that combined population and climate change projections pose a pressing challenge. The available evidence has been found to be of medium-high confidence that both pressures will result in (i an increase in pluvial and fluvial flood risk, and (ii further reduction in water quality caused by point source pollution and altered flow regimes. Evidence concerning urban groundwater flooding, diffuse pollution and water temperature was found to be more sparse and was ascribed a low-medium confidence that both pressures will further exacerbate existing issues. The confidence ascribed to evidence was also found to reflect the utility of current science for setting policy and urban planning. Recurring factors that limit the utility of evidence for managing the urban environment includes: (i climate change projection uncertainty and suitability, (ii lack of sub-daily projections for storm rainfall, (iii the complexity of managing and modelling the urban environment, and (iv lack of probable national-scale future urban land-use projections. Suitable climate products are increasingly being developed and their application in applied urban research is critical in the wake of a series of extreme flooding events across the UK and timely for providing state-of-the-art evidence on which to base possible future water quality legislation in a post Brexit-WFD era.

  4. Simulating the impacts of future land use and climate changes on surface water quality in the Des Plaines River watershed, Chicago Metropolitan Statistical Area, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Cyril O; Weng, Qihao

    2011-09-15

    Modeling the effects of past and current land use composition and climatic patterns on surface water quality provides valuable information for environmental and land planning. This study predicts the future impacts of urban land use and climate changes on surface water quality within Des Plaines River watershed, Illinois, between 2010 and 2030. Land Change Modeler (LCM) was used to characterize three future land use/planning scenarios. Each scenario encourages low density residential growth, normal urban growth, and commercial growth, respectively. Future climate patterns examined include the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenario (SRES) B1 and A1B groups. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was employed to estimate total suspended solids and phosphorus concentration generated at a 10 year interval. The predicted results indicate that for a large portion of the watershed, the concentration of total suspended solids (TSS) would be higher under B1 and A1B climate scenarios during late winter and early spring compared to the same period in 2010; while the summer period largely demonstrates a reverse trend. Model results further suggest that by 2020, phosphorus concentration would be higher during the summer under B1 climate scenario compared to 2010, and is expected to wane by 2030. The projected phosphorus concentrations during the late winter and early spring periods vary across climate and land use scenarios. The analysis also denotes that middle and high density residential development can reduce excess TSS concentration, while the establishment of dense commercial and industrial development might help ameliorate high phosphorus levels. The combined land use and climate change analysis revealed land use development schemes that can be adopted to mitigate potential future water quality impairment. This research provides important insights into possible adverse consequences on surface water quality and resources

  5. Impact of forest harvesting on water quality and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter in eastern Canadian Boreal Shield lakes in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaz, P.; Gagné, J.-P.; Archambault, P.; Sirois, P.; Nozais, C.

    2015-12-01

    Forestry activities in the Canadian Boreal region have increased in the last decades, raising concerns about their potential impact on aquatic ecosystems. Water quality and fluorescence characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were measured over a 3-year period in eight eastern Boreal Shield lakes: four lakes were studied before, 1 and 2 years after forest harvesting (perturbed lakes) and compared with four undisturbed reference lakes (unperturbed lakes) sampled at the same time. ANOVAs showed a significant increase in total phosphorus (TP) in perturbed lakes when the three sampling dates were considered and in DOC concentrations when considering 1 year before and 1 year after the perturbation only. At 1 year post-clear cutting DOC concentrations were about 15 % greater in the perturbed lakes at ~ 15 mgC L-1 compared to 12.5 mgC L-1 in the unperturbed lakes. In contrast, absorbance and fluorescence measurements showed that all metrics remained within narrow ranges compared to the range observed in natural waters, indicating that forest harvesting did not affect the nature of DOM characterized with spectroscopic techniques. These results confirm an impact of forestry activities 1 year after the perturbation. However, this effect seems to be mitigated 2 years after, indicating that the system shows high resilience and may be able to return to its original condition in terms of water quality parameters assessed in this study.

  6. 水质对染整加工的影响(一)%Impacts of water quality on wet processing (Ⅰ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹万里; 吕志阳; 顾志安

    2012-01-01

    阐述印染用水各项水质指标对染整加工的影响,包括pH值、浊度、色度、硬度、重金属离子、活性氯与氯离子、COD、BOD、电导率、固体悬浮物(SS)、总碱度和总固体等,分析了它们的来源、作用机理和解决方法.%Effects of a variety of water quality indexes on dyeing and finishing processes are introduced,including pH value, turbidity, colourity, hardness, heavy metallic ion, active chlorine and chloride ion, COD and BOD, electrical conductivity, SS(solid suspension), total alkalinity and total solids. The sources, mechanism and solutions are analyzed.

  7. Impacts of shrimp farm effluent on water quality, benthic metabolism and N-dynamics in a mangrove forest (New Caledonia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Nathalie; Welsh, David T.; Marchand, Cyril; Deborde, Jonathan; Meziane, Tarik

    2013-01-01

    Water quality parameters, sediment oxygen demand (SOD), dissolved organic and inorganic nutrient fluxes, and N-cycle processes (nitrification; denitrification; dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA)) were determined in a New Caledonian mangrove receiving shrimp farm effluent and a natural mangrove. Effluent was enriched in nutrients and organic matter, and significantly stimulated SOD and nutrient regeneration rates in the receiving sediments. All N-cycling processes were stimulated between ˜2 and 12-fold in the sediments receiving effluents compared to the natural mangrove. However, due to the preferential enhancement of DNRA compared to denitrification, there was no significant increase in net nitrogen elimination compared to the significant increase in sediment nutrient regeneration rates. These results indicate that the mangroves are only a partial filter for the shrimp farm effluent, as confirmed by the elevated nutrient concentrations measured in an external, marine creek of the effluent receiving mangrove.

  8. Effects of selected low-impact-development (LID) techniques on water quality and quantity in the Ipswich River Basin, Massachusetts-Field and modeling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc J.; Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Sorenson, Jason R.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    2010-01-01

    During the months of August and September, flows in the Ipswich River, Massachusetts, dramatically decrease largely due to groundwater withdrawals needed to meet increased residential and commercial water demands. In the summer, rates of groundwater recharge are lower than during the rest of the year, and water demands are higher. From 2005 to 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, in a cooperative funding agreement with the Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation, monitored small-scale installations of low-impact-development (LID) enhancements designed to diminish the effects of storm runoff on the quantity and quality of surface water and groundwater. Funding for the studies also was contributed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Targeted Watersheds Grant Program through a financial assistance agreement with Massachusetts Department of Conservation and Recreation. The monitoring studies examined the effects of (1) replacing an impervious parking lot surface with a porous surface on groundwater quality, (2) installing rain gardens and porous pavement in a neighborhood of 3 acres on the quantity and quality of stormwater runoff, and (3) installing a 3,000-square foot (ft2) green roof on the quantity and quality of stormwater runoff. In addition, the effects of broad-scale implementation of LID techniques, reduced water withdrawals, and water-conservation measures on streamflow in large areas of the basin were simulated using the U.S. Geological Survey's Ipswich River Basin model. From June 2005 to 2007, groundwater quality was monitored at the Silver Lake town beach parking lot in Wilmington, MA, prior to and following the replacement of the conventional, impervious-asphalt surface with a porous surface consisting primarily of porous asphalt and porous pavers. Changes in the concentrations of the water-quality constituents, phosphorus, nitrogen, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc, and total petroleum hydrocarbons, were monitored

  9. Impact of treated wastewater reuse and floods on water quality and fish health within a water reservoir in an arid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaibel, Inbal; Zilberg, Dina; Groisman, Ludmila; Arnon, Shai

    2016-07-15

    Treated wastewater (TWW) reuse for agricultural irrigation is a well-established approach to coping with water shortages in semi-arid and arid environments. Recently, additional uses of TWW have emerged, including streamflow augmentation and aquatic ecosystem restoration. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the water quality and fish health, in an artificial reservoir located in an arid climate (the Yeruham Reservoir, Israel), which regularly receives TWW and sporadic winter floods. The temporal distribution of water levels, nutrients and organic micropollutants (OMPs) were measured during the years 2013-2014. OMPs were also measured in sediment and fish tissues. Finally, the status of fish health was evaluated by histopathology. Water levels and quality were mainly influenced by seasonal processes such as floods and evaporation, and not by the discharge of TWW. Out of 16 tested OMPs, estrone, carbamazepine, diclofenac and bezafibrate were found in the reservoir water, but mostly at concentrations below the predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for fish. Concentrations of PCBs and dioxins in fish muscle and liver were much lower than the EU maximal permitted concentrations, and similar to concentrations that were found in food fish in Israel and Europe. In the histopathological analysis, there were no evident tissue abnormalities, and low to moderate infection levels of fish parasites were recorded. The results from the Yeruham Reservoir demonstrated a unique model for the mixture effect between TWW reuse and natural floods to support a unique stable and thriving ecosystem in a water reservoir located in an arid region. This type of reservoir can be widely used for recreation, education, and the social and economic development of a rural environment, such as has occurred in the Yeruham region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A mass balance approach to investigating geochemical controls on secondary water quality impacts at a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, MN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Gene-Hua Crystal; Bekins, Barbara A.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Baedecker, Mary Jo; Bennett, Philip C.; Amos, Richard T.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary water quality impacts can result from a broad range of coupled reactions triggered by primary groundwater contaminants. Data from a crude-oil spill research site near Bemidji, MN provide an ideal test case for investigating the complex interactions controlling secondary impacts, including depleted dissolved oxygen and elevated organic carbon, inorganic carbon, CH4, Mn, Fe, and other dissolved ions. To better understand these secondary impacts, this study began with an extensive data compilation of various data types, comprising aqueous, sediment, gas, and oil phases, covering a 260 m cross-sectional domain over 30 years. Mass balance calculations are used to quantify pathways that control secondary components, by using the data to constrain the sources and sinks for the important redox processes. The results show that oil constituents other than BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m- and p-xylenes), including n-alkanes and other aromatic compounds, play significant roles in plume evolution and secondary water quality impacts. The analysis underscores previous results on the importance of non-aqueous phases. Over 99.9% of the Fe2+ plume is attenuated by immobilization on sediments as Fe(II) and 85–95% of the carbon biodegradation products are outgassed. Gaps identified in carbon and Fe mass balances and in pH buffering mechanisms are used to formulate a new conceptual model. This new model includes direct out-gassing of CH4 and CO2 from organic carbon biodegradation, dissolution of directly produced CO2, and sorption with H+ exchange to improve pH buffering. The identification of these mechanisms extends understanding of natural attenuation of potential secondary impacts at enhanced reductive dechlorination sites, particularly for reduced Fe plumes, produced CH4, and pH perturbations.

  11. Water Quality Monitoring by Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The availability of abundant water resources in the Upper Midwest of the United States is nullified by their contamination through heavy commercial and industrial activities. Scientists have taken the responsibility of detecting the water quality of these resources through remote-sensing satellites to develop a wide-ranging water purification plan…

  12. Aquatic Plant Water Quality Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA, as stated in the Clean Water Act, is tasked with developing numerical Aquatic Life Critiera for various pollutants found in the waters of the United States. These criteria serve as guidance for States and Tribes to use in developing their water quality standards. The G...

  13. What's in Your Water? An Educator's Guide to Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constabile, Kerry, Comp.; Craig, Heidi, Comp.; O'Laughlin, Laura, Comp.; Reiss, Anne Bei, Comp.; Spencer, Liz, Comp.

    This guide provides basic information on the Clean Water Act, watersheds, and testing for water quality, and presents four science lesson plans on water quality. Activities include: (1) "Introduction to Water Quality"; (2) "Chemical Water Quality Testing"; (3) "Biological Water Quality Testing"; and (4) "What Can We Do?" (YDS)

  14. Assessing the impacts of sustainable agricultural practices for water quality improvements in the Vouga catchment (Portugal) using the SWAT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, João; Roebeling, Peter; Rial-Rivas, María Ermitas

    2015-12-01

    The extensive use of fertilizers has become one of the most challenging environmental issues in agricultural catchment areas. In order to reduce the negative impacts from agricultural activities and to accomplish the objectives of the European Water Framework Directive we must consider the implementation of sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we assess sustainable agricultural practices based on reductions in N-fertilizer application rates (from 100% to 0%) and N-application methods (single, split and slow-release) across key agricultural land use classes in the Vouga catchment, Portugal. The SWAT model was used to relate sustainable agricultural practices, agricultural yields and N-NO3 water pollution deliveries. Results show that crop yields as well as N-NO3 exportation rates decrease with reductions in N-application rates and single N-application methods lead to lower crop yields and higher N-NO3 exportation rates as compared to split and slow-release N-application methods.

  15. Modeling the cadmium balance in Australian agricultural systems in view of potential impacts on food and water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, W. de, E-mail: wim.devries@wur.nl [Alterra-Wageningen University and Research Centre, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); McLaughlin, M.J. [CSIRO Sustainable Agriculture Flagship, CSIRO Land and Water, PMB 2, Glen Osmond, South Australia 5064 (Australia); University of Adelaide, PMB 1, Glen Osmond, South Australia 5064 (Australia)

    2013-09-01

    The historical build up and future cadmium (Cd) concentrations in top soils and in crops of four Australian agricultural systems are predicted with a mass balance model, focusing on the period 1900–2100. The systems include a rotation of dryland cereals, a rotation of sugarcane and peanuts/soybean, intensive dairy production and intensive horticulture. The input of Cd to soil is calculated from fertilizer application and atmospheric deposition and also examines options including biosolid and animal manure application in the sugarcane rotation and dryland cereal production systems. Cadmium output from the soil is calculated from leaching to deeper horizons and removal with the harvested crop or with livestock products. Parameter values for all Cd fluxes were based on a number of measurements on Australian soil–plant systems. In the period 1900–2000, soil Cd concentrations were predicted to increase on average between 0.21 mg kg{sup −1} in dryland cereals, 0.42 mg kg{sup −1} in intensive agriculture and 0.68 mg kg{sup −1} in dairy production, which are within the range of measured increases in soils in these systems. Predicted soil concentrations exceed critical soil Cd concentrations, based on food quality criteria for Cd in crops during the simulation period in clay-rich soils under dairy production and intensive horticulture. Predicted dissolved Cd concentrations in soil pore water exceed a ground water quality criterion of 2 μg l{sup −1} in light textured soils, except for the sugarcane rotation due to large water leaching fluxes. Results suggest that the present fertilizer Cd inputs in Australia are in excess of the long-term critical loads in heavy-textured soils for dryland cereals and that all other systems are at low risk. Calculated critical Cd/P ratios in P fertilizers vary from < 50 to > 1000 mg Cd kg P{sup −1} for the different soil, crop and environmental conditions applied. - Highlights: • Cadmium concentrations in soils and plants

  16. Evaluation of groundwater chemistry and its impact on drinking and irrigation water quality in the eastern part of the Central Arabian graben and trough system, Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Faisal K.; Mogren, Saad; Mukhopadhyay, Manoj; Ibrahim, Elkhedr

    2016-08-01

    The present study deals with the assessment of groundwater with respect to the main hydrological processes controlling its chemistry and its subsequent impact on groundwater quality for drinking and irrigation purposes in the eastern part of the Central Arabian graben and trough system. Groundwater samples were collected from 73 bore wells tapping the Cretaceous Biyadh and Wasia sandstone aquifers. The main groundwater facies in the area belong to the mixed Casbnd Mgsbnd SO4/Cl type and the SO4sbnd Cl type. Prolonged rock water interaction has resulted in high TDS (average of 2131 mg/l) and high EC (average of 2725 μS/cm) of the groundwater. The average nitrate (56.38 mg/l) value in the area is higher than the WHO prescribed limits of 50 mg/l in drinking water and is attributed to agricultural activities. The Drinking Water Quality Index (DWQI) shows that 33% of the water samples fall within the excellent to good category whereas the remaining samples fall in the poor to unsuitable for drinking category. In terms of Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), Sodium percentage (Na %) and Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC) the groundwater is suitable for irrigation however the high salinity values can adversely affect the plant physiology.

  17. Temperature-induced impacts on groundwater quality and arsenic mobility in anoxic aquifer sediments used for both drinking water and shallow geothermal energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonte, Matthijs; van Breukelen, Boris M; Stuyfzand, Pieter J

    2013-09-15

    Aquifers used for the production of drinking water are increasingly being used for the generation of shallow geothermal energy. This causes temperature perturbations far beyond the natural variations in aquifers and the effects of these temperature variations on groundwater quality, in particular trace elements, have not been investigated. Here, we report the results of column experiments to assess the impacts of temperature variations (5°C, 11°C, 25°C and 60°C) on groundwater quality in anoxic reactive unconsolidated sandy sediments derived from an aquifer system widely used for drinking water production in the Netherlands. Our results showed that at 5 °C no effects on water quality were observed compared to the reference of 11°C (in situ temperature). At 25°C, As concentrations were significantly increased and at 60 °C, significant increases were observed pH and DOC, P, K, Si, As, Mo, V, B, and F concentrations. These elements should therefore be considered for water quality monitoring programs of shallow geothermal energy projects. No consistent temperature effects were observed on Na, Ca, Mg, Sr, Fe, Mn, Al, Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Eu, Ho, Sb, Sc, Yb, Ga, La, and Th concentrations, all of which were present in the sediment. The temperature-induced chemical effects were probably caused by (incongruent) dissolution of silicate minerals (K and Si), desorption from, and potentially reductive dissolution of, iron oxides (As, B, Mo, V, and possibly P and DOC), and mineralisation of sedimentary organic matter (DOC and P).

  18. Salinity and water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of salinity on greenhouse grown crops, especially when grown in substrate systems, differs from the impact of salinity on crops grown under field conditions. The most striking difference between greenhouse and field conditions is the overall much higher concentrations of nutrients in gree

  19. The impacts of irrigation with transferred and saline reclaimed water in the soil biological quality of two citrus species: Adaptations to low water availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida, Felipe; Abadía, Joaquín; García, Carlos; Torres, Irene; Ruiz Navarro, Antonio; José Alarcón, Juan; Nicolás, Emilio

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean agroecosystems are limited by the availability of water and hence it is fundamental to find new water sources for sustainable agriculture in the face of climate change. Here, the effects of irrigation with water from different sources were analyzed in the soil microbial community and plant status of grapefruit and mandarin trees in a Mediterranean agro-ecosystem located in south-east of Spain. Four irrigation treatments were evaluated: i) water with an average electrical conductivity (EC) of 1.1 dS m-1 from the "Tagus-Segura" water-transfer canal (TW); ii) reclaimed water (EC = 3.21 dS m-1) from a wastewater-treatment-plant (RW); iii) irrigation with TW, except in the second stage of fruit development, when RW was applied (TWc); and iv) irrigation with RW except in the second stage, when TW was used (RWc). Phospholipid fatty acids indicated that microbial biomass was greater under grapefruit than under mandarin. In the case of grapefruit, TW showed a lower bacterial biomass than RW, RWc, and TWc, while RW showed the lowest values in the mandarin soil. In grapefruit soil, β-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase activities, related to C cycling, were greater in RW and TWc than in TW and RWc. In mandarin soil, the greatest activity of these enzymes was found in TWc. The saline stress induced lower net photosynthesis (A) and stomatal conductance (gs) in plants of RW, RWc and TWc in comparison with TW. The annual use of reclaimed water or the combined irrigation with TWc positively influenced the soil biological quality of a grapefruit agro-ecosystem. Conversely, the mandarin soil community was more sensitive to the annual irrigation with RW.

  20. Water Quality Monitoring Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Fred J.; Houdart, Joseph F.

    This manual is designed for students involved in environmental education programs dealing with water pollution problems. By establishing a network of Environmental Monitoring Stations within the educational system, four steps toward the prevention, control, and abatement of water pollution are proposed. (1) Train students to recognize, monitor,…

  1. Ground Water Quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    southwestern Nigeria with a view to determining its suitability for human .... are likely to affect the composition and quality of ...... Fasasi, K. A., Malaka, S. L. O. and Amund, O. O. Studies on the Life Cycle and Morphometrics of Honeybees,.

  2. Impact of hydrological alterations on river-groundwater exchange and water quality in a semi-arid area: Nueces River, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgulet, Dorina; Murgulet, Valeriu; Spalt, Nicholas; Douglas, Audrey; Hay, Richard G

    2016-12-01

    There is a lack of understanding and methods for assessing the effects of anthropogenic disruptions, (i.e. river fragmentation due to dam construction) on the extent and degree of groundwater-surface water interaction and geochemical processes affecting the quality of water in semi-arid, coastal catchments. This study applied a novel combination of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and elemental and isotope geochemistry in a coastal river disturbed by extended drought and periodic flooding due to the operation of multiple dams. Geochemical analyses show that the saltwater barrier causes an increase in salinity in surface water in the downstream river as a result of limited freshwater inflows, strong evaporation effects on shallow groundwater and mostly stagnant river water, and is not due to saltwater intrusion by tidal flooding. Discharge from bank storage is dominant (~84%) in the downstream fragment and its contribution could increase salinity levels within the hyporheic zone and surface water. When surface water levels go up due to upstream freshwater releases the river temporarily displaces high salinity water trapped in the hyporheic zone to the underlying aquifer. Geochemical modeling shows a higher contribution of distant and deeper groundwater (~40%) in the upstream river and lower discharge from bank storage (~13%) through the hyporheic zone. Recharge from bank storage is a source of high salt to both upstream and downstream portions of the river but its contribution is higher below the dam. Continuous ERT imaging of the river bed complements geochemistry findings and indicate that while lithologically similar, downstream of the dam, the shallow aquifer is affected by salinization while fresher water saturates the aquifer in the upstream fragment. The relative contribution of flows (i.e. surface water releases or groundwater discharge) as related to the river fragmentation control changes of streamwater chemistry and likely impact the interpretation

  3. 43 CFR 414.5 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water quality. 414.5 Section 414.5 Public... APPORTIONMENT IN THE LOWER DIVISION STATES Water Quality and Environmental Compliance § 414.5 Water quality. (a) Water Quality is not guaranteed. The Secretary does not warrant the quality of water released or...

  4. Pollution characteristics and water quality in the Visakhapatnam harbour

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; Raju, G.R.K.; Babu, T.B.

    The impact of organic pollution on the quality of waters in the Visakhapatnam harbour has been studied over a year at 8 stations. The enrichment of nutrients in these waters enhances the eutrophication. The construction of outer harbour retards...

  5. Hydrology and Water Quality at Malheur National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study is to assess the water quality impacts associated with refuge water and habitat management (irrigation of hay and rake-bunch meadows, grazing,...

  6. Primer on Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pH), dissolved oxygen, and electrical conductance (an indirect indicator of dissolved minerals in the water). Analyses of ... in the intestinal tracts of humans and animals, signal that disease-causing pathogens may be present. Giardia ...

  7. Risk-based water resources planning: Coupling water allocation and water quality management under extreme droughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi-Naeini, M.; Bussi, G.; Hall, J. W.; Whitehead, P. G.

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of water companies is to have a reliable and safe water supply system. To fulfil their duty the water companies have to consider both water quality and quantity issues and challenges. Climate change and population growth will have an impact on water resources both in terms of available water and river water quality. Traditionally, a distinct separation between water quality and abstraction has existed. However, water quality can be a bottleneck in a system since water treatment works can only treat water if it meets certain standards. For instance, high turbidity and large phytoplankton content can increase sharply the cost of treatment or even make river water unfit for human consumption purposes. It is vital for water companies to be able to characterise the quantity and quality of water under extreme weather events and to consider the occurrence of eventual periods when water abstraction has to cease due to water quality constraints. This will give them opportunity to decide on water resource planning and potential changes to reduce the system failure risk. We present a risk-based approach for incorporating extreme events, based on future climate change scenarios from a large ensemble of climate model realisations, into integrated water resources model through combined use of water allocation (WATHNET) and water quality (INCA) models. The annual frequency of imposed restrictions on demand is considered as measure of reliability. We tested our approach on Thames region, in the UK, with 100 extreme events. The results show increase in frequency of imposed restrictions when water quality constraints were considered. This indicates importance of considering water quality issues in drought management plans.

  8. Water quality modelling of Lis River, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Judite; Fonseca, André; Vilar, Vítor J P; Boaventura, Rui A R; Botelho, Cidália M S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to predict the impact of flow conditions, discharges and tributaries on the water quality of Lis River using QUAL2Kw model. Calibration of the model was performed, based on data obtained in field surveys carried out in July 2004 and November 2006. Generally the model fitted quite well the experimental data. The results indicated a decrease of water quality in the downstream area of Lis River, after the confluence of Lena, Milagres and Amor tributaries, as a result of discharges of wastewaters containing degradable organics, nutrients and pathogenic organisms from cattle-raising wastewaters, domestic effluents and agricultural runoff. The water quality criteria were exceeded in these areas for dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and faecal coliforms. Water quality modelling in different scenarios showed that the impact of tributaries on the quality of Lis River water was quite negligible and mainly depends on discharges, which are responsible by an increase of almost 45, 13 and 44 % of ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD(u)), ammonium nitrogen and faecal coliforms, for winter simulation, and 23, 33 and 36 % for summer simulation, respectively, when compared to the real case scenario.

  9. Assessing the Impact of Water Filters and Improved Cook Stoves on Drinking Water Quality and Household Air Pollution: A Randomised Controlled Trial in Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Majorin, Fiona; Boisson, Sophie; Barstow, Christina; Johnson, Michael; Kirby, Miles; Ngabo, Fidele; Thomas, Evan; Clasen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhoea and respiratory infections remain the biggest killers of children under 5 years in developing countries. We conducted a 5-month household randomised controlled trial among 566 households in rural Rwanda to assess uptake, compliance and impact on environmental exposures of a combined intervention delivering high-performance water filters and improved stoves for free. Compliance was measured monthly by self-report and spot-check observations. Semi-continuous 24-h PM2.5 monitoring of the cooking area was conducted in a random subsample of 121 households to assess household air pollution, while samples of drinking water from all households were collected monthly to assess the levels of thermotolerant coliforms. Adoption was generally high, with most householders reporting the filters as their primary source of drinking water and the intervention stoves as their primary cooking stove. However, some householders continued to drink untreated water and most continued to cook on traditional stoves. The intervention was associated with a 97.5% reduction in mean faecal indicator bacteria (Williams means 0.5 vs. 20.2 TTC/100 mL, p<0.001) and a median reduction of 48% of 24-h PM2.5 concentrations in the cooking area (p = 0.005). Further studies to increase compliance should be undertaken to better inform large-scale interventions. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01882777; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01882777&Search=Search PMID:24614750

  10. Assessing the impact of water filters and improved cook stoves on drinking water quality and household air pollution: a randomised controlled trial in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ghislaine; Majorin, Fiona; Boisson, Sophie; Barstow, Christina; Johnson, Michael; Kirby, Miles; Ngabo, Fidele; Thomas, Evan; Clasen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhoea and respiratory infections remain the biggest killers of children under 5 years in developing countries. We conducted a 5-month household randomised controlled trial among 566 households in rural Rwanda to assess uptake, compliance and impact on environmental exposures of a combined intervention delivering high-performance water filters and improved stoves for free. Compliance was measured monthly by self-report and spot-check observations. Semi-continuous 24-h PM2.5 monitoring of the cooking area was conducted in a random subsample of 121 households to assess household air pollution, while samples of drinking water from all households were collected monthly to assess the levels of thermotolerant coliforms. Adoption was generally high, with most householders reporting the filters as their primary source of drinking water and the intervention stoves as their primary cooking stove. However, some householders continued to drink untreated water and most continued to cook on traditional stoves. The intervention was associated with a 97.5% reduction in mean faecal indicator bacteria (Williams means 0.5 vs. 20.2 TTC/100 mL, p<0.001) and a median reduction of 48% of 24-h PM2.5 concentrations in the cooking area (p = 0.005). Further studies to increase compliance should be undertaken to better inform large-scale interventions. Clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01882777; http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=NCT01882777&Search=Search.

  11. Modeling the impacts of winter cover crops on water quality in two adjacent sub-watersheds within the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, Maryland, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Choptank River on Maryland’s Eastern Shore has been designated by the USEPA as “impaired waters” under Section 303(d) of the Federal Clean Water Act of 1972, mainly because of significant nutrient loads that resulted in not meeting the EPA water quality standards. This water quality deteriorati...

  12. Water Quality Management in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Asit K.; Tortajada, Cecilia; Braga, Benedito; Rodriguez, Diego J.

    The book contains several in-depth case studies which comprehensively analyze the present status of water quality management practices at country and state levels, especially in terms of their effectiveness and overall impacts. The objective is to identify opportunities, shortcomings, and constraints that currently exist. The analyses include the mechanisms and instruments that have succeeded in improving water quality, at which locations, for what reasons, and how whatever constraints and deficiencies that exist at present can be overcome in the future in a cost-effective and timely manner.

  13. A cost-effectiveness analysis of water security and water quality: impacts of climate and land-use change on the River Thames system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, P G; Crossman, J; Balana, B B; Futter, M N; Comber, S; Jin, L; Skuras, D; Wade, A J; Bowes, M J; Read, D S

    2013-11-13

    The catchment of the River Thames, the principal river system in southern England, provides the main water supply for London but is highly vulnerable to changes in climate, land use and population. The river is eutrophic with significant algal blooms with phosphorus assumed to be the primary chemical indicator of ecosystem health. In the Thames Basin, phosphorus is available from point sources such as wastewater treatment plants and from diffuse sources such as agriculture. In order to predict vulnerability to future change, the integrated catchments model for phosphorus (INCA-P) has been applied to the river basin and used to assess the cost-effectiveness of a range of mitigation and adaptation strategies. It is shown that scenarios of future climate and land-use change will exacerbate the water quality problems, but a range of mitigation measures can improve the situation. A cost-effectiveness study has been undertaken to compare the economic benefits of each mitigation measure and to assess the phosphorus reductions achieved. The most effective strategy is to reduce fertilizer use by 20% together with the treatment of effluent to a high standard. Such measures will reduce the instream phosphorus concentrations to close to the EU Water Framework Directive target for the Thames.

  14. Optical sensors for water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Brian A.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Shifts in land use, population, and climate have altered hydrologic systems in the United States in ways that affect water quality and ecosystem function. Water diversions, detention in reservoirs, increased channelization, and changes in rainfall and snowmelt are major causes, but there are also more subtle causes such as changes in soil temperature, atmospheric deposition, and shifting vegetation patterns. The effects on water quality are complex and interconnected, and occur at timeframes of minutes (e.g., flash floods) to decades (e.g., evolving management practices).

  15. The EPANET water quality model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossman, L.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-10-01

    EPANET is a software package developed by US EPA`s Drinking Water Research Division for modeling hydraulic and water quality behavior within water distribution systems. Starting with a geometric description of the pipe network, a set of initial conditions, estimates of water usage, and a set of rules for how the system is operated, EPANET predicts all flows, pressures, and water quality levels throughout the network during an extended period of operation. In addition to substance concentration, water age and source tracing can also be simulated. EPANET offers a number of advanced features including: modular, highly portable C language code with no pre-set limits on network size; a simple data input format based on a problem oriented language; a full-featured hydraulic simulator; improved water quality algorithms; analysis of water quality reactions both within the bulk flow and at the pipe wall; an optional graphical user interface running under Microsoft{reg_sign} Windows{trademark}. The Windows user interface allows one to edit EPANET input files, run a simulation, and view the results all within a single program. Simulation output can be visualized through: color-coded maps of the distribution system with full zooming, panning and labeling capabilities and a slider control to move forward or backward through time; spreadsheet-like tables that can be searched for entries meeting a specified criterion; and time series graphs of both predicted and observed values for any variable at any location in the network. EPANET is currently being used to analyze a number of water quality issues in different distribution systems across the country. These include: chlorine decay dynamics, raw water source blending, altered tank operation, and integration with real-time monitoring and control systems.

  16. Water quality management for Lake Mariout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Donia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A hydrodynamic and water quality model was used to study the current status of the Lake Mariout subject to the pollution loadings from the agricultural drains and the point sources discharging directly to the Lake. The basic water quality modelling component simulates the main water quality parameters including the oxygen compounds (BOD, COD, DO, nutrients compounds (NH4, TN, TP, and finally the temperature, salinity and inorganic matter. Many scenarios have been conducted to improve the circulation and the water quality in the lake and to assess the spreading and mixing of the discharge effluents and its impact on the water quality of the main basin. Several pilot interventions were applied through the model in the Lake Mariout together with the upgrades of the East and West Waste Water Treatment Plants in order to achieve at least 5% reduction in the pollution loads entering the Mediterranean Sea through Lake Mariout in order to improve the institutional mechanisms for sustainable coastal zone management in Alexandria in particular to reduce land-based pollution to the Mediterranean Sea.

  17. Possible source term of high concentrations of mecoprop-p in leachate and water quality: impact of climate change, public use and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idowu, I A; Alkhaddar, R M; Atherton, W

    2014-08-01

    Mecoprop-p herbicide is often found in wells and water abstractions in many areas around Europe, the UK inclusive. There is a growing environmental and public health concern about mecoprop-p herbicide pollution in ground and surface water in England. Reviews suggest that extensive work has been carried out on the contribution of mecoprop-p herbicides from agricultural use whilst more work needs to be carried out on the contribution of mecoprop-p herbicide from non-agricultural use. The study covers two landfill sites in Weaver/Gowy Catchment. Mecoprop-p herbicide concentrations in the leachate quality range between 0.06 and 290 microg l1 in cells. High concentration ofmecoprop-p herbicide in the leachate quality suggests that there is a possible source term in the waste stream. This paper addresses the gap by exploring possible source terms of mecoprop-p herbicide contamination on landfill sites and evaluates the impact of public purchase, use and disposal alongside climate change on seasonal variations in mecoprop-p concentrations. Mecoprop-p herbicide was found to exceed the EU drinking water quality standards at the unsaturated zone/aquifer with observed average concentrations ranging between 0.005 and 7.96 microg l1. A route map for mecoprop-p herbicide source term contamination is essential for mitigation and pollution management with emphasis on both consumer and producer responsibility towards use of mecoprop-p product. In addition, improvement in data collection on mecoprop-p concentrations and detailed seasonal herbicide sales for non-agricultural purposes are needed to inform the analysis and decision process.

  18. Impact on sand and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann, R.P.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the impact of a body on sand and water. When a body impacts a free surface in the inertial regime the series of events is the following: On impact material is blown away in all directions and an impact cavity forms. Due to the hydrostatic pressure from the sides the cav

  19. The combined impact of land use change and aquaculture on sediment and water quality in oligotrophic Lake Rupanco (North Patagonia, Chile, 40.8°S).

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Muñoz, Jorge; Echeverría, Cristian; Marcé, Rafael; Riss, Wolfgang; Sherman, Bradford; Iriarte, Jose Luis

    2013-10-15

    Water and sediment quality in North Patagonia's large, oligotrophic lakes are expected to suffer as native forest continues to be fragmented and degraded by its conversion to cropping and pasture land uses. These changes in land use are expected to increase diffuse nutrient loads to the region's lakes. In addition, these lakes are home to the world's second largest salmon aquaculture industry which provides additional point sources of nutrients within the lakes. We studied the combined influences of land use change and salmon farming on the nutrient concentrations in a North Patagonian lake (Lake Rupanco, 233 km(2) water surface, 163 m average depth) in four sub-watersheds ranging in disturbance from near-pristine forest to 53% converted to cropping and pasture. Nitrogen exports from the tributary sub-watersheds increased from 33 kg TN/km(2)/y to 621 kg TN/km(2)/y as the proportion of crop and pasture land increased. The combined nutrient load from land use change and salmon farming has led to significant differences in the nitrogen concentrations of the lake's water column and sediments in the near-shore zones across the lake. Total nitrogen concentrations in the sediments varied from 37 ± 18 mg/kg in near-pristine sub-watersheds without salmon farming to 6400 ± 698 mg/kg where the sub-watershed was dominated by crop and pasture lands combined with the presence of salmon farming. These results demonstrate the importance of considering the impacts of both salmon farming and land use on water and sediment quality for future environmental planning, management and decision making.

  20. BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF TAP WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Zamorska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The most sensitive method of detecting contamination in water supply networks is microbiological testing. Microbiological water safety is evaluated mainly based on the results of traditional tests that rely on bacteria culturing on the so called bacterial growth mediums. Flow cytometry is a modern technology that has been used in microbiology only recently. The diagnostic method based on flow cytometry is much faster and more versatile. Microbiological quality testing was conducted in rzeszowski district, in the area of water network supplied by surface waters, and in the area of water network supplied by underground waters. The scope of the analysis of the microbiological quality of tap water was based on the determination of selected indicators of the sanitary condition of water ie; the total number of psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria on nutrient agar (reference called Agar A and additionally called agar supplemented with R, the number of coliforms and faecal streptococci. Determination of the total number of microorganisms by flow cytometry was performed using two dyes SYBR Green and iodide pyridine. Water from underground water intakes, not under the permanent control of microbial had worse microbiological parameters. Used new methods of microbiological assays showed greater amounts of microbiological contamination.

  1. The cumulative impacts of repeated heavy rainfall, flooding and altered water quality on the high-latitude coral reefs of Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, I R; Sommer, B; Zann, M; Zhao, J-X; Pandolfi, J M

    2015-07-15

    Terrestrial runoff and flooding have resulted in major impacts on coral communities worldwide, but we lack detailed understanding of flood plume conditions and their ecological effects. Over the course of repeated flooding between 2010 and 2013, we measured coral cover and water quality on the high-latitude coral reefs of Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia. In 2013, salinity, total suspended solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were altered for up to six months post-flooding. Submarine groundwater caused hypo-saline conditions for a further four months. Despite the greater magnitude of flooding in 2013, declines in coral abundance (∼28%) from these floods were lower than the 2011 flood (∼40%), which occurred immediately after a decade of severe drought. There was an overall cumulative decrease of coral by ∼56% from 2010 to 2013. Our study highlights the need for local scale monitoring and research to facilitate informed management and conservation of catchments and marine environments.

  2. Water Quality, Aquatic Life and Fish in Song Bung River. A Part Study of the Environmental Impact Assesment for the Song Bung 4 Hydropower Development Project in Central Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, D.; Hai Than, H.; Sin Kiem, N.

    2007-01-01

    The study comprise three main tasks: 1) Assess the present situation in the river with respect to water quality, aquatic life, fish and fishery; 2) Assess the impact of the hydropower regulation scheme on these items, and 3) Propose and outline mitigation measures to reduce the negative impacts. The study also deals with impact from mining and how this will conflict with the regulation plans. It also elucidates the potential for releases of greenhouse gases from the reservoir. Finally the stu...

  3. [Impacts of urbanization on the water quality and macrobenthos community structure of the tributaries in middle reach of Qiantang River, East China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Xiao; Yu, Hai-Yan; Liu, Shuo-Ru; Hu, Zun-Ying; Yu, Jian; Wang, Bei-Xin

    2012-05-01

    The 59 1st-3rd order tributaries in the middle reach of Qiantang River are negatively affected by different intensities of urbanization. In April 2010, an investigation was conducted on the water bodies' physical and chemical properties and macrobenthos communities of the tributaries, with the relationships between the tributaries' water quality and biological communities and the percentage of ground surface impervious area (PIA), an indicator of urbanization intensity. The Spearman correlation analysis showed that the water bodies' NH(4+)-N, PO4(3-)-P, TP, COD(Mn), conductivity, width, depth, and fine sand/silt ratio were positively correlated with PIA, and negatively correlated with forest land area. The fitted nonlinear regression equations revealed that all the test macro-benthic invertebrate's parameters had significant relationships with PIA, of which, the total number of taxa, Shannon diversity index, richness index, EPT (%), predators (%), shredders (%), filterers (%) and scrapers (%) were negatively correlated to PIA but positively correlated to forest land area, and the BI, collectors (%), tolerance taxa (%) and oligochaeta (%) were positively correlated to the PIA. Our study indicated that under the impact of urbanization, these tributaries presented the common features of degradation, i. e., high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus, degradation of physical habitat, disappearance of pollution-sensitive macro-benthic invertebrate species, and dramatic increase of pollution-tolerant species individuals.

  4. The impact of poor governance on water and sediment quality: a case study in the Pitimbu River, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, L.; Adamowski, J.; Gaskin, S.; Saraiva, A.

    2014-09-01

    Applying a collaborative approach under a power-sharing institutional structure, coupled with a shift in paradigms, sustainable water resources management often requires political-institutional reform to achieve its goals. Most of Brazil's river basins are subject to rapid urbanization; however, basin stakeholders generally lack sufficient institutional capacity to address the attending water resource issues. Subject to urbanisation, the Pitimbu River basin supplies potable water to approximately 280 000 people in Brazil's Natal region. This study investigated how current institutional models influence both water management and fluvial contamination by metals. Sediment samples collected at eight sites along the river revealed elevated levels of Pb, Fe, Al, Ni and Zn, whose sources were linked to industries, vehicles, as well as agricultural and construction wastes. Aluminium enrichment of surface waters was mainly linked to inadequate sanitation infrastructure. In light of this, the region's poor institutional capacity must be addressed through institutional reform, including a new management structure open to public collective water management planning. In so doing, Brazil's water policies should acknowledge capacity building as a critical element of institutional reform.

  5. Integrated Urban Water Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, W.; Harremoës, Poul

    1995-01-01

    The basic features of integrated urban water quality management by means of deterministic modeling are outlined. Procedures for the assessment of the detrimental effects in the recipient are presented as well as the basic concepts of an integrated model. The analysis of a synthetic urban drainage...... system provides useful information for water quality management. It is possible to identify the system parameters that contain engineering significance. Continuous simulation of the system performance indicates that the combined nitrogen loading is dominated by the wastewater treatment plant during dry...

  6. Citizen science-based water quality monitoring: Constructing a large database to characterize the impacts of combined sewer overflow in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnham, David J; Gibson, Rebecca A; Hsueh, Diana Y; McGillis, Wade R; Culligan, Patricia J; Zain, Nina; Buchanan, Rob

    2017-02-15

    To protect recreational water users from waterborne pathogen exposure, it is crucial that waterways are monitored for the presence of harmful bacteria. In NYC, a citizen science campaign is monitoring waterways impacted by inputs of storm water and untreated sewage during periods of rainfall. However, the spatial and temporal scales over which the monitoring program can sample are constrained by cost and time, thus hindering the construction of databases that benefit both scientists and citizens. In this study, we first illustrate the scientific value of a citizen scientist monitoring campaign by using the data collected through the campaign to characterize the seasonal variability of sampled bacterial concentration as well as its response to antecedent rainfall. Second, we examine the efficacy of the HyServe Compact Dry ETC method, a lower cost and time-efficient alternative to the EPA-approved IDEXX Enterolert method for fecal indicator monitoring, through a paired sample comparison of IDEXX and HyServe (total of 424 paired samples). The HyServe and IDEXX methods return the same result for over 80% of the samples with regard to whether a water sample is above or below the EPA's recreational water quality criteria for a single sample of 110 enterococci per 100mL. The HyServe method classified as unsafe 90% of the 119 water samples that were classified as having unsafe enterococci concentrations by the more established IDEXX method. This study seeks to encourage other scientists to engage with citizen scientist communities and to also pursue the development of cost- and time-efficient methodologies to sample environmental variables that are not easily collected or analyzed in an automated manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation of Yasuj Landfill Leachate and its Impact on lawer Water Resource Quality (No.6 Tang‌konareh well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jamshidi

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: According to the results, threats by water pollution and landfill waste wells downstream in Yasuj resources are predictable in the long term indirectly, therefore, necessary measures should be considered.

  8. BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF TAP WATER

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Zamorska; Monika Zdeb; Dorota Papciak

    2016-01-01

    The most sensitive method of detecting contamination in water supply networks is microbiological testing. Microbiological water safety is evaluated mainly based on the results of traditional tests that rely on bacteria culturing on the so called bacterial growth mediums. Flow cytometry is a modern technology that has been used in microbiology only recently. The diagnostic method based on flow cytometry is much faster and more versatile. Microbiological quality testing was conducted in rzes...

  9. Water quantity and quality at the urban-rural interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; B. Graeme Lockaby

    2012-01-01

    Population growth and urban development dramatically alter natural watershed ecosystem structure and functions and stress water resources. We review studies on the impacts of urbanization on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes underlying stream water quantity and water quality issues, as well as water supply challenges in an urban environment. We conclude that...

  10. Integrating Product Water Quality Effects In Holistic Assessments Of Water Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    economic assessment of water quality effects, production costs and environmental costs (water abstraction and CO2-emissions). Considered water quality issues include: health (dental caries, cardiovascular diseases, eczema), corrosion (lifetime of appliances, pipes), consumption of soap, and bottled water......While integrated assessments of sustainability of water systems are largely focused on quantity issues, chemical use, and energy consumption, effects of the supplied water quality are often overlooked. Drinking water quality affects corrosion rates, human health, applicability of water...... and aesthetics. Even small changes in the chemical composition of water may accumulate large impacts on city scale. Here, a method for integrated assessment of water quality is presented. Based on dose-response relationships a range of effects from different drinking water qualities is merged into a holistic...

  11. 18 CFR 801.7 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Water quality. 801.7... POLICIES § 801.7 Water quality. (a) The signatory States have the primary responsibility in the basin for water quality management and control. However, protection of the water resources of the basin from...

  12. Identification of water quality degradation hotspots in developing countries by applying large scale water quality modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malsy, Marcus; Reder, Klara; Flörke, Martina

    2014-05-01

    Decreasing water quality is one of the main global issues which poses risks to food security, economy, and public health and is consequently crucial for ensuring environmental sustainability. During the last decades access to clean drinking water increased, but 2.5 billion people still do not have access to basic sanitation, especially in Africa and parts of Asia. In this context not only connection to sewage system is of high importance, but also treatment, as an increasing connection rate will lead to higher loadings and therefore higher pressure on water resources. Furthermore, poor people in developing countries use local surface waters for daily activities, e.g. bathing and washing. It is thus clear that water utilization and water sewerage are indispensable connected. In this study, large scale water quality modelling is used to point out hotspots of water pollution to get an insight on potential environmental impacts, in particular, in regions with a low observation density and data gaps in measured water quality parameters. We applied the global water quality model WorldQual to calculate biological oxygen demand (BOD) loadings from point and diffuse sources, as well as in-stream concentrations. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries i.e. Africa, Asia, and South America, as they are most affected by water pollution. Hereby, model runs were conducted for the year 2010 to draw a picture of recent status of surface waters quality and to figure out hotspots and main causes of pollution. First results show that hotspots mainly occur in highly agglomerated regions where population density is high. Large urban areas are initially loading hotspots and pollution prevention and control become increasingly important as point sources are subject to connection rates and treatment levels. Furthermore, river discharge plays a crucial role due to dilution potential, especially in terms of seasonal variability. Highly varying shares of BOD sources across

  13. A modeling study of the impacts of Mississippi River diversion and sea-level rise on water quality of a deltaic estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongqing; Chen, Qin; Hu, Kelin; LaPeyre, Megan K.

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater and sediment management in estuaries affects water quality, particularly in deltaic estuaries. Furthermore, climate change-induced sea-level rise (SLR) and land subsidence also affect estuarine water quality by changing salinity, circulation, stratification, sedimentation, erosion, residence time, and other physical and ecological processes. However, little is known about how the magnitudes and spatial and temporal patterns in estuarine water quality variables will change in response to freshwater and sediment management in the context of future SLR. In this study, we applied the Delft3D model that couples hydrodynamics and water quality processes to examine the spatial and temporal variations of salinity, total suspended solids, and chlorophyll-α concentration in response to small (142 m3 s−1) and large (7080 m3 s−1) Mississippi River (MR) diversions under low (0.38 m) and high (1.44 m) relative SLR (RSLR = eustatic SLR + subsidence) scenarios in the Breton Sound Estuary, Louisiana, USA. The hydrodynamics and water quality model were calibrated and validated via field observations at multiple stations across the estuary. Model results indicate that the large MR diversion would significantly affect the magnitude and spatial and temporal patterns of the studied water quality variables across the entire estuary, whereas the small diversion tends to influence water quality only in small areas near the diversion. RSLR would also play a significant role on the spatial heterogeneity in estuary water quality by acting as an opposite force to river diversions; however, RSLR plays a greater role than the small-scale diversion on the magnitude and spatial pattern of the water quality parameters in this deltaic estuary.

  14. Observations on a Montana water quality proposal.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Puder, M. G.

    2006-01-12

    In May 2005, a group of petitioners led by the Northern Plains Resource Council (NPRC) submitted a petition to revise water quality requirements to the Montana Board of Environmental Review (BER). Under Montana law, the BER had to consider the petition and either reject it or propose it as a new regulation. In September 2005, the BER announced proposed changes to the Montana water quality regulations. The proposal, which included almost the exact language found in the petition, was directed toward discharges of water from coal bed natural gas (CBNG) production. The key elements of the proposal included: (1) No discharges of CBNG water are allowed to Montana surface waters unless operators can demonstrate that injection to aquifers with the potential for later recovery of the water is not feasible. (2) When operators can demonstrate the injection is not feasible, the CBNG water to be discharged must meet very strict technology-based limits for multiple parameters. (3) The Montana water quality standards for the sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and electrical conductivity (EC) would be evaluated using the 7Q10 flow (lowest 7-consecutive-day flow in a 10-year period) rather than a monthly flow that is currently used. (4) SAR and EC would be reclassified as ''harmful parameters'', thereby greatly restricting the ability for CBNG discharges to be allowed under Montana's nondegradation regulations. The proposed regulations, if adopted in their current form, are likely to substantially reduce the amount of CBNG production in Montana. The impact also extends to Wyoming CBNG production through much greater restrictions on water quality that must be met at the interstate border.

  15. An Expert System Applied in Construction Water Quality Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Ooshaksaraie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: An untoward environmental impact of urban growth in Malaysia has been deterioration in a number of watercourses due to severe siltation and other pollutants from the construction site. Water quality monitoring is a plan for decision makers to take into account the adverse impacts of construction activities on the receiving water bodies. It is also a process for collecting the construction water quality monitoring, baseline data and standard level. Approach: In recent years, expert systems have been used extensively in different applications areas including environmental studies. In this study, expert system software -CWQM- developed by using Microsoft Visual Basic was introduced. CWQM to be used for water quality monitoring during construction activities was designed based on the legal process in Malaysia. Results: According to the water quality monitoring regulation enacted in Malaysia, construction activities require mandatory water quality monitoring plans duly approved by Department of Environment before staring activities. CWQM primarily aims to provide educational and support system for water quality monitoring engineers and decision-makers during construction activities. It displays water quality monitoring plan in report form, water sampling location in GIS format and water quality monitoring data in graph. Conclusion: When the use of CWQM in construction water quality monitoring becomes widespread, it is highly possible that it will be benefited in terms of having more accurate and objective decisions on construction projects which are mainly focused on reducing the stormwater pollution.

  16. Evaluation of the Impact of the Plastic BioSand Filter on Health and Drinking Water Quality in Rural Tamale, Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Mumuni K. Osman; Stauber, Christine E.; Byron Kominek; Liang, Kaida R.; Sobsey, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial of the plastic BioSand filter (BSF) was performed in rural communities in Tamale (Ghana) to assess reductions in diarrheal disease and improvements in household drinking water quality. Few studies of household water filters have been performed in this region, where high drinking water turbidity can be a challenge for other household water treatment technologies. During the study, the longitudinal prevalence ratio for diarrhea comparing households that received th...

  17. CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON WATER RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. CORNEA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change impacts on water resources – The most recent scientific assessment by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC [6] concludes that, since the late 19th century, anthropogenic induced emissions of greenhouse gases have contributed to an increase in global surface temperatures of about 0.3 to 0.6o C. Based on the IPCC’s scenario of future greenhouse gas emissions and aerosols a further increase of 2o C is expected by the year 2100. Plants, animals, natural and managed ecosystems, and human settlements are susceptible to variations in the storage, fluxes, and quality of water and sensitive to climate change. From urban and agricultural water supplies to flood management and aquatic ecosystem protection, global warming is affecting all aspects of water resource management. Rising temperatures, loss of snowpack, escalating size and frequency of flood events, and rising sea levels are just some of the impacts of climate change that have broad implications for the management of water resources. With robust scientific evidence showing that human-induced climate change is occurring, it is critical to understand how water quantity and quality might be affected. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the environmental risks caused by climate anomalies on water resources, to examine the negative impacts of a greenhouse warming on the supply and demand for water and the resulting socio-economic implications.

  18. Comparing serologic response against enteric pathogens with reported diarrhea to assess the impact of improved household drinking water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, John A; Mendoza, Carlos E; Priest, Jeffrey W; Glass, Roger I; Monroe, Stephan S; Dauphin, Leslie A; Bibb, William F; Lopez, M Beatriz; Alvarez, Maricruz; Mintz, Eric D; Luby, Stephen P

    2007-07-01

    We evaluated enteric infection serology as an alternative outcome measure to diarrhea prevalence in a randomized controlled trial of household-based drinking water treatment; 492 households were randomly assigned to 5 household-based water treatment interventions or control. Individuals were followed weekly over 52 weeks to measure diarrhea prevalence. Study subjects of age diarrhea prevalence only for G. intestinalis (P = 0.0134). Serologic response to the antigens tested for G. intestinalis but not for Norovirus, C. parvum, and ETEC may be a useful health-effect measure. Larger intervention studies that yield a more marked effect on diarrheal disease, use additional and improved serologic assays, and that collect serum samples at more frequent intervals are needed.

  19. River water quality modelling in developing a catchment water safety plan

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, J. M. Pereira; Pinho, José L. S.

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of a catchment water safety plan is to reduce risks within the catchment to protect the quality of drinking water sources at the intake point. Even where effective arrangements for catchment management and control have been implemented, unexpected deterioration in raw water quality can pose a risk to treated drinking water quality. Thus potential sources of pollution impacting the area of influence of the intake should be identified and monitored. An important part of any catc...

  20. The Impact of a School-Based Hygiene, Water Quality and Sanitation Intervention on Soil-Transmitted Helminth Reinfection: A Cluster-Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Matthew C.; Clasen, Thomas; Brooker, Simon J.; Akoko, Daniel O.; Rheingans, Richard

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a cluster-randomized trial to assess the impact of a school-based water treatment, hygiene, and sanitation program on reducing infection with soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) after school-based deworming. We assessed infection with STHs at baseline and then at two follow-up rounds 8 and 10 months after deworming. Forty government primary schools in Nyanza Province, Kenya were randomly selected and assigned to intervention or control arms. The intervention reduced reinfection prevalence (odds ratio [OR] 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.31–1.00) and egg count (rate ratio [RR] 0.34, CI 0.15–0.75) of Ascaris lumbricoides. We found no evidence of significant intervention effects on the overall prevalence and intensity of Trichuris trichiura, hookworm, or Schistosoma mansoni reinfection. Provision of school-based sanitation, water quality, and hygiene improvements may reduce reinfection of STHs after school-based deworming, but the magnitude of the effects may be sex- and helminth species-specific. PMID:24019429

  1. An innovative modeling approach using Qual2K and HEC-RAS integration to assess the impact of tidal effect on River Water quality simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chihhao; Ko, Chun-Han; Wang, Wei-Shen

    2009-04-01

    Water quality modeling has been shown to be a useful tool in strategic water quality management. The present study combines the Qual2K model with the HEC-RAS model to assess the water quality of a tidal river in northern Taiwan. The contaminant loadings of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), ammonia nitrogen (NH(3)-N), total phosphorus (TP), and sediment oxygen demand (SOD) are utilized in the Qual2K simulation. The HEC-RAS model is used to: (i) estimate the hydraulic constants for atmospheric re-aeration constant calculation; and (ii) calculate the water level profile variation to account for concentration changes as a result of tidal effect. The results show that HEC-RAS-assisted Qual2K simulations taking tidal effect into consideration produce water quality indices that, in general, agree with the monitoring data of the river. Comparisons of simulations with different combinations of contaminant loadings demonstrate that BOD is the most import contaminant. Streeter-Phelps simulation (in combination with HEC-RAS) is also performed for comparison, and the results show excellent agreement with the observed data. This paper is the first report of the innovative use of a combination of the HEC-RAS model and the Qual2K model (or Streeter-Phelps equation) to simulate water quality in a tidal river. The combination is shown to provide an alternative for water quality simulation of a tidal river when available dynamic-monitoring data are insufficient to assess the tidal effect of the river.

  2. Ag-PIE: a GIS-based screening model for assessing agricultural pressures and impacts on water quality on a European scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giupponi, Carlo; Vladimirova, Irena

    2006-04-15

    Diffuse pollution of water resources from agricultural sources is a major environmental issue in the European Union, and has been dealt with by specific legislation: the Nitrate Directive of 1991 and the Water Framework Directive of 2000. These attempts to provide a coordinated approach to solving environmental problems require methods and tools for spatial analysis and modelling on a continental scale, with river basins being used as spatial units. This paper presents a screening model (Ag-PIE), developed in a GIS environment, for the assessment of pressures from agricultural land use and the consequent impacts on surface and groundwater. Ag-PIE has been applied at the European scale (EU15), with focus on nitrogen pollution from chemical fertilisers and manure. The model adopts a multi-criteria evaluation procedure applied to spatial data layers which represent the variety of factors affecting the pollution process. The DPSIR (Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impact, Responses) approach is applied to provide the modelling approach with a conceptual framework and to further analyse and communicate results. Ag-PIE is ultimately aimed at providing a tool making use of state-of-the-art geographical databases to support policy-makers at the European level. The scale of reference adopted is the river basin, in particular those that extend across national boundaries. The quality of the results obtained has been assessed against existing related studies and monitoring reports and by means of sensitivity analysis. Conclusions are driven by considering the potential of Ag-PIE in devising policy support and its strengths and weaknesses in view of identifying future research needs.

  3. Impact of thermal loading and other water quality parameters on the epizootiology of Aeromonas hydrophila infections of centrarchids. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, G.W.; Hazen, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    Red-sore disease is a rather recent problem for those involved in the sport and commercial fishing industries in the southeastern United States. The causative, or etiological, agent for red-sore disease is the widespread and commonly occurring bacterium, Aeromonas hydrophila. The disease is characterized by both external and internal lesions with serious damage to internal organs ultimately causing death of the host. Evidence points to the existence of several strains of Aeromonas hydrophila with some more virulent than others. The prevalence of the disease is related to elevated water temperature and body condition.

  4. STUDY OF POND WATER QUALITY BY THE ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND WATER QUALITY INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Jena

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Water quality index (WQI is a dimensionless number that combines multiple water quality factors into a single number by normalizing values to subjective rating curves. Conventionally it has been used for evaluating the quality of water for water resources suchas rivers, streams and lakes, etc. The present work is aimed at assessing the Water Quality Index (W.Q.I ofpond water and the impact of human activities on it. Physicochemical parameters were monitored for the calculation of W.Q.I for the rainy, winter and summer seasons. The parameters namely pH, Total hardness, TDS,Calcium, Chloride, Sulphate, Sodium, Potassium, EC and DO values were within the permissible limits on the other hand total alkalinities and magnesium values were exceeding the permissible limits as prescribed by IndianStandards. However, the W.Q.I values in the present investigation were reported to be 83.43, 76.598 and 91.52 for different season indicating that the pond water quality is very poor and not totally safe for human consumption.

  5. The relevance of diatoms for water quality assessment in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relevance of diatoms for water quality assessment in South Africa: A ... Deliberate determination of responses to management strategies or impacts arising from a ... may be established to augment the current use of invertebrate indicators.

  6. River water quality modelling: II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanahan, P.; Henze, Mogens; Koncsos, L.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. EPA QUAL2E model is currently the standard for river water quality modelling. While QUAL2E is adequate for the regulatory situation for which it was developed (the U.S. wasteload allocation process), there is a need for a more comprehensive framework for research and teaching. Moreover......, and to achieve robust model calibration. Mass balance problems arise from failure to account for mass in the sediment as well as in the water column and due to the fundamental imprecision of BOD as a state variable. (C) 1998 IAWQ Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  7. Environmental control technology survey of selected US strip mining sites. Volume 2A: Ohio: water quality impacts and overburden chemistry of Ohio study site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogner, J E; Henricks, J D; Olsen, R D; Schubert, J P; Sobek, A A; Wilkey, M L; Johnson, D O

    1979-05-01

    An intensive study of water, overburden, and coal chemistry was conducted at a large surface mine in Ohio from May 1976 through July 1977. Sampling sites were chosen to include the final mine effluent at the outflow of a large settling pond and chemically-treated drainage from a coal storage pile. Samples were collected semimonthly and analyzed for total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, alkalinity, acidity, sulfate, chloride, and 16 metals. Field measurements included pH, flow rate, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductance. The final effluent, where sampled, generally complied with Office of Surface Mining reclamation standards for pH, iron, and total suspended solids. Comparison of the final effluent with water quality of an unnamed tributary above the mine suggested that elevated values for specific conductance, total dissolved solids, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, manganese, and zinc were attributable to the mine operation. In general, there were observable seasonal variations in flow rates that correlated positively to suspended solids concentrations and negatively to concentrations of dissolved constituents in the final effluent. Drainage from the coal storage pile contained elevated levels of acidity and dissolved metals which were not reduced significantly by the soda ash treatment. The storage pile drainage was diluted, however, by large volumes of alkaline water in the settling pond. Analysis of overburden and coal indicated that the major impact of mine drainage was pyrite oxidation and hydrolysis in the Middle Kittanning Coal and in the Lower Freeport Shale overlying the coal. However, the presence of a calcite-cemented section in the Upper Freeport Sandstone contributed substantial self-neutralizing capacity to the overburden section, resulting in generally alkaline drainage at this site.

  8. Environmental control technology survey of selected US strip mining sites. Volume 2A: Ohio: water quality impacts and overburden chemistry of Ohio study site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogner, J E; Henricks, J D; Olsen, R D; Schubert, J P; Sobek, A A; Wilkey, M L; Johnson, D O

    1979-05-01

    An intensive study of water, overburden, and coal chemistry was conducted at a large surface mine in Ohio from May 1976 through July 1977. Sampling sites were chosen to include the final mine effluent at the outflow of a large settling pond and chemically-treated drainage from a coal storage pile. Samples were collected semimonthly and analyzed for total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, alkalinity, acidity, sulfate, chloride, and 16 metals. Field measurements included pH, flow rate, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductance. The final effluent, where sampled, generally complied with Office of Surface Mining reclamation standards for pH, iron, and total suspended solids. Comparison of the final effluent with water quality of an unnamed tributary above the mine suggested that elevated values for specific conductance, total dissolved solids, sulfate, calcium, magnesium, manganese, and zinc were attributable to the mine operation. In general, there were observable seasonal variations in flow rates that correlated positively to suspended solids concentrations and negatively to concentrations of dissolved constituents in the final effluent. Drainage from the coal storage pile contained elevated levels of acidity and dissolved metals which were not reduced significantly by the soda ash treatment. The storage pile drainage was diluted, however, by large volumes of alkaline water in the settling pond. Analysis of overburden and coal indicated that the major impact of mine drainage was pyrite oxidation and hydrolysis in the Middle Kittanning Coal and in the Lower Freeport Shale overlying the coal. However, the presence of a calcite-cemented section in the Upper Freeport Sandstone contributed substantial self-neutralizing capacity to the overburden section, resulting in generally alkaline drainage at this site.

  9. 9 CFR 3.106 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water quality. 3.106 Section 3.106... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.106 Water quality. (a) General. The primary enclosure... additives (e.g. chlorine and copper) that are added to the water to maintain water quality standards...

  10. Water impacting on superhydrophobic macrotextures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gauthier, Anaïs; Symon, Sean; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

    2015-01-01

    It has been recently shown that the presence of macrotextures on superhydrophobic materials can markedly modify the dynamics of water impacting them, and in particular significantly reduce the contact...

  11. Evaluation of the Impact of the Plastic BioSand Filter on Health and Drinking Water Quality in Rural Tamale, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumuni K. Osman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A randomized controlled trial of the plastic BioSand filter (BSF was performed in rural communities in Tamale (Ghana to assess reductions in diarrheal disease and improvements in household drinking water quality. Few studies of household water filters have been performed in this region, where high drinking water turbidity can be a challenge for other household water treatment technologies. During the study, the longitudinal prevalence ratio for diarrhea comparing households that received the plastic BSF to households that did not receive it was 0.40 (95% confidence interval: 0.05, 0.80, suggesting an overall diarrheal disease reduction of 60%. The plastic BSF achieved a geometric mean reduction of 97% and 67% for E. coli and turbidity, respectively. These results suggest the plastic BSF significantly improved drinking water quality and reduced diarrheal disease during the short trial in rural Tamale, Ghana. The results are similar to other trials of household drinking water treatment technologies.

  12. Evaluation of the impact of the plastic BioSand filter on health and drinking water quality in rural Tamale, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Christine E; Kominek, Byron; Liang, Kaida R; Osman, Mumuni K; Sobsey, Mark D

    2012-10-24

    A randomized controlled trial of the plastic BioSand filter (BSF) was performed in rural communities in Tamale (Ghana) to assess reductions in diarrheal disease and improvements in household drinking water quality. Few studies of household water filters have been performed in this region, where high drinking water turbidity can be a challenge for other household water treatment technologies. During the study, the longitudinal prevalence ratio for diarrhea comparing households that received the plastic BSF to households that did not receive it was 0.41 (95% confidence interval: 0.18, 0.92), suggesting an overall diarrheal disease reduction of 59% [corrected]. The plastic BSF achieved a geometric mean reduction of 97% and 67% for E. coli and turbidity, respectively. These results suggest the plastic BSF significantly improved drinking water quality and reduced diarrheal disease during the short trial in rural Tamale, Ghana. The results are similar to other trials of household drinking water treatment technologies.

  13. Global modelling of river water quality under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Franssen, Wietse H. P.; Yearsley, John R.

    2017-04-01

    Climate change will pose challenges on the quality of freshwater resources for human use and ecosystems for instance by changing the dilution capacity and by affecting the rate of chemical processes in rivers. Here we assess the impacts of climate change and induced streamflow changes on a selection of water quality parameters for river basins globally. We used the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and a newly developed global water quality module for salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand. The modelling framework was validated using observed records of streamflow, water temperature, chloride, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand for 1981-2010. VIC and the water quality module were then forced with an ensemble of bias-corrected General Circulation Model (GCM) output for the representative concentration pathways RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 to study water quality trends and identify critical regions (hotspots) of water quality deterioration for the 21st century.

  14. Iowa ground-water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmiller, R.C.; Squillace, P.J.; Drustrup, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    The population served by ground-water supplies in Iowa (fig. L4) is estimated to be about 2,392,000, or 82 percent of the total population (U.S. Geological Survey, 1985, p. 211). The population of Iowa is distributed fairly uniformly throughout the State (fig. IB), with 59 percent residing in rural areas or towns of less than 10,000 (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1982). Surficial aquifers, the Jordan aquifer, and aquifers that form the uppermost bedrock aquifer in a particular area are most commonly used for drinking-water supplies and usually provide ample amounts of good quality water. However, naturally occurring properties or substances such as hardness, dissolved solids, and radioactivity limit the use of water for drinking purposes in some areas of each of the five principal aquifers (fig. 2/4). Median concentrations of nitrate in all aquifers and radium-226 in all aquifers except the Jordan are within the primary drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1986a). Median concentrations for dissolved solids in the surficial, Dakota, and Jordan aquifers exceed secondary drinking-water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (1986b).

  15. Assessment on reliability of water quality in water distribution systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍悦滨; 田海; 王龙岩

    2004-01-01

    Water leaving the treatment works is usually of a high quality but its properties change during the transportation stage. Increasing awareness of the quality of the service provided within the water industry today and assessing the reliability of the water quality in a distribution system has become a major significance for decision on system operation based on water quality in distribution networks. Using together a water age model, a chlorine decay model and a model of acceptable maximum water age can assess the reliability of the water quality in a distribution system. First, the nodal water age values in a certain complex distribution system can be calculated by the water age model. Then, the acceptable maximum water age value in the distribution system is obtained based on the chlorine decay model. The nodes at which the water age values are below the maximum value are regarded as reliable nodes. Finally, the reliability index on the percentile weighted by the nodal demands reflects the reliability of the water quality in the distribution system. The approach has been applied in a real water distribution network. The contour plot based on the water age values determines a surface of the reliability of the water quality. At any time, this surface is used to locate high water age but poor reliability areas, which identify parts of the network that may be of poor water quality. As a result, the contour water age provides a valuable aid for a straight insight into the water quality in the distribution system.

  16. R2 Water Quality Portal Monitoring Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality Data Portal (WQP) provides an easy way to access data stored in various large water quality databases. The WQP provides various input parameters on...

  17. SF Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  18. National Water Quality Standards Database (NWQSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Water Quality Standards Database (WQSDB) provides access to EPA and state water quality standards (WQS) information in text, tables, and maps. This data...

  19. Water Quality Trading Toolkit for Permit Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Trading Toolkit for Permit Writers is EPA’s first “how-to” manual on designing and implementing water quality trading programs. It helps NPDES permitting authorities incorporate trading provisions into permits.

  20. Assessing water quality in Lake Naivasha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndungu, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Water quality in aquatic systems is important because it maintains the ecological processes that support biodiversity. However, declining water quality due to environmental perturbations threatens the stability of the biotic integrity and therefore hinders the ecosystem services and functions of

  1. Survey of water quality in Moradbeik river basis on WQI index by GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Taghi Samadi; Shahram Sadeghi; Alireza Rahmani; Mohammad Hossien Saghi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Survey of pollution and evaluation of water quality in rivers with Oregon Water Quality Index (OWQI) and GIS are effective tools for management of the impact of environmental water resources. The information in calculating the WQI of Moradbeikriver allowed us to take our tests results and make a scientific conclusion about the quality of water. GIS can be a powerful tool for developing solutions for water resources problems for assessing water quality, determining water availabili...

  2. R2 Water Quality Portal Monitoring Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Data Portal (WQP) provides an easy way to access data stored in various large water quality databases. The WQP provides various input parameters on the form including location, site, sampling, and date parameters to filter and customize the returned results. The The Water Quality Portal (WQP) is a cooperative service sponsored by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Water Quality Monitoring Council (NWQMC) that integrates publicly available water quality data from the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) the EPA STOrage and RETrieval (STORET) Data Warehouse, and the USDA ARS Sustaining The Earth??s Watersheds - Agricultural Research Database System (STEWARDS).

  3. Inferring land use and land cover impact on stream water quality using a Bayesian hierarchical modeling approach in the Xitiaoxi River Watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Rongrong; Cai, Shanshan; Li, Hengpeng; Yang, Guishan; Li, Zhaofu; Nie, Xiaofei

    2014-01-15

    Lake eutrophication has become a very serious environmental problem in China. If water pollution is to be controlled and ultimately eliminated, it is essential to understand how human activities affect surface water quality. A recently developed technique using the Bayesian hierarchical linear regression model revealed the effects of land use and land cover (LULC) on stream water quality at a watershed scale. Six LULC categories combined with watershed characteristics, including size, slope, and permeability were the variables that were studied. The pollutants of concern were nutrient concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), common pollutants found in eutrophication. The monthly monitoring data at 41 sites in the Xitiaoxi Watershed, China during 2009-2010 were used for model demonstration. The results showed that the relationships between LULC and stream water quality are so complicated that the effects are varied over large areas. The models suggested that urban and agricultural land are important sources of TN and TP concentrations, while rural residential land is one of the major sources of TN. Certain agricultural practices (excessive fertilizer application) result in greater concentrations of nutrients in paddy fields, artificial grasslands, and artificial woodlands. This study suggests that Bayesian hierarchical modeling is a powerful tool for examining the complicated relationships between land use and water quality on different scales, and for developing land use and water management policies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of short-term climate variation and hydrology change on thermal structure and water quality of a canyon-shaped, stratified reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Xing; Huang, Ting-Lin; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Hai-Han; Ju, Tuo

    2015-12-01

    Climate variation can have obvious effects on hydrologic conditions, which in turn can have direct consequences for the thermal regime and quality of water for human use. In this research, weekly surveys were conducted from 2011 to 2013 to investigate how changes of climate and hydrology affect the thermal regime and water quality at the Heihe Reservoir. Our results show that the hydrology change during the flooding season can both increase the oxygen concentration and accelerate the consumption of dissolved oxygen. Continuous heavy rainfall events occurred in September 2011 caused the mixing of the entire reservoir, which led to an increase in dissolved oxygen at the bottom until the next year. Significant turbid density flow was observed following the extreme rainfall events in 2012 which leading to a rapid increase in turbidity at the bottom (up to 3000 NTU). Though the dissolved oxygen at the bottom increased from 0 to 9.02 mg/L after the rainfall event, it became anoxic within 20 days due to the increase of water oxygen demand caused by the suspended matter brought by the storm runoff. The release of compounds from the sediments was more serious during the anaerobic period after the rainfall events and the concentration of total iron, total phosphorus, and total manganese at the bottom reached 1.778, 0.102, and 0.125 mg/L. The improved water-lifting aerators kept on running after the storm runoff occurred in 2013 to avoid the deterioration of water quality during anaerobic conditions and ensured the good water quality during the mixing period. Our results suggest preventive and remediation actions that are necessary to improve water quality and status.

  5. Water quality management system; Suishitsu kanri system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsugura, H.; Hanawa, T.; Hatano, K.; Fujiu, M. [Meidensha Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-19

    Water quality management system designed in consideration of compliance with the environmental ISO is outlined. The water quality management system is positioned at the center, connected to water quality monitors that are deployed at various parts of the water supply facility, and performs the real-time display of information about water quality and the operating status of the water quality monitors for every one of the monitoring locations. The communication software run on this system supports 30 water quality monitors and performs uninterrupted surveillance using dedicated lines. It can also use public lines for periodic surveillance. Errors in communication if any are remedied automatically. A pipeline diagnosing/estimating function is provided, which utilizes water quality signals from received water quality monitors for estimating the degree of corrosion of pipelines in the pipeline network. Another function is provided of estimating water quality distribution throughout the pipeline network, which determines the residual chlorine concentration, conductivity, pH level, water temperature, etc., for every node in the pipeline network. A third function estimates water quality indexes, evaluating the trihalomethane forming power through measuring the amounts of low-concentration organic matters and utilizing signals from low-concentration UV meters in the water purification process. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  6. Impacts of the Urbanization Process on Water Quality of Brazilian Savanna Rivers: The Case of Preto River in Formosa, Goiás State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Nayara Luiz; Muniz, Daphne Heloisa de Freitas; Kisaka, Tiago Borges; Simplicio, Nathan de Castro Soares; Bortoluzzi, Lilian; Lima, Jorge Enoch Furquim Werneck; Oliveira-Filho, Eduardo Cyrino

    2015-01-01

    The release of domestic sewage in water resources is a practical feature of the urbanization process, and this action causes changes that may impair the environmental balance and the water quality for several uses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of urbanization on the surface water quality of the Preto River throughout the town of Formosa, Goiás, Brazil. Samples were collected at five points along the river, spatially distributed from one side to the other of the town of Formosa, from May to October of 2012. Data were subjected to descriptive statistics, as well as variance and cluster analysis. Point P2, the first point after the city, showed the worst water quality indicators, mainly with respect to the total and fecal coliform parameters, as well as nitrate concentrations. These results may be related to the fact that this point is located on the outskirts of the town, an area under urbanization and with problems of sanitation, including absence of sewage collection and treatment. The data observed in this monitoring present a public health concern because the water body is used for bathing, mainly in parts of Feia Lagoon. The excess of nutrients is a strong indicator of water eutrophication and should alert decision-makers to the need for preservation policies. PMID:26334283

  7. Impacts of the Urbanization Process on Water Quality of Brazilian Savanna Rivers: The Case of Preto River in Formosa, Goiás State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Luiz Pires

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The release of domestic sewage in water resources is a practical feature of the urbanization process, and this action causes changes that may impair the environmental balance and the water quality for several uses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of urbanization on the surface water quality of the Preto River throughout the town of Formosa, Goiás, Brazil. Samples were collected at five points along the river, spatially distributed from one side to the other of the town of Formosa, from May to October of 2012. Data were subjected to descriptive statistics, as well as variance and cluster analysis. Point P2, the first point after the city, showed the worst water quality indicators, mainly with respect to the total and fecal coliform parameters, as well as nitrate concentrations. These results may be related to the fact that this point is located on the outskirts of the town, an area under urbanization and with problems of sanitation, including absence of sewage collection and treatment. The data observed in this monitoring present a public health concern because the water body is used for bathing, mainly in parts of Feia Lagoon. The excess of nutrients is a strong indicator of water eutrophication and should alert decision-makers to the need for preservation policies.

  8. Water Quality of Hills Water, Supply Water and RO Water Machine at Ulu Yam Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadiman, N.; ‘I Bahari, N.; Kaamin, M.; Hamid, N. B.; Mokhtar, M.; Sahat, S.

    2016-07-01

    The rapid development resulted in the deterioration of the quality of drinking water in Malaysia. Recognizing the importance of water quality, new alternatives for drinking water such as mineral water processing from reverse osmosis (RO) machine become more popular. Hence, the demand for mineral water, natural spring water or water from the hills or mountains rose lately. More consumers believed the quality of these spring water better than other source of drinking water. However, the quality of all the drinking water sources is to meet the required quality standard. Therefore, this paper aims to measure the quality of the waters from hills, from RO machine and the water supply in Ulu Yam, Selangor Batang Kali, Malaysia. The water quality was determined based on following parameters: ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3), iron (Fe), turbidity (NTU) and pH. The results show that the water from hills has better quality compared to water supply and water from RO machine. The value of NH3 ranged from 0.03 mg/L- 0.67 mg/L; Fe was from 0.03mg/L - 0.12 mg/L, turbidity at 0.42 NTU - 0.88 NTU and pH is at 6.60 - 0.71. Based on the studied parameters, all three types of water are fit for drinking and have met the required national drinking water quality standard.

  9. Biofuel impacts on water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Sun, Amy Cha-Tien

    2011-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and General Motors Global Energy Systems team conducted a joint biofuels systems analysis project from March to November 2008. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, implications, limitations, and enablers of large-scale production of biofuels. 90 billion gallons of ethanol (the energy equivalent of approximately 60 billion gallons of gasoline) per year by 2030 was chosen as the book-end target to understand an aggressive deployment. Since previous studies have addressed the potential of biomass but not the supply chain rollout needed to achieve large production targets, the focus of this study was on a comprehensive systems understanding the evolution of the full supply chain and key interdependencies over time. The supply chain components examined in this study included agricultural land use changes, production of biomass feedstocks, storage and transportation of these feedstocks, construction of conversion plants, conversion of feedstocks to ethanol at these plants, transportation of ethanol and blending with gasoline, and distribution to retail outlets. To support this analysis, we developed a 'Seed to Station' system dynamics model (Biofuels Deployment Model - BDM) to explore the feasibility of meeting specified ethanol production targets. The focus of this report is water and its linkage to broad scale biofuel deployment.

  10. Water Impact of Syntactic Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Shams

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Syntactic foams are particulate composite materials that are extensively integrated in naval and aerospace structures as core materials for sandwich panels. While several studies have demonstrated the potential of syntactic foams as energy absorbing materials in impact tests, our understanding of their response to water impact remains elusive. In this work, we attempt a first characterization of the behavior of a vinyl ester/glass syntactic subject to slamming. High-speed imaging is leveraged to elucidate the physics of water impact of syntactic foam wedges in a free-fall drop tower. From the images, we simultaneously measure the deformation of the wedge and the hydrodynamic loading, thereby clarifying the central role of fluid–structure interaction during water impact. We study two different impact heights and microballoon density to assess the role of impact energy and syntactic foam composition on the slamming response. Our results demonstrate that both these factors have a critical role on the slamming response of syntactic foams. Reducing the density of microballoons might help to reduce the severity of the hydrodynamic loading experienced by the wedge, but this comes at the expense of a larger deformation. Such a larger deformation could ultimately lead to failure for large drop heights. These experimental results offer compelling evidence for the role of hydroelastic coupling in the slamming response of syntactic foams.

  11. Water quality problems in Nogales, Sonora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, R A

    1995-02-01

    This article presents the results of a transboundary water quality monitoring program at the two Nogales area in the Arizona-Sonora border region. The program was carried out jointly in 1990 by U.S. and Mexican institutions. The results show pollution problems due to deficiencies in Nogales, Sonora municipal sewerage system, causing not only sewage spills in several parts of the city but also creating occasional transboundary problems. The results also showed potential illegal dumping of industrial hazardous waste (VOCs) into Nogales' municipal sewerage system. All of the organic compounds found in the sewage samples are solvents frequently used by the border industry. Occasional brakes of pipes spill the pollutants into the Nogales Wash, a water stream that runs parallel to Nogales' main sewerage line. Samples of the municipal water system showed no traces of pollutants. However, two rounds of samples detected concentrations of VOCs in wells used to supply water by trucks to low income neighborhoods in Nogales, Sonora. Ironically, the pollution detected in these wells has a greater impact in low income groups of the city that pay three to four times more per liter of water they consume, than the rest of the inhabitants with clean water from the municipal system.

  12. Water quality problems in Nogales, Sonora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, R A

    1995-01-01

    This article presents the results of a transboundary water quality monitoring program at the two Nogales area in the Arizona-Sonora border region. The program was carried out jointly in 1990 by U.S. and Mexican institutions. The results show pollution problems due to deficiencies in Nogales, Sonora municipal sewerage system, causing not only sewage spills in several parts of the city but also creating occasional transboundary problems. The results also showed potential illegal dumping of industrial hazardous waste (VOCs) into Nogales' municipal sewerage system. All of the organic compounds found in the sewage samples are solvents frequently used by the border industry. Occasional brakes of pipes spill the pollutants into the Nogales Wash, a water stream that runs parallel to Nogales' main sewerage line. Samples of the municipal water system showed no traces of pollutants. However, two rounds of samples detected concentrations of VOCs in wells used to supply water by trucks to low income neighborhoods in Nogales, Sonora. Ironically, the pollution detected in these wells has a greater impact in low income groups of the city that pay three to four times more per liter of water they consume, than the rest of the inhabitants with clean water from the municipal system. PMID:7621811

  13. Environmental Impact Assessment in Sustainable Water Resources ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental Impact Assessment in Sustainable Water Resources Development: ... the current level of understanding of environmental impact assessment of water ... In the arena of Integrated Water Resources Management, the environment ...

  14. Developing a framework to assess the water quality and quantity impacts of climate change, shifting land use, and urbanization in a Midwestern agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loheide, S. P.; Booth, E. G.; Kucharik, C. J.; Carpenter, S. R.; Gries, C.; Katt-Reinders, E.; Rissman, A. R.; Turner, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    Dynamic hydrological processes play a critical role in the structure and functioning of agricultural watersheds undergoing urbanization. Developing a predictive understanding of the complex interaction between agricultural productivity, ecosystem health, water quality, urban development, and public policy requires an interdisciplinary effort that investigates the important biophysical and social processes of the system. Our research group has initiated such a framework that includes a coordinated program of integrated scenarios, model experiments to assess the effects of changing drivers on a broad set of ecosystem services, evaluations of governance and leverage points, outreach and public engagement, and information management. Our geographic focus is the Yahara River watershed in south-central Wisconsin, which is an exemplar of water-related issues in the Upper Midwest. This research addresses three specific questions. 1) How do different patterns of land use, land cover, land management, and water resources engineering practices affect the resilience and sensitivity of ecosystem services under a changing climate? 2) How can regional governance systems for water and land use be made more resilient and adaptive to meet diverse human needs? 3) In what ways are regional human-environment systems resilient and in what ways are they vulnerable to potential changes in climate and water resources? A comprehensive program of model experiments and biophysical measurements will be utilized to evaluate changes in five freshwater ecosystem services (flood regulation, groundwater recharge, surface water quality, groundwater quality, and lake recreation) and five related ecosystem services (food crop yields, bioenergy crop yields, carbon storage in soil, albedo, and terrestrial recreation). Novel additions to existing biophysical models will allow us to simulate all components of the hydrological cycle as well as agricultural productivity, nitrogen and phosphorus transport

  15. Construction of a novel water quality index and quality indicator for reservoir water quality evaluation: A case study in the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, T. C.; Hauser-Davis, R. A.; Oliveira, T. F.; Silveira, A. M.; Silva, H. A. N.; Tavares, M. R. M.; Saraiva, A. C. F.

    2015-03-01

    A novel Quality Indicator (QI) and Water Quality Index (WQI) were constructed in the present study for the evaluation of the water quality of a Hydroelectric Plant reservoir in the Amazon area, Brazil, taking into account the specific characteristics of the Amazon area. Factor analyses were applied in order to select the relevant parameters to be included in the construction of both indices. Quality curves for each selected parameter were then created and the constructed QI and WQI were then applied to investigate the water quality at the reservoir. The hydrological cycle was shown by the indices to directly affect reservoir water quality, and the WQI was further useful in identifying anthropogenic impacts in the area, since water sampling stations suffering different anthropogenic impacts were categorized differently, with poorer water quality, than stations near the dam and the environmental preservation area, which suffer significantly less anthropogenic impacts, and were categorized as presenting better water quality. The constructed indices are thus helpful in investigating environmental conditions in areas that show well-defined hydrological cycles, in addition to being valuable tools in the detection of anthropogenic impacts. The statistical techniques applied in the construction of these indices may also be used to construct other indices in different geographical areas, taking into account the specificities for each area.

  16. Integrating Hydrologic and Water Quality Models as a Decision Support Tool for Implementation of Low Impact Development in a Coastal Urban Watershed under Climate Variability and Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, N. B.

    2016-12-01

    Many countries concern about development and redevelopment efforts in urban regions to reduce the flood risk by considering hazards such as high-tide events, storm surge, flash floods, stormwater runoff, and impacts of sea level rise. Combining these present and future hazards with vulnerable characteristics found throughout coastal communities such as majority low-lying areas and increasing urban development, create scenarios for increasing exposure of flood hazard. As such, the most vulnerable areas require adaptation strategies and mitigation actions for flood hazard management. In addition, in the U.S., Numeric Nutrient Criteria (NNC) are a critical tool for protecting and restoring the designated uses of a waterbody with regard to nitrogen and phosphorus pollution. Strategies such as low impact development (LID) have been promoted in recent years as an alternative to traditional stormwater management and drainage to control both flooding and water quality impact. LID utilizes decentralized multifunctional site designs and incorporates on-site storm water management practices rather than conventional storm water management approaches that divert flow toward centralized facilities. How to integrate hydrologic and water quality models to achieve the decision support becomes a challenge. The Cross Bayou Watershed of Pinellas County in Tampa Bay, a highly urbanized coastal watershed, is utilized as a case study due to its sensitivity to flood hazards and water quality management within the watershed. This study will aid the County, as a decision maker, to implement its stormwater management policy and honor recent NNC state policy via demonstration of an integrated hydrologic and water quality model, including the Interconnected Channel and Pond Routing Model v.4 (ICPR4) and the BMPTRAIN model as a decision support tool. The ICPR4 can be further coupled with the ADCIRC/SWAN model to reflect the storm surge and seal level rise in coastal regions.

  17. Water quality monitoring in the Paul do Boquilobo Biosphere Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, C.; Santos, L.

    2016-08-01

    The Paul do Boquilobo is an important wetland ecosystem classified by Unesco as a MAB Biosphere reserve also awarded Ramsar site status, representing one of the most important habitats for the resident nesting colony of Cattle Egret (Bulbucus ibis). Yet owing to its location, it suffers from human induced impacts which include industrial and domestic effluent discharges as well as agricultural land use which have negatively impacted water quality. The current study reports the results obtained from the introductory monitoring programme of surface water quality in the Nature Reserve to emphasize the detrimental impact of the anthropogenic activities in the water quality of such an important ecosystem. The study involved physicochemical and biotic variables, microbial parameters and biological indicators. Results after 3 years of monitoring bring to evidence a poor water quality further impaired by seasonal patterns. Statistical analysis of data attributed water quality variation to 3 main parameters - pH, dissolved oxygen and nitrates, indicating heavy contamination loads from both organic and agricultural sources. Seasonality plays a role in water flow and climatic conditions, where sampling sites presented variable water quality data, suggesting a depurative function of the wetland.

  18. Impact of water quality on removal of carbamazepine in natural waters by N-doped TiO{sub 2} photo-catalytic thin film surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avisar, Dror, E-mail: drorvi@post.tau.ac.il [The Hydro-Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Geography and the Environment, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Horovitz, Inna [The Hydro-Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Geography and the Environment, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Lozzi, Luca; Ruggieri, Fabrizio [Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L’Aquila, Via Vetoio, I-67010 Coppito, L’Aquila (Italy); Baker, Mark; Abel, Marie-Laure [The Surface Analysis Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Mamane, Hadas [School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► N-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films have been deposited by sol–gel dip-coating. ► CBZ removal improved with increasing medium pH in the range of 5–9. ► DOC at a concentration of 5 mg/L resulted in an ∼20% reduction in CBZ removal. ► Alkalinity values of 100 mg/L as CaCO{sub 3} resulted in a 40% decrease in CBZ removal. ► Complete suppression of the photocatalytic process in wastewater effluent. -- Abstract: Photocatalytic experiments on the pharmaceutical pollutant carbamazepine (CBZ) were conducted using sol–gel nitrogen-doped TiO{sub 2}-coated glass slides under a solar simulator. CBZ was stable to photodegradation under direct solar irradiation. No CBZ sorption to the catalyst surface was observed, as further confirmed by surface characterization using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of N-doped TiO{sub 2} surfaces. When exposing the catalyst surface to natural organic matter (NOM), an excess amount of carbon was detected relative to controls, which is consistent with NOM remaining on the catalyst surface. The catalyst surface charge was negative at pH values from 4 to 10 and decreased with increasing pH, correlated with enhanced CBZ removal with increasing medium pH in the range of 5–9. A dissolved organic carbon concentration of 5 mg/L resulted in ∼20% reduction in CBZ removal, probably due to competitive inhibition of the photocatalytic degradation of CBZ. At alkalinity values corresponding to CaCO{sub 3} addition at 100 mg/L, an over 40% decrease in CBZ removal was observed. A 35% reduction in CBZ occurred in the presence of surface water compared to complete suppression of the photocatalytic process in wastewater effluent.

  19. A Global Observatory of Lake Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Andrew N.; Hunter, Peter D.; Spyrakos, Evangelos; Neil, Claire; Simis, Stephen; Groom, Steve; Merchant, Chris J.; Miller, Claire A.; O'Donnell, Ruth; Scott, E. Marian

    2017-04-01

    Our planet's surface waters are a fundamental resource encompassing a broad range of ecosystems that are core to global biogeochemical cycling, biodiversity and food and energy security. Despite this, these same waters are impacted by multiple natural and anthropogenic pressures and drivers of environmental change. The complex interaction between physical, chemical and biological processes in surface waters poses significant challenges for in situ monitoring and assessment and this often limits our ability to adequately capture the dynamics of aquatic systems and our understanding of their status, functioning and response to pressures. Recent developments in the availability of satellite platforms for Earth observation (including ESA's Copernicus Programme) offers an unprecedented opportunity to deliver measures of water quality at a global scale. The UK NERC-funded GloboLakes project is a five-year research programme investigating the state of lakes and their response to climatic and other environmental drivers of change through the realization of a near-real time satellite based observatory (Sentinel-3) and archive data processing (MERIS, SeaWiFS) to produce a 20-year time-series of observed ecological parameters and lake temperature for more than 1000 lakes globally. However, the diverse and complex optical properties of lakes mean that algorithm performance often varies markedly between different water types. The GloboLakes project is overcoming this challenge by developing a processing chain whereby algorithms are dynamically selected according to the optical properties of the lake under observation. The development and validation of the GloboLakes processing chain has been supported by access to extensive in situ data from more than thirty partners around the world that are now held in the LIMNADES community-owned data repository developed under the auspices of GloboLakes. This approach has resulted in a step-change in our ability to produce regional and

  20. Water quality and water contamination in the Harlem River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharge untreated sewage into the Harlem River during rainstorms; which elevated nutrient and bacteria/pathogen levels, degraded water quality, reduced dissolved oxygen levels, impact on fish consumption safety and threatening public health. Swimming, boating, fishing was not safe especially during rainstorms. Harlem River, a 9 miles natural straight connects the Hudson River and the East River, was used for water recreation in the past. Phosphate, ammonia, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), and pathogens levels in CSOs collected during storms were significantly higher than EPA/DEP's standards (phosphate =4mg/L; fecal coliformmillions MPN/100ml; E.coli > 5000MPN /100ml; enterococcus>10,000MPN/100ml; DOGreen wall/roof and wetland has been planned to use along the river to reduce stormwater runoff consequently to reduce CSOs volume.

  1. Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Hydrologic and Water Quality System (HAWQS) is a web-based interactive water quantity and quality modeling system that employs as its core modeling engine the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), an internationally-recognized public domain model. HAWQS provides users with i...

  2. Diverse Land Use and the Impact on (Irrigation Water Quality and Need for Measures — A Case Study of a Norwegian River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro S. Johannessen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface water is used for irrigation of food plants all over the World. Such water can be of variable hygienic quality, and can be contaminated from many different sources. The association of contaminated irrigation water with contamination of fresh produce is well established, and many outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with fresh produce consumption have been reported. The objective of the present study was to summarize the data on fecal indicators and selected bacterial pathogens to assess the level of fecal contamination of a Norwegian river used for irrigation in an area which has a high production level of various types of food commodities. Sources for fecal pollution of the river were identified. Measures implemented to reduce discharges from the wastewater sector and agriculture, and potential measures identified for future implementation are presented and discussed in relation to potential benefits and costs. It is important that the users of the water, independent of intended use, are aware of the hygienic quality and the potential interventions that may be applied. Our results suggest that contamination of surface water is a complex web of many factors and that several measures and interventions on different levels are needed to achieve a sound river and safe irrigation.

  3. Impacts of tourism in Slovenian alpine areas on water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Cigale

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is not only an important economic activity but also a source of pressures on environment, including water. On the other hand appropriate water quality is of great importance for tourism development. The contribution of tourism to pressures on water is important, but not dominant. Exceptions are impacts of tourism on the uninhabited areas, where tourism and recreation are the main sources of pressures on water resources. Nonetheless, quantities of used and sewage water are relatively modest.

  4. Michigan lakes: An assessment of water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnerick, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    Michigan has more than 11,000 inland lakes, that provide countless recreational opportunities and are an important resource that makes tourism and recreation a $15-billion-dollar per-year industry in the State (Stynes, 2002). Knowledge of the water-quality characteristics of inland lakes is essential for the current and future management of these resources.Historically the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ) jointly have monitored water quality in Michigan's lakes and rivers. During the 1990's, however, funding for surface-water-quality monitoring was reduced greatly. In 1998, the citizens of Michigan passed the Clean Michigan Initiative to clean up, protect, and enhance Michigan's environmental infrastructure. Because of expanding water-quality-data needs, the MDEQ and the USGS jointly redesigned and implemented the Lake Water-Quality Assessment (LWQA) Monitoring Program (Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, 1997).

  5. Let's put this in perspective: using dynamic simulation modelling to assess the impacts of farm-scale land management change on catchment-scale water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Mark; Clarendon, Simon; Coles, Neil

    2013-04-01

    over entire catchments, for example, only reduced P losses by approximately 20%. Most importantly, changes to land use mosaics within the catchments provided great insight into the relative roles within the catchment P system of the various land uses. While dairying uses large amounts of P, the effects that dairy farm management can have at the catchment scale when these farms represent only a small proportion of the landscape are limited. The most important conclusions from the research are that: • While State and regional environmental management and regulatory agencies continue to set optimistic goals for water quality protection, this research shows that these targets are not achievable within current landscape paradigms even after broadscale BMP implementation, and that either these targets must be re-considered or that significant land use change (rather than simply improved management within current systems) must occur to meet the targets. • Catchment-scale effects of P losses at the farm scale are a complex function of P-use efficiency, landscape position and landscape footprint. Simply targetting those landuses perceived to have high nutrient loss rates does not adequately address the problem. • Catchment P management must be considered in a more inclusive and holistic way, and these assessments should be used to inform future planning policies and development plans if environmental goals as well as community expectations about the productive use of agricultural land are to be met.

  6. Assessing the Environmental Impacts of Urban Growth Using Land Use/Land Cover, Water Quality and Health Indicators: A Case Study of Arequipa, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Carpio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This research assesses the direct effects of urban expansion on land cover/use, river flow, water quality and the indirect effects of these variables in the rate of gastrointestinal disease in people in Arequipa, Peru through the combined use of satellite remote sensing and geographic information systems. Approach: It also uses information about demographic changes, hydrologic data and land cover change in the Arequipa region for the last 17 years. The goal is to understand the relationship between urbanization, water quality in the Chili River and incidence of gastrointestinal diseases. Results: Landsat imagery was used to determine this relationship and to extrapolate business as usual trends into the future ten years from now. Results indicate that there has been notable urban growth and a loss in volcanic material land and cropland between 1990 and 2007, as new urban developments have appeared in these areas. The population expansion over volcanically active area is particularly troubling since it poses a potential human health risk. We also model a business as usual scenario out to the year 2020, which shows continued loss of these land use types and serves as a warning for land managers to consider alternate policies. Conclusion/Recommendations: The analysis also shows a direct correlation between urbanization with the decrease of water quality and the increase in the incidence of gastrointestinal diseases.

  7. Assessing the Impacts of Land Use Change from Cotton to Perennial Bioenergy Grasses on Hydrological Fluxes and Water Quality in a Semi-Arid Agricultural Watershed Using the APEX Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Ale, S.; Rajan, N.

    2015-12-01

    The semi-arid Texas High Plains (THP) region, where cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is grown in vast acreage, has the potential to grow perennial bioenergy grasses. A change in land use from cotton cropping systems to perennial grasses such as Alamo switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and Miscanthus giganteus (Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. [Poaceae]) can significantly affect regional hydrologic cycle and water quality. Assessing the impacts of this potential land use change on hydrology and water quality enables the environmental assessment of feasibility to grow perennial grasses in this region to meet the U.S. national bioenergy target of 2022. The Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model was used in this study to assess the impacts of replacing cotton with switchgrass and Miscanthus on water and nitrogen balances in the upstream subwatershed of the Double Mountain Fork Brazos watershed in the THP, which contains 52% cotton land use. The APEX model was initially calibrated against observed streamflow and crop yield data. Since observed data on nitrogen loads in streamflow was not available for this subwatershed, we calibrated the APEX model against the SWAT-simulated nitrogen loads at the outlet of this subwatershed, which were obtained in a parallel study. The calibrated APEX model was used to simulate the impacts of land use change from cotton to Miscanthus and switchgrass on surface and subsurface water and nitrogen balances. Preliminary results revealed that the average (1994-2009) annual surface runoff decreased by 84% and 66% under the irrigated and dryland switchgrass scenarios compared to the baseline scenarios. Average annual percolation increased by 106% and 57% under the irrigated and dryland switchgrass scenarios relative to the baseline scenarios. Preliminary results also indicated Miscanthus and switchgrass appeared to be superior to cotton in terms of better water conservation and water quality, and minimum crop management requirements.

  8. Comparative analysis of regional water quality in Canada using the Water Quality Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rosemond, Simone; Duro, Dennis C; Dubé, Monique

    2009-09-01

    The Canadian Council of Ministers for the Environment (CCME) has developed a Water Quality Index (WQI) to simplify the reporting of complex water quality data. This science-based communication tool tests multi-variable water data against numeric water quality guidelines and/or objectives to produce a single unit-less number that represents overall water quality. The CCME WQI has been used to rate overall water quality in spatial and temporal comparisons of site(s). However, it has not been used in a comparative-analysis of exposure sites to reference sites downstream of point source discharges. This study evaluated the ability of the CCME WQI to differentiate water quality from metal mines across Canada at exposure sites from reference sites using two different types of numeric water quality objectives: (1) the water quality guidelines (WQG) for the protection of freshwater aquatic life and (2) water quality objectives determined using regional reference data termed Region-Specific Objectives (RSO). The application of WQG to the CCME WQI was found to be a good tool to assess absolute water quality as it relates to national water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life, but had more limited use when evaluating spatial changes in water quality downstream of point source discharges. The application of the RSO to the CCME WQI resulted in assessment of spatial changes in water quality downstream of point source discharges relative to upstream reference conditions.

  9. Microbial quality of drinking water from groundtanks and tankers at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial quality of drinking water from groundtanks and tankers at source ... and lower educational standard were associated with poorer water quality, ... Keywords: drinking water; point of use; water quality; water quantity; hygiene; sanitation ...

  10. ORD Studies of Water Quality in Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation descibes results from two studies of water quality and pathogen occurrence in water and biofilm samples from two area hospitals. Includes data on the effectiveness of copper/silver ionization as a disinfectant.

  11. Water quality index using multivariate factorial analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christiane Coletti; Roberto Testezlaf; Túlio A. P. Ribeiro; Renata T. G. de Souza; Daniela de A. Pereira

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation of environmental effects generated by agricultural production on water quality became essential in Brazil after the creation of policies for the use and conservation of water resources...

  12. Polymer microcantilevers for water quality monitoring

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojijo, Vincent O

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The microcantilever project aims to develop novel polymer based microcantilevers able to detect E.coli in water samples for use as a rapid diagnostic for on-site water quality monitoring....

  13. National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — National scope of NAWQA water-quality sample- and laboratory-result data and other supporting information obtained from NWIS systems hosted by individual Water...

  14. Deriving Chesapeake Bay Water Quality Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tango, Peter J.; Batiuk, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining the water quality conditions necessary to protect the aquatic living resources of the Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries has required a foundation of quantifiable water quality criteria. Quantitative criteria serve as a critical basis for assessing the attainment of designated uses and measuring progress toward meeting water quality goals of the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership. In 1987, the Chesapeake Bay Program partnership committed to defining the water quality conditions necessary to protect aquatic living resources. Under section 303(c) of the Clean Water Act, States and authorized tribes have the primary responsibility for adopting water quality standards into law or regulation. The Chesapeake Bay Program partnership worked with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to develop and publish a guidance framework of ambient water quality criteria with designated uses and assessment procedures for dissolved oxygen, water clarity, and chlorophyll a for Chesapeake Bay and its tidal tributaries in 2003. This article reviews the derivation of the water quality criteria, criteria assessment protocols, designated use boundaries, and their refinements published in six addendum documents since 2003 and successfully adopted into each jurisdiction's water quality standards used in developing the Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load.

  15. Water impacting on superhydrophobic macrotextures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Anaïs; Symon, Sean; Clanet, Christophe; Quéré, David

    2015-08-11

    It has been recently shown that the presence of macrotextures on superhydrophobic materials can markedly modify the dynamics of water impacting them, and in particular significantly reduce the contact time of bouncing drops, compared with what is observed on a flat surface. This finding constitutes a significant step in the maximization of water repellency, since it enables to minimize even further the contact between solid and liquid. It also opens a new axis of research on the design of super-structures to induce specific functions such as anti-freezing, liquid fragmentation and/or recomposition, guiding, trapping and so on. Here we show that the contact time of drops bouncing on a repellent macrotexture takes discrete values when varying the impact speed. This allows us to propose a quantitative analysis of the reduction of contact time and thus to understand how and why macrotextures can control the dynamical properties of bouncing drops.

  16. Water Quality Management of Beijing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    At present, Beijing's water resources are insufficient and will become the limiting factor for sustainable development for the city in the near future. Although efforts have been made to control pollution, water quality degradation has occurred in some of the important surface water supplies, aggravating the water resource shortage. At present, approximately three quarters of the city's wastewater is discharged untreated into the urban river system, resulting in serious pollution and negatively influencing the urban landscape and quality of daily life. To counteract these measures, the city has implemented a comprehensive "Water Quality Management Plan" for the region, encompassing water pollution control, prevention of water body degradation, and improved water quality.The construction of municipal wastewater treatment plants is recognised as fundamental to controlling water pollution, and full secondary treatment is planned to be in place by the year 2015. Significant work is also required to expand the service area of the municipal sewage system and to upgrade and renovate the older sewer systems. The limitation on available water resources has also seen the emphasis shift to low water using industries and improved water conservation. Whilst industrial output has increased steadily over the past 10-15 years at around 10% per annum, industrial water usage has remained relatively constant. Part of the city's water quality management plan has been to introduce a strict discharge permit system, encouraging many industries to install on-site treatment facilities.

  17. Infectious Disinfection: "Exploring Global Water Quality"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaya, Evans; Tippins, Deborah J.; Mueller, Michael P.; Thomson, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Learning about the water situation in other regions of the world and the devastating effects of floods on drinking water helps students study science while learning about global water quality. This article provides science activities focused on developing cultural awareness and understanding how local water resources are integrally linked to the…

  18. Infectious Disinfection: "Exploring Global Water Quality"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaya, Evans; Tippins, Deborah J.; Mueller, Michael P.; Thomson, Norman

    2009-01-01

    Learning about the water situation in other regions of the world and the devastating effects of floods on drinking water helps students study science while learning about global water quality. This article provides science activities focused on developing cultural awareness and understanding how local water resources are integrally linked to the…

  19. Remote Sensing of Water Quality in the Niger River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, C.; Palacios, S. L.; Milesi, C.; Schmidt, C.; Baney, O. N.; Mitchell, Å. R.; Kislik, E.; Palmer-Moloney, L. J.

    2015-12-01

    An overarching goal of the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA) Anticipatory Analytics- -GEOnarrative program is to establish water linkages with energy, food, and climate and to understand how these linkages relate to national security and stability. Recognizing that geopolitical stability is tied to human health, agricultural productivity, and natural ecosystems' vitality, NGA partnered with NASA Ames Research Center to use satellite remote sensing to assess water quality in West Africa, specifically the Niger River Basin. Researchers from NASA Ames used MODIS and Landsat imagery to apply two water quality indices-- the Floating Algal Index (FAI) and the Turbidity Index (TI)--to large rivers, lakes and reservoirs within the Niger Basin. These indices were selected to evaluate which observations were most suitable for monitoring water quality in a region where coincident in situ measurements are not available. In addition, the FAI and TI indices were derived using data from the Hyperspectral Imagery for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) sensor for Lake Erie in the United States to determine how increased spectral resolution and in-situ measurements would improve the ability to measure the spatio-temporal variations in water quality. Results included the comparison of outputs from sensors with different spectral and spatial resolution characteristics for water quality monitoring. Approaches, such as the GEOnarrative, that incorporate water quality will enable analysts and decision-makers to recognize the current and potentially future impacts of changing water quality on regional security and stability.

  20. West Knox Pond water budget and water quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to analyze the water budget and water quality for West Knox Pond for the May through September period of 2002 and 2003. The...

  1. Sulfur and strontium isotope geochemistry of tributary rivers of Lake Biwa: implications for human impact on the decadal change of lake water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Takanori; Tayasu, Ichiro; Wada, Eitaro; Igeta, Akitake; Hyodo, Fujio; Miura, Yuuta

    2005-06-01

    To study the deterioration of the water quality in Lake Biwa, Japan, over the last 40 years, we measured the concentrations and isotopic ratios of sulfur and strontium of water in 41 inflowing rivers and one discharging river. The concentrations of SO4 and Sr of inflowing rivers at downstream sites were generally high in the southern urban area and in the eastern area, where a large agricultural plain is situated, but low in the northern and western areas, whose watersheds are mountainous and with low population density. SO4 and Sr concentrations are also lower at upstream sites, which are closer to mountainous areas. Thus, the inflowing river receives large amounts of SO4 and Sr as it flows across the plain, where human activity levels are high. The delta34S or 87Sr/86Sr values of most eastern rivers at downstream sites are lower than those of water in Lake Biwa, and values become more uniform as the proportion of the plain area in the watershed increases. River water in other areas has higher values of delta34S or 87Sr/86Sr than the lake water. This result indicates that the decadal decrease of delta34S and 87Sr/86Sr in the lake water has been caused mainly by the increased flux of SO4 and Sr from rivers in the eastern plain. We assume that in the plain, sulfur, nitrogen, and organic compounds induced by human activities generate sulfuric, nitric, and organic acids in the water, which accelerate the extraction of Sr from bedrocks, leading to the generation of Sr in the river water in the area.

  2. An Approach to Developing Numeric Water Quality Criteria for Using the SeaWiFS Satellite Data Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human activities on land increase nutrient loads to coastal waters, which can increase phytoplankton production and biomass and associated ecological impacts. Numeric nutrient water quality standards were needed to protect coastal waters from eutrophication impacts. The Environm...

  3. Low water quality in tropical fishponds in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Simone M; Appel, Eleonora; Macedo, Carla F; Huszar, Vera L M

    2014-09-01

    Expansion of aquaculture around the world has heavily impacted the environment. Because fertilizers are needed to raise fish, one of the main impacts is eutrophication, which lowers water quality and increases the frequency of algal blooms, mostly cyanobacteria. To evaluate whether the water quality in 30 fishponds in southeastern Brazilian met the requirements of Brazilian legislation, we analyzed biotic and abiotic water conditions. We expected that the high nutrient levels due to fertilization would cause low water quality. We also analyzed cyanotoxins in seston and fish muscle in some systems where cyanobacteria were dominant. The fishponds ranged from eutrophic and hypereutrophic with high phytoplankton biomass. Although cyanobacteria were dominant in most of the systems, cyanotoxins occurred in low concentrations, possibly because only two of the 12 dominant species were potential producers of microcystins. The high phosphorus concentrations caused the low water quality by increasing cyanobacteria, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, and thermotolerant coliforms, and by depleting dissolved oxygen. We found that all the 30 systems were inappropriate for fish culture, according to Brazilian legislation, based on at least one of the parameters measured. Furthermore, there was not any single system in the water-quality thresholds, according to the Brazilian legislation, to grow fish. Our findings indicate the need for better management to minimize the impacts of eutrophication in fishponds, in addition to a rigorous control to guarantee good food.

  4. 引水放流方式对太湖贡湖示范区水质的影响%Impact of Water Diversion Methods on Water Quality of the Demonstration Area in Gonghu Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳; 钱新; 叶瑞; 高海龙; 刘喆

    2015-01-01

    A proportional physical model,in accordance with the demonstration area which locates in Gonghu Bay,Taihu Lake,was constructed to meet the demand of controlling both quality and quantity of water within that area for the state water special project.The effects of four diversion methods in the models would be studied in or-der to provide arguments for making decisions between diversion methods for the demonstration area.When con-ducting the study,the influences to the model′s flow field,assessed by measuring flow field data at five different cross sections,would be deemed as indicators for evaluating different diversion methods.Meanwhile,ink was cho-sen as a tracer and the spreading field changes of the tracer caused by different diversion methods would verify conclusions to the flow field.Therefore,an analysis could be conducted for the impact to water quality caused by the methods.The study provided a helpful reference for deciding the diversion method for the demonstration area.%基于国家水专项太湖贡湖湾示范区水质水量调控的需求,构建了示范区的等比例缩放实体模型。通过研究模型中4种不同调水方案的效果,为示范区调水技术的比较与选择提供决策依据。研究中,通过测定模型中5个断面的流场数据,判断引水方式对模型流场的影响,以此评价不同调水方案效果。同时以墨汁作为示踪剂,通过不同引水放流方式下示踪剂的扩散场变化,验证不同断面流速测定对整个区域流场判断的准确性,从而分析引水放流方式对水质的影响。

  5. Forest Inventory and Analysis: What it Tells Us About Water Quality in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin L. Miller; Hal O. Liechty

    2001-01-01

    Forests and forest activities have a significant impact on the amount and quality of surface water in Arkansas. Recognizing this important relationship between forests and water quality, we utilized the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data from Arkansas to better understand how forest land use in Arkansas has likely influenced the water quality in the State during...

  6. Water Quality Assessment of Ayeyarwady River in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatoe Nwe Win, Thanda; Bogaard, Thom; van de Giesen, Nick

    2015-04-01

    Myanmar's socio-economic activities, urbanisation, industrial operations and agricultural production have increased rapidly in recent years. With the increase of socio-economic development and climate change impacts, there is an increasing threat on quantity and quality of water resources. In Myanmar, some of the drinking water coverage still comes from unimproved sources including rivers. The Ayeyarwady River is the main river in Myanmar draining most of the country's area. The use of chemical fertilizer in the agriculture, the mining activities in the catchment area, wastewater effluents from the industries and communities and other development activities generate pollutants of different nature. Therefore water quality monitoring is of utmost importance. In Myanmar, there are many government organizations linked to water quality management. Each water organization monitors water quality for their own purposes. The monitoring is haphazard, short term and based on individual interest and the available equipment. The monitoring is not properly coordinated and a quality assurance programme is not incorporated in most of the work. As a result, comprehensive data on the water quality of rivers in Myanmar is not available. To provide basic information, action is needed at all management levels. The need for comprehensive and accurate assessments of trends in water quality has been recognized. For such an assessment, reliable monitoring data are essential. The objective of our work is to set-up a multi-objective surface water quality monitoring programme. The need for a scientifically designed network to monitor the Ayeyarwady river water quality is obvious as only limited and scattered data on water quality is available. However, the set-up should also take into account the current socio-economic situation and should be flexible to adjust after first years of monitoring. Additionally, a state-of-the-art baseline river water quality sampling program is required which

  7. Principles and Practices of Water Quality Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Michael

    2001-01-01

    There are many activities in forest management that may affect water quality, i.e., timber harvestine, road building,mechanical and chemical site preparation, release operations, fuel reduction,wildlife opening maintenance, etc. How severely they affect water quality depends on how well the person in charge of the operation understands the activity itself, the...

  8. 40 CFR 240.204 - Water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality. 240.204 Section 240.204 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.204 Water quality. ...

  9. Assessing water quality in Lake Naivasha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndungu, Jane Njeri

    2014-01-01

    Water quality in aquatic systems is important because it maintains the ecological processes that support biodiversity. However, declining water quality due to environmental perturbations threatens the stability of the biotic integrity and therefore hinders the ecosystem services and functions of aqu

  10. Assessment of Drinking Water Quality from Bottled Water Coolers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Farhadkhani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water quality can be deteriorated by microbial and toxic chemicals during transport, storage and handling before using by the consumer. This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial and physicochemical quality of drinking water from bottled water coolers.A total of 64 water samples, over a 5-month period in 2012-2013, were collected from free standing bottled water coolers and water taps in Isfahan. Water samples were analyzed for heterotrophic plate count (HPC, temperature, pH, residual chlorine, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC and total organic carbon (TOC. Identification of predominant bacteria was also performed by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA.The mean HPC of water coolers was determined at 38864 CFU/ml which exceeded the acceptable level for drinking water in 62% of analyzed samples. The HPC from the water coolers was also found to be significantly (P < 0.05 higher than that of the tap waters. The statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the values of pH, EC, turbidity and TOC in water coolers and tap waters. According to sequence analysis eleven species of bacteria were identified.A high HPC is indicative of microbial water quality deterioration in water coolers. The presence of some opportunistic pathogens in water coolers, furthermore, is a concern from a public health point of view. The results highlight the importance of a periodic disinfection procedure and monitoring system for water coolers in order to keep the level of microbial contamination under control.

  11. Impact of Electronic Wastes Recycling on Environmental Quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the environmental quality of Guiyu, Guangdong impacted by the electronic waste recycling industry. Methods The surface water, ground water and sediment samples taken separately from two sites that recycle E-wastes and other rubbish relevant to the E-waste recycling, and an agricultural area, were analyzed, and the data were used to evaluate the impact of E-waste recycling on the environmental quality of Guiyu based on environmental quality standards in China. Results The concentrations of lead and iron in the surface water samples significantly different in the three locations. The maximum value of lead in the first site was 8 times higher than the threshold of environmental quality standards for surface water. The concentration of iron in polluted sample was 22 times that of the background sample. Manganese and iron also showed a significant difference in ground water samples between the three sites. The amount of iron was 22 times that of the threshold of the quality standard for ground water, and 120 times that of the background sample. Moreover, the results of all the eight heavy metals showed significant differences among the sediment samples. The concentrations of copper, cadmium,nickel, and lead in the polluted samples were above the median benchmarks of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The copper concentration of 2670 mg/kg was 10 times that of the median benchmark. ConclusionE-waste recycling has led to the severe pollution Guiyu.

  12. AMBIENT AQUATIC LIFE WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonylphenol is a toxic breakdown product of nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE) surfactants. NPE surfactants are used in industrial cleaning applications and pesticide formulations. EPA published a draft ambient water quality criteria document for nonylphenol in January 2004. This document contains ambient water quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. Acute and chronic criteria recommendations have been developed for the protection of aquatic life in both freshwater and saltwater. These criteria are published pursuant to Section 304 (a) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and serve as technical information for States for establishing criteria within their State Water Quality Standards.

  13. Assessment of Ground Water Quality by Using Water Quality Index Method of Berhampur Town in Odisha, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejaz Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Berhampur, the silk city of Odisha (India is under the process of rapid urbanization with human population exceeding more than four lacks. Such growth in population of Berhampur Municipal Corporation has increased the requirement of water for human activities. Due to this reason the huge amount of waste water is generated which is discharged to the Bay of Bengal through small sewage system. The present study is carried out the impact of ground water quality status of Berhampur town. The water samples collected from ten different locations have been chosen separately across Berhampur Municipal Corporation depending on pollution load and water logging. The samples were collected in three different seasons i.e monsoon (MN, June-September, post monsoon (PM, November-January and pre monsoon (PRM, March-May and to determine the physical, chemical and biological parameters. The WQI reflects a composite influence of contributing factors on the quality of water for any type of water system. So WQI is an important parameter for assessment and management of ground water. Now a day’s water quality of different water system has been communicated on the basis of calculated WQI. The presents study revels that water quality index is 1 to 10 sampling station (S-1, S-2, S-4, S-5, S-6, S-7, S-8 come under good water quality and station (S-3, S-9, S-10 belongs to poor water. This may be due the sewage water logging in those study area which will definitely put serious impact up on socio-economic development of the people in this area in future.

  14. SURFACE WATER QUALITY IN THE RIVER PRUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA DUMITRAN

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Water is an increasingly important and why it is important to surfacewater quality, which is given by the analysis of physical - chemical, biological andobserving the investigation of water, biota, environments investigation. Analysis ofthe Prut river in terms of biological and physical elements - chemical. Evaluationof ecological and chemical status of water was done according to order of approvalof the standard classification nr.161/2006 surface water to determine the ecologicalstatus of water bodies

  15. Water quality indicators: bacteria, coliphages, enteric viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Johnson; Ganesh, Atheesha

    2013-12-01

    Water quality through the presence of pathogenic enteric microorganisms may affect human health. Coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and coliphages are normally used as indicators of water quality. However, the presence of above-mentioned indicators do not always suggest the presence of human enteric viruses. It is important to study human enteric viruses in water. Human enteric viruses can tolerate fluctuating environmental conditions and survive in the environment for long periods of time becoming causal agents of diarrhoeal diseases. Therefore, the potential of human pathogenic viruses as significant indicators of water quality is emerging. Human Adenoviruses and other viruses have been proposed as suitable indices for the effective identification of such organisms of human origin contaminating water systems. This article reports on the recent developments in the management of water quality specifically focusing on human enteric viruses as indicators.

  16. Impact of the disposal and re-use of fly ash on water quality: the case of the Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (Maharashtra, India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadoni, M; Voltaggio, M; Sacchi, E; Sanam, R; Pujari, P R; Padmakar, C; Labhasetwar, P K; Wate, S R

    2014-05-01

    An increasing amount of fly ash from thermal power plants is produced in India every year. Its disposal is generally done in ponds after it is mixed together in suitable proportion of water to form a slurry. Fly ash from Koradi and Khaperkheda thermal power plants (Nagpur, Maharashtra) is commonly disposed in an area characterized by the presence of many small villages where the population uses the groundwater for drinking and domestic purposes. Here, the groundwater locally exceeds the concentration limits recommended by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS, 2005) and by the World Health Organization (WHO, 2008) for Mg(2+), Ca(2+), NO3(-), SO4(2-), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) and for some minor elements like As, Mo, V and U. A new geological map of the study area has been prepared to understand the possible water-rock interactions. An extensive geochemical survey of groundwater, stream water and fly ash was also carried out to clarify the possible origin of the pollutants by discriminating between geogenic and anthropogenic sources and to assess the influence of the ash ponds on water quality. The analytical results suggest that a large part of the sulfates in the groundwater of the villages of Masada, Khairi and Kawatha originate from the infiltration of industrial water from tens of factories that mix fly ash with relatively high quantities of gypsum and lime for the production of bricks. In addition, the interaction with the relatively U-rich Gondwana units, like Talchir formation, is probably the cause of the high concentration of this element. Results showed how the relatively high concentrations of Mo, As, B and F in circulating waters are linked to the leaching from fly ash, also pointing out a direct spatial correlation between the concentration of fluorides in the groundwater and their closeness to the ash ponds.

  17. Impacts of eutrophic freshwater inputs on water quality and phytoplankton size structure in a temperate estuary altered by a sea dike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Yongsik; Hyun, Bongkil; Jeong, Byungkwan; Soh, Ho Young

    2013-04-01

    Phytoplankton size structure and water properties in the Youngsan River estuary, which has been altered by a sea dike, were monitored over an annual cycle (2003-2004) to investigate the effects of freshwater inputs on their spatial and temporal variation. Trophic status was also evaluated using the trophic status index (TRIX). Freshwater was discharged from an artificial reservoir throughout the year, supplying nutrients (except for [Formula: see text] ) and low levels of dissolved oxygen to the estuary, which resulted in eutrophication ("greatest trophic level"). Turbidity increased, and density stratification developed in the water column. The density stratification in turn affected the reduction of dissolved oxygen concentration in the bottom water during the freshwater discharge. Chlorophyll a concentrations, dominated by nano-sized (dike (3.42-47.0 μg chl L(-1)). The net-scale (>20 μm) decrease in phytoplankton biomass differed from that in tropical estuaries affected by monsoons and in other temperate estuaries. Temporal variations in water quality and phytoplankton size structure were more strongly influenced by artificial regulation of the freshwater discharge than by monsoon meteorological events. This study implies that a different paradigm than that for natural estuaries or larger estuaries with dams is required for the better understanding and management of ecosystems in estuaries altered by anthropogenic activities, such as the construction of sea dikes.

  18. Impact of multiple anthropogenic stressors on freshwater: how do glyphosate and the invasive mussel Limnoperna fortunei affect microbial communities and water quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Haydée; Di Fiori, Eugenia; Sinistro, Rodrigo; Ramírez, Marina; Rodríguez, Patricia; Vinocur, Alicia; Cataldo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The study of the joint effect of multiple anthropogenic stressors is important because the emerging consequences are often unpredictable on the basis of knowledge of single effects. We explored the joint impact of glyphosate and the invasive golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei on freshwater phytoplankton, bacterioplankton and periphyton, and on the physical and chemical properties of the water. We manipulated both stressors simultaneously in a 25-day experiment using outdoor mesocosms; we assayed technical-grade glyphosate acid at four concentrations: 0, 1, 3 and 6 mg gly L(−1) under scenarios with and without mussels. The addition of the glyphosate significantly increased total phosphorus according to the concentration used; the high clearance rate of L. fortunei significantly decreased phytoplanktonic abundance leading to low values of turbidity. The mussel significantly stimulated the development of filamentous green algae (metaphyton). Interestingly, the combined effect revealed that L. fortunei accelerated the dissipation of glyphosate, which showed a 4-fold decrease in its half-life; this promoted the rapid bioavailability of glyphosate-derived phosphorus in the water. The interaction had a synergistic effect on soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations and was directly dependent on the concentration of glyphosate. A synergistic effect was also observed on bacterioplankton, water turbidity and metaphyton, thus inducing enhanced and rapid eutrophication. The ability of mussels to reduce glyphosate in water may be valued as positive, but our results allow us to predict that the invasion of Limnoperna fortunei in natural freshwater systems contaminated by glyphosate will accelerate the negative impact of the herbicide associated with eutrophication.

  19. Microbes and Water Quality in Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safe drinking water has been a concern for mankind through out the world for centuries. In the developed world, governments consider access to safe and clean drinking water to be a basic human right. Government regulations generally address the quality of the source water, adequ...

  20. Correlation study among water quality parameters an approach to water quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, D K; Rastogi, G K; Kumar, R; Kumar, N

    2009-04-01

    To find out an approach to water quality management through correlation studies between various water quality parameters, the statistical regression analysis for six data points of underground drinking water of different hand pumps at J. P. Nagar was carried out. The comparison of estimated values with W.H.O drinking water standards revealed that water of the study area is polluted with reference to a number of physico-chemical parameters studied. Regression analysis suggests that conductivity of underground water is found to be significantly correlated with eight out of twelve water quality parameters studied. It may be suggested that the underground drinking water quality at J. P. Nagar can be checked very effectively by controlling the conductivity of water. The present study may be treated one step forward towards the water quality management.

  1. Water-quality assessment of the American River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulters, M.V.

    1982-01-01

    Based on an analysis of water-quality data from more than 168 sites, the American River was found to be of overall good quality and suitable for all beneficial uses specified by the State of California, even though its natural condition has been altered by man 's activities in the basin. Time trend analyses indicate an increase in specific conductance (dissolved solids), hardness, and alkalinity over the past 20 years in the lower American River near Sacramento downstream from treated effluent and urban runoff sources. Most violations of specific water quality objectives for the basin have occurred in this segment. Water-quality conditions in the segment are expected to improve in 1982 when sewage treatment facility discharges will be discontinued. Potential water-quality problems in the upper American River basin could result from recreational overuse, improper land-use or poorly managed mining operations. Recreational overuse and increased urban runoff are the principal threats to water quality in the lower American River. Proposed monitoring activities include low-flow investigations on the lower American to measure diurnal variations in water-quality characteristics and studies in the uppper basin to determine the impact of increasing recreation and development as well as the effects of mine discharge. (USGS)

  2. Impact of thermal loading and other water quality parameters on the epizootiology of red-sore disease in centrarchids. Progress report, December 1, 1977--November 30, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esch, G.W.; Hazen, T.C.

    1978-07-01

    The implications from these studies are varied, sometimes clear and sometimes less so, for many of the results have raised new and even more critical questions. Thus, our data clearly show that Aeromonas hydrophila is the etiological agent for red-sore disease. Furthermore, they suggest that the effects of temperature are twofold, first in increasing the density of the pathogen in the water column and then in affecting the physiology of the host organism to such an extent as to increase the probability of acquiring the pathogen. On the other hand, organic loading, suggested by other investigators as being important in red-sore disease, was not identified as being significant in the present study. However, if organic loading, or any of its consequences, can be shown to induce stress, then it may be as important in other systems as temperature is in Par Pond. Thus it is quite conceivable that it (organic loading), or some other water quality parameter, may create conditions conducive to increasing densities of A. hydrophila while simultaneously producing water quality characteristics which would lead to stress in fish, and then to increasing the probability of fish acquiring red-sore disease. An enigmatic observation (see Hazen, 1978, for details) is that A. hydrophila has been recovered from a variety of habitats throughout the U.S., yet red-sore disease is known to occur only in the southeast. This peculiar distribution pattern raises several important questions regarding the epizootiology of red-sore, not the least of which is the possibility of there existing differentially virulent strains of A. hydrophila and/or more or less susceptible populations of potential hosts in various parts of the country. Other significant questions are related to the variability in amplitude of red-sore disease from one year to the next among bass in Par Pond, the mode of entry of the pathogen into largemouth bass, and the basic, cellular mechanisms of stress in largemouth bass.

  3. The Impact of Aid on Bureaucratic Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    We show that the impact of foreign aid on bureaucratic quality in recipient countries varies with the mode of delivery. Specifically, grants are found to impair the functioning of the bureaucracy, whereas loans are not. The negative impact of grants is larger when they are given as budget support...

  4. The Impact of Aid on Bureaucratic Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    We show that the impact of foreign aid on bureaucratic quality in recipient countries varies with the mode of delivery. Specifically, grants are found to impair the functioning of the bureaucracy, whereas loans are not. The negative impact of grants is larger when they are given as budget support...

  5. Modeling the combined impacts of climate and socio-economic change on water quality, availability and consumption in a multi-purpose reservoir: an application to the Xarrama basin, southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacinto, Rita; Nunes, João Pedro; Santos, Juliana

    2014-05-01

    The water resources sector is one of the most vulnerable to climate change. In southern Europe, an increase of water scarcity is expected, combined with a higher frequency and length of severe droughts. Water management in these regions is already a challenge, and several severe droughts occurred there during the last decades, such as the severe droughts of 2005 and 2012 in Portugal, which have highlighted existing vulnerabilities and led to the disruption of part of water supplies. Furthermore, the evolution of socio-economic conditions and even climate change could cause changes to population and land-uses, with the potential to increase pressures on existing resources. The threat of scarcer water resources highlights the need to understand these vulnerabilities and act to reduce them, adapting to the impacts of future climate and land use changes. In fact, water resources governance has been pointed as a key challenge in the present and in the future, as it builds capacity on how to deal with stress and uncertainties generated by climatic variability and global change. Project ERLAND is focused on assessing the eco-hydrological impacts of climate change in Portugal, and therefore water scarcity and droughts are an important focal point on this research. One of the study areas is the Xarrama river basin in southern Portugal, which feeds the multi-purpose Vale do Gaio reservoir used for irrigation and urban water supplies, coupled with a small hydroelectric generating capacity. Currently it experiences some water quality problems and there is already the need of water transfers from other reservoirs to maintain supplies and quality. This is combined with ongoing land-use changes, where irrigated vineyards and olive groves have started to replace traditional rainfed pastures and cereal cultivation. The exposition and vulnerability of the Xarrama basin and the Vale do Gaio reservoir is being addressed for present and future conditions. Future climate scenarios were

  6. Modelling the impacts of altered management practices, land use and climate changes on the water quality of the Millbrook catchment-reservoir system in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hong Hanh; Recknagel, Friedrich; Meyer, Wayne; Frizenschaf, Jacqueline; Shrestha, Manoj Kumar

    2017-11-01

    Sustainable management of drinking water reservoirs requires taking into account the potential effects of their catchments' development. This study is an attempt to estimate the daily patterns of nutrients transport in the catchment - reservoir systems through the application of the ensemble of complementary models SWAT-SALMO. SWAT quantifies flow, nitrate and phosphate loadings originating in catchments before entering downstream reservoirs meanwhile SALMO determines phosphate, nitrate, and chlorophyll-a concentrations within the reservoirs. The study applies to the semi-arid Millbrook catchment-reservoir system that supplies drinking water to north-eastern suburbs of Adelaide, South Australia. The catchment hosts viti- and horticultural land uses. The warm-monomictic, mesotrophic reservoir is artificially aerated in summer. After validating the simulation results for both Millbrook catchment and reservoir, a comprehensive scenario analysis has been conducted to reveal cascading effects of altered management practices, land uses and climate conditions on water quality in the reservoir. Results suggest that the effect on reservoir condition in summer would be severe, most likely resulting in chlorophyll-a concentrations of greater than 40 μg/l if the artificial destratification was not applied from early summer. A 50% curbing of water diversion from an external pipeline to the catchment will slightly limit chlorophyll-a concentrations by 1.22% as an effect of reduced inflow phosphate loads. The simulation of prospective land use scenarios converting 50% of present pasture in the Millbrook catchment into residential and orchards areas indicates an increase of summer chlorophyll-a concentrations by 9.5-107.9%, respectively in the reservoir. Global warming scenarios based on the high emission simulated by SWAT-SALMO did result in earlier growth of chlorophyll-a but overall the effects on water quality in the Millbrook reservoir was not significant. However scenarios

  7. Surface water quality assessment by environmetric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyacioglu, Hülya; Boyacioglu, Hayal

    2007-08-01

    This environmetric study deals with the interpretation of river water monitoring data from the basin of the Buyuk Menderes River and its tributaries in Turkey. Eleven variables were measured to estimate water quality at 17 sampling sites. Factor analysis was applied to explain the correlations between the observations in terms of underlying factors. Results revealed that, water quality was strongly affected from agricultural uses. Cluster analysis was used to classify stations with similar properties and results distinguished three groups of stations. Water quality at downstream of the river was quite different from the other part. It is recommended to involve the environmetric data treatment as a substantial procedure in assessment of water quality data.

  8. Ground-water quality atlas of Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Phil A.

    1981-01-01

    This report summarizes data on ground-water quality stored in the U.S. Geological Survey's computer system (WATSTORE). The summary includes water quality data for 2,443 single-aquifer wells, which tap one of the State's three major aquifers (sand and gravel, Silurian dolomite, and sandstone). Data for dissolved solids, hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, manganese, sulfate, chloride, fluoride, and nitrate are summarized by aquifer and by county, and locations of wells for which data are available 1 are shown for each aquifer. Calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate (the principal component of alkalinity) are the major dissolved constituents in Wisconsin's ground water. High iron concentrations and hardness cause ground-water quality problems in much of the State. Statewide ,summaries of trace constituent (selected trace metals; arsenic, boron, and organic carbon) concentrations show that these constituents impair water quality in only a few isolated wells.

  9. Suspended silt concentrations in the lower Olifants River (Mpumalanga and the impact of silt releases from the Phalaborwa Barrage on water quality and fish survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Buermann

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Silt loads in the Olifants and Sabie river systems inside the Kruger National Park, were monitored by collecting water samples every consecutive week for a period of 20 months. The variation in silt concentration, changes in selected physico-chemical water quality variables and fish mortalities during flushing (i.e. release of silt, by sluicing of the Phalaborwa Barrage, were also monitored. The Olifants River inside the Kruger National Park carried high silt loads in summer; in the dry season the suspensoid load was greatly reduced. A similar pattern was observed in the Sabie River, but the silt loads were generally lower. It was apparent that silt loads released from the Phalaborwa Barrage led to large variations in the natural silt loads of the Olifants River. These increased amounts of silt (25 000 mg/1 to >70 000 mg/1 caused drastic reductions in the dissolved oxygen concentration of the water, ranging from >6 mg/1 to 0 mg/1. Depending on the severity and duration of the flushing, fish succumb to such silt loads. These findings, as well as published information, indicate that the management strategy of flushing to improve storage capacity is ecological unacceptable. It is therefore suggested that the use of the Phalaborwa Barrage as a future reservoir should be critically re-evaluated.

  10. Water Quality Assessment using Satellite Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Saad Ul

    2016-07-01

    The two main global issues related to water are its declining quality and quantity. Population growth, industrialization, increase in agriculture land and urbanization are the main causes upon which the inland water bodies are confronted with the increasing water demand. The quality of surface water has also been degraded in many countries over the past few decades due to the inputs of nutrients and sediments especially in the lakes and reservoirs. Since water is essential for not only meeting the human needs but also to maintain natural ecosystem health and integrity, there are efforts worldwide to assess and restore quality of surface waters. Remote sensing techniques provide a tool for continuous water quality information in order to identify and minimize sources of pollutants that are harmful for human and aquatic life. The proposed methodology is focused on assessing quality of water at selected lakes in Pakistan (Sindh); namely, HUBDAM, KEENJHAR LAKE, HALEEJI and HADEERO. These lakes are drinking water sources for several major cities of Pakistan including Karachi. Satellite imagery of Landsat 7 (ETM+) is used to identify the variation in water quality of these lakes in terms of their optical properties. All bands of Landsat 7 (ETM+) image are analyzed to select only those that may be correlated with some water quality parameters (e.g. suspended solids, chlorophyll a). The Optimum Index Factor (OIF) developed by Chavez et al. (1982) is used for selection of the optimum combination of bands. The OIF is calculated by dividing the sum of standard deviations of any three bands with the sum of their respective correlation coefficients (absolute values). It is assumed that the band with the higher standard deviation contains the higher amount of 'information' than other bands. Therefore, OIF values are ranked and three bands with the highest OIF are selected for the visual interpretation. A color composite image is created using these three bands. The water quality

  11. Spatio-Temporal Trends and Identification of Correlated Variables with Water Quality for Drinking-Water Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Gu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely accepted that characterizing the spatio-temporal trends of water quality parameters and identifying correlated variables with water quality are indispensable for the management and protection of water resources. In this study, cluster analysis was used to classify 56 typical drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province into three groups representing different water quality levels, using data of four water quality parameters for the period 2006–2010. Then, the spatio-temporal trends in water quality were analyzed, assisted by geographic information systems (GIS technology and statistical analysis. The results indicated that the water quality showed a trend of degradation from southwest to northeast, and the overall water quality level was exacerbated during the study period. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between water quality parameters and ten independent variables grouped into four categories (land use, socio-economic factors, geographical features, and reservoir attributes. According to the correlation coefficients, land use and socio-economic indicators were identified as the most significant factors related to reservoir water quality. The results offer insights into the spatio-temporal variations of water quality parameters and factors impacting the water quality of drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province, and they could assist managers in making effective strategies to better protect water resources.

  12. Spatio-Temporal Trends and Identification of Correlated Variables with Water Quality for Drinking-Water Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Wang, Ke; Li, Jiadan; Ma, Ligang; Deng, Jinsong; Zheng, Kefeng; Zhang, Xiaobin; Sheng, Li

    2015-10-20

    It is widely accepted that characterizing the spatio-temporal trends of water quality parameters and identifying correlated variables with water quality are indispensable for the management and protection of water resources. In this study, cluster analysis was used to classify 56 typical drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province into three groups representing different water quality levels, using data of four water quality parameters for the period 2006-2010. Then, the spatio-temporal trends in water quality were analyzed, assisted by geographic information systems (GIS) technology and statistical analysis. The results indicated that the water quality showed a trend of degradation from southwest to northeast, and the overall water quality level was exacerbated during the study period. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between water quality parameters and ten independent variables grouped into four categories (land use, socio-economic factors, geographical features, and reservoir attributes). According to the correlation coefficients, land use and socio-economic indicators were identified as the most significant factors related to reservoir water quality. The results offer insights into the spatio-temporal variations of water quality parameters and factors impacting the water quality of drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province, and they could assist managers in making effective strategies to better protect water resources.

  13. Intermittent Water Supply: Prevalence, Practice, and Microbial Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Nelson, Kara L

    2016-01-19

    Intermittent water supplies (IWS), in which water is provided through pipes for only limited durations, serve at least 300 million people around the world. However, providing water intermittently can compromise water quality in the distribution system. In IWS systems, the pipes do not supply water for periods of time, supply periods are shortened, and pipes experience regular flow restarting and draining. These unique behaviors affect distribution system water quality in ways that are different than during normal operations in continuous water supplies (CWS). A better understanding of the influence of IWS on mechanisms causing contamination can help lead to incremental steps that protect water quality and minimize health risks. This review examines the status and nature of IWS practices throughout the world, the evidence of the effect of IWS on water quality, and how the typical contexts in which IWS systems often exist-low-income countries with under-resourced utilities and inadequate sanitation infrastructure-can exacerbate mechanisms causing contamination. We then highlight knowledge gaps for further research to improve our understanding of water quality in IWS.

  14. Water quality in the eastern Iowa basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Barnes, Kymm K.; Becher, Kent D.; Savoca, Mark E.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; Sadorf, Eric M.; Porter, Stephen D.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Creswell, John

    2001-01-01

    This article summarizes major findings about nutrients in surface and groundwater in the eastern Iowa basins (see map) between 1996 and 1998. The data were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). Water quality is discussed in terms of local and regional issues and compared with conditions found in all 36 National NAWQA study areas assessed to date. Findings are explained in the context of selected national U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) benchmarks, such as those for drinking water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms.

  15. Chattahoochee River Water Quality Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    supply and cold water fishery. Georgia Fish and Game has stocked this area with both fingerlings and trout of catchable size. Eighty thousand (80,000...fish per year of catchable size are planted from April to October. It is estimated that the standing crop of cold water fish is on the order of thirty

  16. Influence of feed ingredients on water quality parameters in RAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Although feed by far is providing the major input to RAS, relatively little is published about the correlation between feed composition and the resulting water quality in such systems. In a set-up with 6 identical RAS, each consisting of a fish tank (0.5 m3), a swirl separator, a submerged...... had impact on water quality in the systems as well as on matter removed by the swirl separators. In the RAS water, phosphorous (Ptot and Pdiss) concentrations were reduced by guar gum. Organic matter content (CODdiss) in the water was also reduced. Corresponding to this, more dry matter, more COD...... to the systems for 49 consecutive days. Each week, 24h-water samples (1 sample/hour) were collected from each system. The sludge collected in the swirl separator that day was also collected. Water and sludge were subsequently analysed for nitrogen, phosphorous and organic matter content. Inclusion of guar gum...

  17. The stream channel incision syndrome and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed development often triggers channel incision, which accounts for 60-90% of sediments leaving many disturbed watersheds. Impacts of such incision on water quality processes and the implication of such impairment on stream biota are relevant to issues associated with establishing total maxim...

  18. Clarifying muddy water: probing the linkages to municipal water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally. Duncan

    2003-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest, several recent and dramatic "muddy waters" events have created major problems for water utilities. Resulting from floods and measures to retrofit dams to reduce impacts on temperature, these events also have focused public and scientific attention on interactions among dams, forest-land use, and municipal water supplies. Far from...

  19. Impact of waste dump on surface water quality and aquatic insect diversity of Deepor Beel (Ramsar site), Assam, North-east India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Dharitri; Gupta, Susmita

    2017-10-06

    Water and aquatic insects were collected seasonally from site 1, the low-lying area of the dump near Deepor Beel, and from sites 2 and 3 of the main wetland and analysed. While dissolved oxygen (DO) increased from site 1 to site 3 in each season, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solid (TDS), total alkalinity (TA) and free CO2 (F-CO2) decreased. Pb and Cd were found to exceed the limits set for drinking water in all the sites and seasons. Species richness (SpR) was found highest (23) at site 2 and lowest (14) at site 1. Sensitive species was absent. The Shannon (H') values at site 1 were sites 2 and 3 were > 1 in most of the seasons. Biological monitoring scores (Biological Monitoring Working Party and Stream Invertebrate Grade Number-Average Level) in different sites and seasons inferred severely poor to moderate water quality. At site 1, significant negative correlations were seen for Pb and Cr with SpR while Ni and Cu with insect density (ID). At site 2, TA had highly significant positive correlations with SpR and ID while Cu showed negative correlation with SpR. At site 3, ID had significant negative relationships with air temperature, water temperature, depth, TA, F-CO2, PO4(3-) and Cr. Canonical correspondence analysis triplot has clearly separated site 1 associated with tolerant species and highly influenced by TA, TDS, EC, F-CO2, Cr, Ni, Cd and Zn confirming high anthropogenic activities on that site. Tolerant and semitolerant species were present at site 2 (influenced by depth and transparency) and site 3 (influenced by Pb and WT) both. Results of this study discerned that the dump site is the point source of pollution.

  20. Potential impact of flowback water from hydraulic fracturing on agricultural soil quality: Metal/metalloid bioaccessibility, Microtox bioassay, and enzyme activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Season S; Sun, Yuqing; Tsang, Daniel C W; Graham, Nigel J D; Ok, Yong Sik; Feng, Yujie; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2017-02-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has advanced the development of shale gas extraction, while inadvertent spills of flowback water may pose a risk to the surrounding environment due to its high salt content, metals/metalloids (As, Se, Fe and Sr), and organic additives. This study investigated the potential impact of flowback water on four representative soils from shale gas regions in Northeast China using synthetic flowback solutions. The compositions of the solutions were representative of flowback water arising at different stages after fracturing well establishment. The effects of solution composition of flowback water on soil ecosystem were assessed in terms of metal mobility and bioaccessibility, as well as biological endpoints using Microtox bioassay (Vibrio fischeri) and enzyme activity tests. After one-month artificial aging of the soils with various flowback solutions, the mobility and bioaccessibility of As(V) and Se(VI) decreased as the ionic strength of the flowback solutions increased. The results inferred a stronger binding affinity of As(V) and Se(VI) with the soils. Nevertheless, the soil toxicity to Vibrio fischeri only presented a moderate increase after aging, while dehydrogenase and phosphomonoesterase activities were significantly suppressed with increasing ionic strength of flowback solutions. On the contrary, polyacrylamide in the flowback solutions led to higher dehydrogenase activity. These results indicated that soil enzyme activities were sensitive to the composition of flowback solutions. A preliminary human health risk assessment related to As(V) suggested a low level of cancer risk through exposure via ingestion, while holistic assessment of environmental implications is required.

  1. Water Availability--The Connection Between Water Use and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Robert M.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Miller, Timothy L.; Myers, Donna N.

    2008-01-01

    Water availability has become a high priority in the United States, in large part because competition for water is becoming more intense across the Nation. Population growth in many areas competes with demands for water to support irrigation and power production. Cities, farms, and power plants compete for water needed by aquatic ecosystems to support their minimum flow requirements. At the same time, naturally occurring and human-related contaminants from chemical use, land use, and wastewater and industrial discharge are introduced into our waters and diminish its quality. The fact that degraded quality limits the availability and suitability of water for critical uses is a well-known reality in many communities. What may be less understood, but equally true, is that our everyday use of water can significantly affect water quality, and thus its availability. Landscape features (such as geology, soils, and vegetation) along with water-use practices (such as ground-water withdrawals and irrigation) govern water availability because, together, they affect the movement of chemical compounds over the land and in the subsurface. Understanding the interactions of human activities with natural sources and the landscape is critical to effectively managing water and sustaining water availability in the future.

  2. 40 CFR 130.3 - Water quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water quality standards. 130.3 Section... QUALITY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT § 130.3 Water quality standards. A water quality standard (WQS) defines the water quality goals of a water body, or portion thereof, by designating the use or uses to be made...

  3. The role of water in food quality decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Piazza

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of water on food thermodynamics and physics, and therefore on its quality, is more important than any other food chemical component. When fundamentals of chemical kinetics apply, the rates of the reactions that are responsible of food quality decay can be described as a function of food composition and of other external elements interacting with foods. Among them, water activity and water content have been widely used to determine the role of water in the kinetic reactions of deterioration. Recently, researchers have found limitations in using the water activity parameter. According to them, the role of water in foods can be better described by evaluating the role in the stability of the quality attributes of the non-equilibrium states of amorphous food products. Following this approach, the dynamics of the changes are described in kinetics terms and can be efficiently better predicted by the glass transition temperature more than by the water activity. The glass transition, which is a second order transition in amorphous materials from the glassy to the rubbery state, is primarily dependen