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Sample records for water produces high-quality

  1. Air and Water Processes Do Not Produce the Same High-Quality Pasteurization of Donor Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffin, Rachel; Pradat, Pierre; Trompette, Jocelyne; Ndiaye, Isabelle; Basson, Eliane; Jordan, Isabelle; Picaud, Jean-Charles

    2017-11-01

    Holder pasteurization is the most commonly used technique in milk banks worldwide, but higher temperatures and longer pasteurization time have been associated with damage to the immune components of human milk. Research aim: This study aimed to assess the detailed pattern of pasteurization temperature using two water pasteurizers (WP1 and WP2) and one air pasteurizer (AP). The milk temperature during each phase of the pasteurization cycle was recorded using 6 to 9 probes, depending on the number of bottles, in the pasteurizers. We used 90 to 200 ml bottles to assess the effect of volume on milk temperature. The time to heat the milk from room temperature to 58°C was 12.4, 12.9, and 64.5 min, respectively, for WP1, WP2, and the AP ( p milk treated showed no difference when using WP1 but was significantly longer in small volumes when using WP2. Human milk treated using the air pasteurizer in our study was exposed to higher temperatures and for longer periods of time than the water pasteurizers we employed. Regular qualification of pasteurizers is requested when evaluating the effect of pasteurization on milk components and for routine treatment of human milk in milk banks.

  2. Producing affordable high-quality biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Draak, H. D.

    2004-12-31

    A novel process to produce biodiesel fuel, used to power an automobile and heat a single-family home, including a domestic hot water heater, is discussed. Although currently used on a very small scale, the process is said to be capable of producing biodiesel on a commercial scale and marketed at the same wholesale price as petro-diesel, with enough price flexibility to adjust up or down to keep pace with fluctuations in oil prices. The basic materials used are canola oil and used fryer oil from restaurants. The crucial points are to pre-treat the used fryer oil to remove impurities, and to wash the newly-produced biodiesel afterwards. Using these materials, production cost is 19 cents per liter (before overhead). Public apathy and the lack of an infrastructure for distribution are major obstacles to commercial-scale production, but the inventor of the process is confident that with a dwindling oil supply and ever-rising oil prices, the opportunities for change to alternative sources of energy are constantly improving. photos.

  3. Latest Technologies and Equipment to Obtain High Quality Drinking Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharuk, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A principally new concept of providing the Ukrainian population with quality drinking water have been proposed. It is based on a system of autonomous complexes for water purification in places of direct consumption. Water treatment autonomous complexes for collective and individual use with biotesting and analytical quality control of drinking water have been developed. The choice of the cleaning methods of tap and other waters up to the quality of genetic safe is performed in accordance with its composition and is based on a block concept that provides the possibility of varying the number of units depending on the composition of the source water. The proposed technology and equipment at cost and complex problems to be solved have no analogues in the world. Over thousand of modular installations «Vega» and disinfecting vehicles «Promin» are implemented in many settlement in all regions of Ukraine.

  4. Effect of osmotic dehydration and vacuum-frying parameters to produce high-quality mango chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Yolanda; Moreira, Rosana G

    2009-09-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a fruit rich in flavor and nutritional values, which is an excellent candidate for producing chips. The objective of this study was to develop high-quality mango chips using vacuum frying. Mango ("Tommy Atkins") slices were pretreated with different maltodextrin concentrations (40, 50, and 65, w/v), osmotic dehydration times (45, 60, and 70 min), and solution temperatures (22 and 40 degrees C). Pretreated slices were vacuum fried at 120, 130, and 138 degrees C and product quality attributes (oil content, texture, color, carotenoid content) determined. The effect of frying temperatures at optimum osmotic dehydration times (65 [w/v] at 40 degrees C) was assessed. All samples were acceptable (scores > 5) to consumer panelists. The best mango chips were those pretreated with 65 (w/v) concentration for 60 min and vacuum fried at 120 degrees C. Mango chips under atmospheric frying had less carotenoid retention (32%) than those under vacuum frying (up to 65%). These results may help further optimize vacuum-frying processing of high-quality fruit-based snacks.

  5. Climate trends in a non-traditional high quality wine producing region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Bardin-Camparotto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The global warming may put pressure over some world's highest quality wine producing regions. This fact indicates the need to evaluate the presence of climate change in non-traditional wine producing regions of the Globe. Therefore, the goals of this study were to detect trends in rainfall and air temperature series obtained from three locations of the eastern part of the State of São Paulo, Brazil (a non-traditional high quality wine producing region and to evaluate the effect of the detected climate trends on agrometeorological indices frequently used to indicate suitable areas for wine production. The trend analyses were applied to maximum and minimum air temperature series, rainfall series and to the following agrometeorological parameters: heliothermal index, cool night index and growing degree-days. These three indices were selected due to their previous use in studies that address the effect of regional climate conditions on the general wine style. The analyses took into account the grape phenological aspects for both summer and winter growing seasons. The results found in this study support the hypothesis of the presence of climate trends in the wine producing regions of the eastern part of the State of São Paulo-Brazil. These trends are mostly linked to changes in the minimum air temperature. The results also reveal a shortening in the duration of grapevines phenological phases and a change to warmer conditions during the ripening Months. These changes are consistent with the climate changes observed in other wine producing regions of the world and may negatively affect the wine production of the eastern part of the State of São Paulo.

  6. Research on producing high quality diffractive optical elements in volume at a low cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daschner, Walter

    1997-11-01

    Diffractive Optical Elements (DOEs) can be utilized in a variety of possible applications in modern optical, as well as optoelectronic systems. The current roadblock for application of DOEs in consumer products is not the feasibility of the approach, as numerous applications have been successfully demonstrated. In order for the breakthrough to occur in industry, it is important to determine a convenient and cost-effective method for manufacturing DOEs. The industry will improve the design of their legacy systems and start including DOEs only when the performance improvement (which the utilization of DOEs achieves), can be purchased with a minimal amount of additional capital investment and cost-per-part. Therefore, the focus of this dissertation was to find a cost-effective method of fabricating large quantities of DOEs with currently available fabrication tools. Direct-write approaches were investigated to fabricate high-quality masters for a subsequent replication procedure based upon molding or casting. Electron-Beam Direct-Write was carried-out in a positive Novolac-based photo-resist which provides dry etch resistivity. Another focus of this development was to find a way to minimize Electron-Beam writing time for a given element. Proximity effect characterization and compensation has been carried-out in order to increase the fidelity of the pattern reproduction. A dry-etching procedure has been developed in order to transfer resist profiles into the substrate material. During this transfer step, the etch rates of resist and substrate material can be controlled; this in turn allows a choice of final feature depth in the substrate material (depending on refractive index and wavelength in use). Two Gray-Scale masking approaches were developed to allow the cost-effective mass fabrication of DOEs in a single optical exposure step. Thin film evaporation of Inconel achieves high-quality masks at a high price. High Energy Beam Sensitive Glass, the second mask material

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Mass Produced High Quality Few Layered Graphene Sheets via a Chemical Method

    KAUST Repository

    Khenfouch, Mohammed

    2014-04-01

    Graphene is a two-dimensional crystal of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice. It is a zero band gap semimetal with very unique physical and chemical properties which make it useful for many applications such as ultra-high-speed field-effect transistors, p-n junction diodes, terahertz oscillators, and low-noise electronic, NEMS and sensors. When the high quality mass production of this nanomaterial is still a big challenge, we developed a process which will be an important step to achieve this goal. Atomic Force Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Scanning tunneling microscopy, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray system were investigated to characterize and examine the quality of this product.

  8. Plasmid size can affect the ability of Escherichia coli to produce high-quality plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junlin; Yang, Yong

    2012-11-01

    Large molecular weight plasmids are often used in gene therapy and DNA vaccines. To investigate the effect of plasmid size on the performance of Escherichia coli host strains during plasmid preparation, we employed E. coli JM109 and TOP10 cells to prepare four plasmids ranging from 4.7 to 16.8 kb in size. Each plasmid was extracted from JM109 and TOP10 cells using an alkaline lysis mini-preparation method. However, when commercial kits were used to extract the same plasmids from JM109 cells, the large molecular weight plasmids substantially degraded, compared with their smaller counterparts. No degradation was observed when the four plasmids were extracted from E. coli TOP10 cells using the same commercial kit. We conclude, therefore, that the performance of E. coli in high quality plasmid preparations can be affected by plasmid size.

  9. Producing High Quality Edible Oil by using Eco-Friendly Technology: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Noor A. Febrianto; Yang, Tajul A.

    2011-01-01

    Development of health and environmental issues specifically related to the use of chemical ingredients in foods both in producing processes and as a preservative agent has encouraged the emergence of non-chemically processed products on the market. This condition is predicted to continue increasing with high market response. This review will discuss some developments, surrounding the edible oil extraction and purification technology, including some alternative to substitute conventional solve...

  10. Production of high quality syngas from argon/water plasma gasification of biomass and waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlina, M; Hrabovsky, M; Kavka, T; Konrad, M

    2014-01-01

    Extremely hot thermal plasma was used for the gasification of biomass (spruce sawdust, wood pellets) and waste (waste plastics, pyrolysis oil). The plasma was produced by a plasma torch with DC electric arc using unique hybrid stabilization. The torch input power of 100-110 kW and the mass flow rate of the gasified materials of tens kg/h was set up during experiments. Produced synthetic gas featured very high content of hydrogen and carbon monoxide (together approximately 90%) that is in a good agreement with theory. High quality of the produced gas is given by extreme parameters of used plasma--composition, very high temperature and low mass flow rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Safe and High Quality Food Production using Low Quality Waters and Improved Irrigation Systems and Management, EU Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Jensen, Christian Richardt; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2009-01-01

    a multi-disciplinary team, with food safety and quality experts, engineers, agronomists and economists from17 research institutes and private companies in Europe, Israel and China working together. The project assesses potential risks to farmers. Coupled with farm management and economic models, a new......: the safety and quality of food products, and the increasing competition for clean freshwater. SAFIR is funded for the period 2005-2009 under the Food Quality and Safety thematic area of the EU 6th Framework Research Programme. The challenge for the next years will be to produce safe and high quality foods...... while at the same time reducing the use of natural resources and the impact on aquatic ecosystems that are frequently already polluted. These problems are linked, since most of our vegetables are produced using irrigation water from the same ecosystems. To ensure food safety and quality, the innovative...

  12. More feed efficient sheep produce less methane and carbon dioxide when eating high-quality pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganoni, B; Rose, G; Macleay, C; Jones, C; Brown, D J; Kearney, G; Ferguson, M; Thompson, A N

    2017-09-01

    The Australian sheep industry aims to increase the efficiency of sheep production by decreasing the amount of feed eaten by sheep. Also, feed intake is related to methane production, and more efficient (low residual feed intake) animals eat less than expected. So we tested the hypothesis that more efficient sheep produce less methane by investigating the genetic correlations between feed intake, residual feed intake, methane, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. Feed intake, methane, oxygen, and carbon dioxide were measured on Merino ewes at postweaning (1,866 at 223 d old), hogget (1,010 sheep at 607 d old), and adult ages (444 sheep at 1,080 d old). Sheep were fed a high-energy grower pellet ad libitum for 35 d. Individual feed intake was measured using automated feeders. Methane was measured using portable accumulation chambers up to 3 times during this feed intake period. Heritabilities and phenotypic and genotypic correlations between traits were estimated using ASReml. Oxygen (range 0.10 to 0.20) and carbon dioxide (range 0.08 to 0.28) were generally more heritable than methane (range 0.11 to 0.14). Selecting to decrease feed intake or residual feed intake will decrease methane (genetic correlation [] range 0.76 to 0.90) and carbon dioxide ( range 0.65 to 0.96). Selecting to decrease intake ( range 0.64 to 0.78) and methane ( range 0.81 to 0.86) in sheep at postweaning age would also decrease intake and methane in hoggets and adults. Furthermore, selecting for lower residual feed intake ( = 0.75) and carbon dioxide ( = 0.90) in hoggets would also decrease these traits in adults. Similarly, selecting for higher oxygen ( = 0.69) in hoggets would also increase this trait in adults. Given these results, the hypothesis that making sheep more feed efficient will decrease their methane production can be accepted. In addition, carbon dioxide is a good indicator trait for feed intake because it has the highest heritability of the gas traits measured; is cheaper, faster, and

  13. Electrolytic exfoliation of graphite in water with multifunctional electrolytes: en route towards high quality, oxide-free graphene flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munuera, J M; Paredes, J I; Villar-Rodil, S; Ayán-Varela, M; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D

    2016-02-07

    Electrolytic--usually referred to as electrochemical--exfoliation of graphite in water under anodic potential holds enormous promise as a simple, green and high-yield method for the mass production of graphene, but currently suffers from several drawbacks that hinder its widespread adoption, one of the most critical being the oxidation and subsequent structural degradation of the carbon lattice that is usually associated with such a production process. To overcome this and other limitations, we introduce and implement the concept of multifunctional electrolytes. The latter are amphiphilic anions (mostly polyaromatic hydrocarbons appended with sulfonate groups) that play different relevant roles as (1) an intercalating electrolyte to trigger exfoliation of graphite into graphene flakes, (2) a dispersant to afford stable aqueous colloidal suspensions of the flakes suitable for further use, (3) a sacrificial agent to prevent graphene oxidation during exfoliation and (4) a linker to promote nanoparticle anchoring on the graphene flakes, yielding functional hybrids. The implementation of this strategy with some selected amphiphiles even furnishes anodically exfoliated graphenes of a quality similar to that of flakes produced by direct, ultrasound- or shear-induced exfoliation of graphite in the liquid phase (i.e., almost oxide- and defect-free). These high quality materials were used for the preparation of catalytically efficient graphene-Pt nanoparticle hybrids, as demonstrated by model reactions (reduction of nitroarenes). The multifunctional performance of these electrolytes is also discussed and rationalized, and a mechanistic picture of their oxidation-preventing ability is proposed. Overall, the present results open the prospect of anodic exfoliation as a competitive method for the production of very high quality graphene flakes.

  14. Biochemical degradation treats produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-20

    In Colombia, Kelt Oil Co. employs a lined, reed-based, root-zone filtering system to remove contaminants from water produced with crude oil. The roots of the reeds absorb the contaminants. The treated water is then used for agriculture. Kelt has operated te system for over 1 year near Trinidad, in the Casanare district of eastern Colombia. After 1 year, the system removed 90% of the phenol compounds. It expects 3 years will be required for the system to achieve full efficiency.

  15. Electrolytic exfoliation of graphite in water with multifunctional electrolytes: en route towards high quality, oxide-free graphene flakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munuera, J. M.; Paredes, J. I.; Villar-Rodil, S.; Ayán-Varela, M.; Martínez-Alonso, A.; Tascón, J. M. D.

    2016-01-01

    Electrolytic - usually referred to as electrochemical - exfoliation of graphite in water under anodic potential holds enormous promise as a simple, green and high-yield method for the mass production of graphene, but currently suffers from several drawbacks that hinder its widespread adoption, one of the most critical being the oxidation and subsequent structural degradation of the carbon lattice that is usually associated with such a production process. To overcome this and other limitations, we introduce and implement the concept of multifunctional electrolytes. The latter are amphiphilic anions (mostly polyaromatic hydrocarbons appended with sulfonate groups) that play different relevant roles as (1) an intercalating electrolyte to trigger exfoliation of graphite into graphene flakes, (2) a dispersant to afford stable aqueous colloidal suspensions of the flakes suitable for further use, (3) a sacrificial agent to prevent graphene oxidation during exfoliation and (4) a linker to promote nanoparticle anchoring on the graphene flakes, yielding functional hybrids. The implementation of this strategy with some selected amphiphiles even furnishes anodically exfoliated graphenes of a quality similar to that of flakes produced by direct, ultrasound- or shear-induced exfoliation of graphite in the liquid phase (i.e., almost oxide- and defect-free). These high quality materials were used for the preparation of catalytically efficient graphene-Pt nanoparticle hybrids, as demonstrated by model reactions (reduction of nitroarenes). The multifunctional performance of these electrolytes is also discussed and rationalized, and a mechanistic picture of their oxidation-preventing ability is proposed. Overall, the present results open the prospect of anodic exfoliation as a competitive method for the production of very high quality graphene flakes.Electrolytic - usually referred to as electrochemical - exfoliation of graphite in water under anodic potential holds enormous promise

  16. Assessment and speciation of chlorine demand in fresh-cut produce wash water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Production of high quality, fresh-cut produce is a key driver for the produce industry. A critical area of concern is the chlorinated wash water used during post-harvest processing in large industrial processing facilities. Predominantly using a batch process, wash water is recycled over 8hr shift...

  17. Safe and high quality food production using low quality waters and improved irrigation systems and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai

    2010-01-01

    The present paper presents the SAFIR project (www.safir4eu.org), which addresses two fundamental problems that over the past decade increasingly have become concerns of the general public: the one problem being the jeopardizing of safety and quality of our food products, while the other being...... the increasing competition for clean freshwater. The SAFIR project has a multi-disciplinary approach, which integrates the European as well as the global dimension of the EU-policy on food quality and safety. The main driving force behind the project idea is new research results that demonstrated that scheduled...... uneven irrigation patterns can increase the water use efficiency as well as the quality of vegetable crops. Furthermore, recent innovations in the water treatment and irrigation industry have shown potential for the use of low quality water resources, such as reclaimed water or surface water in peri...

  18. Off shore produced water treatment with pertraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, R.

    2004-01-01

    During the production of oil and gas also water is produced. This produced water contains dispersed and dissolved oil components. The impact of offshore emissions of produced water on the environment and the treatment of technologies for it are currently under discussion. Emission limits tend to

  19. Enabling high-quality observations of surface imperviousness for water runoff modelling from unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokarczyk, Piotr; Leitao, Joao Paulo; Rieckermann, Jörg; Schindler, Konrad; Blumensaat, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Modelling rainfall-runoff in urban areas is increasingly applied to support flood risk assessment particularly against the background of a changing climate and an increasing urbanization. These models typically rely on high-quality data for rainfall and surface characteristics of the area. While recent research in urban drainage has been focusing on providing spatially detailed rainfall data, the technological advances in remote sensing that ease the acquisition of detailed land-use information are less prominently discussed within the community. The relevance of such methods increase as in many parts of the globe, accurate land-use information is generally lacking, because detailed image data is unavailable. Modern unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) allow acquiring high-resolution images on a local level at comparably lower cost, performing on-demand repetitive measurements, and obtaining a degree of detail tailored for the purpose of the study. In this study, we investigate for the first time the possibility to derive high-resolution imperviousness maps for urban areas from UAV imagery and to use this information as input for urban drainage models. To do so, an automatic processing pipeline with a modern classification method is tested and applied in a state-of-the-art urban drainage modelling exercise. In a real-life case study in the area of Lucerne, Switzerland, we compare imperviousness maps generated from a consumer micro-UAV and standard large-format aerial images acquired by the Swiss national mapping agency (swisstopo). After assessing their correctness, we perform an end-to-end comparison, in which they are used as an input for an urban drainage model. Then, we evaluate the influence which different image data sources and their processing methods have on hydrological and hydraulic model performance. We analyze the surface runoff of the 307 individual sub-catchments regarding relevant attributes, such as peak runoff and volume. Finally, we evaluate the model

  20. Improved efficiency of nutrient and water use for high quality field vegetable production using fertigation

    OpenAIRE

    Monaghan, J M; Wood, M.; Rahn, C. (Clive); Hilton, Howard W.

    2010-01-01

    Drip-based fertigation may improve the application efficiency of water and nutrients while maintaining or improving marketable yield and quality at harvest and post-harvest. Two plantings of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) were grown in the UK, with six N treatments and two methods of irrigation and N application. The conventional overhead irrigated treatments had all N applied in the base dressing with irrigation scheduled from SMD calculations. The closed loop treatments had nitrogen and irrigatio...

  1. CAMELINA SATIVA AS A CROP FOR DIVERSIFICATION OF AGRICULTURE AND AS A PRODUCER OF HIGH QUALITY OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Grauda, Dace; Lapiņa, Lita; Stramkale, Veneranda; Rashal, Isaak

    2007-01-01

    ‘Camelina sativa’ is one of the oldest oil crops in Europe. Growing areas were reduced dramatically in 20-40-ties of the last century. Low price of rape oil and unclear composition of camelina oil were primary reasons of this process. Nevertheless, last years ‘Camelina sativa' attracted a great interest of scientists and oil processors as a crop for diversification of agriculture and, in the same time, for producing of the high quantity and quality oil for biofuel, feeding, food, and pharmacy...

  2. Fresh water green microalga Scenedesmus abundans: A potential feedstock for high quality biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandotra, S K; Kumar, Pankaj; Suseela, M R; Ramteke, P W

    2014-03-01

    Present investigation studied the potential of fresh water green microalga Scenedesmus abundans as a feedstock for biodiesel production. To study the biomass and lipid yield, the culture was grown in BBM, Modified CHU-13 and BG-11 medium. Among the tested nitrogen concentration using Modified CHU-13 medium, the highest biomass and lipid yield of 1.113±0.05g/L and 489±23mg/L respectively was found in the culture medium with 0.32g/L of nitrogen (KNO3). Different lipid extraction as well as transesterification methods were also tested. Fatty acid profile of alga grown in large scale indigenous made photobioreactor has shown abundance of fatty acids with carbon chain length of C16 and C18. Various biodiesel properties such as cetane number, iodine value and saponification value were found to be in accordance with Brazilian National Petroleum Agency (ANP255) and European biodiesel standard EN14214 which makes S. abundans as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fast microwave-assisted acidolysis: a new biorefinery approach for the zero-waste utilisation of lignocellulosic biomass to produce high quality lignin and fermentable saccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Long; Santomauro, Fabio; Fan, Jiajun; Macquarrie, Duncan; Clark, James; Chuck, Christopher J; Budarin, Vitaliy

    2017-09-21

    Generally, biorefineries convert lignocellulosic biomass into a range of biofuels and further value added chemicals. However, conventional biorefinery processes focus mainly on the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions and therefore produce only low quality lignin, which is commonly burnt to provide process heat. To make full use of the biomass, more attention needs to be focused on novel separation techniques, where high quality lignin can be isolated that is suitable for further valorisation into aromatic chemicals and fuel components. In this paper, three types of lignocellulosic biomass (softwood, hardwood and herbaceous biomass) were processed by microwave-assisted acidolysis to produce high quality lignin. The lignin from the softwood was isolated largely intact in the solid residue after acidolysis. For example, a 10 min microwave-assisted acidolysis treatment produced lignin with a purity of 93% and in a yield of 82%, which is superior to other conventional separation methods reported. Furthermore, py-GC/MS analysis proved that the isolated lignin retained the original structure of native lignin in the feedstock without severe chemical modification. This is a large advantage, and the purified lignin is suitable for further chemical processing. To assess the suitability of this methodology as part of a biorefinery system, the aqueous phase, produced after acidolysis of the softwood, was characterised and assessed for its suitability for fermentation. The broth contained some mono- and di-saccharides but mainly contained organic acids, oligosaccharides and furans. While this is unsuitable for S. cerevisiae and other common ethanol producing yeasts, two oleaginous yeasts with known inhibitor tolerances were selected: Cryptococcus curvatus and Metschnikowia pulcherrima. Both yeasts could grow on the broth, and demonstrated suitable catabolism of the oligosaccharides and inhibitors over 7 days. In addition, both yeasts were shown to be able to produce an oil

  4. Produced Water Management and Beneficial Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry Brown; Carol Frost; Thomas Hayes; Leo Heath; Drew Johnson; David Lopez; Demian Saffer; Michael Urynowicz; John Wheaton; Mark Zoback

    2007-10-31

    Large quantities of water are associated with the production of coalbed methane (CBM) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. The chemistry of co-produced water often makes it unsuitable for subsequent uses such as irrigated agriculture. However, co-produced waters have substantial potential for a variety of beneficial uses. Achieving this potential requires the development of appropriate water management strategies. There are several unique characteristics of co-produced water that make development of such management strategies a challenge. The production of CBM water follows an inverse pattern compared to traditional wells. CBM wells need to maintain low reservoir pressures to promote gas production. This need renders the reinjection of co-produced waters counterproductive. The unique water chemistry of co-produced water can reduce soil permeability, making surface disposal difficult. Unlike traditional petroleum operations where co-produced water is an undesirable by-product, co-produced water in the PRB often is potable, making it a highly valued resource in arid western states. This research project developed and evaluated a number of water management options potentially available to CBM operators. These options, which focus on cost-effective and environmentally-sound practices, fall into five topic areas: Minimization of Produced Water, Surface Disposal, Beneficial Use, Disposal by Injection and Water Treatment. The research project was managed by the Colorado Energy Research Institute (CERI) at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and involved personnel located at CERI, CSM, Stanford University, Pennsylvania State University, the University of Wyoming, the Argonne National Laboratory, the Gas Technology Institute, the Montana Bureau of Mining and Geology and PVES Inc., a private firm.

  5. Hot Water Treatment, Trunk Diseases and Other Critical Factors in the Production of High-Quality Grapevine Planting Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Waite

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the critical factors on which successful grapevine propagation depends and discusses the steps that can be taken to improve the quality of planting material available to growers. Spasmodic occurrences of young vine decline and the failure of planting material have plagued the wine industry since the 1990s. The syndrome now described as Petri disease has been identified as the probable cause of many of the failures, but hot water treatment (HWT of dormant cuttings (50°C/30 min, for the control of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and other endogenous pathogens, has also been implicated in the losses. HWT is known to cause a temporary switch to fermentative respiration and early retarded growth in treated material, particularly in Pinot Noir, but the effects of HWT on dormant vine tissue are not yet fully understood. Poor nursery hygiene and poor storage and handling practices during propagation and planting have also been implicated in vine failure. Demand for planting material has exceeded supply and there has been little incentive for nurseries to improve their standards. The quality of planting material could be significantly improved by changing nursery practices, particularly by discontinuing the practice of soaking cuttings in water, treated or untreated, and by improving general standards of nursery hygiene and the management of cool rooms. There is a need to develop a set of universal quality standards for cuttings and rooted vines. Growers also need to be made aware of the characteristics and benefits of high quality planting material.

  6. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Liske

    2006-07-31

    This DOE funded study was performed to evaluate the potential for treatment and beneficial reuse of produced water from the San Ardo oilfield in Monterey County, CA. The potential benefits of a successful full-scale implementation of this project include improvements in oil production efficiency and additional recoverable oil reserves as well as the addition of a new reclaimed water resource. The overall project was conducted in two Phases. Phase I identified and evaluated potential end uses for the treated produced water, established treated water quality objectives, reviewed regulations related to treatment, transport, storage and use of the treated produced water, and investigated various water treatment technology options. Phase II involved the construction and operation of a small-scale water treatment pilot facility to evaluate the process's performance on produced water from the San Ardo oilfield. Cost estimates for a potential full-scale facility were also developed. Potential end uses identified for the treated water include (1) agricultural use near the oilfield, (2) use by Monterey County Water Resources Agency (MCWRA) for the Salinas Valley Water Project or Castroville Seawater Intrusion Project, (3) industrial or power plant use in King City, and (4) use for wetlands creation in the Salinas Basin. All of these uses were found to have major obstacles that prevent full-scale implementation. An additional option for potential reuse of the treated produced water was subsequently identified. That option involves using the treated produced water to recharge groundwater in the vicinity of the oil field. The recharge option may avoid the limitations that the other reuse options face. The water treatment pilot process utilized: (1) warm precipitation softening to remove hardness and silica, (2) evaporative cooling to meet downstream temperature limitations and facilitate removal of ammonia, and (3) reverse osmosis (RO) for removal of dissolved salts, boron

  7. Beneficial Reuse of San Ardo Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert A. Liske

    2003-09-26

    This report summarizes the work performed from 1 April 2003 to 30 September 2003 and recommends the tasks to be performed during Phase II (Pilot Evaluation). During this period discussions were held with various water agencies regarding use of the treated produced water either directly or indirectly through a water trading arrangement. In particular, several discussions were held with Monterey County Water Resources Agency, that has been charged with the long-term management and preservation of water resources in Monterey County. The Agency is very supportive of the program. However, they would like to see water quality/cost estimate data for the treated produced water from the pilot study prior to evaluating water use/water trade options. The agency sent a letter encouraging the project team to perform the pilot study to evaluate feasibility of the project. In addition, the regulations related to use of the treated water for various applications were updated during this period. Finally, the work plan, health and safety plan and sample analyses plan for performing pilot study to treat the oilfield produced water were developed during this period.

  8. Characterization of Soluble Organics in Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, D.T.

    2002-01-16

    Soluble organics in produced water and refinery effluents represent treatment problems for the petroleum industry. Neither the chemistry involved in the production of soluble organics nor the impact of these chemicals on total effluent toxicity is well understood. The U.S. Department of Energy provides funding for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to support a collaborative project with Shell, Chevron, Phillips, and Statoil entitled ''Petroleum and Environmental Research Forum project (PERF 9844: Manage Water-Soluble Organics in Produced Water''). The goal of this project, which involves characterization and evaluation of these water-soluble compounds, is aimed at reducing the future production of such contaminants. To determine the effect that various drilling conditions might have on water-soluble organics (WSO) content in produced water, a simulated brine water containing the principal inorganic components normally found in Gulf of Mexico (GOM) brine sources was prepared. The GOM simulant was then contacted with as-received crude oil from a deep well site to study the effects of water cut, produced-water pH, salinity, pressure, temperature, and crude oil sources on the type and content of the WSO in produced water. The identities of individual semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were determined in all as-received crude and actual produced water samples using standard USEPA Method (8270C) protocol. These analyses were supplemented with the more general measurements of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content in the gas (C{sub 6}-C{sub 10}), diesel (C{sub 10}-C{sub 20}), and oil (C{sub 20}-C{sub 28}) carbon ranges as determined by both gas chromatographic (GC) and infrared (IR) analyses. An open liquid chromatographic procedure was also used to differentiate the saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, and polar components within the extractable TPH. Inorganic constituents in the produced water were analyzed by ion

  9. Simultaneous production of high-quality water and electrical power from aqueous feedstock’s and waste heat by high-pressure membrane distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, N.J.M.; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Brouwer, H.; Medevoort, J. van; Jansen, A.; Altena, F.; Vleuten, P. van der; Bak, H.

    2015-01-01

    A new membrane distillation (MD) concept (MemPower) has been developed for the simultaneous production of high-quality water from various aqueous feedstocks with cogeneration of mechanical power (electricity). Driven by low-grade heat (waste, solar, geothermal, etc.) a pressurized distillate can be

  10. Insights into metabolic osmoadaptation of the ectoines-producer bacterium Chromohalobacter salexigens through a high-quality genome scale metabolic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piubeli, Francine; Salvador, Manuel; Argandoña, Montserrat; Nieto, Joaquín J; Bernal, Vicente; Pastor, Jose M; Cánovas, Manuel; Vargas, Carmen

    2018-01-09

    The halophilic bacterium Chromohalobacter salexigens is a natural producer of ectoines, compatible solutes with current and potential biotechnological applications. As production of ectoines is an osmoregulated process that draws away TCA intermediates, bacterial metabolism needs to be adapted to cope with salinity changes. To explore and use C. salexigens as cell factory for ectoine(s) production, a comprehensive knowledge at the systems level of its metabolism is essential. For this purpose, the construction of a robust and high-quality genome-based metabolic model of C. salexigens was approached. We generated and validated a high quality genome-based C. salexigens metabolic model (iFP764). This comprised an exhaustive reconstruction process based on experimental information, analysis of genome sequence, manual re-annotation of metabolic genes, and in-depth refinement. The model included three compartments (periplasmic, cytoplasmic and external medium), and two salinity-specific biomass compositions, partially based on experimental results from C. salexigens. Using previous metabolic data as constraints, the metabolic model allowed us to simulate and analyse the metabolic osmoadaptation of C. salexigens under conditions for low and high production of ectoines. The iFP764 model was able to reproduce the major metabolic features of C. salexigens. Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) and Monte Carlo Random sampling analysis showed salinity-specific essential metabolic genes and different distribution of fluxes and variation in the patterns of correlation of reaction sets belonging to central C and N metabolism, in response to salinity. Some of them were related to bioenergetics or production of reducing equivalents, and probably related to demand for ectoines. Ectoines metabolic reactions were distributed according to its correlation in four modules. Interestingly, the four modules were independent both at low and high salinity conditions, as they did not correlate to each

  11. Produced water treatment methods for SAGD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnich, K. [Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Produced water treatment methods for steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) processes were presented. Lime softening is used to remove sludge before weak acid cation processes. However, the process is not reliable in cold climates, and disposal of the sludge is now posing environmental problems in Alberta. High pH MVC evaporation processes use sodium hydroxide (NaOH) additions to prevent silica scaling. However the process produces silica wastes that are difficult to dispose of. The sorption slurry process was designed to reduce the use of caustic soda and develop a cost-effective method of disposing evaporator concentrates. The method produces 98 per cent steam quality for SAGD injection. Silica is sorbed onto crystals in order to prevent silica scaling. The evaporator concentrate from the process is suitable for on- and off-site deep well disposal. The ceramic membrane process was designed to reduce the consumption of chemicals and improve the reliability of water treatment processes. The ion exchange desilication process uses 80 per cent less power and produces 80 per cent fewer CO{sub 2} emissions than MVC evaporators. A comparative operating cost evaluation of various electric supply configurations and produced water treatment processes was also included, as well as an analysis of produced water chemistry. tabs., figs.

  12. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry Bonner; Roger Malmquist

    2003-01-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (Stripper Gas Water) which are predominately water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  13. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry Bonner; Roger Malmquist

    2002-10-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (Stripper Gas Water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  14. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray W. Sheldon

    2001-09-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (stripper gas water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  15. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry Bonner; Roger Malmquist

    2002-01-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (Stripper Gas Water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  16. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry Bonner; Roger Malmquist

    2003-08-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (Stripper Gas Water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  17. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry Bonner; Roger Malmquist

    2002-07-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (Stripper Gas Water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  18. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray W. Sheldon, P.E.

    2001-11-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (Stripper Gas Water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  19. ADVANCED STRIPPER GAS PRODUCED WATER REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry Bonner; Roger Malmquist

    2002-04-01

    Natural gas and oil production from stripper wells also produces water contaminated with hydrocarbons, and in most locations, salts and trace elements. The hydrocarbons are not generally present in concentrations that allow the operator to economically recover these liquids. Produced liquids, (Stripper Gas Water) which are predominantly water, present the operator with two options; purify the water to acceptable levels of contaminates, or pay for the disposal of the water. The project scope involves testing SynCoal as a sorbent to reduce the levels of contamination in stripper gas well produced water to a level that the water can be put to a productive use. Produced water is to be filtered with SynCoal, a processed sub-bituminous coal. It is expected that the surface area of and in the SynCoal would sorb the hydrocarbons and other contaminates and the effluent would be usable for agricultural purposes. Test plan anticipates using two well locations described as being disparate in the level and type of contaminates present. The loading capacity and the rate of loading for the sorbent should be quantified in field testing situations which include unregulated and widely varying liquid flow rates. This will require significant flexibility in the initial stages of the investigation. The scope of work outlined below serves as the guidelines for the testing of SynCoal carbon product as a sorbent to remove hydrocarbons and other contaminants from the produced waters of natural gas wells. A maximum ratio of 1 lb carbon to 100 lbs water treated is the initial basis for economic design. While the levels of contaminants directly impact this ratio, the ultimate economics will be dictated by the filter servicing requirements. This experimental program is intended to identify those treatment parameters that yield the best technological practice for a given set of operating conditions. The goal of this research is to determine appropriate guidelines for field trials by accurately

  20. Assessment of Physicochemical Characteristics of Produced Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the physico-chemical characteristics, total hydrocarbon concentration (THC) and some heavy metal levels of produced water from terminals of two oil industry facilities in Nigeria, using standard methods. Appropriate sample bottles were used in the collection of samples for analyses of BOD, other ...

  1. Treatment of Oil & Gas Produced Water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Brian P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Production of oil and gas reserves in the New Mexico Four Corners Region results in large volumes of "produced water". The common method for handling the produced water from well production is re-injection in regulatory permitted salt water disposal wells. This is expensive (%7E $5/bbl.) and does not recycle water, an ever increasingly valuable commodity. Previously, Sandia National Laboratories and several NM small business tested pressure driven membrane-filtration techniques to remove the high TDS (total dissolved solids) from a Four Corners Coal Bed Methane produced water. Treatment effectiveness was less than optimal due to problems with pre-treatment. Inadequate pre-treatment allowed hydrocarbons, wax and biological growth to foul the membranes. Recently, an innovative pre-treatment scheme using ozone and hydrogen peroxide was pilot tested. Results showed complete removal of hydrocarbons and the majority of organic constituents from a gas well production water. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report was made possible through funding from the New Mexico Small Business Administration (NMSBA) Program at Sandia National Laboratories. Special thanks to Juan Martinez and Genaro Montoya for guidance and support from project inception to completion. Also, special thanks to Frank McDonald, the small businesses team POC, for laying the ground work for the entire project; Teresa McCown, the gas well owner and very knowledgeable- fantastic site host; Lea and Tim Phillips for their tremendous knowledge and passion in the oil & gas industry.; and Frank Miller and Steve Addleman for providing a pilot scale version of their proprietary process to facilitate the pilot testing.

  2. Enhancing the spatial coverage of a regional high-quality hydraulic conductivity dataset with estimates made from domestic water-well specific-capacity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Elizabeth H.; Neville, C. J.; Rudolph, D. L.

    2017-11-01

    The spatial coverage of hydraulic conductivity (K) values for large-scale groundwater investigations is often poor because of the high costs associated with hydraulic testing and the large areas under investigation. Domestic water wells are ubiquitous and their well logs represent an untapped resource of information that includes mandatory specific-capacity tests, from which K can be estimated. These specific-capacity tests are routinely conducted at such low pumping rates that well losses are normally insignificant. In this study, a simple and practical approach to augmenting high-quality K values with reconnaissance-level K values from water-well specific-capacity tests is assessed. The integration of lesser quality K values from specific-capacity tests with a high-quality K data set is assessed through comparisons at two different scales: study-area-wide (a 600-km2 area in Ontario, Canada) and in a single geological formation within a portion of the broader study area (200 km2). Results of the comparisons demonstrate that reconnaissance-level K estimates from specific-capacity tests approximate the ranges and distributions of the high-quality K values. Sufficient detail about the physical basis and assumptions that are invoked in the development of the approach are presented here so that it can be applied with confidence by practitioners seeking to enhance their spatial coverage of K values with specific-capacity tests.

  3. Minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    In 2007, hydropower accounted for only 16% of the world electricity production, with other renewable sources totaling 3%. Thus, it is not surprising that when alternatives are evaluated for new energy developments, there is strong impulse for fossil fuel or nuclear energy as opposed to renewable sources. However, as hydropower schemes are often part of a multipurpose water resources development project, they can often help to finance other components of the project. In addition, hydropower systems and their associated dams and reservoirs provide human well-being benefits, such as flood control and irrigation, and societal benefits such as increased recreational activities and improved navigation. Furthermore, hydropower due to its associated reservoir storage, can provide flexibility and reliability for energy production in integrated energy systems. The storage capability of hydropower systems act as a regulating mechanism by which other intermittent and variable renewable energy sources (wind, wave, solar) can play a larger role in providing electricity of commercial quality. Minimizing water consumption for producing hydropower is critical given that overuse of water for energy production may result in a shortage of water for other purposes such as irrigation, navigation or fish passage. This paper presents a dimensional analysis for finding optimal flow discharge and optimal penstock diameter when designing impulse and reaction water turbines for hydropower systems. The objective of this analysis is to provide general insights for minimizing water consumption when producing hydropower. This analysis is based on the geometric and hydraulic characteristics of the penstock, the total hydraulic head and the desired power production. As part of this analysis, various dimensionless relationships between power production, flow discharge and head losses were derived. These relationships were used to withdraw general insights on determining optimal flow discharge and

  4. Trip Report-Produced-Water Field Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Enid J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) conducted field testing of a produced-water pretreatment apparatus with assistance from faculty at the Texas A&M University (TAMU) protein separation sciences laboratory located on the TAMU main campus. The following report details all of the logistics surrounding the testing. The purpose of the test was to use a new, commercially-available filter media housing containing modified zeolite (surfactant-modified zeolite or SMZ) porous medium for use in pretreatment of oil and gas produced water (PW) and frac-flowback waters. The SMZ was tested previously in October, 2010 in a lab-constructed configuration ('old multicolumn system'), and performed well for removal of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX) from PW. However, a less-expensive, modular configuration is needed for field use. A modular system will allow the field operator to add or subtract SMZ filters as needed to accommodate site specific conditions, and to swap out used filters easily in a multi-unit system. This test demonstrated the use of a commercial filter housing with a simple flow modification and packed with SMZ for removing BTEX from a PW source in College Station, Texas. The system will be tested in June 2012 at a field site in Pennsylvania for treating frac-flowback waters. The goals of this test are: (1) to determine sorption efficiency of BTEX in the new configuration; and (2) to observe the range of flow rates, backpressures, and total volume treated at a given flow rate.

  5. Safe and High Quality Food Production using Low Quality Waters and Improved Irrigation Systems and Management (SAFIR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, L.; Kloppmann, W.; Battilani, A.; Bertaki, M.; Blagojevic, S.; Chartzoulakis, K.; Dalsgaard, A.; Forslund, A.; Jovanovic, Z.; Kasapakis, I.

    2009-04-01

    The safe use of treated domestic wastewater for irrigation needs to address the risks for humans (workers, exposed via contact with irrigation water, soil, crops and food, consumers, exposed via ingestion of fresh and processed food), for animals (via ingestion of crops an soil), for the crops and agricultural productivity (via salinity and trace element uptake), for soil (via accumulation or release of pollutants) as well as for surface, groundwaters and the associated ecosystems (via runoff and infiltration, Kass et al., 2005, Bouwer, 2000). A work package in the EU FP5 project SAFIR is dedicated to study the impact of wastewater irrigation on the soil-water-plant-product system. Its monitoring program comprises pathogens and inorganic pollutants, including both geogenic and potentially anthropogenic trace elements in the aim to better understand soil-irrigation water interactions. The SAFIR field study sites are found in China, Italy, Crete, and Serbia. A performance evaluation of SAFIR-specific treatment technology through the monitoring of waste water and irrigation water quality was made through waste water chemical and microbiological qualities, which were investigated upstream and downstream of the SAFIR specific treatment three times per season. Irrigation water transits through the uppermost soil decimetres to the crop roots. The latter will become, in the course of the irrigation season, the major sink of percolating water, together with evaporation. The water saving irrigation techniques used in SAFIR are surface and subsurface drip irrigation. The investigation of the solid soil phase concentrates on the root zone as main transit and storage compartment for pollutants and, eventually, pathogens. The initial soil quality was assessed through a sampling campaign before the onset of the first year irrigation; the soil quality has been monitored throughout three years under cultivation of tomatoes or potatoes. The plot layout for each of the study sites

  6. Modification of cellulose foam paper for use as a high-quality biocide disinfectant filter for drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydarifard, Solmaz; Taneja, Kapila; Bhanjana, Gaurav; Dilbaghi, Neeraj; Nazhad, Mousa M; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kumar, Sandeep

    2018-02-01

    Development of a foam-formed cellulose filter paper with high wet strength was carried out for application as a drinking water filter. The wet strength and antimicrobial activity of cellulose foam paper against several bacteria species (Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441 (Gram +ve), B. cereus NCDC 240 (Gram +ve), Pseudomonas aeruginosa NCDC 105 (Gram -ve), Klebsiella pneumonia NCDC 138 (Gram -ve), and Escherichia coli MTCC 40 (Gram -ve)) were investigated. The morphology and structure of the cellulose foam paper were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results of our study confirmed that glutaraldehyde solution or 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) added to cellulose foam paper pretreated with cationic polyacrylamide (C-PAM) provided very high and stable wet strength performance together with excellent antimicrobial properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tekna's produced water conference 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The conference has 22 presentations discussing topics on discharge reduction, produced water quality, produced water re-injection, chemicals particularly environmentally friendly ones, separation technology, reservoir souring, total water management systems, pollution, oil in water problems and platform operation. Various field tests and experiences particularly from the offshore petroleum sector are presented (tk)

  8. Whole-tree Agarwood-Inducing Technique: An Efficient Novel Technique for Producing High-Quality Agarwood in Cultivated Aquilaria sinensis Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjiang Chen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Agarwood is the fragrant resin-infused wood derived from the wounded trees of Aquilaria species. It is a valuable non-timber forest product used in fragrances and as medicine. Reforestation for Aquilaria trees in combination with artificial agarwood-inducing methods serves as a way to supply agarwood and conserve of wild Aquilaria stock. However, the existing agarwood-inducing methods produce poor-quality agarwood at low yield. Our study evaluated a novel technique for producing agarwood in cultivated Aquilaria trees, called the whole-tree agarwood-inducing technique (Agar-Wit. Ten different agarwood inducers were used for comparison of Agar-Wit with three existing agarwood-inducing methods. For Aquilaria trees treated with these ten inducers, agarwood formed and spread throughout the entire tree from the transfusion point in the trunk to the roots and branches of the whole tree. Agarwood yield per tree reached 2,444.83 to 5,860.74 g, which is 4 to 28 times higher than that by the existing agarwood-inducing methods. Furthermore, this agarwood derived from Agar-Wit induction was found to have a higher quality compared with the existing methods, and similar to that of wild agarwood. This indicates Agar-Wit may have commercial potential. Induction of cultivated agarwood using this method could satisfy the significant demand for agarwood, while conserving and protecting the remaining wild Aquilaria trees.

  9. Whole-tree agarwood-inducing technique: an efficient novel technique for producing high-quality agarwood in cultivated Aquilaria sinensis trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang; Chen, Huaiqiong; Yang, Yun; Zhang, Zheng; Wei, Jianhe; Meng, Hui; Chen, Weiping; Feng, Jindong; Gan, Bingchun; Chen, Xuyu; Gao, Zhihui; Huang, Junqin; Chen, Bo; Chen, Hongjiang

    2013-03-07

    Agarwood is the fragrant resin-infused wood derived from the wounded trees of Aquilaria species. It is a valuable non-timber forest product used in fragrances and as medicine. Reforestation for Aquilaria trees in combination with artificial agarwood-inducing methods serves as a way to supply agarwood and conserve of wild Aquilaria stock. However, the existing agarwood-inducing methods produce poor-quality agarwood at low yield. Our study evaluated a novel technique for producing agarwood in cultivated Aquilaria trees, called the whole-tree agarwood-inducing technique (Agar-Wit). Ten different agarwood inducers were used for comparison of Agar-Wit with three existing agarwood-inducing methods. For Aquilaria trees treated with these ten inducers, agarwood formed and spread throughout the entire tree from the transfusion point in the trunk to the roots and branches of the whole tree. Agarwood yield per tree reached 2,444.83 to 5,860.74 g, which is 4 to 28 times higher than that by the existing agarwood-inducing methods. Furthermore, this agarwood derived from Agar-Wit induction was found to have a higher quality compared with the existing methods, and similar to that of wild agarwood. This indicates Agar-Wit may have commercial potential. Induction of cultivated agarwood using this method could satisfy the significant demand for agarwood, while conserving and protecting the remaining wild Aquilaria trees.

  10. Pollution Impact and Alternative Treatment for Produced Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedar Yusran

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas exploration and production are two of the activities that potentially cause pollution and environmental damage. The largest waste generated from this activity is produced water. Produced water contains hazardous pollutants of both organic and inorganic materials, so that the produced water of oil and gas production cannot be discharged directly to the environment. Uncontrolled discharge can lead to the environmental damage, killing the life of water and plants. The produced water needs to be handled and fulfill the quality standards before being discharged to the environment. Several studies to reduce the contaminants in the produced water were conducted by researchers. Among them were gravity based separation - flotation, separation technique based on filtration, and biological process treatment. Therefore, some of these methods can be used as an alternative waste handling of produced water.

  11. PRELIMINARY RESULTS USING ANEW METHOD TO OPTIMIZE A SPRAY DRYER PROCESS FOR PRODUCING HIGH QUALITY MILK POWDER FROM COW, GOAT AND SHE-ASS MILK CONCENTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Altieri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As quality is a very important factor in milk powder produced by drying, the optimal process must protect both nutritional and sensorial properties. Although heat damage indices (namely the insolubility index (IINS, thermal damage (IDT, protein denaturation could be used to evaluate the correct processing of milk, they are very time-consuming. Hence a chemical marker, like vitamin C, is proposed for rapid assessment of the overall damage to the quality of the produced milk powder. Trials were carried out on milk concentrates from cow, goat and she-ass so as to optimize the process performance of the spray dryer, for each kind of milk, at three inlet temperatures (120, 150, 185 °C; the feed flow rate was set at 0.5 dm3/h with outlet air RH% in the range 10-40%; raw milk was concentrated using a low pressure evaporator until an average level of 23% dry matter was reached. As expected, the thermal damage of the milk powder increased as the inlet air temperature increased; the outlet powder RH% was 96-98% poorly correlated with the mass flow rate of the concentrate inlet. Moreover, the destruction kinetic of vitamin C was found highly correlated with the thermal damage to the milk powder. At 175 °C inlet air temperature the overall thermal treatment on the she-ass milk concentrate, which is very heat-sensitive due to its high lactose content, was “weak” (IDT<80 and the milk powder of “premium or extra” quality (IINS<1.25ml and lactic acid = 0.07% < 0.15% ADMI. The titratable acidity values are uncorrelated with the process air temperature but depend uniquely from the raw milk freshness.

  12. Electrocatalytic water splitting to produce fuel hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hao

    Solar energy is regarded as a promising source for clean and sustainable energy. However, it is not a continuous energy source, thus certain strategies have to be developed to effectively convert and store it. Solar-driven electrocatalytic water splitting, which converts solar energy into chemical energy for storage as fuel hydrogen, can effectively mitigate the intermittence of solar radiation. Water splitting consists of two half reactions: water oxidation and hydrogen evolution. Both reactions rely on highly effective electrocatalysts. This dissertation is an account of four detailed studies on developing highly effective low-cost electrocatalysts for both reactions, and includes a preliminary attempt at system integration to build a functional photoanode for solar-driven water oxidation. For the water oxidation reaction, we have developed an electrochemical method to immobilize a cobalt-based (Co-OXO) water oxidation catalyst on a conductive surface to promote recyclability and reusability without affecting functionality. We have also developed a method to synthesize a manganese-based (MnOx) catalytic film in situ, generating a nanoscale fibrous morphology that provides steady and excellent water oxidation performance. The new method involves two series of cyclic voltammetry (CV) over different potential ranges, followed by calcination to increase crystallinity. The research has the potential to open avenues for synthesizing and optimizing other manganese-based water oxidation catalysts. For the hydrogen evolution reaction, we have developed a new electrodeposition method to synthesize Ni/Ni(OH)2 catalysts in situ on conductive surfaces. The new method involves only two cycles of CV over a single potential range. The resulting catalytic film has a morphology of packed walnut-shaped particles. It has superior catalytic activity and good stability over long periods. We have investigated the feasibility of incorporating manganese-based water oxidation catalysts

  13. A two-step continuous ultrasound assisted production of biodiesel fuel from waste cooking oils: a practical and economical approach to produce high quality biodiesel fuel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Le Tu; Okitsu, Kenji; Sadanaga, Yasuhiro; Takenaka, Norimichi; Maeda, Yasuaki; Bandow, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    A transesterification reaction of waste cooking oils (WCO) with methanol in the presence of a potassium hydroxide catalyst was performed in a continuous ultrasonic reactor of low-frequency 20 kHz with input capacity of 1 kW, in a two-step process. For the first step, the transesterification was carried out with the molar ratio of methanol to WCO of 2.5:1, and the amount of catalyst 0.7 wt.%. The yield of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) was about 81%. A yield of FAME of around 99% was attained in the second step with the molar ratio of methanol to initial WCO of 1.5:1, and the amount of catalyst 0.3 wt.%. The FAME yield was extremely high even at the short residence time of the reactants in the ultrasonic reactor (less than 1 min for the two steps) at ambient temperature, and the total amount of time required to produce biodiesel was 15h. The quality of the final biodiesel product meets the standards JIS K2390 and EN 14214 for biodiesel fuel. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lamination of ultra-thin silicon wafers for producing high-quality and low-cost x-ray telescope mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Youwei; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2017-08-01

    We present a thin wafer lamination method for producing X-ray telescope mirrors aiming at 1-10'' optics quality and low fabrication cost. Traditional grinding/polishing and hot slumping methods find difficulty to meet the required figure accuracy when the mirror thickness is below 1 mm. In this paper, we introduce a new fabrication procedure to satisfy those requirements: first, we laminate flat and ultra-thin silicon wafers on a well polished mandrel via direct bonding until the wafer stack achieves the designed thickness. Second, we release the stack from the mandrel since the direct bonding is temporary. Third, we anneal the stack to create permanent bonding and stabilize the deformation. In such a manner, the intrinsic waviness of each wafer can be alleviated. Our FEA simulation shows the RMS slope error of the stack surface released from a flat mandrel is improved by a factor of 6 when the layer number is doubled, regardless of the total thickness. In the case of a cylindrical mandrel, the local waviness could be improved by a factor of 4000, while a cone angle problem appears and needs to be resolved in future work. We also developed the fabrication method and successfully optimized our wafer cleaning process.

  15. Produced water volumes and management practices in the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. E.; Veil, J. A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2009-09-01

    Produced water volume generation and management in the United States are not well characterized at a national level. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) asked Argonne National Laboratory to compile data on produced water associated with oil and gas production to better understand the production volumes and management of this water. The purpose of this report is to improve understanding of produced water by providing detailed information on the volume of produced water generated in the United States and the ways in which produced water is disposed or reused. As the demand for fresh water resources increases, with no concomitant increase in surface or ground water supplies, alternate water sources, like produced water, may play an important role. Produced water is water from underground formations that is brought to the surface during oil or gas production. Because the water has been in contact with hydrocarbon-bearing formations, it contains some of the chemical characteristics of the formations and the hydrocarbons. It may include water from the reservoir, water previously injected into the formation, and any chemicals added during the production processes. The physical and chemical properties of produced water vary considerably depending on the geographic location of the field, the geologic formation, and the type of hydrocarbon product being produced. Produced water properties and volume also vary throughout the lifetime of a reservoir. Produced water is the largest volume by-product or waste stream associated with oil and gas exploration and production. Previous national produced water volume estimates are in the range of 15 to 20 billion barrels (bbl; 1 bbl = 42 U.S. gallons) generated each year in the United States (API 1988, 2000; Veil et al. 2004). However, the details on generation and management of produced water are not well understood on a national scale. Argonne National Laboratory developed detailed national-level information on the volume of produced

  16. SAGD produced water recycling: technology challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdicakis, B.; Fulton, C [Water Treatment Technology, Heavy Oil Technology Center, Statoil Canada Limited (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In Alberta's oil sands, several in situ technologies are used to recover bitumen. These techniques consist of producing and then injecting steam into the reservoir to mobilize the bitumen. These techniques are dependent on the use of water and equipment to produce steam and handling the water thus produced represents a significant investment. The purpose of this paper is to present Statoil's efforts in developing new technologies to address the water issue in SAGD operations. Different collaborative development projects, whose aims are to reduce costs, improve reliability and reduce the environmental footprint through a minimization of makeup water use, are presented. In addition to these programs, Statoil is working on the development of a Water Technology Development Center with the aim of accelerating the implementation of water recycling technologies. This paper highlights the participation of Statoil in several projects to develop innovative technologies which will address SAGD-produced water recycling challenges.

  17. Recycling produced water for algal cultivation for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, Justin N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sullivan, Enid J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dean, Cynthia A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steichen, Seth A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-09

    Algal growth demands a continuous source of water of appropriate salinity and nutritional content. Fresh water sources are scarce in the deserts of the Southwestern United States, hence, salt water algae species are being investigated as a renewable biofuel source. The use of produced water from oil wells (PW) could offset the demand for fresh water in cultivation. Produced water can contain various concentrations of dissolved solids, metals and organic contaminants and often requires treatment beyond oil/water separation to make it suitable for algae cultivation. The produced water used in this study was taken from an oil well in Jal, New Mexico. An F/2-Si (minus silica) growth media commonly used to cultivate Nannochloropsis salina 1776 (NS 1776) was prepared using the produced water (F/2-Si PW) taking into account the metals and salts already present in the water. NS 1776 was seeded into a bioreactor containing 5L of the (F/2-Si PW) media. After eleven days the optical density at 750 nm (an indicator of algal growth) increased from 0 to 2.52. These results indicate algae are able to grow, though inhibited when compared with non-PW media, in the complex chemical conditions found in produced water. Savings from using nutrients present in the PW, such as P, K, and HCO{sub 3}{sup -}, results in a 44.38% cost savings over fresh water to mix the F/2-Si media.

  18. Hyper-saline produced water treatment for beneficial use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Furaiji, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Producing oil and gas is always accompanied with large amounts of effluent water, called “produced water” (PW). These huge quantities of water can be used (if treated efficiently and economically) for many useful purposes like industrial applications, irrigation, cattle and animal consumption, and

  19. Evaluation of the Physico-Chemical Properties of Produced Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    the surface (API, 2000). Produced water constitutes the largest waste stream from petroleum production operations. They contain chemicals, oil, grease, and sometimes, naturally occurring radioactive materials which could harm the environment. The management of produced water continues to receive attention because of ...

  20. ENHANCING PRODUCED WATER QUALITY USING MODIFIED ACTIVATED CARBON

    OpenAIRE

    AlKaabi, Maryam Ali

    2016-01-01

    The formation produced water from natural gas production process in the North field offshore considered largest volume of waste water in Qatar, which could be considered a potential benefits source for the industry as well as for other domestic uses if it was treated properly, taking in to consideration economical cost and conditions aspects. This project aims to study the physical and chemical characterizations of the produced water associated with natural gas from the North field, in the sa...

  1. assessment of physicochemical quality of sachet water produced

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Fifty (50) brands of sachet water produced from bore hole and tap water in five (5) local government areas of Kano metropolis were analysed for physicochemical quality. Ten (10) brands of sachet water were sampled from each of the five (5) local government areas of; Nasarawa,. Tarauni ... availability (Lamikanra, 1999).

  2. Produced water radionuclide hazard/risk assessment, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-06-01

    Petroleum production may be accompanied by the production of saline water, called produced water.'' Produced water discharged into freshwater streams, estuaries, coastal and outer continental shelf waters can contained enhanced levels of radium isotopes. This document reports on the first phase of a study to estimate the risk to human health and the environment from radium discharged in produced water. The study involved five major steps: (1) evaluate the usefulness of available produced water outfall data for developing estimates of radium environmental concentrations; (2) review the literature on the bioaccumulation of radium by aquatic organism; (3) review the literature on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms; (4) review the information available concerning the human health risks associated with exposure to Ra-226 and Ra-228 and (5) perform a conservative, screening-level assessment of the health and environmental risks posed by Ra-226 and Ra-228 discharged in produced waters. A screening-level analysis was performed to determine whether radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in produced waters presents potential health or environmental risks requiring further study. This conservative assessment suggested that no detectable impact on populations of fish, molluscs or crustaceans from radium discharged in produced waters is likely. The analysis also suggested that there is a potential for risk were an individual to ingest a large amount of seafood harvested near a produced water discharge point over a lifetime. The number of excess cancers predicted per year under a conservative scenario is comparable to those expected to result from background concentrations of radium.

  3. Produced water radionuclide hazard/risk assessment, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-06-01

    Petroleum production may be accompanied by the production of saline water, called ``produced water.`` Produced water discharged into freshwater streams, estuaries, coastal and outer continental shelf waters can contained enhanced levels of radium isotopes. This document reports on the first phase of a study to estimate the risk to human health and the environment from radium discharged in produced water. The study involved five major steps: (1) evaluate the usefulness of available produced water outfall data for developing estimates of radium environmental concentrations; (2) review the literature on the bioaccumulation of radium by aquatic organism; (3) review the literature on the effects of radiation on aquatic organisms; (4) review the information available concerning the human health risks associated with exposure to Ra-226 and Ra-228 and (5) perform a conservative, screening-level assessment of the health and environmental risks posed by Ra-226 and Ra-228 discharged in produced waters. A screening-level analysis was performed to determine whether radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in produced waters presents potential health or environmental risks requiring further study. This conservative assessment suggested that no detectable impact on populations of fish, molluscs or crustaceans from radium discharged in produced waters is likely. The analysis also suggested that there is a potential for risk were an individual to ingest a large amount of seafood harvested near a produced water discharge point over a lifetime. The number of excess cancers predicted per year under a conservative scenario is comparable to those expected to result from background concentrations of radium.

  4. Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-01-01

    Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects.

  5. Health risk assessment for radium discharged in produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Meinhold, A.F.; Nagy, J.

    1991-12-31

    Produced water generated during the production of oil and gas can contain enhanced levels of radium. This naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is discharged into freshwater streams, estuarine, coastal and outer continental shelf waters. Large volumes of produced waters are discharged to coastal waters along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The Gulf of Mexico is an important producer of fish and shellfish, and there is concern that radium discharged to coastal Louisiana could contaminate fish and shellfish used by people for food, and present a significant increase in cancer risk. This paper describes a screening-level assessment of the potential cancer risks posed by radium discharged to coastal Louisiana in oil-field produced waters. This screening analysis was performed to determine if a more comprehensive and realistic assessment is necessary, and because of the conservative assumptions embedded in the analysis overestimates the risk associated with the discharge of radium in produced waters. Two isotopes of radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) are the radionuclides of most concern in produced water in terms of potential human health effects.

  6. Performance Evaluation of Produced Water Quality from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    1Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria,. +2348027178342, darloshea@yahoo.com. 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, ... @JASEM. Keywords: Produced water, Oil and Gas, Coastal environment, Pollution, Treatment.

  7. Oil field produced water discharges into wetlands in Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Approximately 600 oil field produced water discharges are permitted in Wyoming by the State’s Department of Environmental Quality's (WDEQ) National Pollutant...

  8. Produced water treatment for beneficial use: emulsified oil removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waisi, Basma

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel carbon material, high accessible surface area, interconnected porosity, and stable nanofiber nonwoven media for emulsified oil droplets separation from oily wastewater, in particular for oilfields produced water treatment, is discussed in this thesis. Firstly, the quantity

  9. Emissions from Produced Water Treatment Ponds, Uintah Basin, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, M. L.; Lyman, S. N.; Tran, H.; O'Neil, T.; Anderson, R.

    2015-12-01

    An aqueous phase, known as "produced water," usually accompanies the hydrocarbon fluid phases that are extracted from Earth's crust during oil and natural gas extraction. Produced water contains dissolved and suspended organics and other contaminants and hence cannot be discharged directly into the hydrosphere. One common disposal method is to discharge produced water into open-pit evaporation ponds. Spent hydraulic fracturing fluids are also often discharged into the same ponds. It is obvious to anyone with a healthy olfactory system that such ponds emit volatile organics to the atmosphere, but very little work has been done to characterize such emissions. Because oil, gas, and water phases are often in contact in geologic formations, we can expect that more highly soluble compounds (e.g., salts, alcohols, carbonyls, carboxyls, BTEX, etc.) partition preferentially into produced water. However, as the water in the ponds age, many physical, chemical, and biological processes alter the composition of the water, and therefore the composition and strength of volatile organic emissions. For example, some ponds are aerated to hasten evaporation, which also promotes oxidation of organics dissolved in the water. Some ponds are treated with microbes to promote bio-oxidation. In other words, emissions from ponds are expected to be a complex function of the composition of the water as it first enters the pond, and also of the age of the water and of its treatment history. We have conducted many measurements of emissions from produced water ponds in the Uintah Basin of eastern Utah, both by flux chamber and by evacuated canister sampling with inverse modeling. These measurements include fluxes of CO2, CH4, methanol, and many other volatile organic gases. We have also measured chemical compositions and microbial content of water in the ponds. Results of these measurements will be reported.

  10. Produced water treatment for beneficial use: emulsified oil removal

    OpenAIRE

    Waisi, Basma

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel carbon material, high accessible surface area, interconnected porosity, and stable nanofiber nonwoven media for emulsified oil droplets separation from oily wastewater, in particular for oilfields produced water treatment, is discussed in this thesis. Firstly, the quantity and quality of the generated produced water from five of the largest oilfields in the south of Iraq were studied based on the oil production profiles of these oilfields. This type of wastewater is h...

  11. NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung; Naomi Davidson; Ajeet Kumar Reddy; Mingzhen Wei

    2003-04-01

    The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information, (2) a web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries, (3) a fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water, and (4) a corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project has been focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collection of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 4000 entries for southeast New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the

  12. Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

  13. Performance Evaluation of Produced Water Quality from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Its negative impacts on the receiving water bodies have become a worrisome environmental issue. The effluent quality of a crude Oil processing and exporting installation located in the coastal area of the Niger Delta was studied for six months to ascertain the efficiency of the company's produced water treatment processes.

  14. NM WAIDS: A PRODUCED WATER QUALITY AND INFRASTRUCTURE GIS DATABASE FOR NEW MEXICO OIL PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha Cather; Robert Lee; Ibrahim Gundiler; Andrew Sung

    2003-09-24

    The New Mexico Water and Infrastructure Data System (NM WAIDS) seeks to alleviate a number of produced water-related issues in southeast New Mexico. The project calls for the design and implementation of a Geographical Information System (GIS) and integral tools that will provide operators and regulators with necessary data and useful information to help them make management and regulatory decisions. The major components of this system are: (1) Databases on produced water quality, cultural and groundwater data, oil pipeline and infrastructure data, and corrosion information. (2) A web site capable of displaying produced water and infrastructure data in a GIS or accessing some of the data by text-based queries. (3) A fuzzy logic-based, site risk assessment tool that can be used to assess the seriousness of a spill of produced water. (4) A corrosion management toolkit that will provide operators with data and information on produced waters that will aid them in deciding how to address corrosion issues. The various parts of NM WAIDS will be integrated into a website with a user-friendly interface that will provide access to previously difficult-to-obtain data and information. Primary attention during the first six months of this project was focused on creating the water quality databases for produced water and surface water, along with collecting of corrosion information and building parts of the corrosion toolkit. Work on the project to date includes: (1) Creation of a water quality database for produced water analyses. The database was compiled from a variety of sources and currently has over 7000 entries for New Mexico. (2) Creation of a web-based data entry system for the water quality database. This system allows a user to view, enter, or edit data from a web page rather than having to directly access the database. (3) Creation of a semi-automated data capturing system for use with standard water quality analysis forms. This system improves the accuracy and speed

  15. Development of device producing electrolyzed water for home care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umimoto, K.; Nagata, S.; Yanagida, J.

    2013-06-01

    When water containing ionic substances is electrolyzed, electrolyzed water with strong bactericidal ability due to the available chlorine(AC) is generated on the anode side. Slightly acidic to neutral electrolyzed water (pH 6.5 to 7.5) is physiological pH and is suitable for biological applications. For producing slightly acidic to neutral electrolyzed water simply, a vertical-type electrolytic tank with an asymmetric structure was made. As a result, a small amount of strongly alkaline water was generated in the upper cathodic small chamber, and a large amount of weakly acidic water generated in the lower anodic large chamber. The pH and AC concentration in solutin mixed with both electrolyzed water were 6.3 and 39.5 ppm, respectively, This solution was slightly acidic to neutral electrolyzed water and had strong bactericidal activity. This device is useful for producing slightly acidic to neutral electrolyzed water as a disinfectant to employ at home care, when considering economic and environmental factors, since it returns to ordinary water after use.

  16. Membrane Technology for Produced Water in Lea County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecilia Nelson; Ashok Ghosh

    2011-06-30

    Southeastern New Mexico (SENM) is rich in mineral resources, including oil and gas. Produced water is a byproduct from oil and gas recovery operations. SENM generates approximately 400 million barrels per year of produced water with total dissolved solids (TDS) as high as ~ 200,000 ppm. Typically, produced water is disposed of by transporting it to injection wells or disposal ponds, costing around $1.2 billion per year with an estimated use of 0.3 million barrels of transportation fuel. New Mexico ranks first among U.S. states in potash production. Nationally, more than 85% of all potash produced comes from the Carlsbad potash district in SENM. Potash manufacturing processes use large quantities of water, including fresh water, for solution mining. If the produced water from oilfield operations can be treated and used economically in the potash industry, it will provide a beneficial use for the produced water as well as preserve valuable water resources in an area where fresh water is scarce. The goal of this current research was to develop a prototype desalination system that economically treats produced water from oil and/or natural gas operations for the beneficial use of industries located in southeastern New Mexico. Up until now, most water cleaning technologies have been developed for treating water with much lower quantities of TDS. Seawater with TDS of around 30,000 ppm is the highest concentration that has been seriously studied by researchers. Reverse osmosis (RO) technology is widely used; however the cost remains high due to high-energy consumption. Higher water fluxes and recoveries are possible with a properly designed Forward Osmosis (FO) process as large driving forces can be induced with properly chosen membranes and draw solution. Membrane fouling and breakdown is a frequent and costly problem that drives the cost of desalination very high. The technology developed by New Mexico Tech (NMT) researchers not only protects the membrane, but has also

  17. Control of microbially generated hydrogen sulfide in produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, E.D.; Vance, I.; Gammack, G.F.; Duncan, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    Production of hydrogen sulfide in produced waters due to the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a potentially serious problem. The hydrogen sulfide is not only a safety and environmental concern, it also contributes to corrosion, solids formation, a reduction in produced oil and gas values, and limitations on water discharge. Waters produced from seawater-flooded reservoirs typically contain all of the nutrients required to support SRB metabolism. Surface processing facilities provide a favorable environment in which SRB flourish, converting water-borne nutrients into biomass and H{sub 2}S. This paper will present results from a field trial in which a new technology for the biochemical control of SRB metabolism was successfully applied. A slip stream of water downstream of separators on a produced water handling facility was routed through a bioreactor in a side-steam device where microbial growth was allowed to develop fully. This slip stream was then treated with slug doses of two forms of a proprietary, nonbiocidal metabolic modifier. Results indicated that H{sub 2}S production was halted almost immediately and that the residual effect of the treatment lasted for well over one week.

  18. Membrane crystallization for recovery of salts from produced water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quist-Jensen, Cejna Anna; Jensen, Henriette Casper; Ali, Aamer

    Membrane Crystallization (MCr) is a novel technology able to recover freshwater and high-purity salts from complex solutions and therefore, is suggested for a better exploitation of wastewater streams. Unlike other membrane processes, MCr is not limited by high concentrations and, therefore, the ......, the membrane maintained its hydrophobic nature despite that produced water contained oil residues. Conductivity and HPLC was utilized to analyze the quality of the permeate stream......., the solutions can be treated to achieve saturation level. Hereby different salts can be precipitated and directly recovered from various streams. In this study, it is shown that MCr is able to treat produced water by producing clean water and simultaneously NaCl crystals. The recovered crystals exhibited high...

  19. Application of Membrane Crystallization for Minerals’ Recovery from Produced Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamer Ali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Produced water represents the largest wastewater stream from oil and gas production. Generally, its high salinity level restricts the treatment options. Membrane crystallization (MCr is an emerging membrane process with the capability to extract simultaneously fresh water and valuable components from various streams. In the current study, the potential of MCr for produced water treatment and salt recovery was demonstrated. The experiments were carried out in lab scale and semi-pilot scale. The effect of thermal and hydrodynamic conditions on process performance and crystal characteristics were explored. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX and X-ray diffraction (XRD analyses confirmed that the recovered crystals are sodium chloride with very high purity (>99.9%, also indicated by the cubic structure observed by microscopy and SEM (scanning electron microscopy analysis. It was demonstrated experimentally that at recovery factor of 37%, 16.4 kg NaCl per cubic meter of produced water can be recovered. Anti-scaling surface morphological features of membranes were also identified. In general, the study provides a new perspective of isolation of valuable constituents from produced water that, otherwise, is considered as a nuisance.

  20. Water management practices used by Fayetteville shale gas producers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-06-03

    Water issues continue to play an important role in producing natural gas from shale formations. This report examines water issues relating to shale gas production in the Fayetteville Shale. In particular, the report focuses on how gas producers obtain water supplies used for drilling and hydraulically fracturing wells, how that water is transported to the well sites and stored, and how the wastewater from the wells (flowback and produced water) is managed. Last year, Argonne National Laboratory made a similar evaluation of water issues in the Marcellus Shale (Veil 2010). Gas production in the Marcellus Shale involves at least three states, many oil and gas operators, and multiple wastewater management options. Consequently, Veil (2010) provided extensive information on water. This current study is less complicated for several reasons: (1) gas production in the Fayetteville Shale is somewhat more mature and stable than production in the Marcellus Shale; (2) the Fayetteville Shale underlies a single state (Arkansas); (3) there are only a few gas producers that operate the large majority of the wells in the Fayetteville Shale; (4) much of the water management information relating to the Marcellus Shale also applies to the Fayetteville Shale, therefore, it can be referenced from Veil (2010) rather than being recreated here; and (5) the author has previously published a report on the Fayetteville Shale (Veil 2007) and has helped to develop an informational website on the Fayetteville Shale (Argonne and University of Arkansas 2008), both of these sources, which are relevant to the subject of this report, are cited as references.

  1. Evaluation of the physico-chemical properties of produced water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    16750.00-17100.00mg/l); salinity (22801.00 – 23403mg/l) show that all the measured parameters were within specification as recommended by Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR). TOG of produced water receives the most attention in both ...

  2. Dispersed droplet dynamics during produced water treatment in oil industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijkeren, D.F.

    2016-01-01

    For Lagrangian particle tracking applied to swirling flow produced water treatment the influence of the history force is investigated. In the expression for the history force an existing Reynolds number dependent kernel is adapted and validated for a range of experimental data for settling spheres.

  3. Concentrations of heavy metals in untreated produced water from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    product, residue or waste. One of such is an effluent from the mining of crude oil and gas, known as produced water, which contains varying quantities of hydrocarbons and heavy metals, thereby making it to require proper treatment in order to ...

  4. Continuous-Flow System Produces Medical-Grade Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Dahl, Roger W.; Wheeler, Richard R.

    2009-01-01

    A continuous-flow system utilizes microwave heating to sterilize water and to thermally inactivate endotoxins produced in the sterilization process. The system is designed for use in converting potable water to medical-grade water. Systems like this one could be used for efficient, small-scale production of medical- grade water in laboratories, clinics, and hospitals. This system could be adapted to use in selective sterilization of connections in ultra-pure-water-producing equipment and other equipment into which intrusion by microorganisms cannot be tolerated. Lightweight, port - able systems based on the design of this system could be rapidly deployed to remote locations (e.g., military field hospitals) or in response to emergencies in which the normal infrastructure for providing medical-grade water is disrupted. Larger systems based on the design of this system could be useful for industrial production of medical-grade water. The basic microwave-heating principle of this system is the same as that of a microwave oven: An item to be heated, made of a lossy dielectric material (in this case, flowing water) is irradiated with microwaves in a multimode microwave cavity. The heating is rapid and efficient because it results from absorption of microwave power throughout the volume of the lossy dielectric material. In this system, a copper tube having a length of 49.5 cm and a diameter of 2.25 cm serves as both the microwave cavity and the sterilization chamber. Microwave power is fed via a coaxial cable to an antenna mounted inside the tube at mid-length (see figure). Efficient power transfer occurs due to the shift in wavelength associated with the high permittivity of water combined with the strong coupling of 2.45-GHz microwaves with rotational-vibrational transitions of the dipolar water molecule.

  5. High-quality Indonesian condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    A Japanese technical team visiting the condom plant at Banjaran, Indonesia, as part of the Japanese Overseas Economic Cooperation Fund project which funded the plant, found locally produced condoms of superior quality. The marketing expert on the team predicted that family planning services provided by private practitioners and paid for by clients will account for over 50% of family planning acceptors in Indonesia by 2000. Now only 10% receive private services. Condoms are in use by 3.9% of acceptors nationwide, although as many as 15% use condoms in the capitol city. Indonesians need to be informed of the high quality of domestic condoms; marketing them for a fee will encourage this view. It is expected that in Indonesia, 2 social movements will encourage family planning, the "Posyandu" an integrated family planning and health scheme established in villages by the National Family Planning Coordinating Board, and "Arisan," a traditional system for mutual help by which villagers pool food and money to provide medicines.

  6. Plant-wide control strategy for improving produced water treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Durdevic, Petar

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on investigation and development of an innovative Produced Water Treatment (PWT) technology for offshore oil & gas production by employing the model-based plant-wide control strategy. The key contributions lie in two folds: (i) the advanced anti-slug analysis and control...... quality in a continuous and real-time manner. However, this new solution relies on the availability of reliable Oilin-Water (OiW) real-time measuring technologies, which apparently are still quite challenging and un-matured....

  7. Longevity of Mass-Produced Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae) Held Without Food or Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiak, Bernard C; Sundaralingam, Selliah; Jiang, Laura; Nicol, Helen I

    2014-12-01

    The sterile insect technique is used to manage or control fruit flies throughout the world. The technique relies on large scale production before delivery to release managers. As part of the mass production phase, there are many quality control tests to demonstrate and maintain high quality pupae and flies. One highly desirable characteristic is adults with a long life so that these adults can reach sexual maturity and sterile males mate with wild fertile flies in the field and thus produce no viable offspring. Originally longevity was assessed allowing adults to have unlimited access to food and water. As quality and longevity increased, this methodology added significantly to workload and space demands and many facilities moved to testing longevity under stress where no food or water was provided. Here we examined >27,000 Queensland fruit fly Bactrocera tryoni (Froggatt) from 160 weekly production batches from July 2004 to October 2009 where flies were not provided food or water. The mean longevity was 54.4 ± SE hours. Longevity was significantly shorter from August to March, and the longevity was significantly longer in June. Longevity was not related to pupal weight, contrary to expectations. Weights were significantly lower in June and highest in summer. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  8. Physico-chemical analyses and corrosion effect of produced water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At an exposure time in hours of 120, 240, 360, 480, 600, and 720, the corresponding calculated corrosion rates in many of the coupons were 0.077, 0.153, 0.204, 0.345, 0.352, and 0.370 respectively. Physico-chemical characteristics of the composite produced water sample used for the study has a higher concentration ...

  9. Ceramic membrane ozonator for soluble organics removal from produced water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siagian, U. W. R.; Dwipramana, A. S.; Perwira, S. B.; Khoiruddin; Wenten, I. G.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the performance of ozonation for degradation of soluble organic compounds in produced water was investigated. Tubular ceramic membrane diffuser (with and without a static mixer in the lumen side) was used to facilitate contact between ozone and produced water. The ozonation was conducted at ozone flow rate of 8 L.min-1, ozone concentration of 0.4 ppm, original pH of the solution, and pressure of 1.2 bar, while the flow rates of the produced water were varied (192, 378 and 830 mL.min-1). It was found that the reduction of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene were 85%, 99%, 85%, and 95%, respectively. A lower liquid flow rate in a laminar state showed a better component reduction due to the longer contacting time between the liquid and the gas phase. The introduction of the static mixer in the lumen side of the membrane as a turbulence promoter provided a positive effect on the performance of the membrane diffuser. The twisted static mixer exhibited the better removal rate than the spiral static mixer.

  10. Reuse of Produced Water from CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery, Coal-Bed Methane, and Mine Pool Water by Coal-Based Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knutson, Chad [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Dastgheib, Seyed A. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Yang, Yaning [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Ashraf, Ali [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Duckworth, Cole [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Sinata, Priscilla [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Sugiyono, Ivan [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Shannon, Mark A. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Werth, Charles J. [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Power generation in the Illinois Basin is expected to increase by as much as 30% by the year 2030, and this would increase the cooling water consumption in the region by approximately 40%. This project investigated the potential use of produced water from CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2-EOR) operations; coal-bed methane (CBM) recovery; and active and abandoned underground coal mines for power plant cooling in the Illinois Basin. Specific objectives of this project were: (1) to characterize the quantity, quality, and geographic distribution of produced water in the Illinois Basin; (2) to evaluate treatment options so that produced water may be used beneficially at power plants; and (3) to perform a techno-economic analysis of the treatment and transportation of produced water to thermoelectric power plants in the Illinois Basin. Current produced water availability within the basin is not large, but potential flow rates up to 257 million liters per day (68 million gallons per day (MGD)) are possible if CO2-enhanced oil recovery and coal bed methane recovery are implemented on a large scale. Produced water samples taken during the project tend to have dissolved solids concentrations between 10 and 100 g/L, and water from coal beds tends to have lower TDS values than water from oil fields. Current pretreatment and desalination technologies including filtration, adsorption, reverse osmosis (RO), and distillation can be used to treat produced water to a high quality level, with estimated costs ranging from $2.6 to $10.5 per cubic meter ($10 to $40 per 1000 gallons). Because of the distances between produced water sources and power plants, transportation costs tend to be greater than treatment costs. An optimization algorithm was developed to determine the lowest cost pipe network connecting sources and sinks. Total water costs increased with flow rate up to 26 million liters per day (7 MGD), and the range was from $4 to $16 per cubic meter

  11. High quality transportation fuels from renewable feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindfors, Lars Peter

    2010-09-15

    Hydrotreating of vegetable oils is novel process for producing high quality renewable diesel. Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO) are paraffinic hydrocarbons. They are free of aromatics, have high cetane numbers and reduce emissions. HVO can be used as component or as such. HVO processes can also be modified to produce jet fuel. GHG savings by HVO use are significant compared to fossil fuels. HVO is already in commercial production. Neste Oil is producing its NExBTL diesel in two plants. Production of renewable fuels will be limited by availability of sustainable feedstock. Therefore R and D efforts are made to expand feedstock base further.

  12. Organic and Inorganic Species in CBM Produced Water: Implications for Water Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Y. K.; Rice, C. A.

    2003-12-01

    Coal-bed methane (CBM) wells currently produce close to one billion bbl of water annually and deliver about 8% of total natural gas in the USA. The salinity of this produced water generally is lower than that of water from conventional petroleum wells; salinity commonly is 1,000-20,000 mg/L, but ranges from 200 to 150,000 mg/L TDS. Most CBM wells produce Na-HCO3-Cl type water that is low in trace metals and has no reported NORMs. This water generally has no oil and grease and has relatively low (2-10 mg/L) dissolved organic carbon (DOC), but its organic composition has not been characterized in detail. The water is disposed of by injection into saline aquifers, through evaporation and/or percolation in disposal pits, road spreading, and surface discharge. Water that has low (USA. The feasibility and cost of reclaiming produced water to meet irrigation, industrial and drinking water standards was evaluated in a 10 gpm pilot field study. The estimated treatment cost was high at about 0.39/bbl (3,000/acre-ft) for potable water, but would be substantially lower and competitive for irrigation and industrial uses in some arid regions of the USA.

  13. Monitoring Environmental Recovery at Terminated Produced Water Discharge Sites in Coastal Louisiana Waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    This report presents the results of a study of terminated produced water discharge sites in the coastal waters of Louisiana. Environmental recovery at the sites is documented by comparing pre-termination and post-termination (six months and one year) data. Produced water, sediments, and sediment interstitial water samples were analyzed for radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons. Benthic infauna were identified from samples collected in the vicinity of the discharge and reference sites. Radium isotope activities were determined in fish and crustacean samples. In addition, an environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  14. Organic and inorganic species in produced water: Implications for water reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Rice, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    Currently 20-30 billion barrels of formation water are co-produced annually in the USA with conventional oil and natural gas. The large database on the geochemistry of this produced water shows salinities that vary widely from ~5,000 to >350,000 mg/L TDS. Chloride, Na and Ca are generally the dominant ions, and concentrations of Fe, Mn, B, NH3 and dissolved organics, including, BTEX, phenols and poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be relatively high. Hazardous concentrations of NORMs, including Ra-226 and Rn-222 have been reported in produced water from several states.Coal-bed methane (CBM) wells currently produce close to a billion barrels of water and deliver ~8% of total natural gas. The salinity of this produced water generally is lower than that of water from petroleum wells; salinity commonly is 1,000-20,000 mg/L, but ranges to150,000 mg/L TDS. Most CBM wells produce Na-HCO3-Cl type water that is low in trace metals and has no reported NORMs. This water commonly has no oil and grease and has relatively low DOC, but its organic composition has not been characterized in detail. The water is disposed of by injection into saline aquifers, through evaporation and/or percolation in disposal pits, road spreading, and surface discharge. Water that has an acceptable salinity and sodium absorption ratio (SAR) is considered acceptable for surface discharge and for injection into freshwater aquifers.As an alternative to costly disposal, low salinity produced water is being considered for reclamation, especially in the arid western USA. The cost of reclaiming this water to meet irrigation, industrial and drinking water standards was evaluated in a 10 gpm pilot field study at Placerita oil field, California. This produced water had a low salinity of ~8,000 mg/L, but high concentration of Si and organics. Removal of B, Si, NH3 and especially organics from this water proved difficult, and the estimated treatment cost was high at $0.08-$0.39/bbl for water treated for

  15. Functionalized sio2 microspheres for extracting oil from produced water

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Himanshu

    2017-03-16

    Functionalized material, methods of producing the functionalized material, and use thereof for separation processes such as but not limited to use for separating and extracting a dissolved organic foulant, charged contaminant or oily matter or any combination thereof from water, such as produced water, are provided. In an embodiment, the functionalized material is a mineral material, such as mica, silica (e.g. an SiO2 microsphere) or a metal oxide, and the outer surface of the material is functionalized with an alkyl chain or a perfluorinated species. In an embodiment, the method of making the functionalized material, includes: a) providing a mineral material; b) providing an alkyl chain and/or a perfluorinated species, the alkyl chain or perfluorinated species selected to dissolve organic foulants, charged contaminants or oily matter from water or any combination thereof; c) hydroxylating the material via a concentrated acid solution or a basic solution; and d) grafting the alkyl chain and/or the perfluorinated species onto the material via a silanation reaction.

  16. Co-producing actionable science for water utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Vogel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the efforts of four water utilities to co-produce actionable science by forging partnerships with scientific institutions to explore integrating climate considerations into their specific management context. The experiences of these four utilities and their scientific partners, as part of the Piloting Utility Modeling Applications project of the Water Utility Climate Alliance, provide a wealth of empirical evidence to illustrate some of the core concepts formulated to explain how to produce usable information and how to link research to decision making. Through these four case studies of co-production, we identify three findings that bridge principles and practice: each utility engaged in contextualizing research; in building and leveraging knowledge networks; and in embracing an entrepreneurial approach to their research agenda. In several instances, unanticipated but innovative assessment techniques were developed by science partners in collaboration with water utilities to fit the utility’s specific needs. The paper concludes by discussing some of the hard realities of co-production illustrated by these cases that should be kept in mind by people contemplating similar projects.

  17. Risk assessment for produced water discharges to Louisiana Open Bays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; DePhillips, M.P.; Holtzman, S.

    1995-06-23

    Data were collected prior to termination of discharge at three sites (including two open bay sites at Delacroix Island and Bay De Chene) for the risk assessments. The Delacroix Island Oil and Gas Field has been in production since the first well drilling in 1940; the Bay De Chene Field, since 1942. Concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra, 210Po, and 228Th were measured in discharges. Radium conc. were measured in fish and shellfish tissues. Sediment PAH and metal conc. were also available. Benthos sampling was conducted. A survey of fishermen was conducted. The tiered risk assessment showed that human health risks from radium in produced water appear to be small; ecological risk from radium and other radionuclides in produced water also appear small. Many of the chemical contaminants discharged to open Louisiana bays appear to present little human health or ecological risk. A conservative screening analysis suggested potential risks to human health from Hg and Pb and a potential risk to ecological receptors from total effluent, Sb, Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, Ag, Zn, and phenol in the water column and PAHs in sediment; quantitiative risk assessments are being done for these contaminants.

  18. Produced water treatment by micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deriszadeh, Ali; Husein, Maen M; Harding, Thomas G

    2010-03-01

    A water treatment approach combining ultrafiltration (UF) and micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) techniques was used for the removal of organic contaminants in field produced water samples from Canada and the United States. Free oil droplets and suspended solids were separated by initial UF treatments while MEUF was necessary for the removal of dissolved organics. It was shown that the amphiphilic characteristics of some organics commonly existing in produced water contributed to lowering the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactant employed. Lower surfactant concentrations could, therefore, be employed leading to lower fouling and back contamination and higher permeate flux. In addition, the incorporation of organic contaminants into the structure of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) micelles resulted in larger size and higher dissolution capacity of the "mixed micelles". The performance of polymeric and ceramic membranes of different molecular weight cutoffs (MWCOs) was evaluated by analyzing the permeate flux, recovery ratio, and solute percent rejection as functions of trans-membrane pressure (TMP). A mathematical model based on Darcy's law and the resistance in-series model successfully described the flux decline as a function of TMP for the two field samples and the two membranes studied.

  19. Production of high-quality fish oil from herring byproducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aidos, I.M.F.

    2002-01-01

    In this work, the feasibility of producing high-quality fish oil from herring byproducts was evaluated in various ways. With this, a contribution has been made to a more efficient usage of natural resources while yielding a high-quality product. Crude oil extracted from herring byproducts

  20. Plant-wide Control Strategy for Improving Produced Water Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic

    2016-01-01

    This work focuses on investigation and development of an innovative Produced Water Treatment (PWT) technology for offshore oil & gas production by employing the model-based plant-wide control strategy. The key contributions lie in two folds: (i) the advanced anti-slug analysis and control...... by focusing on the upstream well-pipeline-riser systems; (ii) optimization of controlling topside separation processes, which includes both the three-phase separator and de-oiling hydrocyclone facilities. A new PWT control strategy, named direct efficiency control, has been proposed for guarantee of the PWT...... quality in a continuous and real-time manner. However, this new solution relies on the availability of reliable Oilin-Water (OiW) real-time measuring technologies, which apparently are still quite challenging and un-matured....

  1. Negatively charged nanoparticles produced by splashing of water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tammet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of splashing-generated balloelectric intermediate ions was studied by means of mobility spectrometry in the atmosphere during the rain and in a laboratory experiment simulating the heavy rain. The partial neutralization of intermediate ions with cluster ions generated by beta rays suppressed the space charge of intermediate ions but preserved the shape of the mobility distribution. The balloelectric ions produced from the waterworks water of high TDS (Total Dissolved Solids had about the same mobilities as the ions produced from the rainwater of low TDS. This suggests that the balloelectric ions can be considered as singly charged water nanoparticles. By different measurements, the diameter mode of these particles was 2.2–2.7 nm, which is close to the diameter of 2.5 nm of the Chaplin's 280-molecule magic icosahedron superclusters. The measurements can be explained by a hypothesis that the pressure of saturated vapor over the nanoparticle surface is suppressed by a number of magnitudes due to the internal structure of the particles near the size of 2.5 nm. The records of the concentration bursts of balloelectric ions in the atmosphere are formally similar to the records of the nucleation bursts but they cannot be qualified as nucleation bursts because the particles are not growing but shrinking.

  2. Distribution Channel Intensity among Table Water Producers in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Edewor Agbadudu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Planning for and making reasonable decisions regarding reaching the target market with an organization’s product is a critical task on the part of management, which involves a careful evaluation and selection of its channel structure and intensity.This study therefore examines distribution channel intensity among table water producers in Edo State, Nigeria. The focus of the study is to ascertain the variables that significantly predict distribution intensity among the firms in the table water industry in Edo State. The study seeks to proffer answer to fundamental question of why brands within a single category of a given consumer good differ significantly in their distribution intensity. Using a survey research design, the data used for this study were obtained by taking a sample of 110 table water firms within the three senatorial districts in the State. The data obtained were presented and analyzed using different statistical tools such as mean and multiple regression through Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS version 22 software. Findings revealed that manufacturers’ target focus, manufacturers’ support program, brand quality and level of firm’s technological advancement were significant predictors of distribution channel intensity among the industrial players in table water industry in the State. Based on the findings, the study recommended that table water firms within the State can secure a competitive edge over their fellow counterpart in the industry by designing an optimal distribution intensity that will meet up their marketing objectives. It is also recommended that the adoption of modern technology in form of online sales is an efficient way of sales and distribution which could be used to enhance their distribution techniques if there is a need to cut down on middle men due to increased cost. The study concluded that optimal distribution intensity could be achieved not by mere imitation of competitors but through

  3. Modernized approach for the remediation of produced water impacted sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knafla, A.; Carey, J. [Equilibrium Environmental Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Stokes, D. [Talisman Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Carey, J.; Sunita, R.

    2007-10-01

    This article described a project conducted to remediate a site in southeast Saskatchewan polluted by releases of produced water-related salts and boron during the 1960s. A risk assessment was conducted to define endpoints based on equivalent land capability and the potential for health risks. Multiple toxic stressors complicated the assessment, and limited published data were available regarding cumulative and interactive effects. Boron concentrations exceeded recommended guidelines, and the poor permeability of surface soils caused reduced infiltration and increased run-off. An automated pumping system was designed to allow for variable leachate removal rates depending on groundwater elevations. A distillation system using moderately saline water from a nearby source was designed to offset scaling that occurred due to high calcium sulfate concentrations. Results of the project suggested that the combination of groundwater control, improving surface soil permeability, establishing plant growth, and available water for infiltration resulted in significant improvements in soil quality and an approach towards land capability endpoints. The use of moderately saline irrigation water led to significant improvements in the soil salinity of heavily impacted areas. Test plots were then formed to test the efficacy of manure and calcium nitrate as a remediation technique. Test plots were treated with Roundup, and calcium nitrate before seeding, or with manure and calcium nitrate followed by rototilling and seeding. In treated plots, plant growth was observed for barley, alkali grass, wheatgrasses, orchard grass, rye, and alfalfa. Greater plant height and yield was visible in the manure and calcium nitrate treated plots. A decrease in boron topsoil concentrations was also observed. Average bioconcentration factors was calculated as 29.5. It was concluded that the method can provide a 20 per cent annual soil concentration reduction rate. 6 figs.

  4. MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert L. Lee; Junghan Dong

    2004-06-03

    This final report of ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Water,'' DOE project No. DE-FC26-00BC15326 describes work performed in the third year of the project. Several good results were obtained, which are documented in this report. The compacted bentonite membranes were replaced by supported bentonite membranes, which exhibited the same salt rejection capability. Unfortunately, it also inherited the clay expansion problem due to water invasion into the interlayer spaces of the compacted bentonite membranes. We noted that the supported bentonite membrane developed in the project was the first of its kind reported in the literature. An {alpha}-alumina-supported MFI-type zeolite membrane synthesized by in-situ crystallization was fabricated and tested. Unlike the bentonite clay membranes, the zeolite membranes maintained stability and high salt rejection rate even for a highly saline solution. Actual produced brines from gas and oil fields were then tested. For gas fields producing brine, the 18,300 ppm TDS (total dissolved solids) in the produced brine was reduced to 3060 ppm, an 83.3% rejection rate of 15,240 ppm salt rejection. For oilfield brine, while the TDS was reduced from 181,600 ppm to 148,900 ppm, an 18% rejection rate of 32,700 ppm reduction, the zeolite membrane was stable. Preliminary results show the dissolved organics, mainly hydrocarbons, did not affect the salt rejection. However, the rejection of organics was inconclusive at this point. Finally, the by-product of this project, the {alpha}-alumina-supported Pt-Co/Na Y catalytic zeolite membrane was developed and demonstrated for overcoming the two-step limitation of nonoxidation methane (CH{sub 4}) conversion to higher hydrocarbons (C{sub 2+}) and hydrogen (H{sub 2}). Detailed experiments to obtain quantitative results of H{sub 2} generation for various conditions are now being conducted. Technology transfer efforts included five manuscripts submitted to

  5. Water Supplies: Microbiological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producing high-quality drinking water that is free of harmful microorganisms and maintaining its purity through distribution systems are essential for public health. Drinking water quality standards and guidelines for microbial contaminants vary within and among countries but typ...

  6. Surface plasmon resonance induced reduction of high quality Ag/graphene composite at water/toluene phase for reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Fengjun, E-mail: zhang-fengjun@hotmail.com [Anhui Key Laboratory of Advanced Building Materials, Anhui Jianzhu University, Anhui Hefei, 230022 (China); Engineering Research Center of Building Energy-efficient Control and Evalution, Ministry of Education, Anhui Hefei, 230022 (China); Zhang Kehua; Xie Fazhi; Liu Jin; Dong Hongfei [Anhui Key Laboratory of Advanced Building Materials, Anhui Jianzhu University, Anhui Hefei, 230022 (China); Zhao Wei; Meng Zeda [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanseo University, Seosan-si, Chungnam, 356-706 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ag/graphene composites have been successfully synthesized in two-phase solvent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The surface plasmon resonance of Ag can reduce GO with high deoxygenation and low defect. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ag particles were uniformly distributed on graphene surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ag/graphene composites obtained show high superior electrical properties for reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Abstract: Surface plasmon resonance induced synthesis of Ag/graphene composites from Ag/graphene oxide (Ag/GO) in a two-phase (water-toluene) solvent was reported. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results revealed that the Ag nanoparticles with size of 5-8 nm were trimly distributed on reduced graphene oxide sheets. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have demonstrated low defect density and high deoxygenation degree of graphene in Ag/graphene composite. The excellent structure and morphology of Ag/graphene composites contributed to superior electrical properties for reduction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  7. MODIFIED REVERSE OSMOSIS SYSTEM FOR TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.M. Whitworth; Liangxiong Li

    2002-09-15

    This report describes work performed during the first year of the project ''Modified Reverse Osmosis System for Treatment of Produced Waters.'' This research project has two objectives. The first objective is to test the use of clay membranes in the treatment of produced waters by reverse osmosis. The second objective is to test the ability of a system patented by the New Mexico Tech Research Foundation to remove salts from reverse osmosis waste streams as a solid. We performed 12 experiments using clay membranes in cross-flow experimental cells. We found that, due to dispersion in the porous frit used adjacent to the membrane, the concentration polarization layer seems to be completely (or nearly completely) destroyed at low flow rates. This observation suggests that clay membranes used with porous frit material many reach optimum rejection rates at lower pumping rates than required for use with synthetic membranes. The solute rejection efficiency decreases with increasing solution concentration. For the membranes and experiments reported here, the rejection efficiency ranged from 71% with 0.01 M NaCl solution down to 12% with 2.3 M NaCl solution. More compacted clay membranes will have higher rejection capabilities. The clay membranes used in our experiments were relatively thick (approximately 0.5 mm). The active layer of most synthetic membranes is only 0.04 {micro}m (0.00004 mm), approximately 1250 times thinner than the clay membranes used in these experiments. Yet clay membranes as thin as 12 {micro}m have been constructed (Fritz and Eady, 1985). Since Darcy's law states that the flow through a material of constant permeability is inversely proportional to it's the material's thickness, then, based on these experimental observations, a very thin clay membrane would be expected to have much higher flow rates than the ones used in these experiments. Future experiments will focus on testing very thin clay membranes. The

  8. Effect of produced water on cod (Gadus morhua) immune responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamoutene, D.; Mabrouk, G.; Samuelson, S.; Mansour, A.; Lee, K. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Maritimes Region, Ocean Sciences Division; Volkoff, H.; Parrish, C. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Mathieu, A. [Oceans Ltd., St. John' s, NL (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Studies have shown that produced water (PW) discharged from North Sea offshore platforms affects the biota at greater distances from operational platforms than originally presumed. According to PW dispersion simulations, dilution by at least 240 times occurs within 50-100 m, and up to 9000 times by 20 km from the discharge. In this study, the effect of PW on cod immunity was investigated by exposing fish to 0, 100 ppm (x 10,000 dilution) or 200 ppm (x 500) of PW for 76 days. Immune responses were evaluated at the end of the exposure. Fish from the 3 groups were injected with Aeromonas salmonicida lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Blood cell observation and flow cytometry were used to investigate the serum cortisol levels and gill histology along with ratios and respiratory burst (RB) responses of both circulating and head-kidney white blood cells (WBCs). The study revealed that baseline immunity and stress response were not affected by PW, other than an irritant-induced change in gill cells found in treated cod. In all groups, LPS injection resulted in a pronounced decrease in RB of head-kidney cells and an increase in serum cortisol and protein levels. However, the group exposed to 200 ppm of PW exhibited the most significant changes. LPS injection was also shown to influence WBC ratios, but further studies are needed to determine if this impact is stronger in fish exposed to PW. This study suggested an effect of PW on cod immunity after immune challenge with LPS.

  9. Bacteriological quality of sachet water produced and sold in Teshie ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Access to good quality drinking water is a challenge in most towns and cities in Ghana and households have for years depended on other sources of water to supplement their activities. The introduction of sachet water to consumers was to provide safe, hygienic and affordable instant drinking water to the public. Although ...

  10. Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environment Impacts of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castle, James W. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Rodgers, John H. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Alley, Bethany [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Beebe, Alex [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Coffey, Ruthanne [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Jurinko, Kristen [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Pardue, Michael [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Ritter, Tina [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Spacil, Michael M. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2013-08-08

    Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post

  11. Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environment Impacts of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

    2013-05-15

    Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post

  12. Innovative Water Management Technology to Reduce Environmental Impacts of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castle, James; Rodgers, John; Alley, Bethany; Beebe, Alex; Coffey, Ruthanne; Jurinko, Kristen; Pardue, Michael; Ritter, Tina; Spacil, Michael

    2013-05-15

    Clemson University with Chevron as an industry partner developed and applied treatment technology using constructed wetland systems to decrease targeted constituents in simulated and actual produced waters to achieve reuse criteria and discharge limits. Pilot-scale and demonstration constructed wetland treatment system (CWTS) experiments led to design strategies for treating a variety of constituents of concern (COCs) in produced waters including divalent metals, metalloids, oil and grease, and ammonia. Targeted biogeochemical pathways for treatment of COCs in pilot-scale CWTS experiments included divalent metal sulfide precipitation through dissimilatory sulfate reduction, metal precipitation through oxidation, reduction of selenite to insoluble elemental selenium, aerobic biodegradation of oil, nitrification of ammonia to nitrate, denitrification of nitrate to nitrogen gas, separation of oil using an oilwater separator, and sorption of ammonia to zeolite. Treatment performance results indicated that CWTSs can be designed and built to promote specific environmental and geochemical conditions in order for targeted biogeochemical pathways to operate. The demonstration system successfully achieved consistent removal extents even while inflow concentrations of COCs in the produced water differed by orders of magnitude. Design strategies used in the pilot-scale and demonstration CWTSs to promote specific conditions that can be applied to designing full-scale CWTSs include plant and soil selection, water-depth selection, addition of amendments, and hydraulic retention time (HRT). These strategies allow conditions within a CWTS to be modified to achieve ranges necessary for the preferred biogeochemical treatment pathways. In the case of renovating a produced water containing COCs that require different biogeochemical pathways for treatment, a CWTS can be designed with sequential cells that promote different conditions. For example, the pilot-scale CWTS for post

  13. Tadpole begging reveals high quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugas, M B; Strickler, S A; Stynoski, J L

    2017-05-01

    Parents can benefit from allocating limited resources nonrandomly among offspring, and offspring solicitation (i.e. begging) is often hypothesized to evolve because it contains information valuable to choosy parents. We tested the predictions of three 'honest begging' hypotheses - Signal of Need, Signal of Quality and Signal of Hunger - in the tadpoles of a terrestrial frog (Oophaga pumilio). In this frog, mothers provision tadpoles with trophic eggs, and when mothers visit, tadpoles perform a putative begging signal by stiffening their bodies and vibrating rapidly. We assessed the information content of intense tadpole begging with an experimental manipulation of tadpole condition (need/quality) and food deprivation (hunger). This experiment revealed patterns consistent with the Signal of Quality hypothesis and directly counter to predictions of Signal of Need and Signal of Hunger. Begging effort and performance were higher in more developed and higher condition tadpoles and declined with food deprivation. Free-living mothers were unlikely to feed tadpoles of a nonbegging species experimentally cross-fostered with their own, and allocated larger meals to more developed tadpoles and those that vibrated at higher speed. Mother O. pumilio favour their high-quality young, and because their concurrent offspring are reared in separate nurseries, must do so by making active allocation decisions. Our results suggest that these maternal choices are based at least in part on offspring signals, indicating that offspring solicitation can evolve to signal high quality. © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2017 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Producing propellants from water in lunar soil using solar lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    The exploration of the Solar System is directly related to the efficiency of engines designed to explore it, and consequently, to the propulsion techniques, materials and propellants for those engines. With the present day propulsion techniques it is necessary great quantities of propellants to impulse a manned spacecraft to Mars and beyond in the Solar System, which makes these operations financially very expensive because of the costs involved in launching it from planet Earth, due to its high gravity field strength. To solve this problem, it is needed a planetary place with smaller gravity field strength, near to the Earth and with great quantities of substances at the surface necessary for the in-situ production of propellants for spacecrafts. The only place available is Earth's natural satellite the Moon. So, here in this paper, I propose the creation of a Lunar Propellant Manufacturer. It is a robot-spacecraft which can be launched from Earth using an Energia Rocket, and to land on the Moon in an area (principally near to the north pole where it was discovered water molecules ice recently) with great quantities of oxygen and hydrogen (propellants) in the silicate soil, previously observed and mapped by spacecrafts in lunar orbit, for the extraction of those molecules from the soil and the in-situ production of the necessary propellants. The Lunar Propellant Manufacturer (LPM) spacecraft consists of: 1) a landing system with four legs (extendable) and rovers -when the spacecraft touches down, the legs retract in order that two apparatuses, analogue to tractor's wheeled belts parallel sided and below the spacecraft, can touch firmly the ground -it will be necessary for the displacement of the spacecraft to new areas with richer propellants content, when the early place has already exhausted in propellants; 2) a digging machine -a long, resistant extendable arm with an excavator hand, in the outer part of the spacecraft -it will extend itself to the ground

  15. Quality of Sachet Water Produced at Tarkwa, Ghana*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... GWCL supplies. However, improper waste management practices may also affect the quality of water ... and towns in Ghana including Tarkwa, a mining municipality with a population of more than 80000. ...... Control, Mine Waste Characterization and Management,. Arsenic Sequestration, and Water Quality ...

  16. Assessment of physicochemical quality of sachet water produced in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten (10) brands of sachet water were sampled from each of the five (5) local government areas of; Nasarawa, Tarauni, Gwale, Kumbotso and Ungogo. Physical parameters tested such as; colour, taste, odour and pH in all (100%) the sachet water samples conformed to the recommended limits. Chemical analysis carried out ...

  17. Current formulas for water requirements produce different estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Stacey L; Castellanos, Victoria H; George, Valerie; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2012-05-01

    Weight-based and energy-based formulas are used to estimate the water requirements of patients receiving nutrition support, yet these formulas have not been validated nor quantitatively compared with one another. The objective of this study was to determine if there was agreement among commonly used formulas for estimating water requirements. This cross-sectional survey design was from the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004. To determine estimated water requirements for each participant, 2 weight-based formulas were used (30 mL/kg body weight and an adjusted body weight formula) and 3 energy-based formulas based on 1 mL/kcal (energy needs estimated by the Harris Benedict, Mifflin St Jeor, and National Research Council equations). Simple linear regression was performed between each pair of formulas to determine correlations. The regression line was then compared to the line of equality to determine agreement between pairs. Although the 5 formulas were strongly correlated to each other (|r| > 0.7), they demonstrated poor agreement with one another with significant differences when the regression line was compared to the line of equality. Current formulas that estimate the water requirements of patients receiving enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition all compute a dissimilar quantity of water. The consequences of these estimates could result in major differences in water intake recommendations and prescriptions between patients or in the same patient, thus suggesting a need for improved standardization of practice for estimating water requirements in clinical practice.

  18. Transmissivity and water quality of water-producing zones in the intermediate aquifer system, Sarasota County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knochenmus, L.A.; Bowman, Geronia

    1998-01-01

    The intermediate aquifer system is an important water source in Sarasota County, Florida, because the quality of water in it is usually better than that in the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. The intermediate aquifer system consists of a group of up to three water-producing zones separated by less-permeable units that restrict the vertical movement of ground water between zones. The diverse lithology, that makes up the intermediate aquifer system, reflects the variety of depositional environments that occurred during the late Oligocene and Miocene epochs. Slight changes in the depositional environment resulted in aquifer heterogeneity, creating both localized connection between water-producing zones and abrupt culmination of water-producing zones that are not well documented. Aquifer heterogeneity results in vertical and areal variability in hydraulic and water-quality properties. The uppermost water-producing zone is designated producing zone 1 but is not extensively used because of its limited production capability and limited areal extent. The second water-producing zone is designated producing zone 2, and most of the domestic- and irrigation-supply wells in the area are open to this zone. Additionally, producing zone 2 is utilized for public supply in southern coastal areas of Sarasota County. Producing zone 3 is the lowermost and most productive water-producing zone in the intermediate aquifer system. Public-supply well fields serving the cities of Sarasota and Venice, as well as the Plantation and Mabry Carlton Reserve well fields, utilize producing zone 3. Heads within the intermediate aquifer system generally increase with aquifer depth. However, localized head-gradient reversals occur in the study area, coinciding with sites of intense ground-water withdrawals. Heads in producing zones 1, 2, and 3 range from 1 to 23, 0.2 to 34, and 7 to 42 feet above sea level, respectively. Generally, an upward head gradient exists between producing zones 3 and 2

  19. Recovery of water and minerals from shale gas produced water by membrane distillation crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghyun; Kim, Jungwon; Hong, Seungkwan

    2017-11-08

    Shale gas produced water (SGPW) treatment imposes greater technical challenges because of its high concentration of various contaminants. Membrane distillation crystallization (MDC) has a great potential to manage SGPW since it is capable of recovering both water and minerals at high rates, up to near a zero liquid discharge (ZLD) condition. To evaluate the feasibility of MDC for SGPW treatment, MDC performance indicators, such as water recovery rate, solid production rate (SPR) and specific energy consumption (SEC), were systematically investigated, to our knowledge for the first time, by using actual SGPW from Eagle Ford Shale (USA). The main operating parameters including feed cross-flow velocity (CFV) and crystallization temperature (TCr) were optimized by performing a series of MDC experiments. The results reported that water and minerals were effectively recovered with 84% of recovery rate and 2.72 kg/m2day of SPR under respective optimal operating conditions. Furthermore, the scale mechanism was firstly identified as limiting factor for MDC performance degradation. Lastly, SEC of MDC was estimated to be as low as 28.2 kWh/m3 under ideal optimal operating conditions. Our experimental observations demonstrated that MDC could sustainably and effectively recover water and mineral with low energy consumption from SGPW by optimizing operating condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Challenges of Membrane Filtration for Produced Water Treatment in Offshore Oil & Gas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Kasper Lund; Hansen, Leif; Mai, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Tremendous amount of produced water are discharged into the sea from offshore oil & gas installations. Along with every barrel of oil three barrels of water are produced and this is only worsen as the fields mature. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is employed to increase production, as a part of EOR...... the Water Flooding Technology (WFT) is employed. The quality requirements for WFT and the increasing environmental concerns for produced water discharge lead to increased interest in zero-pollutant discharge. Traditional Produced Water Treatment (PWT) technologies(such as hydrocyclones) are already...

  1. Produced water reinjection in Campos Basin; Reinjecao de agua produzida na Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Roberta A.; Furtado, Claudio J.A.; Luz Junior, Euripedes B. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    To manage the increasing volume of produced water became one of the main challenges in the petroleum industry. PWRI (produced water re-injection) leads to a decrease operational cost in platforms, an increase in liquid flow rates on the topside facilities and a decrease in surface disposal of water. Nowadays in Brazilian fields for every barrel of produced oil three barrels of water need to be handled. PWRI is a process that has been widely diffused in many fields in the world. The main advantages of the PWRI are to reduce collected water, to decrease or eliminate surface disposal of produced water, and to help oil recovery. On the other hand, PWRI tends to increase corrosion when inappropriate materials in tubing and pipelines are used; increase souring potential due to the amount of nutrients for bacteria in the produced water; increase scale formation when sea-water and produced water are mixed and increase formation damage. Even in reservoirs with good qualities in terms of permeability and porosity, the poor quality of the reinjection water decreases injectivity. To minimize injectivity loss some requirements are important: to avoid solids in the produced water system, to inject above fracture propagation pressure to maintain injectivity whenever possible, to use compatible the chemical products for oil-water separation to avoid the formation solids-oil agglomerates. (author)

  2. Evaluation of extent of water adulteration of milk produced and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'the dry and wet seasons to determine the extent of water adulteration in the milk. Sampling was done once a month over a period of tree months fro111 five different sources, namely: six institutional farms, four private farms, six smallholder farrns, five shop vendors and nine .street vendors. These sources were similar for all.

  3. assessment of physicochemical quality of sachet water produced

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    al., 2007). Several studies on the quality of sachet water have reported violation of international quality standards. According to the Insitute of Public Analysts of Nigeria .... acetylene/air. Concentrations of the analytes in mg/ml in the digested samples were obtained by extrapolation from the calibration curve prepared by.

  4. Desalination and reuse of high-salinity shale gas produced water: drivers, technologies, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Devin L; Arias Chavez, Laura H; Ben-Sasson, Moshe; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-09-03

    In the rapidly developing shale gas industry, managing produced water is a major challenge for maintaining the profitability of shale gas extraction while protecting public health and the environment. We review the current state of practice for produced water management across the United States and discuss the interrelated regulatory, infrastructure, and economic drivers for produced water reuse. Within this framework, we examine the Marcellus shale play, a region in the eastern United States where produced water is currently reused without desalination. In the Marcellus region, and in other shale plays worldwide with similar constraints, contraction of current reuse opportunities within the shale gas industry and growing restrictions on produced water disposal will provide strong incentives for produced water desalination for reuse outside the industry. The most challenging scenarios for the selection of desalination for reuse over other management strategies will be those involving high-salinity produced water, which must be desalinated with thermal separation processes. We explore desalination technologies for treatment of high-salinity shale gas produced water, and we critically review mechanical vapor compression (MVC), membrane distillation (MD), and forward osmosis (FO) as the technologies best suited for desalination of high-salinity produced water for reuse outside the shale gas industry. The advantages and challenges of applying MVC, MD, and FO technologies to produced water desalination are discussed, and directions for future research and development are identified. We find that desalination for reuse of produced water is technically feasible and can be economically relevant. However, because produced water management is primarily an economic decision, expanding desalination for reuse is dependent on process and material improvements to reduce capital and operating costs.

  5. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banach, J.L.; Sampers, I.; Haute, van S.; Fels, van der H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water

  6. Characterization of NORM material produced in a water treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suursoo, S.; Kiisk, M.; Jantsikene, A.; Koch, R.; Isakar, K.; Realo, E. [University of Tartu, Institute of Physics (Estonia); Lumiste, L. [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    In February 2012 a water treatment plant was opened in Viimsi, Estonia. The plant is designed for removal of iron, manganese, and radium from groundwater. The first 2 years of operation have shown that the purification process generates significant amounts of materials with elevated radium levels. The treatment plant is fed by nine wells, which open to radium-rich aquifers. Purification is achieved by aeration and filtration processes. Aerated water is led through two successive filter columns, first of them is filled with MnO{sub 2} coated material FMH and filtration sand, the second one with zeolite. The plant has five parallel treatment lines with a total of 95 tons of FMH + filtration sand, and 45 tons of zeolite. The average capacity of the facility has been 2400 m{sup 3}/day. Yearly input of radium to the plant is estimated to be 325 MBq for Ra-226, and 420 MBq for Ra-228. Most of the radium (about 90%) accumulates in the filter columns. Some 8-9% of it is removed by backwash water during regular filter backwash cycles. To characterize radium accumulation and its removal by backwash in detail, treatment line no. 5 is sampled monthly for filter materials and backwash water. A steady growth of radium activity concentrations is apparent in both filter materials. In the top layer of the first stage filter (FMH+sand), Ra-226 and Ra-228 activity concentrations (per unit dry weight) reached (1540 ± 60) Bq/kg and (2510 ± 50) Bq/kg (k=2), respectively, by April 2013. At the same time, radium content in the top layer of the second stage filter (zeolite) was an order of magnitude higher: (19 600 ± 130) Bq/kg for Ra-226, and (22 260 ± 170) Bq/kg for Ra-228 (k=2). Radium is not evenly distributed throughout the filter columns. A rough estimate can be given that after 1.25 years of operation (by April 2013) the accumulated activities in treatment line no. 5 reached 1000 MBq for Ra-226 and 1200 MBq for Ra-228. Although filters are the most important type of NORM

  7. High-quality binary interactome mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreze, Matija; Monachello, Dario; Lurin, Claire; Cusick, Michael E; Hill, David E; Vidal, Marc; Braun, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    Physical interactions mediated by proteins are critical for most cellular functions and altogether form a complex macromolecular "interactome" network. Systematic mapping of protein-protein, protein-DNA, protein-RNA, and protein-metabolite interactions at the scale of the whole proteome can advance understanding of interactome networks with applications ranging from single protein functional characterization to discoveries on local and global systems properties. Since the early efforts at mapping protein-protein interactome networks a decade ago, the field has progressed rapidly giving rise to a growing number of interactome maps produced using high-throughput implementations of either binary protein-protein interaction assays or co-complex protein association methods. Although high-throughput methods are often thought to necessarily produce lower quality information than low-throughput experiments, we have recently demonstrated that proteome-scale interactome datasets can be produced with equal or superior quality than that observed in literature-curated datasets derived from large numbers of small-scale experiments. In addition to performing all experimental steps thoroughly and including all necessary controls and quality standards, careful verification of all interacting pairs and validation tests using independent, orthogonal assays are crucial to ensure the release of interactome maps of the highest possible quality. This chapter describes a high-quality, high-throughput binary protein-protein interactome mapping pipeline that includes these features. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. POLICY ANALYSIS OF PRODUCED WATER ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH IN-SITU THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Keiter; John Ruple; Heather Tanana

    2011-02-01

    Commercial scale oil shale and oil sands development will require water, the amount of which will depend on the technologies adopted and the scale of development that occurs. Water in oil shale and oil sands country is already in scarce supply, and because of the arid nature of the region and limitations on water consumption imposed by interstate compacts and the Endangered Species Act, the State of Utah normally does not issue new water rights in oil shale or oil sands rich areas. Prospective oil shale and oil sands developers that do not already hold adequate water rights can acquire water rights from willing sellers, but large and secure water supplies may be difficult and expensive to acquire, driving oil shale and oil sands developers to seek alternative sources of supply. Produced water is one such potential source of supply. When oil and gas are developed, operators often encounter ground water that must be removed and disposed of to facilitate hydrocarbon extraction. Water produced through mineral extraction was traditionally poor in quality and treated as a waste product rather than a valuable resource. However, the increase in produced water volume and the often-higher quality water associated with coalbed methane development have drawn attention to potential uses of produced water and its treatment under appropriations law. This growing interest in produced water has led to litigation and statutory changes that must be understood and evaluated if produced water is to be harnessed in the oil shale and oil sands development process. Conversely, if water is generated as a byproduct of oil shale and oil sands production, consideration must be given to how this water will be disposed of or utilized in the shale oil production process. This report explores the role produced water could play in commercial oil shale and oil sands production, explaining the evolving regulatory framework associated with produced water, Utah water law and produced water regulation

  9. Water management technologies used by Marcellus Shale Gas Producers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-07-30

    Natural gas represents an important energy source for the United States. According to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Energy Information Administration (EIA), about 22% of the country's energy needs are provided by natural gas. Historically, natural gas was produced from conventional vertical wells drilled into porous hydrocarbon-containing formations. During the past decade, operators have increasingly looked to other unconventional sources of natural gas, such as coal bed methane, tight gas sands, and gas shales.

  10. Extraordinary traces produced during pulsed discharges in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Takaaki [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-10-01

    This paper describes experiments of electrical discharges in water, in which AC shots of up to 100 V were applied to wire electrodes of palladium and platinum. Various kinds of anomalous traces were observed on the nuclear emulsions. Some of them were similar to that which were observed in previous experiments of electrolysis cold fusion. Extraordinary combined rings were newly observed, suggesting that tiny ball-lightning was hopping up and down between the nuclear emulsions. The mechanisms of forming the traces are also discussed by The Nattoh Model. (author).

  11. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett

    2004-09-29

    Produced water is a major waste generated at the oil and natural gas wells in the state of Texas. This water could be a possible source of new fresh water to meet the growing demands of the state after treatment and purification. Treatment of brine generated in oil fields or produced water with an ultrafiltration membranes were the subject of this thesis. The characterization of ultrafiltration membranes for oil and suspended solids removal of produced water, coupled with the reverse osmosis (RO) desalination of brine were studied on lab size membrane testing equipment and a field size testing unit to test whether a viable membrane system could be used to treat produced water. Oil and suspended solids were evaluated using turbidity and oil in water measurements taken periodically. The research considered the effect of pressure and flow rate on membrane performance of produced water treatment of three commercially available membranes for oily water. The study also analyzed the flux through the membrane and any effect it had on membrane performance. The research showed that an ultrafiltration membrane provided turbidity removal of over 99% and oil removal of 78% for the produced water samples. The results indicated that the ultrafiltration membranes would be asset as one of the first steps in purifying the water. Further results on selected RO membranes showed that salt rejection of greater than 97% could be achieved with satisfactory flux and at reasonable operating cost.

  12. Availability of high quality weather data measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Johansen, Jakob Berg; Furbo, Simon

    In the period 2016-2017 the project “Availability of high quality weather data measurements” is carried out at Department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark. The aim of the project is to establish measured high quality weather data which will be easily available...... for the building energy branch and the solar energy branch in their efforts to achieve energy savings and for researchers and students carrying out projects where measured high quality weather data are needed....

  13. A Molecular Explanation of How the Fog Is Produced When Dry Ice Is Placed in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.; Ford, Nathan; No, Jin-Hwan; Ott, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Everyone enjoys seeing the cloudy white fog generated when solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) is placed in water. Have you ever wondered what physical and chemical processes occur to produce this fog? When asked this question, many chemical educators suggest that the fog is produced when atmospheric water vapor condenses on cold carbon dioxide gas…

  14. High-quality single crystals for neutron experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To make headway on any problem in physics, high-quality single crystals are required. In this talk, special emphasis ... produces crystals of superior quality, circumventing many of the problems associated with, for example, flux growth from the melt. .... In these materials, it is possible to control the electric polarization by the ...

  15. Production of high quality distillate to meet a fit-for-purpose boiler feedwater specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnich, K. [Veolia Water Solutions Oil and Gas, Calgary, AB (Canada); Neu, D. [Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies/HPD, Pewaukee, WI (United States); Drone, J.L. [Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies/HPD, Plainfield, IL (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Veolia Water Solutions and Technologies has significant experience managing boiler water chemistry and is the world's largest manufacturer of evaporation systems. The company has conducted extensive testing and analysis for produced water evaporation distillate from multiple facilities. In order to produce boiler feed water, evaporation of produced water is used at several steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) facilities. There are no official guidelines for the required quality of evaporator distillate to feed a once through steam generator (OTSG) or high pressure industrial watertube boiler (IWT) that will produce injection steam. This paper presented a basis for a fit-for-purpose specification for IWT boilers as well as data on the performance of a Vapor Washer, which produces high quality distilled water that meets fit-for-purpose specifications even during normal variations in feed conditions. Specifically, the paper discussed boiler water requirements for steam injection IWTs; the quality of distillate from a produced water evaporator; the benefits of vapour washing to maintain distillate quality; and suggested boiler chemistry limits for a fit-for-purpose specification. Oxygen, iron, and copper were discussed as being implicated with corrosion and reaction in boilers. Hardness contaminants such as calcium and magnesium were also presented. Suggested limits for boiler water in the fit-for-purpose specification were also presented for silica, total alkalinity, free OH alkalinity, and total dissolved solids in steam. It was concluded that foaming episodes can occur in produced water evaporators due to normal variations, and the distillate can fail to meet the fit-for-purpose specification during foam upsets. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Optical diagnostics of laser-produced aluminium plasmas under water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, N.; Costello, J. T.; Kelly, T. J.

    2017-06-01

    We report on the findings of double-pulse studies performed on an aluminium target submerged in water using Nd:YAG laser pulses. Shadowgraphy measurements were performed to examine the dynamic behaviour of the cavitation bubble that eventually forms some considerable time post-plasma ignition. These measurements were used to inform subsequent investigations designed to probe the bubble environment. The results of time-resolved imaging from within the cavitation bubble following irradiation by a second laser pulse reveal the full dynamic evolution of a plasma formed in such an environment. Rapid displacement of the plasma plume in a direction normal to the target surface followed by a diffusive outwards expansion is observed and a qualitative model is proposed to explain the observed behaviour. Line profiles of several ionic and atomic species were observed within the irradiated cavitation bubble. Electron densities were determined using the Stark broadening of the Al II line at 466.3 nm and electron temperatures inferred using the ratio of the Al II (466.3 nm) and Al I (396.15 nm) lines. Evidence of self-reversal of neutral emission lines was observed at times corresponding to growth and collapse phases of the cavitation bubble suggesting high population density for ground state atoms during these times.

  17. Advanced Membrane Filtration Technology for Cost Effective Recovery of Fresh Water from Oil & Gas Produced Brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett

    2005-09-29

    This study is developing a comprehensive study of what is involved in the desalination of oil field produced brine and the technical developments and regulatory changes needed to make the concept a commercial reality. It was originally based on ''conventional'' produced water treatment and reviewed (1) the basics of produced water management, (2) the potential for desalination of produced brine in order to make the resource more useful and available in areas of limited fresh water availability, and (3) the potential beneficial uses of produced water for other than oil production operations. Since we have begun however, a new area of interest has appeared that of brine water treatment at the well site. Details are discussed in this technical progress report. One way to reduce the impact of O&G operations is to treat produced brine by desalination. The main body of the report contains information showing where oil field brine is produced, its composition, and the volume available for treatment and desalination. This collection of information all relates to what the oil and gas industry refers to as ''produced water management''. It is a critical issue for the industry as produced water accounts for more than 80% of all the byproducts produced in oil and gas exploration and production. The expense of handling unwanted waste fluids draws scarce capital away for the development of new petroleum resources, decreases the economic lifetimes of existing oil and gas reservoirs, and makes environmental compliance more expensive to achieve. More than 200 million barrels of produced water are generated worldwide each day; this adds up to more than 75 billion barrels per year. For the United States, the American Petroleum Institute estimated about 18 billion barrels per year were generated from onshore wells in 1995, and similar volumes are generated today. Offshore wells in the United States generate several hundred million barrels of

  18. Production of high-quality fish oil from herring byproducts

    OpenAIRE

    Aidos, I.M.F.

    2002-01-01

    In this work, the feasibility of producing high-quality fish oil from herring byproducts was evaluated in various ways. With this, a contribution has been made to a more efficient usage of natural resources while yielding a high-quality product. Crude oil extracted from herring byproducts is relatively rich in essentialw-3 PUFAs such as EPA and DHA, and is relatively stable during storage. The main conclusions of this study were: herring byprodu...

  19. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-12-29

    Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes

  20. A Review on overboard CEOR discharged produced water treatment and remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawindran, H.; Krishnan, S.; Sinnathambi, C. M.

    2017-06-01

    Produced water is a waste by-product generated during oil and gas recovery operations. It contains the mixture of organic and inorganic compounds. Produced water management is a challenge faced by the petroleum practitioners worldwide. Build-up of chemical wastes from produced water causes huge footprint, which results in high CapEx and OpEx. Different technologies are practiced by various practitioners to treat the produced waste water. However, the constituents removed by each technology and the degree of organic compound removal has to be considered to identify the potential and effective treatment technologies for offshore industrial applications. Current produced water technologies and their successful applications have advantages and disadvantages and can be ranked on the basis of several factors, such as their discharge limit into water bodies, reinjection in producing well, or for any miscellaneous beneficial use. This paper attempts to provide a review of existing physical and chemical treatment technologies used for management of produced water. Based on our analysis, suitable methods will be recommended for offshore waste water treatment technologies.

  1. Microbial community changes in hydraulic fracturing fluids and produced water from shale gas extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali Mohan, Arvind; Hartsock, Angela; Bibby, Kyle J; Hammack, Richard W; Vidic, Radisav D; Gregory, Kelvin B

    2013-11-19

    Microbial communities associated with produced water from hydraulic fracturing are not well understood, and their deleterious activity can lead to significant increases in production costs and adverse environmental impacts. In this study, we compared the microbial ecology in prefracturing fluids (fracturing source water and fracturing fluid) and produced water at multiple time points from a natural gas well in southwestern Pennsylvania using 16S rRNA gene-based clone libraries, pyrosequencing, and quantitative PCR. The majority of the bacterial community in prefracturing fluids constituted aerobic species affiliated with the class Alphaproteobacteria. However, their relative abundance decreased in produced water with an increase in halotolerant, anaerobic/facultative anaerobic species affiliated with the classes Clostridia, Bacilli, Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Bacteroidia, and Fusobacteria. Produced water collected at the last time point (day 187) consisted almost entirely of sequences similar to Clostridia and showed a decrease in bacterial abundance by 3 orders of magnitude compared to the prefracturing fluids and produced water samplesfrom earlier time points. Geochemical analysis showed that produced water contained higher concentrations of salts and total radioactivity compared to prefracturing fluids. This study provides evidence of long-term subsurface selection of the microbial community introduced through hydraulic fracturing, which may include significant implications for disinfection as well as reuse of produced water in future fracturing operations.

  2. Method for excluding salt and other soluble materials from produced water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Tommy J [Knoxville, TN; Tsouris, Costas [Oak Ridge, TN; Palumbo, Anthony V [Oak Ridge, TN; Riestenberg, David E [Knoxville, TN; McCallum, Scott D [Knoxville, TN

    2009-08-04

    A method for reducing the salinity, as well as the hydrocarbon concentration of produced water to levels sufficient to meet surface water discharge standards. Pressure vessel and coflow injection technology developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is used to mix produced water and a gas hydrate forming fluid to form a solid or semi-solid gas hydrate mixture. Salts and solids are excluded from the water that becomes a part of the hydrate cage. A three-step process of dissociation of the hydrate results in purified water suitable for irrigation.

  3. Produced water treatment by membranes: A review from a colloidal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhout, J M; Moreno, J; Biesheuvel, P M; Boels, L; Lammertink, R G H; de Vos, W M

    2017-02-01

    While the world faces an increased scarcity in fresh water supply, it is of great importance that water from industry and waste streams can be treated for re-use. One of the largest waste streams in the oil and gas industry is produced water. After the phase separation of oil and gas, the produced water is left. This mixture contains dissolved and dispersed hydrocarbons, surfactants, clay particles and salts. Before this water can be used for re-injection, irrigation or as industrial water, it has to be treated. Conventional filtration techniques such as multi media filters and cartridge filters, are able to remove the majority of the contaminants, but the smallest, stabilized oil droplets (technology requires no frequent replacement of filters and the water quality after treatment is better. Membranes however suffer from fouling by the contaminants in produced water, leading to a lower clean water flux and increased energy costs. Current research on produced water treatment by membranes is mainly focused on improving existing processes and developing fouling-resistant membranes. Multiple investigations have determined the importance of different factors (such as emulsion properties and operating conditions) on the fouling process, but understanding the background of fouling is largely absent. In this review, we describe the interaction between the membrane and a produced water emulsion from a colloidal perspective, with the aim to create a clear framework that can lead to much more detailed understanding of membrane fouling in produced water treatment. Better understanding of the complex interactions at the produced water/membrane interface is essential to achieve more efficient applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Toxicity screening of produced water extracts in a zebrafish embryo assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, G; Norrgren, L; Hylland, K; Tollefsen, K E

    2014-01-01

    Produced water is the largest effluent discharge from oil and gas/condensate production facilities in the North Sea. There is concern that contaminants originating from the reservoir and chemicals used in the production process may affect marine organisms. Developmental toxicity of extractable organic compounds in produced water effluents from oil and gas/condensate production platforms in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea was assessed in a temporal and spatial manner using zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. Large-scale solid-phase extraction (SPE) and on-column fractionation of water-soluble fraction (WSF) and an oil/particulate fraction was used in a rapid screening bioassay for embryotoxicity. Exposure to produced water extracts increased rate of mortality and reduced pigmentation and heart rate, as well as delaying time to hatch. The oil/particulate fraction was 10-fold less toxic than WSF, indicating that toxicity was predominantly produced by moderately polar and bioavailable compounds. Large spatial and temporal variation in produced water toxicity was observed, displaying considerable variability in the reservoir, oil well, and effluent composition over time. The noted toxicity did not correlate well with either reported produced water composition or parameters such as total hydrocarbons, thus challenging chemical measurements as a reliable source of information for predicting complex effects. Although embryotoxicity was observed following exposure to the extracts, dilution and transformation of produced water in the recipient are expected to rapidly reduce the concentrations of compounds in the effluents to levels below the thresholds of observed effects.

  5. Organic substances in produced and formation water from unconventional natural gas extraction in coal and shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, William H.; Tatu, Calin A.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Lerch, Harry E.; Bates, Anne L.; Engle, Mark A.; Crosby, Lynn M.; McIntosh, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Organic substances in produced and formation water from coalbed methane (CBM) and gas shale plays from across the USA were examined in this study. Disposal of produced waters from gas extraction in coal and shale is an important environmental issue because of the large volumes of water involved and the variable quality of this water. Organic substances in produced water may be environmentally relevant as pollutants, but have been little studied. Results from five CBM plays and two gas shale plays (including the Marcellus Shale) show a myriad of organic chemicals present in the produced and formation water. Organic compound classes present in produced and formation water in CBM plays include: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), heterocyclic compounds, alkyl phenols, aromatic amines, alkyl aromatics (alkyl benzenes, alkyl biphenyls), long-chain fatty acids, and aliphatic hydrocarbons. Concentrations of individual compounds range from exercised in the disposal and release of produced waters containing these organic substances into the environment because of the potential toxicity of many of these substances.

  6. Analysis of U.S. produced water controls -- Are they cost-effective?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J.A. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Water Policy Program

    1995-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establishes controls on produced water discharges into US waters through effluent limitations guidelines (ELGs), and general and individual discharge permits. Over the past 20 years, produced water controls have become much stricter, and in some areas, no discharge of produced water is allowed. In setting discharge standards, EPA considers vast amounts of data, makes assumptions regarding which data and what approaches are representative, selects the most appropriate analytical methods, and interprets the analytical results. Despite EPA`s considerable efforts to accurately understand and characterize the economic and environmental impacts of produced water discharges before proposing and adopting ELGs and issuing permits, current US produced water controls may be overly restrictive and not cost-effective. This paper summarizes several studies that have reviewed in detail EPA`s data, assumptions, and analytical methods for earlier proposed regulations and general permits. These include the offshore oil and gas ELGs, EPA`s Region 6 general permit for coastal waters, and most recently, the proposed ELGs for the coastal oil and gas industry. By substituting different data, using revised assumptions, and reanalyzing data that are equally or more valid, the studies reach alternate conclusions on the cost-effectiveness of current produced water controls.

  7. Producing a problem? Effects of produced water contaminants (PAHs, radium-226, barium and scale inhibitor) on the copepod Calanus finmarchicus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiel Jensen, Louise [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, Fram Centre, 9296 Tromsoe (Norway); Halvorsen, Elisabeth; Gammelsaeter Hallanger, Ingeborg [UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, P.O. box 6050 Langnes, 9037 Tromsoe (Norway); Tollefsen, Knut Erik; Brooks, Steven [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalleen 21, 0349 Oslo (Norway); Hansen, Bjoern Henrik [SINTEF Materials and Chemistry, Marine Environmental Technology, Brattoerkaia 17B, 7010 Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    In the Barents Sea region new petroleum fields are discovered yearly and the extraction of petroleum products are expected to increase in the upcoming years. Despite enhanced technology and stricter governmental legislation, establishing the petroleum industry in the Barents Sea will introduce a new source of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) to the area as some discharges of produced water will be allowed. Whether the presence of produced water poses a risk to the Arctic marine life remains to be examined. We examined effects on the copepod species Calanus finmarchicus after exposure to several compounds found in produced water. A mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkyl phenols commonly found in produced water was used as a proxy of the organic fraction of the produced water (hereafter termed APW (Artificial Produced Water)). In addition, exposures were done using radium-226 (proxy for NORM), barium (proxy for metals) and a scale inhibitor (SI -4470, M-I SWACO, Schlumberger Norge AS). Short-term screening tests on a range of concentrations of all compounds were run to assess the hatchability of the eggs and early survival of the nauplii. Long-term experiments were carried out with exposure concentrations at realistic levels found in the vicinity of known discharge points. The copepod C. finmarchicus is considered a keystone species in the Barents Sea ecosystem as it represents the major pathway of energy transfer from lower to higher trophic levels. We have examined sub-lethal effects on early life stages and on adult females. The hatchability of the eggs was not affected by concentrations well above realistic environmental levels. However, the instant mortality of the hatched larvae increased with higher concentrations of barium, scale inhibitor and APW, though not with higher radium-226 concentration. When examining the long-term growth of the nauplii, we found that the survival was poor in the APW treatment, and in the barium

  8. Environmental aspects of produced-water salt releases in onshore and coastal petroleum-producing areas of the conterminous U.S. - a bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otton, James K.

    2006-01-01

    Environmental effects associated with the production of oil and gas have been reported since the first oil wells were drilled in the Appalachian Basin in Pennsylvania and Kentucky in the early to mid-1800s. The most significant of these effects are the degradation of soils, ground water, surface water, and ecosystems they support by releases of suspended and dissolved hydrocarbons and co-produced saline water. Produced water salts are less likely than hydrocarbons to be adsorbed by mineral phases in the soil and sediment and are not subject to degradation by biologic processes. Sodium is a major dissolved constituent in most produced waters and it causes substantial degradation of soils through altering of clays and soil textures and subsequent erosion. Produced water salts seem to have the most wide-ranging effects on soils, water quality, and ecosystems. Trace elements, including boron, lithium, bromine, fluorine, and radium, also occur in elevated concentrations in some produced waters. Many trace elements are phytotoxic and are adsorbed and may remain in soils after the saline water has been flushed away. Radium-bearing scale and sludge found in oilfield equipment and discarded on soils pose additional hazards to human health and ecosystems. This bibliography includes studies from across the oil- and natural-gas-producing areas of the conterminous United States that were published in the last 80 yrs. The studies describe the effects of produced water salts on soils, water quality, and ecosystems. Also included are reports that describe (1) the inorganic chemistry of produced waters included in studies of formation waters for various purposes, (2) other sources of salt affecting water quality that may be mistaken for produced water effects, (3) geochemical and geophysical techniques that allow discrimination of salt sources, (4) remediation technologies designed to repair damage caused to soils and ground water by produced water salts, and (5) contamination by

  9. Desalination of Produced Water via Gas Hydrate Formation and Post Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    This study presents a two-step desalination process, in which produced water is cleaned by forming gas hydrate in it and subsequently dewatering the hydrate to remove the residual produced water trapped in between the hydrate crystals. All experiments were performed with pressure in the range of 450 to 800psi and temperature in the range of -1 to 1°C using CO? as guest molecule for the hydrate crystals. The experiments were conducted using artificial produced waters containing different amoun...

  10. TREATMENT OF PRODUCED OIL AND GAS WATERS WITH SURFACTANT-MODIFIED ZEOLITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn E. Katz; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

    2003-11-01

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. This report summarizes the work and results of this four-year project. We tested the effectiveness of surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) for removal of BTEX with batch and column experiments using waters with BTEX concentrations that are comparable to those of produced waters. The data from our experimental investigations showed that BTEX sorption to SMZ can be described by a linear isotherm model, and competitive effects between compounds were not significant. The SMZ can be readily regenerated using air stripping. We field-tested a prototype SMZ-based water treatment system at produced water treatment facilities and found that the SMZ successfully removes BTEX from produced waters as predicted by laboratory studies. When compared to other existing treatment technologies, the cost of the SMZ system is very competitive. Furthermore, the SMZ system is relatively compact, does not require the storage of

  11. Coalbed methane-produced water quality and its management options in Raniganj Basin, West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendhe, Vinod Atmaram; Mishra, Subhashree; Varma, Atul Kumar; Singh, Awanindra Pratap

    2017-06-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) recovery is associated with production of large quantity of groundwater. The coal seams are depressurized by pumping of water for regular and consistent gas production. Usually, CBM operators need to pump >10 m3 of water per day from one well, which depends on the aquifer characteristics, drainage and recharge pattern. In India, 32 CBM blocks have been awarded for exploration and production, out of which six blocks are commercially producing methane gas at 0.5 million metric standard cubic feet per day. Large amount of water is being produced from CBM producing blocks, but no specific information or data are available for geochemical properties of CBM-produced water and its suitable disposal or utilization options for better management. CBM operators are in infancy and searching for the suitable solutions for optimal management of produced water. CBM- and mine-produced water needs to be handled considering its physical and geochemical assessment, because it may have environmental as well as long-term impact on aquifer. Investigations were carried out to evaluate geochemical and hydrogeological conditions of CBM blocks in Raniganj Basin. Totally, 15 water samples from CBM well head and nine water samples from mine disposal head were collected from Raniganj Basin. The chemical signature of produced water reveals high sodium and bicarbonate concentrations with low calcium and magnesium, and very low sulphate in CBM water. It is comprehend that CBM water is mainly of Na-HCO3 type and coal mine water is of Ca-Mg-SO4 and HCO3-Cl-SO4 type. The comparative studies are also carried out for CBM- and mine-produced water considering the geochemical properties, aquifer type, depth of occurrence and lithological formations. Suitable options like impounding, reverse osmosis, irrigation and industrial use after prerequisite treatments are suggested. However, use of this huge volume of CBM- and mine-produced water for irrigation or other beneficial purposes

  12. Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

    2004-03-11

    This report summarizes work of this project from October 2003 through March 2004. The major focus of the research was to further investigate BTEX removal from produced water, to quantify metal ion removal from produced water, and to evaluate a lab-scale vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) for BTEX destruction in off-gases produced during SMZ regeneration. Batch equilibrium sorption studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of semi-volatile organic compounds commonly found in produced water on the sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) onto surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) and to examine selected metal ion sorption onto SMZ. The sorption of polar semi-volatile organic compounds and metals commonly found in produced water onto SMZ was also investigated. Batch experiments were performed in a synthetic saline solution that mimicked water from a produced water collection facility in Wyoming. Results indicated that increasing concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds increased BTEX sorption. The sorption of phenol compounds could be described by linear isotherms, but the linear partitioning coefficients decreased with increasing pH, especially above the pKa's of the compounds. Linear correlations relating partitioning coefficients of phenol compounds with their respective solubilities and octanol-water partitioning coefficients were developed for data collected at pH 7.2. The sorption of chromate, selenate, and barium in synthetic produced water were also described by Langmuir isotherms. Experiments conducted with a lab-scale vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) packed with foam indicated that this system could achieve high BTEX removal efficiencies once the nutrient delivery system was optimized. The xylene isomers and benzene were found to require the greatest biofilter bed depth for removal. This result suggested that these VOCs would ultimately control the size of the biofilter required for the produced water application. The biofilter

  13. Produced water reuse aiming reinjection; Reuso de agua produzida visando reinjecao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louvisse, Ana Maria Travalloni; Hora, Jairo Maynard da Fonseca; Guilherme, Claudio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    As an oil reservoir goes aging, the BSW (water and solid content associated to the crude oil ) from the produced oil increase acutely. As this associated water is isolated from the crude oil, it presents several contaminants with concentrations above to that specified in the environmental norms for its discharge. Attending the environmental legislation, some times, is very difficult and can even enable the entire project. As the reservoir becomes old, enhance techniques are necessary to maintain the oil producing. A common recovery mechanism, called secondary recovery, is the water injection. Commonly the water for secondary recovery is not easily available. The main objective of this work is present a treatment system for produced water used in a specific field in the Northwest region. This treatment involves reinjection of this water after filtration. We will have a high environmental benefited, avoiding the discharge of produced water, highly toxic, and at the same time enhanced the oil production. In this work, we develop a method to modify the physical chemistry characteristics of the produced water and increase the treatment process efficiency. (author)

  14. Modeling Approach for Estimating Co-Produced Water Volumes and Saltwater Disposal Volumes in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, K. E.

    2016-12-01

    Management of produced fluids has become an important issue in Oklahoma because large volumes of saltwater are co-produced with oil and gas, and disposed into saltwater disposal wells at high rates. Petroleum production increased from 2009-2015, especially in central and north-central Oklahoma where the Mississippian and Hunton zones were redeveloped using horizontal wells and dewatering techniques that have led to a disproportional increase in produced water volumes. Improved management of co-produced water, including desalination for beneficial reuse and decreased saltwater disposal volumes, is only possible if spatial and temporal trends can be defined and related to the producing zones. It is challenging to quantify the volumes of co-produced water by region or production zone because co-produced water volumes are generally not reported. Therefore, the goal of this research is to estimate co-produced water volumes for 2008-present with an approach that can be replicated as petroleum production shifts to other regions. Oil and gas production rates from subsurface zones were multiplied by ratios of H2O:oil and H2O:gas for the respective zones. Initial H2O:oil and H2O:gas ratios were adjusted/calibrated, by zone, to maximize correlation of county-scale produced H2O estimates versus saltwater disposal volumes from 2013-2015. These calibrated ratios were then used to compute saltwater disposal volumes from 2008-2012 because of apparent data gaps in reported saltwater disposal volumes during that timeframe. This research can be used to identify regions that have the greatest need for produced water treatment systems. The next step in management of produced fluids is to explore optimal energy-efficient strategies that reduce deleterious effects.

  15. Use of Produced Water in Recirculating Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Zammit; Michael N. DiFilippo

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. This deliverable describes possible test configurations for produced water demonstration projects at SJGS. The ability to host demonstration projects would enable the testing and advancement of promising produced water treatment technologies. Testing is described for two scenarios: Scenario 1--PNM builds a produced water treatment system at SJGS and incorporates planned and future demonstration projects into the design of the system. Scenario 2--PNM forestalls or decides not to install a produced water treatment system and would either conduct limited testing at SJGS (produced water would have to be delivered by tanker trucked) or at a salt water disposal facility (SWD). Each scenario would accommodate demonstration projects differently and these differences are discussed in this deliverable. PNM will host a demonstration test of water-conserving cooling technology--Wet Surface Air Cooling (WSAC) using cooling tower blowdown

  16. Produced water discharges to the Gulf of Mexico: Background information for ecological risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.; DePhillips, M.P.

    1996-06-01

    This report reviews ecological risk assessment concepts and methods; describes important biological resources in the Gulf of Mexico of potential concern for produced water impacts; and summarizes data available to estimate exposure and effects of produced water discharges. The emphasis is on data relating to produced water discharges in the central and western Gulf of Mexico, especially in Louisiana. Much of the summarized data and cited literature are relevant to assessments of impacts in other regions. Data describing effects on marine and estuarine fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and benthic invertebrates are emphasized. This review is part of a series of studies of the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico. These assessments will provide input to regulators in the development of guidelines and permits, and to industry in the use of appropriate discharge practices.

  17. An assessment of produced water impacts in the Galveston Bay system

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study provides a general assessment of any adverse environmental effects resulting from tidal disposal of produced waters by: 1) documenting any alterations to...

  18. Contaminants Investigation Bulletin: Environmental contaminants in sediments from oilfield produced water discharge points

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Trace element concentrations in sediment samples are shown in Table 2. Sediments from a wetland receiving oilfield produced water from the Arnell oil production site...

  19. Absence of direct association between coliforms and Escherichia coli in irrigation water and on produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Gayeon; Schlegel, Pamela J; Schrock, Jennifer M; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

    2013-06-01

    Irrigation water is considered a potential source of preharvest pathogen contamination of vegetables. Hence, several organizations have recommended microbiological standards for water used to irrigate edible plants. The purpose of this study was to determine the strength of association between microbial quality indicators (coliforms and Escherichia coli) in irrigation water and on irrigated vegetables. Data analyzed included original results from a cross-sectional study conducted in the Midwestern United States during summer 2009 and information presented in two previously published studies performed in France and Portugal to investigate microbial quality of irrigation water and watered produce. In the cross-sectional study, repetitive PCR (rep-PCR) was used to characterize genetic relatedness of E. coli isolates from water and vegetables. No significant correlations were found between fecal indicators on leafy greens (lettuce and parsley, n = 91) or fruit (tomatoes and green peppers, n = 22) and those found in irrigation water used in the cross-sectional study (P > 0.40) or in the previously published data sets (data set 1: lettuce and waste irrigation water, n = 15, P > 0.40; data set 2: lettuce and irrigation water, n = 32, P = 0.06). Rep-PCR banding patterns of E. coli strains were all distinguishable among the pairs of E. coli isolates recovered from produce and irrigation water on the same farm. From the available data, the concentration of indicator organisms based on a single measure of irrigation water quality was not associated with the presence of these indicators on produce. In the absence of additional information, the use of a single microbial water quality parameter as an indicator of produce safety is of limited value for predicting the safety of the produce.

  20. Field Validation of Toxicity Tests to Evaluate the Potential for Beneficial Use of Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Bidwell; Jonathan Fisher; Naomi Cooper

    2008-03-31

    This study investigated potential biological effects of produced water contamination derived from occasional surface overflow and possible subsurface intrusion at an oil production site along the shore of Skiatook Lake, Oklahoma. We monitored basic chemistry and acute toxicity to a suite of standard aquatic test species (fathead minnow-Pimephales promelas, Daphnia pulex, Daphnia magna, and Ceriodaphnia dubia) in produced water and in samples taken from shallow groundwater wells on the site. Toxicity identification evaluations and ion toxicity modeling were used to identify toxic constituents in the samples. Lake sediment at the oil production site and at a reference site were also analyzed for brine intrusion chemically and by testing sediment toxicity using the benthic invertebrates, Chironomus dilutus, and Hyallela azteca. Sediment quality was also assessed with in situ survival and growth studies with H. azteca and the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, and by benthic macroinvertebrate community sampling. The produced water was acutely toxic to the aquatic test organisms at concentrations ranging from 1% to 10% of the whole produced water sample. Toxicity identification evaluation and ion toxicity modeling indicated major ion salts and hydrocarbons were the primary mixture toxicants. The standardized test species used in the laboratory bioassays exhibited differences in sensitivity to these two general classes of contaminants, which underscores the importance of using multiple species when evaluating produced water toxicity. Toxicity of groundwater was greater in samples from wells near a produced water injection well and an evaporation pond. Principle component analyses (PCA) of chemical data derived from the groundwater wells indicated dilution by lake water and possible biogeochemical reactions as factors that ameliorated groundwater toxicity. Elevated concentrations of major ions were found in pore water from lake sediments, but toxicity from these ions was

  1. Irrigation experiments with produced waters from the retorting of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.L.

    1980-12-01

    The research described herein was conducted by Geokinetics to qualitatively assess the tolerance of native and certain introduced species of vegetation to irrigation with produced water from the retorting of oil shale. Two separate experiments were conducted at the Kamp Kerogen field site in Uintah County, Utah. The results indicate possible effects on vegetation that a prolonged exposure to produced water would have. The two simple experiments were initiated during the summer of 1979. It was expected that irrigation with produced water would eventually result in detrimental effects to the plants receiving it; the concentrations of boron, molybdenum, arsenic, oil and other constituents in untreated production waters are high enough to likely cause damage to plants. In one experiment a 27 foot by 27 foot plot of native vegetation was irrigated with one inch of produced water per week for five weeks using a lawn sprinkler. Grasses and shrubs within the test plot appeared to have died; germination of annual plants was greatly inhibited. In the other experiment, 30 container-grown seedlings ranging in height from 0.3 feet to 3.0 feet were transplanted. Six species of broadleaf, deciduous trees not native to the test site were represented by five seedlings each. All 30 trees received well water irrigation for one month, after which four trees of each species were irrigated with produced water for seven weeks. One tree of each species continued to receive well water throughout the experiment; only two of those trees survived the summer of 1979. All six species appeared to have been adversely affected by produced water. The horse chesnut trees were the hardiest of the species planted. Most of the 30 trees, including those irrigated with well water, did not survive the winter season.

  2. Dissemination of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli of chicken origin to the nearby river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lili; Hu, Jiaqing; Zhang, Xiaodan; Ma, Ruihua; Gao, Jing; Li, Song; Zhao, Miaoqing; Miao, Zengmin; Chai, Tongjie

    2014-01-01

    The dissemination of drug-resistant bacteria from animal farms to aquatic environments can pose a potential threat to public health. In this study, antimicrobial resistance, resistance genes, and genetic similarity of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli of different origins (chicken feces and upstream and downstream river waters) were analyzed to track the spread of drug-resistant bacteria of animals. The results showed that a total of 29 ESBL-producing E. coli were obtained from 258 samples, and isolation rates of the ESBL-producing E. coli from chicken feces and upstream and downstream waters were 10.7% (16/150), 3.7% (1/27), and 14.8% (12/81), respectively. The ESBL-producing E. coli from upstream water was resistant to 7 antibiotics, but isolates from feces and downstream water had a higher resistance rate. In 29 ESBL-producing E. coli, the most common gene was CTX-M and the SHV gene was not detected. Five ESBL-producing isolates from downstream water showed >90% similarity with the fecal isolates, while the only one isolate from upstream water had <70% similarity with fecal isolates. The results suggest that animal farms' effluent, especially the untreated wastewater, could contribute to the spread of resistance genes. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Modeling of Kinetics of Air Entrainment in Water Produced by Vertically Falling Water Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelė VAIDELIENĖ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the process of air entrainment in water caused by vertically falling water flow in the free water surface. The new kinetic model of air entrainment in water was developed. This model includes the process of air entrapment, as well as air removal, water sputtering and resorption. For the experimental part of this study a new method based on digital image processing was developed. Theoretical and experimental methods were used for determining air concentration and its distribution in water below the air-water interface. A new presented mathematical model of air entrainment process allows determining of air bubbles and water droplets concentrations distribution. The obtained theoretical and experimental results were in good agreement. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.4871

  4. Composite geochemical database for coalbed methane produced water quality in the Rocky Mountain region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Katharine G; Guerra, Katie L; Xu, Pei; Drewes, Jörg E

    2011-09-15

    Coalbed methane (CBM) or coalbed natural gas (CBNG) is an unconventional natural gas resource with large reserves in the United States (US) and worldwide. Production is limited by challenges in the management of large volumes of produced water. Due to salinity of CBM produced water, it is commonly reinjected into the subsurface for disposal. Utilization of this nontraditional water source is hindered by limited knowledge of water quality. A composite geochemical database was created with 3255 CBM wellhead entries, covering four basins in the Rocky Mountain region, and resulting in information on 64 parameters and constituents. Database water composition is dominated by sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride type waters with total dissolved solids concentrations of 150 to 39,260 mg/L. Constituents commonly exceeding standards for drinking, livestock, and irrigation water applications were total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), temperature, iron, and fluoride. Chemical trends in the basins are linked to the type of coal deposits, the rank of the coal deposits, and the proximity of the well to fresh water recharge. These water composition trends based on basin geology, hydrogeology, and methane generation pathway are relevant to predicting water quality compositions for beneficial use applications in CBM-producing basins worldwide.

  5. USE OF PRODUCED WATER IN RECIRCULATING COOLING SYSTEMS AT POWER GENERATING FACILITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael N. DiFilippo

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate produced water as a supplemental source of water for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS). This study incorporates elements that identify produced water volume and quality, infrastructure to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements to use it at the plant, delivery and treatment economics, etc. SJGS, which is operated by Public Service of New Mexico (PNM) is located about 15 miles northwest of Farmington, New Mexico. It has four units with a total generating capacity of about 1,800 MW. The plant uses 22,400 acre-feet of water per year from the San Juan River with most of its demand resulting from cooling tower make-up. The plant is a zero liquid discharge facility and, as such, is well practiced in efficient water use and reuse. For the past few years, New Mexico has been suffering from a severe drought. Climate researchers are predicting the return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters. Deliverable 2 focuses on transportation--the largest obstacle to produced water reuse in the San Juan Basin (the Basin). Most of the produced water in the Basin is stored in tanks at the well head and must be transported by truck to salt water disposal (SWD) facilities prior to injection. Produced water transportation requirements from the well head to SJGS and the availability of existing infrastructure to transport the water are discussed in this deliverable.

  6. Demulsifier for produced oil-in-water emulsions containing spent mud acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royle, R.A.

    1983-09-06

    Stable oil-in-water emulsions in produced fluids from wells undergoing acidization treatments are demulsified by treatment of the produced fluids with a long chain carboxylic acid ester of a polyhydric alcohol such as sorbitan monolaurate, surbitan monopalmitate or sorbitan monooleate as a demulsification agent.

  7. Effectiveness of electrolyzed oxidizing water treatment in removing pesticide residues and its effect on produce quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Hang; Huang, Qingguo; Hung, Yen-Con

    2018-01-15

    This study evaluated the effects of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water treatment on the removal of pesticide residues (diazinon, cyprodinil and phosmet) from spinach, snap beans and grapes, and the effect on produce quality. High available chlorine content (ACC) and long treatment time of EO water resulted in high pesticide removals. Up to 59.2, 66.5 and 37.1% of diazinon; 43.8, 50.0 and 31.5% of cyprodinil; 85.7, 73.0 and 49.4% of phosmet; were removed from spinach, snap beans and grapes, respectively, after 15min EO water treatment at 120mg/l ACC. EO water was also more effective than electrolyzed reduced water, bleach, VegWash and DI water on pesticide removal. In addition, no significant colour or texture deterioration were found on produce samples treated with EO water. It was concluded, EO water can be very effective in pesticide residue removal from fresh produce without affecting the produce quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A study on the quantities and potential use of produced water in southern Iraq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waisi, Basma; Karim, Usama F.A.; Augustijn, Dionysius C.M.; Al-Furaiji, Mustafa; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of volumes and chemical composition of produced water (PW) accompanying oil production from five of the largest oilfields in the world situated in Basrah, Iraq. PW is potentially a valuable water resource particularly there where the ramp up of oil

  9. Aspects of contamination produced by domestic waste landfills of receiving waters in Madrid province

    OpenAIRE

    Pastor Piñeiro, Jesús; Urcelay, A.; Adarve, M. J.; Hernández, Ana Jesús; Sánchez, Agustín

    1993-01-01

    This study describes some aspects of the anión contení in surface waters and ground waters as well as in the soils affected by three landfills in the Province of Madrid. The anions concerned are chlorides, fluorides, sulfates, phosphates and nitrales. The pH and conductivity were also determined. These parameters may constitute abiotic indicators lo observe the alterations produced in the water and soil by the leachates from the landfills. The results show that the concentrations ...

  10. [Significance of underground waters for population water supply of oil- producing regions in the Republic of Tatarstan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A V; Tafeeva, E A

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides the hygienic characteristics of the underground waters used for water supply of the population of oil-producing regions in the Republic of Tatarstan (RT). The most common indicators of poor-quality drinking water of centralized water-supply systems from underground sources are shown to be its high mineralization, hardness, and higher than normal hygiene levels of chlorides, sulfates, and iron. The primary reason for drinking water quality deterioration is a high (as high as 70%) wear of water mains. It is noted that industrially based sanitary-and-hygienic and nature-conservative measures to improve water supply conditions for the population are being implemented under the financial backing of OAO "Tatneft" in the oil-producing regions. Considerable development-and-survey work is under way to detect and approve underground water reserves; underground reserves of fresh water have been today industrially introduced for the water supply of the towns of Zainsk, Bugulma, Nurlat, and the industrial community of Urussu. More than 400 springs and sources have been constructed, by meeting all the sanitary-and-hygienic requirements.

  11. Managing produced water from coal seam gas projects: implications for an emerging industry in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Peter J; Gore, Damian B; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the environmental problems, impacts and risks associated with the generation and disposal of produced water by the emerging coal seam gas (CSG) industry and how it may be relevant to Australia and similar physical settings. With only limited independent research on the potential environmental impacts of produced water, is it necessary for industry and government policy makers and regulators to draw upon the experiences of related endeavours such as mining and groundwater extraction accepting that the conclusions may not always be directly transferrable. CSG is widely touted in Australia as having the potential to provide significant economic and energy security benefits, yet the environmental and health policies and the planning and regulatory setting are yet to mature and are continuing to evolve amidst ongoing social and environmental concerns and political indecision. In this review, produced water has been defined as water that is brought to the land surface during the process of recovering methane gas from coal seams and includes water sourced from CSG wells as well as flowback water associated with drilling, hydraulic fracturing and gas extraction. A brief overview of produced water generation, its characteristics and environmental issues is provided. A review of past lessons and identification of potential risks, including disposal options, is included to assist in planning and management of this industry.

  12. Process to Continuously Melt, Refine and Cast High Quality Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this project is to conduct research and development targeted at designing a revolutionary steelmaking process. This process will deliver high quality steel from scrap to the casting mold in one continuous process and will be safer, more productive, and less capital intensive to build and operate than conventional steelmaking. The new process will produce higher quality steel faster than traditional batch processes while consuming less energy and other resources.

  13. TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS USING A SURFACTANT MODIFIED ZEOLITE/VAPOR PHASE BIOREACTOR SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

    2003-04-01

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some of them must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. Our previous DOE research work (DE-AC26-99BC15221) demonstrated that SMZ could successfully remove BTEX compounds from the produced water. In addition, SMZ could be regenerated through a simple air sparging process. The primary goal of this project is to develop a robust SMZ/VPB treatment system to efficiently remove the organic constituents from produced water in a cost-effective manner. This report summarizes work of this project from October 2002 to March 2003. In this starting stage of this study, we have continued our investigation of SMZ regeneration from our previous DOE project. Two saturation/stripping cycles have been completed for SMZ columns saturated with BTEX compounds. Preliminary results suggest that BTEX sorption actually increases with the number of saturation/regeneration cycles. Furthermore, the experimental vapor phase bioreactors for this project have been designed and are

  14. Occurrence of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in riverbank fiftered water and drnking water produced by riverbank filtration. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achten, Christine; Kolb, Axel; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2002-09-01

    Bank filtration of river or lake water represents an efficient and natural purification process used for the drinking water production in many countries and at an amount of about 15-16% in Germany. From experiences over decades particularly at the river Rhine and Elbe, it is known that the occurrence of persistent pollutants in river water can represent a problem for the quality of drinking water produced by bank filtration. The common detection of the gasoline additive methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in drinking water and the announced phase-out of the oxygenate in the U.S. show that MTBE can contaminate large water amounts due to its physicochemical properties. The MTBE situation in the U.S differs from Europe, and significantly lower concentrations in the German environment can be expected. Average MTBE concentrations of 200-250 ng/L in the Lower Main and Lower Rhine river in 2000/2001 were reported. At two sites at the Lower Rhine and Lower Main rivers MTBE concentrations in bank filtered water (n = 22), recovering well water, raw water, and drinking water produced by the water utility at the Lower Rhine site (n = 30) and tap water at Frankfurt/M City (n = 13) were analyzed from 1999 to 2001. Sample analysis is performed by a combination of headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with a detection limit of 10 ng/L and a relative standard deviation of 11%. At the Lower Rhine site up to 80 m from the river an average MTBE concentration of 88 ng/L in riverbank filtered water, recovering well water, and raw water (n = 7) and of 43-110 ng/L in drinking water (n = 3) result. At the Lower Main site up to 400 m from the river MTBE concentrations from 52 to 250 ng/L (n = 7) were measured. Tap water samples at Frankfurt/M (mean of 35 ng/L, maximum of 71 ng/L) were in the same range as MTBE amounts in drinking water at the Lower Rhine site. Measured MTBE amounts eliminated by bank filtration at the Lower Rhine site

  15. Geochemical and Strontium Isotope Characterization of Produced Waters from Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Elizabeth C; Capo, Rosemary C.; Stewart, Brian W.; Kirby, Carl S.; Hammack, Richard W.; Schroeder, Karl T.; Edenborn, Harry M.

    2012-03-20

    Extraction of natural gas by hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale, a major gas-bearing unit in the Appalachian Basin, results in significant quantities of produced water containing high total dissolved solids (TDS). We carried out a strontium (Sr) isotope investigation to determine the utility of Sr isotopes in identifying and quantifying the interaction of Marcellus Formation produced waters with other waters in the Appalachian Basin in the event of an accidental release, and to provide information about the source of the dissolved solids. Strontium isotopic ratios of Marcellus produced waters collected over a geographic range of 375 km from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania define a relatively narrow set of values (ε{sub Sr}{sup SW} = +13.8 to +41.6, where ε{sub Sr}{sup SW} is the deviation of the {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio from that of seawater in parts per 10{sup 4}); this isotopic range falls above that of Middle Devonian seawater, and is distinct from most western Pennsylvania acid mine drainage and Upper Devonian Venango Group oil and gas brines. The uniformity of the isotope ratios suggests a basin-wide source of dissolved solids with a component that is more radiogenic than seawater. Mixing models indicate that Sr isotope ratios can be used to sensitively differentiate between Marcellus Formation produced water and other potential sources of TDS into ground or surface waters.

  16. Geochemical and Strontium Isotope Characterization of Produced Waters from Marcellus Shale Natural Gas Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizabeth C. Chapman,† Rosemary C. Capo,† Brian W. Stewart,*,† Carl S. Kirby,‡ Richard W. Hammack,§

    2012-02-24

    Extraction of natural gas by hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale, a major gas-bearing unit in the Appalachian Basin, results in significant quantities of produced water containing high total dissolved solids (TDS). We carried out a strontium (Sr) isotope investigation to determine the utility of Sr isotopes in identifying and quantifying the interaction of Marcellus Formation produced waters with other waters in the Appalachian Basin in the event of an accidental release, and to provide information about the source of the dissolved solids. Strontium isotopic ratios of Marcellus produced waters collected over a geographic range of ∼375 km from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania define a relatively narrow set of values (εSr SW = +13.8 to +41.6, where εSr SW is the deviation of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio from that of seawater in parts per 104); this isotopic range falls above that of Middle Devonian seawater, and is distinct from most western Pennsylvania acid mine drainage and Upper Devonian Venango Group oil and gas brines. The uniformity of the isotope ratios suggests a basin-wide source of dissolved solids with a component that is more radiogenic than seawater. Mixing models indicate that Sr isotope ratios can be used to sensitively differentiate between Marcellus Formation produced water and other potential sources of TDS into ground or surface waters.

  17. Radioactivity in Oily Sludge and Produced Waste Water from Oil: Environmental Concerns and Potential Remedial Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avin E. Pillay

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Produced water separated from oil is usually returned to the environment and could permeate through the water table. If such water is contaminated with radioactive substances, it could create a definite threat to the water supply, especially in arid regions where ground water and overhead streams are sources of potable water. Low-level radioactive contamination of oily sludge is equally hazardous and also leads to detrimental pollution of water resources. We investigated the distribution of 226Ra, 40K and 228Ac in produced waste water and oily sludge and found abnormal levels of radioactivity. A total of 90 ground wastewater samples were collected from different sites for a period of one year. The presence of these radionuclides was identified by their characteristic gamma rays. The detection system consisted of a high-purity germanium detector. Our results show that about 20% of the samples exhibited 20–60 Bq/L radioactivity and ~6% of the samples exceeded 60 Bq/L. Roughly 70% of the experimental samples fell in the range of 2–20 Bq/L, which still exceeded the maximum admissible drinking-water limit 0.2 Bq/L.

  18. Treatment of Produced Water Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; Robert S. Bowman; Enid J. Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig R. Altare

    2006-01-31

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. Produced waters typically contain a high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component as well as chemicals added during the oil-production process. It has been estimated that a total of 14 billion barrels of produced water were generated in 2002 from onshore operations (Veil, 2004). Although much of this produced water is disposed via reinjection, environmental and cost considerations can make surface discharge of this water a more practical means of disposal. In addition, reinjection is not always a feasible option because of geographic, economic, or regulatory considerations. In these situations, it may be desirable, and often necessary from a regulatory viewpoint, to treat produced water before discharge. It may also be feasible to treat waters that slightly exceed regulatory limits for re-use in arid or drought-prone areas, rather than losing them to reinjection. A previous project conducted under DOE Contract DE-AC26-99BC15221 demonstrated that surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) represents a potential treatment technology for produced water containing BTEX. Laboratory and field experiments suggest that: (1) sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) to SMZ follows linear isotherms in which sorption increases with increasing solute hydrophobicity; (2) the presence of high salt concentrations substantially increases the capacity of the SMZ for BTEX; (3) competitive sorption among the BTEX compounds is negligible; and, (4) complete recovery of the SMZ sorption capacity for BTEX can be achieved by air sparging the SMZ. This report summarizes research for a follow on project to optimize the regeneration process for multiple sorption/regeneration cycles, and to develop and incorporate a vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) system for treatment of the off-gas generated during

  19. Biological treatment process for removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil field produced waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tellez, G.; Khandan, N.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of removing petroleum hydrocarbons from oil fields produced waters using biological treatment was evaluated under laboratory and field conditions. Based on previous laboratory studies, a field-scale prototype system was designed and operated over a period of four months. Two different sources of produced waters were tested in this field study under various continuous flow rates ranging from 375 1/D to 1,800 1/D. One source of produced water was an open storage pit; the other, a closed storage tank. The TDS concentrations of these sources exceeded 50,000 mg/l; total n-alkanes exceeded 100 mg/l; total petroleum hydrocarbons exceeded 125 mg/l; and total BTEX exceeded 3 mg/l. Removals of total n-alkanes, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX remained consistently high over 99%. During these tests, the energy costs averaged $0.20/bbl at 12 bbl/D.

  20. High quality digital holographic reconstruction on analog film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, B.; Hartmann, P.

    2017-05-01

    High quality real-time digital holographic reconstruction, i.e. at 30 Hz frame rates, has been at the forefront of research and has been hailed as the holy grail of display systems. While these efforts have produced a fascinating array of computer algorithms and technology, many applications of reconstructing high quality digital holograms do not require such high frame rates. In fact, applications such as 3D holographic lithography even require a stationary mask. Typical devices used for digital hologram reconstruction are based on spatial-light-modulator technology and this technology is great for reconstructing arbitrary holograms on the fly; however, it lacks the high spatial resolution achievable by its analog counterpart, holographic film. Analog holographic film is therefore the method of choice for reconstructing highquality static holograms. The challenge lies in taking a static, high-quality digitally calculated hologram and effectively writing it to holographic film. We have developed a theoretical system based on a tunable phase plate, an intensity adjustable high-coherence laser and a slip-stick based piezo rotation stage to effectively produce a digitally calculated hologram on analog film. The configuration reproduces the individual components, both the amplitude and phase, of the hologram in the Fourier domain. These Fourier components are then individually written on the holographic film after interfering with a reference beam. The system is analogous to writing angularly multiplexed plane waves with individual component phase control.

  1. High quality fuel gas from biomass pyrolysis with calcium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baofeng; Zhang, Xiaodong; Chen, Lei; Sun, Laizhi; Si, Hongyu; Chen, Guanyi

    2014-03-01

    The removal of CO2 and tar in fuel gas produced by biomass thermal conversion has aroused more attention due to their adverse effects on the subsequent fuel gas application. High quality fuel gas production from sawdust pyrolysis with CaO was studied in this paper. The results of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) experiments indicate that the mass ratio of CaO to sawdust (Ca/S) remarkably affects the behavior of sawdust pyrolysis. On the basis of Py-GC/MS results, one system of a moving bed pyrolyzer coupled with a fluid bed combustor has been developed to produce high quality fuel gas. The lower heating value (LHV) of the fuel gas was above 16MJ/Nm(3) and the content of tar was under 50mg/Nm(3), which is suitable for gas turbine application to generate electricity and heat. Therefore, this technology may be a promising route to achieve high quality fuel gas for biomass utilization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Hygienic characteristics of the quality OF underground drinking water in oil-producing areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleĭmanov, R A; Valiev, T K; Rakhmatullin, N R; Nigmatullin, I M; Gaĭsin, A A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research was the assessment and the disclosure of the features of the pollution of groundwater at the oil-producing areas of the Republic of Bashkortostan and the elaboration of hygienic recommendations for environmentally sound water management. According to results of the studies performed there is presented the characteristic of main reasons leading to the pollution of groundwater in the location of oil and gas producing regions There was suggested the complex of hygienic recommendations and management decisions on the improvement of the water supply in areas with advanced oil production.

  3. Shale gas produced water treatment using innovative microbial capacitive desalination cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Zachary A; Forrestal, Casey; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Xu, Pei

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of unconventional oil and gas production has generated large amounts of wastewater for disposal, raising significant environmental and public health concerns. Treatment and beneficial use of produced water presents many challenges due to its high concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and salinity. The objectives of this study were to investigate the feasibility of treating actual shale gas produced water using a bioelectrochemical system integrated with capacitive deionization-a microbial capacitive desalination cell (MCDC). Microbial degradation of organic compounds in the anode generated an electric potential that drove the desalination of produced water. Sorption and biodegradation resulted in a combined organic removal rate of 6.4 mg dissolved organic carbon per hour in the reactor, and the MCDC removed 36 mg salt per gram of carbon electrode per hour from produced water. This study is a proof-of-concept that the MCDC can be used to combine organic degradation with desalination of contaminated water without external energy input. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Polyoxadiazole hollow fibers for produced water treatment by direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Jingli

    2018-01-08

    Treatment of produced water in the petroleum industry has been a challenge worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the use of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) for this purpose, removing oil and dissolved elements and supplying clean water from waste. We synthesized fluorinated polyoxadiazole, a highly hydrophobic polymer, to fabricate hollow fiber membranes, which were optimized and tested for simulated produced water and real produced water treatment. The process performance was investigated under different operating parameters, such as feed temperature, feed flow velocity and length of the membrane module for 4 days. The results indicate that by increasing feed temperature and feed flow rate the vapor flux increases. The flux decreased with increasing the length of the module due to the decrease of the driving force along the module. The fouling behavior, which corresponds to flux decline and cleaning efficiency of the membrane, was studied. The performance of the fabricated hollow fiber membranes was demonstrated for the treatment of produced water, complying with the industrial reuse and discharge limits.

  5. Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Henderson

    2007-09-30

    The project is titled 'Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations'. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is the principal investigator and the IOGCC has partnered with ALL Consulting, Inc., headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in this project. State agencies that also have partnered in the project are the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, the Montana Board of Oil and Gas Conservation, the Kansas Oil and Gas Conservation Division, the Oklahoma Oil and Gas Conservation Division and the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. The objective is to characterize produced water quality and management practices for the handling, treating, and disposing of produced water from conventional oil and gas operations throughout the industry nationwide. Water produced from these operations varies greatly in quality and quantity and is often the single largest barrier to the economic viability of wells. The lack of data, coupled with renewed emphasis on domestic oil and gas development, has prompted many experts to speculate that the number of wells drilled over the next 20 years will approach 3 million, or near the number of current wells. This level of exploration and development undoubtedly will draw the attention of environmental communities, focusing their concerns on produced water management based on perceived potential impacts to fresh water resources. Therefore, it is imperative that produced water management practices be performed in a manner that best minimizes environmental impacts. This is being accomplished by compiling current best management practices for produced water from conventional oil and gas operations and to develop an analysis tool based on a geographic information system (GIS) to assist in the understanding of watershed-issued permits. That would allow management costs to be kept in

  6. In situ and laboratory toxicity of coalbed natural gas produced waters with elevated sodium bicarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David D.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Some tributaries in the Powder River Structural Basin, USA, were historically ephemeral, but now contain water year round as a result of discharge of coalbed natural gas (CBNG)-produced waters. This presented the opportunity to study field sites with 100% effluent water with elevated concentrations of sodium bicarbonate. In situ experiments, static renewal experiments performed simultaneously with in situ experiments, and static renewal experiments performed with site water in the laboratory demonstrated that CBNG-produced water reduces survival of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Age affected survival of fathead minnow, where fish 2 d posthatch (dph) were more sensitive than 6 dph fish, but pallid sturgeon survival was adversely affected at both 4 and 6 dph. This may have implications for acute assays that allow for the use of fish up to 14 dph. The survival of early lifestage fish is reduced significantly in the field when concentrations of NaHCO3 rise to more than 1500 mg/L (also expressed as >1245 mg HCO3 (-) /L). Treatment with the Higgin's Loop technology and dilution of untreated water increased survival in the laboratory. The mixing zones of the 3 outfalls studied ranged from approximately 800 m to 1200 m below the confluence. These experiments addressed the acute toxicity of effluent waters but did not address issues related to the volumes of water that may be added to the watershed.

  7. Dispersion of produced water in a coastal environment and its biological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Libe; Stone, Shannon; MacIntyre, Sally

    1999-01-01

    Produced water, a pollutant associated with offshore oil production, has been shown to have adverse effects on marine organisms. We conducted a study of the dispersion of a produced water plume from an outfall in the Santa Barbara Channel near Carpinteria, CA. Biological effects were studied previously in a series of experiments which examined the toxicity of ocean waters near the outfall. To define the changing ocean conditions around the outfall, we obtained time series observations of currents and water properties from July, 1992 to January, 1994. Near-field dispersion of the produced water is simulated with a buoyant plume model. Measured currents and density profiles are used as model inputs. Far-field dispersion is simulated with the current statistics combined with an elementary solution to the diffusion equation. The modeled depth of the plume varies strongly with season due to changing stratification. In spring and summer, the modeled plume is trapped below the surface. In fall and winter it extends over most of the water column and occasionally surfaces. Minimum initial dilution is ˜100 in summer and ˜500 in winter. Far-field modeling indicates along-isobath symmetry in produced water dispersion in the mid water column. This pattern agrees with the distribution of toxic effects from the biological studies. At 1000 m from the outfall, the farthest test sites in the biological studies, minimum dilutions range from 4000 to 4×10 5 when the plume is present. These estimates exceed the threshold for sub-lethal effects found by Krause (1993) in a sea urchin fertilization bioassay. Time averaged dilutions in the far-field are larger by factors of 10 2 to 10 3.

  8. Pilot scale test of a produced water-treatment system for initial removal of organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Enid J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kwon, Soondong [UT-AUSTIN; Katz, Lynn [UT-AUSTIN; Kinney, Kerry [UT-AUSTIN

    2008-01-01

    A pilot-scale test to remove polar and non-polar organics from produced water was performed at a disposal facility in Farmington NM. We used surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) adsorbent beds and a membrane bioreactor (MBR) in combination to reduce the organic carbon content of produced water prior to reverse osmosis (RO). Reduction of total influent organic carbon (TOC) to 5 mg/L or less is desirable for efficient RO system operation. Most water disposed at the facility is from coal-bed gas production, with oil production waters intermixed. Up to 20 gal/d of produced water was cycled through two SMZ adsorbent units to remove volatile organic compounds (BTEX, acetone) and semivolatile organic compounds (e.g., napthalene). Output water from the SMZ units was sent to the MBR for removal of the organic acid component of TOC. Removal of inorganic (Mn and Fe oxide) particulates by the SMZ system was observed. The SMZ columns removed up to 40% of the influent TOC (600 mg/L). BTEX concentrations were reduced from the initial input of 70 mg/L to 5 mg/L by the SMZ and to an average of 2 mg/L after the MBR. Removal rates of acetate (input 120-170 mg/L) and TOC (input up to 45 mg/L) were up to 100% and 92%, respectively. The water pH rose from 8.5 to 8.8 following organic acid removal in the MBR; this relatively high pH was likely responsible for observed scaling of the MBR internal membrane. Additional laboratory studies showed the scaling can be reduced by metered addition of acid to reduce the pH. Significantly, organic removal in the MBR was accomplished with a very low biomass concentration of 1 g/L throughout the field trial. An earlier engineering evaluation shows produced water treatment by the SMZ/MBR/RO system would cost from $0.13 to $0.20 per bbl at up to 40 gpm. Current estimated disposal costs for produced water are $1.75 to $4.91 per bbl when transportation costs are included, with even higher rates in some regions. Our results suggest that treatment by an SMZ

  9. High quality early childhood education in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Varona Alabern

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The United States education system, K-12 produced impressive results for most of the 20th century. We trace its origins back to the end of the 19th century, when the America’s social and economical needs and its circumstances were very different from the ones today. Nowadays, American society is far more complex and demands highly qualified citizens, a requirement which inevitably starts with high quality early childhood education, as we will illustrate below. Therefore, experts are currently requesting all public administrations and private sector to take further steps to ensure high quality preschool education for everyone in order to improve Americans’ skills and the United States’ economy, as well as to overcome the existing inequalities.

  10. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banach, Jennifer L; Sampers, Imca; Van Haute, Sam; van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine

    2015-07-23

    The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water disinfectants during produce processing with the aim to prevent cross-contamination of pathogens. Process wash water disinfection requires short contact times so microorganisms are rapidly inactivated. Free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and peracetic acid were considered suitable disinfectants. A disinfectant's reactivity with the organic matter will determine the disinfectant residual, which is of paramount importance for microbial inactivation and should be monitored in situ. Furthermore, the chemical and worker safety, and the legislative framework will determine the suitability of a disinfection technique. Current research often focuses on produce decontamination and to a lesser extent on preventing cross-contamination. Further research on a sanitizer's efficacy in the washing water is recommended at the laboratory scale, in particular with experimental designs reflecting industrial conditions. Validation on the industrial scale is warranted to better understand the overall effects of a sanitizer.

  11. Effect of Disinfectants on Preventing the Cross-Contamination of Pathogens in Fresh Produce Washing Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Banach

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The potential cross-contamination of pathogens between clean and contaminated produce in the washing tank is highly dependent on the water quality. Process wash water disinfectants are applied to maintain the water quality during processing. The review examines the efficacy of process wash water disinfectants during produce processing with the aim to prevent cross-contamination of pathogens. Process wash water disinfection requires short contact times so microorganisms are rapidly inactivated. Free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and peracetic acid were considered suitable disinfectants. A disinfectant’s reactivity with the organic matter will determine the disinfectant residual, which is of paramount importance for microbial inactivation and should be monitored in situ. Furthermore, the chemical and worker safety, and the legislative framework will determine the suitability of a disinfection technique. Current research often focuses on produce decontamination and to a lesser extent on preventing cross-contamination. Further research on a sanitizer’s efficacy in the washing water is recommended at the laboratory scale, in particular with experimental designs reflecting industrial conditions. Validation on the industrial scale is warranted to better understand the overall effects of a sanitizer.

  12. Reduction of the contaminants presents in petroleum produced water; Reducao de contaminantes presentes na agua de producao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Daniela Sayao; Cammarota, Magali Christe; Camporese, Eliana Flavia Servulo [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica. Dept. de Engenharia Bioquimica]. E-mail:dsayao@eq.ufrj.br

    2003-07-01

    Large volumes of produced waters are co-produced during oil and gas exploration and production process. As the oil field ages, the produced water volume can exceed ten times the quantity of oil produced. Produced water normally contains many organic and inorganic materials, and its inadequate discharges represent a serious environmental problem. The efficiency of an anaerobic biological treatment of produced water from Carmopolis (Sergipe State, Brazil) had been investigated in a bench bioreactor. The bioreactor was operated for 15 days and TOC, oil and greases and total phenols removals reached 20%, 55% and 57%, respectively. These results show that the microbial consortium, isolated from the produced water and enriched with sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB), was capable of using part of the hydrocarbons - including total phenols - as substrate and that its possible to treat anaerobically a produced water. (author)

  13. Treatment of sulphated water of surface origin produced by an open pit coal mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Campos-Sánchez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to select the most suitable method of treatment of sulfated water produced by an open pit coal mine in Venezuela. Samples of water taken on surface, middle and bottom of water bodies in three areas were subjected to basic, gravimetric, volumetric and colorimetric analysis. The results indicated that the pH is within limits permitted by current environmental regulations, while total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, and sulfates exceed the normed values. The aerobic wetland method was selected as the most efficient for the removal of sulfates, depending on the physicochemical characteristics of the sulphated waters from the mine and because they are systems that use natural energy to purify water, its construction and maintenance costs Is significantly inferior to the conventional treatments and because, being replicas of natural ecosystems, they are integrated to the environment.

  14. Environmental Risk Assessment of Produced Water Discharges on the Dutch Continental Shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de P.; Karman, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    The OSPAR Offshore Industry Committee (OIC) has decided, in its meeting of 2008, to evaluate the possibility of implementing a risk based approach towards produced water management. Currently, Norway has made most progress in this field as it has fully implemented the Environmental Impact Factor as

  15. Degradation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon and BTEX Compounds in Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Lorri

    2002-04-01

    Petroleum Environmental Technologies, LLC entered into a Cooperative Research and Development agreement with the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center to an in-situ pit treatment demonstration and produced water treatment demonstration. The purpose of the test is to demonstrate the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds in soil and aqueous matrices where ECOSAFE is applied to enhance the degradation of these contaminants.

  16. Arsenic analysis in produced formation water (PFW) from Chinguetti FPSO in Mauritania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korytar, P.; Galiën, van der W.

    2006-01-01

    Woodside Mauritania has commissioned IMARES to organize testing of produced formation water (PFW) from Chinguetti FPSO in Mauritania for arsenic (As (III) and As (V)). This report provides the results of the testing, observations made during the sampling and discussion of the results.

  17. Glucansucrases from lactic acid bacteria which produce water-insoluble polysaccharides from sucrose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dextrans and related glucans produced from sucrose by lactic acid bacteria have been studied for many years and are used in numerous commercial applications and products. Most of these glucans are water-soluble, except for a few notable exceptions from cariogenic Streptococcus spp. and a very small ...

  18. Biomarker induction in tropical fish species on the Northwest Shelf of Australia by produced formation water

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Shiqian; King, Susan Codi; Haasch, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    Biomarker induction in tropical fish species on the Northwest Shelf of Australia by produced formation water correspondence: Corresponding author. (Haasch, Mary L.) (Haasch, Mary L.) Environmental Toxicology Research Program, National Center for Natural Products Research, Pharmacology Department, School of Pharmacy, The University of Mississippi, University - MS. 38677--> - (Zhu, Shiqian) Australian Institute ...

  19. Simple model for laser-produced, mass-limited water-droplet plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garloff, Kurt; van den Donker, Michiel; van der Mullen, Joost; van Goor, F.A.; Brummans, Ralph; Jonkers, Jeroen

    2002-01-01

    Plasmas, produced by a neodymium yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser pulse focused on a small water droplet and used for the generation of extreme ultraviolet light, can be described by a relatively simple model due to the fact that thermodynamic equilibrium can be assumed for the most important

  20. Solar heating of the produced water of petroleum; Aquecimento solar da agua produzida de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rogerio Pitanga; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; Bezerra, Magna A. Santos; Melo, Josette Lourdes Sousa de; Oliveira, Jackson Araujo de; Ramos, Rafael E. Moura [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Schuhli, Juliana Bregenski; Andrade, Vivian Tavares de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2008-07-01

    In this work, experimental data of solar heating for common water and saline solution were measured. The solar heater is formed by a flat-plane collector and a thermal reservoir ('boiler'). The objective is to quantify the variation of fluids' temperature, and correlate it to environment variables, especially solar irradiation. Thereby, it is possible to estimate the solar heating of produced water of petroleum. The solar heater is part of a system of treatment of produced water, and its function is to pre-heat the fluid that enters into the solar distiller, increasing the productivity of distilled water. A saline solution that represents produced water was used in the experiments, using sodium chloride (1000 ppm). The experimental data demonstrates that the solar heater is capable to heat the fluid to temperatures close to 70 deg C, reaching temperatures close to 50 deg C even during cloudy days with low solar radiation. Furthermore, the solar collector energy system provides a higher rate of heating and trough of the thermal reservoir the temperature can remain longer. These are important aspects to the integration with solar distillation. (author)

  1. Developing a cost effective environmental solution for produced water and creating a ''new'' water resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doran, Glenn; Leong, Lawrence Y.C.

    2000-05-01

    The project goal is to convert a currently usable by-product of oil production, produced water, into a valuable drinking water resource. The project was located at the Placate Oil Field in Santa Clarita, California, approximately 25 miles north of Los Angeles. The project included a literature review of treatment technologies; preliminary bench-scale studies to refine a planning level cost estimate; and a 10-100 gpm pilot study to develop the conceptual design and cost estimate for a 44,000 bpd treatment facility. A reverse osmosis system was constructed, pilot tested, and the data used to develop a conceptual design and operation of four operational scenarios, two industrial waters levels and two irrigation/potable water.

  2. Proposed Photosynthesis Method for Producing Hydrogen from Dissociated Water Molecules Using Incident Near-Infrared Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingxing; Li, Zhenyu; Yang, Jinlong

    2014-01-01

    Highly efficient solar energy utilization is very desirable in photocatalytic water splitting. However, until now, the infrared part of the solar spectrum, which constitutes almost half of the solar energy, has not been used, resulting in significant loss in the efficiency of solar energy utilization. Here, we propose a new mechanism for water splitting in which near-infrared light can be used to produce hydrogen. This ability is a result of the unique electronic structure of the photocatalyst, in which the valence band and conduction band are distributed on two opposite surfaces with a large electrostatic potential difference produced by the intrinsic dipole of the photocatalyst. This surface potential difference, acting as an auxiliary booster for photoexcited electrons, can effectively reduce the photocatalyst's band gap required for water splitting in the infrared region. Our electronic structure and optical property calculations on a surface-functionalized hexagonal boron-nitride bilayer confirm the existence of such photocatalysts and verify the reaction mechanism.

  3. Cleaning the Produced Water in Offshore Oil Production by Using Plant-wide Optimal Control Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Pedersen, Simon; Løhndorf, Petar Durdevic

    2014-01-01

    To clean the produced water is always a challenging critical issue in the offshore oil & gas industry. By employing the plant-wide control technology, this paper discussed the opportunity to optimize the most popular hydrocyclone-based Produced Water Treatment (PWT) system. The optimizations...... of the efficiency control of the de-oiling hydrocyclone and the water level control of the upstream separator, are discussed and formulated. Some of our latest research results on the analysis and control of slugging flows in production well-pipeline-riser systems are also presented. The ultimate objective...... of this research is to promote a technical breakthrough in the PWT control design, which can lead to the best environmental protection in the oil & gas production, without sacrificing the production capability and production costs....

  4. Characterization of N-Acylhomoserine Lactones Produced by Bacteria Isolated from Industrial Cooling Water Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriya Okutsu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cooling water systems are used to remove heat generated in the various industries. Biofouling of the cooling water systems causes blocking of condenser pipes and the heat exchanger tubes. In many Gram-negative bacteria, N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL are used as quorum-sensing signal molecule and associated with biofilm formation. To investigate the relationship between quorum sensing and biofouling in the cooling water system, we isolated a total of 192 bacterial strains from the five cooling water systems, and screened for AHL production. Seven isolates stimulated AHL-mediated purple pigment production in AHL reporter strain Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 or VIR07. Based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences, AHL-producing isolates were assigned to Aeromonas hydrophila, Lysobacter sp., Methylobacterium oryzae, and Bosea massiliensis. To the best of our knowledge, B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. have not been reported as AHL-producing species in the previous researches. AHLs extracted from the culture supernatants of B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. were identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. AHLs produced by B. massiliensis were assigned as N-hexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C6-HSL, N-(3-oxohexanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL, and N-(3-oxooctanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL. AHLs produced by Lysobacter sp. were assigned as N-decanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL and N-(3-oxodecanoyl-l-homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C10-HSL. This is the first report of identification of AHLs produced by B. massiliensis and Lysobacter sp. isolated from the cooling water system.

  5. Enteric Pathogen Survival Varies Substantially in Irrigation Water from Belgian Lettuce Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Linden, Inge; Cottyn, Bart; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Berkvens, Nick; Vlaemynck, Geertrui; Heyndrickx, Marc; Maes, Martine

    2014-01-01

    It is accepted that irrigation water is a potential carrier of enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 and, therefore, a source for contamination of fresh produce. We tested this by comparing irrigation water samples taken from five different greenhouses in Belgium. The water samples were inoculated with four zoonotic strains, two Salmonella and two E. coli O157:H7 strains, and pathogen survival and growth in the water were monitored up till 14 days. The influence of water temperature and chemical water quality was evaluated, and the survival tests were also performed in water samples from which the resident aquatic microbiota had previously been eliminated by filter sterilization. The pathogen’s survival differed greatly in the different irrigation waters. Three water samples contained nutrients to support important growth of the pathogens, and another enabled weaker growth. However, for all, growth was only observed in the samples that did not contain the resident aquatic microbiota. In the original waters with their specific water biota, pathogen levels declined. The same survival tendencies existed in water of 4 °C and 20 °C, although always more expressed at 20 °C. Low water temperatures resulted in longer pathogen survival. Remarkably, the survival capacity of two E. coli 0157:H7 strains differed, while Salmonella Thompson and Salmonella Typhimurium behaved similarly. The pathogens were also transferred to detached lettuce leaves, while suspended in two of the water samples or in a buffer. The effect of the water sample on the pathogen’s fitness was also reproduced on the leaves when stored at 100% relative humidity. Inoculation of the suspension in buffer or in one of the water samples enabled epiphytic growth and survival, while the pathogen level in the other water sample decreased once loaded on the leaves. Our results show that irrigation waters from different origin may have a different capacity to transmit enteric pathogens and

  6. Enteric pathogen survival varies substantially in irrigation water from Belgian lettuce producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Linden, Inge; Cottyn, Bart; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Berkvens, Nick; Vlaemynck, Geertrui; Heyndrickx, Marc; Maes, Martine

    2014-09-29

    It is accepted that irrigation water is a potential carrier of enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 and, therefore, a source for contamination of fresh produce. We tested this by comparing irrigation water samples taken from five different greenhouses in Belgium. The water samples were inoculated with four zoonotic strains, two Salmonella and two E. coli O157:H7 strains, and pathogen survival and growth in the water were monitored up till 14 days. The influence of water temperature and chemical water quality was evaluated, and the survival tests were also performed in water samples from which the resident aquatic microbiota had previously been eliminated by filter sterilization. The pathogen's survival differed greatly in the different irrigation waters. Three water samples contained nutrients to support important growth of the pathogens, and another enabled weaker growth. However, for all, growth was only observed in the samples that did not contain the resident aquatic microbiota. In the original waters with their specific water biota, pathogen levels declined. The same survival tendencies existed in water of 4 °C and 20 °C, although always more expressed at 20 °C. Low water temperatures resulted in longer pathogen survival. Remarkably, the survival capacity of two E. coli 0157:H7 strains differed, while Salmonella Thompson and Salmonella Typhimurium behaved similarly. The pathogens were also transferred to detached lettuce leaves, while suspended in two of the water samples or in a buffer. The effect of the water sample on the pathogen's fitness was also reproduced on the leaves when stored at 100% relative humidity. Inoculation of the suspension in buffer or in one of the water samples enabled epiphytic growth and survival, while the pathogen level in the other water sample decreased once loaded on the leaves. Our results show that irrigation waters from different origin may have a different capacity to transmit enteric pathogens and an

  7. Enteric Pathogen Survival Varies Substantially in Irrigation Water from Belgian Lettuce Producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Van Der Linden

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It is accepted that irrigation water is a potential carrier of enteric pathogens, such as Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 and, therefore, a source for contamination of fresh produce. We tested this by comparing irrigation water samples taken from five different greenhouses in Belgium. The water samples were inoculated with four zoonotic strains, two Salmonella and two E. coli O157:H7 strains, and pathogen survival and growth in the water were monitored up till 14 days. The influence of water temperature and chemical water quality was evaluated, and the survival tests were also performed in water samples from which the resident aquatic microbiota had previously been eliminated by filter sterilization. The pathogen’s survival differed greatly in the different irrigation waters. Three water samples contained nutrients to support important growth of the pathogens, and another enabled weaker growth. However, for all, growth was only observed in the samples that did not contain the resident aquatic microbiota. In the original waters with their specific water biota, pathogen levels declined. The same survival tendencies existed in water of 4 °C and 20 °C, although always more expressed at 20 °C. Low water temperatures resulted in longer pathogen survival. Remarkably, the survival capacity of two E. coli 0157:H7 strains differed, while Salmonella Thompson and Salmonella Typhimurium behaved similarly. The pathogens were also transferred to detached lettuce leaves, while suspended in two of the water samples or in a buffer. The effect of the water sample on the pathogen’s fitness was also reproduced on the leaves when stored at 100% relative humidity. Inoculation of the suspension in buffer or in one of the water samples enabled epiphytic growth and survival, while the pathogen level in the other water sample decreased once loaded on the leaves. Our results show that irrigation waters from different origin may have a different capacity to transmit

  8. Groundwater chemistry near an impoundment for produced water, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, R.W.; Bartos, T.T.; Rice, C.A.; McKinley, M.P.; Smith, B.D.

    2011-01-01

    The Powder River Basin is one of the largest producers of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) in the United States. An important environmental concern in the Basin is the fate of the large amounts of groundwater extracted during CBNG production. Most of this produced water is disposed of in unlined surface impoundments. A 6-year study of groundwater flow and water chemistry at one impoundment, Skewed Reservoir, has produced the most detailed data set for any impoundment in the Basin. Data were collected from a network of 21 observation wells and three suction lysimeters. A groundwater mound formed atop bedrock within initially unsaturated, unconsolidated deposits underlying the reservoir. Heterogeneity in physical and chemical properties of sediments resulted in complex groundwater flow paths and highly variable groundwater chemistry. Sulfate, bicarbonate, sodium, and magnesium were the dominant ions in all areas, but substantial variability existed in relative concentrations; pH varied from less than 3 to more than 9, and total dissolved solids concentrations ranged from less than 5000 to greater than 100,000 mg/L. Selenium was a useful tracer of reservoir water; selenium concentrations exceeded 300 μg/L in samples obtained from 18 of the 24 sampling points. Groundwater travel time from the reservoir to a nearby alluvial aquifer (a linear distance of 177 m) was calculated at 474 days on the basis of selenium concentrations. The produced water is not the primary source of solutes in the groundwater. Naturally occurring salts and minerals within the unsaturated zone, dissolved and mobilized by infiltrating impoundment water, account for most of the solute mass in groundwater. Gypsum dissolution, cation-exchange, and pyrite oxidation appear to be important reactions. The complex geochemistry and groundwater flow paths at the study site underscore the difficulty in assessing effects of surface impoundments on water resources within the Powder River Basin.

  9. Use of Produced Water in Recirculated Cooling Systems at Power Generating Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. McGowin; M. DiFilippo; L. Weintraub

    2006-06-30

    Tree ring studies indicate that, for the greater part of the last three decades, New Mexico has been relatively 'wet' compared to the long-term historical norm. However, during the last several years, New Mexico has experienced a severe drought. Some researchers are predicting a return of very dry weather over the next 30 to 40 years. Concern over the drought has spurred interest in evaluating the use of otherwise unusable saline waters to supplement current fresh water supplies for power plant operation and cooling and other uses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored three related assessments of water supplies in the San Juan Basin area of the four-corner intersection of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. These were (1) an assessment of using water produced with oil and gas as a supplemental supply for the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS); (2) a field evaluation of the wet-surface air cooling (WSAC) system at SJGS; and (3) the development of a ZeroNet systems analysis module and an application of the Watershed Risk Management Framework (WARMF) to evaluate a range of water shortage management plans. The study of the possible use of produced water at SJGS showed that produce water must be treated to justify its use in any reasonable quantity at SJGS. The study identified produced water volume and quality, the infrastructure needed to deliver it to SJGS, treatment requirements, and delivery and treatment economics. A number of produced water treatment alternatives that use off-the-shelf technology were evaluated along with the equipment needed for water treatment at SJGS. Wet surface air-cooling (WSAC) technology was tested at the San Juan Generating Station (SJGS) to determine its capacity to cool power plant circulating water using degraded water. WSAC is a commercial cooling technology and has been used for many years to cool and/or condense process fluids. The purpose of the pilot test was to

  10. TREATMENT OF PRODUCED OIL AND GAS WATERS WITH SURFACTANT-MODIFIED ZEOLITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn E. Katz; E.J. Sullivan; R.S. Bowman

    2000-10-31

    Whereas most water produced from onshore oil and gas operations is disposed via reinjection, some waters, such as those from offshore production platforms, coastal production, and some onshore wells, must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current methods for reducing residual free phases and dissolved organic carbon are not always fully effective in meeting regulatory limits. In addition, cost, space requirements, and ease of use are important factors in any treatment system. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. This research will use laboratory batch and column studies to design a field system that will be used to treat produced waters to reduce dissolved and free-phase organic constituents. The system will be designed to operate simply and to have low operating costs. Methods for regeneration of the spent zeolite will also be tested, as will the treatment system at a field production site in the final project task. Research over the past six months has focused on the method development, batch adsorption studies to demonstrate removal of target organic constituents, and the selection of a likely test site and characterization of produced waters from the site. Current contacts for selection, and ultimately, testing of example oil field waters include Phillips Petroleum Corp. (offshore location, Gulf of Mexico); MCA Petroleum Corporation in Flatonia, Texas; Amoco production in Farmington, New Mexico; and the New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources (mining operators for coal bed waters from the Farmington area). Water from Phillips Petroleum was received in August and analyzed at the University of Texas. These waters are being used in the laboratory to evaluate interactions between oil field waters and the SMZ. A site visit to MCA Petroleum operations was undertaken on October 12, 2000, and the analyses of samples taken

  11. Treating Coalbed Natural Gas Produced Water for Beneficial Use By MFI Zeolite Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Lee; Liangxiong Li

    2008-03-31

    Desalination of brines produced from oil and gas fields is an attractive option for providing potable water in arid regions. Recent field-testing of subsurface sequestration of carbon dioxide for climate management purposes provides new motivation for optimizing efficacy of oilfield brine desalination: as subsurface reservoirs become used for storing CO{sub 2}, the displaced brines must be managed somehow. However, oilfield brine desalination is not economical at this time because of high costs of synthesizing membranes and the need for sophisticated pretreatments to reduce initial high TDS and to prevent serious fouling of membranes. In addition to these barriers, oil/gas field brines typically contain high concentrations of multivalent counter cations (eg. Ca{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) that can reduce efficacy of reverse osmosis (RO). Development of inorganic membranes with typical characteristics of high strength and stability provide a valuable option to clean produced water for beneficial uses. Zeolite membranes have a well-defined subnanometer pore structure and extreme chemical and mechanical stability, thus showing promising applicability in produced water purification. For example, the MFI-type zeolite membranes with uniform pore size of {approx}0.56 nm can separate ions from aqueous solution through a mechanism of size exclusion and electrostatic repulsion (Donnan exclusion). Such a combination allows zeolite membranes to be unique in separation of both organics and electrolytes from aqueous solutions by a reverse osmosis process, which is of great interest for difficult separations, such as oil-containing produced water purification. The objectives of the project 'Treating Coalbed Natural Gas Produced Water for Beneficial Use by MFI Zeolite Membranes' are: (1) to conduct extensive fundamental investigations and understand the mechanism of the RO process on zeolite membranes and factors determining the membrane performance, (2) to improve

  12. Ultrasound treatments improve the microbiological quality of water reservoirs used for the irrigation of fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Maria V; Luna, Maria C; Gil, Maria I; Allende, Ana

    2015-09-01

    Irrigation water has been highlighted as a source of microbial contamination in produce. Water treatment has been recommended as an intervention strategy to reduce microbial risks associated to irrigation water. Commercial water treatments mostly depend on chemical agents; although growers search for greener alternatives to chemical biocides. Ultrasounds (US) have been proposed as an environmentally friendly technology for irrigation water. In the present study, the suitability of two US treatments (20kHz: US20 and 40kHz: US40 at a specific energy (Es) of 745J/L) and one chlorine treatment (1-2ppm free chlorine) was evaluated and compared to the untreated control. Five water reservoirs belonging to five commercial intensive farms were selected as representative of irrigation practices generally used in south of Europe. All tested water treatments were able to reduce microbial loads, including Escherichia coli (0.5-0.6 log units), to values that were accepted in most of the recommended guidelines of good agricultural practices (≤2logunits). The obtained reductions were lower than those previously reported for these water treatment technologies in lab-scale tests. High microbial reductions are commonly obtained in laboratory studies, yielding impressive results. However, when the same treatments are applied under real commercial conditions, microbial reductions are usually less impressive. All water treatments were able to reduce COD of irrigation water when compared to the untreated control. COD reductions obtained using chlorine (≥430mg/L) and US 20 (~100mg/L) were higher than those observed using US 40 (water quality on the efficacy of US treatments was evaluated in two types of water including surface water and treated wastewater. It was found that the quality of the irrigation water significantly influences the efficacy of the ultrasound treatment. Correlations between indicator parameters have been also evaluated. Obtained results showed that high algae

  13. Concentrations of some heavy metals in underground water samples from a Nigerian crude oil producing community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejike, Chukwunonso E C C; Eferibe, Chinedu O; Okonkwo, Francis O

    2017-03-01

    Pollution due to oil exploration activities in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria and government under-investments in potable water infrastructure has led to the dependence of the population on personal boreholes. Yet, there are little quality or surveillance reports on such waters. The concentrations of heavy metals in underground water samples from an oil producing area, Umuebulu, in the Niger Delta were therefore investigated. Water samples were collected from three test points, each approximately 300 m from (1) wellhead area (WHA), (2) flare area (FA) and (3) effluent discharge area (EDA), and one control point located 10 km away from any oil-related activity. The concentrations of lead, arsenic and cadmium were determined in the samples using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. All three heavy metals were present in the test, and control water samples at concentrations significantly (P water samples showed that their consumption constituted significant health risks in the order EDA > FA > WHA > Control. Appropriate water treatment and surveillance is warranted and therefore recommended for underground water resources of the studied community.

  14. Decentralised water and wastewater treatment technologies to produce functional water for irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, Adriano; Steiner, Michele; Andersen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    which allow using the lowest irrigation water quality without harming food safety or yield and fruit or derivatives quality. This study presents the results of prototype testing of a small-scale compact pressurized membrane bioreactor and of a modular field treatment system including commercial gravel...... prototype version. In 2008, 100% of samples fulfilled WHO standards (1989) and Global Gap requirement for faecal contamination. MBR removed from inlet flow in the average 82% of arsenic, 82% of cadmium, 97% of chromium, 93% of copper and 99% of lead. Boron and manganese were not removed from permeate....... The field treatment system (FTS) proved to be effective against faecal contamination when applied with its complete set up including UV treatment. The sole gravel filter and heavy metal removal device (HMR) cannot provide sufficient and steadily treatment for microbial contamination. Nevertheless, gravel...

  15. Process for purification of waste water produced by a Kraft process pulp and paper mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M. F. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    The water from paper and pulp wastes obtained from a mill using the Kraft process is purified by precipitating lignins and lignin derivatives from the waste stream with quaternary ammonium compounds, removing other impurities by activated carbon produced from the cellulosic components of the water, and then separating the water from the precipitate and solids. The activated carbon also acts as an aid to the separation of the water and solids. If recovery of lignins is also desired, then the precipitate containing the lignins and quaternary ammonium compounds is dissolved in methanol. Upon acidification, the lignin is precipitated from the solution. The methanol and quaternary ammonium compound are recovered for reuse from the remainder.

  16. Environmental impacts of produced water and drilling waste discharges from the Norwegian offshore petroleum industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Torgeir; Klungsøyr, Jarle; Sanni, Steinar

    2013-12-01

    Operational discharges of produced water and drill cuttings from offshore oil and gas platforms are a continuous source of contaminants to continental shelf ecosystems. This paper reviews recent research on the biological effects of such discharges with focus on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The greatest concern is linked to effects of produced water. Alkylphenols (AP) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from produced water accumulate in cod and blue mussel caged near outlets, but are rapidly metabolized in cod. APs, naphtenic acids, and PAHs may disturb reproductive functions, and affect several chemical, biochemical and genetic biomarkers. Toxic concentrations seem restricted to <2 km distance. At the peak of discharge of oil-contaminated cuttings fauna disturbance was found at more than 5 km from some platforms, but is now seldom detected beyond 500 m. Water-based cuttings may seriously affect biomarkers in filter feeding bivalves, and cause elevated sediment oxygen consumption and mortality in benthic fauna. Effects levels occur within 0.5-1 km distance. The stress is mainly physical. The risk of widespread, long term impact from the operational discharges on populations and the ecosystem is presently considered low, but this cannot be verified from the published literature. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Offshore produced water management: A review of current practice and challenges in harsh/Arctic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jisi; Chen, Bing; Thanyamanta, Worakanok; Hawboldt, Kelly; Zhang, Baiyu; Liu, Bo

    2016-03-15

    Increasing offshore oil and gas exploration and development in harsh/Arctic environments require more effective offshore produced water management, as these environments are much more sensitive to changes in water quality than more temperate climates. However, the number and scope of studies of offshore produced water management in harsh/Arctic environments are limited. This paper reviews the current state of offshore produced water management, impacts, and policies, as well as the vulnerability, implications and operational challenges in harsh/Arctic environments. The findings show that the primary contaminant(s) of concern are contained in both the dissolved oil and the dispersed oil. The application of emerging technologies that can tackle this issue is significantly limited by the challenges of offshore operations in harsh/Arctic environments. Therefore, there is a need to develop more efficient and suitable management systems since more stringent policies are being implemented due to the increased vulnerability of harsh/Arctic environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbial oxidation of soluble sulfide in produced water from the Bakkeen Sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevertz, D.; Zimmerman, S. [Agouron Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States); Jenneman, G.E. [Phillips Petroleum Company, Bartlesville, OK (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The presence of soluble sulfide in produced water results in problems for the petroleum industry due to its toxicity, odor, corrosive nature, and potential for wellbore plugging. Sulfide oxidation by indigenous nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) present in brine collected from wells at the Coleville Unit (CVU) in Saskatchewan, Canada, was investigated. Sulfide oxidation took place readily when nitrate and phosphate were added to brine enrichment cultures, resulting in a decrease in sulfide levels of 99-165 ppm to nondetectable levels (< 3.3 ppm). Produced water collected from a number of producing wells was screened to determine the time required for complete sulfide oxidation, in order to select candidate wells for treatment. Three wells were chosen, based on sulfide removal in 48 hours or less. These wells were treated down the backside of the annulus with a solution containing 10 mM KNO{sub 3} and 100 {mu}M NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. Following a 24- to 72-hour shut-in, reductions in pretreatment sulfide levels of greater than 90% were observed for two of the wells, as well as sustained sulfide reductions of 50% for at least two days following startup. NRB populations in the produced brine were observed to increase significantly following treatment, but no significant increases in sulfate-reducing bacteria were observed. These results demonstrate the technical feasibility of stimulating indigenous populations of NRB to remediate and control sulfide in produced brine.

  19. Drinking water purification by electrosynthesis of hydrogen peroxide in a power-producing PEM fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Winton; Bonakdarpour, Arman; Gyenge, Előd; Wilkinson, David P

    2013-11-01

    The industrial anthraquinone auto-oxidation process produces most of the world's supply of hydrogen peroxide. For applications that require small amounts of H2 O2 or have economically difficult transportation means, an alternate, on-site H2 O2 production method is needed. Advanced drinking water purification technologies use neutral-pH H2 O2 in combination with UV treatment to reach the desired water purity targets. To produce neutral H2 O2 on-site and on-demand for drinking water purification, the electroreduction of oxygen at the cathode of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell operated in either electrolysis (power consuming) or fuel cell (power generating) mode could be a possible solution. The work presented here focuses on the H2 /O2 fuel cell mode to produce H2 O2 . The fuel cell reactor is operated with a continuous flow of carrier water through the cathode to remove the product H2 O2 . The impact of the cobalt-carbon composite cathode catalyst loading, Teflon content in the cathode gas diffusion layer, and cathode carrier water flowrate on the production of H2 O2 are examined. H2 O2 production rates of up to 200 μmol h(-1)  cmgeometric (-2) are achieved using a continuous flow of carrier water operating at 30 % current efficiency. Operation times of more than 24 h have shown consistent H2 O2 and power production, with no degradation of the cobalt catalyst. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Detection of solar wind-produced water in irradiated rims on silicate minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, John P; Ishii, Hope A; Gillis-Davis, Jeffrey J; Ciston, James; Nielsen, Michael H; Bechtel, Hans A; Martin, Michael C

    2014-02-04

    The solar wind (SW), composed of predominantly ∼1-keV H(+) ions, produces amorphous rims up to ∼150 nm thick on the surfaces of minerals exposed in space. Silicates with amorphous rims are observed on interplanetary dust particles and on lunar and asteroid soil regolith grains. Implanted H(+) may react with oxygen in the minerals to form trace amounts of hydroxyl (-OH) and/or water (H2O). Previous studies have detected hydroxyl in lunar soils, but its chemical state, physical location in the soils, and source(s) are debated. If -OH or H2O is generated in rims on silicate grains, there are important implications for the origins of water in the solar system and other astrophysical environments. By exploiting the high spatial resolution of transmission electron microscopy and valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy, we detect water sealed in vesicles within amorphous rims produced by SW irradiation of silicate mineral grains on the exterior surfaces of interplanetary dust particles. Our findings establish that water is a byproduct of SW space weathering. We conclude, on the basis of the pervasiveness of the SW and silicate materials, that the production of radiolytic SW water on airless bodies is a ubiquitous process throughout the solar system.

  1. The functional potential of microbial communities in hydraulic fracturing source water and produced water from natural gas extraction characterized by metagenomic sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Murali Mohan

    Full Text Available Microbial activity in produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to undesired environmental impacts and increase gas production costs. However, the metabolic profile of these microbial communities is not well understood. Here, for the first time, we present results from a shotgun metagenome of microbial communities in both hydraulic fracturing source water and wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing. Taxonomic analyses showed an increase in anaerobic/facultative anaerobic classes related to Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia and Epsilonproteobacteria in produced water as compared to predominantly aerobic Alphaproteobacteria in the fracturing source water. The metabolic profile revealed a relative increase in genes responsible for carbohydrate metabolism, respiration, sporulation and dormancy, iron acquisition and metabolism, stress response and sulfur metabolism in the produced water samples. These results suggest that microbial communities in produced water have an increased genetic ability to handle stress, which has significant implications for produced water management, such as disinfection.

  2. The functional potential of microbial communities in hydraulic fracturing source water and produced water from natural gas extraction characterized by metagenomic sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Arvind Murali; Bibby, Kyle J; Lipus, Daniel; Hammack, Richard W; Gregory, Kelvin B

    2014-01-01

    Microbial activity in produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to undesired environmental impacts and increase gas production costs. However, the metabolic profile of these microbial communities is not well understood. Here, for the first time, we present results from a shotgun metagenome of microbial communities in both hydraulic fracturing source water and wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing. Taxonomic analyses showed an increase in anaerobic/facultative anaerobic classes related to Clostridia, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia and Epsilonproteobacteria in produced water as compared to predominantly aerobic Alphaproteobacteria in the fracturing source water. The metabolic profile revealed a relative increase in genes responsible for carbohydrate metabolism, respiration, sporulation and dormancy, iron acquisition and metabolism, stress response and sulfur metabolism in the produced water samples. These results suggest that microbial communities in produced water have an increased genetic ability to handle stress, which has significant implications for produced water management, such as disinfection.

  3. Simple model for laser-produced, mass-limited water-droplet plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garloff, Kurt; van den Donker, Michiel; van der Mullen, Joost; van Goor, Fred; Brummans, Ralph; Jonkers, Jeroen

    2002-09-01

    Plasmas, produced by a neodymium yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser pulse focused on a small water droplet and used for the generation of extreme ultraviolet light, can be described by a relatively simple model due to the fact that thermodynamic equilibrium can be assumed for the most important phase. Only three time-dependent variables--radius, expansion speed, and internal energy--are needed to describe the physics of the plasma. Nevertheless, it predicts quantities such as the size and the spectrum rather well. It is expected that the theory and the model presented here can also be applied to other laser-produced plasmas.

  4. Manufacturing High-Quality Carbon Nanotubes at Lower Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Jeanette M.; Lidecker, Henning

    2004-01-01

    A modified electric-arc welding process has been developed for manufacturing high-quality batches of carbon nanotubes at relatively low cost. Unlike in some other processes for making carbon nanotubes, metal catalysts are not used and, consequently, it is not necessary to perform extensive cleaning and purification. Also, unlike some other processes, this process is carried out at atmospheric pressure under a hood instead of in a closed, pressurized chamber; as a result, the present process can be implemented more easily. Although the present welding-based process includes an electric arc, it differs from a prior electric-arc nanotube-production process. The welding equipment used in this process includes an AC/DC welding power source with an integral helium-gas delivery system and circulating water for cooling an assembly that holds one of the welding electrodes (in this case, the anode). The cathode is a hollow carbon (optionally, graphite) rod having an outside diameter of 2 in. (approximately equal to 5.1 cm) and an inside diameter of 5/8 in. (approximately equal to 1.6 cm). The cathode is partly immersed in a water bath, such that it protrudes about 2 in. (about 5.1 cm) above the surface of the water. The bottom end of the cathode is held underwater by a clamp, to which is connected the grounding cable of the welding power source. The anode is a carbon rod 1/8 in. (approximately equal to 0.3 cm) in diameter. The assembly that holds the anode includes a thumbknob- driven mechanism for controlling the height of the anode. A small hood is placed over the anode to direct a flow of helium downward from the anode to the cathode during the welding process. A bell-shaped exhaust hood collects the helium and other gases from the process. During the process, as the anode is consumed, the height of the anode is adjusted to maintain an anode-to-cathode gap of 1 mm. The arc-welding process is continued until the upper end of the anode has been lowered to a specified height

  5. Proteome changes in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) exposed to oil and produced water: Discovery of biomarker candidates for environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjersem, Anneli B

    2007-07-15

    Proteomics were applied to identify changes in the proteome of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) exposed to crude North Sea oil and North Sea produced water at different life stages and during early development. Apparent protein changes were identified and linked to possible signalling pathways and mechanisms involved in the biological response of fish following exposure. Exposure to North Sea crude oil and produced water appeared to induce a large number of changes, also at low levels of exposure. More than 40 of the 137 protein changes detected in plasma of juvenile cod following exposed to crude oil and surrogate produced water appeared at the lowest level of exposure, 0.06 ppm crude oil. Almost all of the protein changes detected in whole fry and fry liver following produced water exposure occurred at the lowest levels of produced water, 0.01% and 0.1% produced water

  6. Formation of the Innovation Component of Marketing Technologies of Enterprises That Produce Mineral Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golodniuk Olena S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main marketing technologies of building competitive advantages by enterprises that produce Ukrainian mineral waters. It considers individual innovations of the conceptual (eco-marketing and applied (branding, benchmarking and competitive reconnaissance nature with consideration of their significance for participants of this market. It offers directions of increasing the innovation component of topical marketing technologies with the aim of implementation of their results into management of competitive advantages of enterprises. It draws a conclusion about a necessity of: reducing evident and growth of a number of latent competitive advantages, based on intellectual technologies, and also development and realisation of a conceptual model of providing marketing innovations in the system of managing competitive advantages of enterprises; and formation of the system of monitoring marketing innovations with the aim of development of additional services and means of building competitive advantages of enterprises that produce mineral waters.

  7. Investigation of Controlling Factors Impacting Water Quality in Shale Gas Produced Brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, W.; Hayes, K. F.; Ellis, B. R.

    2014-12-01

    The recent boom in production of natural gas from unconventional reservoirs has generated a substantial increase in the volume of produced brine that must be properly managed to prevent contamination of fresh water resources. Produced brine, which includes both flowback and formation water, is often highly saline and may contain elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material and other toxic elements. These characteristics present many challenges with regard to designing effective treatment and disposal strategies for shale gas produced brine. We will present results from a series of batch experiments where crushed samples from two shale formations in the Michigan Basin, the Antrim and Utica-Collingwood shales, were brought into contact with synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluids under in situ temperature and pressure conditions. The Antrim has been an active shale gas play for over three decades, while the Utica-Collingwood formation (a grouped reservoir consisting of the Utica shale and Collingwood limestone) is an emerging shale gas play. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence of water-rock interactions in controlling produced water quality. We evaluate toxic element leaching from shale samples in contact with model hydraulic fracturing fluids under system conditions corresponding to reservoir depths up to 1.5 km. Experimental results have begun to elucidate the relative importance of shale mineralogy, system conditions, and chemical additives in driving changes in produced water quality. Initial results indicate that hydraulic fracturing chemical additives have a strong influence on the extent of leaching of toxic elements from the shale. In particular, pH was a key factor in the release of uranium (U) and divalent metals, highlighting the importance of the mineral buffering capacity of the shale. Low pH values persisted in the Antrim and Utica shale experiments and resulted in higher U extraction efficiencies than that

  8. Overview of Chronic Oral Toxicity Values for Chemicals Present in Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids, Flowback and Produced Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    as part of EPA's Hydraulic Fracturing Drinking Water Assessment, EPA is summarizing existing toxicity data for chemicals reported to be used in hydraulic fracturing fluids and/or found in flowback or produced waters from hydraulically fractured wells

  9. Hydrogen generation from water using Mg nanopowder produced by arc plasma method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Uda, Hideo Okuyama, Tohru S Suzuki and Yoshio Sakka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report that hydrogen gas can be easily produced from water at room temperature using a Mg nanopowder (30–1000 nm particles, average diameter 265 nm. The Mg nanopowder was produced by dc arc melting of a Mg ingot in a chamber with mixed-gas atmosphere (20% N2–80% Ar at 0.1 MPa using custom-built nanopowder production equipment. The Mg nanopowder was passivated with a gas mixture of 1% O2 in Ar for 12 h in the final step of the synthesis, after which the nanopowder could be safely handled in ambient air. The nanopowder vigorously reacted with water at room temperature, producing 110 ml of hydrogen gas per 1 g of powder in 600 s. This amount corresponds to 11% of the hydrogen that could be generated by the stoichiometric reaction between Mg and water. Mg(OH2 flakes formed on the surface of the Mg particles as a result of this reaction. They easily peeled off, and the generation of hydrogen continued until all the Mg was consumed.

  10. Hydrogen generation from water using Mg nanopowder produced by arc plasma method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, Masahiro; Okuyama, Hideo; Suzuki, Tohru S; Sakka, Yoshio

    2012-04-01

    We report that hydrogen gas can be easily produced from water at room temperature using a Mg nanopowder (30-1000 nm particles, average diameter 265 nm). The Mg nanopowder was produced by dc arc melting of a Mg ingot in a chamber with mixed-gas atmosphere (20% N2-80% Ar) at 0.1 MPa using custom-built nanopowder production equipment. The Mg nanopowder was passivated with a gas mixture of 1% O2 in Ar for 12 h in the final step of the synthesis, after which the nanopowder could be safely handled in ambient air. The nanopowder vigorously reacted with water at room temperature, producing 110 ml of hydrogen gas per 1 g of powder in 600 s. This amount corresponds to 11% of the hydrogen that could be generated by the stoichiometric reaction between Mg and water. Mg(OH)2 flakes formed on the surface of the Mg particles as a result of this reaction. They easily peeled off, and the generation of hydrogen continued until all the Mg was consumed.

  11. Water Kefir grain as a source of potent dextran producing lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidović Slađana Z.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water kefir is abeverage fermented by a microbial consortium captured in kefir grains. The kefir grains matrix is composed of polysaccharide, primarily dextran, whichis produced by members of the microbial consortium. In this study, we have isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB from non-commercial water kefir grains (from Belgrade, Serbia and screened for dextran production. Among twelve Lisolates threeproduced slime colonies on modified MRS (mMRS agar containing sucrose instead of glucoseand were presumed to produce dextran. Three LABwere identified based on morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequencing as Leuconostoc mesenteroides(strains T1 and T3 and Lactobacillus hilgardii (strain T5. The isolated strains were able to synthesize a substantial amount of dextran in mMRS broth containing 5% sucrose. Maximal yields (11.56, 18.00 and 18.46 g/l were obtained after 16h, 20h and 32h for T1, T3 and T5, respectively. Optimal temperature for dextran production was 23oC for two Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains and 30oC for Lactobacillus hilgardii strain. The produced dextrans were identified based on paper chromatography while the main structure characteristics of purified dextranwere observed by FT-IR spectroscopy. Our study shows that water kefir grains are a natural source of potent dextranproducing LAB. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31035

  12. Risk assessment for produced water discharges to Louisiana open bays. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; DePhillips, M.P.; Holtzman, S.

    1996-03-22

    The US Department of Energy (USDOE) has a program of research in the environmental aspects of oil and gas extraction. This sampling project will characterize the environmental impacts associated with the discharge of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), metals and organics in produced water. This report is part of a series of studies of the health and ecological risks from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico, supported by the USDOE. These assessments are being coordinated with the field study, using the collected data to perform human health and ecological risk assessments. These assessments will provide input to regulators in the development of guidelines and permits, and to industry in the development and use of appropriate discharge practices. The initial human health and ecological risk assessments consist of conservative screening analyses meant to identify potentially important contaminants, and to eliminate others from further consideration. More quantitative assessments were done for contaminants identified, in the screening analysis, as being of potential concern. Section 2 gives an overview of human health and ecological risk assessment to help put the analyses presented here in perspective. Section 3 provides the hazard assessment portion of the risk assessment, and identifies the important receptors and pathways of concern. Section 3 also outlines the approach taken to the risk assessments presented in the rest of the report. The remaining sections (4 through 9) present the human health and ecological risk assessments for discharges of produced water to open bays in Louisiana.

  13. Evaluating the Feasibility of Using Produced Water from Oil and Natural Gas Production to Address Water Scarcity in California’s Central Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Measrainsey Meng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current California drought has reduced freshwater availability, creating tensions between water users across the state. Although over 518 million m 3 of water were produced during fossil fuel production in California in 2014, the majority was disposed into Class II injection wells. There have been few attempts to assess the feasibility of using produced water for beneficial purposes, due in part to the difficulties of accessing, synthesizing and analyzing data regarding produced water quality and quantity. This study addresses this gap and provides a techno-economic assessment of upgrading produced water from California’s oil and natural gas activities and moving it to adjacent water-stressed regions. Results indicate that the four population centers facing the greatest water shortage risk are located in the Central Valley within a 161 km (100 mile radius of 230 million m 3 of total treatable produced water. This volume can supply up to one million people-years worth of potable water. The cost of desalinating and transporting this water source is comparable in magnitude to some agricultural and local public water supplies and is substantially lower than bottled water. Thus, utilizing reverse osmosis to treat produced water might be a feasible solution to help relieve water scarcity in some drought-stricken regions of California.

  14. Chemical and physical characterization of produced waters from conventional and unconventional fossil fuel resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, Bethany; Beebe, Alex; Rodgers, John; Castle, James W

    2011-09-01

    Characterization of produced waters (PWs) is an initial step for determining potential beneficial uses such as irrigation and surface water discharge at some sites. A meta-analysis of characteristics of five PW sources [i.e. shale gas (SGPWs), conventional natural gas (NGPWs), conventional oil (OPWs), coal-bed methane (CBMPWs), tight gas sands (TGSPWs)] was conducted from peer-reviewed literature, government or industry documents, book chapters, internet sources, analytical records from industry, and analyses of PW samples. This meta-analysis assembled a large dataset to extract information of interest such as differences and similarities in constituent and constituent concentrations across these sources of PWs. The PW data analyzed were comprised of 377 coal-bed methane, 165 oilfield, 137 tight gas sand, 4000 natural gas, and 541 shale gas records. Majority of SGPWs, NGPWs, OPWs, and TGSPWs contain chloride concentrations ranging from saline (>30000 mg L(-1)) to hypersaline (>40000 mg L(-1)), while most CBMPWs were fresh (use, while some PWs are brackish (5000-30000 mg Cl(-) L(-1)) to saline containing metals and metalloids that may require considerable treatment. Other PWs are hypersaline and produce a considerable waste stream from reverse osmosis; remediation of these waters may not be feasible. After renovation, fresh to saline PWs may be used for irrigation and replenishing surface waters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Utilization of Drinking Water Treatment Slurry to Produce Aluminum Sulfate Coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Mahmoud M; Razek, Taha M A; Elgendy, Ahmed S

    2017-02-01

      In Egypt, water treatment consumes about 365 000 tons of aluminum sulfate and produces more than 100 million tons of sludge per year. The common disposal system of sludge in Egypt is to discharge it into natural waterways. Toxicity of aluminum, environmental regulations and costs of chemicals used in water treatment and sludge treatment processes led to an evaluation of coagulant recovery and subsequent reuse. The present work aimed at aluminum recovery from sludge of El-Shiekh Zayd water treatment plant (WTP) to produce aluminum sulfate coagulant. Sludge was characterized and the effect of five variables was tested and the process efficiency was evaluated at different operating conditions. Maximum recovery is 94.2% at acid concentration 1.5 N, sludge weight 5 g, mixing speed 60 rpm, temperature 60 °C and leaching time 40 min. Then optimum conditions were applied to get maximum recovery for aluminum sulfate and compared to commercial coagulant on raw water of El-Shiekh Zayd (WTP).

  16. Enhancement of Biogenic Coalbed Methane Production and Back Injection of Coalbed Methane Co-Produced Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Jin

    2007-05-31

    Biogenic methane is a common constituent in deep subsurface environments such as coalbeds and oil shale beds. Coalbed methane (CBM) makes significant contributions to world natural gas industry and CBM production continues to increase. With increasing CBM production, the production of CBM co-produced water increases, which is an environmental concern. This study investigated the feasibility in re-using CBM co-produced water and other high sodic/saline water to enhance biogenic methane production from coal and other unconventional sources, such as oil shale. Microcosms were established with the selected carbon sources which included coal, oil shale, lignite, peat, and diesel-contaminated soil. Each microcosm contained either CBM coproduced water or groundwater with various enhancement and inhibitor combinations. Results indicated that the addition of nutrients and nutrients with additional carbon can enhance biogenic methane production from coal and oil shale. Methane production from oil shale was much greater than that from coal, which is possibly due to the greater amount of available Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from oil shale. Inconclusive results were observed from the other sources since the incubation period was too low. WRI is continuing studies with biogenic methane production from oil shale.

  17. Analysis of hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced waters using accurate mass: identification of ethoxylated surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, E Michael; Ferrer, Imma; Blotevogel, Jens; Borch, Thomas

    2014-10-07

    Two series of ethylene oxide (EO) surfactants, polyethylene glycols (PEGs from EO3 to EO33) and linear alkyl ethoxylates (LAEs C-9 to C-15 with EO3-EO28), were identified in hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water using a new application of the Kendrick mass defect and liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The Kendrick mass defect differentiates the proton, ammonium, and sodium adducts in both singly and doubly charged forms. A structural model of adduct formation is presented, and binding constants are calculated, which is based on a spherical cagelike conformation, where the central cation (NH4(+) or Na(+)) is coordinated with ether oxygens. A major purpose of the study was the identification of the ethylene oxide (EO) surfactants and the construction of a database with accurate masses and retention times in order to unravel the mass spectral complexity of surfactant mixtures used in hydraulic fracturing fluids. For example, over 500 accurate mass assignments are made in a few seconds of computer time, which then is used as a fingerprint chromatogram of the water samples. This technique is applied to a series of flowback and produced water samples to illustrate the usefulness of ethoxylate "fingerprinting", in a first application to monitor water quality that results from fluids used in hydraulic fracturing.

  18. Evaluation of membranes for the treatment of oilfield-produced water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Edegar Weschenfelder

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Large quantities of water are generated during oil extraction. Reinjection of this effluent is frequently the most suitable option for environmental considerations. For this purpose, the water produced must have characteristics that will prevent the plugging of the reservoir rocks, i.e., suspended solids and oil and grease content must be lower than 5 mg L-1. This work evaluated the performance of membranes for water treatment, based upon long-term experiments with real effluent, evaluating the permeate flux over time and the effluent characteristics. The results indicated that it is possible to obtain a permeate flux with suspended solids content with less than 1 mg L-1 oil and a grease concentration in the range of 1 to 3 mg L-1 using membranes with a pore size of 0,1 m. After 50 hours of permeation, the permeate fluxes obtained with the polymeric and ceramic membranes were equal to 50 and 300 L h-1 m-2, respectively. With a chemical regeneration procedure, it was possible to recover 95% of the ceramic membrane’s original permeability and 30% of the polymeric membrane’s permeability. Considering the permeate quality, the regeneration efficiency of the membrane and the fluxes achieved, it is possible to point out the use of ceramic membranes as a potential technology for treating oilfield-produced water, and it has the advantage of being a compact and robust process.

  19. Bioelectrochemical approaches for removal of sulfate, hydrocarbon and salinity from produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Pratiksha; Sharma, Mohita; Dureja, Prem; Sarma, Priyangshu M; Lal, Banwari

    2017-01-01

    Produced water (PW) is the largest liquid waste stream generated during the exploration and drilling process of both the conventional hydrocarbon based resources like crude oil and natural gas, as well as the new fossil resources like shale gas and coal bed methane. Resource management, efficient utilization of the water resources, and water purification protocols are the conventionally used treatment methods applied to either treat or utilize the generated PW. This review provides a comprehensive overview of these conventional PW treatment strategies with special emphasises on electrochemical treatment. Key considerations associated with these approaches for efficient treatment of PW are also discussed. After a thorough assessment of the salient features of these treatment platforms, we propose a new strategy of uniquely integrating bioelectrochemical processes with biological system for more effective PW treatment and management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of reduced sugar high quality chocolates sweetened with stevioside and crude stevia 'green' extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Luisa; Frati, Alessandra; Ninfali, Paolino; Mantegna, Stefano; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Morini, Gabriella

    2017-06-01

    The demand for zero and reduced-sugar food products containing cocoa is expanding continuously. The present study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of producing high-quality chocolate sweetened with a crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) prepared by a green microwave-assisted water-steam extraction procedure. Seven approximately isosweet chocolate formulations were developed, mixing cocoa paste, sucrose, commercial stevioside, crude green extract and maltitol in different proportions. All samples were analyzed for the determination of polyphenol and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity, and sensory acceptability. The use of a crude stevia extract allowed low-sugar, high-quality chocolates to be obtained that were also acceptable by consumers and had a significant increased antioxidant activity. Moreover, consumers' segmentation revealed a cluster of consumers showing the same overall liking for the sample with 50% sucrose replaced by the stevia crude extract as that obtained with the commercial stevioside and the control sample (without sucrose replacement). The results provide information that can contribute to promoting the development of sweet food products, with advantages in terms of an improved nutritional value (reduced sugar content and increased antioxidant activity) and a reduced impact of the production process on the environment. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Characteristics of produced water discharged to the Gulf of Mexico hypoxiczone.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Kimmell, T. A.; Rechner, A. C.

    2005-08-24

    Each summer, an area of low dissolved oxygen (the hypoxic zone) forms in the shallow nearshore Gulf of Mexico waters from the Mississippi River Delta westward to near the Texas/Louisiana border. Most scientists believe that the leading contributor to the hypoxic zone is input of nutrients (primarily nitrogen and phosphorus compounds) from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers. The nutrients stimulate growth of phytoplankton. As the phytoplankton subsequently die, they fall to the bottom waters where they are decomposed by microorganisms. The decomposition process consumes oxygen in the bottom waters to create hypoxic conditions. Sources other than the two rivers mentioned above may also contribute significant quantities of oxygen-demanding pollutants. One very visible potential source is the hundreds of offshore oil and gas platforms located within or near the hypoxic zone. Many of these platforms discharge varying volumes of produced water. However, only limited data characterizing oxygen demand and nutrient concentration and loading from offshore produced water discharges have been collected. No comprehensive and coordinated oxygen demand data exist for produced water discharges in the Gulf of Mexico. This report describes the results of a program to sample 50 offshore oil and gas platforms located within the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone. The program was conducted in response to a requirement in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) general National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for offshore oil and gas discharges. EPA requested information on the amount of oxygen-demanding substances contained in the produced water discharges. This information is needed as inputs to several water quality models that EPA intends to run to estimate the relative contributions of the produced water discharges to the occurrence of the hypoxic zone. Sixteen platforms were sampled 3 times each at approximately one-month intervals to give an estimate of

  2. Bounding the marginal cost of producing potable water including the use of seawater desalinization as a backstop potable water production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooley, James J.

    2014-04-01

    The analysis presented in this technical report should allow for the creation of high, medium, and low cost potable water prices for GCAM. Seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) based desalinization should act as a backstop for the cost of producing potable water (i.e., the literature seems clear that SWRO should establish an upper bound for the plant gate cost of producing potable water). Transporting water over significant distances and having to lift water to higher elevations to reach end-users can also have a significant impact on the cost of producing water. The three potable fresh water scenarios describe in this technical report are: low cost water scenario ($0.10/m3); medium water cost scenario ($1.00/m3); and high water cost scenario ($2.50/m3).

  3. GIS based location optimization for mobile produced water treatment facilities in shale gas operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitwadkar, Amol Hanmant

    Over 60% of the nation's total energy is supplied by oil and natural gas together and this demand for energy will continue to grow in the future (Radler et al. 2012). The growing demand is pushing the exploration and exploitation of onshore oil and natural gas reservoirs. Hydraulic fracturing has proven to not only create jobs and achieve economic growth, but also has proven to exert a lot of stress on natural resources---such as water. As water is one of the most important factors in the world of hydraulic fracturing, proper fluids management during the development of a field of operation is perhaps the key element to address a lot of these issues. Almost 30% of the water used during hydraulic fracturing comes out of the well in the form of flowback water during the first month after the well is fractured (Bai et. al. 2012). Handling this large amount of water coming out of the newly fractured wells is one of the major issues as the volume of the water after this period drops off and remains constant for a long time (Bai et. al. 2012) and permanent facilities can be constructed to take care of the water over a longer period. This paper illustrates development of a GIS based tool for optimizing the location of a mobile produced water treatment facility while development is still occurring. A methodology was developed based on a multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to optimize the location of the mobile treatment facilities. The criteria for MCDA include well density, ease of access (from roads considering truck hauls) and piping minimization if piping is used and water volume produced. The area of study is 72 square miles east of Greeley, CO in the Wattenberg Field in northeastern Colorado that will be developed for oil and gas production starting in the year 2014. A quarterly analysis is done so that we can observe the effect of future development plans and current circumstances on the location as we move from quarter to quarter. This will help the operators to

  4. Design and performance of a pilot-scale constructed wetland treatment system for natural gas storage produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagy, Laura E; Johnson, Brenda M; Castle, James W; Rodgers, John H

    2008-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that water produced from natural gas storage wells could be treated effectively by constructed wetland treatment systems, a modular pilot-scale system was designed, built, and used for treating gas storage produced waters. Four simulated waters representing the range of contaminant concentrations typical of actual produced waters were treated, and the system's performance was monitored. Freshwater wetland cells planted with Schoenoplectus californicus and Typha latifolia were used to treat fresh and brackish waters. Saline and hypersaline waters were treated by saltwater wetland cells planted with Spartina alterniflora and by reverse osmosis. Effective removal of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc was achieved by the pilot-scale system. Results suggest that use of specifically designed constructed wetland treatment systems provides a flexible and effective approach for treating gas storage produced waters over a wide range of compositions.

  5. Produced water treatment using polymeric resins; Resinas polimericas para tratamento da agua produzida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louvisse, Ana Maria Travalloni; Freire, Norma de Oliveira [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Queiros, Yure Gomes de Carvalho; Silva, Carla Michele Frota da; Barros, Cintia Chagas; Lucas, Elizabeth Fernandes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas

    2008-07-01

    The treatment and disposal of oily waters from oil production and refining processes represent an important technological pass for attendance of the ambient legislation and to the politics of the Cia of search of the environmental excellence. The reuse or reinjection of the co-produced water has been considered an interesting strategical alternative, however, the water quality requirement for these processes demands a pretreatment step, considering the exit effluent from primary and secondary treatment processes currently used. This work presents resulted of the polymeric resin development for tertiary treatment of oily waters with low oil and grasses content and fine solids, including the dissolved fraction. These resins can adsorb, in reversible form, organic components. Its high adsorption capacity is determined by the polarity, superficial area, range of porosity and a wide distribution of particle size and pore. Another important characteristic is the possibility of its use in some cycles of work due to its weak forces of interaction between the contaminants and the surface of the resin. Regeneration can be carried through of diverse forms, including the use of solvent, with or without the variation of temperature and/or pH. The gotten results indicated a high resin adsorption capacity, with concentrated oily water treatment volume 10,000 times the volume of resin used. (author)

  6. Holistic risk assessment of surface water contamination due to Pb-210 in oil produced water from the Bakken Shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luisa; Yadav, Om Prakash; Khan, Eakalak

    2017-02-01

    A holistic risk assessment of surface water (SW) contamination due to lead-210 (Pb-210) in oil produced water (PW) from the Bakken Shale in North Dakota (ND) was conducted. Pb-210 is a relatively long-lived radionuclide and very mobile in water. Because of limited data on Pb-210, a simulation model was developed to determine its concentration based on its parent radium-226 and historical total dissolved solids levels in PW. Scenarios where PW spills could reach SW were analyzed by applying the four steps of the risk assessment process. These scenarios are: (1) storage tank overflow, (2) leakage in equipment, and (3) spills related to trucks used to transport PW. Furthermore, a survey was conducted in ND to quantify the risk perception of PW from different stakeholders. Findings from the study include a low probability of a PW spill reaching SW and simulated concentration of Pb-210 in drinking water higher than the recommended value established by the World Health Organization. Also, after including the results from the risk perception survey, the assessment indicates that the risk of contamination of the three scenarios evaluated is between medium-high to high. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Amine functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for removal of oil droplets from produced water and accelerated magnetic separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Saebom, E-mail: saebomko@austin.utexas.edu [University of Texas, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States); Kim, Eun Song [University of Texas, Department of Biomedical Engineering (United States); Park, Siman [University of Texas, Department of Civil, Architectural and Environmental Engineering (United States); Daigle, Hugh [University of Texas, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States); Milner, Thomas E. [University of Texas, Department of Biomedical Engineering (United States); Huh, Chun [University of Texas, Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (United States); Bennetzen, Martin V. [Maersk Oil Corporate (Denmark); Geremia, Giuliano A. [Maersk Oil Research and Technology Centre (Qatar)

    2017-04-15

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with surface coatings designed for water treatment, in particular for targeted removal of contaminants from produced water in oil fields, have drawn considerable attention due to their environmental merit. The goal of this study was to develop an efficient method of removing very stable, micron-scale oil droplets dispersed in oilfield produced water. We synthesized MNPs in the laboratory with a prescribed surface coating. The MNPs were superparamagnetic magnetite, and the hydrodynamic size of amine functionalized MNPs ranges from 21 to 255 nm with an average size of 66 nm. The initial oil content of 0.25 wt.% was reduced by as much as 99.9% in separated water. The electrostatic attraction between negatively charged oil-in-water emulsions and positively charged MNPs controls, the attachment of MNPs to the droplet surface, and the subsequent aggregation of the electrically neutral oil droplets with attached MNPs (MNPs-oils) play a critical role in accelerated and efficient magnetic separation. The total magnetic separation time was dramatically reduced to as short as 1 s after MNPs, and oil droplets were mixed, in contrast with the case of free, individual MNPs with which separation took about 36∼72 h, depending on the MNP concentrations. Model calculations of magnetic separation velocity, accounting for the MNP magnetization and viscous drag, show that the total magnetic separation time will be approximately 5 min or less, when the size of the MNPs-oils is greater than 360 nm, which can be used as an optimum operating condition.

  8. Risk assessment of human exposure to Ra-226 in oil produced water from the Bakken Shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luisa; Yadav, Om Prakash; Khan, Eakalak

    2018-01-20

    Unconventional oil production in North Dakota (ND) and other states in the United States uses large amounts of water for hydraulic fracturing to stimulate oil flow. Most of the water used returns to the surface as produced water (PW) containing different constituents. Some of these contents are total dissolved solids and radionuclides. The most predominant radionuclide in PW is radium-226 (Ra-226) of which level depends on several factors including the content of certain cations. A multivariate regression model was developed to predict Ra-226 in PW from the Bakken Shale based on the levels of barium, strontium, and calcium. The simulated Ra-226 activity concentration in PW was 535 pCi/L supporting extremely limited actual data based on three PW samples from the Bakken (527, 816, and 1210 pCi/L). The simulated activity concentration was further analyzed by studying its impact in the event of a PW spill reaching a surface water body that provides drinking water, irrigation water for crops, and recreational fishing. Using food transfer factors found in the literature, the final annual effective dose rate for an adult in ND was estimated. The global average annual effective dose rate via food and drinking water is 0.30 mSv, while the predicted dose rate in this study was 0.49 mSv indicating that there is potential risk to human health in ND due to Ra-226 in PW spills. This predicted dose rate is considered the best case scenario as it is based on the simulated Ra-226 activity concentration in PW of 535 pCi/L which is close to the low end actual activity concentration of 527 pCi/L. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Immune modulation in the blue mussel Mytilus edulis exposed to North Sea produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannam, M.L., E-mail: marie.hannam@plymouth.ac.u [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Bamber, S.D.; Sundt, R.C. [IRIS - Biomiljo, Mekjarvik 12, 4070 Randaberg (Norway); Galloway, T.S. [School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Hatherly Laboratories, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, EX4 4PS (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    The discharge of oil well produced water (PW) provides a constant source of contaminants to the marine environment including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylated phenols, metals and production chemicals. High concentrations of PW cause adverse effects to exposed biota, including reduced survival, growth and reproduction. Here we explore the effects of PW on immune function in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis. Mussels were exposed for 21 days to sublethal PW concentrations (0.125-0.5%) and cellular parameters were measured. Cell viability, phagocytosis and cytotoxicity were inhibited after exposure to 0.25% and 0.5% PW, whilst the 0.125% PW treatment produced significant increases in these biomarker responses. This biphasic response was only observed after 7 days exposure; longer exposure periods led to a reduction in immune parameters. Results indicate that PW concentrations close to the discharge point cause modulation to cellular immunity. The implications for longer-term disease resistance are discussed. - Exposure to produced water alters immune function in the sentinel species Mytilus edulis.

  10. BAGGING TECHNIQUE: WATER CATCHMENT SYSTEM FOR RESIDUAL MOISTURE CROPS USED BY PRODUCERS MASIACA, SONORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pastor Sánchez-García

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the southeast of Sonora as in most of the State, land is unproductive due to its arid and semi-arid land, if it does not have small or large irrigation facilities. Where economic conditions are reduced, producers need to develop techniques that help to overcome the erraticity in the availability of water, especially for irrigation. That's why Mays Indian and Masiaca community private producers from Sonora have developed a technique for harvesting from water of avenues of the intermittent streams near their plots, and once the ground has the adequate humidity conditions they can establish crops of their interest, so it is possible to obtain acceptable harvest in corn, peas, sorghum and safflower. However, these producers face a series of problems related primarily to the lack of rain; lack of credit support for the construction or maintenance of the required facilities; lack of profitability of crops established there, the abandonment of agricultural land, erosion of knowledge, etc. The analysis of this study can draw the following conclusions: The bagging technique is feasible if there are heavy rains, with the presence of cyclones, in October; the acceptable harvest obtained in established crops is largely due to the contribution of organic matter derived from the Avenues; the organizational levels observed are simple and operational.

  11. Integration of Thermoelectric Generators and Wood Stove to Produce Heat, Hot Water, and Electrical Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goudarzi, A.M.; Mazandarani, P.; Panahi, R.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional fire stoves are characterized by low efficiency. In this experimental study, the combustion chamber of the stove is developed by two devices. An electric fan can increase the air to fuel ratio in order to increase the system’s efficiency and to decrease the air pollution by providing...... a complete combustion for wood. In addition, thermoelectric generators (TEG) produce power that can be used to satisfy all basic needs. In this study, a water-base cooling system is designed to increase the efficiency of TE generators that also produces hot water for residential uses. Through a range...... of tests, an average of 7.9 W was achieved by a commercial TEG with the substrate area of 56 mm ×56 mm, which can produce 14.7 W output power at the maximum match load. The total power generated by the stove is 166 W. Also, in this study a reasonable ratio of fuel to time is described for a residential use...

  12. Performance of dithiocarbamate-type flocculant in treating simulated polymer flooding produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Baoyu; Jia, Yuyan; Zhang, Yongqiang; Li, Qian; Yue, Qinyan

    2011-01-01

    Produced water from polymer flooding is difficult to treat due to its high polymer concentration, high viscosity, and emulsified characteristics. The dithiocarbamate flocculant, DTC (T403), was prepared by the amine-terminated polyoxypropane-ether compound known as Jeffamine-T403. The product was characterized by IR spectra and elemental analysis. The DTC agent chelating with Fe2+ produced a network polymer matrix, which captured and removed oil droplets efficiently. Oil removal by the flocculent on simulated produced water with 0, 200, 500, 900 mg/L of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) was investigated for aspects of effectiveness of DTC (T403) dosage and concentrations of HPAM and Fe2+ ions in the wastewater. Results showed that HPAM had a negative influence on oil removal efficiency when DTC (T403) dosage was lower than 20 mg/L. However, residual oil concentrations in tested samples with different concentrations of HPAM all decreased below 10 mg/L when DTC (T403) dosage reached 30 mg/L. The concentration of Fe2+ in the initial wastewater had a slight effect on oil removal at the range of 2-12 mg/L. Results showed that Fe3+ could not be used in place of Fe2+ as Fe3+ could not react with DTC under flocculated conditions. The effects of mineral salts ions were also investigated.

  13. Prevalence and characteristics of ESBL-producing E. coli in Dutch recreational waters influenced by wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaak, Hetty; de Kruijf, Patrick; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A; van Hoek, Angela H A M; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; Schets, Franciska M

    2014-07-16

    Outside health care settings, people may acquire ESBL-producing bacteria through different exposure routes, including contact with human or animal carriers or consumption of contaminated food. However, contact with faecally contaminated surface water may also represent a possible exposure route. The current study investigated the prevalence and characteristics of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in four Dutch recreational waters and the possible role of nearby waste water treatment plants (WWTP) as contamination source. Isolates from recreational waters were compared with isolates from WWTP effluents, from surface water upstream of the WWTPs, at WWTP discharge points, and in connecting water bodies not influenced by the studied WWTPs. ESBL-producing E. coli were detected in all four recreational waters, with an average concentration of 1.3 colony forming units/100ml, and in 62% of all samples. In surface waters not influenced by the studied WWTPs, ESBL-producing E. coli were detected in similar concentrations, indicating the existence of additional ESBL-E. coli contamination sources. Isolates with identical ESBL-genes, phylogenetic background, antibiotic resistance profiles, and sequence type, were obtained from effluent and different surface water sites in the same watershed, on the same day; occasionally this included isolates from recreational waters. Recreational waters were identified as a potential exposure source of ESBL-producing E. coli. WWTPs were shown to contribute to the presence of these bacteria in surface waters, but other (yet unidentified) sources likely co-contribute. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Omniphobic Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Membrane for Desalination of Shale Gas Produced Water by Membrane Distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Chanhee; Lee, Jongho; Elimelech, Menachem

    2016-11-15

    Microporous membranes fabricated from hydrophobic polymers such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) have been widely used for membrane distillation (MD). However, hydrophobic MD membranes are prone to wetting by low surface tension substances, thereby limiting their use in treating challenging industrial wastewaters, such as shale gas produced water. In this study, we present a facile and scalable approach for the fabrication of omniphobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes that repel both water and oil. Positive surface charge was imparted to an alkaline-treated PVDF membrane by aminosilane functionalization, which enabled irreversible binding of negatively charged silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) to the membrane through electrostatic attraction. The membrane with grafted SiNPs was then coated with fluoroalkylsilane (perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane) to lower the membrane surface energy. Results from contact angle measurements with mineral oil and surfactant solution demonstrated that overlaying SiNPs with ultralow surface energy significantly enhanced the wetting resistance of the membrane against low surface tension liquids. We also evaluated desalination performance of the modified membrane in direct contact membrane distillation with a synthetic wastewater containing surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate) and mineral oil, as well as with shale gas produced water. The omniphobic membrane exhibited a stable MD performance, demonstrating its potential application for desalination of challenging industrial wastewaters containing diverse low surface tension contaminants.

  15. Breeding and maintaining high-quality insects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård; Heckmann, Lars-Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Insects have a large potential for sustainably enhancing global food and feed production, and commercial insect production is a rising industry of high economic value. Insects suitable for production typically have fast growth, short generation time, efficient nutrient utilization, high...... in a starting phase. Here, we discuss the challenges and precautions that need to be considered when breeding and maintaining high-quality insect populations for food and feed. This involves techniques typically used in domestic animal breeding programs including maintaining genetically healthy populations...... reproductive potential, and thrive at high density. Insects may cost-efficiently convert agricultural and industrial food by-products into valuable protein once the technology is finetuned. However, since insect mass production is a new industry, the technology needed to efficiently farm these animals is still...

  16. Method for synthesis of high quality graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzara, Alessandra [Piedmont, CA; Schmid, Andreas K [Berkeley, CA; Yu, Xiaozhu [Berkeley, CA; Hwang, Choonkyu [Albany, CA; Kohl, Annemarie [Beneditkbeuern, DE; Jozwiak, Chris M [Oakland, CA

    2012-03-27

    A method is described herein for the providing of high quality graphene layers on silicon carbide wafers in a thermal process. With two wafers facing each other in close proximity, in a first vacuum heating stage, while maintained at a vacuum of around 10.sup.-6 Torr, the wafer temperature is raised to about 1500.degree. C., whereby silicon evaporates from the wafer leaving a carbon rich surface, the evaporated silicon trapped in the gap between the wafers, such that the higher vapor pressure of silicon above each of the wafers suppresses further silicon evaporation. As the temperature of the wafers is raised to about 1530.degree. C. or more, the carbon atoms self assemble themselves into graphene.

  17. High Quality Virtual Reality for Architectural Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzberg, Anette

    2016-01-01

    This paper will summarise the findings from creating and implementing a visually high quality Virtual Reality (VR) experiment as part of an international architecture exhibition. It was the aim to represent the architectural spatial qualities as well as the atmosphere created from combining natural...... and artificial lighting in a prominent not yet built project. The outcome is twofold: Findings concerning the integration of VR in an exhibition space and findings concerning the experience of the virtual space itself. In the exhibition, an important aspect was the unmanned exhibition space, requiring the VR...... and quantitative methods at two different occasions and setups after the exhibition, both showing a high degree of immersion and experience of reality....

  18. Produced Water Treatment Using the Switchable Polarity Solvent Forward Osmosis (SPS FO) Desalination Process: Preliminary Engineering Design Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Daniel; Adhikari, Birendra; Orme, Christopher; Wilson, Aaron

    2016-05-01

    Switchable Polarity Solvent Forward Osmosis (SPS FO) is a semi-permeable membrane-based water treatment technology. INL is currently advancing SPS FO technology such that a prototype unit can be designed and demonstrated for the purification of produced water from oil and gas production operations. The SPS FO prototype unit will used the thermal energy in the produced water as a source of process heat, thereby reducing the external process energy demands. Treatment of the produced water stream will reduce the volume of saline wastewater requiring disposal via injection, an activity that is correlated with undesirable seismic events, as well as generate a purified product water stream with potential beneficial uses. This paper summarizes experimental data that has been collected in support of the SPS FO scale-up effort, and describes how this data will be used in the sizing of SPS FO process equipment. An estimate of produced water treatment costs using the SPS FO process is also provided.

  19. The Challenge of Producing and Marketing Colloidal Silver Water Filters in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bogler

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obtaining safe drinking water can be a challenge in Nepal. By training potters and setting up production sites for Colloidal Silver Filters, several non-governmental organizations have tried to provide local people with a low-cost option for household water treatment. Out of 19 trained entrepreneurs, only four are currently producing filters. The goal of this evaluation was to find out what conditions lead to the successful continuation of the production and the reasons for failure. Methods: The evaluation of the potters was based on a Qualitative Comparative Analysis and the conditions looked at were: “Production”, “Collaboration”, “Market” and “Potter”. Results: Analysis showed that production problems and insufficient demand led to the termination of ceramic filter production and that both trouble-free production and high demand are necessary for a sustainable business.

  20. Method to produce water-soluble sugars from biomass using solvents containing lactones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumesic, James A.; Luterbacher, Jeremy S.

    2017-08-08

    A process to produce an aqueous solution of carbohydrates that contains C6-sugar-containing oligomers, C6 sugar monomers, C5-sugar-containing oligomers, C5 sugar monomers, or any combination thereof is presented. The process includes the steps of reacting biomass or a biomass-derived reactant with a solvent system including a lactone and water, and an acid catalyst. The reaction yields a product mixture containing water-soluble C6-sugar-containing oligomers, C6-sugar monomers, C5-sugar-containing oligomers, C5-sugar monomers, or any combination thereof. A solute is added to the product mixture to cause partitioning of the product mixture into an aqueous layer containing the carbohydrates and a substantially immiscible organic layer containing the lactone.

  1. Fishing for isotopes in the Brookhaven Lab Isotope Producer (BLIP) cooling water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzsimmons, Jonathan [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider Accelerator Dept.

    2016-04-29

    Be-7 has been used in environmental studies; the isotope is produced during BLIP irradiations and accumulates in the 320 gallons of cooling water. Be-7 has a 53.24 day half-life, so the optimal production/purification time is at the end of the BLIP run season. To purify Be-7 fifteen to twenty gallons of BLIP cooling water are removed and pumped through ion exchange columns that retain Be-7. This labor intensive approach captures ~15 mCi of Be-7, but the solution requires further purification. The method can lead to increased radiation exposure to staff. The ideal way to capture isotopes from large volumes is to reach in to the solution and selectively pull out the desired isotope. It is a lot like fishing.

  2. Complete chemical analysis of produced water by modern inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, G.M.; Sorbie, K.S.; Johnston, A.; Boak, L.S.

    1996-12-31

    ICP (Inductively Coupled Plasma) spectroscopy is recognised as a very effective tool for monitoring ion compositions in many different waters. It has also been used by a number of laboratories to determine residual levels of phosphonate (PH) scale inhibitors in produced waters, based on phosphorus content. Until recently, it had not been used effectively to monitor phosphino-polycarboxylate (PPCA) returns. Large errors had frequently been observed where it had been applied. The poor detection limits and accuracy obtained for PPCA inhibitors relates to much lower amount of phosphorus present when compared with a typical phosphonate inhibitor. This paper demonstrates the effectiveness of IPC detection for PPCA and other phosphorus containing inhibitors by the use of modern instruments without the need of pre-treatment. 6 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Volcanic and stratospheric dust-like particles produced by experimental water-melt interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohletz, K.H.; McQueen, R.G.

    1984-10-01

    Commercially available Thermit (Al + Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/) was ignited, forming a molten mixture of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ + Fe. The subsequent mixing of this melt with water in steel containers produced explosive interactions that were used to model hydrovolcanic activity. Debris collected from the experiments consisted of quenched Thermit particles ranging in size from < 1 ..mu..m to centimeters. Scanning electron microscopy of the debris showed spheroidal, irregular aggregates and blocky particle shapes that are very similar to hydrovolcanic ash, as well as some types of stratospheric dust and industrial fly ash. 27 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  4. Volcanic and stratospheric dustlike particles produced by experimental water-melt interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohletz, K. H.; McQueen, R. G.

    1984-10-01

    Commercially available Thermit (Al + Fe3O4) was ignited, forming a molten mixture of Al2O3 + Fe. The subsequent mixing of this melt with water in steel containers produced explosive interactions that were used to model hydrovolcanic activity. Debris collected from the experiments consisted of quenched Thermit particles ranging in size from <1 μm to centimetres. Scanning electron microscopy of the debris showed spheroidal, irregular aggregates and blocky particle shapes that are very similar to hydrovolcanic ash, as well as some types of stratospheric dust and industrial fly ash.

  5. High quality draft genome sequence and analysis of Pontibacter roseus type strain SRC-1T (DSM 17521T) isolated from muddy waters of a drainage system in Chandigarh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Supratim; Lapidus, Alla; Shapiro, Nicole; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, James; Reddy, TBK; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Spring, Stefan; Göker, Markus; Markowitz, Victor; Woyke, Tanja; Tindall, Brian J.; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Pati, Amrita

    2015-01-01

    Pontibacter roseus Suresh et al 2006 is a member of genus Pontibacter family Cytophagaceae, class Cytophagia. While the type species of the genus Pontibacter actiniarum was isolated in 2005 from a marine environment, subsequent species of the same genus have been found in different types of habitats ranging from seawater, sediment, desert soil, rhizosphere, contaminated sites, solar saltern and muddy water. Here we describe the features of Pontibacter roseus strain SRC-1T along with its complete genome sequence and annotation from a culture of DSM 17521T. The 4,581,480 bp long draft genome consists of 12 scaffolds with 4,003 protein-coding and 50 RNA genes and is a part of Genomic encyclopedia of Type Strains, Phase I: the one thousand microbial genomes (KMG-I) project.

  6. High quality draft genome sequence and analysis of Pontibacter roseus type strain SRC-1(T) (DSM 17521(T)) isolated from muddy waters of a drainage system in Chandigarh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Supratim; Lapidus, Alla; Shapiro, Nicole; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, James; Reddy, Tbk; Huntemann, Marcel; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Spring, Stefan; Göker, Markus; Markowitz, Victor; Woyke, Tanja; Tindall, Brian J; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Pati, Amrita

    2015-01-01

    Pontibacter roseus is a member of genus Pontibacter family Cytophagaceae, class Cytophagia. While the type species of the genus Pontibacter actiniarum was isolated in 2005 from a marine environment, subsequent species of the same genus have been found in different types of habitats ranging from seawater, sediment, desert soil, rhizosphere, contaminated sites, solar saltern and muddy water. Here we describe the features of Pontibacter roseus strain SRC-1(T) along with its complete genome sequence and annotation from a culture of DSM 17521(T). The 4,581,480 bp long draft genome consists of 12 scaffolds with 4,003 protein-coding and 50 RNA genes and is a part of Genomic Encyclopedia of Type Strains: KMG-I project.

  7. Effect of varying ratios of produced water and municipal water on soil characteristics, plant biomass, and secondary metabolites of Artemisia annua and Panicum virgatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coal-bed natural gas production in the U.S. in 2012 was 1,655 billion cubic feet (bcf). A by-product of this production is co-produced water, which is categorized as a waste product by the Environmental Protection Agency. The effects of varying concentrations of coal-bed methane (produced) water wer...

  8. A field demonstration of the microbial treatment of sour produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L. [Univ. of Tulsa, OK (United States); Morse, D.; Raterman, K. [Amoco Production Co., Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The potential for detoxification and deodorization of sulfide-laden water (sour water) by microbial treatment was evaluated at a petroleum production site under field conditions. A sulfide-tolerant strain of the chemautotroph and facultative anaerobe, Thiobacillus denitrificans, was introduced into an oil-skimming pit of the Amoco Production Company LACT 10 Unit of the Salt Creek Field, Wyoming. Field-produced water enters this pit from the oil/water separation treatment train at an average flowrate of 5,000 bbl/D (795 m{sup 3}/D) with a potential maximum of 98,000 bbl/D (15,580 m{sup 3}/D). Water conditions at the pit inlet are 4,800 mg/l TDS, 100 mg/l sulfide, pH 7.8, and 107{degrees}F. To this water an aqueous solution of ammonium nitrate and diphosphorous pentoxide was added to provide required nutrients for the bacteria. The first 20% of the pit was aerated to a maximum depth of 5 ft (1.5 m) to facilitate the aerobic oxidation of sulfide. No provisions for pH control or biomass recovery and recycle were made. Pilot operations were initiated in October 1992 with the inoculation of the 19,000 bbl (3,020 m{sup 3}) pit with 40 lb (18.1 kg) of dry weight biomass. After a brief acclimation period, a nearly constant mass flux of 175 lb/D (80 kg/D) sulfide was established to the pit. Bio-oxidation of sulfide to elemental sulfur and sulfate was immediate and complete. Subsequent pilot operations focused upon process optimization and process sensitivity to system upsets. The process appeared most sensitive to large variations in sulfide loading due to maximum water discharge events. However, recoveries from such events could be accomplished within hours. This paper details all pertinent aspects of pilot operation, performance, and economics. Based on this body of evidence, it is suggested that the oxidation of inorganic sulfides by T denitrificans represents a viable concept for the treatment of sour water coproduced with oil and gas.

  9. Effect of produced water on feeding and metabolism of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkoff, H.; Parrish, C. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Hamoutene, D.; Mabrouk, G.; Samuelson, S.; Mansour, A.; Lee, K. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Maritimes Region, Ocean Sciences Division

    2007-07-01

    This paper addressed concerns regarding potentially detrimental cumulative effects of waste products from oil industry activities on marine organisms around production sites. The metabolic capacities, feeding and digestive physiology of fish have been shown to change with environmental parameters, which could impact the growth and health status of fish populations. In this study, the effects of produced water (PW) on feeding and metabolism of Atlantic cod was investigated by exposing fish to 0.100 ppm (x 10,000 PW dilution) or 200 ppm (x 500 dilution) of PW for 76 days. Throughout the experiment, food intake and mean weight were monitored. In addition, serum lipids, metabolites and gene expression of a brain appetite regulating factor were measured at the end of the experiment. No significant differences were observed in weight gain or food intake between the 3 groups of fish. Serum metabolites and neuropeptide Y expression remained unchanged between groups. The study is ongoing to complete comparative measurements of whole blood fatty acid profiles in plasma. The preliminary results indicate that feeding and metabolism in cod is not affected by produced water.

  10. Treatment of produced water using hydrocyclones; Tratamento de agua produzida usando hidrociclone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Andrea G.B. de; Paixao, Ana Eleonora A.; Santana, Claudia R.; Silva, Gabriel Francisco da [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Nucleo de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Beyond a great number of applications in mineral process, the hydrocyclone separation has been used recently in an increasing number of fields, such as: environmental engineering, petrochemical engineering, food engineering, electrochemical engineering, pulp bioengineering, processes and paper industries, among others. Nowadays, the produced water is treated and then reinjected in the surface and also in return to the formation. In the offshore platforms, the produced water can be directly discarded in the ocean, since the dispersed phase concentration (oil) is according to Brazilian regulating agency limits. The basic principle used in hydrocyclone separation is the centrifugal sedimentation machine: the suspended particles are submitted to centrifugal acceleration, which separates them from the fluid. The basic geometry of a hydrocyclone consists of four parts: a cylindrical section for feeding, a conical section for swirling, an overflow and an under flow. The project depends on the fluid properties and the quality of the effluent. Hydrocyclones have become more interesting for some industries due to its innumerable advantages, such as: simple structure, low cost, high capacity and small volume. The theoretical study of draining in hydrocyclone is done using conservation mass and moment equations, which are non linear partial equations, with a difficulty in analytical resolution. (author)

  11. Strategies to diagnose and control microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, E.A.; Derr, R.M.; Pope, D.H.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrogen sulfide production (souring) in natural gas storage reservoirs and produced water systems is a safety and environmental problem that can lead to operational shutdown when local hydrogen sulfide standards are exceeded. Systems affected by microbial souring have historically been treated using biocides that target the general microbial community. However, requirements for more environmentally friendly solutions have led to treatment strategies in which sulfide production can be controlled with minimal impact to the system and environment. Some of these strategies are based on microbial and/or nutritional augmentation of the sour environment. Through research sponsored by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) in Chicago, Illinois, methods have been developed for early detection of microbial souring in natural gas storage reservoirs, and a variety of mitigation strategies have been evaluated. The effectiveness of traditional biocide treatment in gas storage reservoirs was shown to depend heavily on the methods by which the chemical is applied. An innovative strategy using nitrate was tested and proved ideal for produced water and wastewater systems. Another strategy using elemental iodine was effective for sulfide control in evaporation ponds and is currently being tested in microbially sour natural gas storage wells.

  12. Final Report: Risk assessment for produced water discharges to Louisiana open bays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, A.F.; DePhillips, M.P.; Holtzman, S.

    1996-03-01

    Potential human health and environmental impacts from discharges of produced water to the Gulf of Mexico are of concern to regulators at the State and Federal levels, the public, environmental interest groups and industry. Current and proposed regulations require a zero discharge limit for coastal facilities, based primarily on studies in low energy, poorly flushed environments. However, produced water discharges in coastal Louisiana include a number of open bay sites, where potential human health and environmental impacts are likely to be smaller than those demonstrated for low energy canal environments, but greater than the minimal impacts associated with offshore discharges. Additional data and assessments are needed to support risk managers at the State and Federal levels in the development of regulations that protect human health and the environment without unnecessary cost to the economic welfare of the region and the nation. This project supports the Natural Gas and Oil Initiative objectives to: (1) improve coordination on environmental research; (2) streamline State and Federal regulation; (3) enhance State, and Federal regulatory decision making capability; (4) enhance dialogue through industry/government/public partnerships; and (5) work with States and Native American Tribes.

  13. Identification of polypropylene glycols and polyethylene glycol carboxylates in flowback and produced water from hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, E Michael; Ferrer, Imma; Rosenblum, James; Linden, Karl; Ryan, Joseph N

    2017-02-05

    The purpose of the study was to separate and identify the unknown surfactants present in flowback and produced water from oil and gas wells in the Denver-Julesburg Basin (Niobrara Formation) in Weld County, Colorado, USA. Weld County has been drilled extensively during the last five years for oil and gas between 7000-8000 feet below land-surface. Polypropylene glycols (PPGs) and polyethylene glycols carboxylates (PEG-Cs) were found for the first time in these flowback and produced water samples. These ethoxylated surfactants may be used as friction reducers, clay stabilizers, and surfactants. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/QTOF-MS) was used to separate and identify the different classes of PPGs, PEG-Cs, and their isomers. The Kendrick mass scale was applied along with mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (MS-MS) with accurate mass for rapid and unequivocal identification. The PPGs and their isomers occur at the ppm concentration range and may be useful as "fingerprints" of hydraulic-fracturing. Comparing these detections to the compounds used in the fracturing process from FracFocus 3.0 (https://fracfocus.org), it appears that both PPGs and polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are commonly named as additives, but the PEG-Cs have not been reported. The PEG-Cs may be trace impurities or degradation products of PEGs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of phytoremediation technique in the treatment of produced water using eichornea crassipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dune Kingdom, K. [Department of Petroleum Engineering, Rivers State U. of Sc. and Tech., Port Harcourt (Nigeria); Fabian, E. Ezeilo [Department of Civil Engineering, Rivers State U. of Sc. and Tech., Port Harcourt (Nigeria); Longjohn, T. [Department of Petroleum Engineering, Rivers State U. of Sc. and Tech., Port Harcourt (Nigeria)

    2013-07-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out to determine the effectiveness of using a hyper accumulating plant like Eichorneacrassipes (water hyacinth) to reduce toxicity of produced water gotten from an oil field of the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Results from the phytoremediation experiment showed that the concentration of biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and oil/grease were reduced from initial concentrations of 10.6mg/l, 150 mg/l and 7.70 mg/l to 7.25mg/l, 106.25 mg/l and 8.35mg/l respectively. Heavy metals like iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), Magnesium (Mg), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb) were reduced from initial concentrations of 3.00 mg/l, 3.40 mg/l, 1.22 mg/l, 1.40 mg/l, 0.06 mg/l, and 0.030 mg/l to 2.18, 2.09, 0.82, 0.25, 0.015, and 0.009 mg/l, respectively. A comparison of the system’s effluent characteristics with effluent discharge limits in Nigeria, show that for inland, near-shore and offshore disposals, the effluent can be discharged into these environments with minimum public hazards. It is recommended that every company should carryout proper detoxification of produced water before disposal, while regulatory agencies such as DPR, FEPA, etc., must ensure proper monitoring and enforcement of effluent standards.

  15. Flocculating performance of a bioflocculant produced by Arthrobacter humicola in sewage waste water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agunbiade, Mayowa Oladele; Van Heerden, Esta; Pohl, Carolina H; Ashafa, Anofi Tom

    2017-06-12

    The discharge of poorly treated effluents into the environment has far reaching, consequential impacts on human and aquatic life forms. Thus, we evaluated the flocculating efficiency of our test bioflocculant and we report for the first time the ability of the biopolymeric flocculant produced by Arthrobacter humicola in the treatment of sewage wastewater. This strain was isolated from sediment soil sample at Sterkfontein dam in the Eastern Free State province of South Africa. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the 16S rDNA revealed the bacteria to have 99% similarity to Arthrobacter humicola strain R1 and the sequence was deposited in the Gene bank as Arthrobacter humicola with accession number KC816574.1. Flocculating activity was enhanced with the aid of divalent cations, pH 12, at a dosage concentration of 0.8 mg/mL. The purified bioflocculant was heat stable and could retain more than 78% of its flocculating activity after heating at 100 °C for 25 min. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis demonstrated the presence of hydroxyl and carboxyl moieties as the functional groups. The thermogravimetric analysis was used to monitor the pyrolysis profile of the purified bioflocculant and elemental composition revealed C: O: Na: P: K with 13.90: 41.96: 26.79: 16.61: 0.74 weight percentage respectively. The purified bioflocculant was able to remove chemical oxygen demand, biological oxygen demand, suspended solids, nitrate and turbidity from sewage waste water at efficiencies of 65.7%, 63.5%, 55.7%, 71.4% and 81.3% respectively. The results of this study indicate the possibility of using the bioflocculant produced by Arthrobacter humicola as a potential alternative to synthesized chemical flocculants in sewage waste water treatment and other industrial waste water.

  16. Microbial mats as a biological treatment approach for saline wastewaters: the case of produced water from hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyon, Benay; Stachler, Elyse; Wei, Na; Bibby, Kyle

    2015-05-19

    Treatment of produced water, i.e. wastewater from hydraulic fracturing, for reuse or final disposal is challenged by both high salinity and the presence of organic compounds. Organic compounds in produced water may foul physical-chemical treatment processes or support microbial corrosion, fouling, and sulfide release. Biological approaches have potential applications in produced water treatment, including reducing fouling of physical-chemical treatment processes and decreasing biological activity during produced water holding; however, conventional activated sludge treatments are intolerant of high salinity. In this study, a biofilm treatment approach using constructed microbial mats was evaluated for biodegradation performance, microbial community structure, and metabolic potential in both simulated and real produced water. Results demonstrated that engineered microbial mats are active at total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations up to at least 100,000 mg/L, and experiments in real produced water showed a biodegradation capacity of 1.45 mg COD/gramwet-day at a TDS concentration of 91,351 mg/L. Additionally, microbial community and metagenomic analyses revealed an adaptive microbial community that shifted based upon the sample being treated and has the metabolic potential to degrade a wide array of contaminants, suggesting the potential of this approach to treat produced waters with varying composition.

  17. Developing County-level Water Footprints of Biofuel Produced from Switchgrass and Miscanthus x Giganteus in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, May M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chiu, Yi-Wen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Perennial grass has been proposed as a potential candidate for producing cellulosic biofuel because of its promising productivity and benefits to water quality, and because it is a non-food feedstock. While extensive research focuses on selecting and developing species and conversion technologies, the impact of grass-based biofuel production on water resources remains less clear. As feedstock growth requires water and the type of water consumed may vary considerably from region to region, water use must be characterized with spatial resolution and on a fuel production basis. This report summarizes a study that assesses the impact of biofuel production on water resource use and water quality at county, state, and regional scales by developing a water footprint of biofuel produced from switchgrass and Miscanthus × giganteus via biochemical conversion.

  18. Water use efficiency of coriander produced in a low-cost hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Santos Júnior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The increase of water use efficiency in crop production is a clear need in areas with restricted access to this resource and, in these cases, the adoption of forms of cultivation contextualized to local conditions are essential. Thus, the implications of the variation in the amount of seeds per cell (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 g and spacing between cells (7.0, 10.0 and 15.0 cm on variables related to consumption and water use efficiency for the production of coriander (cv. Tabocas in a low-cost hydroponic system, an alternative for semiarid regions, were evaluated. A completely randomized experimental design, analysed in 4 x 3 factorial scheme with three replicates, was adopted, and the data were subjected to analysis of variance at 0.05 probability level. It was found that the reduction in the spacing between cells has a better cost-benefit ratio with respect to water consumption, biomass produced and cost of seeds. Therefore, it is recommended the adoption of a spacing of 7.0 cm between cells and the use of 1.0 g seeds per cell; this configuration promoted efficiency of 81.59 g L-1 in shoot green mass production and total mass of 62.4 g coriander bunches.

  19. Determination of thermotolerant coliforms present in coconut water produced and bottled in the Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandbergue Santos Pereira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coconut water is considered to be a natural isotonic drink and its marketing is gradually increasing. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of the coconut water produced and bottled in the Northeast of Brazil. Products form ten industries from different states in the Northeast of Brazil were analyzed. The most probable number (MPN method was used to quantify the coliforms. Samples showing positive for coliforms were seeded on ChromAgar Orient plates and the bacteria identified from isolated colonies using the automated system Vitek 2 (BioMérieux, according to the manufacturer's instructions for the preparation of the inoculum, incubation, reading and interpretation. The samples showed thermotolerant coliform counts between 6.0×102 and 2.6×104 MPN/100 mL. The presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Morganella morganii and Providencia alcalifaciens was observed. The implementation of preventive methods and monitoring of the water quality by the industries is required.

  20. Isolation of Extended Spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) Producing Bacteria from Urban Surface Waters in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissera, Shehani; Lee, Sui Mae

    2013-05-01

    This was a preliminary study to test for the presence of multiple antibiotic-resistant extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria in Malaysian urban surface waters. Although the literature review revealed several published papers on clinical ESBL isolates in Malaysia, none were found on ESBL isolates obtained from local surface waters. Isolated bacterial species were tested for resistance to cefotaxime, amoxicillin/clavulanate and aztreonam, and susceptibility to imipenem and meropenem using antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) by disc diffusion. This served as a screening step to detect bacteria that could be potential ESBL species. 16S ribose ribonucleic acid (rRNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing with two clusters of bla (β-lactamase) gene primers was used to test for the bla genes CTX-M (Groups 1, 2, 9), OXA-1, SHV and TEM. A total of 19 isolates were found, possessing at least one of the bla genes tested for. There was a relatively high occurrence of CTX-M genes (84.2%) among these, followed by TEM genes (47.4%). The isolates were identified as Enterobacteriaceae (89.5%), predominantly Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. There appears to be a high occurrence of ESBL-bacteria in local surface waters, among these being opportunistic pathogens. The persistence and spread of these species in the environment poses a threat to exposed human populations.

  1. Quantity, composition and water contamination potential of ash produced under different wildfire severities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H; Otero, Xosé L; Chafer, Chris J

    2015-10-01

    Wildfires frequently threaten water quality through the transfer of eroded ash and soil into rivers and reservoirs. The ability to anticipate risks for water resources from wildfires is fundamental for implementing effective fire preparedness plans and post-fire mitigation measures. Here we present a new approach that allows quantifying the amount and characteristics of ash generated under different wildfire severities and its respective water contamination potential. This approach is applied to a wildfire in an Australian dry sclerophyll eucalypt forest, but can be adapted for use in other environments. The Balmoral fire of October 2013 affected 12,694 ha of Sydney's forested water supply catchment. It produced substantial ash loads that increased with fire severity, with 6, 16 and 34 Mg ha(-1) found in areas affected by low, high and extreme fire severity, respectively. Ash bulk density was also positively related to fire severity. The increase with fire severity in the total load and bulk density of the ash generated is mainly attributed to a combination of associated increases in (i) total amount of fuel affected by fire and (ii) contribution of charred mineral soil to the ash layer. Total concentrations of pollutants and nutrients in ash were mostly unrelated to fire severity and relatively low compared to values reported for wildfire ash in other environments (e.g. 4.0-7.3mg As kg(-1); 2.3-4.1 B mg kg(-1); 136-154 P mg kg(-1)). Solubility of the elements analysed was also low, less than 10% of the total concentration for all elements except for B (6-14%) and Na (30-50%). This could be related to a partial loss of soluble components by leaching and/or wind erosion before the ash sampling (10 weeks after the fire and before major ash mobilisation by water erosion). Even with their relatively low concentrations of potential pollutants, the substantial total ash loads found here represent a water contamination risk if transported into the hydrological network

  2. Characterization of a dielectric barrier discharge in contact with liquid and producing a plasma activated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neretti, G.; Taglioli, M.; Colonna, G.; Borghi, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    limited deviations from Maxwellian distribution were observed, calculated electron temperature is in good agreement with the one measured by means of spectroscopic diagnostics. Computed temporal evolution of the energy delivered to the discharge is comparable with the one obtained from electrical measurements. The electrical discharges supplied by both voltage waveforms produce plasma activated water with negligible thermal effects and pH variations.

  3. Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

    2005-03-11

    This report summarizes work performed on this project from October 2004 through March 2005. In previous work, a surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) was shown to be an effective system for removing BTEX contaminants from produced water. Additional work on this project demonstrated that a compost-based biofilter could biodegrade the BTEX contaminants found in the SMZ regeneration waste gas stream. However, it was also determined that the BTEX concentrations in the waste gas stream varied significantly during the regeneration period and the initial BTEX concentrations were too high for the biofilter to handle effectively. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using a passive adsorption column placed upstream of the biofilter to attenuate the peak gas-phase VOC concentrations delivered to the biofilter during the SMZ regeneration process. In preparation for the field test of the SMZ/VPB treatment system in New Mexico, a pilot-scale SMZ system was also designed and constructed during this reporting period. Finally, a cost and feasibility analysis was also completed. To investigate the merits of the passive buffering system during SMZ regeneration, two adsorbents, SMZ and granular activated carbon (GAC) were investigated in flow-through laboratory-scale columns to determine their capacity to handle steady and unsteady VOC feed conditions. When subjected to a toluene-contaminated air stream, the column containing SMZ reduced the peak inlet 1000 ppmv toluene concentration to 630 ppmv at a 10 second contact time. This level of buffering was insufficient to ensure complete removal in the downstream biofilter and the contact time was longer than desired. For this reason, using SMZ as a passive buffering system for the gas phase contaminants was not pursued further. In contrast to the SMZ results, GAC was found to be an effective adsorbent to handle the peak contaminant concentrations that occur early during the SMZ regeneration process. At a one

  4. High Quality Factor Fano-Resonant All-Dielectric Metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yuanmu; Briggs, Dayrl P; Valentine, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Fano-resonant plasmonic metamaterials and nanostructures have become a major focus of the nanophotonics fields over the past several years due their ability to produce high quality factor (Q-factor) resonances. The origin of such resonances is the interference between a broad and narrow resonance, ultimately allowing suppression of radiative damping. However, Fano-resonant plasmonic structures still suffer non-radiative damping due to Ohmic loss, ultimately limiting the achievable Q-factors to values less than 10. Here, we report experimental demonstration of Fano-resonant silicon-based metamaterials that have a response that mimics the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) found in atomic systems. Due to extremely low absorption loss, a record-high Q-factor of 306 was experimentally observed. Furthermore, the unit cell of the metamaterial was designed with a feed-gap which results in strong local field enhancement in the surrounding medium resulting in strong light-matter interaction. This allows th...

  5. Treatment of Simulated Coalbed Methane Produced Water Using Direct Contact Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Wan Cho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Expolitation of coalbed methane (CBM involves production of a massive amount saline water that needs to be properly managed for environmental protection. In this study, direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD was utilized for treatment of CBM-produced water to remove saline components in the water. Simulated CBM waters containing varying concentrations of NaCl (1, 20, and 500 mM and NaHCO3 (1 and 25 mM were used as feed solutions under two transmembrane temperatures (Δ40 and 60 °C. In short-term distillation (~360 min, DCMD systems showed good performance with nearly 100% removal of salts for all solutes concentrations at both temperatures. The permeate flux increased with the feed temperature, but at a given temperature, it remained fairly stable throughout the whole operation. A gradual decline in permeate flux was observed at Δ60 °C at high NaHCO3 concentration (25 mM. In long-term distillation (5400 min, the presence of 25 mM NaHCO3 further decreased the flux to 25%–35% of the initial value toward the end of the operation, likely due to membrane fouling by deposition of Ca-carbonate minerals on the pore openings. Furthermore, pore wetting by the scalants occurred at the end of the experiment, and it increased the distillate conducitivity to 110 µS·cm−1. The precipitates formed on the surface were dominantly CaCO3 crystals, identified as aragonite.

  6. Effects of produced waters at oilfield production sites on the Osage Indian Reservation, northeastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otton, James K.; Asher-Bolinder, Sigrid; Owen, Douglass E.; Hall, Laurel

    1997-01-01

    The authors conducted limited site surveys in the Wildhorse and Burbank oilfields on the Osage Indian Reservation, northeastern Oklahoma. The purpose was to document salt scarring, erosion, and soil and water salinization, to survey for radioactivity in oilfield equipment, and to determine if trace elements and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) were present in soils affected by oilfield solid waste and produced waters. These surveys were also designed to see if field gamma spectrometry and field soil conductivity measurements were useful in screening for NORM contamination and soil salinity at these sites. Visits to oilfield production sites in the Wildhorse field in June of 1995 and 1996 confirmed the presence of substantial salt scarring, soil salinization, and slight to locally severe erosion. Levels of radioactivity on some oil field equipment, soils, and road surfaces exceed proposed state standards. Radium activities in soils affected by tank sludge and produced waters also locally exceed proposed state standards. Laboratory analyses of samples from two sites show moderate levels of copper, lead, and zinc in brine-affected soils and pipe scale. Several sites showed detectable levels of bromine and iodine, suggesting that these trace elements may be present in sufficient quantity to inhibit plant growth. Surface waters in streams at two sampled sites exceed total dissolved solid limits for drinking waters. At one site in the Wildhorse field, an EM survey showed that saline soils in the upper 6m extend from a surface salt scar downvalley about 150 m. (Photo [95k]: Dead oak trees and partly revegetated salt scar at Site OS95-2 in the Wildhorse field, Osage County, Oklahoma.) In the Burbank field, limited salt scarring and slight erosion occurs in soils at some sites and low to moderate levels of radioactivity were observed in oil field equipment at some sites. The levels of radioactivity and radium observed in some soils and equipment at these

  7. High Quality Data for Grid Integration Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton, Andrew; Draxl, Caroline; Sengupta, Manajit; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2017-01-22

    As variable renewable power penetration levels increase in power systems worldwide, renewable integration studies are crucial to ensure continued economic and reliable operation of the power grid. The existing electric grid infrastructure in the US in particular poses significant limitations on wind power expansion. In this presentation we will shed light on requirements for grid integration studies as far as wind and solar energy are concerned. Because wind and solar plants are strongly impacted by weather, high-resolution and high-quality weather data are required to drive power system simulations. Future data sets will have to push limits of numerical weather prediction to yield these high-resolution data sets, and wind data will have to be time-synchronized with solar data. Current wind and solar integration data sets are presented. The Wind Integration National Dataset (WIND) Toolkit is the largest and most complete grid integration data set publicly available to date. A meteorological data set, wind power production time series, and simulated forecasts created using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model run on a 2-km grid over the continental United States at a 5-min resolution is now publicly available for more than 126,000 land-based and offshore wind power production sites. The National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) is a similar high temporal- and spatial resolution database of 18 years of solar resource data for North America and India. The need for high-resolution weather data pushes modeling towards finer scales and closer synchronization. We also present how we anticipate such datasets developing in the future, their benefits, and the challenges with using and disseminating such large amounts of data.

  8. New Approach To Produce Water Free of Bacteria, Viruses, and Halogens in a Recyclable System▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abd El-Shafey I.; Cavalli, Gabriel; Bushell, Michael E.; Wardell, John N.; Pedley, Steve; Charles, Katarina; Hay, John N.

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of a new cross-linked N-halamine polymer against bacteria and viruses was evaluated. The polymer achieved a 9-log10 reduction of bacteria (both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) in 1.5 h and a 5-log10 reduction of bacteriophage PRD1 in 3 h. At the same time, the ability of the nonhalogenated polymer to trap halide ions was examined. The polymer was incorporated into a multifiltration system to study the ability to produce water free of bacteria, viruses, and halide ions. The antimicrobial activity, useful lifetime, halide ion level, and recycling possibilities of the system were quantified on a laboratory scale. A design for a large-scale multifiltration system based on this polymer is proposed. PMID:21115711

  9. Ordered visibility graph average aggregation operator: An application in produced water management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Wei, Boya; Tang, Yongchuan; Zhou, Deyun

    2017-02-01

    Complex networks are widely used in modeling complex system. How to aggregate data in complex systems is still an open issue. In this paper, an ordered visibility graph average aggregation operator is proposed which is inspired by the complex network theory and Newton's law of universal gravitation. First of all, the argument values are ordered in descending order. Then a new support function is proposed to measure the relationship among values in a visibility graph. After that, a weighted network is constructed to determine the weight of each value. Compared with the other operators, the new operator fully takes into account not only the information of orders but also the correlation degree between the values. Finally, an application of produced water management is illustrated to show the efficiency of the proposed method. The new method provides a universal way to aggregate data in complex systems.

  10. Oil removal from produced water by conjugation of flotation and photo-Fenton processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Syllos Santos; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; de Barros Neto, Eduardo Lins; Foletto, Edson Luiz

    2015-01-01

    The present work investigates the conjugation of flotation and photo-Fenton techniques on oil removal performance from oilfield produced water. The experiments were conducted in a column flotation and annular lamp reactor for induced air flotation and photodegradation steps, respectively. A nonionic surfactant was used as a flotation agent. The flotation experimental data were analyzed in terms of a first-order kinetic rate model. Two experimental designs were employed to evaluate the oil removal efficiency: fractional experimental design and central composite rotational design (CCRD). Overall oil removal of 99% was reached in the optimum experimental condition after 10 min of flotation followed by 45 min of photo-Fenton. The results of the conjugation of induced air flotation and photo-Fenton processes allowed meeting the wastewater limits established by the legislations for disposal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ordered visibility graph average aggregation operator: An application in produced water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Wei, Boya; Tang, Yongchuan; Zhou, Deyun

    2017-02-01

    Complex networks are widely used in modeling complex system. How to aggregate data in complex systems is still an open issue. In this paper, an ordered visibility graph average aggregation operator is proposed which is inspired by the complex network theory and Newton's law of universal gravitation. First of all, the argument values are ordered in descending order. Then a new support function is proposed to measure the relationship among values in a visibility graph. After that, a weighted network is constructed to determine the weight of each value. Compared with the other operators, the new operator fully takes into account not only the information of orders but also the correlation degree between the values. Finally, an application of produced water management is illustrated to show the efficiency of the proposed method. The new method provides a universal way to aggregate data in complex systems.

  12. Trace elements affect methanogenic activity and diversity in enrichments from subsurface coal bed produced water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu eÜnal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial methane from coal beds accounts for a significant and growing percentage of natural gas worldwide. Our knowledge of physical and geochemical factors regulating methanogenesis is still in its infancy. We hypothesized that in these closed systems, trace elements (as micronutrients are a limiting factor for methanogenic growth and activity. Trace elements are essential components of enzymes or cofactors of metabolic pathways associated with methanogenesis. This study examined the effects of eight trace elements (iron, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, zinc, manganese, boron, and copper on methane production, on mcrA transcript levels, and on methanogenic community structure in enrichment cultures obtained from coal bed methane well produced water samples from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Methane production was shown to be limited both by a lack of additional trace elements as well as by the addition of an overly concentrated trace element mixture. Addition of trace elements at concentrations optimized for standard media enhanced methane production by 37%. After seven days of incubation, the levels of mcrA transcripts in enrichment cultures with trace element amendment were much higher than in cultures without amendment. Transcript levels of mcrA correlated positively with elevated rates of methane production in supplemented enrichments (R2=0.95. Metabolically-active methanogens, identified by clone sequences of mcrA mRNA retrieved from enrichment cultures, were closely related to Methanobacterium subterraneum and Methanobacterium formicicum. Enrichment cultures were dominated by M. subterraneum and had slightly higher predicted methanogenic richness, but less diversity than enrichment cultures without amendments. These results suggest that varying concentrations of trace elements in produced water from different subsurface coal wells may cause changing levels of coal bed methane production and alter the composition of the active

  13. Organic and inorganic composition and microbiology of produced waters from Pennsylvania shale gas wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Dunlap, Darren S.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Lorah, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulically fractured shales are becoming an increasingly important source of natural gas production in the United States. This process has been known to create up to 420 gallons of produced water (PW) per day, but the volume varies depending on the formation, and the characteristics of individual hydraulic fracture. PW from hydraulic fracturing of shales are comprised of injected fracturing fluids and natural formation waters in proportions that change over time. Across the state of Pennsylvania, shale gas production is booming; therefore, it is important to assess the variability in PW chemistry and microbiology across this geographical span. We quantified the inorganic and organic chemical composition and microbial communities in PW samples from 13 shale gas wells in north central Pennsylvania. Microbial abundance was generally low (66–9400 cells/mL). Non-volatile dissolved organic carbon (NVDOC) was high (7–31 mg/L) relative to typical shallow groundwater, and the presence of organic acid anions (e.g., acetate, formate, and pyruvate) indicated microbial activity. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in four samples (∼1 to 11.7 μg/L): benzene and toluene in the Burket sample, toluene in two Marcellus samples, and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in one Marcellus sample. VOCs can be either naturally occurring or from industrial activity, making the source of VOCs unclear. Despite the addition of biocides during hydraulic fracturing, H2S-producing, fermenting, and methanogenic bacteria were cultured from PW samples. The presence of culturable bacteria was not associated with salinity or location; although organic compound concentrations and time in production were correlated with microbial activity. Interestingly, we found that unlike the inorganic chemistry, PW organic chemistry and microbial viability were highly variable across the 13 wells sampled, which can have important implications for the reuse and handling of these fluids

  14. Removal Capacities of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs by a Newly Isolated Strain from Oilfield Produced Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Bin Qi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH-degrading strain Q8 was isolated from oilfield produced water. According to the analysis of a biochemical test, 16S rRNA gene, house-keeping genes and DNA–DNA hybridization, strain Q8 was assigned to a novel species of the genus Gordonia. The strain could not only grow in mineral salt medium (MM and utilize naphthalene and pyrene as its sole carbon source, but also degraded mixed naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene. The degradation ratio of these four PAHs reached 100%, 95.4%, 73.8% and 53.4% respectively after being degraded by Q8 for seven days. A comparative experiment found that the PAHs degradation efficiency of Q8 is higher than that of Gordonia alkaliphila and Gordonia paraffinivorans, which have the capacities to remove PAHs. Fourier transform infrared spectra, saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene (SARA and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS analysis of crude oil degraded by Q8 were also studied. The results showed that Q8 could utilize n-alkanes and PAHs in crude oil. The relative proportions of the naphthalene series, phenanthrene series, thiophene series, fluorene series, chrysene series, C21-triaromatic steroid, pyrene, and benz(apyrene were reduced after being degraded by Q8. Gordonia sp. nov. Q8 had the capacity to remediate water and soil environments contaminated by PAHs or crude oil, and provided a feasible way for the bioremediation of PAHs and oil pollution.

  15. Chemical and toxicological characterizations of hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuhe; Flynn, Shannon L; Folkerts, Erik J; Zhang, Yifeng; Ruan, Dongliang; Alessi, Daniel S; Martin, Jonathan W; Goss, Greg G

    2017-05-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) has emerged as a major method of unconventional oil and gas recovery. The toxicity of hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water (HF-FPW) has not been previously reported and is complicated by the combined complexity of organic and inorganic constituents in HF fluids and deep formation water. In this study, we characterized the solids, salts, and organic signatures in an HF-FPW sample from the Duvernay Formation, Alberta, Canada. Untargeted HPLC-Orbitrap revealed numerous unknown dissolved polar organics. Among the most prominent peaks, a substituted tri-phenyl phosphate was identified which is likely an oxidation product of a common polymer antioxidant. Acute toxicity of zebrafish embryo was attributable to high salinity and organic contaminants in HF-FPW with LC50 values ranging from 0.6% to 3.9%, depending on the HF-FPW fractions and embryo developmental stages. Induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was detected, due in part to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and suspended solids might have a synergistic effect on EROD induction. This study demonstrates that toxicological profiling of real HF-FPW sample presents great challenges for assessing the potential risks and impacts posed by HF-FPW spills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Removal Capacities of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by a Newly Isolated Strain from Oilfield Produced Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yi-Bin; Wang, Chen-Yu; Lv, Cheng-Yuan; Lun, Zeng-Min; Zheng, Cheng-Gang

    2017-02-22

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading strain Q8 was isolated from oilfield produced water. According to the analysis of a biochemical test, 16S rRNA gene, house-keeping genes and DNA-DNA hybridization, strain Q8 was assigned to a novel species of the genus Gordonia. The strain could not only grow in mineral salt medium (MM) and utilize naphthalene and pyrene as its sole carbon source, but also degraded mixed naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene. The degradation ratio of these four PAHs reached 100%, 95.4%, 73.8% and 53.4% respectively after being degraded by Q8 for seven days. A comparative experiment found that the PAHs degradation efficiency of Q8 is higher than that of Gordonia alkaliphila and Gordonia paraffinivorans, which have the capacities to remove PAHs. Fourier transform infrared spectra, saturate, aromatic, resin and asphaltene (SARA) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of crude oil degraded by Q8 were also studied. The results showed that Q8 could utilize n-alkanes and PAHs in crude oil. The relative proportions of the naphthalene series, phenanthrene series, thiophene series, fluorene series, chrysene series, C21-triaromatic steroid, pyrene, and benz(a)pyrene were reduced after being degraded by Q8. Gordonia sp. nov. Q8 had the capacity to remediate water and soil environments contaminated by PAHs or crude oil, and provided a feasible way for the bioremediation of PAHs and oil pollution.

  17. Characterization of OXA-48-like-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from river water in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafoukt, Rima; Touati, Abdelaziz; Leangapichart, Thongpan; Bakour, Sofiane; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2017-09-01

    The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) is a significant problem for healthcare worldwide. The prevalence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in water environments in Algeria are unknown. The aim of this study was to screen for the presence of CPE isolates in the Soummam River in Bejaia, Algeria. Isolates of Enterobacteriaceae recovered from twelve samples of river water and showing reduced susceptibility to carbapenems were included in this study. The isolates were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing and the modified Carba NP test. Carbapenemase and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) determinants were studied by PCR amplification and sequencing. The clonal relatedness between isolates was studied by Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) method. A total of 20 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains were included in this study, identified as Escherichia coli (n = 12), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 3), Raoultella ornithinolytica (n = 3), Citrobacter freundii (n = 1) and Citrobacter braakii (n = 1). Carbapenemase genes identified in this study included blaOXA-48, observed in 17 isolates (9 E. coli, 3 K. pneumoniae, 3 R. ornithinolytica, 1 C. freundii and 1 C. braakii), and blaOXA-244, a variant of blaOXA-48, was found in three E. coli isolates. MLST showed that 12 E. coli strains belonged to six different sequence types (ST559, ST38, ST212, ST3541, 1972 and ST2142), and we identified three different STs in K. pneumoniae isolates, including ST133, ST2055, and a new sequence type: ST2192. This study showed the presence of OXA-48-like-producing Enterobacteriaceae in water environments and highlighted the potential role of aquatic environments as reservoirs of clinically relevant antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, with the potential to spread throughout the community. Copyright

  18. Fertilisation and hatching success of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) eggs when exposed to various concentrations of produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, D.; Lyons, M.; Burridge, L.; Lee, K. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the fertilization and hatching success of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) eggs that were exposed to various dilutions of produced water from a natural gas production platform. A control group of eggs was fertilized in sea water without any produced water. Another set of eggs were fertilized in sea water with 4 different concentrations of produced water and held their respective concentrations for 24 hours to evaluate the success of the fertilization. Viable fertilized eggs were transferred to 96 well plates containing fresh sea water and incubated in the dark at approximately 6 degrees C until hatch. Eggs began hatching about 14 days after fertilization (DPF), peaked at about 17 DPF, then finished hatching by 21 DPF. Analysis of PAH content in the diluted produced water showed that at 0.32 percent, 1.08 percent and 3.6 percent concentrations, the fertilization success was greater than or equal to that of the control group. However, for the 12 percent concentration, there were no viable fertilized eggs present after the 24 hour period. Survivability of eggs during sea water incubation was similar for the 0 percent, 0.32 percent and 1.08 percent treatment groups, but egg mortality increased for the 3.60 percent concentration group, to about 61.5 percent mean cumulative mortality at 6 DPF, then remained constant. The mean hatching success for all dilutions was presented.

  19. Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in garden produce at homes with a history of PFAS-contaminated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, Deanna P; Kelly, James E; Huset, Carin A; Barry, Kitrina M; Hoffbeck, Richard W; Yingling, Virginia L; Messing, Rita B

    2018-04-01

    The decades-long disposal of manufacturing waste containing perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in landfills resulted in contamination of groundwater serving as the drinking water supply for the eastern Twin Cities metropolitan region. While measures were taken to reduce the levels of PFAS in the drinking water, questions remained about possible non-drinking water pathways of exposure in these communities. The Minnesota Department of Health (MDH) investigated whether PFAS in water used for yard and garden irrigation results in elevated concentrations of PFAS in soil and home-grown produce. In 2010, samples of outdoor tap water, garden soil, and garden produce were collected at homes impacted by the contamination and analyzed for several PFAS. Perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was the primary PFAS present in water, followed by perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA). Although PFBA, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) were present in 100% of soil samples at higher concentrations compared to other PFAS, only PFBA was readily translocated to plants. Significant determinants of PFBA concentration in produce were the amount of PFBA applied to the garden via watering and the type of produce tested. Results from this real-world study are consistent with experimental findings that short-chain PFAS have the highest potential to translocate to and bioaccumulate in edible plants. These findings are globally relevant, as short-chain PFAS serve as commercial substitutes for longer-chain compounds and are increasingly detected in water due to their relatively high solubility and mobility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An overview on exploration and environmental impact of unconventional gas sources and treatment options for produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia L S; Morales-Torres, Sergio; Castro-Silva, Sérgio; Figueiredo, José L; Silva, Adrián M T

    2017-09-15

    Rising global energy demands associated to unbalanced allocation of water resources highlight the importance of water management solutions for the gas industry. Advanced drilling, completion and stimulation techniques for gas extraction, allow more economical access to unconventional gas reserves. This stimulated a shale gas revolution, besides tight gas and coalbed methane, also causing escalating water handling challenges in order to avoid a major impact on the environment. Hydraulic fracturing allied to horizontal drilling is gaining higher relevance in the exploration of unconventional gas reserves, but a large amount of wastewater (known as "produced water") is generated. Its variable chemical composition and flow rates, together with more severe regulations and public concern, have promoted the development of solutions for the treatment and reuse of such produced water. This work intends to provide an overview on the exploration and subsequent environmental implications of unconventional gas sources, as well as the technologies for treatment of produced water, describing the main results and drawbacks, together with some cost estimates. In particular, the growing volumes of produced water from shale gas plays are creating an interesting market opportunity for water technology and service providers. Membrane-based technologies (membrane distillation, forward osmosis, membrane bioreactors and pervaporation) and advanced oxidation processes (ozonation, Fenton, photocatalysis) are claimed to be adequate treatment solutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of water-assisted ultraviolet light in combination of chlorine and hydrogen peroxide to inactivate Salmonella on fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuanghuan; Huang, Runze; Chen, Haiqiang

    2017-09-18

    With the demand for fresh produce increases in recent decades, concerns for microbiological safety of fresh produce are also raised. To identify effective ultraviolet (UV) light treatment for fresh produce decontamination, we first determined the effect of three forms of UV treatment, dry UV (samples were treated by UV directly), wet UV (samples were dipped in water briefly and then exposed to UV), and water-assisted UV (samples were treated by UV while being immersed in agitated water) on inactivation of Salmonella inoculated on tomatoes and fresh-cut lettuce. In general, the water-assisted UV treatment was found to be the most effective for both produce items. Chlorine and hydrogen peroxide were then tested to determine whether they could be used to enhance the decontamination efficacy of water-assisted UV treatment and prevent transfer of Salmonella via wash water by completely eliminating it. Neither of them significantly enhanced water-assisted UV inactivation of Salmonella on tomatoes. Chlorine significantly improved the decontamination effectiveness of the water-assisted UV treatment for baby-cut carrots and lettuce, but not for spinach. In general, the single water-assisted UV treatment and the combined treatment of water-assisted UV and chlorine were similar or more effective than the chlorine washing treatment. In most of the cases, no Salmonella was detected in the wash water when the single water-assisted UV treatment was used to decontaminate tomatoes. In a few cases when Salmonella was detected in the wash water, the populations were very low,≤2CFU/mL, and the wash water contained an extremely high level of organic load and soil level. Therefore, the single water-assisted UV treatment could potentially be used as an environmentally friendly and non-chemical alternative to chlorine washing for tomatoes after validation in industrial scale. For lettuce, spinach and baby-cut carrots, the combined treatment of water-assisted UV treatment and chlorine

  2. Evaluation of the process of coagulation/flocculation of produced water using Moringa oleifera Lam. as natural coagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, C.R.; Pereira, D.F.; Sousa, S.C S N.; Silva, G.F. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFSE), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mail: claudia@ufs.br; Cavalcanti, E.B. [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), SE (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia e Pesquisa

    2010-07-15

    In the lifetime of an oil well, there comes a moment when a lot of water begins to be produced along with oil, either by the conditions of the reservoir, or as a result of water injection in the secondary recovery of the well. An important step in such process involves the treatment of the produced water by means of coagulation techniques. Therefore, the use of environmentally correct coagulants is presented as a viable alternative and has demonstrated advantages over the use of chemical coagulants. The plant of the genus Moringa, whose species is oleifera Lam, stands out as one of the most promising natural coagulants. The present study investigated the evaluation of the coagulation/flocculation of produced water, using seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. as coagulant. The results were very significant, demonstrating that Moringa oleifera Lam. can be used as a natural coagulant in this type of treatment. (author)

  3. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naima A.; Engle, Mark A.; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F. Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C.

    2016-01-01

    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production.

  4. Volatile-organic molecular characterization of shale-oil produced water from the Permian Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naima A; Engle, Mark; Dungan, Barry; Holguin, F Omar; Xu, Pei; Carroll, Kenneth C

    2016-04-01

    Growth in unconventional oil and gas has spurred concerns on environmental impact and interest in beneficial uses of produced water (PW), especially in arid regions such as the Permian Basin, the largest U.S. tight-oil producer. To evaluate environmental impact, treatment, and reuse potential, there is a need to characterize the compositional variability of PW. Although hydraulic fracturing has caused a significant increase in shale-oil production, there are no high-resolution organic composition data for the shale-oil PW from the Permian Basin or other shale-oil plays (Eagle Ford, Bakken, etc.). PW was collected from shale-oil wells in the Midland sub-basin of the Permian Basin. Molecular characterization was conducted using high-resolution solid phase micro extraction gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Approximately 1400 compounds were identified, and 327 compounds had a >70% library match. PW contained alkane, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene), alkyl benzenes, propyl-benzene, and naphthalene. PW also contained heteroatomic compounds containing nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur. 3D van Krevelen and double bond equivalence versus carbon number analyses were used to evaluate molecular variability. Source composition, as well as solubility, controlled the distribution of volatile compounds found in shale-oil PW. The salinity also increased with depth, ranging from 105 to 162 g/L total dissolved solids. These data fill a gap for shale-oil PW composition, the associated petroleomics plots provide a fingerprinting framework, and the results for the Permian shale-oil PW suggest that partial treatment of suspended solids and organics would support some beneficial uses such as onsite reuse and bio-energy production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Northern Cheyenne Reservation Coal Bed Natural Resource Assessment and Analysis of Produced Water Disposal Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaochang Wo; David A. Lopez; Jason Whiteman Sr.; Bruce A. Reynolds

    2004-07-01

    Coalbed methane (CBM) development in the Powder River Basin (PRB) is currently one of the most active gas plays in the United States. Monthly production in 2002 reached about 26 BCF in the Wyoming portion of the basin. Coalbed methane reserves for the Wyoming portion of the basin are approximately 25 trillion cubic feet (TCF). Although coal beds in the Powder River Basin extend well into Montana, including the area of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, the only CBM development in Montana is the CX Field, operated by the Fidelity Exploration, near the Wyoming border. The Northern Cheyenne Reservation is located on the northwest flank of the PRB in Montana with a total land of 445,000 acres. The Reservation consists of five districts, Lame Deer, Busby, Ashland, Birney, and Muddy Cluster and has a population of 4,470 according to the 2000 Census. The CBM resource represents a significant potential asset to the Northern Cheyenne Indian Tribe. Methane gas in coal beds is trapped by hydrodynamic pressure. Because the production of CBM involves the dewatering of coalbed to allow the release of methane gas from the coal matrix, the relatively large volume of the co-produced water and its potential environmental impacts are the primary concerns for the Tribe. Presented in this report is a study conducted by the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology (MBMG) in partnership with the Northern Cheyenne Tribe to assess the Tribe’s CBM resources and evaluate applicable water handling options. The project was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Native American Initiative of the National Petroleum Technology Office, under contract DEAC07- 99ID13727. Matching funds were granted by the MBMG in supporting the work of geologic study and mapping conducted at MBMG.

  6. Characterizing the variability in chemical composition of flowback and produced waters - results from lab and field studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieth-Hillebrand, Andrea; Wilke, Franziska D. H.; Schmid, Franziska E.; Zhu, Yaling; Lipińska, Olga; Konieczyńska, Monika

    2017-04-01

    The huge volumes and unknown composition of flowback and produced waters cause major public concerns about the environmental and social compatibility of hydraulic fracturing and the exploitation of gas from unconventional reservoirs. Flowback and produced waters contain not only residues of fracking additives but also chemical species that are dissolved from the target shales themselves. Shales are a heterogeneous mixture of minerals, organic matter, and formation water and little is actually understood about the fluid-rock interactions occurring during hydraulic fracturing of the shales and their effects on the chemical composition of flowback and produced water. To overcome this knowledge gap, interactions of different shales with different artificial stimulation fluids were studied in lab experiments under ambient and elevated temperature and pressure conditions. These lab experiments showed clearly that fluid-rock interactions change the chemical composition of the initial stimulation fluid and that geochemistry of the fractured shale is relevant for understanding flowback water composition. In addition, flowback water samples were taken after hydraulic fracturing of one horizontal well in Pomeranian region, Poland and investigated for their chemical composition. With this presentation, results from lab and field studies will be presented and compared to decipher possible controls on chemical compositions of flowback and produced water.

  7. Animated Cell Biology: A Quick and Easy Method for Making Effective, High-Quality Teaching Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Danton H.

    2006-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that animations aid learning of dynamic concepts in cell biology. However, existing animation packages are expensive and difficult to learn, and the subsequent production of even short animations can take weeks to months. Here I outline the principles and sequence of steps for producing high-quality PowerPoint…

  8. Investigation of Ag nanoparticles produced by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolov, A.S.; Nedyalkov, N.N.; Nikov, R.G.; Atanasov, P.A. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Electronics, Sofia (Bulgaria); Alexandrov, M.T. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Experimental Pathology and Parasitology, Sofia (Bulgaria); Karashanova, D.B. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Optical Materials and Technologies, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2012-11-15

    A study is presented of the properties of Ag nanoparticles produced by nanosecond pulsed laser ablation in twice-distilled water. An Ag target was immersed in the liquid and irradiated by the fundamental, second, third and fourth harmonics of a Nd:YAG laser system to create different colloids. Two specific boundary values of the laser fluence were applied for each wavelength. The properties of the nanoparticles at different wavelengths of the laser radiation were examined. The characterization of the colloids was performed immediately after their fabrication. Spherical and spherical-like shapes of the nanoparticles created were established. The formation of nanowires was observed when the second and the third harmonics of the laser were used. It is connected with self-absorption of the incident laser light from the already-created nanoparticles and depends also on the laser fluence. The size distribution of the nanoparticles is estimated by transmission electron microscopy. Generally, their mean size and standard deviation decreased as the wavelength of the incident laser light was increased and increased with the increase of the laser fluence. The substantial discrepancy between the results already commented on for both characteristics considered and others, obtained by dynamic light scattering, is discussed. The structure of the nanoparticles was established to be single and polycrystalline, and the phase composition in both cases is identified as consisting of cubic silver. The nanoparticles are slightly oxidized. (orig.)

  9. Mesoporous Carbon Produced from Tri-constituent Mesoporous Carbon-silica Composite for Water Purification

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Yanjie

    2012-05-01

    Highly ordered mesoporous carbon-silica nanocomposites with interpenetrating carbon and silica networks were synthesized by the evaporation-induced tri-constituent co- assembly approach. The removal of silica by concentrated NaOH solution produced mesoporous carbons, which contained not only the primary large pores, but also the secondary mesopores in the carbon walls. The thus synthesized mesoporous carbon was further activated by using ZnCl2. The activated mesoporous carbon showed an improved surface area and pore volume. The synthesized mesoporous carbon was tested for diuron removal from water and the results showed that the carbon gave a fast diuron adsorption kinetics and a high diuron removal capacity, which was attributable to the primary mesopore channels being the highway for mass transfer, which led to short diffusion path length and easy accessibility of the interpenetrated secondary mesopores. The optimal adsorption capacity of the porous carbon was determined to be 390 mg/g, the highest values ever reported for diuron adsorption on carbon-based materials.

  10. Treating ammonium-rich wastewater with sludge from water treatment plant to produce ammonium alum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Po Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study applies a process to treat ammonium-rich wastewater using alum-generated sludge form water purification plant, and gain economic benefit by producing ammonium alum (Al(NH4(SO42·12H2O. The factors affecting production of ammonium alum include molar ratio of ammonium to aluminum concentration, sulfuric acid concentration, mixing speed, mixing time, standing time, and temperature. According to the equation for the ammonium removal reaction, the theoretical quantity of ammonium alum was calculated based on initial and final concentrations of ammonium. Then, the weight of ammonium alum crystal was divided by the theoretical weight to derive the recovery ratio. The optimum sludge and sulfuric acid dosage to treat about 17 g L−1 ammonium wastewater are 300 g L−1 and 100 mL L−1, respectively. The optimal dosage for wastewater is molar ratio of ammonium to aluminum of about 1 due to the aluminum dissolving in acidified wastewater. The ammonium removal efficiency is roughly 70% and the maximum recovery ratio for ammonium alum is 93% when the wastewater is mixed for 10 min at the mixing velocity gradient of 100 s−1. Ammonium alum production or ammonium removal can be enhanced by controlling the reaction at low temperatures.

  11. Development of Rapid Radiochemical Method for Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Activity Concentration in Flowback and Produced Waters from Hydraulic Fracturing Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the development and validation of an improved method for the Determination of Gross Alpha and Gross Beta Activity in Flowback and Produced Waters from Hydraulic Fracturing Operations (FPWHFO). Flowback and produced waters are characterized by high concentra...

  12. Water Bodies’ Mapping from Sentinel-2 Imagery with Modified Normalized Difference Water Index at 10-m Spatial Resolution Produced by Sharpening the SWIR Band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Du

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring open water bodies accurately is an important and basic application in remote sensing. Various water body mapping approaches have been developed to extract water bodies from multispectral images. The method based on the spectral water index, especially the Modified Normalized Difference Water Index (MDNWI calculated from the green and Shortwave-Infrared (SWIR bands, is one of the most popular methods. The recently launched Sentinel-2 satellite can provide fine spatial resolution multispectral images. This new dataset is potentially of important significance for regional water bodies’ mapping, due to its free access and frequent revisit capabilities. It is noted that the green and SWIR bands of Sentinel-2 have different spatial resolutions of 10 m and 20 m, respectively. Straightforwardly, MNDWI can be produced from Sentinel-2 at the spatial resolution of 20 m, by upscaling the 10-m green band to 20 m correspondingly. This scheme, however, wastes the detailed information available at the 10-m resolution. In this paper, to take full advantage of the 10-m information provided by Sentinel-2 images, a novel 10-m spatial resolution MNDWI is produced from Sentinel-2 images by downscaling the 20-m resolution SWIR band to 10 m based on pan-sharpening. Four popular pan-sharpening algorithms, including Principle Component Analysis (PCA, Intensity Hue Saturation (IHS, High Pass Filter (HPF and À Trous Wavelet Transform (ATWT, were applied in this study. The performance of the proposed method was assessed experimentally using a Sentinel-2 image located at the Venice coastland. In the experiment, six water indexes, including 10-m NDWI, 20-m MNDWI and 10-m MNDWI, produced by four pan-sharpening algorithms, were compared. Three levels of results, including the sharpened images, the produced MNDWI images and the finally mapped water bodies, were analysed quantitatively. The results showed that MNDWI can enhance water bodies and suppressbuilt

  13. Simulation of High Quality Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Kortbek, Jacob; Nikolov, Svetoslav Ivanov

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates if the influence on image quality using physical transducers can be simulated with an sufficient accuracy to reveal system performance. The influence is investigated in a comparative study between Synthetic Aperture Sequential Beamformation (SASB) and Dynamic Receive Focus...... is modeled by incorporating measured element pulse echo responses into the simulation software. Validation is performed through measurements on a water phantom with three metal wires, each with a diameter of 0.07 mm. Results show that when comparing measurement and simulation, the lateral beam profile using...

  14. Development of a mobile water maker, a sustainable way to produce safe drinking water in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groendijk, L.; Vries, de H.E.

    2009-01-01

    Moreover, there is a growing demand for a simple, low capacity drinking water treatment used by local people in developing countries to reduce mortality caused by water born diseases. To solve this problem a small portable water treatment unit with a production capacity of approximately 500 L/day

  15. Use of in vivo phycocyanin fluorescence to monitor potential microcystin-producing cyanobacterial biovolume in a drinking water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, N; Zamyadi, A; Prévost, M; Bird, D F; Dorner, S

    2011-02-01

    The source water of a drinking water treatment plant prone to blooms, dominated by potential microcystin-producing cyanobacteria, was monitored for two seasons in 2007-2008. In the 2008 season, the median value for potential microcystin-producing cyanobacterial biovolume was 87% of the total phytoplankton biovolume in the untreated water of the plant. Depth profiles taken above the plant's intake identified three sampling days at high risk for the contamination of the plant's raw water with potentially toxic cyanobacteria. Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae caused false positive values to be generated by the phycocyanin probe when cyanobacteria represented a small fraction of the total phytoplanktonic biovolume present. However, there was little interference with the phycocyanin probe readings by other algal species when potential microcystin-producing cyanobacteria dominated the phytoplankton of the plant's untreated water. A two-tiered method for source water monitoring, using in vivo phycocyanin fluorescence, is proposed based on (1) a significant relationship between in vivo phycocyanin fluorescence and cyanobacterial biovolume and (2) the calculated maximum potential microcystin concentration produced by dominant Microcystis sp. biovolume. This method monitors locally-generated threshold values for cyanobacterial biovolume and microcystin concentrations using in vivo phycocyanin fluorescence.

  16. Growth, Morphology and Growth Related Hormone Level in Kappaphycus alvarezii Produced by Mass Selection in Gorontalo Waters, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Fadilah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of high quality seed can support the success of the seaweed cultivation. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance, morphology and growth related hormone level of brown strain seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii seed produced by mass selection. Selection was performed in the Tomini Gulf, Gorontalo, based on mass selection of seaweed seed protocol with a slight modification in cut-off 10% of the highest daily growth rate. Selection was carried out for four generations. The selected 4th generation of seed was then used in cultivation performance test in the Celebes Sea, North Gorontalo, for three production cycles. The results showed that the selected K. alvarezii has higher clump weight and daily growth rate, longer thallus, more number of branches, and shorter internodes compared to the unselected control and seaweed from the farmer as external control. Furthermore, total sugar content, levels of kinetin hormone and kinetin:indole-3-acetic acid ratio were higher in selected seaweeds than that of unselected control and external control. Thus, mass selection method could be used to produce high growth of seed, and kinetin and indole-3-acetic acid play an important role in growth of K. alvarezii.

  17. Growth, Morphology and Growth Related Hormone Level in Kappaphycus alvarezii Produced by Mass Selection in Gorontalo Waters, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Fadilah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of high quality seed can support the success of the seaweed cultivation. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance, morphology and growth related hormone level of brown strain seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii seed produced by mass selection. Selection was performed in the Tomini Gulf, Gorontalo, based on mass selection of seaweed seed protocol with a slight modification in cut-off 10% of the highest daily growth rate. Selection was carried out for four generations. The selected 4th generation of seed was then used in cultivation performance test in the Celebes Sea, North Gorontalo, for three production cycles. The results showed that the selected K. alvarezii has higher clump weight and daily growth rate, longer thallus, more number of branches, and shorter internodes compared to the unselected control and seaweed from the farmer as external control. Furthermore, total sugar content, levels of kinetin hormone and kinetin:indole-3-acetic acid ratio were higher in selected seaweeds than that of unselected control and external control. Thus, mass selection method could be used to produce high growth of seed, and kinetin and indole-3-acetic acid play an important role in growth of K. alvarezii.

  18. Looking for High Quality Accreditation in Higher Education in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Gama, Jesús Alfonso; Vega Vega, Anselmo

    2017-01-01

    We look for the High Quality Accreditation of tertiary education in two ways: one, involving large amount of information, including issues such as self-assessment, high quality, statistics, indicators, surveys, and field work (process engineering), during several periods of time; and the second, in relation to the information contained there about…

  19. A review on risk assessment techniques for hydraulic fracturing water and produced water management implemented in onshore unconventional oil and gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luisa; Yadav, Om Prakash; Khan, Eakalak

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to review different risk assessment techniques applicable to onshore unconventional oil and gas production to determine the risks to water quantity and quality associated with hydraulic fracturing and produced water management. Water resources could be at risk without proper management of water, chemicals, and produced water. Previous risk assessments in the oil and gas industry were performed from an engineering perspective leaving aside important social factors. Different risk assessment methods and techniques are reviewed and summarized to select the most appropriate one to perform a holistic and integrated analysis of risks at every stage of the water life cycle. Constraints to performing risk assessment are identified including gaps in databases, which require more advanced techniques such as modeling. Discussions on each risk associated with water and produced water management, mitigation strategies, and future research direction are presented. Further research on risks in onshore unconventional oil and gas will benefit not only the U.S. but also other countries with shale oil and gas resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Excitation wavelength dependence of water-window line emissions from boron-nitride laser-produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crank, M.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassan, S. M.; Hassanein, A. [Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the effects of laser excitation wavelength on water-window emission lines of laser-produced boron-nitride plasmas. Plasmas are produced by focusing 1064 nm and harmonically generated 532 and 266 nm radiation from a Nd:YAG laser on BN target in vacuum. Soft x-ray emission lines in the water-window region are recorded using a grazing-incidence spectrograph. Filtered photodiodes are used to obtain complementary data for water-window emission intensity and angular dependence. Spectral emission intensity changes in nitrogen Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} are used to show how laser wavelength affects emission. Our results show that the relative intensity of spectral lines is laser wavelength dependent, with the ratio of Ly-{alpha} to He-{alpha} emission intensity decreasing as laser wavelength is shortened. Filtered photodiode measurements of angular dependence showed that 266 and 532 nm laser wavelengths produce uniform emission.

  1. Excitation wavelength dependence of water-window line emissions from boron-nitride laser-produced plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, M.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassan, S. M.; Hassanein, A.

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the effects of laser excitation wavelength on water-window emission lines of laser-produced boron-nitride plasmas. Plasmas are produced by focusing 1064 nm and harmonically generated 532 and 266 nm radiation from a Nd:YAG laser on BN target in vacuum. Soft x-ray emission lines in the water-window region are recorded using a grazing-incidence spectrograph. Filtered photodiodes are used to obtain complementary data for water-window emission intensity and angular dependence. Spectral emission intensity changes in nitrogen Ly-α and He-α are used to show how laser wavelength affects emission. Our results show that the relative intensity of spectral lines is laser wavelength dependent, with the ratio of Ly-α to He-α emission intensity decreasing as laser wavelength is shortened. Filtered photodiode measurements of angular dependence showed that 266 and 532 nm laser wavelengths produce uniform emission.

  2. The chronic toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aïda M.; Harper, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is the principal salt in coal bed natural gas produced water from the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming, USA, and concentrations of up to 3000 mg NaHCO3/L have been documented at some locations. No adequate studies have been performed to assess the chronic effects of NaHCO3 exposure. The present study was initiated to investigate the chronic toxicity and define sublethal effects at the individual organism level to explain the mechanisms of NaHCO3 toxicity. Three chronic experiments were completed with fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), 1 with white suckers (Catostomus commersoni), 1 with Ceriodaphnia dubia, and 1 with a freshwater mussel, (Lampsilis siliquoidea). The data demonstrated that approximately 500 mg NaHCO3/L to 1000 mg NaHCO3/L affected all species of experimental aquatic animals in chronic exposure conditions. Freshwater mussels were the least sensitive to NaHCO3 exposure, with a 10-d inhibition concentration that affects 20% of the sample population (IC20) of 952 mg NaHCO3/L. The IC20 for C. dubia was the smallest, at 359 mg NaHCO3/L. A significant decrease in sodium–potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+ ATPase) together with the lack of growth effects suggests that Na+/K+ ATPase activity was shut down before the onset of death. Several histological anomalies, including increased incidence of necrotic cells, suggested that fish were adversely affected as a result of exposure to >450 mg NaHCO3/L.

  3. Integrated processes for produced water polishing: Enhanced flotation/sedimentation combined with advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Silvia; Micó, María M; Arnaldos, Marina; Ferrero, Enrique; Malfeito, Jorge J; Medina, Francisco; Contreras, Sandra

    2017-02-01

    In this study, bench scale dissolved air flotation (DAF) and settling processes have been studied and compared to a novel flotation technology based on the use of glass microspheres of limited buoyancy and its combination with conventional DAF, (Enhanced DAF or E-DAF). They were evaluated as pretreatments for advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to polish produced water (PW) for reuse purposes. Settling and E-DAF without air injection showed adequate turbidity and oil and grease (O&G) removals, with eliminations higher than 87% and 90% respectively, employing 70 mg L(-1) of FeCl3 and 83 min of settling time, and 57.9 mg L(-1) of FeCl3, 300 mg L(-1) of microspheres and a flocculation rate of 40 rpm in the E-DAF process. A linear correlation was observed between final O&G concentration and turbidity after E-DAF. In order to polish the O&G content of the effluent even further, to remove soluble compounds as phenol and to take advantage of residual iron after these treatments, Fenton and photo-Fenton reactions were essayed. After 6 h of the Fenton reaction at pH 3, the addition of 1660 mg L(-1) of H2O2 and 133 mg L(-1) of iron showed a maximum O&G elimination of 57.6% and a phenol removal up to 80%. Photo-Fenton process showed better results after 3 h, adding 600 mg L(-1) of H2O2 and 300 mg L(-1) of iron, at pH 3, with a higher fraction of elimination of the O&G content (73.7%) and phenol (95%) compared to the conventional Fenton process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Non-thermal plasma-activated water inactivation of food-borne pathogen on fresh produce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ruonan; Wang, Guomin; Tian, Ying; Wang, Kaile [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Jue, E-mail: zhangjue@pku.edu.cn [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Fang, Jing [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • We propose a new approach to treat S. aureus inoculated on strawberries by PAW. • PAW could inactivate S. aureus on strawberries via the Log Reduction results, further confirmed by CLSM and SEM. • The short-lived ROS in PAW are considered the most important agents in inactivation process. • No significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. - Abstract: Non-thermal plasma has been widely considered to be an effective method for decontamination of foods. Recently, numerous studies report that plasma-activated water (PAW) also has outstanding antibacterial ability. This study presents the first report on the potential of PAW for the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) inoculated on strawberries. PAW treatments achieved a reduction of S. aureus ranging from 1.6 to 2.3 log at day-0 storage, while 1.7 to 3.4 log at day-4 storage. The inactivation efficiency depended on the plasma-activated time for PAW generation and PAW-treated time of strawberries inoculated with S. aureus. LIVE/DEAD staining and scanning electron microscopy results confirm that PAW could damage the bacterial cell wall. Moreover, optical emission spectra and oxidation reduction potential results demonstrate the inactivation is mainly attributed to oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species in PAW. In addition, no significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. Thus, PAW can be a promising alternative to traditional sanitizers applied in the fresh produce industry.

  5. Methodology to produce a water and energy stream map (WESM in the South African manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies, Edward

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for water and energy in South Africa, and the capacity constraints and restrictions of both resources, have led to a rapid increase in their cost. The manufacturing industry remains South Africa’s third-largest consumer of water and second- largest consumer of national energy. The improvement of water and energy efficiency is becoming an increasingly important theme for both organisational success and national economic sustainability. This paper presents the ‘lean based water and energy stream mapping framework’ developed for the manufacturing industry, with the specific objective of decreasing its water and energy intensity. As with the traditional value stream mapping tool, the water and energy stream mapping focuses on eliminating water- and energy-specific wastes within a process. Water and energy waste categories that will be used in conjunction with the framework will also be discussed. The key objective of this paper is to detail the process of creating the water and energy stream mapping, and the statistical forecasting methodology used to develop the baseline water and energy demand data. The outcome of the implementation of the framework is the future state water and energy stream mapping, which is effectively a blueprint for increased water and energy efficiency within a studied process.

  6. Developing high-quality educational software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lynn A; Schleyer, Titus K L

    2003-11-01

    The development of effective educational software requires a systematic process executed by a skilled development team. This article describes the core skills required of the development team members for the six phases of successful educational software development. During analysis, the foundation of product development is laid including defining the audience and program goals, determining hardware and software constraints, identifying content resources, and developing management tools. The design phase creates the specifications that describe the user interface, the sequence of events, and the details of the content to be displayed. During development, the pieces of the educational program are assembled. Graphics and other media are created, video and audio scripts written and recorded, the program code created, and support documentation produced. Extensive testing by the development team (alpha testing) and with students (beta testing) is conducted. Carefully planned implementation is most likely to result in a flawless delivery of the educational software and maintenance ensures up-to-date content and software. Due to the importance of the sixth phase, evaluation, we have written a companion article on it that follows this one. The development of a CD-ROM product is described including the development team, a detailed description of the development phases, and the lessons learned from the project.

  7. Computer code of two-phase flow in geothermal wells producing water and/or water-carbon dioxide mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanka, Shouichi; Nishi, Kosuke

    1988-01-01

    Mathematical well models are developed for pure water and for water-carbon dioxide mixtures. For the slug flow regime, three correlations (Orkiszewski’s, Nicklin’s and modified Nicklin’s) are compared. An equation-of-state package for water-carbon dioxide mixtures is proposed as a function of pressure and temperature. The predicted values are compared with sixteen field cases, in which the maximum carbon dioxide content is 2.8 %.

  8. Growth Inhibition of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Produced Water from the Petroleum Industry Using Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamella Macedo de Souza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for the control of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB in the oil industry involve the use of high concentrations of biocides, but these may induce bacterial resistance and/or be harmful to public health and the environment. Essential oils (EO produced by plants inhibit the growth of different microorganisms and are a possible alternative for controlling SRB. We aimed to characterize the bacterial community of produced water obtained from a Brazilian petroleum facility using molecular methods, as well as to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of EO from different plants and their major components against Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491 and against SRB growth directly in the produced water. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of the genera Pelobacter and Marinobacterium, Geotoga petraea, and the SRB Desulfoplanes formicivorans in our produced water samples. Sequencing of dsrA insert-containing clones confirmed the presence of sequences related to D. formicivorans. EO obtained from Citrus aurantifolia, Lippia alba LA44 and Cymbopogon citratus, as well as citral, linalool, eugenol and geraniol, greatly inhibited (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC = 78 µg/mL the growth of D. alaskensis in a liquid medium. The same MIC was obtained directly in the produced water with EO from L. alba LA44 (containing 82% citral and with pure citral. These findings may help to control detrimental bacteria in the oil industry.

  9. Growth Inhibition of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Produced Water from the Petroleum Industry Using Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Pamella Macedo de; Goulart, Fátima Regina de Vasconcelos; Marques, Joana Montezano; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Groposo, Claudia; Sousa, Maíra Paula de; Vólaro, Vanessa; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Moreno, Daniela Sales Alviano; Seldin, Lucy

    2017-04-19

    Strategies for the control of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the oil industry involve the use of high concentrations of biocides, but these may induce bacterial resistance and/or be harmful to public health and the environment. Essential oils (EO) produced by plants inhibit the growth of different microorganisms and are a possible alternative for controlling SRB. We aimed to characterize the bacterial community of produced water obtained from a Brazilian petroleum facility using molecular methods, as well as to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of EO from different plants and their major components against Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491 and against SRB growth directly in the produced water. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of the genera Pelobacter and Marinobacterium, Geotoga petraea, and the SRB Desulfoplanes formicivorans in our produced water samples. Sequencing of dsrA insert-containing clones confirmed the presence of sequences related to D. formicivorans. EO obtained from Citrus aurantifolia, Lippia alba LA44 and Cymbopogon citratus, as well as citral, linalool, eugenol and geraniol, greatly inhibited (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 78 µg/mL) the growth of D. alaskensis in a liquid medium. The same MIC was obtained directly in the produced water with EO from L. alba LA44 (containing 82% citral) and with pure citral. These findings may help to control detrimental bacteria in the oil industry.

  10. Radioactivity in produced water from Norwegian oil and gas installations - concentrations, bioavailability and doses to marine biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidhu, R.; Eriksen, D. Oe.; Straalberg, E.; Iden, K. I.; Rye, H.; Hylland, K.; Ruus, A.; Roeyset, O.; Berntssen, M. H. G.

    2006-03-15

    Substantial amounts of produced water, containing elevated levels of radionuclides (mainly 226Ra and 228Ra) are discharged to the sea as a result of oil and gas production on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. So far no study has assessed the potential radiological effects on marine biota in connection with radionuclide discharges to the North Sea. The main objective of the project is to establish radiological safe discharge limits for radium, lead and polonium associated with other components in produced water from oil and gas installations on the Norwegian continental shelf. Preliminary results indicate that presence of added chemicals such as scale inhibitors in the produced water has a marked influence on the formation of radium and barium sulphates when produced water is mixed with sea water. Thus, the mobility and bio-availability of radium (and barium) may be larger than anticipated. Also, the bio-availability of radium may be increased due to presence of such chemicals, and this is presently being studied. (author) (tk)

  11. Evaporative processes for desalination of produced water; Processos evaporativos para dessalinizacao de agua produzida a fins de reuso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Vivian T.; Dezotti, Marcia W. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Quimica; Schuhli, Juliana B.; Gomes, Marcia T.; Pereira Junior, Oswaldo A. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    During the productive life of an oil well, it gets the moment when a big quantity of produced water comes together with the oil. It can achieve 99% in the end of its economical life. The thermal desalination of the formation water is one of the most common technologies for achieving its reuse. This way, it was constructed one 'Robert' evaporator. The tests used different sodium chloride concentrations from 2,000 mg/L to 80,000 mg/L simulating concentrations found in the produced water from PETROBRAS wells. The tests were conducted in three different vacuum pressures. It was observed, increasing the vacuum applied to the system, results in reduction of solution boiling point. The salt concentrations of the brine blowdown were influenced by the sodium chloride concentration at the feed flow, by the vacuum applied to the system and, consequently, by the solution boiling point and flow rates. The produced distillate water presented sodium chloride concentration lower than 2 mg/L, indicating that this system can produce water to reuse in irrigation. (author)

  12. Treatment of Slaughterhouse Waste Water Mixed with Serum from Lacteal Industry of Extremadura in Spain to Produce Clean Energy

    OpenAIRE

    A.C. Marcos; A. Al-Kassir; Francisco Cuadros; Talal Yusaf

    2017-01-01

    The problem of slaughterhouse waste water can be resolved by mixing it with serum from lacteal industry to produce a biogas. The effect of serum addition on the anaerobic co-digestion of solid and liquid slaughterhouse waste has been studied. The experimental device consisted of a continuous digester by recirculation of biogas produced in the anaerobic digestion. The input effluent was a mixture of slaughterhouse waste from Badajoz city (Spain) and animal serum in a proportion of 20%. The ana...

  13. [Water disinfection by the combined exposure to super-high frequency energy and available chlorine produced during water electrolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimarev, S I; Siniak, Iu E

    2014-01-01

    The article reports the results of studying the effects on polluted water of SHF-energy together with the residual free (active) chlorine as a by-product of electrolysis action on dissolved chlorine-containing salts. Purpose of the studies was to evaluate input of these elements to the water disinfection effect. The synergy was found to kill microorganisms without impacts on the physicochemical properties of processed water or nutrient medium; therefore, it can be used for water treatment, and cultivation of microorganisms in microbiology.

  14. Long-term biomonitoring of a produced water discharge from the Cedar Cove degasification field, Alabama. January 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neil, P.E.; Harris, S.C.; Mettee, M.F.; McGregor, S.W.; Shepard, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    Development of coalbed methane has become a major industry for the state of Alabama. In excess of 1,300 wells were producing methane by the end of July 1990. A byproduct of methane production is produced water containing elevated concentrations of chloride, sodium, iron and bicarbonate. These waters are currently permitted for discharge into streams or as a land application. The purpose of the study was to examine the long-term impacts of produced waters to streams relative to water-quality changes and aquatic biological effects. Distinct water-quality changes in the receiving stream were documented and consisted primarily of increased dissolved solids, changes in the pH regime and changes in the carbonate buffering system. In contrast, no significant or consistent detrimental change in the structure or function of the stream biological community could be detected. Subtle changes in biological community structure and composition were noted and most likely due to effects associated with algal productivity in settling lagoons. These changes, however, were within the boundaries of variation typically observed for the communities. Based on the results of this and earlier studies, it was concluded that the national water-quality criterion for chloride was protective of stream life as examined in the study.

  15. Evaluation of the freeze-thaw/evaporation process for the treatment of produced waters. Final report, August 1992--August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boysen, J.E.; Walker, K.L.; Mefford, J.L.; Kirsch, J.R. [Resource Technology Corp., Laramie, WY (United States); Harju, J.A. [North Dakota Univ., Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center

    1996-06-01

    The use of freeze-crystallization is becoming increasingly acknowledged as a low-cost, energy-efficient method for purifying contaminated water. The natural freezing process can be coupled with natural evaporative processes to treat oil and gas produced waters year round in regions where subfreezing temperatures seasonally occur. The climates typical of Colorado`s San Juan Basin and eastern slope, as well as the oil and gas producing regions of Wyoming, are well suited for application of these processes in combination. Specifically, the objectives of this research are related to the development of a commercially-economic FTE (freeze-thaw/evaporation) process for the treatment and purification of water produced in conjunction with oil and natural gas. The research required for development of this process consists of three tasks: (1) a literature survey and process modeling and economic analysis; (2) laboratory-scale process evaluation; and (3) field demonstration of the process. Results of research conducted for the completion of these three tasks indicate that produced water treatment and disposal costs for commercial application of the process, would be in the range of $0.20 to $0.30/bbl in the Rocky Mountain region. FTE field demonstration results from northwestern New Mexico during the winter of 1995--96 indicate significant and simultaneous removal of salts, metals, and organics from produced water. Despite the unusually warm winter, process yields demonstrate disposal volume reductions on the order of 80% and confirm the potential for economic production of water suitable for various beneficial uses. The total dissolved solids concentrations of the FTE demonstration streams were 11,600 mg/L (feed), 56,900 mg/L (brine), and 940 mg/L (ice melt).

  16. Presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in waste waters, Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boeck, H; Lunguya, O; Muyembe, J-J; Glupczynski, Y; Jacobs, J

    2012-11-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are a major public health concern. We previously demonstrated the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in sachet-packaged water bags sold in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In complement to the previous study, we aimed to assess the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in waste waters in Kinshasa.Enterobacteriaceae isolates recovered from environmental water samples were screened and phenotypically confirmed as ESBL-producers by disk diffusion according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines (CLSI M100-S21). Final identification to the species level and further antimicrobial susceptibility testing were carried out with MicroScan® NBC42 panels and the identification of bla (ESBL) coding genes was performed by a commercial multiplex ligation polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microarray (Check-Points CT 101, Wageningen, the Netherlands). Overall, 194 non-duplicate Enterobacteriaceae were recovered from several sewer and river sites in nine out of 24 municipalities of Kinshasa. Fourteen isolates (7.4 %) were confirmed as ESBL-producers, the main species being Enterobacter cloacae (46.6 %) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (40.0 %). Associated resistance to both aminoglycoside and fluoroquinolone antibiotics was observed in ten isolates; the remaining isolates showed co-resistance to either fluoroquinolone (n = 3) or to aminoglycoside (n = 1) alone. All but one isolate carried bla (CTX-M) genes belonging to the CTX-M-1 group. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are increasingly being reported from various sources in the community. The present results suggest that ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are widespread in the environment in the community of Kinshasa. Cities in Central Africa should be added to the map of potentially ESBL-contaminated environments and highlight the need to reinforce safe water supply and public sanitation.

  17. Survey on the occurrence of shiga toxin producing strains of Escherichia coli (STEC) in drinking water from central Hessia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelz, A.; Zschoeck, M. [Untersuchungsamt Hessen, Giessen (Germany); Fels, K.; Alter, E. [Fachhochschule Giessen-Friedberg, Giessen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Consumption of unheated bovine food is said to be the main cause of outbreaks of enterohemorrhagic colitis (EC) and hemolytic syndrome (HUS) by E. coli O157 in man. Some cases were attributed to the ingestion of contaminated drinking water. Certain types of resources for drinking water supply are at risk of contamination with cattle faeces or sewage. In routine drinking water control E. coli is an index organism and must not be found in a sample of 100 ml. We investigated a total of 1700 drinking water samples from central Hessia (Germany) for shiga toxin producing strains of E. coli (STEC). A developed sensitive investigation scheme made it possible to detect up to 10 STEC per 100 ml water sample at least. ELISA was used for detection of shiga toxins 1 and 2, m-PCR for the genes encoding stx1, stx2, EHEC-hlyA and eaeA, plating on Enterohemolysin agar for detection of the enterohemolysin phenotype and slide agglutination technique for confirming E. coli O157. In 108 out of 1700 drinking water samples E. coli was detected, but none of the isolates belonged to serotype O157. ST1 and ST2 were not produced by the isolates. Thus, under normal circumstances drinking water in central Hessia seems to be no vehicle for STEC. (orig.)

  18. Sensory quality of drinking water produced by reverse osmosis membrane filtration followed by remineralisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingerhoeds, Monique H; Nijenhuis-de Vries, Mariska A; Ruepert, Nienke; van der Laan, Harmen; Bredie, Wender L P; Kremer, Stefanie

    2016-05-01

    Membrane filtration of ground, surface, or sea water by reverse osmosis results in permeate, which is almost free from minerals. Minerals may be added afterwards, not only to comply with (legal) standards and to enhance chemical stability, but also to improve the taste of drinking water made from permeate. Both the nature and the concentrations of added minerals affect the taste of the water and in turn its acceptance by consumers. The aim of this study was to examine differences in taste between various remineralised drinking waters. Samples selected varied in mineral composition, i.e. tap water, permeate, and permeate with added minerals (40 or 120 mg Ca/L, added as CaCO3, and 4 or 24 mg Mg/L added as MgCl2), as well as commercially available bottled drinking waters, to span a relevant product space in which the remineralised samples could be compared. All samples were analysed with respect to their physical-chemical properties. Sensory profiling was done by descriptive analysis using a trained panel. Significant attributes included taste intensity, the tastes bitter, sweet, salt, metal, fresh and dry mouthfeel, bitter and metal aftertaste, and rough afterfeel. Total dissolved solids (TDS) was a major determinant of the taste perception of water. In general, lowering mineral content in drinking water in the range examined (from water from fresh towards bitter, dry, and rough sensations. In addition, perceived freshness of the waters correlated positively with calcium concentration. The greatest fresh taste was found for water with a TDS between 190 and 350 mg/L. Remineralisation of water after reverse osmosis can improve drinking quality significantly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Breath Hydrogen Produced by Ingestion of Commercial Hydrogen Water and Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Shimouchi, Akito; Nose, Kazutoshi; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Kondo, Takaharu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare how and to what extent ingestion of hydrogen water and milk increase breath hydrogen in adults.Methods: Five subjects without specific diseases, ingested distilled or hydrogen water and milk as a reference material that could increase breath hydrogen. Their end-alveolar breath hydrogen was measured.Results: Ingestion of hydrogen water rapidly increased breath hydrogen to the maximal level of approximately 40 ppm 10–15 min after ingestion and thereafter rapidly decrease...

  20. Investigation the Stability of Treated Water Produced from Six Stations in Babylon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadeel Ali Abdulhussein

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion and scaling are mutual problems appeared in water distribution systems. The strictness of such problems depends on the quality of the water conveyed and the characteristics of the pipeline material. For solving and minimizing such problems, the probability of corrosivity and scaling of water as well as the factors effecting them should be investigated.  Four water stability indices (Langlier Saturation Index (LSI, Ryznar Stability Index (RSI, Pockurius Scaling Index (PSI, and Aggressive Index (AIwere used to investigate the stability of treated water from six selected water treatment plants in Babylon province (Al-Hillah Al-Jadeed, Al-Hillah Al-Kadeem, Al-Taiyara, Al-Hussain, Al-Mahaweel and Al-Hashmia during 2009-2013. According to LSI the treated water quality of the all stations was oversaturated with CaCO3 during the whole studied period (positive LSI values with a potential of forming a protective layer from calcium carbonate. RSI, PSI and AI results displayed that the water quality was of moderately corrosive which can be considered not harmful for water distribution systems.

  1. Organic pollutants in shale gas flowback and produced waters : identification, potential ecological impact and implications for treatment strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, Andrii; Bruning, Harry; Kools, Stefan A E; Rijnaarts, Huub H M; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2017-01-01

    Organic contaminants in shale gas flowback and produced water (FPW) are traditionally expressed as total organic carbon (TOC) or chemical oxygen demand (COD), though these parameters do not provide information on the toxicity and environmental fate of individual components. This review addresses

  2. Reconstruction of a Nearly Complete Pseudomonas Draft Genome Sequence from a Coalbed Methane-Produced Water Metagenome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Daniel E. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Gulliver, Djuna [AECOM Technology Corporation, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-10-06

    The draft genome sequence ofPseudomonas stutzeristrain K35 was separated from a metagenome derived from a produced water microbial community of a coalbed methane well. The genome encodes a complete nitrogen fixation pathway and the upper and lower naphthalene degradation pathways.

  3. Plant-wide Control for Better De-oiling of Produced Water in Offshore Oil & Gas Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhenyu; Stigkær, Jens Peter; Løhndorf, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of plant-wide control philosophy to enhance the performance and capacity of the Produced Water Treatment (PWT) in offshore oil & gas production processes. Different from most existing facility- or material-based PWT innovation methods, the objective of this work...

  4. Formation of trichloromethane in chlorinated water and fresh-cut produce and as a result of reacting with citric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorine (sodium hypochlorite) is commonly used by the fresh produce industry to sanitize wash water, fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. However, possible formation of harmful chlorine by-products is a concern. The objectives of this study were to compare chlorine and chlorine dioxide in t...

  5. River water quality in the northern sugarcane-producing regions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agriculture can impact negatively on water quality, often through the export of nutrients (particularly nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)) from the root zone, resulting in eutrophication of surface water and pollution of groundwater. Sugarcane is the major irrigated crop with regards to area cultivated in the Crocodile, ...

  6. Sensory quality of drinking water produced by reverse osmosis membrane filtration followed by remineralisation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Nijenhuis, M.A.; Ruepert, N.; Bredie, W.L.P.; Kremer, S.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane filtration of ground, surface, or sea water by reverse osmosis results in permeate, which is almost free from minerals. Minerals may be added afterwards, not only to comply with (legal) standards and to enhance chemical stability, but also to improve the taste of drinking water made from

  7. River water quality in the northern sugarcane-producing regions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-16

    Feb 16, 2011 ... gen (N) and phosphorus (P)) from the root zone, resulting in eutrophication of surface water and pollution of groundwater. Sugarcane is the major irrigated crop with regards to area cultivated in the Crocodile, Komati-Lomati and Pongola River catchments. Increasing demand for and use of water resources ...

  8. Producing the next generation of water resource experts in South Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Falko T Buschke; Marinda F Avenant; Surina Esterhuyse; Marthie E Kemp; Fred J Kruger; Olusola O Ololade; Maitland T Seaman; A Tascha Vos; Marie Watson

    2016-01-01

    ... into a discussion on how to develop and train the next generation of managers and scientists to tackle the current challenges being faced by the wider water sector. The 2-hour long discussion session consisted of opening statements from a panel of scientists and practitioners specifically selected for their experience in different parts of the water sector.

  9. Sensory quality of drinking water produced by reverse osmosis membrane filtration followed by remineralisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vingerhoeds, Monique H.; Nijenhuis-de Vries, Mariska A.; Ruepert, Nienke

    2016-01-01

    Membrane filtration of ground, surface, or sea water by reverse osmosis results in permeate, which is almost free from minerals. Minerals may be added afterwards, not only to comply with (legal) standards and to enhance chemical stability, but also to improve the taste of drinking water made from...

  10. High Quality Education and Learning for All through Open Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    Keynote at the International Lensky Education Forum 2016, Yakutsk, Republic of Sakha, Russian Federation, by Stracke, C. M. (2016, 16 August): "High Quality Education and Learning for All through Open Education"

  11. Innovative and high quality education through Open Education and OER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2017-01-01

    Online presentation and webinar by Stracke, C. M. (2017, 18 December) on "Innovative and high quality education through Open Education and OER" for the Belt and Road Open Education Learning Week by the Beijing Normal University, China.

  12. Biological soil attributes in oilseed crops irrigated with oilfield produced water in the semi-arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Clarice Melo Azevedo de Meneses

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Wastewater from oil is the main residue of the oil industry. Studies have shown that wastewater, or produced water, can be treated and used as an alternative source for the irrigation of oilseed crops. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of treated produced water on the biological properties of soil cultivated with the castor bean cv. BRS Energy and the sunflower cv. BRS 321 respectively, for two and three successive cycles of grain production. The first cycle in the sunflower and castor bean corresponds to the dry season and the second cycle to the rainy season. The third crop cycle in the sunflower relates to the dry season. The research was carried out from August 2012 to October 2013, in the town of Aracati, in the State of Ceará (Brazil, where both crops were submitted to irrigation with filtered produced water (FPW, produced water treated by reverse osmosis (OPW, or groundwater water from the Açu aquifer (ACW, and to no irrigation (RFD. The treatments, with three replications, were evaluated during the periods of pre-cultivation and plant reproduction for soil respiration (Rs, total organic carbon (TOC and the population density of bacteria (Bact and filamentous fungi (Fung in the soil. In the sunflower crop, these soil attributes are sensitive to the irrigation water used. Irrigation of the castor bean affects soil respiration. Under the conditions of this study, irrigation with FPW may be a short-term alternative in the castor bean and sunflower crops.

  13. Generation of High Quality Laser Accelerated Ion Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Bulanov, S. V.; Nishihara, K.; Tajima, T.; Pegoraro, F.; Khoroshkov, V. S.; Mima, K.; Daido, H.; Kato, Y.; Kitagawa, Y.; Nagai, K.; Sakabe, S.

    2002-01-01

    In order to achieve a high quality, i. e. monoergetic, intense ion beam, we propose the use of a double layer target. The first layer, at the target front, consists of high-Z atoms, while the second (rear) layer is a thin coating of low-Z atoms. The high quality proton beams from the double layer target, irradiated by an ultra-intense laser pulse, are demonstrated with three dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations.

  14. USE OF HYDROGEL IN THE SURVIVAL OF CUTTINGS OF Eucalyptus urograndis PRODUCED WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF SUBSTRATE AND WATER MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Luisa Wadas Lopes

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the use of hydrogel in the survival of cuttings of Eucalyptus urograndis produced with different types of substrate and water management. The experiment was carried out using cuttings of the same clone, produced up to 50 days after the cutting, in two different nurseries (“C” and “E". Then, all the cuttings were allocated to the same nursery for 80 days, where they received irrigation at different frequencies. After this period, the cuttings were transplanted into polyethylene pots, in clay soil, with and without hydrogel. The results obtained were subjected to the variance technique for totally randomized experiments. Data analysis revealed that the plants with hydrogel displayed delayed symptoms of water deficit. Regardless of the cutting's origin (“C” or “E”, the hydrogel influenced survival, guaranteeing 37 days without additional irrigation. The nursery water management only influenced the plants from nursery "E", and the plants adapted to the lack of water (water management with one daily irrigation took more time to present symptoms of water deficit.

  15. Tributyltin distribution and producing androgenic activity in water, sediment, and fish muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shue, Meei-Fang; Chen, Ting-Chien; Bellotindos, Luzvisminda M; Lu, Ming-Chun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the concentrations of Tributyltin (TBT) in water, sediment, and fish muscle samples taken from Kaohsiung Harbor and Kaoping River estuary, Taiwan. TBT concentrations in water and sediment samples ranged from less than 18.5 to 34.1 ng Sn L(-1) and from 2.44 to 29.7 ng Sn g(-1) weight per weight (w/w), respectively. Concentrations in the TBT-contaminated fish muscle samples ranged from 10.8 to 79.6 ng Sn g(-1) w/w. The TBT concentrations in fish muscle were higher than those in water and sediment samples. The fish muscle/water TBT bioconcentration factor (BCF) ranged from 590 to 3363 L kg(-1). Additionally, the water samples were assessed for androgenic activity with an MCF7-AR1 human breast cancer cell line. The androgenic activity ranged from 0.94 to 3.1 ng-dihydrotestosterone per litre water (ng-DHT L(-1)). Higher concentrations of TBT in water and sediment samples occurred in the dry season, but the androgenic activity had higher values in the rainy season.

  16. Physiological quality of sesame seeds produced from plants subjected to water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronimeire Torres da Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Germination and seed vigor may be influenced by several factors, such as water stress during production, which affect crops differently according to the phenological stage of the plant. The aim of this study therefore was to evaluate the physiological quality of sesame seeds from plants subjected to water stress at different phenological stages. To this end, sesame plants were subjected to water stress at the following stages: I - germination to the start of vegetative growth (T1; II - vegetative growth to flowering (T2; III - flowering to pod formation (T3; IV - fruit maturation (T4; also for stress at all stages (T5 and full irrigation (T6. By weighing and daily irrigation of the containers, levels were kept at 50% of pot capacity (CV for treatments with water deficit, and at 100% CV for treatments with no deficit. At 90 days after planting, the plants were harvested. The seeds were evaluated by germination test, first germination count, germination speed index, mean germination time, accelerated aging, electrical conductivity, seedling emergence, emergence speed index, mean time of emergence, seedling length and seedling dry weight. Sesame seeds from plants grown under water deficit display lower physiological quality. Between germination and the start of vegetative growth, and between flowering and fruit formation, the sesame is more sensitive to water stress, so that water limitation during these periods results in the production of seeds of low physiological quality.

  17. EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER PRODUCED BY THE TREATMENT PLANT: CASE OF MAURITANIA

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMEDEN TFEILA; KHADIJA ZAHIDI; MOHAMED OULD SID’AHMED OULD KANKOU; SALAH SOUABI; MOULAY ABDELAZIZ ABOULHASSAN

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the performance of treatment plants after three years of operation of the city of Nouakchott. It essentially aims to study the evolution of various raw water qualities during the different processing steps (T °, pH, EC, MES, Cl-, NO3-, NO2-, sulfate...). The water treatment in Béni Nadji pretreatment station has led to a significant removal of turbidity, organic matter, and a 99-100 % elimination of SS (Suspended Solids). For drinking water, the total hardness vari...

  18. Produced water treatment and discharge solutions in TRANSPETRO maritime terminals; Solucoes de tratamento e descarte de agua produzida nos terminais aquaviarios da TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansor, Leonardo Mitidiero; Burburan, Alexandre; Rodrigues, Fernanda Fonseca; Cerqueira, Ana Claudia F.P. de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Padilha, Carlos Frederico [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The PETROBRAS produced water programme, conducted by PETROBRAS S.A. is the response to the challenge faced in handling, treating and discharging produced water associated to oil production that comes from Campos Basin mainly. After run modeling studies in oil and produced water associated through 2015 scenario, it was identified the total amount of produced water that will be handle monthly, increasing from 215.000 m{sup 3} up to 420.000 m{sup 3}. To achieve the goals of treating e discharging that huge amount of water, the program understood the following main actions: built 5 produced water plants (Sao Sebastiao, Macae-Cabiunas, Angra dos Reis, Sao Francisco do Sul and Osorio) and 2 reinjection sites (Cabiunas and Lagoa Parda). These plants and sites will be able to treat monthly the total produced water amount of 677.000 m{sup 3}. (author)

  19. Produced Water Treatment Using Geothermal Energy from Oil and Gas Wells: An Appropriateness of Decommissioned Wells Index (ADWI) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaghadi, A.; Rifai, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of harnessing geothermal energy from retrofitted oil and gas decommissioned wells to power desalination units and overcome the produced water treatment energy barrier. Previous studies using heat transfer models have indicated that well depth, geothermal gradient, formation heat conductivity, and produced water salt levels were the most important constraints that affect the achievable volume of treated water. Thus, the challenge of identifying which wells would be best suited for retrofit as geothermal wells was addressed by defining an Appropriateness of Decommissioned Wells Index (ADWI) using a 25 km x 25 km grid over Texas. Heat transfer modeling combined with fuzzy logic methodology were used to estimate the ADWI at each grid cell using the scale of Very Poor, Poor, Average, Good and Excellent. Values for each of the four constraints were extracted from existing databases and were used to select 20 representative values that covered the full range of the data. A heat transfer model was run for all the 160,000 possible combination scenarios and the results were regressed to estimate weighting coefficients that indicate the relative effect of well depth, geothermal gradient, heat conductivity, and produced water salt levels on the volume of treated water in Texas. The results indicated that wells located in cells with ADWI of "Average", "Good" or "Excellent" can potentially deliver 35,000, 106,000, or 240,000 L/day of treated water, respectively. Almost 98% of the cells in the Granite Wash, 97% in Eagle Ford Shale, 90% in Haynesville Shale, 79% in Permian Basin, and 78% in Barnett Shale were identified as better than "Average" locations; whereas, south of the Eagle Ford, southwestern Permian Basin, and the center of Granite Wash were "Excellent". Importantly, most of the locations with better than "Average" ADWI are within drought prone agricultural regions that would benefit from this resilient source of clean water.

  20. Shallow groundwater and soil chemistry response to 3 years of subsurface drip irrigation using coalbed-methane-produced water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, C. R.; Boehlke, A. R.; Engle, M. A.; Geboy, N. J.; Schroeder, K. T.; Zupancic, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Disposal of produced waters, pumped to the surface as part of coalbed methane (CBM) development, is a significant environmental issue in the Wyoming portion of the Powder River Basin, USA. High sodium adsorption ratios (SAR) of the waters could degrade agricultural land, especially if directly applied to the soil surface. One method of disposing of CBM water, while deriving beneficial use, is subsurface drip irrigation (SDI), where acidified CBM waters are applied to alfalfa fields year-round via tubing buried 0.92 m deep. Effects of the method were studied on an alluvial terrace with a relatively shallow depth to water table (˜3 m). Excess irrigation water caused the water table to rise, even temporarily reaching the depth of drip tubing. The rise corresponded to increased salinity in some monitoring wells. Three factors appeared to drive increased groundwater salinity: (1) CBM solutes, concentrated by evapotranspiration; (2) gypsum dissolution, apparently enhanced by cation exchange; and (3) dissolution of native Na-Mg-SO4 salts more soluble than gypsum. Irrigation with high SAR (˜24) water has increased soil saturated paste SAR up to 15 near the drip tubing. Importantly though, little change in SAR has occurred at the surface.

  1. Water management and smallholder Fairtrade tea producers in South Western Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Flowers, Cara

    2007-01-01

    Kayonza growers’ tea factory is a remote tea factory in south western Uganda which consists of two core estates and 4072 smallholder tea farmers currently producing tea over a total area of 1604 hectares. There is a perception that yields of smallholder tea vary significantly throughout the year and between years. The data confirms this, with yields in the lowest producing months of February, July and August as little as 6% of annual yield production. Soil type also has an infl...

  2. AN INDEXING APPROACH FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS IN DRINKING WATER PRODUCED BY MAURITANIAN WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    OpenAIRE

    Brahim Baba Aloueimine*; Mohamed Ould Kankou; Driss Belghyti

    2017-01-01

    In the present work, the assessment of drinking water quality was carried out through a monitoring of heavy metals in the treated and consumed waters in the city of Nouakchott (Mauritania). Monthly sampling was conducted for a period of 24 months between January 2012 and December 2013. Nine parameters were evaluated: pH, T (°C), Turbidity (NTU), Al, Fe, Cu, Mn, Al2(SO4)3 and CaO. Indexing approaches have been applied by calculating the Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI) and Metal Index (MI) fo...

  3. EVALUATION OF THE QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER PRODUCED BY THE TREATMENT PLANT: CASE OF MAURITANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMEDEN TFEILA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the performance of treatment plants after three years of operation of the city of Nouakchott. It essentially aims to study the evolution of various raw water qualities during the different processing steps (T °, pH, EC, MES, Cl-, NO3-, NO2-, sulfate.... The water treatment in Béni Nadji pretreatment station has led to a significant removal of turbidity, organic matter, and a 99-100 % elimination of SS (Suspended Solids. For drinking water, the total hardness varies between 3.8 and 5.6 °fH. The value of turbidity in drinking water was between 0.2 and 0.3 NTU with turbidity varying between 21 and 330 NTU in the surface water. Aluminum surface concentration surface was between 0.1 and 0.7 mg·L-1. The nitrate concentration varies between 0.5 and 2 mg·L-1, which is lower than that suggested by The World Health Organization (50 mg·L-1. As a result of this study, we concluded that water clarification phases of Nouakchott must be improved.

  4. Energy and Exergy Analyses of a New Combined Cycle for Producing Electricity and Desalinated Water Using Geothermal Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Akbari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A new combined cogeneration system for producing electrical power and pure water is proposed and analyzed from the viewpoints of thermodynamics and economics. The system uses geothermal energy as a heat source and consists of a Kalina cycle, a LiBr/H2O heat transformer and a water purification system. A parametric study is carried out in order to investigate the effects on system performance of the turbine inlet pressure and the evaporator exit temperature. For the proposed system, the first and second law efficiencies are found to be in the ranges of 16%–18.2% and 61.9%–69.1%, respectively. For a geothermal water stream with a mass flow rate of 89 kg/s and a temperature of 124 °C, the maximum production rate for pure water is found to be 0.367 kg/s.

  5. Integrated use of NMR, petrel and modflow in the modeling of SAGD produced water re-injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, K. [Miswaco(CANADA); Phair, C [Mneme Corp, CALGARY (Canada); Alloisio, S [SWS, Vancouver (CANADA); Novotny, M [SWS, Denver, (United States); Raven, S [Oilsands Quest Inc., Calgary (CANADA)

    2011-07-01

    In the oil industry, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a method used to enhance oil recovery in which production water disposal is a challenge. During this process, production water is re-injected into the reservoir and operators have to verify that it will not affect the quality of the surrounding fresh groundwater. This research aimed at determining the flow path and the time that produced water would take to reach an adjacent aquifer. This study was carried out on a horizontal well pair at the Axe Lake Area in northwestern Saskatchewan, using existing site data in Petrel to create a static hydrogeological model which was then exported to Modflow to simulate injection scenarios. This innovative method provided flow path of the re-injected water and time to reach the fresh with advantages over conventional hydrogeological modeling. The innovative workflow presented herein successfully provided useful information to assess the feasibility of the SAGD project and could be used for other projects.

  6. Effects of chronic produced water exposure on the expression of some immune-related genes of juvenile Atlantic cod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Casanova, J.; Hamoutene, D.; Samuelson, S.; Burt, K.; King, T. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Lee, K. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This study assessed the impacts of exposure to processed water produced by offshore oil operators on immune-related genes of juvenile Atlantic cod exposed to processed water for a period of 22 weeks. The study investigated the influence of processed water concentrations on growth parameters; food consumption; plasma cortisol; respiratory burst activity (RB); and mRNA expression. The study showed that the RB of circulating leukocytes was significantly elevated. Significant up-regulation of the mRNA expression of microglobulin, immunoglobulin light chain, and interleukins was observed in some fish. The down-regulation of the interferon stimulated gene was also observed. The study indicated that chronic exposure to significant amounts of processed water causes modulations of the immune system of juvenile Atlantic cod.

  7. A hybrid HTGR system producing electricity, hydrogen and such other products as water demanded in the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X., E-mail: yan.xing@jaea.go.jp; Noguchi, H.; Sato, H.; Tachibana, Y.; Kunitomi, K.; Hino, R.

    2014-05-01

    Alternative energy products are being considered by the Middle East countries for both consumption and export. Electricity, water, and hydrogen produced not from oil and gas are amongst those desirable. A hybrid nuclear production system, GTHTR300C, under development in JAEA can achieve this regional strategic goal. The system is based on a 600 MWt HTGR and equipped to cogenerate electricity by gas turbine and seawater desalination by using only the nuclear plant waste heat. Hydrogen is produced via a thermochemical water-splitting process driven by the reactor's 950 °C heat. Additionally process steam may be produced for industrial uses. An example is shown of manufacturing soda ash, an internationally traded commodity, from using the steam produced and the brine discharged from desalination. The nuclear reactor satisfies nearly all energy requirements for the hybrid generations without emitting CO{sub 2}. The passive safety of the reactor as described in the paper permits proximity of siting the reactor with the production facilities to enhance energy transmission. Production flowsheet of the GTHTR300C is given for up to 300 MWe electricity, 58 t/day hydrogen, 56,000 m{sup 3}/day potable water, 3500 t/day steam, and 1000 t/day soda ash. The production thermal efficiency reaches 88%.

  8. Surface modification of ultra thin PES-zeolite using thermal annealing to increase flux and rejection of produced water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusworo, T. D., E-mail: tdkusworo@che.undip.ac.id; Widayat,; Pradini, A. W.; Armeli, Y. P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Diponegoro Prof. Soedarto, Tembalang, Semarang, 50239, Phone/Fax : (024) 7460058 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Membrane technology is an alternative of water treatment based on filtration that is being developed. Surface Modification using heat treatment has been investigated to improve the performance of ultra thin PES-Zeolite nanocomposite membrane for produced water treatment from Pertamina Balongan. Two types of membranes with surface modification and without modification were prepared to study the effect of surface modification on its permeation properties. Asymmetric ultra thin PES-Zeolite nanocomposite membrane for produced water treatment was casted using the dry/wet phase inversion technique from dope solutions containing polyethersulfone, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as a solvent and zeolite as a filler. Experimental results showed that the heat treatment at near glass transition temperature was increase the rejection of COD, Turbidity and ion Ca{sup 2+}. The better adherence of zeolite particles in the polymer matrix combined with formation of charge transfer complexes (CTCs) and cross-linking might be the main factors to enhance the percent of rejection. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) micrographs showed that the selective layer and the substructure of PES-zeolite membrane became denser and more compact after the heat treatment. The FESEM micrographs also showed that the heat treatment was increased the adherence of zeolite particle and polymer. Membranes treated at 180 °C for 15 seconds indicated increase the rejection and small decrease in flux for produced water treatment.

  9. Heavy metal removal from produced water using retorted shale; Remocao de metais pesados em aguas produzidas utilizando xisto retortado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Patricia M.; Melo, Marcos A.F.; Melo, Dulce M.A.; Silva Junior, Carlos N.; Assuncao, Ary L.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Anjos, Marcelino J. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    2004-07-01

    The Production of oil and gas is usually accompanied by the production of large volume of water that can have significant environmental effects if not properly treated. In this work, the use of retort shale was investigated as adsorbent agent to remove heavy metals in produced water. Batch adsorption studies in synthetic solution were performed for several metal ions. The efficiency removal was controlled by solution pH, adsorbent dosage, and initial ion concentration and agitation times. Two simple kinetic models were used, pseudo-first- and second-order, were tested to investigate the adsorption mechanisms. The equilibrium data fitted well with Langmuir and Freundlich models. The produced water samples were treated by retorted shale under optimum adsorption conditions. Synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence was used to analyze the elements present in produced water samples from oil field in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The removal was found to be approximately 20-50% for Co, Ni, Sr and above 80% for Cr, Ba, Hg and Pb. (author)

  10. Application of microbial risk assessment to the development of standards for enteric pathogens in water used to irrigate fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stine, Scott W; Song, Inhong; Choi, Christopher Y; Gerba, Charles P

    2005-05-01

    Microbial contamination of the surfaces of cantaloupe, iceberg lettuce, and bell peppers via contact with irrigation water was investigated to aid in the development of irrigation water quality standards for enteric bacteria and viruses. Furrow and subsurface drip irrigation methods were evaluated with the use of nonpathogenic surrogates, coliphage PRD1, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. The concentrations of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Salmonella in irrigation water necessary to achieve a 1:10,000 annual risk of infection, the acceptable level of risk used for drinking water by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, were calculated with a quantitative microbial risk assessment approach. These calculations were based on the transfer of the selected nonpathogenic surrogates to fresh produce via irrigation water, as well as previously determined preharvest inactivation rates of pathogenic microorganisms on the surfaces of fresh produce. The risk of infection was found to be variable depending on type of crop, irrigation method, and days between last irrigation event and harvest. The worst-case scenario, in which produce is harvested and consumed the day after the last irrigation event and maximum exposure is assumed, indicated that concentrations of 2.5 CFU/100 ml of Salmonella and 2.5 x 10(-5) most probable number per 100 ml of HAV in irrigation water would result in an annual risk of 1:10,000 when the crop was consumed. If 14 days elapsed before harvest, allowing for die-off of the pathogens, the concentrations were increased to 5.7 x 10(3) Salmonella per 100 ml and 9.9 x 10(-3) HAV per 100 ml.

  11. High-quality endoscope reprocessing decreases endoscope contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decristoforo, Petra; Kaltseis, Josef; Fritz, Andreas; Edlinger, Michael; Posch, Wilfried; Wilflingseder, Doris; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Orth-Höller, Dorothea

    2018-02-02

    Several outbreaks of severe infections due to contamination of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopes, mainly duodenoscopes have been described previously. The rate of microbial endoscope contamination is varying dramatically in literature. Thus, the aim of this multicentre prospective study was to evaluate the hygiene quality of endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors (AERs) in Tyrol/Austria. In 2015 and 2016, a total of 463 GI endoscopes and 105 AERs from 29 endoscopy centres were analysed by a routine (R) and a combined routine and advanced (CRA) sampling procedure and investigated for microbial contamination by culture- and molecular-based analyses. The contamination rate of GI endoscopes was 1.3-4.6% according to national guideline, suggesting that 1.3-4.6 patients out of 100 could have had contacts with hygiene relevant microorganisms through an endoscopic intervention. Comparison of R and CRA sampling showed 1.8% of R versus 4.6% of CRA failing the acceptance criteria in phase I and 1.3% of R versus 3.0% of CRA samples in phase II. The most commonly identified indicator organism was Pseudomonas spp., mainly P. oleovorans. None of the tested viruses were detected in 40 samples. While AERs in phase I failed (n=9, 17.6%) mainly due to technical faults, phase II revealed lapses (n=6, 11.5%) only on account to microbial contamination of the last rinsing water, mainly with Pseudomonas spp. In the present study the contamination rate of endoscopes was low compared to results from other European countries, possibly due to high quality of endoscope reprocessing, drying and storage. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of water/AOT/benzene microemulsions during photoreduction to produce silver particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Masafumi; Saijo, Kenji; Sakamoto, Naoki; Ito, Kazuki

    2010-03-15

    Colloidal dispersions of silver (Ag) particles were prepared by the photoreduction of silver perchlorate (AgClO(4)) in water/AOT/benzene water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions consisting of sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT), water and benzene. Formation mechanisms of Ag particles prepared in the presence of benzoin by photoreduction from Ag(+)-containing w/o microemulsions were investigated by UV-vis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements. By a combination of TEM and EXAFS results, Ag particles show a metallic nature after the photoreduction and the diameter of Ag particles ranges between 5 and 30 nm. In situ time-resolved SAXS measurements show that the integrated rate equation can be applied in the reduction process of Ag(+) ions to Ag(0) atoms, and the autocatalytic Ag particle growth proceeds in the association process of Ag(0) atoms during the photoreduction of Ag(+)-containing w/o microemulsions. The nanometer-sized water droplets microemulsified by AOT in benzene continuous-phase regulated the size of Ag particles, and the size and shape of water droplets were retained during the Ag particle formation. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A novel strategy to produce highly stable and transparent aqueous 'nanosolutions' of water-insoluble drug molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie-Xin; Zhang, Zhi-Bing; Le, Yuan; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2011-07-01

    A surprisingly large proportion of new drug candidates emerging from drug discovery programmes are water-insoluble and, as a result, have poor oral bioavailability. To overcome insolubility, the drug particles are usually dispersed in a medium during product formation, but large particles that are formed may affect product performance and safety. Many techniques have been used to produce nanodispersions—dispersions with nanometre-scale dimensions—that have properties similar to solutions. However, making nanodispersions requires complex processing, and it is difficult to achieve stability over long periods. In this paper, we report a generic method for preparing drug nanoparticles with a combination of antisolvent precipitation in the presence of water-soluble matrices and spray-drying. The spray-dried powder composites (solid dispersion) are microspherical, highly stable and thus form transparent nanodispersions or so-called 'nanosolutions' of water-insoluble drug when simply added to water. Aqueous nanodispersions of silybin (a kind of water-insoluble drug for liver protection) with an average size of 25 nm produced with this approach display a 10 times faster dissolution rate than that of raw drug. This has great potential to offer a novel solution for innovative drugs of the future.

  14. Treatment of produced water: is a flotation viable process?; Tratamento da agua produzida: a flotacao e um processo viavel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, Claudia Ramos; Freitas, Andrea Goncalves Bueno de; Silva, Gabriel Francisco da; Paixao, Ana Eleonora Almeida [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Oliveira, Rosivania da Paixao Silva [Fundacao de Apoio a Pesquisa e Extensao de Sergipe (FAPESE), Aracaju, SE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In petroleum oil wells there comes a situation when most of the oil drilled accompanies a large amount of water. This may be due to the proper conditions of the reservoir or as a consequence of the water injection in the secondary recovery processes from the well. The amount of produced water together with oil can vary to a great extent and it frequently attains to about 50% of the drilled oil. One technique employed for the treatment of industrial effluents, mainly the oily ones which is of great interest is that of flotation. This phenomenon is being extensively used for oil removal from emulsified oils in various areas, such as that of dissolved air flotation (DAF) and the induced air flotation (IAF). The conventional flotation processes consist of the following stages: bubble gas generation (normally air) from the interior of the effluent; collision between the gas bubbles and the suspended oil drops in the water; adhesion of the gas bubbles in the oil drops and ascension of aggregate oil drops/bubbles until the surface, where the oil is removed. This work seeks to contribute for the understanding of the factors which contribute for the selection of the flotation process as one of the methods most viable for the treatment of the produced water. (author)

  15. AN INDEXING APPROACH FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS IN DRINKING WATER PRODUCED BY MAURITANIAN WATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Baba Aloueimine*

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the assessment of drinking water quality was carried out through a monitoring of heavy metals in the treated and consumed waters in the city of Nouakchott (Mauritania. Monthly sampling was conducted for a period of 24 months between January 2012 and December 2013. Nine parameters were evaluated: pH, T (°C, Turbidity (NTU, Al, Fe, Cu, Mn, Al2(SO43 and CaO. Indexing approaches have been applied by calculating the Heavy Metal Pollution Index (HPI and Metal Index (MI for the assessment of influence of heavy metals on the overall quality of water. The obtained results for heavy metals are in good agreement with World Health Organization (WHO standards. Though the aluminum concentration remains in the limits set by WHO, yet it shows a major contribution in the indices. This has been verified by the statistical analysis which demonstrates fair correlations between aluminum, HPI (r = 0.9 and MI (r = 0.77. Aluminum showed the important influence of seasonal change in the year as well as the doses of reagents injected during the treatment process on the concentration of aluminum is detailed.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF POLYMER GEL SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE VOLUMETRIC SWEEP AND REDUCE PRODUCING WATER/OIL RATIOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Rajeev Jain; Tuan Nguyen

    2003-11-01

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of the first year of a three-year research program that is aimed at the understanding of the chemistry of gelation and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work has focused on a widely-applied system in field applications, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. The initial reaction between chromium acetate and one polymer is referred to as the uptake reaction. The uptake reaction was studied as functions of chromium and polymer concentrations and pH values. Experimental data were regressed to determine a rate equation that describes the uptake reaction of chromium by polyacrylamide. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as the reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A statistical model that describes the growth of pre-gel aggregates was developed using the theory of branching processes. The model gives molecular weight averages that are expressed as functions of the conversion of the reactive sites on chromium acetate or on the polymer molecule. Results of the application of the model correlate well with experimental data of viscosity and weight-average molecular weight and gives insights into the gelation process. A third study addresses the flow of water and oil in rock material after a gel treatment. Previous works have shown that gel treatments usually reduce the permeability to water to a greater extent than the permeability to oil is reduced. This phenomenon is referred to as disproportionate permeability reduction (DPR). Flow experiments were conducted to determine the effect of polymer and chromium concentrations on

  17. Natural radionuclides in bottled drinking waters produced in Croatia and their contribution to radiation dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozmaric, Martina, E-mail: rozmar@irb.hr [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka cesta 54, 10 000 Zagreb (Croatia); Rogic, Matea [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka cesta 54, 10 000 Zagreb (Croatia); Benedik, Ljudmila; Strok, Marko [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-10-15

    Activity concentrations of {sup 234}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in all Croatian bottled drinking natural spring and natural mineral water products, commercially available on the market, were determined. The samples originated from various geological regions of Croatia. Activity concentrations of measured radionuclides are in general decreasing in this order: {sup 234}U > {sup 238}U > {sup 226}Ra > {sup 228}Ra > {sup 210}Pb > {sup 210}Po and {sup 226}Ra > {sup 228}Ra > {sup 234}U > {sup 238}U > {sup 210}Pb > {sup 210}Po for natural spring and mineral waters, respectively. Based on the radionuclide activity concentrations average total annual effective ingestion doses for infants, children and adults, as well as contribution of each particular radionuclide to total dose, were assessed and discussed. The highest doses were calculated for children from 7 to 12 years of age, which makes them the most critical group of population. All values for each type of water, as well as for each population group, were well below the recommended reference dose level (RDL) of 0.1 mSv from one year's consumption of drinking water according to the European Commission recommendations from 1998. Contribution of each particular radionuclide to total doses varied among different water types and within each water type, as well as between different age groups, where the lowest contribution was found for uranium isotopes and the highest for {sup 228}Ra. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Levels of {sup 234,238}U, {sup 226,228}Ra, {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb in Croatian bottled drinking waters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dose assessment for three groups of population (infants, children and adults). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The most critical group of population are children (they assessed the highest dose). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contribution of each radionuclide to total annual effective ingestion doses. Black

  18. Natural radioactivity in drinking underground waters in Upper Silesia and solid wastes produced during treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewska, Izabela; Chałupnik, Stanisław; Bonczyk, Michal

    2014-11-01

    Content of (226)Ra, (228)Ra and uranium isotopes in waters from subsurface aquifers was studied. The sampling points were chosen for having the elevated natural content of iron and manganese. Measurements of radium were made by LSC, while uranium was measured by alpha spectrometry. Waste sludge was measured by gamma spectrometry and three-stage BCR sequential extraction was performed. Radon activity concentration in the air at water treatment plants was determined and dose adsorbed by staff was calculated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. New solution for anistropic formation damage due to produced water re-injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mojarad, R.S.; Settari, A. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    A velocity damage model (VDM) was used to relate damage to the amount of particle-carrying water passing through a porous medium. The transport phenomenon was treated as a miscible displacement of in situ water with injected water. Permeability reductions were assumed to be a function of the cumulative volume of contaminated fluid flow passing through each cross section. The VDM was validated with field data. Hagen-Poiseuille equations were used to determine fluid flow through a single pore. A series of core flood tests on Masila Block samples from a water injection project in Yemen were then matched with data from a deep bed filtration (DBF) model. Results showed that the VDM model successfully matched the block core mean particle and pore size. The model was also used to consider an XZ cross-section of anisotropic media of a horizontal injection well. Results of the analysis suggested that traditional assumptions for constant damage ratios are often inaccurate. Results were then used to develop an anistropic permeability damage formulation which was further extended to create a dynamic alpha to recompute damage parameters for time steps in simulation tools. The anistropic formulations were validated with data from a horizontal well. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  20. Algal turf scrubbing: cleaning surface waters with solar energy while producing a biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the long period of human expansion across the earth, the atmosphere and the earth’s natural waters have been used as low cost sinks or dumps for our human, agricultural and industrial wastes. Despite significant investment, the methods employed for the last half century have largely fail...

  1. Membrane Fouling and Chemical Cleaning in Three Full-Scale Reverse Osmosis Plants Producing Demineralized Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Beyer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane fouling and cleaning were studied in three reverse osmosis (RO plants. Feed water was secondary wastewater effluent, river water, and surface water. Membrane autopsies were used for fouling characterization. Fouling layer measurements included total organic carbon (TOC, adenosine triphosphate, polysaccharides, proteins, and heterotrophic plate counts. In all locations, membrane and spacer fouling was (bioorganic. Plant chemical cleaning efficiencies were evaluated from full-scale operational data and cleaning trials in a laboratory setup. Standard cleaning procedures were compared to two cleaning procedures specifically adapted to treat (bioorganic fouling using commercial blend cleaners (mixtures of active substances. The three RO plants were impacted by irreversible foulants causing permanently decreased performance in normalized pressure drop and water permeability even after thorough chemical cleaning. The standard plant and adapted cleaning procedures reduced the TOC by 45% on average, with a maximum of ~80%. In general, around 20% higher biomass removal could be achieved with adapted procedure I compared to adapted procedure II. TOC measurements and SEM showed that none of cleaning procedures applied could remove foulants completely from the membrane elements. This study underlines the need for novel cleaning approaches targeting resistant foulants, as none of the procedures applied resulted in highly effective membrane regeneration.

  2. Radium variability produced by shelf-water transport and mixing in the western Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, David F.

    1984-12-01

    — 226Ra and 228Ra exhibit significant temporal and spatial variability in the near-surface western Gulf of Mexico. Concentrations of both isotopes during March 1976 were on the order of 22 to 26% greater than those observed during February 1973. It is shown that analytical differences cannot account for this increase. Consideration of radium levels in the western Caribbean Sea indicates that there must be an internal source of radium that has a significant but temporally variable influence on near-surface radium concentrations in the western Gulf. Comparisons of radium, salinity, and temperature data from 1973 and 1976 provide evidence that advective transport and mixing of radium-rich shelf water with the interior water column of the western basin is responsible for the variability. By plotting 228Ra vs 226Ra from this region, estimates of the apparent shelf-water component in the upper water column can be made. The results indicate 36% over the northern slope, 10 to 18% in the central western Gulf, and 3 to 7% over Campeche Bank. In addition to explaining the observed short-term variations of radium in this region, this information should be useful for environmental impact assessments concerned with industrial discharges on the northern shelf.

  3. Radium variability produced by shelf-water transport and mixing in the western Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, D.F. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (USA). School of Oceanography)

    1984-12-01

    /sup 226/Ra and /sup 228/Ra exhibit significant temporal and spatial variability in the near-surface western Gulf of Mexico. Concentrations of both isotopes during March 1976 were approx. 22 to 26% greater than those observed during February 1973. It is shown that analytical differences cannot account for this increase. Consideration of radium levels in the western Caribbean Sea indicates that there must be an internal source of radium that has a significant but temporally variable influence on near-surface radium concentrations in the western Gulf. Comparisons of radium, salinity, and temperature data from 1973 and 1976 provide evidence that advective transport and mixing of radium-rich shelf water with the interior water column of the western basin is responsible for the variability. By plotting /sup 228/Ra vs /sup 226/Ra from this region, estimates of the apparent shelf-water component in the upper water column can be made. The results indicate 36% over the northern slope, 10 to 18% in the central western Gulf, and 3 to 7% over Campeche Bank. In addition to explaining observed short-term variations of radium in this region, this information should be useful for environmental impact assessments concerned with industrial discharges on the northern shelf.

  4. Radium variability produced by shelf-water transport and mixing in the western Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    Ra-226 and Ra-228 exhibit significant temporal and spatial variability in the near-surface western Gulf of Mexico. Concentrations of both isotopes during March 1976 were on the order of 22 to 26% greater than those observed during February 1973; analytical differences cannot account for this increase. Consideration of radium levels in the western Caribbean Sea indicates that there must be an internal source of radium that has a significant but temporally variable influence on near-surface radium concentrations in the western Gulf. Comparisons of radium, salinity, and temperature data from 1973 and 1976 provide evidence that advective transport and mixing of radium-rich shelf water with the interior water column of the western basin is responsible for the variability. By plotting Ra-228 vs Ra-226 from this region, estimates of the apparent shelf-water component in the upper water column can be made. The results indicate 36% over the northern slope, 10 to 18% in the central western Gulf, and 3 to 7% over Campeche Bank. In addition to explaining the observed short-term variations of radium in this region, this information should be useful for environmental impact assessments concerned with industrial discharges on the northern shelf. 10 references, 6 figures, 4 tables.

  5. Isolation of a sulfide-producing bacterial consortium from cooling-tower water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ilhan-Sungur, Esra; Ozuolmez, Derya; Çotuk, Ayşın; Cansever, Nurhan; Muyzer, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Sulfidogenic Clostridia and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) often cohabit in nature. The presence of these microorganisms can cause microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of materials in different ways. To investigate this aspect, bacteria were isolated from cooling tower water and used in

  6. Carbapenemase VCC-1-Producing Vibrio cholerae in Coastal Waters of Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerl, Jens A.; Jaeckel, Claudia; Bortolaia, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    During antimicrobial drug resistance testing for Vibrio spp. from coastal waters of Germany, we identified 4 nontoxigenic, carbapenem-resistant V. cholerae isolates. We used whole-genome sequencing to identify the carbapenemase gene bla(VCC-1). In addition, a molecular survey showed that more bla...

  7. High-Quality Reduced Graphene Oxide by a Dual-Function Chemical Reduction and Healing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some, Surajit; Kim, Youngmin; Yoon, Yeoheung; Yoo, HeeJoun; Lee, Saemi; Park, Younghun; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2013-01-01

    A new chemical dual-functional reducing agent, thiophene, was used to produce high-quality reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as a result of a chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) and the healing of rGO. Thiophene reduced GO by donation of electrons with acceptance of oxygen while it was converted into an intermediate oxidised polymerised thiophene that was eventually transformed into polyhydrocarbon by loss of sulphur atoms. Surprisingly, the polyhydrocarbon template helped to produce good-quality rGOC (chemically reduced) and high-quality rGOCT after thermal treatment. The resulting rGOCT nanosheets did not contain any nitrogen or sulphur impurities, were highly deoxygenated and showed a healing effect. Thus the electrical properties of the as-prepared rGOCT were superior to those of conventional hydrazine-produced rGO that require harsh reaction conditions. Our novel dual reduction and healing method with thiophene could potentially save energy and facilitate the commercial mass production of high-quality graphene. PMID:23722643

  8. Detection and confirmation of Clostridium botulinum in water used for cooling at a plant producing low-acid canned foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Amita; Defibaugh-Chávez, Stephanie L H; Day, James B; Zink, Donald; Sharma, Shashi K

    2010-11-01

    Our laboratory tested water samples used for cooling low-acid canned foods at a canning facility under investigation by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with digoxigenin-labeled antibodies (DIG-ELISA) and real-time PCR as screening methods and confirmed the presence of neurotoxin-producing Clostridium botulinum in the samples by mouse bioassay.

  9. Determination of barium in natural waters by ICP-OES technique. Part II: Assessment of human exposure to barium in bottled mineral and spring waters produced in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garboś, Sławomir; Swiecicka, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    A method of the classification of natural mineral and spring waters and maximum admissible concentration (MAC) levels of metals present in such types of waters are regulated by Commission Directive 2003/40/EC, Directive 2009/54/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council and Ordinance of Minister of Health of 30 March 2011 on the natural mineral waters, spring waters and potable waters. MAC of barium in natural mineral and spring waters was set at 1.0 mg/l, while World Health Organization determined the Ba guideline value in water intended for human consumption at the level of 0.7 mg/l. The aims of the study were: the determination of barium in natural mineral and spring waters (carbonated, non-carbonated and medium-carbonated waters) produced and bottled on the area of Poland, and assessment of human exposure to this metal presents in the above-mentioned types of waters. The study concerning barium determinations in 23 types of bottled natural mineral waters and 15 types of bottled spring waters (bought in Polish retail outlets) was conducted in 2010. The analyses were performed by validated method of determination of barium in water based on inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, using modern internal quality control scheme. Concentrations of barium determined in natural mineral and spring waters were in the ranges from 0.0136 mg/l to 1.12 mg/l and from 0.0044 mg/l to 0.43 mg/l, respectively. Only in the single case of natural mineral water the concentration of barium (1.12 mg/l), exceeded above-mentioned MAC for this metal, which is obligatory in Poland and the European Union - 1.0 mg/l. The long-term monitoring of barium concentration in another natural mineral water (2006 - 2010), in which incidental exceeding MAC was observed in 2006, was conducted. All measured barium concentrations in this water were lower than 1.0 mg/l and therefore, it is possible to state that the proper method of mixing waters taken from six independent

  10. Biotransformation of arsenite and bacterial aox activity in drinking water produced from surface water of floating houses: Arsenic contamination in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jin-Soo

    2015-11-01

    The potential arsenite bioteansformation activity of arsenic was investigated by examining bacterial arsenic arsenite-oxidizing gene such as aoxS, aoxR, aoxA, aoxB, aoxC, and aoxD in high arsenic-contaminated drinking water produced from the surface water of floating houses. There is a biogeochemical cycle of activity involving arsenite oxidase aox system and the ars (arsenic resistance system) gene operon and aoxR leader gene activity in Alcaligenes faecalis SRR-11 and aoxS leader gene activity in Achromobacter xylosoxidans TSL-66. Batch experiments showed that SRR-11 and TSL-66 completely oxidized 1 mM of As (III) to As (V) within 35-40 h. The leaders of aoxS and aoxR are important for gene activity, and their effects in arsenic bioremediation and mobility in natural water has a significant ecological role because it allows arsenite oxidase in bacteria to control the biogeochemical cycle of arsenic-contaminated drinking water produced from surface water of floating houses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fate of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli from Faecal Sources in Surface Water and Probability of Human Exposure through Swimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijven, Jack F; Blaak, Hetty; Schets, Franciska M; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the fate of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) emitted from faecal sources in surface water, and the probability of human exposure through swimming. Concentrations of ESBL-EC were measured in recreational waters and in source waters, being water in

  12. Anisotropic etching of graphite flakes with water vapor to produce armchair-edged graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Da; Yang, Feng; Wang, Xiao; Sun, Hao; Gao, Dongliang; Li, Ruoming; Yang, Juan; Li, Yan

    2014-07-23

    A one-step anisotropic etching method is developed to specifically obtain armchair-edged graphene directly from graphite flakes on various substrates. The armchair edge structure of the produced graphene is verified by the atomic resolution images obtained from the fluid mode peakforce tapping AFM and the relatively high intensity of D band in the Raman spectra. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Unexpected common occurrence of transferable extended spectrum cephalosporinase-producing Escherichia coli in Swedish surface waters used for drinking water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egervärn, Maria; Englund, Stina; Ljunge, Marianne; Wiberg, Christer; Finn, Maria; Lindblad, Mats; Börjesson, Stefan

    2017-06-01

    The presence of Enterobacteriaceae producing extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) or transferable AmpC beta-lactamases (pAmpC) is increasingly being reported in humans, food-producing animals and food world-wide. However, the occurrence and impact of these so-called extended spectrum cephalosporinase (ESC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in aquatic environments are poorly documented. This study investigated the occurrence, concentrations and characteristics of ESC-producing E. coli (ESC-Ec) in samples of surface water collected at five Swedish water treatment plants that normally have relatively high prevalence and concentration of E. coli in surface water. ESC-Ec was found in 27 of 98 surface water samples analysed. All but two positive samples were collected at two of the water treatment plants studied. The ESC-Ec concentration, 1-3cfu/100mL, represented approximately 4% of the total amount of E. coli in the respective surface water sample. In total, 74% of the isolates were multi-resistant, but no isolate was resistant to carbapenems. Six types of ESBL/pAmpC genes were found in the 27 E. coli isolates obtained from the positive samples, of which four (blaCTX-M-15, blaCMY-2, blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-14) were found during the whole sampling period, in samples taken at more than one water treatment plant. In addition, the genes were situated on various types of plasmids and most E. coli isolates were not closely related with regard to MLST types. The combinations of ESBL/pAmpC genes, plasmids and E. coli isolates were generally similar to those found previously in healthy and sick individuals in Sweden. In conclusion, the occurrence of ESC-Ec in Swedish surface water shows that resistant bacteria of clinical concern are present in aquatic environments even in a low-prevalence country such as Sweden. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Obtaining high quality water by reverse osmosis. A comparison of the appropriate systems to be applied depending on the quality of the input water; Osmosis inversa para obtener agua de alta calidad. Comparacion de propuestas de sistemas de aplicacion en funcion de la calidad del agua de entrada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujadas Nino, A.

    2004-07-01

    This article first takes a brief look at the historical development of reverse osmosis systems. It then used several actual examples to compare the water quality that can be obtained using osmosis membranes and ion exchange resin demineralisation systems. It concludes with a number of recommendations regarding the solutions to be adopted in order to obtain water of a specific quality depending on the quality of the available water. (Author) 6 refs.

  15. [Effects of polyacrylamide on settling and separation of oil droplets in polymer flooding produced water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shubo; Zhou, Fusheng; Chen, Zhongxi; Xia, Fujun; Yu, Gang; Jiang, Zhanpeng

    2002-03-01

    The research found anion polyacrylamide (HPAM) had positive and negative effects on oil-water separation. Polymer made oily wastewater's viscosity increase and reduce rising velocity, and polymer can also increase intensity of water films between oil droplets and lengthen coalescence time of oil droplets. Those were not in favor of settling and separation for oil droplets. The positive effects on separation were that polyacrylamide had flocculating activity and made small droplets contact each other and combine into big droplets. When polymer's molecular weight was 2.72 x 10(6), and concentration was less than 800 mg/L, polymer was in favor of oil droplets settling and separation. The prime reason for oily wastewater of polymer flooding difficult to dispose was that initial median diameters of oil droplets were small. The transverse flow oil separator can intensify oil droplets combination and shorten rising time. The locale experiments showed the separator was suitable for dealing with oily wastewater of polymer flooding.

  16. Chemical Identification and Flavor Profile Analysis of Iodinated Phenols Produced From Disinfection of Spacecraft Drinking Water

    OpenAIRE

    Mirlohi, Susan

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is considering the use of iodine for disinfection of recycled wastewater and potable water in the International Space Station (ISS). Like Chlorine and other halogen compounds, iodine can form disinfection by-products (DBPs) in the presence of organic compounds. Recycled wastewater sources proposed for reuse in the space station include laundry, urine, and humidity condensate. These contain large concentrations of iodine-demanding compou...

  17. Bacterial magnetite produced in water column dominates lake sediment mineral magnetism: Lake Ely, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, BangYeon; Kodama, Kenneth P.; Moeller, Robert E.

    2005-10-01

    Environmental magnetic studies of annually laminated sediments from Lake Ely, northeastern Pennsylvania, USA indicate that bacterial magnetite is the dominant magnetic mineral in the lake sediment. In previous studies of Lake Ely sediment, the dark, organic-rich layers in the annual laminae were interpreted to have high-intensity saturation isothermal remanent magnetizations (SIRMs) while the light-coloured, silt-rich layers have low-intensity SIRMs. To test the hypothesis that the magnetic grains in the sediments were an authigenic product of magnetotactic bacteria rather than detrital magnetic grains eroded from the watershed, we analysed samples from the water column, the lake sediment, and a sediment trap installed near the lake bottom. Direct microscopic observation of the water column samples showed the presence of magnetotactic bacteria in and below the oxic-anoxic transition zone (OATZ). To characterize the magnetic minerals, rock magnetic parameters were measured for material from the water column, the sediment trap and the dark- and light-coloured lake sediments. Low-temperature magnetic measurements tested for the presence of magnetosomes in separated dark- and light-coloured layer samples. Numeric unmixing of the low-temperature results showed that biogenic magnetites were present in the lake sediment and contributed more significantly to the SIRM in the dark, organic-rich layers than in the light-coloured, inorganic silt-rich layers. Observations under the transmission electron microscope (TEM) of magnetic extracts also show the abundance of magnetosomes in the lake sediment. The presence of live magnetotactic bacteria in the water column and the predominance of bacterial magnetites in filtered particulate matter, sediment traps and recent lake sediment all suggest that bacterial magnetites are the main magnetic minerals in Lake Ely sediment. This finding suggests that changes in environmental factors that control the productivity of magnetic bacteria

  18. The effect of cellular organic matter produced by cyanobacteria Microcystis aeruginosa on water purification

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pivokonský, Martin; Pivokonská, Lenka; Bäumeltová, Jitka; Bubáková, Petra

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 2 (2009), s. 121-129 ISSN 0042-790X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/07/0295 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : AOM (Algal Organic Matter) * COM (Cellular Organic Matter) * Destabilisation * Aggregation * Reaction conditions * Water treatment Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2009 http://versita.metapress.com/content/808770041t311071/fulltext.pdf

  19. Organic Pollutants in Shale Gas Flowback and Produced Waters: Identification, Potential Ecological Impact, and Implications for Treatment Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Organic contaminants in shale gas flowback and produced water (FPW) are traditionally expressed as total organic carbon (TOC) or chemical oxygen demand (COD), though these parameters do not provide information on the toxicity and environmental fate of individual components. This review addresses identification of individual organic contaminants in FPW, and stresses the gaps in the knowledge on FPW composition that exist so far. Furthermore, the risk quotient approach was applied to predict the toxicity of the quantified organic compounds for fresh water organisms in recipient surface waters. This resulted in an identification of a number of FPW related organic compounds that are potentially harmful namely those compounds originating from shale formations (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates), fracturing fluids (e.g., quaternary ammonium biocides, 2-butoxyethanol) and downhole transformations of organic compounds (e.g., carbon disulfide, halogenated organic compounds). Removal of these compounds by FPW treatment processes is reviewed and potential and efficient abatement strategies are defined. PMID:28376616

  20. Organic Pollutants in Shale Gas Flowback and Produced Waters: Identification, Potential Ecological Impact, and Implications for Treatment Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkovskyi, Andrii; Bruning, Harry; Kools, Stefan A E; Rijnaarts, Huub H M; Van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2017-05-02

    Organic contaminants in shale gas flowback and produced water (FPW) are traditionally expressed as total organic carbon (TOC) or chemical oxygen demand (COD), though these parameters do not provide information on the toxicity and environmental fate of individual components. This review addresses identification of individual organic contaminants in FPW, and stresses the gaps in the knowledge on FPW composition that exist so far. Furthermore, the risk quotient approach was applied to predict the toxicity of the quantified organic compounds for fresh water organisms in recipient surface waters. This resulted in an identification of a number of FPW related organic compounds that are potentially harmful namely those compounds originating from shale formations (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates), fracturing fluids (e.g., quaternary ammonium biocides, 2-butoxyethanol) and downhole transformations of organic compounds (e.g., carbon disulfide, halogenated organic compounds). Removal of these compounds by FPW treatment processes is reviewed and potential and efficient abatement strategies are defined.

  1. Consideration on the Maximum Allowable Dosage of Active Substances Produced by Ballast Water Management System Using Electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Chan Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments was adopted by IMO (International Maritime Organization on 13 February 2004. Fifty-seven ballast water management systems were granted basic approval of active substance by IMO, among which thirty-seven systems were granted final approval. This paper studies the maximum allowable dosage of active substances produced by ballast water management system using electrolysis which is an approved management system by IMO. The allowable dosage of active substances by electrolysis system is proposed by TRO (Total Residual Oxidant. Maximum allowable dosage of TRO is a very important factor in the ballast water management system when using the electrolysis methods, because ballast water management system is controlled with the TRO value, and the IMO approvals are given on the basis of the maximum allowable dosage of TRO for the treatment and discharge of ballast water. However, between various management systems approved TRO concentration of maximum allowable dosage showed large differences, ranging from 1 to 15 ppm, depending on the management systems. The discrepancies of maximum allowable dosage among the management systems may depend on whether a filter is used or not, the difference in the specifications of the electrolysis module, the kind of the tested organisms, the number of individual organisms, and the difference in the water quality, etc. Ship owners are responsible for satisfying the performance standard of the IMO convention in the ports of each country therefore need to carefully review whether the ballast water management system can satisfy the performance standard of the IMO convention or not.

  2. Isolation of high-quality total RNA from leaves of Myrciaria dubia "CAMU CAMU".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Juan Carlos Castro; Reátegui, Alina Del Carmen Egoavil; Flores, Julián Torres; Saavedra, Roberson Ramírez; Ruiz, Marianela Cobos; Correa, Sixto Alfredo Imán

    2013-01-01

    Myrciaria dubia is a main source of vitamin C for people in the Amazon region. Molecular studies of M. dubia require high-quality total RNA from different tissues. So far, no protocols have been reported for total RNA isolation from leaves of this species. The objective of this research was to develop protocols for extracting high-quality total RNA from leaves of M. dubia. Total RNA was purified following two modified protocols developed for leaves of other species (by Zeng and Yang, and by Reid et al.) and one modified protocol developed for fruits of the studied species (by Silva). Quantity and quality of purified total RNA were assessed by spectrophotometric and electrophoretic analysis. Additionally, quality of total RNA was evaluated with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). With these three modified protocols we were able to isolate high-quality RNA (A260nm/A280nm >1.9 and A260nm/A230nm >2.0). Highest yield was produced with the Zeng and Yang modified protocol (384±46µg ARN/g fresh weight). Furthermore, electrophoretic analysis showed the integrity of isolated RNA and the absence of DNA. Another proof of the high quality of our purified RNA was the successful cDNA synthesis and amplification of a segment of the M. dubia actin 1 gene. We report three modified protocols for isolation total RNA from leaves of M. dubia. The modified protocols are easy, rapid, low in cost, and effective for high-quality and quantity total RNA isolation suitable for cDNA synthesis and polymerase chain reaction.

  3. Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2005-12-31

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of a 42-month research program that focused on the understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work was conducted on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A rate equation that describes the reaction between chromium acetate and polymer molecules was regressed from experimental data. A mathematical model that describes the crosslinking reaction between two polymer molecules as a function of time was derived. The model was based on probability concepts and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. Average molecular weights of pre-gel aggregates were measured as a function of time and were comparable to model simulations. Experimental methods to determine molecular weight distributions of pre-gel aggregates were unsuccessful. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results and data from literature. Gel treatments usually reduce the permeability

  4. Multidrug-Resistant and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Dutch Surface Water and Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaak, Hetty; Lynch, Gretta; Italiaander, Ronald; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A.; Schets, Franciska M.; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective The goal of the current study was to gain insight into the prevalence and concentrations of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) Escherichia coli in Dutch surface water, and to explore the role of wastewater as AMR contamination source. Methods The prevalence of AMR E. coli was determined in 113 surface water samples obtained from 30 different water bodies, and in 33 wastewater samples obtained at five health care institutions (HCIs), seven municipal wastewater treatment plants (mWWTPs), and an airport WWTP. Overall, 846 surface water and 313 wastewater E. coli isolates were analysed with respect to susceptibility to eight antimicrobials (representing seven different classes): ampicillin, cefotaxime, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, and chloramphenicol. Results Among surface water isolates, 26% were resistant to at least one class of antimicrobials, and 11% were multidrug-resistant (MDR). In wastewater, the proportions of AMR/MDR E. coli were 76%/62% at HCIs, 69%/19% at the airport WWTP, and 37%/27% and 31%/20% in mWWTP influents and effluents, respectively. Median concentrations of MDR E. coli were 2.2×102, 4.0×104, 1.8×107, and 4.1×107 cfu/l in surface water, WWTP effluents, WWTP influents and HCI wastewater, respectively. The different resistance types occurred with similar frequencies among E. coli from surface water and E. coli from municipal wastewater. By contrast, among E. coli from HCI wastewater, resistance to cefotaxime and resistance to ciprofloxacin were significantly overrepresented compared to E. coli from municipal wastewater and surface water. Most cefotaxime-resistant E. coliisolates produced ESBL. In two of the mWWTP, ESBL-producing variants were detected that were identical with respect to phylogenetic group, sequence type, AMR-profile, and ESBL-genotype to variants from HCI wastewater discharged onto the same sewer and sampled on the same day (A1/ST23/CTX-M-1, B23/ST131/CTX-M-15, D2/ST405/CTX

  5. Arsenite in drinking water produces glucose intolerance in pregnant rats and their female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaventura, María Marta; Bourguignon, Nadia Soledad; Bizzozzero, Marianne; Rodriguez, Diego; Ventura, Clara; Cocca, Claudia; Libertun, Carlos; Lux-Lantos, Victoria Adela

    2017-02-01

    Drinking water is the main source of arsenic exposure. Chronic exposure has been associated with metabolic disorders. Here we studied the effects of arsenic on glucose metabolism, in pregnant and post-partum of dams and their offspring. We administered 5 (A5) or 50 (A50) mg/L of sodium arsenite in drinking water to rats from gestational day 1 (GD1) until two months postpartum (2MPP), and to their offspring from weaning until 8 weeks old. Liver arsenic dose-dependently increased in arsenite-treated rats to levels similar to exposed population. Pregnant A50 rats gained less weight than controls and recovered normal weight at 2MPP. Arsenite-treated pregnant animals showed glucose intolerance on GD16-17, with impaired insulin secretion but normal insulin sensitivity; they showed dose-dependent increased pancreas insulin on GD18. All alterations reverted at 2MPP. Offspring from A50-treated mothers showed lower body weight at birth, 4 and 8 weeks of age, and glucose intolerance in adult females, probably due to insulin secretion and sensitivity alterations. Arsenic alters glucose homeostasis during pregnancy by altering beta-cell function, increasing risk of developing gestational diabetes. In pups, it induces low body weight from birth to 8 weeks of age, and glucose intolerance in females, demonstrating a sex specific response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Feasibility and Treatment of Oil and Gas Produced Water as a Medium for Nannochloropsis Salina cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Enid J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dean, Cynthia A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yoshida, Thomas M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Steichen, Seth A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Laur, Paul A. [Eldorado Biofuels; Visolay, Alfonz [VM Technologies

    2012-06-06

    Some conclusions of this paper are: (1) How much PW is available - (a) Lots, but probably not enough to support the largest estimates of algae production needed, (b) Diluent water is likely needed to support cultivation in some cases, (c) An assessment of how much PW is really available for use is needed; (2) Where is it available - (a) In many places near other resources (land, CO{sub 2}, sunlight, nutrients) and infrastructure (pipelines, refineries, disposal operations/wells); (3) Is the water chemistry acceptable for use - (a) Yes, in many cases with minimal treatment, (b) Additional constituents of value exist in PW for media; (4) Does it need treatment prior to use - (a) Yes, it may often need treatment for organics, some metals, and biological contaminants, (b) Source control and monitoring can reduce need for treatment; (5) How much does it cost to treat it - (a) If desalination is not needed, from <$0.01-$0.60 per m3 is a starting estimate; and (6) Can you grow algae in it - (a) Yes, but we need more experimentation to optimize field conditions, media mixing, and algae types.

  7. Abrupt stop of deep water turnover with lake warming: Drastic consequences for algal primary producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankova, Yana; Neuenschwander, Stefan; Köster, Oliver; Posch, Thomas

    2017-10-23

    After strong fertilization in the 20 th century, many deep lakes in Central Europe are again nutrient poor due to long-lasting restoration (re-oligotrophication). In line with reduced phosphorus and nitrogen loadings, total organismic productivity decreased and lakes have now historically low nutrient and biomass concentrations. This caused speculations that restoration was overdone and intended fertilizations are needed to ensure ecological functionality. Here we show that recent re-oligotrophication processes indeed accelerated, however caused by lake warming. Rising air temperatures strengthen thermal stabilization of water columns which prevents thorough turnover (holomixis). Reduced mixis impedes down-welling of oxygen rich epilimnetic (surface) and up-welling of phosphorus and nitrogen rich hypolimnetic (deep) water. However, nutrient inputs are essential for algal spring blooms acting as boost for annual food web successions. We show that repeated lack (since 1977) and complete stop (since 2013) of holomixis caused drastic epilimnetic phosphorus depletions and an absence of phytoplankton spring blooms in Lake Zurich (Switzerland). By simulating holomixis in experiments, we could induce significant vernal algal blooms, confirming that there would be sufficient hypolimnetic phosphorus which presently accumulates due to reduced export. Thus, intended fertilizations are highly questionable, as hypolimnetic nutrients will become available during future natural or artificial turnovers.

  8. Water Footprint of Milk Produced and Processed in South Africa: Implications for Policy-Makers and Stakeholders along the Dairy Value Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoch Owusu-Sekyere

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current water scarcity situation in South Africa is a threat to sustainable development. The present paper has assessed the water footprint of milk produced and processed in South Africa using the procedures outlined in the water footprint assessment manual. The results show that 1352 m3 of water is required to produce one tonne of milk with 4% fat and 3.3% protein in South Africa. The water used in producing feed for lactating cows alone accounts for 86.35% of the total water footprint of milk. The water footprint of feed ration for lactating cows is about 85% higher than that of non-lactating cows. Green water footprint accounts for more than 86% of the total water footprint of feed ration for lactating cows. Green and blue water footprints are the highest contributors to the total water footprint milk production in South Africa. Water used for feed production for both lactating and non-lactating cows accounts for about 99% of the total water footprint of milk production in South Africa. Particular attention should be given to feed crops with low water footprints and high contribution to dry matter to provide balanced ration with low water footprint. Water users, managers and livestock producers should pay attention to green and blue water consumption activities along the milk value chain and design strategies to minimize them. Corn, sorghum and lucerne production under irrigation in the greater Orange River basin is sustainable, whereas oats production for silage in the same catchment area is not sustainable. Our findings provide the rationale for dairy producers and water users in the dairy industry to get an understanding of the degree of sustainability of their input and output combinations, production choices, and policy interventions, in terms of water use.

  9. New developments in high quality grey cast irons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Riposan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews original data obtained by the present authors, revealed in recent separate publications, describing specific procedures for high quality grey irons, and reflecting the forecast needs of the worldwide iron foundry industry. High power, medium frequency coreless induction furnaces are commonly used in electric melting grey iron foundries. This has resulted in low sulphur (1,500 °C, contributing to unfavourable conditions for graphite nucleation. Thin wall castings are increasingly produced by these electric melt shops with a risk of greater eutectic undercooling during solidification. The paper focused on two groups of grey cast irons and their specific problems: carbides and graphite morphology control in lower carbon equivalent high strength irons (CE=3.4%-3.8%, and austenite dendrite promotion in eutectic and slightly hypereutectic irons (CE=4.1%-4.5%, in order to increase their strength characteristics. There are 3 stages and 3 steps involving graphite formation, iron chemistry and iron processing that appear to be important. The concept in the present paper sustains a threestage model for nucleating flake graphite [(Mn,XS type nuclei]. There are three important groups of elements (deoxidizer, Mn/S, and inoculant and three technological stages in electric melting of iron (superheat, pre-conditioning of base iron, final inoculation. Attention is drawn to a control factor (%Mn x (%S ensuring it equals to 0.03 – 0.06, accompanied by 0.005wt.%–0.010wt.% Al and/or Zr content in inoculated irons. It was found that iron powder addition promotes austenite dendrite formation in eutectic and slightly eutectic, acting as reinforcement for the eutectic cells. But, there is an accompanying possible negative influence on the characteristics of the (Mn,XS type graphite nuclei (change the morphology of nuclei from polygonal compact to irregular polygonal, and therefore promote chill tendency in treated irons. A double addition (iron

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF POLYMER GEL SYSTEMS TO IMPROVE VOLUMETRIC SWEEP AND REDUCE PRODUCING WATER/OIL RATIOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Paul Willhite; Don W. Green; Stan McCool; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2004-02-01

    The objectives of the research are to improve the effectiveness of polymer gels to increase volumetric sweep efficiency of fluid displacement processes and to reduce water production in production wells. The research is based on experimental data and conceptual and mathematical models developed from interpretation of experimental data. This report describes two types of mathematical models that were developed. One model type simulates the chemical reactions where polymer molecules are crosslinked to form a 3-dimensional network or gel. The model is based on statistical probabilities of reactions and yields molecular weights averages and distributions as functions of conversion. The second model type simulates the transport of chromium acetate, a common polymer crosslinker, through porous dolomite rock and includes the mechanisms of dolomite dissolution and chromium precipitation. The chromium transport model reasonably agreed with experimental data.

  11. Ultra-pure, water-dispersed Au nanoparticles produced by femtosecond laser ablation and fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiliūtė, Reda; Maximova, Ksenia A; Lajevardipour, Alireza; Yong, Jiawey; Hartley, Jennifer S; Mohsin, Abu SM; Blandin, Pierre; Chon, James WM; Sentis, Marc; Stoddart, Paul R; Kabashin, Andrei; Rotomskis, Ričardas; Clayton, Andrew HA; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of ultra-pure gold nanoparticles have been prepared by methods of femtosecond laser ablation from a solid target and fragmentation from already formed colloids. Despite the absence of protecting ligands, the solutions could be (1) fairly stable and poly size-dispersed; or (2) very stable and monodispersed, for the two fabrication modalities, respectively. Fluorescence quenching behavior and its intricacies were revealed by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy in rhodamine 6G water solution. We show that surface-enhanced Raman scattering of rhodamine 6G on gold nanoparticles can be detected with high fidelity down to micromolar concentrations using the nanoparticles. Application potential of pure gold nanoparticles with polydispersed and nearly monodispersed size distributions are discussed. PMID:23888114

  12. Chitosan microspheres applied for removal of oil from produced water in the oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Cristina da Silva Grem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of oily wastewaters in the environment is steadily increasing, causing serious damages. Among various treatment methods, adsorption is generally considered the most appropriate, since it can remove both organic and inorganic pollutants. Adsorption using low-cost alternative biopolymers for removal of contaminants from wastewater has been widely investigated. In this context, chitosan has been drawing particular attention because, among its many applications, it can be used in the treatment of aqueous effluents. In this study, microspheres were prepared by reticulation of chitosan with sodium triphosphate (STP and studied for the treatment of water containing crude oil. The microspheres were regular and had surface pores. These microspheres were packed in treatment columns and their ability to remove oil was measured with a fluorometer, by the difference in the oil concentration before and after passing through the column. The microspheres that presented porosity about 80 % were highly efficient in oil removal, with rates above 90%.

  13. Negative Binomial charts for monitoring high-quality processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim

    Good control charts for high quality processes are often based on the number of successes between failures. Geometric charts are simplest in this respect, but slow in recognizing moderately increased failure rates p. Improvement can be achieved by waiting until r > 1 failures have occurred, i.e. by

  14. Learning Disabilities and Achieving High-Quality Education Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, Debi; Strosnider, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    This is an official document of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD), of which Council for Learning Disabilities is a long-standing, active member. With this position paper, NJCLD advocates for the implementation of high-quality education standards (HQES) for students with learning disabilities (LD) and outlines the…

  15. Two open access, high-quality datasets from anesthetic records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumin, David; Newton-Wade, Vanessa; Harrison, Michael J; Merry, Alan F

    2013-01-01

    To provide a set of high-quality time-series physiologic and event data from anesthetic cases formatted in an easy-to-use structure. With ethics committee approval, data from surgical operations under general anesthesia were collected, including physiologic data, drug administrations, events, and clinicians' comments. These data were de-identified, formatted in a combined CSV/XML structure and made publicly available. Two separate datasets were collected containing physiologic time-series data and time-stamped events for 34 patients. For 20 patients, the data included 400 physiologic signals collected over 20 h, 274 events, and 597 drug administrations. For 14 patients, the data included 23 physiologic signals collected over 69 h, with 286 time stamped comments. Data reuse potentially saves significant time and financial costs. However, there are few high-quality repositories for accessible physiologic data and clinical interventions from surgical cases. De-identifying records assists with overcoming problems of privacy and storing the data in a format which is easily manipulated with computing resources facilitates access by the wider research community. It is hoped that additional high-quality data will be added. Future work includes developing tools to explore and visualize the data more efficiently, and establishing quality control measures. An approach to collecting and storing high-quality datasets from surgical operations under anesthesia such that they can be easily accessed by others for use in research has been demonstrated.

  16. The High-Quality School: Thoughtful vs. Technocratic Leadership. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Clark

    Four ideas or theses about schooling and leadership together form a coherent approach to teaching and learning in the high-quality school. They form the basis, if not for large-scale reform, at least for individual consideration and adoption. The first thesis is that humans are creatures of perspective or viewpoint. The second thesis is that the…

  17. The Nature of Spontaneity in High Quality Mathematics Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gaye

    2004-01-01

    Spontaneity has been linked to high quality learning experiences in mathematics (Csikszentmihalyi & Csikszentmihalyi, 1992; Williams, 2002).This paper shows how spontaneity can be identified by attending to the nature of social elements in the process of abstracting (Dreyfus, Hershkowitz, & Schwarz, 2001). This process is elaborated…

  18. Development of Polymer Gel Systems to Improve Volumetric Sweep and Reduce Producing Water/Oil Ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Paul Willhite; Stan McCool; Don W. Green; Min Cheng; Feiyan Chen

    2005-04-03

    Gelled polymer treatments are applied to oil reservoirs to increase oil production and to reduce water production by altering the fluid movement within the reservoir. This report describes the results of the third year of a 42 month research program that is aimed at an understanding of gelation chemistry and the fundamental mechanisms that alter the flows of oil and water in reservoir rocks after a gel treatment. Work focused on a widely applied system in the field, the partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide-chromium acetate gel. Gelation occurs by network formation through the crosslinking of polyacrylamide molecules as a result of reaction with chromium acetate. Pre-gel aggregates form and grow as reactions between chromium acetate and polyacrylamide proceed. A mathematical model that describes uptake and crosslinking reactions as a function of time was derived. The model was probability based and provides molecular-weight averages and molecular-weight distributions of the pre-gel aggregates as a function of time and initial system conditions. A liquid chromatography apparatus to experimentally measure the size and molecular weight distributions of polymer samples was developed. The method worked well for polymer samples without the chromium crosslinker. Sample retention observed during measurements of gelant samples during the gelation process compromised the results. Other methods will be tested to measure size distributions of the pre-gel aggregates. Dissolution of carbonate minerals during the injection of gelants causes the pH of the gelant to increase. Chromium precipitates from solution at the higher pH values robbing the gelant of crosslinker. Experimental data on the transport of chromium acetate solutions through dolomite cores were obtained. A mathematical model that describes the transport of brine and chromium acetate solutions through rocks containing carbonate minerals was used to simulate the experimental results.

  19. Powder River Basin Coalbed Methane Development and Produced Water Management Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Advanced Resources International

    2002-11-30

    Coalbed methane resources throughout the entire Powder River Basin were reviewed in this analysis. The study was conducted at the township level, and as with all assessments conducted at such a broad level, readers must recognize and understand the limitations and appropriate use of the results. Raw and derived data provided in this report will not generally apply to any specific location. The coal geology in the basin is complex, which makes correlation with individual seams difficult at times. Although more than 12,000 wells have been drilled to date, large areas of the Powder River Basin remain relatively undeveloped. The lack of data obviously introduces uncertainty and increases variability. Proxies and analogs were used in the analysis out of necessity, though these were always based on sound reasoning. Future development in the basin will make new data and interpretations available, which will lead to a more complete description of the coals and their fluid flow properties, and refined estimates of natural gas and water production rates and cumulative recoveries. Throughout the course of the study, critical data assumptions and relationships regarding gas content, methane adsorption isotherms, and reservoir pressure were the topics of much discussion with reviewers. A summary of these discussion topics is provided as an appendix. Water influx was not modeled although it is acknowledged that this phenomenon may occur in some settings. As with any resource assessment, technical and economic results are the product of the assumptions and methodology used. In this study, key assumptions as well as cost and price data, and economic parameters are presented to fully inform readers. Note that many quantities shown in various tables have been subject to rounding; therefore, aggregation of basic and intermediate quantities may differ from the values shown.

  20. Potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce high-purity dissolving pulp after alkaline pulping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrega, Marc; Tolonen, Lasse K; Bardot, Fanny; Testova, Lidia; Sixta, Herbert

    2013-05-01

    The potential of hot water extraction of birch wood to produce highly purified dissolving pulp in a subsequent soda-anthraquinone pulping process was evaluated. After intermediate extraction intensities, pulps with low xylan content (3-5%) and high cellulose yield were successfully produced. Increasing extraction intensity further decreased the xylan content in pulp. However, below a xylan content of 3%, the cellulose yield dramatically decreased. This is believed to be due to cleavage of glycosidic bonds in cellulose during severe hot water extractions, followed by peeling reactions during alkaline pulping. Addition of sodium borohydride as well as increased anthraquinone concentration in the pulping liquor increased the cellulose yield, but had no clear effects on pulp purity and viscosity. The low intrinsic viscosity of pulps produced after severe extraction intensities and soda-anthraquinone pulping corresponded to the viscosity at the leveling-off degree of polymerization, suggesting that nearly all amorphous cellulose had been degraded. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Femtosecond laser ablation of gold in water: influence of the laser-produced plasma on the nanoparticle size distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvestre, J.-P.; Kabashin, A.V.; Sacher, E.; Meunier, M. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Department of Engineering Physics, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    Femtosecond laser radiation has been used to ablate a gold target in pure deionized water to produce gold colloids. The dimensional distribution of nanoparticles is characterized by the simultaneous presence of two distinct particle populations: one with low dispersion, having a mean particle size of 5-20 nm, and one with high dispersion, having a much larger particle size. By changing the target position with respect to the radiation focus, we study the influence of the plasma formed after the laser pulse in front of the target, during nanofabrication process. We show that the most intense plasma is produced by positioning the target slightly before the geometric focal point. Here, the plasma intensity was found to correlate with the amount of ablated material as well as with the mean size of nanoparticles associated with the second, highly dispersed, distribution of nanoparticles; this suggests the involvement of plasma-related processes in the ablation of material, and the formation of relatively large particles. The thermal heating of the target by the plasma, and its mechanical erosion by the collapse of a plasma-induced cavitation bubble are discussed as possible ablation mechanisms. The gold nanoparticles produced in ultrapure water are of importance for biosensing applications. (orig.)

  2. Femtosecond laser ablation of gold in water: influence of the laser-produced plasma on the nanoparticle size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvestre, J.-P.; Kabashin, A. V.; Sacher, E.; Meunier, M.

    2005-02-01

    Femtosecond laser radiation has been used to ablate a gold target in pure deionized water to produce gold colloids. The dimensional distribution of nanoparticles is characterized by the simultaneous presence of two distinct particle populations: one with low dispersion, having a mean particle size of 5 20 nm, and one with high dispersion, having a much larger particle size. By changing the target position with respect to the radiation focus, we study the influence of the plasma formed after the laser pulse in front of the target, during nanofabrication process. We show that the most intense plasma is produced by positioning the target slightly before the geometric focal point. Here, the plasma intensity was found to correlate with the amount of ablated material as well as with the mean size of nanoparticles associated with the second, highly dispersed, distribution of nanoparticles; this suggests the involvement of plasma-related processes in the ablation of material, and the formation of relatively large particles. The thermal heating of the target by the plasma, and its mechanical erosion by the collapse of a plasma-induced cavitation bubble are discussed as possible ablation mechanisms. The gold nanoparticles produced in ultrapure water are of importance for biosensing applications.

  3. High-quality stable electron beams from laser wakefield acceleration in high density plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High-quality, stable electron beams are produced from self-injected laser wakefield acceleration using the interaction of moderate 3 TW, 45 fs duration Ti:sapphire laser pulses with high density (>5×10^{19}   cm^{−3} helium gas jet plasma. The electron beam has virtually background-free quasimonoenergetic distribution with energy 35.6_{−2.5}^{+3.9}  MeV, charge 3.8_{−1.2}^{+2.8}  pC, divergence and pointing variation ∼10  mrad. The stable and high quality of the electron beam opens an easy way for applications of the laser wakefield accelerator in the future, particularly due to the widespread availability of sub-10 TW class lasers with a number of laser plasma laboratories around the world.

  4. Reducing Magnetic Noise of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for High-Quality Magnetic Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Sterligov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of light and ultralight unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs for magnetic data acquisition can be efficient for resolving multiple geological and engineering tasks including geological mapping, ore deposits’ prospecting, and pipelines’ monitoring. The accuracy of the aeromagnetic data acquired using UAV depends mainly on deviation noise of electric devices (engine, servos, etc.. The goal of this research is to develop a nonmagnetic unmanned aerial platform (NUAP for high-quality magnetic surveys. Considering parameters of regional and local magnetic survey, a fixed-wing UAV suits geological tasks better for plain area and copter type for hills and mountains. Analysis of the experimental magnetic anomalies produced by a serial light fixed-wing UAV and subsequent magnetic and aerodynamic modeling demonstrates a capacity of NUAP with internal combustion engine carrying an atomic magnetic sensor mounted on the UAV wings to facilitate a high-quality magnetic survey.

  5. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. BDAL1 Reconstructed from a Bakken Shale Hydraulic Fracturing-Produced Water Storage Tank Metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipus, Daniel; Ross, Daniel; Bibby, Kyle; Gulliver, Djuna

    2017-03-16

    We report the 5,425,832 bp draft genome of Pseudomonas sp. strain BDAL1, recovered from a Bakken shale hydraulic fracturing-produced water tank metagenome. Genome annotation revealed several key biofilm formation genes and osmotic stress response mechanisms necessary for survival in hydraulic fracturing-produced water. Copyright © 2017 Lipus et al.

  6. Recent developments in high-quality drying of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chen, Huizhi; Mujumdar, Arun S; Tang, Juming; Miao, Song; Wang, Yuchuan

    2017-04-13

    Fresh foods like vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products have high water activity and they are highly heat-sensitive and easily degradable. Dehydration is one of the most common methods used to improve food shelf-life. However, drying methods used for food dehydration must not only be efficient and economic but also yield high-quality products based on flavor, nutrients, color, rehydration, uniformity, appearance, and texture. This paper reviews some new drying technologies developed for dehydration of vegetables, fruits, and aquatic products. These include: infrared drying, microwave drying, radio frequency drying, electrohydrodynamic drying, etc., as well as hybrid drying methods combining two or more different drying techniques. A comprehensive review of recent developments in high-quality drying of vegetables, fruits and aquatic products is presented and recommendations are made for future research.

  7. BAMBOO CELLULOSIC PULP PRODUCED BY THE ETHANOL/WATER PROCESS FOR REINFORCEMENT APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane da Costa Correia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organosolv pulping is the clean chemical process of using organic solvents to aid in the removal of lignin and hemicellulose from lignocellulosic raw materials. This method provides facility for solvent recovery at the end of the process. In this work, it was to produce bamboo cellulosic pulp by the organosolv process evaluating different temperatures and reaction times, and the pulps were analyzed aiming their future application in the reinforcement of composites. The production of bamboo pulp by the organosolv process was studied varying the cooking conditions at 1, 2 and 3 h and 150, 170 and 190oC of temperature, in order to achieve the ideal conditions of yield, chemical and morphological characteristics of the pulp for its potential application in the reinforcement of composites. The best results for delignification (kappa number of 38, with relatively lower fiber degradation (viscosity of 625 cm3 g-1, aspect ratio of 40.4 and the index zero-span of 204 Nm g-1, were achieved for the pulping process at 190oC for 2 h. These pulping conditions can be considered as the more appropriate in the range of time intervals evaluated in this work. The higher mechanical strength and the lower incidence of morphological defects in the fiber (6.0% of curls and 10.6% of kinks can demonstrate the potential of organosolv bamboo pulp as a reinforcing element.

  8. KNT-artificial neural network model for flux prediction of ultrafiltration membrane producing drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, H K; Yu, M J; Gwon, E M; Koo, J Y; Kim, S G; Koizumi, A

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the prediction of flux behavior in an ultrafiltration (UF) membrane system using a Kalman neuro training (KNT) network model. The experimental data was obtained from operating a pilot plant of hollow fiber UF membrane with groundwater for 7 months. The network was trained using operating conditions such as inlet pressure, filtration duration, and feed water quality parameters including turbidity, temperature and UV254. Pre-processing of raw data allowed the normalized input data to be used in sigmoid activation functions. A neural network architecture was structured by modifying the number of hidden layers, neurons and learning iterations. The structure of KNT-neural network with 3 layers and 5 neurons allowed a good prediction of permeate flux by 0.997 of correlation coefficient during the learning phase. Also the validity of the designed model was evaluated with other experimental data not used during the training phase and nonlinear flux behavior was accurately estimated with 0.999 of correlation coefficient and a lower error of prediction in the testing phase. This good flux prediction can provide preliminary criteria in membrane design and set up the proper cleaning cycle in membrane operation. The KNT-artificial neural network is also expected to predict the variation of transmembrane pressure during filtration cycles and can be applied to automation and control of full scale treatment plants.

  9. Antibacterial activity and QSAR of chalcones against biofilm-producing bacteria isolated from marine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, P M; Prabhawathi, V; Doble, M

    2010-04-01

    Biofouling in the marine environment is a major problem. In this study, three marine organisms, namely Bacillus flexus (LD1), Pseudomonas fluorescens (MD3) and Vibrio natriegens (MD6), were isolated from biofilms formed on polymer and metal surfaces immersed in ocean water. Phylogenetic analysis of these three organisms indicated that they were good model systems for studying marine biofouling. The in vitro antifouling activity of 47 synthesized chalcone derivatives was investigated by estimating the minimum inhibitory concentration against these organisms using a twofold dilution technique. Compounds C-5, C-16, C-24, C-33, C-34 and C-37 were found to be the most active. In the majority of the cases it was found that these active compounds had hydroxyl substitutions. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) was developed after dividing the total data into training and test sets. The statistical measures r(2), [image omitted] (>0.6) q(2) (>0.5) and the F-ratio were found to be satisfactory. Spatial, structural and electronic descriptors were found to be predominantly affecting the antibiofouling activity of these compounds. Among the spatial descriptors, Jurs descriptors showed their contribution in all the three antibacterial QSARs.

  10. Novel Downhole Electromagnetic Flowmeter for Oil-Water Two-Phase Flow in High-Water-Cut Oil-Producing Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available First, the measuring principle, the weight function, and the magnetic field of the novel downhole inserted electromagnetic flowmeter (EMF are described. Second, the basic design of the EMF is described. Third, the dynamic experiments of two EMFs in oil-water two-phase flow are carried out. The experimental errors are analyzed in detail. The experimental results show that the maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 5%, the total flowrate is 5–60 m3/d, and the water-cut is higher than 60%. The maximum absolute value of the full-scale errors is better than 7%, the total flowrate is 2–60 m3/d, and the water-cut is higher than 70%. Finally, onsite experiments in high-water-cut oil-producing wells are conducted, and the possible reasons for the errors in the onsite experiments are analyzed. It is found that the EMF can provide an effective technology for measuring downhole oil-water two-phase flow.

  11. Experimental observation of the luminescence flash at the collapse phase of a bubble produced by pulsed discharge in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yifan; Zhang, Liancheng; Zhu, Xinlei; Liu, Zhen, E-mail: zliu@zju.edu.cn; Yan, Keping [Key Laboratory of Biomass Chemical Engineering of Ministry of Education, College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310007 (China); Chen, Jim [Key Laboratory of Biomass Chemical Engineering of Ministry of Education, College of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310007 (China); Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Western University, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2015-11-02

    This letter presents an experimental observation of luminescence flash at the collapse phase of an oscillating bubble produced by a pulsed discharge in water. According to the high speed records, the flash lasts around tens of microseconds, which is much longer than the lifetime of laser and ultrasound induced luminescence flashes in nanoseconds and picoseconds, respectively. The pulse width of temperature waveform and minimum radius calculated at the collapse phase also show that the thermodynamic and dynamic signatures of the bubbles in this work are much larger than those of ultrasound and laser induced bubbles both in time and space scales. However, the peak temperature at the point of collapse is close to the results of ultrasound and laser induced bubbles. This result provides another possibility for accurate emission spectrum measurement other than amplification of the emitted light, such as increasing laser energy or sound energy or substituting water with sulphuric acid.

  12. Comparison of numerical simulations and laboratory studies of shock waves and cavitation bubble growth produced by optical breakdown in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapyak, E.J.; Godwin, R.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Vogel, A. [Medizinisches Laserzentrum Luebeck GmbH (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    In numerical calculations of idealized bubble dynamics test problems, Los Alamos computational tools perform well. A realistic equation of state must be used and geometrical features must be carefully modeled to simulate experiments accurately. In this work, we compare numerical simulations taking these features into account with experiments performed at the Medizinisches Laserzentrum Lubeck. We compare the measured and calculated positions of the shock front and of the bubble wall as a function of time in the laser optical breakdown of water produced by 30-ps 1-mJ Nd:YAG laser pulses.

  13. Characterization of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic powders produced by water atomization and powder heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tongsri, Ruangdaj, E-mail: ruangdt@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Yotkaew, Thanyaporn, E-mail: thanyy@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Krataitong, Rungtip, E-mail: rungtipk@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Wila, Pongsak, E-mail: pongsakw@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Sir-on, Autcharaporn, E-mail: autchars@mtec.or.th [Materials Characterization Research Unit (MCRU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Muthitamongkol, Pennapa, E-mail: pennapm@mtec.or.th [Materials Characterization Research Unit (MCRU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Tosangthum, Nattaya, E-mail: nattayt@mtec.or.th [Powder Metallurgy Research and Development Unit (PM-RDU), National Metal and Materials Technology Center, 114 Paholyothin, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand)

    2013-12-15

    Since the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic shows its importance in industrial applications, the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic-containing powders, produced by a powder processing route with a high production rate, were characterized. The route consisted of water atomization of an alloy melt (Cu–61 wt.% Sn) and subsequent heat treatment of the water-atomized powders. Characterization of the water-atomized powders and their heated forms was conducted by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Fine water-atomized powder microstructures consisted of primary hexagonal η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} dendrites coexisting with interdendritic η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + β-Sn eutectic. Solidification of fine melt droplets was governed by surface nucleation and growth of the primary hexagonal η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} dendrites followed by η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + β-Sn eutectic solidification of the remnant liquid. In coarse melt droplets, nucleation and growth of primary ε-Cu{sub 3}Sn dendrites were followed by peritectic reaction (ε-Cu{sub 3}Sn + liquid → η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5}) or direct crystallization of η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} phase from the undercooled melt. Finally, the η-Cu{sub 6.25}Sn{sub 5} + β-Sn eutectic solidification of the remnant liquid occurred. Heating of the water-atomized powders at different temperatures resulted in microstructural homogenization. The water-atomized powders with mixed phases were transformed to powders with single monoclinic ή-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} phase. - Highlights: • The Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} intermetallic powder production route was proposed. • Single phase Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} powders could be by water atomization and heating. • Water-atomized Cu–Sn powders contained mixed Cu–Sn phases. • Solidification and heat treatment of water-atomized Cu–Sn powders are explained.

  14. Stability of contamination-free gold and silver nanoparticles produced by nanosecond laser ablation of solid targets in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikov, R.G., E-mail: rosen_nikov@abv.bg [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Nikolov, A.S.; Nedyalkov, N.N. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Dimitrov, I.G. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Institute of Experimental Pathology and Parasitology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, G. Bonchev Street, bl. 25, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Atanasov, P.A. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Tzarigradsko shousse 72, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Alexandrov, M.T. [Institute of Experimental Pathology and Parasitology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, G. Bonchev Street, bl. 25, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Au and Ag colloids were prepared by nanosecond laser ablation of solids in water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The alteration of the produced colloids during one month was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical transmission spectra of the samples were measured from 350 to 800 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TEM measurements were made of as-prepared colloids and on the 30-th day. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zeta potential measurements were performed of as-prepared samples. - Abstract: Preparation of noble metal nanoparticle (NPs) colloids using pulsed laser ablation in water has an inherent advantage compared to the different chemical methods used, especially when biological applications of the colloids are considered. The fabrication method is simple and the NPs prepared in this way are contamination free. The method of laser ablation of a solid target in water is applied in the present work in order to obtain gold and silver NP colloids. The experiment was preformed by using the fundamental wavelength (1064 nm) of a Nd:YAG laser system. The target immersed in double distilled water was irradiated for 20 min by laser pulses with duration of 15 ns and repetition rate of 10 Hz. The sedimentation and aggregation of NPs in the colloids, stored at constant temperature, as a function of the time after preparation were investigated. The analyses are based on optical transmission spectroscopy in UV and vis regions. The change of the plasmon resonance wavelength as a function of time was studied. Zeta potential measurement was also utilized to measure the charge of the NPs in the colloids. The size distribution of the NPs and its change in time was determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). On the basis of the results obtained, the optimal conditions of post fabrication manipulation with gold and silver colloids are defined in view of producing stable NPs with a narrow size distribution.

  15. Improved head-controlled TV system produces high-quality remote image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, R.; Lindberg, J.; Mingesz, D.; Potts, C.

    1967-01-01

    Manipulator operator uses an improved resolution tv camera/monitor positioning system to view the remote handling and processing of reactive, flammable, explosive, or contaminated materials. The pan and tilt motions of the camera and monitor are slaved to follow the corresponding motions of the operators head.

  16. Rationale for continuing R&D in direct coal conversion to produce high quality transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, R.D.; McIlvried, H.G. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Gray, D. [Mitre Corp, McLean, VA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    For the foreseeable future, liquid hydrocarbon fuels will play a significant role in the transportation sector of both the United States and the world. Factors favoring these fuels include convenience, high energy density, and the vast existing infrastructure for their production and use. At present the U.S. consumes about 26% of the world supply of petroleum, but this situation is expected to change because of declining domestic production and increasing competition for imports from countries with developing economies. A scenario and time frame are developed in which declining world resources will generate a shortfall in petroleum supply that can be allieviated in part by utilizing the abundant domestic coal resource base. One option is direct coal conversion to liquid transportation fuels. Continued R&D in coal conversion technology will results in improved technical readiness that can significantly reduce costs so that synfuels can compete economically in a time frame to address the shortfall.

  17. A Modified Protocol for High-Quality RNA Extraction from Oleoresin-Producing Adult Pines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Júlio César; Füller, Thanise Nogueira; de Costa, Fernanda; Rodrigues-Corrêa, Kelly C S; Fett-Neto, Arthur G

    2016-01-01

    RNA extraction resulting in good yields and quality is a fundamental step for the analyses of transcriptomes through high-throughput sequencing technologies, microarray, and also northern blots, RT-PCR, and RTqPCR. Even though many specific protocols designed for plants with high content of secondary metabolites have been developed, these are often expensive, time consuming, and not suitable for a wide range of tissues. Here we present a modification of the method previously described using the commercially available Concert™ Plant RNA Reagent (Invitrogen) buffer for field-grown adult pine trees with high oleoresin content.

  18. Water sorption characteristics of a new type of gelatine powder, produced by a new high-pressure micronisation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibe, Christian; Knez, Zeljko

    2010-06-01

    A new high-pressure micronisation process for Gelatine has been developed. By applying this process to gelatine, a new type of Gelatine was produced: Dry and pure Gelatine powder of high molecular mass. This powder was investigated, regarding its sorption behaviour and compared to its feedstock material. The feedstock Gelatine was of type B 200 Bloom, 6 mesh, having a molecular mass of 150,000 g mol-1. The produced Gelatine powder's molecular mass was around 130,000 g mol-1, while its mean particle size was 300 µm. Their sorption isotherms were investigated at 30 °C, 40 °C and 60 °C and water activities in the range from 0.055 to 0.836. At given water activities the Equilibrium Moisture Contents (EMC) decreases with increasing temperature. The measured sorption isotherms were fit with the Brunauer- Emmet- Teller (BET)- model and the Guggenheim- Anderson- deBoer (GAB)- model. Both models described the adsorption behaviour well in their range of validity, while only the GAB-model was adequate for describing the desorption behaviour. Hysteresis effect occurred in each adsorption-desorption pair. The isosteric heat of sorption of both substances was determined for adsorption, desorption respectively. Slight differences in the sorption behaviour occurred due to processing, while quality of the gelatine was not affected.

  19. Effect of hydrodynamics and surface roughness on the electrochemical behaviour of carbon steel in CSG produced water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyu, Gaius Debi; Will, Geoffrey, E-mail: g.will@qut.edu.au; Dekkers, Willem; MacLeod, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Surface roughness increases the anodic current density under dynamic conditions. • Pitting corrosion increases with an increasing surface roughness for carbon steel in coal seam gas produced water. • Flow accelerates the mass transfer of the corrosion product under dynamic conditions. • Corrosion rate of carbon steel decreased with immersion time. - Abstract: The influence of fluid flow, surface roughness and immersion time on the electrochemical behaviour of carbon steel in coal seam gas produced water under static and hydrodynamic conditions has been studied. The disc electrode surface morphology before and after the corrosion test was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion product was examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD).The results show that the anodic current density increased with increasing surface roughness and consequently a decrease in corrosion surface resistance. Under dynamic flow conditions, the corrosion rate increased with increasing rotating speed due to the high mass transfer coefficient and formation of non-protective akaganeite β-FeO(OH) and goethite α-FeO(OH) corrosion scale at the electrode surface. The corrosion rate was lowest at 0 rpm. The corrosion rate decreased in both static and dynamic conditions with increasing immersion time. The decrease in corrosion rate is attributed to the deposition of corrosion products on the electrode surface. SEM results revealed that the rougher surface exhibited a great tendency toward pitting corrosion.

  20. Three core concepts for producing uranium-233 in commercial pressurized light water reactors for possible use in water-cooled breeder reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conley, G.H.; Cowell, G.K.; Detrick, C.A.; Kusenko, J.; Johnson, E.G.; Dunyak, J.; Flanery, B.K.; Shinko, M.S.; Giffen, R.H.; Rampolla, D.S.

    1979-12-01

    Selected prebreeder core concepts are described which could be backfit into a reference light water reactor similar to current commercial reactors, and produce uranium-233 for use in water-cooled breeder reactors. The prebreeder concepts were selected on the basis of minimizing fuel system development and reactor changes required to permit a backfit. The fuel assemblies for the prebreeder core concepts discussed would occupy the same space envelope as those in the reference core but contain a 19 by 19 array of fuel rods instead of the reference 17 by 17 array. An instrument well and 28 guide tubes for control rods have been allocated to each prebreeder fuel assembly in a pattern similar to that for the reference fuel assemblies. Backfit of these prebreeder concepts into the reference reactor would require changes only to the upper core support structure while providing flexibility for alternatives in the type of fuel used.

  1. Gene and antigen markers of Shiga-toxin producing E. coli from Michigan and Indiana river water: Occurrence and relation to recreational water quality criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duris, J.W.; Haack, S.K.; Fogarty, L.R.

    2009-01-01

    The relation of bacterial pathogen occurrence to fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations used for recreational water quality criteria (RWQC) is poorly understood. This study determined the occurrence of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) markers and their relation to FIB concentrations in Michigan and Indiana river water. Using 67 fecal coliform (FC) bacteria cultures from 41 river sites in multiple watersheds, we evaluated the occurrence of five STEC markers: the Escherichia coli (EC) O157 antigen and gene, and the STEC virulence genes eaeA, stx1, and stx2. Simple isolations from selected FC cultures yielded viable EC O157. By both antigen and gene assays, EC O157 was detected in a greater proportion of samples exceeding rather than meeting FC RWQC (P decision-making. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  2. High quality image oriented telemedicine with multimedia technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, H; Minato, K; Takahasi, T

    1999-07-01

    Researchers at Osaka and Kyoto University hospital performed three experiments, beginning in 1995, which looked at high quality-oriented telemedicine. This paper describes the system design for the three projects. Experiment 1 applied high-definition TV images and B-ISDN for distance learning and medical information exchange. Experiment 2 developed a super high-definition medical image filing system and the images were transmitted via B-ISDN for teleconferences and experiment 3 utilized digital, high-definition, TV images and communication satellites for teleconferences. Multimedia and communication technologies were considered to be fundamental components of telemedicine. The three projects were evaluated initially for quality of images, operability and utility. The experimental design and its implementation showed that it was possible to provide high quality image-oriented telemedicine in the health care environment. Obstacles to establishing practical telemedicine are also discussed.

  3. Next Generation High Quality Videoconferencing Service for the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    In recent times, we have witnessed an explosion of video initiatives in the industry worldwide. Several advancements in video technology are currently improving the way we interact and collaborate. These advancements are forcing tendencies and overall experiences: any device in any network can be used to collaborate, in most cases with an overall high quality. To cope with this technology progresses, CERN IT Department has taken the leading role to establish strategies and directions to improve the user experience in remote dispersed meetings and remote collaboration at large in the worldwide LHC communities. Due to the high rate of dispersion in the LHC user communities, these are critically dependent of videoconferencing technology, with a need of robustness and high quality for the best possible user experience. We will present an analysis of the factors that influenced the technical and strategic choices to improve the reliability, efficiency and overall quality of the LHC remote sessions. In particular, ...

  4. Wellbeing Understanding in High Quality Healthcare Informatics and Telepractice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Rodolfo A; De Giacomo, Piero; L'Abate, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    The proper use of healthcare informatics technology and multidimensional conceptual clarity are fundamental to create and boost outstanding clinical and telepractice results. Avoiding even terminology ambiguities is mandatory for high quality of care service. For instance, well-being or wellbeing is a different way to write the same concept only, or there is a good deal of ambiguity around the meanings of these terms the way they are written. In personal health, healthcare and healthcare informatics, this kind of ambiguity and lack of conceptual clarity has been called out repeatedly over the past 50 years. It is time to get the right, terse scenario. We present a brief review to develop and achieve ultimate wellbeing understanding for practical high quality healthcare informatics and telepractice application. This article presents an innovative point of view on deeper wellbeing understanding towards its increased clinical effective application.

  5. The microbial contamination and the presence of β-lactamase producing Gram-negative bacteria in the water and on the surfaces of public recreation water facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godič Torkar, Karmen; Dražetić, Mirjana

    2017-08-01

    The microbiological quality of bathing water and the surfaces of the surrounding pool platforms of two pools was estimated. ESBL- and MBL-producing Gram-negative bacteria isolated from water and surface samples were also studied. The water samples were satisfactory in 31 (86.1 %) out of 36 cases. Pseudomonas aeruginosa as well as Escherichia coli were identified in only 2 (5.5 %) cases. There were no correlations between the HPC and number of enterobacteria in the pool water and those found in the surface samples. Isolated strains were resistant to ticarcillin with clavulanic acid in 52.3 % of cases; all of them were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. The sequences for blaCTX-M were found in 21.6 % of strains, mostly from the groups blaCTX-M9 and blaCTX-M25, whilst the genes for chosen carbapenemases were noted in 15 (17.0 %) of strains. It is necessary to implement new approaches to monitoring resistant bacteria, not only clinical ones but also those found in other public environments.

  6. Fast Batch Production of High-Quality Graphene Films in a Sealed Thermal Molecular Movement System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianbao; Hu, Junxiong; Li, Qi; Wang, Rubing; Li, Weiwei; Guo, Yufen; Zhu, Yongbo; Liu, Fengkui; Ullah, Zaka; Dong, Guocai; Zeng, Zhongming; Liu, Liwei

    2017-07-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of high-quality graphene has emerged as the most promising technique in terms of its integrated manufacturing. However, there lacks a controllable growth method for producing high-quality and a large-quantity graphene films, simultaneously, at a fast growth rate, regardless of roll-to-roll (R2R) or batch-to-batch (B2B) methods. Here, a stationary-atmospheric-pressure CVD (SAPCVD) system based on thermal molecular movement, which enables fast B2B growth of continuous and uniform graphene films on tens of stacked Cu(111) foils, with a growth rate of 1.5 µm s-1 , is demonstrated. The monolayer graphene of batch production is found to nucleate from arrays of well-aligned domains, and the films possess few defects and exhibit high carrier mobility up to 6944 cm2 V-1 s-1 at room temperature. The results indicate that the SAPCVD system combined with single-domain Cu(111) substrates makes it possible to realize fast batch-growth of high-quality graphene films, which opens up enormous opportunities to use this unique 2D material for industrial device applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. DEFLECTION CALCULATION OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FLEXURAL ELEMENTS WITH THE TOP LAYER MADE OF HIGH QUALITY CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapov Yuriy Borisovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the main requirements to the operational integrity of reinforced concrete flexural elements is nonexeedance of the deflection limits at the assumed load. It is possible to provide the given requirement using different methods, one of which is the production of a sandwich construction of the concretes with different strength. The article presents the results of theoretical and experimental investigations of the deflection of reinforced concrete beams with the top layer made of high-quality concrete, with different percentage and strength of longitudinal tensile reinforcement without prestressing. The study of different methods of calculating the curvature of reinforced concrete beams is carried out and the recommendations on calculating the deflections of such elements are made. The use of high quality concrete in the compression area of flexural elements allows reducing the deflections. The theoretical deflections of beams produced of the B60 class concrete are 15…20 % more than the deflections of the proposed composite sections in case of equal bearing capacity. The authors proposed a formula to calculate the bending of reinforced concrete flexural members with the top layer made of high-quality concrete in the compressed area.

  8. Alternative motif toward high-quality wurtzite MnSe nanorods via subtle sulfur element doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Yang, Xinyi; Sui, Yongming; Xiao, Guanjun; Wei, Yingjin; Zou, Bo

    2016-04-01

    The manipulated synthesis of high-quality semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) is of high significance with respect to the exploration of their properties and their corresponding applications. Nevertheless, the preparation of metastable-phase NCs still remains a great challenge due to their high kinetic barriers and harsh synthetic conditions. Herein, we demonstrated the fabrication of high-quality MnSe nanorods with a metastable wurtzite structure via a subtle sulfur-doping strategy. Based on the UV-vis absorption spectra, manganese polysulfide clusters were formed by mixing oleylamine-sulfur and oleylamine-manganese solutions at room temperature. The existence of manganese polysulfide clusters with polymeric sulfur structures makes the system more reactive, inducing fast wurtzite-phase nucleation. This can overcome the natural kinetic barrier of wurtzite MnSe and lead to subsequent growth of targeted NCs. On the other hand, no sulfur doping would produce MnSe NCs in a thermodynamically favorable rock-salt phase. As expected, different doping contents and sulfur sources also resulted in the formation of high-quality wurtzite MnSe nanorods. This success establishes that a facile strategy can be anticipated to synthesize high-quality metal chalcogenide NCs with a metastable phase, especially wurtzite nanorods, for potential applications from spintronics to solar cells.The manipulated synthesis of high-quality semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) is of high significance with respect to the exploration of their properties and their corresponding applications. Nevertheless, the preparation of metastable-phase NCs still remains a great challenge due to their high kinetic barriers and harsh synthetic conditions. Herein, we demonstrated the fabrication of high-quality MnSe nanorods with a metastable wurtzite structure via a subtle sulfur-doping strategy. Based on the UV-vis absorption spectra, manganese polysulfide clusters were formed by mixing oleylamine-sulfur and oleylamine

  9. Integration study of high quality teaching resources in universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglu Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The development level and quality of education depend on the merits and efficiency in the use of teaching resources, especially in the case of obvious contradiction between the demand and supply of teaching resources. So to integrate teaching resources, improve the efficiency in the use of high quality teaching resources, and take the road of content development to enhance the competitiveness of education has become very important and urgent.Design/methodology/approach: On the basis of analysis on the teaching resources of universities and the problems they faced, this paper introduced the basic concepts of cloud storage, and built the integration architecture of high quality teaching resources in universities based on the cloud storage.Findings and Originality/value: The HDFS-based cloud storage proposed in this paper is a dynamically adjustable and Internet-based storage solution, and the users can access storage targets using the network through a common and easy-to-use protocol and application programming interfaces. This new technology is useful for end users benefits. With the continuous development and improvement of cloud storage, it will necessarily result in more and more applications in the institutions of higher learning and education network.Originality/value: This paper introduced the cloud storage into the integration of high quality teaching resources in universities first and as a new form of service, it can be a good solution.

  10. Integrating cobenefits produced with water quality BMPs into credits markets: Conceptualization and experimental illustration for EPRI's Ohio River Basin Trading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Swallow, Stephen K.

    2016-05-01

    This paper develops a method that incorporates the public value for environmental cobenefits when a conservation buyer can purchase water quality credits based on nonmarket valuation results. We demonstrate this approach through an experiment with adult students in a classroom laboratory environment. Our application contributes to the study of individual preference and willingness to pay for cobenefits associated with the production of water quality credits in relation to the Ohio River Basin Trading Project. We use three different methods to elicit individuals' willingness to pay (WTP), including (1) a hypothetical referendum, (2) a real referendum lacking incentive compatibility, and (3) a real choice with incentive compatibility. Methodologically, our WTP estimates suggest individuals are more sensitive to the cost changes and reveal the lowest value in the real choice with incentive compatibility. Practically, we find individuals value certain cobenefits and credits as public goods. Incorporating public value toward cobenefits may improve the overall efficiency of a water quality trading market. Based on our specification of a planner's welfare function, results suggest a substantial welfare improvement after identifying an optimal allocation of a buyer's budget across credits derived from agricultural management practices producing different portfolios of cobenefits.

  11. Effects of produced water on reproduction and early life stages of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus): Field and laboratory tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the effects of produced water (an oil-production effluent) on reproduction in the purple sea urchin (Strongy-locentrotus purpuratus) using both field and laboratory experiments. The author investigated the effects of chronic exposure to produced water on the gametogenesis and gamete performance using an in-situ caging experiment. He found a significant negative relationship between gonad mass and cage distance for both sexes, indicating that urchins living closer to the outfall produced significantly larger gonads. He also found significant differences in the fertilizability of eggs between cages and this showed a positive relationship with distance from the outfall. These findings indicate that while urchins exposed to a produced water outfall produce large gonads, they suffer a marked decrease in gamete performance. In a subsequent study the author explored whether and how brief exposure to a range of concentrations of produced water affected gametes and early larval stages of the purple sea urchin. Specifically, he exposed separately and together, eggs, sperm, and zygotes to ascertain the relative sensitivities of these life stages to produced water at durations and concentrations realistic to each state. He also explored the nature of the biological responses, and the potential for delayed expression. I found that both apparent fertilization and embryonic developmental success showed decreased performance with increasing produced water concentrations. Produced water exposure effectively slowed embryological developmental rates, but did not affect embryo survivorship. The spatial and temporal variability in toxicity of receiving waters was addressed using a fertilization bioassay. Receiving waters were collected along a transect down-field from the discharge on three dates while the outfall was actively discharging, and on one date while the plant was not discharging.

  12. Produced water silica removal treatment in PETROBRAS Fazenda Belem fields - Brazil; Tratamento da agua produzida do Campo de Fazenda Belem (PETROBRAS, UN/RNCE) para remocao de silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junior, Agenor J.; Sampaio, Alberto C.; Silva, Arnaldo F. da; Christiano, Fernando P.; Freire, Norma de O.; Pereira Junior, Oswaldo de A. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2008-07-01

    Extracting oil from mature fields generates huge volumes of produced water whose pollutive character requires adequate treatment to minimize environmental impact. Nevertheless, produced water may be re-used, avoiding environmental contamination and helping in water resources preservation. According to future use, produced water receives specific treatment, intending to remove critical contaminants to the application involved. In the case o UN/RNCE's Fazenda Belem Field produced water is treated for steam generation Membrane Separation Processes are currently in test for this treatment. These processes are sensitive to high water hardness and silica concentrations. To avoid scaling, caustic soda is added in the water-oil separator outlet, precipitating calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide. This treatment, however, helps solubilizing silica. Coagulation-flocculation laboratory tests were run with poly aluminum chloride (PAC) and magnesium chloride at constant temperature (45 deg C) and pH adjusted to 9,5, attempting to simulate the water-oil separator outlet conditions. Laboratory analysis showed good silica removal results only in samples treated with PAC, suggesting its use in produced water for steam generation pre-treatment, avoiding silica-based scaling in membranes. (author)

  13. Combining remotely-sensed snow water equivalent with in-situ measurements to produce a real-time SWE product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, D.; Molotch, N. P.

    2013-12-01

    Snowmelt is the primary water source in the Western United States and mountainous regions globally. Forecasts of streamflow and water supply rely heavily on snow measurements from sparse observation networks that may not provide adequate information during abnormal climatic conditions. To address this issue we developed a real-time spatially distributed snow water equivalent (SWE) product for the Upper Colorado River Basin that merges previous years SWE patterns derived from a reconstruction model, with interpolations of real-time situ measurements. The approach uses a multiple linear regression to model SWE in which physiography and reconstructed SWE are treated as independent variables and observed SNOTEL SWE the dependent variable. Using a drop-1 approach, the years 2000 - 2011 (Mar 1, Apr 1, and May 1) consistently find reconstructed SWE to be a significant predictor and the explained variability of the model is improved between 0.1 and 0.5 (mean= 0.23) compared to a model just based on physiographics. Independent validation in the Front Range, CO produces mean absolute errors (MAE) between 0.13 and 0.18 m, with significant improvements between 0.03 and 0.09 m over both reconstructed SWE and physiographic SWE (psurface to incorporate regional effects within the modeling domain. However, MAE is only marginally reduced (~0.01) with blending. Improved analysis of past SWE distribution can provide valuable information for modeling efforts to predict, e.g. hydrologic impacts due to climate change and disturbances. Future validation is planned in additional locations within the modeling domain and a real-time product is in development that uses this ensemble of past patterns of SWE to estimate SWE in the current water year.

  14. Fast Synthesis of High Quality Biodiesel from ‘Waste Fish Oil’ by Single Step Transesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh C. Sharma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A large volume of fish wastes is produced on a daily basis in the Indian sub-continent. This abundant waste source could serve as an economic feedstock for bioenergy generation. In the present study, oil extracted from discarded fish parts was used for high quality biodiesel production. More specifically, a single step transesterification of ‘waste fishoil’ with methanol using sodium methoxide (CH3ONa as homogeneous catalyst under moderate operational conditions resulted in highly pure biodiesel of > 98% of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME content. Characterization was performed by Fourier Transform-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (FT-NMR.

  15. Effect of selective angiotensin antagonists on the antidiuresis produced by angiotensin-(1-7 in water-loaded rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baracho N.C.V.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we evaluated the nature of angiotensin receptors involved in the antidiuretic effect of angiotensin-(1-7 (Ang-(1-7 in water-loaded rats. Water diuresis was induced in male Wistar rats weighing 280 to 320 g by water load (5 ml/100 g body weight by gavage. Immediately after water load the rats were treated subcutaneously with (doses are per 100 g body weight: 1 vehicle (0.05 ml 0.9% NaCl; 2 graded doses of 20, 40 or 80 pmol Ang-(1-7; 3 200 nmol Losartan; 4 200 nmol Losartan combined with 40 pmol Ang-(1-7; 5 1.1 or 4.4 nmol A-779; 6 1.1 nmol A-779 combined with graded doses of 20, 40 or 80 pmol Ang-(1-7; 7 4.4 nmol A-779 combined with graded doses of 20, 40 or 80 pmol Ang-(1-7; 8 95 nmol CGP 42112A, or 9 95 nmol CGP 42112A combined with 40 pmol Ang-(1-7. The antidiuretic effect of Ang-(1-7 was associated with an increase in urinary Na+ concentration, an increase in urinary osmolality and a reduction in creatinine clearance (CCr: 0.65 ± 0.04 ml/min vs 1.45 ± 0.18 ml/min in vehicle-treated rats, P<0.05. A-779 and Losartan completely blocked the effect of Ang-(1-7 on water diuresis (2.93 ± 0.34 ml/60 min and 3.39 ± 0.58 ml/60 min, respectively. CGP 42112A, at the dose used, did not modify the antidiuretic effect of Ang-(1-7. The blockade produced by Losartan was associated with an increase in CCr and with an increase in sodium and water excretion as compared with Ang-(1-7-treated rats. When Ang-(1-7 was combined with A-779 there was an increase in CCr and natriuresis and a reduction in urine osmolality compared with rats treated with Ang-(1-7 alone. The observation that both A-779, which does not bind to AT1 receptors, and Losartan blocked the effect of Ang-(1-7 suggests that the kidney effects of Ang-(1-7 are mediated by a non-AT1 angiotensin receptor that is recognized by Losartan.

  16. High quality draft sequences for prokaryotic genomes using a mix of new sequencing technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Gaelle

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Massively parallel DNA sequencing instruments are enabling the decoding of whole genomes at significantly lower cost and higher throughput than classical Sanger technology. Each of these technologies have been estimated to yield assemblies with more problematic features than the standard method. These problems are of a different nature depending on the techniques used. So, an appropriate mix of technologies may help resolve most difficulties, and eventually provide assemblies of high quality without requiring any Sanger-based input. Results We compared assemblies obtained using Sanger data with those from different inputs from New Sequencing Technologies. The assemblies were systematically compared with a reference finished sequence. We found that the 454 GSFLX can efficiently produce high continuity when used at high coverage. The potential to enhance continuity by scaffolding was tested using 454 sequences from circularized genomic fragments. Finally, we explore the use of Solexa-Illumina short reads to polish the genome draft by implementing a technique to correct 454 consensus errors. Conclusion High quality drafts can be produced for small genomes without any Sanger data input. We found that 454 GSFLX and Solexa/Illumina show great complementarity in producing large contigs and supercontigs with a low error rate.

  17. High quality draft sequences for prokaryotic genomes using a mix of new sequencing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aury, Jean-Marc; Cruaud, Corinne; Barbe, Valérie; Rogier, Odile; Mangenot, Sophie; Samson, Gaelle; Poulain, Julie; Anthouard, Véronique; Scarpelli, Claude; Artiguenave, François; Wincker, Patrick

    2008-12-16

    Massively parallel DNA sequencing instruments are enabling the decoding of whole genomes at significantly lower cost and higher throughput than classical Sanger technology. Each of these technologies have been estimated to yield assemblies with more problematic features than the standard method. These problems are of a different nature depending on the techniques used. So, an appropriate mix of technologies may help resolve most difficulties, and eventually provide assemblies of high quality without requiring any Sanger-based input. We compared assemblies obtained using Sanger data with those from different inputs from New Sequencing Technologies. The assemblies were systematically compared with a reference finished sequence. We found that the 454 GSFLX can efficiently produce high continuity when used at high coverage. The potential to enhance continuity by scaffolding was tested using 454 sequences from circularized genomic fragments. Finally, we explore the use of Solexa-Illumina short reads to polish the genome draft by implementing a technique to correct 454 consensus errors. High quality drafts can be produced for small genomes without any Sanger data input. We found that 454 GSFLX and Solexa/Illumina show great complementarity in producing large contigs and supercontigs with a low error rate.

  18. Produced water re-injection in a non-fresh water aquifer with geochemical reaction, hydrodynamic molecular dispersion and adsorption kinetics controlling: model development and numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obe, Ibidapo; Fashanu, T. A.; Idialu, Peter O.; Akintola, Tope O.; Abhulimen, Kingsley E.

    2017-06-01

    An improved produced water reinjection (PWRI) model that incorporates filtration, geochemical reaction, molecular transport, and mass adsorption kinetics was developed to predict cake deposition and injectivity performance in hydrocarbon aquifers in Nigeria oil fields. Thus, the improved PWRI model considered contributions of geochemical reaction, adsorption kinetics, and hydrodynamic molecular dispersion mechanism to alter the injectivity and deposition of suspended solids on aquifer wall resulting in cake formation in pores during PWRI and transport of active constituents in hydrocarbon reservoirs. The injectivity decline and cake deposition for specific case studies of hydrocarbon aquifers in Nigeria oil fields were characterized with respect to its well geometry, lithology, and calibrations data and simulated in COMSOL multiphysics software environment. The PWRI model was validated by comparisons to assessments of previous field studies based on data and results supplied by operator and regulator. The results of simulation showed that PWRI performance was altered because of temporal variations and declinations of permeability, injectivity, and cake precipitation, which were observed to be dependent on active adsorption and geochemical reaction kinetics coupled with filtration scheme and molecular dispersion. From the observed results and findings, transition time t r to cake nucleation and growth were dependent on aquifer constituents, well capacity, filtration coefficients, particle-to-grain size ratio, water quality, and more importantly, particle-to-grain adsorption kinetics. Thus, the results showed that injectivity decline and permeability damage were direct contributions of geochemical reaction, hydrodynamic molecular diffusion, and adsorption kinetics to the internal filtration mechanism, which are largely dependent on the initial conditions of concentration of active constituents of produced water and aquifer capacity.

  19. Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle; Focazio, Michael J.; Engle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 μg L− 1 with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 μg L− 1). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L− 1) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 μg L− 1). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 μg L− 1) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 μg L− 1 total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged.

  20. Discharges of produced waters from oil and gas extraction via wastewater treatment plants are sources of disinfection by-products to receiving streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle L; Focazio, Michael J; Engle, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Fluids co-produced with oil and gas production (produced waters) are often brines that contain elevated concentrations of bromide. Bromide is an important precursor of several toxic disinfection by-products (DBPs) and the treatment of produced water may lead to more brominated DBPs. To determine if wastewater treatment plants that accept produced waters discharge greater amounts of brominated DBPs, water samples were collected in Pennsylvania from four sites along a large river including an upstream site, a site below a publicly owned wastewater treatment plant (POTW) outfall (does not accept produced water), a site below an oil and gas commercial wastewater treatment plant (CWT) outfall, and downstream of the POTW and CWT. Of 29 DBPs analyzed, the site at the POTW outfall had the highest number detected (six) ranging in concentration from 0.01 to 0.09 μg L(-1) with a similar mixture of DBPs that have been detected at POTW outfalls elsewhere in the United States. The DBP profile at the CWT outfall was much different, although only two DBPs, dibromochloronitromethane (DBCNM) and chloroform, were detected, DBCNM was found at relatively high concentrations (up to 8.5 μg L(-1)). The water at the CWT outfall also had a mixture of inorganic and organic precursors including elevated concentrations of bromide (75 mg L(-1)) and other organic DBP precursors (phenol at 15 μg L(-1)). To corroborate these DBP results, samples were collected in Pennsylvania from additional POTW and CWT outfalls that accept produced waters. The additional CWT also had high concentrations of DBCNM (3.1 μg L(-1)) while the POTWs that accept produced waters had elevated numbers (up to 15) and concentrations of DBPs, especially brominated and iodinated THMs (up to 12 μg L(-1) total THM concentration). Therefore, produced water brines that have been disinfected are potential sources of DBPs along with DBP precursors to streams wherever these wastewaters are discharged. © 2013.

  1. Insights into the subsurface transport of As(V) and Se(VI) in produced water from hydraulic fracturing using soil samples from Qingshankou Formation, Songliao Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Season S; Sun, Yuqing; Tsang, Daniel C W; Graham, Nigel J D; Ok, Yong Sik; Feng, Yujie; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2017-04-01

    Produced water is a type of wastewater generated from hydraulic fracturing, which may pose a risk to the environment and humans due to its high ionic strength and the presence of elevated concentrations of metals/metalloids that exceed maximum contamination levels. The mobilization of As(V) and Se(VI) in produced water and selected soils from Qingshankou Formation in the Songliao Basin in China were investigated using column experiments and synthetic produced water whose quality was representative of waters arising at different times after well creation. Temporal effects of produced water on metal/metalloid transport and sorption/desorption were investigated by using HYDRUS-1D transport modelling. Rapid breakthrough and long tailings of As(V) and Se(VI) transport were observed in Day 1 and Day 14 solutions, but were reduced in Day 90 solution probably due to the elevated ionic strength. The influence of produced water on the hydrogeological conditions (i.e., change between equilibrium and non-equilibrium transport) was evidenced by the change of tracer breakthrough curves before and after the leaching of produced water. This possibly resulted from the sorption of polyacrylamide (PAM (-CH2CHCONH2-)n) onto soil surfaces, through its use as a friction reducer in fracturing solutions. The sorption was found to be reversible in this study. Minimal amounts of sorbed As(V) were desorbed whereas the majority of sorbed Se(VI) was readily leached out, to an extent which varied with the composition of the produced water. These results showed that the mobilization of As(V) and Se(VI) in soil largely depended on the solution pH and ionic strength. Understanding the differences in metal/metalloid transport in produced water is important for proper risk management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of untreated and treated oilfield-produced water on seed germination, seedling development, and biomass production of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Marques, Mônica Regina; de Souza, Paulo Sérgio Alves; Rigo, Michelle Machado; Cerqueira, Alexandre Andrade; de Paiva, Julieta L; Merçon, Fábio; Perez, Daniel Vidal

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate possible toxic effects of oil and other contaminants from oilfield-produced water from oil exploration and production, on seed germination, and seedling development of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). In comparison, as treated by electroflocculation, oilfield-produced water, with lower oil and organic matter content, was also used. Electroflocculation treatment of oilfield-produced water achieved significant removals of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (94 %), oil and grease (O&G) (96 %), color (97 %), and turbidity (99 %). Different O&G, COD, and salt levels of untreated and treated oilfield-produced water did not influence germination process and seedling biomass production. Normal seedlings percentage and vigor tended to decrease more intensely in O&G and COD levels, higher than 337.5 mg L(-1) and 1321 mg O2 L(-1), respectively, using untreated oilfield-produced water. These results indicate that this industrial effluent must be treated, in order to not affect adversely seedling development. This way, electroflocculation treatment appears as an interesting alternative to removing oil and soluble organic matter in excess from oilfield-produced water improving sunflower's seedling development and providing a friendly environmental destination for this wastewater, reducing its potential to harm water resources, soil, and biota.

  3. Sublethal and Reproductive Effects of Acute and Chronic Exposure to Flowback and Produced Water from Hydraulic Fracturing on the Water Flea Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewett, Tamzin A; Delompré, Perrine L M; He, Yuhe; Folkerts, Erik J; Flynn, Shannon L; Alessi, Daniel S; Goss, Greg G

    2017-03-07

    Hydraulic fracturing is an industrial process allowing for the extraction of gas or oil. To fracture the rocks, a proprietary mix of chemicals is injected under high pressure, which later returns to the surface as flowback and produced water (FPW). FPW is a complex chemical mixture consisting of trace metals, organic compounds, and often, high levels of salts. FPW toxicity to the model freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna was characterized utilizing acute (48 h median lethal concentrations; LC50) and chronic (21 day) exposures. A decrease in reproduction was observed, with a mean value of 18.5 neonates produced per replicate over a 21 day chronic exposure to 0.04% FPW, which was a significant decrease from the average of 64 neonates produced in the controls. The time to first brood was delayed in the highest FPW (0.04%) treatment. Neonates exhibited an LC50 of 0.19% of full-strength FPW, making them more sensitive than adults, which displayed an LC50 value of 0.75%. Quantitative PCR highlighted significant changes in expression of genes encoding xenobiotic metabolism (cyp4) and moulting (cut). This study is the first to characterize chronic FPW toxicity and will help with the development of environmental monitoring and risk assessment of FPW spills.

  4. Obtainment and characterization of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic membranes applied to the produced water treatment in petroleum wells; Obtencao, caracterizacao de membranas ceramicas de Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} aplicadas para o tratamento de agua de producao em pocos petroliferos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.J.M. dos; Cela, B.; Melo, G.N.; Timoteo Junior, J.F. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (PPGCEM/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Paskocimas, C.A.; Floreoto, N.T. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DEM/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2008-07-01

    The use of filter membranes is widely disseminated in industry and in sanitation companies to the high quality process and use of membrane systems to treat and reuse wastewater. This work aimed the obtaining and characterization of conventional alumina membranes produced through the Slip Casting process, calcined at the temperature of 1000 deg C, heating rate used was 2 deg C/min., then the samples with starch were sintered at 1200 deg C and the ones without starch at 1300 deg C and 1400 deg C with the same heating rate used at the calcination step. The techniques used for the membranes material characterization were scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the method of Archimedes. The efficiency of the membranes was examined by the spectrophotometry methods, suspended solids and the oil concentration of the produced water samples previously treated by the oil industry. (author)

  5. Mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of liquid waste, press water and pond water, produced in the cassava flour industry, and of antitoxic sodium thiosulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Lilian Ávila; Düsman, Elisângela; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

    2014-02-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a plant used as food and an ingredient in industry, contains cyanogenic glycosides. The cassava root contains wastewater, popularly known as manipueira, which is a toxic substance. Its ingestion by animals causes poisoning although they react positively to treatment with sodium thiosulfate. The present research evaluates the cytotoxicity and the mutagenicity of liquid waste produced in the process of industrialization of the bitter cassava, olho-junto variety. The liquid wastes are characterized as press water, which is obtained when the cassava roots are pressed; pond water, which is press water stored in impounded ponds; and a solution of sodium thiosulfate, pure and with other waste. The system tests comprised root meristematic cells of Allium cepa L. and bone marrow cells of Rattus norvegicus. Treatment with saline solution was cytotoxic for Allium cepa L. and significantly reduced cell division rate. Although no treatment was cytotoxic in any of the tests with rats, the thiosulfate solution was clastogenic for the chromosomal aberrations test. Since it is harmful to the genetic material submitted within the conditions of current research, sodium thiosulfate should only be used in emergency conditions in which the benefits exceed the risks. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Geohydrologic feasibility study of the Piceance Basin of Colorado for the potential applicability of Jack W. McIntyre`s patented gas/produced water separation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieffer, F.

    1994-02-01

    Geraghty & Miller, Inc. of Midland, Texas conducted geologic and hydrologic feasibility studies of the potential applicability of Jack McIntyre`s patented process for the recovery of natural gas from coalbed/sand formations in the Piceance Basin through literature surveys. Jack McIntyre`s tool separates produced water from gas and disposes of the water downhole into aquifers unused because of poor water quality, uneconomic lifting costs or poor aquifer deliverability. The beneficial aspects of this technology are two fold. The process increases the potential for recovering previously uneconomic gas resources by reducing produced water lifting, treatment and disposal costs. Of greater importance is the advantage of lessening the environmental impact of produced water by downhole disposal. Results from the survey indicate that research in the Piceance Basin includes studies of the geologic, hydrogeologic, conventional and unconventional recovery oil and gas technologies. Available information is mostly found centered upon the geology and hydrology for the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments. Lesser information is available on production technology because of the limited number of wells currently producing in the basin. Limited information is available on the baseline geochemistry of the coal/sand formation waters and that of the potential disposal zones. No determination was made of the compatibility of these waters. The study also indicates that water is often produced in variable quantities with gas from several gas productive formations which would indicate that there are potential applications for Jack McIntyre`s patented tool in the Piceance Basin.

  7. Distinguishing the Source of Natural Gas Accumulations with a Combined Gas and Co-produced Formation Water Geochemical Approach: a Case Study from the Appalachian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the use of gas and co-produced formation water geochemistry for identifying the source of natural gas and present gas geochemistry for the northern Appalachian Basin.

  8. Family Perspectives on High-Quality Pediatric Subspecialty Referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Kristin N; Ashcraft, Laura Ellen; Kahn, Jeremy M; Mehrotra, Ateev; Miller, Elizabeth

    2016-08-01

    Although children are frequently referred to subspecialist physicians, many inadequacies in referral processes have been identified from physician and system perspectives. Little is known, however, about how to comprehensively measure or improve the quality of the referral systems from a family-centered perspective. To foster family-centered improvements to pediatric subspecialty referrals, we sought to develop a framework for high-quality, patient-centered referrals from the perspectives of patients and their families. We used stakeholder-informed qualitative analysis of parent, caregiver, and patient interviews to identify outcomes, processes, and structures of high-quality pediatric subspecialty referrals as perceived by patients and their family members. We interviewed 21 informants. Informants identified 5 desired outcomes of subspecialty referrals: improved functional status or symptoms; improved long-term outcomes; improved knowledge of their disease; informed expectations; and reduced anxiety about the child's health status. Processes that informants identified as supporting these outcomes centered around 6 key steps in subspecialty referrals, including the referral decision, previsit information transfer, appointment scheduling, subspecialist visit, postvisit information transfer, and ongoing care integration and communication. Health care delivery structures identified by informants as supporting these processes included physical infrastructure, human resources, and information technology systems. We identified family-centered outcomes, processes, and structures of high-quality pediatric subspecialty referrals. These domains can be used not only to improve measurement