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Sample records for water line spectrum

  1. MIRO Observation of Comet C/2002 T7 (LINEAR) Water Line Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwon; Frerking, Margaret; Hofstadter, Mark; Gulkis, Samuel; von Allmen, Paul; Crovisier, Jaques; Biver, Nicholas; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    Comet C/2002 T7 (LINEAR) was observed with the Microwave Instrument for Rosetta Orbiter (MIRO) on April 30, 2004, between 5 hr and 16 hr UT. The comet was 0.63AU distance from the Sun and 0.68AU distance from the MIRO telescope at the time of the observations. The water line involving the two lowest rotational levels at 556.936 GHz is observed at 557.070 GHz due to a large Doppler frequency shift. The detected water line spectrum is interpreted using a non local thermal equilibrium (Non-LTE) molecular excitation and radiative transfer model. Several synthetic spectra are calculated with various coma profiles that are plausible for the comet at the time of observations. The coma profile is modeled with three characteristic parameters: outgassing rate, a constant expansion velocity, and a constant gas temperature. The model calculation result shows that for the distant line observation where contributions from a large coma space is averaged, the combination of the outgassing rate and the gas expansion velocity determines the line shape while the gas temperature has a negligible effect. The comparison between the calculated spectra and the MIRO measured spectrum suggests that the outgassing rate of the comet is about 2.0x1029 molecules/second and its gas expansion velocity about 1.2 km/s at the time of the observations.

  2. Physical structure and water line spectrum predictions of the Intermediate Mass protostar OMC2-FIR4

    CERN Document Server

    Crimier, N; Le Floc'h, B; Faure, A

    2009-01-01

    Aims. Intermediate Mass (IM) stars are an important component of our Galaxy, as they significantly contribute to the interstellar FUV field and, consequently, play an important role in the energy balance of the ISM. Despite their importance, very little is known about their formation process and only a few studies have been devoted to characterize the first phases in the evolution of intermediate mass protostars. Here we consider in great detail the case of the brightest and closest known young IM protostar: FIR4 in the OMC2 component of the Orion molecular cloud complex. Methods. We analyzed the available continuum emission (maps and SED) through one-dimensional dust radiative transfer calculations. We ran large grids of models to find the envelope model that best fits the data. The derived dust density and temperature profiles have been then used to compute the gas temperature profile, equating gas cooling and heating terms across the envelope. Last, we computed the water line spectrum for various possible ...

  3. MOOG: LTE line analysis and spectrum synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneden, Chris; Bean, Jacob; Ivans, Inese; Lucatello, Sara; Sobeck, Jennifer

    2012-02-01

    MOOG performs a variety of LTE line analysis and spectrum synthesis tasks. The typical use of MOOG is to assist in the determination of the chemical composition of a star. The basic equations of LTE stellar line analysis are followed. The coding is in various subroutines that are called from a few driver routines; these routines are written in standard FORTRAN. The standard MOOG version has been developed on unix, linux and macintosh computers. One of the chief assets of MOOG is its ability to do on-line graphics. The plotting commands are given within the FORTRAN code. MOOG uses the graphics package SM, chosen for its ease of implementation in FORTRAN codes. Plotting calls are concentrated in just a few routines, and it should be possible for users of other graphics packages to substitute other appropriate FORTRAN commands.

  4. The Near Infrared Absorption Spectrum of Water by CRDS Between 1.26-1.70 µm:Complete Empirical Line List and Continuum Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelain, Didier; Campargue, Alain; Kassi, Samir; Mikhailenko, Semen

    2014-06-01

    Due to the increasing performances of Airborne- and ground-based spectrometers, a more and more accurate characterization of the water vapor absorption is required. This is especially true in the transparency windows, corresponding to low absorption spectral regions widely used for probing the Earth's atmosphere. State-of-the-art experimental developments are required to fulfill the needs in terms of accuracy of the spectroscopic data. For that purpose, we are using high-sensitivity Continuous Wave Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CW-CRDS) allowing reproducing in laboratory conditions comparable to the atmospheric ones in terms of absorption path length (tens of kilometers), temperature and pressure. From extensive analysis of our CRDS spectra, we have constructed an empirical line list for "natural" water vapor at 296 K in the 5850 7920 cm-1 region including 38 318 transitions of four major water isotopologues (H2 16O, H218O, H217O and HD16O) with an intensity cut-off of 1·10-29 cm/molecule. The list is made mostly complete over the whole spectral region by including a large number of unobserved weak lines with positions calculated using experimentally determined energy levels and intensities obtained from variational calculations. In addition, we provide HD18O and HD 17O lists in the same region for transitions with intensities larger than 1·10-29 cm/molecule. The HD18O and HD17O lists (1 972 lines in total) were obtained using empirical energy levels available in the literature and variational intensities. The global list (40 290 transitions) including the contribution of the six major isotopologues has been adopted for the new edition of the GEISA database in the region. The advantages and drawbacks of our list will be discussed in comparison with the list provided for the same region in the 2012 edition of the HITRAN database. Separate experiments were dedicated to the measurement of the water vapor self-continuum crosssections in the 1.6 µm window by CW

  5. A strong visible line in the spectrum of W11+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Qiu, M.; Xiao, J.; Yao, K.; Brage, T.; Hutton, R.; Zou, Y.

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated the visible spectrum of W11+ and found a very strong line at the wave length of 527.61 nm from the 4f135s25p2 (2F7/2-2F5/2) transition. We show that this line is strong since the excitation energy of the upper level opens up the possibility to capture a large population. We discuss the possibility that this strong line could be the unknown line seen in charge exchange spectra recorded at the JET fusion facility.

  6. High resolution full-spectrum water Raman lidar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU FuChao; YI Fan; JIA JingYu; ZHANG YunPeng; ZHANG ShaoDong; YU ChangMing; TAN Ying

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the temporal-spatial distribution of water content in atmosphere and water phase change in cloud is important for atmospheric study.For this purpose,we have developed a high resolution full-spectrum water Raman lidar that can collect Raman signals from ice,water droplets and water vapor simultaneously.A double-grating polychromator and a 32-channel photomultiplier-tube detector are used to obtain a spectral resolution of ~0.19 nm in the full Raman spectrum range of water.Preliminary observations present the water Raman spectrum characteristics of both the mixed-phase cloud and humid air under cloudless condition.

  7. Bloated stars as agn broad line clouds the emission line spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, T; Tal Alexander; Hagai Netzer

    1994-01-01

    The `Bloated Stars Scenario' proposes that AGN broad line emission originates in the winds or envelopes of bloated stars (BS). Its main advantage over BLR cloud models is the gravitational confinement of the gas and its major difficulty the large estimated number of BSs and resulting high mass loss rate. We calculate the emission line spectrum by a detailed numerical photoionization code for a wide range of wind structures and a detailed QSO nucleus model with L(ion)=7E45 erg/s, M(bh)=8E7 Mo. The size and boundary density of the BS wind are determined by various processes: Comptonization by the central continuum source, calculated self consistently, tidal disruption by the black hole and the limit set by the wind's finite mass. We find that the emission spectrum is mainly determined by the conditions at the boundary of the line emitting fraction of the wind rather than by its internal structure. Comptonization results in very high ionization parameters at the boundary which produces an excess of unobserved br...

  8. Interstellar absorption lines in the spectrum of Gamma Velorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D. C.; Bhavsar, S. P.

    1979-01-01

    Copernicus scans of selected interstellar absorption lines in the UV spectrum of Gamma Vel are analyzed, together with ground-based data, to obtain column densities for various ion states of C, N, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, Ca, Mn, Fe, and CO. N I and O I are fitted to a single empirical curve of growth with a velocity parameter (b) of 8 km/s; Mg II, Si II, P II, S II, Mn II, and Fe II are fitted to another curve with b between 3 and 9 km/s. Abundance determinations relative to H I show that: (1) C, N, P, S, and Ar are probably close to their solar values; (2) O may be depleted by about a factor of 2; (3) Mg, Al, Si, Cl, Mn, and Fe are depleted by a factor of 4 or more: (4) Al is depleted by at least a factor of 10 in the H II region; and (5) both N V and O VI are present, but not C IV. The N V/O VI ratio implies that the electron temperature in the H II region is about 275,000 K.

  9. Convective shifts of iron lines in the spectrum of the solar photosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Sheminova, V A

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the convective structure of the solar photosphere on the shifts of spectral lines of iron was studied. Line profiles in the visible and infrared spectrum were synthesized with the use of 2-D time-dependent hydrodynamic solar model atmospheres. The dependence of line shifts on excitation potential, wavelength, and line strength was analyzed, along with the depression contribution functions. The line shifts were found to depend on the location of the line formation region in convective cells and the difference between the line depression contributions from granules and intergranular lanes. In visible spectrum the weak and moderate lines are formed deep in the photosphere. Their effective line formation region is located in the central parts of granules, which make the major contribution to the absorption of spatially unresolved lines. The cores of strong lines are formed in upper photospheric layers where is formed reversed granulation due to convection reversal and physical conditions change d...

  10. Development of Elite BPH-Resistant Wide-Spectrum Restorer Lines for Three and Two Line Hybrid Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengfeng Fan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid rice has contributed significantly to the world food security. Breeding of elite high-yield, strong-resistant broad-spectrum restorer line is an important strategy for hybrid rice in commercial breeding programs. Here, we developed three elite brown planthopper (BPH-resistant wide-spectrum restorer lines by pyramiding big-panicle gene Gn8.1, BPH-resistant genes Bph6 and Bph9, fertility restorer genes Rf3, Rf4, Rf5, and Rf6 through molecular marker assisted selection. Resistance analysis revealed that the newly developed restorer lines showed stronger BPH-resistance than any of the single-gene donor parent Luoyang-6 and Luoyang-9. Moreover, the three new restorer lines had broad spectrum recovery capabilities for Honglian CMS, Wild abortive CMS and two-line GMS sterile lines, and higher grain yields than that of the recurrent parent 9,311 under nature field conditions. Importantly, the hybrid crosses also showed good performance for grain yield and BPH-resistance. Thus, the development of elite BPH-resistant wide-spectrum restorer lines has a promising future for breeding of broad spectrum BPH-resistant high-yield varieties.

  11. Development of Elite BPH-Resistant Wide-Spectrum Restorer Lines for Three and Two Line Hybrid Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Fengfeng; Li, Nengwu; Chen, Yunping; Liu, Xingdan; Sun, Heng; Wang, Jie; He, Guangcun; Zhu, Yingguo; Li, Shaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid rice has contributed significantly to the world food security. Breeding of elite high-yield, strong-resistant broad-spectrum restorer line is an important strategy for hybrid rice in commercial breeding programs. Here, we developed three elite brown planthopper (BPH)-resistant wide-spectrum restorer lines by pyramiding big-panicle gene Gn8.1, BPH-resistant genes Bph6 and Bph9, fertility restorer genes Rf3, Rf4, Rf5, and Rf6 through molecular marker assisted selection. Resistance analysis revealed that the newly developed restorer lines showed stronger BPH-resistance than any of the single-gene donor parent Luoyang-6 and Luoyang-9. Moreover, the three new restorer lines had broad spectrum recovery capabilities for Honglian CMS, Wild abortive CMS and two-line GMS sterile lines, and higher grain yields than that of the recurrent parent 9,311 under nature field conditions. Importantly, the hybrid crosses also showed good performance for grain yield and BPH-resistance. Thus, the development of elite BPH-resistant wide-spectrum restorer lines has a promising future for breeding of broad spectrum BPH-resistant high-yield varieties.

  12. Dual spectrum neutron radiography: identification of phase transitions between frozen and liquid water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesdorf, J; Oberholzer, P; Bernauer, F; Kaestner, A; Vontobel, P; Lehmann, E H; Schmidt, T J; Boillat, P

    2014-06-20

    In this Letter, a new approach to distinguish liquid water and ice based on dual spectrum neutron radiography is presented. The distinction is based on arising differences between the cross section of water and ice in the cold energy range. As a significant portion of the energy spectrum of the ICON beam line at Paul Scherrer Institut is in the thermal energy range, no differences can be observed with the entire beam. Introducing a polycrystalline neutron filter (beryllium) inside the beam, neutrons above its cutoff energy are filtered out and the cold energy region is emphasized. Finally, a contrast of about 1.6% is obtained with our imaging setup between liquid water and ice. Based on this measurement concept, the temporal evolution of the aggregate state of water can be investigated without any prior knowledge of its thickness. Using this technique, we could unambiguously prove the production of supercooled water inside fuel cells with a direct measurement method.

  13. Drownproofing and the Water Safety Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David S.

    1982-01-01

    Drowning has three major causes: (1) inability to swim and/or lack of a personal flotation device; (2) hypothermia; and (3) abuse of alcohol or drugs. Defenses against drowning include: (1) proper use of personal flotation devices; (2) learning swimming and flotation techniques; (3) understanding reduction of heat loss in cold water; and (4)…

  14. A near infrared line list for \\NH: Analysis of a Kitt Peak spectrum after 35 years

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, Emma J; Tennyson, Jonathan; Béguier, S; Campargue, A

    2016-01-01

    A Fourier Transform (FT) absorption spectrum of room temperature NH3 in the region 7400 - 8600 cm-1 is analysed using a variational line list and ground state energies determined using the MARVEL procedure. The spectrum was measured by Dr Catherine de Bergh in 1980 and is available from the Kitt Peak data center. The centers and intensities of 8468 ammonia lines were retrieved using a multiline fitting procedure. 2474 lines are assigned to 21 bands providing 1692 experimental energies in the range 7000 - 9000 cm-1. The spectrum was assigned by the joint use of the BYTe variational line list and combination differences. The assignments and experimental energies presented in this work are the first for ammonia in the region 7400 - 8600 cm-1, considerably extending the range of known vibrational-excited states

  15. The Far-Infrared Emission Line and Continuum Spectrum of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1068

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-10

    THE FAR-INFRARED EMISSION LINE AND CONTINUUM SPECTRUM OF THE SEYFERT GALAXY NGC 10681 Luigi Spinoglio Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario...circumnuclear ring of 1500–1600 in radius within the last 4–40 Myr. CO interferometer observa- tions revealed molecular gas very close to the nucleus...from 43 to 197 m showing both atomic and molecular emission lines (x 2). We model the composite UV to far-IR atomic emission-line and continuum

  16. Vibrational spectrum of water confined in and around cyclodextrins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Madhurima; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2011-06-01

    The effects of α-, β-, and γ-cyclodextrins (ACD, BCD, and GCD) on the low-frequency vibrational spectrum of water present around them and those confined inside their cavities have been investigated from molecular dynamics simulations. Attempts have been made to understand the effects of variation of the number of glucose rings and the ability of these macromolecules to form hydrogen bonds with water on the distribution of the vibrational density of states of water. It is observed that these bands for water in and around the cyclodextrins suffer blue shifts, the extent of the shifts are sensitive to the degree of confinement within the cavities and their hydrogen bonding status.

  17. Spectrum of energy depositions in the Auger Water Cherenkov Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Humberto

    1999-08-01

    The measured spectrum of energy depositions in a Water Cherenkov Detector (WCD) prototype for the Pierre Auger Observatory is presented. A WCD (area 10 m2 )is located in the Puebla University campus at a depth of 800 g/cm2 (2200 m above sea level). Differential and integral spectra in a wide energy deposition range (0.5 - 150 of vertical equivalent muons) are presented. The problem of the WCD "self calibration" procedure (by rate of the muon events) is discussed. The characteristic change of the slopes of the differential spectrum at the transition from single muon signals to EAS signals is also discussed. The measured energy deposition spectrum at extreme signals is used to estimate the linearity of the response of the WCD PMTs. Key words: Auger array, water Cherenkov detector, extensive air showers

  18. ASpect: A new spectrum and line analysis package for IRAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, S. J.; Eisenhamer, J. D.; Levay, Z. G.; Shaw, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    We examined several publicly available spectral analysis software packages looking for one with enough functionality and versatility to meet the analysis needs of astronomers during the next decade. None of those examined can satisfactorily support the wide variety of panchromatic science programs that are now becoming possible. Furthermore, we concluded that none of these packages can be simply modified to include critical functions because of their original (limited) designs. During the next two years we will write a new spectral analysis package, ASpect, that will incorporate the latest analysis techniques for astronomical spectra in all wavelength domains. The ASpect package has several functional requirements. It must operate on spectra from a wide variety of ground-based and space-based instruments spanning wavelengths from radio to gamma rays. It must accommodate non-linear dispersion relations. It must provide a variety of functions, individually or in combination, with which to fit spectral features and the continuum. It is vitally important that known bad data be masked and that, uncertainties be propagated throughout the calculations in order for astronomers to evaluate the reliability of results. Finally, this new package must provide a powerful, intuitive graphical user interface to handle the burden of data input/output (I/O), on-line 'help,' selection of relevant features for analysis, plotting and graphical interaction, and data base management--all in a comprehensible environment. We anticipate that ASpect will take the form of an external package in IRAF (such as the NOAO and STSDAS packages) and will be layered upon the IRAF virtual Operating System to make it available on as many platforms as possible, while making it resistant to changes in operating systems and compilers. Our choice of IRAF is motivated by its portability, its wide use within the astronomical community, and its rich set of existing user applications.

  19. Microwave Spectrum of the Isopropanol-Water Dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Griffin; Finneran, Ian A.; Carroll, Brandon; Blake, Geoffrey

    2016-06-01

    Microwave spectroscopy provides a unique opportunity to study model non-covalent interactions. Of particular interest is the hydrogen bonding of water, whose various molecular properties are influenced by both strong and weak intermolecular forces. More specifically, measuring the hydrogen bonded structures of water-alcohol dimers investigates both strong (OH ··· OH) and weak (CH ··· OH) hydrogen bond interactions. Recently, we have measured the pure rotational spectrum of the isopropanol-water dimer using chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (CP-FTMW) between 8-18 GHz. Here, we present the spectrum of this dimer and elaborate on the structure's strong and weak hydrogen bonding.

  20. Broadening of a spectrum line by finite spectrometer resolution. [FORTRAN IV; SAL, KAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engleman, R. Jr.

    1978-12-01

    The distortion of a spectrum line by the finite resolving power of a spectrometer is discussed in terms of a mathematical model. Particular attention is given to the case where either a Gaussian or Cauchy slit function broadens an isolated Doppler, Lorentz, or Voigt absorption line. Corrections to the peak absorption, the line width, and the integrated absorption coefficient are calculated and discussed for different combinations of slit functions and line shapes. Several new series expansions for the corrections are derived. Two general FORTRAN IV programs that calculate these corrections are described and some sample correction curves are given. 27 references.

  1. Atomic and ionic spectrum lines below 2000A: hydrogen through argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, R.L.

    1982-10-01

    A critical tabulation of observed spectral lines below 2000 angstroms has been prepared from the published literature up to July 1978. It is intended principally as an aid to those physicists and astronomers who deal with the spectra of highly stripped atoms. This report includes the first 18 elements, from hydrogen (including deuterium) through argon. The tabulation is divided into two main sections: the spectrum lines by spectrum, and a finding list. The entries for each element give the ionization species, ground state term, and ionization potential, as well as the best values of vacuum wavelength, intensity, and classification. A list of the pertinent references is appended at the end.

  2. Time variation of emission lines structure in the spectrum of HR Delfini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaev, M.B. (AN Azerbajdzhanskoj SSR, Baku. Shemakhinskaya Astrofizicheskaya Observatoriya)

    1983-04-01

    It is found that H..beta.., HeII lambda4686 and (OIII)lambdalambda4959, 5007 emission lines in the spectrum of nova HR Del had in 1981 four-component structure, as they did earlier. A comparison with 1968-1978 spectra reveals the changes in relative intensities of the internal and external components of these lines. It is concluded that time variations of physical conditions occur in some condensation in the envelope of HR Del.

  3. Submillimetre line spectrum of the Seyfert galaxy NGC1068 from the Herschel-SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Busquet, Gemma; Schirm, Maximilien R P; Wilson, Christine D; Glenn, Jason; Kamenetzky, Julia; Rangwala, Naseem; Maloney, Philip R; Parkin, Tara J; Bendo, George J; Madden, Suzanne C; Wolfire, Mark G; Boselli, Alessandro; Cooray, Asantha; Page, Mathew J

    2012-01-01

    The first complete submillimetre spectrum (190-670um) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC1068 has been observed with the SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer onboard the {\\it Herschel} Space Observatory. The sequence of CO lines (Jup=4-13), lines from water, the fundamental rotational transition of HF, two o-H_2O+ lines and one line each from CH+ and OH+ have been detected, together with the two [CI] lines and the [NII]205um line. The observations in both single pointing mode with sparse image sampling and in mapping mode with full image sampling allow us to disentangle two molecular emission components, one due to the compact circum-nuclear disk (CND) and one from the extended region encompassing the star forming ring (SF-ring). Radiative transfer models show that the two CO components are characterized by density of n(H_2)=10^4.5 and 10^2.9 cm^-3 and temperature of T=100K and 127K, respectively. The comparison of the CO line intensities with photodissociation region (PDR) and X-ray dominated region (XDR) models, to...

  4. Observing broad-absorption line quasars with Spectrum-Rontgen-Gamma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, K.P.; Schnopper, H.W.; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    1998-01-01

    Broad-absorption line quasars are found to have extremely weak soft X-ray emission when compared with other optically selected quasars. In the only example of PHL 5200 for which a detailed X-ray spectrum has been obtained with ASCA, strong absorption in the source appears to be responsible...

  5. The Near-IR Spectrum of Titan Modeled with an Improved Methane Line List

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, Jeremy; Meadows, V S

    2011-01-01

    We have obtained spatially resolved spectra of Titan in the near-infrared J, H and K bands at a resolving power of ~5000 using the near-infrared integral field spectrometer (NIFS) on the Gemini North 8m telescope. Using recent data from the Cassini/Huygens mission on the atmospheric composition and surface and aerosol properties, we develop a multiple-scattering radiative transfer model for the Titan atmosphere. The Titan spectrum at these wavelengths is dominated by absorption due to methane with a series of strong absorption band systems separated by window regions where the surface of Titan can be seen. We use a line-by-line approach to derive the methane absorption coefficients. The methane spectrum is only accurately represented in standard line lists down to ~2.1 {\\mu}m. However, by making use of recent laboratory data and modeling of the methane spectrum we are able to construct a new line list that can be used down to 1.3 {\\mu}m. The new line list allows us to generate spectra that are a good match to...

  6. Detection of an unidentified emission line in the stacked X-ray spectrum of galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulbul, Esra; Foster, Adam; Smith, Randall K.; Randall, Scott W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Markevitch, Maxim [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Loewenstein, Michael, E-mail: ebulbul@cfa.harvard.edu [CRESST and X-ray Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We detect a weak unidentified emission line at E = (3.55-3.57) ± 0.03 keV in a stacked XMM-Newton spectrum of 73 galaxy clusters spanning a redshift range 0.01-0.35. When the full sample is divided into three subsamples (Perseus, Centaurus+Ophiuchus+Coma, and all others), the line is seen at >3σ statistical significance in all three independent MOS spectra and the PN 'all others' spectrum. It is also detected in the Chandra spectra of the Perseus Cluster. However, it is very weak and located within 50-110 eV of several known lines. The detection is at the limit of the current instrument capabilities. We argue that there should be no atomic transitions in thermal plasma at this energy. An intriguing possibility is the decay of sterile neutrino, a long-sought dark matter particle candidate. Assuming that all dark matter is in sterile neutrinos with m{sub s} = 2E = 7.1 keV, our detection corresponds to a neutrino decay rate consistent with previous upper limits. However, based on the cluster masses and distances, the line in Perseus is much brighter than expected in this model, significantly deviating from other subsamples. This appears to be because of an anomalously bright line at E = 3.62 keV in Perseus, which could be an Ar XVII dielectronic recombination line, although its emissivity would have to be 30 times the expected value and physically difficult to understand. Another alternative is the above anomaly in the Ar line combined with the nearby 3.51 keV K line also exceeding expectation by a factor of 10-20. Confirmation with Astro-H will be critical to determine the nature of this new line.

  7. Calculated LET Spectrum from Antiproton Beams Stopping in Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Holzscheiter, Michael

    2009-01-01

    significantly differ from unity, which seems to warrant closer inspection of the radiobiology in this region. Monte Carlo simulations using FLUKA were performed for calculating the entire particle spectrum of a beam of 126 MeV antiprotons hitting a water phantom. In the plateau region of the simulated...... antiproton beam we observe a dose-averaged unrestricted LET of about 4 keV/μm, which is very different from the expected 0.6 keV/μm of an equivalent primary proton beam. Even though the fluence of secondaries is a magnitude less than the fluence of primary particles, the increased stopping power...

  8. ExoMol molecular line lists: IX The spectrum of AlO

    CERN Document Server

    Patrascu, Andrei T; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Accurate line lists are calculated for aluminium monoxide covering the pure rotation, rotation-vibration and electronic (B -- X blue-green and A -- X infrared bands) spectrum. Line lists are presented for the main isotopologue, $^{27}$Al$^{16}$O, as well as for $^{27}$Al$^{17}$O, $^{27}$Al$^{18}$O and $^{26}$Al$^{16}$O. These line lists are suitable for high temperatures (up to 8000 K) including those relevant to exoplanetary atmospheres and cool stars. A combination of empirical and \\textit{ab initio} methods is used: the potential energy curves were previously determined to high accuracy by fitting to extensive data from analysis of laboratory spectra; a high quality {\\it ab initio} dipole moment curve is calculated using quadruple zeta basis set and the multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) method. Partition functions plus full line lists of transitions are made available in an electronic form as supplementary data to this article and at \\url{www.exomol.com}.

  9. Observing broad-absorption line quasars with Spectrum-Rontgen-Gamma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, K.P.; Schnopper, H.W.; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    1998-01-01

    Broad-absorption line quasars are found to have extremely weak soft X-ray emission when compared with other optically selected quasars. In the only example of PHL 5200 for which a detailed X-ray spectrum has been obtained with ASCA, strong absorption in the source appears to be responsible for th...... from the line of sight passing through large column density clouds. Simultaneous UV observations will help to constrain the ionization state of the absorbers, and also improve the overall UV to X-ray continuum measurements in them....

  10. A new method for detecting line spectrum of ship-radiated noise using Duffing oscillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG SiYi; GUO HongXia; LI YaAn; WANG BingHe; ZHANG PengYi

    2007-01-01

    A detection scheme for line spectrum of ship-radiated noise is proposed using Duffing oscillator. The chaotic trajectory of Duffing oscillator is analyzed and the state equation of the system is improved to detect weak periodic signals in different frequencies. According to the simulation results, the phase transforms of Duffing oscillator are sensitive to periodic signals and immune to the random noise and the periodic interference signals which have larger angular frequency difference from the referential signal. By employing Lyapunov exponents in the field of detection as the criteria for chaos, the phase transforms of dynamic behaviors in quantity are successfully determined. Meanwhile, the threshold value in critical state has been evaluated more accurately. Based on the phase transforms of Duffing oscillator, a new method for detecting line spectrum of ship-radiated noise is given. Three types of ship-radiated noise signals are analyzed and the values of line spectrum are acquired successfully by this method. The experimental results show that this method has high sensitivity and high resolution.

  11. Opposite magnetic polarity of two photospheric lines in single spectrum of the quiet Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Rezaei, R; Schmidt, W; Steiner, O

    2007-01-01

    We study the structure of the photospheric magnetic field of the quiet Sun by investigating weak spectro-polarimetric signals. We took a sequence of Stokes spectra of the Fe I 630.15 nm and 630.25 nm lines in a region of quiet Sun near the disk center, using the POLIS spectro-polarimeter at the German VTT on Tenerife. The line cores of these two lines form at different heights in the atmosphere. The 3$\\sigma$ noise level of the data is about 1.8 $\\times 10^{-3} I_{c}$. We present co-temporal and co-spatial Stokes-$V$ profiles of the Fe I 630 nm line pair, where the two lines show opposite polarities in a single spectrum. We compute synthetic line profiles and reproduce these spectra with a two-component model atmosphere: a non-magnetic component and a magnetic component. The magnetic component consists of two magnetic layers with opposite polarity: the upper one moves upwards while the lower one moves downward. In-between, there is a region of enhanced temperature. The Stokes-$V$ line pair of opposite polarit...

  12. Fermi LAT Search for Dark Matter in Gamma-ray Lines and the Inclusive Photon Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Ackermann, M; Albert, A; Baldini, L; Barbiellini, G; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Brigida, M; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; D'Ammando, F; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Silva, E do Couto e; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Edmonds, Y; Essig, R; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Germani, S; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Guiriec, S; Gustafsson, M; Hadasch, D; Hayashida, M; Horan, D; Hughes, R E; Kamae, T; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Lionetto, A M; Garde, M Llena; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Mazziotta, M N; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Naumann-Godo, M; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Prokhorov, D; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reimer, O; Roth, M; Sbarra, C; Scargle, J D; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Snyder, A; Spinelli, P; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Tibaldo, L; Tinivella, M; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Troja, E; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Yang, Z; Zimmer, S

    2012-01-01

    Dark matter particle annihilation or decay can produce monochromatic gamma-ray lines and contribute to the diffuse gamma-ray background. Flux upper limits are presented for gamma-ray spectral lines from 7 to 200 GeV and for the diffuse gamma-ray background from 4.8 GeV to 264 GeV obtained from two years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data integrated over most of the sky. We give cross section upper limits and decay lifetime lower limits for dark matter models that produce gamma-ray lines or contribute to the diffuse spectrum, including models proposed as explanations of the PAMELA and Fermi cosmic-ray data.

  13. Fermi LAT Search for Dark Matter in Gamma-Ray Lines and the Inclusive Photon Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Brigida, M.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Moiseev, Alexander A.

    2012-01-01

    Dark matter particle annihilation or decay can produce monochromatic gamma-ray lines and contribute to the diffuse gamma-ray background. Flux upper limits are presented for gamma-ray spectral lines from 7 to 200 GeV and for the diffuse gamma-ray background from 4.8 GeV to 264 GeV obtained from two years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data integrated over most of the sky. We give cross section upper limits and decay lifetime lower limits for dark matter models that produce gamma-ray lines or contribute to the diffuse spectrum, including models proposed as explanations of the PAMELA and Fermi cosmic-ray data.

  14. Spectrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgfeldt Hansen, Leif

    2016-01-01

    The publication functions as a proces description of the development and construction of an urban furniture SPECTRUM in the city of Gwangju, Republic of Korea. It is used as the cataloque for the exhibition of Spectrum.......The publication functions as a proces description of the development and construction of an urban furniture SPECTRUM in the city of Gwangju, Republic of Korea. It is used as the cataloque for the exhibition of Spectrum....

  15. Full dimensional (15-dimensional) quantum-dynamical simulation of the protonated water dimer. II. Infrared spectrum and vibrational dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendrell, Oriol; Gatti, Fabien; Meyer, Hans-Dieter

    2007-01-01

    the fundamentals and several overtones of the vibrational motion are computed. The spectrum of H5O2+ is shaped to a large extent by couplings of the proton-transfer motion to large amplitude fluxional motions of the water molecules, water bending and water-water stretch motions. These couplings are identified...... and discussed, and the corresponding spectral lines are assigned. The large couplings featured by H5O2+ do not hinder, however, to describe the coupled vibrational motion by well defined simple types of vibration (stretching, bending; etc.) based on well defined modes of vibration, in terms of which...

  16. The Mean Metal-line Absorption Spectrum of Damped Lyα Systems in BOSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Ribas, Lluís; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Pérez-Ràfols, Ignasi; Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Petitjean, Patrick; Schneider, Donald P.; York, Donald G.; Ge, Jian

    2017-09-01

    We study the mean absorption spectrum of the Damped Lyα (DLA) population at z ˜ 2.6 by stacking normalized, rest-frame-shifted spectra of ˜27,000 DLA systems from the DR12 of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS)/SDSS-III. We measure the equivalent widths of 50 individual metal absorption lines in five intervals of DLA hydrogen column density, five intervals of DLA redshift, and overall mean equivalent widths for an additional 13 absorption features from groups of strongly blended lines. The mean equivalent width of low-ionization lines increases with N H i , whereas for high-ionization lines the increase is much weaker. The mean metal line equivalent widths decrease by a factor ˜1.1-1.5 from z ˜ 2.1 to z ˜ 3.5, with small or no differences between low- and high-ionization species. We develop a theoretical model, inspired by the presence of multiple absorption components observed in high-resolution spectra, to infer mean metal column densities from the equivalent widths of partially saturated metal lines. We apply this model to 14 low-ionization species and to Al iii, S iii, Si iii, C iv, Si iv, N v, and O vi. We use an approximate derivation for separating the equivalent width contributions of several lines to blended absorption features, and infer mean equivalent widths and column densities from lines of the additional species N i, Zn ii, C ii*, Fe iii, and S iv. Several of these mean column densities of metal lines in DLAs are obtained for the first time; their values generally agree with measurements of individual DLAs from high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio spectra when they are available.

  17. On-line tracking of pulverized coal and biomass fuels through flame spectrum analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟天阳; 张宏建

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to the on-line tracking of pulverized coal and biomass fuels through flame spectrum analysis. A flame detector containing four photodiodes is used to derive multiple signals covering a wide spectrum of the flame from visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared spectral bands as well as a part of far-infrared band. Different features are extracted in time and frequency domains to identify the dynamic "fingerprints" of the flame. Fuzzy logic inference techniques are employed to combine typical features together and infer the type of fuel being burnt. Four types of pulverized coal and five types of biomass are burnt on a laboratory-scale combustion test rig. Results obtained demonstrate that this approach is capable of tracking the type of fuel under steady combustion conditions.

  18. The Nuclear Region of Low Luminosity Flat Radio Spectrum Sources. II. Emission-Line Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, A C

    2004-01-01

    We report on the spectroscopic study of 19 low luminosity Flat Radio Spectrum (LL FRS) sources selected from Marcha's et al. (1996) 200 mJy sample. In the optical, these objects are mainly dominated by the host galaxy starlight. After correcting the data for this effect, we obtain a new set of spectra clearly displaying weak emission lines; such features carry valuable information concerning the excitation mechanisms at work in the nuclear regions of LL FRS sources. We have used a special routine to model the spectra and assess the intensities and velocities of the emission lines; we have analyzed the results in terms of diagnostic diagrams. Our analysis shows that 79% of the studied objects harbour a Low Ionization Nuclear Emission-line Region (or LINER) whose contribution was swamped by the host galaxy starlight. The remaining objects display a higher ionization spectrum, more typical of Seyferts; due to the poor quality of the spectra, it was not possible to identify any possible large Balmer components. T...

  19. The Mean Metal-line Absorption Spectrum of Damped Lyman Alpha Systems in BOSS

    CERN Document Server

    Mas-Ribas, Lluís; Pérez-Ràfols, Ignasi; Arinyo-i-Prats, Andreu; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Petitjean, Patrick; Schneider, Donald P; York, Donald G; Ge, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We study the average absorption spectrum of the Damped Lyman Alpha system (DLA) population at $z ~ 2.5$ by stacking normalized, rest-frame shifted spectra of $\\sim 27\\,000$ DLAs from the Data Release 12 of the BOSS survey of SDSS-III. We list measurements of the mean equivalent width of 50 individual metal absorption lines in 5 intervals of DLA hydrogen column density $N_{\\rm HI}$, and overall mean equivalent widths for an additional 13 absorption features from groups of strongly blended lines. We show that the mean equivalent width of low-ionization lines increases with $N_{\\rm HI}$ as expected, but this increase is much weaker or non-existent for high-ionization lines. We develop a theoretical model to infer mean column densities from the equivalent widths of partially saturated lines, based on the presence of multiple absorption components observed in high-resolution spectra. We use this model to infer mean column densities in DLAs of 14 low-ionization species, as well as for AlIII, SIII, SiIII, CIV, SiIV,...

  20. X-ray irradiated protoplanetary disk atmospheres I: Predicted emission line spectrum and photoevaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Ercolano, Barbara; Raymond, John C; Clarke, Cathie C

    2008-01-01

    We present MOCASSIN 2D photoionisation and dust radiative transfer models of a prototypical T Tauri disk irradiated by X-rays from the young pre-main sequence star. The calculations demonstrate a layer of hot gas reaching temperatures of ~10^6 K at small radii and ~10^4 K at a distance of 1 AU. The gas temperatures decrease sharply with depth, but appear to be completely decoupled from dust temperatures down to a column depth of ~5*10^21 cm^-2. We predict that several fine-structure and forbidden lines of heavy elements, as well as recombination lines of hydrogen and helium, should be observable with current and future instrumentation, although optical lines may be smothered by the stellar spectrum. Predicted line luminosities are given for the the brightest collisionally excited lines (down to ~10^-8L_sun, and for recombination transitions from several levels of HI and HeI. The mass loss rate due to X-ray photoevaporation estimated from our models is of the order of 10^-8 M_sun yr^-1, implying a dispersal ti...

  1. Variability of Hell and hydrogen line profiles in the spectrum of HD 93521

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzaev, A. Kh.; Panchuk, V. E.

    2008-03-01

    We have studied the variability of the Hell λλ 4686 and 5411 Å H β, and H α lines in the spectrum of the pulsating star HD 93521. All these line profiles display the same variability pattern relative to the average profiles: a sinusoidal wave that moves systematically from the short-to the long-wavelength wing of the profile. This variability is due to non-radial pulsations. To study the pulsation movements and stratification of the radial velocity in the atmosphere of HD 93521, we analyzed the variability of the radial velocities measured individually for the blue and red halves of the absorption profile at the half-level of the line intensity. The periods and amplitudes of this radial-velocity variability are different for different lines and are well correlated with their central depths. In the transition from weak to strong lines (i.e., from lower to upper layers of the atmosphere), the period of the radial-velocity variations measured using both halves of the absorption profile increases, while its amplitude decreases. When the morphology and variability of photospheric and wind-driven lines are compared, it is clear that the variability of their absorption components is due to the same process—non-radial pulsations. In this way, the non-radial pulsations partly affect the variability of the stellar wind. The effect of the stellar wind on the profiles of strong lines is observed as a variable absorption feature that moves along the profiles synchronous with the axial rotation of the star.

  2. Locally Optimally Emitting Clouds and the Variable Broad Emission Line Spectrum of NGC 5548

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korista, Kirk T.; Goad, Michael R.

    2000-06-01

    In recent work Baldwin et al. proposed that in the geometrically extended broad-line regions (BLRs) of quasars and active galactic nuclei, a range in line-emitting gas properties (e.g., density, column density) might exist at each radius and showed that under these conditions the broad emission line spectra of these objects may be dominated by selection effects introduced by the atomic physics and general radiative transfer within the large pool of line-emitting entities. In this picture, the light we see originates in a vast amalgam of emitters but is dominated by those emitters best able to reprocess the incident continuum into a particular emission line. We test this ``locally optimally emitting clouds'' (LOC) model against the extensive spectroscopic database of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548. The time-averaged, integrated-light UV broad emission line spectrum from the 1993 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) monitoring campaign is reproduced via the optimization of three global geometric parameters: the outer radius, the index controlling the radial cloud covering fraction of the continuum source, and the integrated cloud covering fraction. We make an ad hoc selection from the range of successful models, and for a simple spherical BLR geometry we simulate the emission-line light curves for the 1989 IUE and 1993 HST campaigns, using the respective observed UV continuum light curves as drivers. We find good agreement between the predicted and observed light curves and lags-a demonstration of the LOC picture's viability as a means to understanding the BLR environment. Finally, we discuss the next step in developing the LOC picture, which involves the marriage of echo-mapping techniques with spectral simulation grids such as those presented here, using the constraints provided by a high-quality, temporally well-sampled spectroscopic data set.

  3. SUBMILLIMETER LINE SPECTRUM OF THE SEYFERT GALAXY NGC 1068 FROM THE HERSCHEL-SPIRE FOURIER TRANSFORM SPECTROMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Busquet, Gemma [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Schirm, Maximilien R. P.; Wilson, Christine D.; Parkin, Tara J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Glenn, Jason; Kamenetzky, Julia; Rangwala, Naseem; Maloney, Philip R. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Bendo, George J. [UK ALMA Regional Centre Node, Jordell Bank Center for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Madden, Suzanne C. [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Wolfire, Mark G. [Astronomy Department, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Boselli, Alessandro [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille-LAM, Universite d' Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Cooray, Asantha [Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Page, Mathew J., E-mail: luigi.spinoglio@iaps.inaf.it [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-20

    The first complete submillimeter spectrum (190-670 {mu}m) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 has been observed with the SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer on board the Herschel Space Observatory. The sequence of CO lines (J {sub up} = 4-13), lines from H{sub 2}O, the fundamental rotational transition of hydrogen fluoride, two o-H{sub 2}O{sup +} lines, and one line each from CH{sup +} and OH{sup +} have been detected, together with the two [C I] lines and the [N II] 205 {mu}m line. The observations in both single pointing mode with sparse image sampling and in mapping mode with full image sampling allow us to disentangle two molecular emission components, one due to the compact circumnuclear disk (CND) and one from the extended region encompassing the star-forming ring (SF-ring). Radiative transfer models show that the two CO components are characterized by densities of n(H{sub 2}) = 10{sup 4.5} and 10{sup 2.9} cm{sup -3} and temperatures of T {sub kin} = 100 K and 127 K, respectively. A comparison of the CO line intensities with the photodissociation region (PDR) and X-ray-dominated region (XDR) models, together with the other observational constraints, such as the observed CO surface brightness and the radiation field, indicates that the best explanation for the CO excitation of the CND is an XDR with a density of n(H{sub 2}) {approx} 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3} and an X-ray flux of 9 erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2}, consistent with illumination by the active galactic nucleus, while the CO lines in the SF-ring are better modeled by a PDR. The detected water transitions, together with those observed with the Herschel PACS spectrometer, can be modeled by a large velocity gradient model with low temperature (T {sub kin} {approx} 40 K) and high density (n(H{sub 2}) in the range 10{sup 6.7}-10{sup 7.9} cm{sup -3}). The emission of H{sub 2}O{sup +} and OH{sup +} are in agreement with PDR models with cosmic-ray ionization. The diffuse ionized atomic component observed through the [N

  4. Analysis of Resistant Spectrum to Rice Blast in Transgenic Rice Lines Introduced Lysozyme Gene from T4 Phage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ming-hui; LI Cheng-yun; LI Jin-bin; TAN Xue-lin; TIAN Wen-zhong; TANG Zuo-shun

    2003-01-01

    The receptor cultivar Nan29 and thirty-six T5 rice lines derived from ten T0 generation transgen-ic plants harboring lysozyme gene were challenged in the greenhouse by inoculating 63 isolates belonging to 48races of Magnaporthe grisea from Yunnan Province. The transgenic rice lines exhibited resistance to morethan 72% of isolates inoculated in this experiment, and 38.1% (24 isolates) of them could infect the receptorcultivar Nan29. The results indicated that the transgenic rice lines possessed wide-spectrum resistance againstvarious rice blast races and the resistant spectrum of rice lines were different although some lines derived fromsame T0 plant. The transgenic rice lines exhibited also high resistance to leaf and neck blast in the disease fieldevaluation, but not all of resistant lines against leaf blast were resistant to neck blast.

  5. First Calorimetric Measurement of OI-line in the Electron Capture Spectrum of $^{163}$Ho

    CERN Document Server

    Ranitzsch, P. C. -O.; Wegner, M.; Kempf, S.; Fleischmann, A.; Enss, C.; Gastaldo, L.; Herlert, A.; Johnston, K.

    2014-01-01

    The isotope $^{163}$Ho undergoes an electron capture process with a recommended value for the energy available to the decay, $Q_{\\rm EC}$, of about 2.5 keV. According to the present knowledge, this is the lowest $Q_{\\rm EC}$ value for electron capture processes. Because of that, $^{163}$Ho is the best candidate to perform experiments to investigate the value of the electron neutrino mass based on the analysis of the calorimetrically measured spectrum. We present for the first time the calorimetric measurement of the atomic de-excitation of the $^{163}$Dy daughter atom upon the capture of an electron from the 5s shell in $^{163}$Ho, OI-line. The measured peak energy is 48 eV. This measurement was performed using low temperature metallic magnetic calorimeters with the $^{163}$Ho ion implanted in the absorber. We demonstrate that the calorimetric spectrum of $^{163}$Ho can be measured with high precision and that the parameters describing the spectrum can be learned from the analysis of the data. Finally, we dis...

  6. Spectral Interferences Manganese (Mn) - Europium (Eu) Lines in X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanc, Beril; Kaya, Mustafa; Gumus, Lokman; Kumral, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry is widely used for quantitative and semi quantitative analysis of many major, minor and trace elements in geological samples. Some advantages of the XRF method are; non-destructive sample preparation, applicability for powder, solid, paste and liquid samples and simple spectrum that are independent from chemical state. On the other hand, there are some disadvantages of the XRF methods such as poor sensitivity for low atomic number elements, matrix effect (physical matrix effects, such as fine versus course grain materials, may impact XRF performance) and interference effect (the spectral lines of elements may overlap distorting results for one or more elements). Especially, spectral interferences are very significant factors for accurate results. In this study, semi-quantitative analyzed manganese (II) oxide (MnO, 99.99%) was examined. Samples were pelleted and analyzed with XRF spectrometry (Bruker S8 Tiger). Unexpected peaks were obtained at the side of the major Mn peaks. Although sample does not contain Eu element, in results 0,3% Eu2O3 was observed. These result can occur high concentration of MnO and proximity of Mn and Eu lines. It can be eliminated by using correction equation or Mn concentration can confirm with other methods (such as Atomic absorption spectroscopy). Keywords: Spectral Interferences; Manganese (Mn); Europium (Eu); X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry Spectrum.

  7. Parenthesis: Lines on the water boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Zanirato

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The settlement of P.T.E., the Multifunctional Centre to serve the Nautical and Technological District of North-East Sardinia, situated on a stretch of coastline north of the Gulf of Olbia, forces us to think about what kind of relationship could be established between the architecture and surrounding environment, strongly characterized on an urbanistic and landscape level. The extension of the productive area denotes the hard strokes of the intensive anthropization of the land, in one of the most beautiful and evocative places in the Gulf. This undefined stretch of coast is the only one to be left undeveloped in the area and it still evokes the original natural landscape. The rigorous and elementary geometry of the industrial area defines the rules of the various buildings as an inevitable emanation. The buildings are designed with the same logic “box” of the urbanity production, made up of many hangers. The disposition of the buildings is also influenced by the irregular and indented coastline and by the will to define a visual screen against industrial settlements and buildings. A distinguishing characteristic marks the uniqueness and rarity of this project: a large blue canopy, suspended in the sky, hovering and resting on buildings, setting the whole complex in a unitary gesture, otherwise fragmented. It is simultaneously a dividing line and threshold, giving evidence to the area of transition between the city and the industrial-technological trade fair grounds, between the city’s architecture and the nature of the sea, between the shadows and the light. It’s an introductory episode, as the doorway and threshold, emphasizing the “brackets”, the exceptional nature of this settlement, the “window”, from which we can look into and see out of it, depending on ones point of view.

  8. Note: Simple means for selective removal of the 365 nm line from the Hg spectrum using Dy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesborg, Peter Christian Kjærgaard; Chorkendorff, Ib; Brock-Nannestad, T.

    2011-01-01

    The emission spectrum of mercury has a notable line at about 365 nm under both low and medium-high pressure conditions. A simple filter based on a solution of dysprosium ions, Dy3+, is shown to be very useful for applications of Hg-light sources where this line is unwanted. The presented filter i...

  9. Calculated LET spectrum from antiproton beams stopping in water

    CERN Document Server

    Bassler, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Antiprotons have been proposed as a potential modality for radiotherapy because the annihilation at the end of range leads to roughly a doubling of physical dose in the Bragg peak region. So far it has been anticipated that the radiobiology of antiproton beams is similar to that of protons in the entry region of the beam, but very different in the annihilation region, due to the expected high-LET components resulting from the annihilation. On closer inspection we find that calculations of dose averaged LET in the entry region may suggest that the RBE of antiprotons in the plateau region could significantly differ from unity, which seems to warrant closer inspection of the radiobiology in this region. Materials and Methods. Monte Carlo simulations using FLUKA were performed for calculating the entire particle spectrum of a beam of 126 MeV antiprotons hitting a water phantom. Results and Discussion. In the plateau region of the simulated antiproton beam we observe a dose-averaged unrestrict...

  10. The quantum Kirchhoff equation and quantum current and energy spectrum of a homogeneous mesoscopic dissipation transmission line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    On the basis of quantization of charge, the loop equations of quantum circuits are investigated by using the Heisenberg motion equation for a mesoscopic dissipation transmission line. On the supposition that the system has a symmetry under translation in charge space, the quantum current and the quantum energy spectrum in the mesoscopic transmission line are given by solving their eigenvalue equations. Results show that the quantum current and the quantum energy spectrum are not only related to the parameters of the transmission line, but also dependent on the quantized character of the charge obviously.

  11. Water Pipelines, Major, Water Lines, Published in unknown, North Georgia College and State University.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Pipelines, Major dataset, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of unknown. It is described as 'Water Lines'. Data by this...

  12. Ultraviolet and Optical Line Profile Variations in the Spectrum of ɛ Persei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, D. R.; Kambe, E.; Josephs, T. S.; Bagnuolo, W. G., Jr.; Choi, Y. J.; Gudehus, D.; Guyton, K. M.; Hartkopf, W. I.; Hildebrand, J. L.; Kaye, A. B.; Mason, B. D.; Riddle, R. L.; Sowers, J. W.; Turner, N. H.; Wilson, J. W.; Xiong, Y.

    1999-11-01

    The rapid variable star, ɛ Per (B0.5 IV-III), displays the largest amplitude profile fluctuations known among the growing number of massive, spectrum-variable stars. Here we present an analysis of a continuous 5 day run of IUE UV spectroscopy, and we show for the first time that the systematic, blue-to-red moving patterns observed in high-quality optical spectra are also present in the UV photospheric lines. We present cross-correlation functions of the individual spectra with that of a narrow-lined standard that produce a high signal-to-noise ratio representation of the blue-to-red moving bump patterns found in individual lines. We then use time series analysis methods to determine the periodic components of the profile variations (after reregistering the spectra to correct for binary motion). There are at least six periods present (ranging from 8.46 to 2.27 hr), and most of these signals are also found in optical line variations observed in 1986 (although the relative amplitudes have changed significantly). Furthermore, analysis of a shorter time series of IUE spectra from 1984 shows that similar periods were present then. We also present Hα and He I λ6678 profiles obtained with the Georgia State University Multi-Telescope Telescope, which were made simultaneously with IUE, and we show that the profile variations are essentially identical in the UV and optical ranges. We rule out rotational modulation and circumstellar gas obscuration as possible causes, and we suggest instead that the variations are the result of photospheric nonradial pulsations of relatively low degree (l=3-5). There were significant changes (~10%) in the equivalent widths of the UV stellar wind lines during the IUE run, and we suggest that wind strengthening events are related to episodes of large-amplitude, constructive interference between the NRP modes. Thus, intermode beating may play an important role in promoting wind loss from massive stars.

  13. Extended Approach to Water Flow Algorithm for Text Line Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Darko Brodi(c)

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to the water flow algorithm for text line segmentation.In the basic method the hypothetical water flows under few specified angles which have been defined by water flow angle as parameter.It is applied to the document image frame from left to right and vice versa.As a result,the unwetted and wetted areas are established.Thesc areas separate text from non-text elements in each text line,respectively.Hence,they represent the control areas that are of major importance for text line segmentation.Primarily,an extended approach means extraction of the connected-components by bounding boxes ovcr text.By this way,each connected component is mutually separated.Hence,the water flow angle,which defines the unwetted areas,is determined adaptively.By choosing appropriate water flow angle,the unwetted areas are lengthening which leads to the better text line segmentation.Results of this approach are encouraging due to the text line segmentation improvement which is the most challenging step in document image processing.

  14. Measurements of water surface snow lines in classical protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Blevins, Sandra M; Banzatti, Andrea; Zhang, Ke; Najita, Joan R; Carr, John S; Salyk, Colette; Blake, Geoffrey A

    2015-01-01

    We present deep Herschel-PACS spectroscopy of far-infrared water lines from a sample of four protoplanetary disks around solar-mass stars, selected to have strong water emission at mid-infrared wavelengths. By combining the new Herschel spectra with archival Spitzer-IRS spectroscopy, we retrieve a parameterized radial surface water vapor distribution from 0.1-100 AU using two-dimensional dust and line radiative transfer modeling. The surface water distribution is modeled with a step model comprising of a constant inner and outer relative water abundance and a critical radius at which the surface water abundance is allowed to change. We find that the four disks have critical radii of $\\sim 3-11$ AU, at which the surface water abundance decreases by at least 5 orders of magnitude. The measured values for the critical radius are consistently smaller than the location of the surface snow line, as predicted by the observed spectral energy distribution. This suggests that the sharp drop-off of the surface water abu...

  15. Investigation of water aggressiveness towards concrete shaft lining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majzner-Rulka, H.; Durczynski, S.

    1989-09-01

    Considers the corrosive action exerted by water on concrete shaft linings. Several kinds of water aggressiveness are distinguished: sulfate, acidic, carbonate, magnesian, leachate and of the ammonium type. Laboratory and in situ investigations into water aggressiveness towards shaft lining are described and results are presented. Related Polish standards are discussed. Presence of a new kind of water was established in which Mg{sup 2+} ion concentration reaches 4,500 mg/dm{sup 3} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ion concentration exceeds 3,000 mg/dm{sup 3}. Damage to concrete shaft lining caused by aggressive water was found in shafts of several mines in the Upper Silesia coal basin. Investigations into the effect of high Mg{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ion concentration in water on concrete shaft lining have been conducted at the Research and Development Department of the Mine Work Enterprise Budokop in Myslowice since 1984. Redrafting of related standards is recommended. 5 refs.

  16. Water vapor in the spectrum of the extrasolar planet HD 189733b. I. The transit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCullough, P. R.; Crouzet, N. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Deming, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Madhusudhan, N., E-mail: pmcc@stsci.edu [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)

    2014-08-10

    We report near-infrared spectroscopy of the gas giant planet HD 189733b in transit. We used the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (HST WFC3) with its G141 grism covering 1.1 μm to 1.7 μm and spatially scanned the image across the detector at 2'' s{sup –1}. When smoothed to 75 nm bins, the local maxima of the transit depths in the 1.15 μm and 1.4 μm water vapor features are, respectively, 83 ± 53 ppm and 200 ± 47 ppm greater than the local minimum at 1.3 μm. We compare the WFC3 spectrum with the composite transit spectrum of HD 189733b assembled by Pont et al., extending from 0.3 μm to 24 μm. Although the water vapor features in the WFC3 spectrum are compatible with the model of non-absorbing, Rayleigh-scattering dust in the planetary atmosphere, we also re-interpret the available data with a clear planetary atmosphere. In the latter interpretation, the slope of increasing transit depth with shorter wavelengths from the near infrared, through the visible, and into the ultraviolet is caused by unocculted star spots, with a smaller contribution of Rayleigh scattering by molecular hydrogen in the planet's atmosphere. At relevant pressures along the terminator, our model planetary atmosphere's temperature is ∼700 K, which is below the condensation temperatures of sodium- and potassium-bearing molecules, causing the broad wings of the spectral lines of Na I and K I at 0.589 μm and 0.769 μm to be weak.

  17. Locally Optimally-Emitting Clouds and the Variable Broad Emission Line Spectrum of NGC 5548

    CERN Document Server

    Korista, K T; Korista, Kirk T.; Goad, Michael R.

    2000-01-01

    [abridged] We test the ``locally optimally-emitting clouds'' (LOC) model against the extensive spectroscopic data base of the Seyfert~1, NGC 5548. The time-averaged, integrated-light UV broad emission line spectrum from the 1993 global geometric parameters: the outer radius, the index controlling the radial cloud covering fraction of the continuum source, and the integrated cloud covering fraction. We make an {\\em ad~hoc} selection from the range of successful models, and for a simple spherical BLR geometry we simulate the emission line light curves for the 1989 {\\em IUE} and 1993 {\\em HST} campaigns, using the respective observed UV continuum light curves as drivers. We find good agreement between the predicted and observed light curves and lags --- a demonstration of the LOC picture's viability as a means to understanding the BLR environment. Finally, we discuss the next step in developing the LOC picture which involves the marriage of echo-mapping techniques with spectral simulation grids such as those pre...

  18. Resource Allocation with Adaptive Spread Spectrum OFDM Using 2D Spreading for Power Line Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baudais Jean-Yves

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Bit-loading techniques based on orthogonal frequency division mutiplexing (OFDM are frequently used over wireline channels. In the power line context, channel state information can reasonably be obtained at both transmitter and receiver sides, and adaptive loading can advantageously be carried out. In this paper, we propose to apply loading principles to an spread spectrum OFDM (SS-OFDM waveform which is a multicarrier system using 2D spreading in the time and frequency domains. The presented algorithm handles the subcarriers, spreading codes, bits and energies assignment in order to maximize the data rate and the range of the communication system. The optimization is realized at a target symbol error rate and under spectral mask constraint as usually imposed. The analytical study shows that the merging principle realized by the spreading code improves the rate and the range of the discrete multitone (DMT system in single and multiuser contexts. Simulations have been run over measured power line communication (PLC channel responses and highlight that the proposed system is all the more interesting than the received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR is low.

  19. Magnetic dipole interaction and line widths in NQR: 35Cl NQR spectrum of chloroform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, V. Harihara; Narasimhan, P. T.

    35 Cl NQR spectra of CHC1 3 and CDCl 3 have been recorded at 77 K with an injection and phase-locked NQR spectrometer. The theoretical 35Cl NQR spectrum of CHC1 3 has been computed with the inclusion of H-C1 intramolecular magnetic dipole Interaction In the quadrupole Hamiltonian. It has been possible to obtain the H-C1 internuclear distance in the CHC1 3 molecule by assuming that contributions to 35Cl NQR line width from static electric effects and relaxation effects are the same in CHC1 3 and CDCl 3 and that the magnetic dipole interaction contribution to 35Cl NQR line width in CDCl 3 is negligible. The calculated H-C1 distance values are: 2.34 Å for the 'a' site and 2.49 Å for the 'b' site. These values may be compared with the x-ray value of 2.31 Å. It has also been possible to assign the observed NQR frequencies to the appropriate chlorine sites in the unit cell.

  20. ExoMol molecular line lists: XI The spectrum of nitric acid

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlyuchko, Anatoly I; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Nitric acid is a possible biomarker in the atmospheres of exoplanets. An accurate line list of rotational and rotational-vibrational transitions is computed for nitric acid (HNO$_3$). This line list covers wavelengths longer than 1.42 $\\mu$m (0 - 7000 cm$^{-1}$) and temperatures up to 500 K. The line list is computed using a hybrid variational -- perturbation theory and empirically tuned potential energy and dipole surfaces. It comprises almost 7 billion transitions involving rotations up to $J=100$. Comparisons with spectra from the HITRAN and PNNL databases demonstrate the accuracy of our calculations. Synthetic spectra of water - nitric acid mixturessuggest that nitric acid has features at 7.5 and 11.25 $\\mu$m that are capable of providing a clear signature for HNO$_3$; the feature at 11.25 $\\mu$m is particularly promising. Partition functions plus full line lists of transitions are made available in an electronic form as supplementary data to the article and at www.exomol.com.

  1. ROTATIONAL LINE EMISSION FROM WATER IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, R.; Poelman, D. R.; Spaans, M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Glassgold, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Circumstellar disks provide the material reservoir for the growth of young stars and for planet formation. We combine a high-level radiative transfer program with a thermal-chemical model of a typical T Tauri star disk to investigate the diagnostic potential of the far-infrared lines of water for pr

  2. Range estimation by Doppler of multi-line in radiated noise spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Guoqing; MA Li

    2005-01-01

    A method by applying Doppler frequency shift of multi-line in radiated noise spectrum to estimate the vertical range from a receiver to a moving vessel, which is supposed to move along a straight line at a constant velocity, is developed. This method is based on passive ranging by a single sensor and the depth of the sea and other environment parameters are not necessarily known. First the Wigner-Ville distribution is used as the instantaneous frequency estimator to find out the instantaneous frequencies of the muti-lines as a signal. Then define Doppler frequency shift basis functions, based on an algorithm called matching pursuit, by a searching strategy of variable span, and explore the minimum spatial distance between the signal and the Doppler frequency shift basis functions in a five-dimension space. The basis function of the obtained minimum spatial distance corresponds to the estimation of range and speed of the moving vessel. Computer simulations yield statistics errors in the range and speed estimates with differing intensities of noise. If the white noise deviation is less than 10% of the maximum Doppler frequency shift and time-window width is 1.47 times of reference-duration,relative error of range estimate is less than 5.4% and relative error of speed estimate is less than 1.4%. This estimation method has been tested and the result conforms to data collected during an experiment on the sea, the estimated speed is 52 knots and the estimated range is 42 m. The single point passive ranging method can be used for ranging purposes in sonar-buoys, mines,movement analysis of an underwater object in underwater acoustics experiment, and sound source level measurements.

  3. Ultraviolet and Optical Line Profile Variations in the Spectrum of {epsilon} Persei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gies, D. R.; Kambe, E.; Josephs, T. S.; Bagnuolo, W. G. Jr.; Choi, Y. J.; Gudehus, D.; Guyton, K. M.; Hartkopf, W. I.; Hildebrand, J. L.; Kaye, A. B. (and others)

    1999-11-01

    The rapid variable star, {epsilon} Per (B0.5 IV-III), displays the largest amplitude profile fluctuations known among the growing number of massive, spectrum-variable stars. Here we present an analysis of a continuous 5 day run of IUE UV spectroscopy, and we show for the first time that the systematic, blue-to-red moving patterns observed in high-quality optical spectra are also present in the UV photospheric lines. We present cross-correlation functions of the individual spectra with that of a narrow-lined standard that produce a high signal-to-noise ratio representation of the blue-to-red moving bump patterns found in individual lines. We then use time series analysis methods to determine the periodic components of the profile variations (after reregistering the spectra to correct for binary motion). There are at least six periods present (ranging from 8.46 to 2.27 hr), and most of these signals are also found in optical line variations observed in 1986 (although the relative amplitudes have changed significantly). Furthermore, analysis of a shorter time series of IUE spectra from 1984 shows that similar periods were present then. We also present H{alpha} and He i {lambda}6678 profiles obtained with the Georgia State University Multi-Telescope Telescope, which were made simultaneously with IUE, and we show that the profile variations are essentially identical in the UV and optical ranges. We rule out rotational modulation and circumstellar gas obscuration as possible causes, and we suggest instead that the variations are the result of photospheric nonradial pulsations of relatively low degree (l=3-5). There were significant changes ({approx}10%) in the equivalent widths of the UV stellar wind lines during the IUE run, and we suggest that wind strengthening events are related to episodes of large-amplitude, constructive interference between the NRP modes. Thus, intermode beating may play an important role in promoting wind loss from massive stars. (c) (c) 1999

  4. Estimated Buried Utility Water and Wastewater Lines at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The water and wastewater lines were compiled from utility lines collected with GPS equipment in the summer of 2003 and then merged with older water line data...

  5. The ASCA X-Ray Spectrum Of The Broad-Line Radio Galaxy Pictor A A Simple Power Law With No Fe K-$\\alpha$ Line

    CERN Document Server

    Eracleous, M; Eracleous, Michael; Halpern, Jules P.

    1998-01-01

    We present the X-ray spectrum of the broad-line radio galaxy Pictor A as observed by ASCA in 1996. The main objective of the observation was to detect and study the profiles of the Fe~K$\\alpha$ lines. The motivation was the fact that the Balmer lines of this object show well-separated displaced peaks, suggesting an origin in an accretion disk. The 0.5-10 keV X-ray spectrum is described very well by a model consisting of a power law of photon index 1.77 modified by interstellar photoelectric absorption. We find evidence for neither a soft nor a hard (Compton reflection) excess. More importantly, we do not detect an Fe K-alpha line, in marked contrast with the spectra of typical Seyfert galaxies and other broad-line radio galaxies observed by ASCA. The 99%-confidence upper limit on the equivalent width of an unresolved line at a rest energy of 6.4 keV is 100 eV, while for a broad line (FWHM of approximately 60,000 km/s) the corresponding upper limit is 135 eV. We discuss several possible explanations for the we...

  6. Low-bit rate speech encoders based on Line-Spectrum Frequencies (LSF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, G. S.; Fransen, L. J.

    1985-01-01

    After nearly a dozen years of research and development, the narrowband linear predictive coder (LPC) operating at 2400 bits per second (b/s) has become a practical means to transmit speech at less than 5% of the bit rate of the original digitized speech. The 2400-b/s LPC is expected to be deployed extensively on various military platforms. Recently, however, there has been a growing interest in very-low-data-rate (VLDR) (800 b/s or less) voice communication for certain specialized military communications. Likewise, there is a demand for a voice processor operating at 4800 b/s that outperforms significantly the current 2400-b/s LPC is for operation in less than favorable environments. We present in this report a means for implementing 800- and 4800-b/s voice processors. Both processors use a similar speech synthesis filter in which control parameters are line-spectrum frequencies (LSFs). The LSFs are frequency-domain parameters transformed directly from the prediction coefficients used in the conventional-narrowband LPC. The use of frequency-domain parameters is highly significant because they allow filter coefficient quantization in accordance with properties of auditory perception (i.e., coarser representation of higher frequency components of the speech spectrum). The excitation signal at the 800-b/s rate is similar to that used in the conventional-narrowband LPC. On the other hand, the excitation signal at 4800 b/s is the baseband residual signal. At 800 b/s, speech intelligibility as measured by the diagnostic rhyme test (DRT) is 87 for three male speakers; this is about 1.4 points lower than that of the 2400-b/s LPC.

  7. Imaging the water-snow line during a protostellar outburst

    CERN Document Server

    Cieza, Lucas A; Tobin, John; Bos, Steven P; Williams, Jonathan P; Perez, Sebastian; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Caceres, Claudio; Canovas, Hector; Dunham, Michael M; Hales, Antonio; Prieto, Jose L; Principe, David A; Schreiber, Matthias R; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Dary; Zurlo, Alice

    2016-01-01

    A snow-line is the region of a protoplanetary disk at which a major volatile, such as water or carbon monoxide, reaches its condensation temperature. Snow-lines play a crucial role in disk evolution by promoting the rapid growth of ice-covered grains. Signatures of the carbon monoxide snow-line (at temperatures of around 20 kelvin) have recently been imaged in the disks surrounding the pre-main-sequence stars TW Hydra and HD163296, at distances of about 30 astronomical units (au) from the star. But the water snow-line of a protoplanetary disk (at temperatures of more than 100 kelvin) has not hitherto been seen, as it generally lies very close to the star (less than 5 au away for solar-type stars). Water-ice is important because it regulates the efficiency of dust and planetesimal coagulation, and the formation of comets, ice giants and the cores of gas giants. Here we report images at 0.03-arcsec resolution (12 au) of the protoplanetary disk around V883 Ori, a protostar of 1.3 solar masses that is undergoing ...

  8. Towards Fast In-line Measurement of Water Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J.; Andreasen, M. B.; Pedersen, M.; Rasmussen, M. K.

    2015-03-01

    Water activity is widely used as a key parameter in controlling the quality of food and feed products, among others. For determining the water activity, the material is sampled from the manufacturing process and measured in the laboratory with water activity analyzers. The sampling procedure can lead to non-representative measurements, the measurement process is time consuming, and much of the produced material may be wasted before the measurement results are available. To reduce waste and to be able to optimize production processes, industry requires in-line measurement of relevant quality determining parameters, hereunder the water activity. In cooperation with a manufacturer of systems for automatic in-line sampling and measurement of moisture, density, and the size of items, a project was defined to also enable the manufacturer's existing products to perform automatic measurement of the water activity in a sample. The aim was to develop a measurement system with the ability to operate in an industrial environment, which in the end would increase the measurement speed significantly and minimize the problems related to the handling of samples. In the paper the selection and characterization of the sensors, the design of a measurement chamber, and various issues of modeling and methods to reduce measurement time are discussed. The paper also presents water activity measurements obtained from food and feed products with the system, and shows that reliable results can be obtained in a few minutes with a proper design of the measurement chamber and selection of a model.

  9. Investigating the Use of World Knowledge during On-Line Comprehension in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Philippa L.; Liversedge, Simon P.; Benson, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    The on-line use of world knowledge during reading was examined in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Both ASD and typically developed adults read sentences that included plausible, implausible and anomalous thematic relations, as their eye movements were monitored. No group differences in the speed of detection of the anomalous violations…

  10. Imprint of DESI fiber assignment on the anisotropic power spectrum of emission line galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Pinol, Lucas; Hand, Nick; Seljak, Uros; White, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI), a multiplexed fiber-fed spectrograph, is a Stage-IV ground-based dark energy experiment aiming to measure redshifts for 29 million Emission-Line Galaxies (ELG), 4 million Luminous Red Galaxies (LRG), and 2 million Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSO). The survey design includes a pattern of tiling on the sky and the locations of the fiber positioners in the focal plane of the telescope, with the observation strategy determined by a fiber assignment algorithm that optimizes the allocation of fibers to targets. This strategy allows a given region to be covered on average five times for a five-year survey, but with coverage varying between zero and twelve, which imprints a spatially-dependent pattern on the galaxy clustering. We investigate the systematic effects of the fiber assignment coverage on the anisotropic galaxy clustering of ELGs and show that, in the absence of any corrections, it leads to discrepancies of order ten percent on large scales for the power spectrum...

  11. Evidence for Power Law in the Spectrum of the Coronal Ly-alpha Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telloni, Daniele; Antonucci, Ester; Bruno, Roberto; D'Amicis, Raffaella

    Long time series of the intensity of the hydrogen Lyα line revealed the existence of f-2 power spectra in the corona at low and mid latitudes and very close to the Sun, at 1.7 solar radii. These observations are performed with the UltraViolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SoHO). A preliminary analysis indicates that this scaling extends for more than a decade and terminates at higher frequencies with a flat spectrum indicating the presence of white-noise fluctuations. The frequency corresponding to the knee which separates these two different spectral regimes moves to lower and lower values for observations performed at higher and higher heliographic latitudes. Low-frequency power spectra with a f-2 dependence may be due rapid changes (jumps) in the time series. If these coherent structures are removed from the time series, hydrogen coronal intensity power spectra seem to show a power law following the f-1 scaling which would suggest that 1/f interplanetary noise originates in corona.

  12. Near-Infrared water lines in V838 Monocerotis

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, D P K; Ashok, N M; Tennyson, J

    2005-01-01

    V838 Monocerotis had an intriguing, nova-like outburst in January 2002 which has subsequently led to several studies of the object. It is now recognized that the outburst of V838 Mon and its evolution are different from that of a classical nova or other classes of well-known eruptive variables. V838 Mon, along with two other objects that have analogous properties, appears to comprise a new class of eruptive variables. There are limited infrared studies of V838 Mon. Here, we present near-infrared H band (1.5 - 1.75micron) spectra of V838 Mon from late 2002 to the end of 2004. The principal, new result from our work is the detection of several, rotation-vibration lines of water in the H band spectra. The observed water lines have been modeled to first establish that they are indeed due to water. Subsequently the temperature and column densities of the absorbing material, from where the water absorption features originate, are derived. From our analysis, we find that the water features arise from a cool ~750-900...

  13. Detection of carbon monoxide and water absorption lines in an exoplanet atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopacky, Quinn M; Barman, Travis S; Macintosh, Bruce A; Marois, Christian

    2013-03-22

    Determining the atmospheric structure and chemical composition of an exoplanet remains a formidable goal. Fortunately, advancements in the study of exoplanets and their atmospheres have come in the form of direct imaging--spatially resolving the planet from its parent star--which enables high-resolution spectroscopy of self-luminous planets in jovian-like orbits. Here, we present a spectrum with numerous, well-resolved molecular lines from both water and carbon monoxide from a massive planet orbiting less than 40 astronomical units from the star HR 8799. These data reveal the planet's chemical composition, atmospheric structure, and surface gravity, confirming that it is indeed a young planet. The spectral lines suggest an atmospheric carbon-to-oxygen ratio that is greater than that of the host star, providing hints about the planet's formation.

  14. Drain line melt through experiment under water-free condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, Kotaro [Nuclear Engineering Lab., Toshiba Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan); Jaeckel, Bernd; Hirschmann, Harald; Patorski, Jacek; Duijvestijn, Guus

    1999-07-01

    In order to investigate the behavior of a BWR drain line attacked by an oxidic melt, the experiment, CORVIS (Corium Reactor Vessel Interaction Studies) 03/2 was performed. The drain line tube was formed according to the design of an existing BWR. Aluminum oxide was used as the core melt substitute. The melt with an initial temperature of 2518 to 2543 K flowed into the water-free drain line and filled it on entire length of 7012 mm. The melt would have penetrated even further it the melt flow was not stopped by a steel plug at the tube end. The drain line did not fail but was distorted at the high temperature and elongated by 50 mm by thermoplastic deformation under its dead weight. Maximum surface temperature of 1323 K were measured near the drain line welding nozzle. It was concluded that the drain was torn off at higher internal pressure under the same thermal conditions. Temperature histories indicate that a crust was formed on the test plate screening temporarily the steel structures against melting. (author)

  15. CALCULATION OF THE UNSTEADY WATER LINE IN THE KRASNODAR SUBURBAN CHANNEL FOR WATER MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanenko Y. G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Low level of water accounting and poor control in water distribution in the irrigation system are the main negative factors of industrial influence on irrigated natural complexes. Complex ecosystem way to control water resources involves qualitative improvement and optimization of all parts and elements of irrigation system, from the headwater pool, main channels to local water distribution channels. In this regard, when engineering, constructing, using some new and reconstructed old irrigated systems, the most important problems are the optimization of water use from natural water resources, development and use of highly efficient water-saving and energy-saving technologies of water distribution and water use in the irrigation system. The problem of economical and efficient consumption of water resources on the studied water complex cannot be solved successfully without any related consideration of water accounting and water consumption questions based on system principles. System principles are supposed to collect, analyze and use the information, with the help of complex technical means, which are used for water measurement in conditions of water charges, and for the purpose to control the technological processes of water supply and water drainage, when the needs of water users are satisfied and the environment get less damage. In the work, we study the mathematical calculation of the unsteady water line in the Krasnodar suburban channel for water measurement. The imitated research of hydraulic processes were carried out on the mathematical model of water measurement, based on the characteristic methods, with the use of analytical solution of ordinary differential equations of the initial characteristics. The use of the considered method of water measurement in irrigation channels with the use of analytical solution of ordinary differential equations of initial characteristics will allow to optimize the processes of water measurement and to

  16. Properties of flat-spectrum radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foschini, L.; Berton, M.; Caccianiga, A.; Ciroi, S.; Cracco, V.; Peterson, B. M.; Angelakis, E.; Braito, V.; Fuhrmann, L.; Gallo, L.; Grupe, D.; Järvelä, E.; Kaufmann, S.; Komossa, S.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lisakov, M. M.; Lister, M. L.; Mathur, S.; Richards, J. L.; Romano, P.; Sievers, A.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tammi, J.; Tibolla, O.; Tornikoski, M.; Vercellone, S.; La Mura, G.; Maraschi, L.; Rafanelli, P.

    2015-03-01

    We have conducted a multiwavelength survey of 42 radio loud narrow-1ine Seyfert 1 galaxies (RLNLS1s), selected by searching among all the known sources of this type and omitting those with steep radio spectra. We analyse data from radio frequencies to X-rays, and supplement these with information available from online catalogues and the literature in order to cover the full electromagnetic spectrum. This is the largest known multiwavelength survey for this type of source. We detected 90% of the sources in X-rays and found 17% at γ rays. Extreme variability at high energies was also found, down to timescales as short as hours. In some sources, dramatic spectral and flux changes suggest interplay between a relativistic jet and the accretion disk. The estimated masses of the central black holes are in the range ~106-8 M⊙, lower than those of blazars, while the accretion luminosities span a range from ~0.01 to ~0.49 times the Eddington limit, with an outlier at 0.003, similar to those of quasars. The distribution of the calculated jet power spans a range from ~1042.6 to ~1045.6 erg s-1, generally lower than quasars and BL Lac objects, but partially overlapping with the latter. Once normalised by the mass of the central black holes, the jet power of the three types of active galactic nuclei are consistent with each other, indicating that the jets are similar and the observational differences are due to scaling factors. Despite the observational differences, the central engine of RLNLS1s is apparently quite similar to that of blazars. The historical difficulties in finding radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies might be due to their low power and to intermittent jetactivity. Tables 4-9 and Figs. 8-13 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Microwave Spectrum of Hydrogen Bonded HEXAFLUOROISOPROPANOL•••WATER Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Abhishek; Arunan, Elangannan

    2014-06-01

    Stabilizing α-helical structure of protein and dissolving a hard to dissolve polymer, polythene terphthalete, are some of the unique properties of the organic solvent Hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP). After determining the complete microwave spectrum of HFIP monomer, we have recorded the spectrum of HFIP***H_2O complex. Ab initio calculations were used to optimize three different possible structures. The global minimum, structure 1, had HFIP as proton donor. Another promising structure, Structure 2, has been obtained from a molecular dynamic study. A total of 46 observed lines have been fitted well for obtaining the rotational and distortion constants within experimental uncertainty. The observed rotational constants are A = 1134.53898(77) MHz, B = 989.67594(44) MHz and C = 705.26602(20) MHz. Interestingly, the rotational constants of structure 1, structure 2 and experiments were very close. Experimentally observed distortion constants were close to structure 1. b-type transitions were stronger than c-type which is also consistent with the calculated dipole moment components of structure 1. Calculations predict a non-zero a-dipole moment but experimentally a-type transitions were absent. Microwave spectra of two of the deuterium isotopologues of this complex i.e. HFIP***D_2O (30 transitions) and HFIP***HOD (33 transitions) have been also observed. Search for other isotopologues are in progress. To characterize the nature of hydrogen bonding, Atoms in Molecules and Natural Bond Orbital theoretical analysis have been done. Experimental structure and these theoretical analyses indicate that the hydrogen bonding in HFIP***H_2O complex is stronger than that in water dimer. A. Shahi and E. Arunan, Talk number RK16, 68th International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy 2013, Ohio, USA. Yamaguchi, T.; Imura, S.; Kai, T.; Yoshida, K. Zeitschrift für Naturforsch. A 2013, 68a, 145.

  18. The THz/FIR Spectrum of Small Water Clusters in Helium Nanodroplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaab, Gerhard; Schwan, Raffael; Mani, Devendra; Pal, Nitish; Dey, Arghya; Redlich, Britta; van der Meer, Lex; Havenith, Martina

    2017-06-01

    The microscopic properties of water that are relevant for bulk solvation processes are still not fully understood. Here, we combine mass selective Helium nanodroplet spectroscopy with the powerful Terahertz (THz) and far-infrared (FIR) capabilities of the free electron laser facility FELIX to study the fingerprint of small neutral water clusters in the wavelength range from 90-900\\wn. Helium nanodroplets are a gentle, superfluid matrix and allow aggregation of pre-cooled moieties at ultra-cold temperatures (0.37 K). The fast cooling rate allows in some cases to stabilize not only the global minimum structure but also local minimum structures. The FELIX facility in Nijmegen provides narrowband (Δν / ν=0.5%) pulsed radation covering the frequency range from 80-3300 \\wn. We used a repetition rate of 10 Hz and typical pulse energies from 10 mJ at the 90\\wn and 40 mJ at 900\\wn. This corresponds to average powers of 100-400 mW far beyond those available using other radiation sources in this frequency range. The observed spectrum is exceptionally rich and includes lines that are close to or below our resolution limit. By mass selective detection and by varying the pickup pressure, we were able to identify contributions from dimer, trimer, tetramer and pentamer. The number of resonances indicates stabilization of at least two trimer structures in He nanodroplets. A comparison with theoretical predictions is on the way. We are confident that our experiments will contribute to understand the very special behavior of water in a bottom up approach.

  19. [Analysis of fluorescence spectrum of petroleum-polluted water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Miao-Fen; Song, Qing-Jun; Xing, Xu-Feng; Jian, Wei-Jun; Liu, Yuan; Zhao, Zu-Long

    2014-09-01

    In four ratio experiments, natural waters, sampled from the mountain reservoir and the sea water around Dalian city, were mixed with the sewage from petroleum refinery and petroleum exploitation plants. The fluorescence spectra of water samples containing only chromophoric dissolved organic matters(CDOM), samples containing only petroleum, and samples containing a mixture of petroleum and CDOM were analyzed, respectively. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a basis for determining the contribution of petroleum substances and CDOM to the total absorption coefficient of the petroleum-contaminated water by using fluorescence technique. The results showed that firstly, CDOM in seawater had three main fluorescence peaks at Ex: 225-230 nm/Em: 320-330 nm, Ex: 280 nm/Em: 340 nm and Ex: 225-240 nm/Em: 430-470 nm, respectively, and these may arise from the oceanic chlorophyll. CDOM in natural reservoir water had two main fluorescence peaks at EX: 240- 260 nm/Em: 420-450 nm and Ex: 310~350 nm/Em: 420--440 nm, respectively, and these may arise from the terrestrial sources; secondly, the water samples containing only petroleum extracted with n-hexane had one to three fluorescence spectral peaksat Ex: 220-240 nm/Em: 320-340 nm, Ex: 270-290 nm/Em: 310-340 nm and Ex: 220-235 nm/Em: 280-310 nm, respectively, caused by their hydrocarbon component; finally, the water samples containing both petroleum and CDOM showed a very strong fluorescence peak at Ex: 230-250 nm/Em: 320-370 nm, caused by the combined effect of CDOM and petroleum hydrocarbons.

  20. Remote sensing of water vapor within the solar spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Barbara; Bakan, Stephan; Fischer, Juergen

    1995-01-01

    Due to the great importance of atmospheric water vapor for weather and climate, much effort is devoted to remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor. The detection over water is well established, while the situation over land surface is worse. Therefore, a new method is developed to derive the total atmospheric water vapor content over land surfaces even for higher aerosol contents with the aid of backscattered solar radiances. Numerous radiative transfer simulations with a matrix operator code of vertically backscattered solar radiance were carried out for different vertically stratified atmospheres. The resolution of 1.7 nm in the wavelength range from 700 to 1050 nm was adopted to the resolution of our multichannel spectrometer OVID (Optical Visible and near Infrared Detector). Various atmospheric conditions were chosen, which were defined by variable input parameters of: (a) vertical profiles of temperature, pressure, and water vapor, (b) total water vapor content, (c) aerosols, (d) surface reflectance, and (e) sun zenith angle. Clouds were not taken into account. From the evaluation of these theoretical calculations it can be concluded that this technique allows the detection of total atmospheric water vapor content over land surfaces with an error of less than 10%. This result is important with regard to future measurements planed with the MERIS imaging spectrometer on board the european satellite ENVISAT, which will be launched in 1998. In addition to these theoretical calculations also various aircraft measurements of the backscattered radiances in the wavelength range from 600 to 1650 nm were carried out. These measurements are done with the above mentioned OVID, a new multichannel array spectrometer of the Universities of Hamburg and Berlin. First comparisons of these airborne CCD measurements with calculated spectra are shown.

  1. Remote sensing of water vapor within the solar spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartsch, B. [Univ. Hamburg (Germany). Meteorologisches Inst.; Bakan, S. [Max-Planck-Inst. fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Fischer, J. [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Weltraumwissenschaften

    1995-12-31

    Water vapor is the most important natural atmospheric greenhouse gas, influencing strongly solar and thermal infrared radiative transfer, and giving rise for clouds, which have strong influence on weather and climate. Therefore, much effort is devoted to remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor. The detection over water is well established, while the situation over land surfaces is worse. A new method is developed to derive the total atmospheric water vapor content over land surfaces even for higher aerosol contents with the aid of backscattered solar radiances. Numerous radiative transfer simulations with a matrix operator code of vertically backscattered solar radiance were carried out for different vertically stratified atmospheres. From the evaluation of these theoretical calculations it can be concluded that this technique allows the detection of total atmospheric water vapor content over land surfaces with an error of less than 10%. This result is important with regard to future measurements planned with the MERIS imaging spectrometer on board the European satellite ENVISAT, which will be launched in 1998. In addition to these theoretical calculations also various aircraft measurements of the backscattered radiances in the wavelength range from 600 to 1,650 nm were carried out. These measurements are done with the above mentioned OVID, a new multichannel array spectrometer of the Universities of Hamburg and Berlin. First comparisons of these airborne CCD measurements with calculated spectra are shown.

  2. Water, Methane, and Carbon Dioxide Present in the Dayside Spectrum of the Exoplanet HD 209458b

    CERN Document Server

    Swain, M; Vasisht, G; Deroo, P; Griffith, C; Bouwman, J; Chen, Pin; Yung, Y; Burrows, A; Brown, L R; Matthews, J; Roe, J F; Kuschnig, R; Angerhausen, D

    2009-01-01

    Using the NICMOS instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope, we have measured the dayside spectrum of HD 209458b between 1.5--2.5 microns. The emergent spectrum is dominated by features due to the presence of methane (CH4) and water vapor (H2O), with smaller contributions from carbon dioxide (CO2). Combining this near-infrared spectrum with existing mid-infrared measurements shows the existence of a temperature inversion and confirms the interpretation of previous photometry measurements. We find a family of plausible solutions for the molecular abundance and detailed temperature profile. Observationally resolving the ambiguity between abundance and temperature requires either (1) improved wavelength coverage or spectral resolution of the dayside emission spectrum, or (2) a transmission spectrum where abundance determinations are less sensitive to the temperature structure.

  3. Utilities:Water:Spring Water Lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Water:springwtr)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents spring water lines at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The data were collected using Trimble Global Positioning System (GPS)...

  4. Estimated Buried Irrigation Water Lines at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset captures the irrigation water lines running through and around the cemetery. The irrigation lines were compiled from utility lines collected with GPS...

  5. Relation between 183 GHz Water Vapor Line and Water Continuum Absorption Measured with FTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, S.; Matsuo, H.

    ve carried out Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) measurements of the millimeter and submillimeter-wave (100-1500 GHz or 3 mm - 200 micron) atmospheric opacity at Pampa la Bola, 4800 m above sea level in northern Chile on September 1997 and June 1998. Correlations between 220 GHz opacities and those of the center of submillimeter-wave windows were obtained using the entire data set, and good correlations were obtained except for the periods affected by the liquid water opacity component. We succeeded to separate the total opacity to water vapor and liquid water opacity components. The separated water vapor opacity component shows good correlation with the 183 GHz pure water vapor line opacity, which is also covered in the measured spectra, but the liquid water opacity component shows no correlation. Since the submillimeter-wave opacity is merely affected by the liquid water component, it may be better to use the submillimeter-wave opacity for the phase correction.

  6. A study on missing lines in the synthetic solar spectrum near the Ca triplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Jessica R.; Martins, Lucimara P.; Coelho, Paula

    2017-04-01

    Synthetic stellar spectra are extensively used for many different applications in astronomy, from stellar studies (such as in the determination of atmospheric parameters of observed stellar spectra), to extragalactic studies (e.g. as one of the main ingredients of stellar population models). One of the main ingredients of synthetic spectral libraries are the atomic and molecular line lists, which contain the data required to model all the absorption lines that should appear in these spectra. Although currently available line lists contain millions of lines, a relatively small fraction of these lines have accurate derived or measured transition parameters. As a consequence, many of these lines contain errors in the electronic transition parameters that can reach up to 200%. Furthermore, even for the Sun, our closest and most studied star, state-of-the-art synthetic spectra does not reproduce all the observed lines, indicating transitions that are missing in the line lists of the computed synthetic spectra. Given the importance and wide range of applications of these models, improvement of their quality is urgently necessary. In this work we catalogued missing lines in the atomic and molecular line lists used for the calculation of the synthetic spectra in the region of Gaia, comparing a solar model computed via a recent line list with a high quality solar atlas available in the literature. After that, we attempted the calibration of their atomic parameters with the code ALLiCE; the calibrated line parameters are publicly available for use.

  7. Novel water-based antiseptic lotion demonstrates rapid, broad-spectrum kill compared with alcohol antiseptic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Steven E; Cozean, Jesse; Cozean, Colette

    2014-01-01

    A novel alcohol-based antiseptic and a novel water-based antiseptic lotion, both with a synergistic combination of antimicrobial ingredients containing 0.2% benzethonium chloride, were evaluated using the standard time-kill method against 25 FDA-specified challenge microorganisms. The purpose of the testing was to determine whether a non-alcohol product could have equivalent rapid and broad-spectrum kill to a traditional alcohol sanitizer. Both the alcohol- and water-based products showed rapid and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. The average 15-s kill was 99.999% of the challenge organism for the alcohol-based antiseptic and 99.971% for the water-based antiseptic. The alcohol-based product demonstrated 100% of peak efficacy (60s) within the first 15s, whereas the water-based product showed 99.97%. The novel alcohol-based antiseptic reduced concentrations of 100% of organisms by 99.999%, whereas the water-based antiseptic lotion showed the same reduction for 96% of organisms. A novel water-based antiseptic product demonstrated equivalent rapid, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity to an alcohol-based sanitizer and provided additional benefits of reduced irritation, persistent effect, and greater efficacy against common viruses. The combination of rapid, broad-spectrum immediate kill and persistent efficacy against pathogens may have significant clinical benefit in limiting the spread of disease.

  8. Line-by-line analysis of Neptune's near-IR spectrum observed with Gemini/NIFS and VLT/CRIRES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, P. G. J.; Lellouch, E.; de Bergh, C.; Courtin, R.; Bézard, B.; Fletcher, L. N.; Orton, G. S.; Teanby, N. A.; Calcutt, S. B.; Tice, D.; Hurley, J.; Davis, G. R.

    2014-01-01

    New line data describing the absorption of CH4 and CH3D from 1.26 to 1.71 μm (WKMC-80K, Campargue, A., Wang, L., Mondelain, D., Kassi, S., Bézard, B., Lellouch, E., Coustenis, A., de Bergh, C., Hirtzig, M., Drossart, P. [2012]. Icarus 219, 110-128) have been applied to the analysis of Gemini-N/NIFS observations of Neptune made in 2009 and VLT/CRIRES observations made in 2010. The new line data are found to greatly improve the fit to the observed spectra and present a considerable advance over previous methane datasets. The improved fits lead to an empirically derived wavelength-dependent correction to the scattering properties of the main observable cloud deck at 2-3 bars that is very similar to the correction determined for Uranus' lower cloud using the same line dataset by Irwin et al. (Irwin, P.G.J., de Bergh, C., Courtin, R., Bézard, B., Teanby, N.A., Davis, G.R., Fletcher, L.N., Orton, G.S., Calcutt, S.B., Tice, D., Hurley, J. [2012]. Icarus 220, 369-382). By varying the abundance of CH3D in our simulations, analysis of the Gemini/NIFS observations leads to a new determination of the CH3D/CH4 ratio for Neptune of 3.0-0.9+1.0×10-4, which is smaller than previous determinations, but is identical (to within error) with the CH3D/CH4 ratio of 2.9-0.5+0.9×10-4 derived by a similar analysis of Gemini/NIFS observations of Uranus made in the same year. Thus it appears that the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune have an almost identical D/H ratio, which suggests that the icy planetisimals forming these planets came from the same source reservoir, or a reservoir that was well-mixed at the locations of ice giant formation, assuming complete mixing between the atmosphere and interior of both these planets. VLT/CRIRES observations of Neptune have also been analysed with the WKMC-80K methane line database, yielding very good fits, with little evidence for missing absorption features. The CRIRES spectra indicate that the mole fraction of CO at the 2-3 bar level must be

  9. Ab initio calculation of the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martiniano, Hugo F. M. C.; Galamba, Nuno [Grupo de Física Matemática da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Cabral, Benedito J. Costa, E-mail: ben@cii.fc.ul.pt [Grupo de Física Matemática da Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Professor Gama Pinto 2, 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Departamento de Química e Bioquímica, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, 05314-970 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-04-28

    The electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water was investigated by coupling a one-body energy decomposition scheme to configurations generated by classical and Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics (BOMD). A Frenkel exciton Hamiltonian formalism was adopted and the excitation energies in the liquid phase were calculated with the equation of motion coupled cluster with single and double excitations method. Molecular dynamics configurations were generated by different approaches. Classical MD were carried out with the TIP4P-Ew and AMOEBA force fields. The BLYP and BLYP-D3 exchange-correlation functionals were used in BOMD. Theoretical and experimental results for the electronic absorption spectrum of liquid water are in good agreement. Emphasis is placed on the relationship between the structure of liquid water predicted by the different models and the electronic absorption spectrum. The theoretical gas to liquid phase blue-shift of the peak positions of the electronic absorption spectrum is in good agreement with experiment. The overall shift is determined by a competition between the O–H stretching of the water monomer in liquid water that leads to a red-shift and polarization effects that induce a blue-shift. The results illustrate the importance of coupling many-body energy decomposition schemes to molecular dynamics configurations to carry out ab initio calculations of the electronic properties in liquid phase.

  10. Paranoid personality disorder and the schizophrenia spectrum-Where to draw the line?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, Søren Fryd

    2013-08-01

    By means of a case vignette, this study explores the clinical intersection between paranoid personality disorder and other schizophrenia-spectrum illness. Even though the patient described had paramount signs of a paranoid personality disorder and was diagnosed as such, psychopathological symptoms extended considerably beyond the common concept and diagnostic criteria of the disorder. Management strategies included psychopharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions, yet psychosocial functioning permanently appeared defective. While there is a persistent need for an opportunity to distinguish the characteristic syndromal pattern of paranoid personality attributes, the case exemplifies the challenges associated with classifying some largely suspicious and distrustful eccentrics within the schizophrenia spectrum.

  11. [Spectrum Variance Analysis of Tree Leaves Under the Condition of Different Leaf water Content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Chen, Tai-sheng; Pan, Li-xin

    2015-07-01

    Leaf water content is an important factor affecting tree spectral characteristics. So Exploring the leaf spectral characteristics change rule of the same tree under the condition of different leaf water content and the spectral differences of different tree leaves under the condition of the same leaf water content are not only the keys of hyperspectral vegetation remote sensing information identification but also the theoretical support of research on vegetation spectrum change as the differences in leaf water content. The spectrometer was used to observe six species of tree leaves, and the reflectivity and first order differential spectrum of different leaf water content were obtained. Then, the spectral characteristics of each tree species leaves under the condition of different leaf water content were analyzed, and the spectral differences of different tree species leaves under the condition of the same leaf water content were compared to explore possible bands of the leaf water content identification by hyperspectral remote sensing. Results show that the spectra of each tree leaf have changed a lot with the change of the leaf water content, but the change laws are different. Leaf spectral of different tree species has lager differences in some wavelength range under the condition of same leaf water content, and it provides some possibility for high precision identification of tree species.

  12. THE WATER VAPOR SPECTRUM OF APM 08279+5255: X-RAY HEATING AND INFRARED PUMPING OVER HUNDREDS OF PARSECS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradford, C. M.; Bock, J. J.; Naylor, B. J.; Nguyen, H. T.; Zmuidzinas, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bolatto, A. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Maloney, P. R.; Aguirre, J. E.; Glenn, J.; Kamenetzky, J. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Lupu, R.; Scott, K. [Department of Physics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Matsuhara, H. [Institute for Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace and Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Murphy, E. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2011-11-10

    We present the rest-frame 200-320 {mu}m spectrum of the z = 3.91 quasar APM 08279+5255, obtained with Z-Spec at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. In addition to the J = 8 {yields} 7 to J = 13 {yields} 12 CO rotational transitions which dominate the CO cooling, we find six transitions of water originating at energy levels ranging up to 643 K. Most are first detections at high redshift, and we have confirmed one transition with CARMA. The CO cooling is well described by our X-ray dominated region (XDR) model, assuming L{sub 1-100keV} {approx} 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 46} erg s{sup -1}, and that the gas is distributed over a 550-pc size scale, as per the now-favored {mu} = 4 lensing model. The total observed cooling in water corresponds to 6.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} L{sub Sun }, comparable to that of CO. We compare the water spectrum with that of Mrk 231, finding that the intensity ratios among the high-lying lines are similar, but with a total luminosity scaled up by a factor of {approx}50. Using this scaling, we estimate an average water abundance relative to H{sub 2} of 1.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}, a good match to the prediction of the chemical network in the XDR model. As with Mrk 231, the high-lying water transitions are excited radiatively via absorption in the rest-frame far-infrared, and we show that the powerful dust continuum in APM 08279+5255 is more than sufficient to pump this massive reservoir of warm water vapor.

  13. Cometary water expansion velocity from OH line shapes

    CERN Document Server

    Tseng, W L; Crovisier, J; Colom, P; Ip, W H

    2007-01-01

    We retrieve the H_2O expansion velocity in a number of comets, using the 18-cm line shapes of the OH radical observed with the Nan\\c{c}ay radio telescope. The H_2O velocity is derived from the large base of a trapezium fitted to the observed spectra. This method, which was previously applied to 9 comets, is now extended to 30 further comets. This allows us to study the evolution of their water molecule outflow velocity over a large range of heliocentric distances and gas production rates. Our analysis confirms and extends previous analyses. The retrieved expansion velocities increases with increasing gas production rates and decreasing heliocentric distances. Heuristic laws are proposed, which could be used for the interpretation of observations of cometary molecules and as a touchstone for hydrodynamical models. The expansion velocities retrieved from 18 cm line shapes are larger than those obtained from millimetric observations of parent molecules with smaller fields of view, which demonstrates the accelera...

  14. The Widom line and dynamical crossover in supercritical water: Popular water models versus experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, D.; Rovere, M.; Gallo, P.

    2015-09-01

    In a previous study [Gallo et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 5806 (2014)], we have shown an important connection between thermodynamic and dynamical properties of water in the supercritical region. In particular, by analyzing the experimental viscosity and the diffusion coefficient obtained in simulations performed using the TIP4P/2005 model, we have found that the line of response function maxima in the one phase region, the Widom line, is connected to a crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior of the transport coefficients. This is in agreement with recent experiments concerning the dynamics of supercritical simple fluids. We here show how different popular water models (TIP4P/2005, TIP4P, SPC/E, TIP5P, and TIP3P) perform in reproducing thermodynamic and dynamic experimental properties in the supercritical region. In particular, the comparison with experiments shows that all the analyzed models are able to qualitatively predict the dynamical crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior upon crossing the Widom line. Some of the models perform better in reproducing the pressure-temperature slope of the Widom line of supercritical water once a rigid shift of the phase diagram is applied to bring the critical points to coincide with the experimental ones.

  15. The Widom line and dynamical crossover in supercritical water: Popular water models versus experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, D; Rovere, M; Gallo, P

    2015-09-21

    In a previous study [Gallo et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 5806 (2014)], we have shown an important connection between thermodynamic and dynamical properties of water in the supercritical region. In particular, by analyzing the experimental viscosity and the diffusion coefficient obtained in simulations performed using the TIP4P/2005 model, we have found that the line of response function maxima in the one phase region, the Widom line, is connected to a crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior of the transport coefficients. This is in agreement with recent experiments concerning the dynamics of supercritical simple fluids. We here show how different popular water models (TIP4P/2005, TIP4P, SPC/E, TIP5P, and TIP3P) perform in reproducing thermodynamic and dynamic experimental properties in the supercritical region. In particular, the comparison with experiments shows that all the analyzed models are able to qualitatively predict the dynamical crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior upon crossing the Widom line. Some of the models perform better in reproducing the pressure-temperature slope of the Widom line of supercritical water once a rigid shift of the phase diagram is applied to bring the critical points to coincide with the experimental ones.

  16. The Widom line and dynamical crossover in supercritical water: Popular water models versus experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corradini, D. [Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Rovere, M. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy); Gallo, P., E-mail: gallop@fis.uniroma3.it [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Università Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy); INFN Sez. Roma Tre, Via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Rome (Italy)

    2015-09-21

    In a previous study [Gallo et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 5806 (2014)], we have shown an important connection between thermodynamic and dynamical properties of water in the supercritical region. In particular, by analyzing the experimental viscosity and the diffusion coefficient obtained in simulations performed using the TIP4P/2005 model, we have found that the line of response function maxima in the one phase region, the Widom line, is connected to a crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior of the transport coefficients. This is in agreement with recent experiments concerning the dynamics of supercritical simple fluids. We here show how different popular water models (TIP4P/2005, TIP4P, SPC/E, TIP5P, and TIP3P) perform in reproducing thermodynamic and dynamic experimental properties in the supercritical region. In particular, the comparison with experiments shows that all the analyzed models are able to qualitatively predict the dynamical crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behavior upon crossing the Widom line. Some of the models perform better in reproducing the pressure-temperature slope of the Widom line of supercritical water once a rigid shift of the phase diagram is applied to bring the critical points to coincide with the experimental ones.

  17. Monitoring dental-unit-water-line output water by current in-office test kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Sham; Singhrao, Sim K; Bricknell, Matt; Pearce, Mark; Morton, L H Glyn; Ahmed, Waqar; Crean, St John

    2014-08-01

    The importance of monitoring contamination levels in the output water of dental-unit-water-lines (DUWLs) is essential as they are prone to developing biofilms that may contaminate water that is used to treat patients, with opportunistic pathogens such as species of Legionella, Pseudomonas and others. Dentists and practice staff are also at risk of being infected by means of cross-infection due to aerosols generated from DUWL water. The unit of measurement for the microbial contamination of water by aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria is the colony-forming unit per millilitre (cfu/ml) of water. The UK has its own guidelines set by the Department of Health for water discharged from DUWL to be between 100 and 200 cfu/ml of water. The benchmark or accepted standard laboratory test is by microbiological culture on R2A agar plates. However, this is costly and not convenient for routine testing in dental practices. A number of commercial indicator tests are used in dental surgeries, but they were not developed for the dental market and serve only to indicate gross levels of contamination when used outside of the manufacturer's recommended incubation period. The aim of this article is to briefly review the universal problem of DUWL contamination with microbial biofilms and to update dental professionals on the availability of currently available commercial in-office monitoring systems for aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria and to discuss their limitations for testing water samples in assuring compliance with recommended guidelines.

  18. ExoMol line lists XVIII. The high temperature spectrum of VO

    CERN Document Server

    McKemmish, Laura K; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    An accurate line list, VOMYT, of spectroscopic transitions is presented for hot VO. The 13 lowest electronic states are considered. Curves and couplings are based on initial {\\it ab initio} electronic structure calculations and then tuned using available experimental data. Dipole moment curves, used to obtain transition intensities, are computed using high levels of theory (e.g. MRCI/aug-cc-pVQZ using state-specific or minimal-state CAS for dipole moments). This line list contains over 277 million transitions between almost 640,000 energy levels. It covers the wavelengths longer than 0.29 $\\mu$m and includes all transitions from energy levels within the lowest nine electronic states which have energies less than 20,000 \\cm{} to upper states within the lowest 13 electronic states which have energies below 50,000 \\cm{}. The line lists give significantly increased absorption at infrared wavelengths compared to currently available VO line lists. The full line lists is made available in electronic form via the CDS...

  19. ExoMol line lists - XVIII. The high-temperature spectrum of VO

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKemmish, Laura K.; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    An accurate line list, VOMYT, of spectroscopic transitions is presented for hot VO. The 13 lowest electronic states are considered. Curves and couplings are based on initial ab initio electronic structure calculations and then tuned using available experimental data. Dipole moment curves, used to obtain transition intensities, are computed using high levels of theory (e.g. MRCI/aug-cc-pVQZ using state-specific or minimal-state complete active space for dipole moments). This line list contains over 277 million transitions between almost 640 000 energy levels. It covers the wavelengths longer than 0.29 μm and includes all transitions from energy levels within the lowest nine electronic states which have energies less than 20 000 cm-1 to upper states within the lowest 13 electronic states which have energies below 50 000 cm-1. The line lists give significantly increased absorption at infrared wavelengths compared to currently available VO line lists. The full line lists is made available in electronic form via the CDS database and at www.exomol.com.

  20. ExoMol molecular line lists - XIV: The rotation-vibration spectrum of hot SO$_2$

    CERN Document Server

    Underwood, Daniel S; Yurchenko, Sergei N; Huang, Xinchuan; Schwenke, David W; Lee, Timothy J; Clausen, Sønnik; Fateev, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Sulphur dioxide is well-known in the atmospheres of planets and satellites, where its presence is often associated with volcanism, and in circumstellar envelopes of young and evolved stars as well as the interstellar medium. This work presents a line list of 1.3 billion $^{32}$S$^{16}$O$_2$ vibration-rotation transitions computed using an empirically-adjusted potential energy surface and an ab initio dipole moment surface. The list gives complete coverage up to 8000 cm$^{-1}$ (wavelengths longer than 1.25 $\\mu$m) for temperatures below 2000 K. Infrared absorption cross sections are recorded at 300 and 500 C are used to validated the resulting ExoAmes line list. The line list is made available in electronic form as supplementary data to this article and at www.exomol.com.

  1. ExoMol molecular line lists - XIV. The rotation-vibration spectrum of hot SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Daniel S.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Huang, Xinchuan; Schwenke, David W.; Lee, Timothy J.; Clausen, Sønnik; Fateev, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Sulphur dioxide is well-known in the atmospheres of planets and satellites, where its presence is often associated with volcanism, and in circumstellar envelopes of young and evolved stars as well as the interstellar medium. This work presents a line list of 1.3 billion 32S16O2 vibration-rotation transitions computed using an empirically adjusted potential energy surface and an ab initio dipole moment surface. The list gives complete coverage up to 8000 cm-1 (wavelengths longer than 1.25 μm) for temperatures below 2000 K. Infrared absorption cross-sections are recorded at 300 and 500 C are used to validated the resulting ExoAmes line list. The line list is made available in electronic form as supplementary data to this article and at www.exomol.com.

  2. ExoMol molecular line lists - XVII. The rotation-vibration spectrum of hot SO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Daniel S.; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Al-Refaie, Ahmed F.; Clausen, Sønnik; Fateev, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Sulphur trioxide (SO3) is a trace species in the atmospheres of the Earth and Venus, as well as being an industrial product and an environmental pollutant. A variational line list for 32S16O3, named UYT2, is presented containing 21 billion vibration-rotation transitions. UYT2 can be used to model infrared spectra of SO3 at wavelengths longwards of 2 μm (ν Infrared absorption cross-sections recorded at 300 and 500 C are used to validate the UYT2 line list. The intensities in UYT2 are scaled to match the measured cross-sections. The line list is made available in electronic form as supplementary data to this article and at www.exomol.com.

  3. The Magnetic Sensitivity of the Ba II D1 and D2 Lines of the Fraunhofer Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Belluzzi, Luca; Degl'Innocenti, Egidio Landi

    2007-01-01

    The physical interpretation of the spectral line polarization produced by the joint action of the Hanle and Zeeman effects offers a unique opportunity to obtain empirical information about hidden aspects of solar and stellar magnetism. To this end, it is important to achieve a complete understanding of the sensitivity of the emergent spectral line polarization to the presence of a magnetic field. Here we present a detailed theoretical investigation on the role of resonance scattering and magnetic fields on the polarization signals of the Ba II D1 and D2 lines of the Fraunhofer spectrum, respectively at 4934 \\AA\\ and 4554 \\AA. We adopt a three-level model of Ba II, and we take into account the hyperfine structure that is shown by the $^{135}$Ba and $^{137}$Ba isotopes. Despite of their relatively small abundance (18%), the contribution coming from these two isotopes is indeed fundamental for the interpretation of the polarization signals observed in these lines. We consider an optically thin slab model, throug...

  4. ExoMol molecular line lists - XVII. The rotation-vibration spectrum of hot SO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underwood, Daniel S.; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Sulphur trioxide (SO3) is a trace species in the atmospheres of the Earth and Venus, as well as being an industrial product and an environmental pollutant. A variational line list for 32S16O3, named UYT2, is presented containing 21 billion vibration-rotation transitions. UYT2 can be used to model...

  5. The Near-Infrared Coronal Line Spectrum of 54 Nearby Active Galactic Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez-Ardila, A; Portilla, J G; Tejeiro, J M

    2011-01-01

    (Abridge) The relationship between coronal line (CL) emission and nuclear activity in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is analyzed, for the first time, based on NIR spectra. The 8 CLs studied, of Si, S, Fe, Al and Ca elements and corresponding to ionization potentials (IP) in the range 125-450 eV, are detected in 67% (36 AGNs) of the sample. The four most frequent CLs - [SiVI] 19630\\AA, [SVIII] 9913\\AA, [SIX] 12520\\AA\\ and [SiX] 14320\\AA, - display a narrow range in luminosity, with most lines located in the interval logL 39-40 erg/s. We found that the non-detection is largely associated with either a lost of spatial resolution or increasing object distance. Yet, there are AGNs where the lack of CLs may be genuine and reflect an AGN ionising continuum lacking photons below a few keV. The FWHM of the lines profiles increases with increasing IP up to energies around 300 eV, where a maximum in the FWHM is reached. For higher IP lines, the FWHM remains nearly constant or decreases with increasing IP. We ascribe this...

  6. Ultraviolet carbon lines in the spectrum of the white dwarf BPM 11668

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, G.

    1983-01-01

    The southern hemisphere DC white dwarf BPM 11668 has been found to show strong ultraviolet lines of neutral carbon using observations from the IUE satellite. This star seems typical of the growing number of DC white dwarfs found to be of this type and appears to have a carbon abundance near C:He = 0.0001, with an effective temperature of 8500 K.

  7. Hydrodynamic models of a Cepheid atmosphere. III - Line spectrum and radius determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    Line profiles are computed on the basis of the moving atmospheres from the hydrodynamic models investigated by Karp (1975). It is found that the velocity gradients in the atmosphere can be used to explain the apparent, slightly supersonic microturbulence. The total observed microturbulence is seen to be consistent with the linear sum of the classical microturbulence and that caused by the velocity gradients.

  8. ExoMol molecular line lists - XIV. The rotation-vibration spectrum of hot SO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underwood, Daniel S.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N.;

    2016-01-01

    Sulphur dioxide is well-known in the atmospheres of planets and satellites, where its presence is often associated with volcanism, and in circumstellar envelopes of young and evolved stars as well as the interstellar medium. This work presents a line list of 1.3 billion 32S16O2 vibration-rotation...

  9. Energy Spectrum of YAG:Cr3+ and Thermal Shifts of Its R Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MADong-Ping; CHENJu-Rong

    2005-01-01

    Traditional ligand-field theory has to be improved by taking into account both “pure electronic” contribution and electron-phonon interaction one (including lattice-vibrational relaxation energy). By means of improved ligand-field theory, R1, R2, R'3 R'2 a, 2, and R1 lines, U band, ground-state zero-field-splitting (GSZFS) and ground-state g factors as well as thermal shifts of R1 line and R2 line of YAG:Cr3+ have been calculated. The results are in very good agreement with the experimental data. In contrast with ruby, the octahedron of ligand oxygen ions surrounding the central Cr3+ ion in YAG:Cr3+ is compressed along the [111] direction. Thus, for YAG:Cr3+ and ruby, the splitting of t23 4 A2 (or t23 2 E) has opposite order, and the trigonal-field parameters of the two crystals have opposite signs. In thermal shifts of R1 and R2 lines of YAG:Cr3+, the temperature-dependent contributions due to EPI are dominant.

  10. Water Distribution Lines, MFRDC has water lines for some of the counties and cities., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Middle Flint RDC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Distribution Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2008. It is described...

  11. Water Distribution Lines, Water lines in City of Douglas, Coffee County, GA, Published in 2008, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Distribution Lines dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2008. It is described...

  12. Spectrum of hot methane in astronomical objects using a comprehensive computed line list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Sergei N; Tennyson, Jonathan; Bailey, Jeremy; Hollis, Morgan D J; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2014-07-01

    Hot methane spectra are important in environments ranging from flames to the atmospheres of cool stars and exoplanets. A new spectroscopic line list, 10to10, for (12)CH4 containing almost 10 billion transitions is presented. This comprehensive line list covers a broad spectroscopic range and is applicable for temperatures up to 1,500 K. Previous methane data are incomplete, leading to underestimated opacities at short wavelengths and elevated temperatures. Use of 10to10 in models of the bright T4.5 brown dwarf 2MASS 0559-14 leads to significantly better agreement with observations and in studies of the hot Jupiter exoplanet HD 189733b leads to up to a 20-fold increase in methane abundance. It is demonstrated that proper inclusion of the huge increase in hot transitions which are important at elevated temperatures is crucial for accurate characterizations of atmospheres of brown dwarfs and exoplanets, especially when observed in the near-infrared.

  13. The spectrum of hot methane in astronomical objects using a comprehensive computed line list

    CERN Document Server

    Yurchenko, Sergei N; Bailey, Jeremy; Hollis, Morgan D J; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Hot methane spectra are important in environments ranging from flames to the atmospheres of cool stars and exoplanets. A new spectroscopic line list, 10to10, for $^{12}$CH$_4$ containing almost 10 billion transitions is presented. This comprehensive line list covers a broad spectroscopic range and is applicable for temperatures up to 1 500 K. Previous methane data are incomplete leading to underestimated opacities at short wavelengths and elevated temperatures. Use of 10to10 in models of the bright T4.5 brown dwarf 2MASS 0559-14 leads to significantly better agreement with observations and in studies of the hot Jupiter exoplanet HD 189733b leads to up to a twentifold increase in methane abundance. It is demonstrated that proper inclusion of the huge increase in hot transitions which are important at elevated temperatures is crucial for accurate characterizations of atmospheres of brown dwarfs and exoplanets, especially when observed in the near-infrared.

  14. ExoMol molecular line lists - XVII The rotation-vibration spectrum of hot SO$_3$

    CERN Document Server

    Underwood, Daniel S; Tennyson, Jonathan; Al-Refaie, Ahmed F; Clausen, Sønnik; Fateev, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Sulphur trioxide (SO$_3$) is a trace species in the atmospheres of the Earth and Venus, as well as well as being an industrial product and an environmental pollutant. A variational line list for $^{32}$S$^{16}$O$_{3}$, named UYT2, is presented containing 21 billion vibration-rotation transitions. UYT2 can be used to model infrared spectra of SO$_3$ at wavelengths longwards of 2 $\\mu$m ($\

  15. Line of sight anisotropies in the Cosmic Dawn and EoR 21-cm power spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Majumdar, Suman; Ghara, Raghunath; Mondal, Rajesh; Choudhury, T Roy; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Ali, Sk Saiyad; Datta, Abhirup

    2016-01-01

    The line of sight direction in the redshifted 21-cm signal coming from the cosmic dawn and the epoch of reionization is quite unique in many ways compared to any other cosmological signal. Different unique effects, such as the evolution history of the signal, non-linear peculiar velocities of the matter etc will imprint their signature along the line of sight axis of the observed signal. One of the major goals of the future SKA-LOW radio interferometer is to observe the cosmic dawn and the epoch of reionization through this 21-cm signal. It is thus important to understand how these various effects affect the signal for it's actual detection and proper interpretation. For more than one and half decades, various groups in India have been actively trying to understand and quantify the different line of sight effects that are present in this signal through analytical models and simulations. In many ways the importance of this sub-field under 21-cm cosmology have been identified, highlighted and pushed forward by ...

  16. [The development of acetylene on-line monitoring technology based on laser absorption spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Zhang, Yu-jun; Kan, Rui-feng; Xia, Hui; Wang, Min; Cui, Xiao-juan; Chen, Jiu-ying; Chen, Dong; Liu, Wen-qing; Liu, Jian-guo

    2008-10-01

    As one of the materials in organic chemical industry, acetylene has been used in many aspects of chemical industry. But acetylene is a very dangerous inflammable and explosive gas, so it needs in-situ monitoring during industrial storage and production. Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) technology has been widely used in atmospheric trace gases detection, because it has a lot of advantageous characteristics, such as high sensitivity, good selectivity, and rapid time response. The distribution characteristics of absorption lines of acetylene in near infrared band were studied, and then the system designing scheme of acetylene on-line monitoring based on near infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technology was discussed in detail. Moreover, the system of experiment measurement was set up and the method of signal detection and the algorithm of concentration inversion were studied. In addition, the sample cell with a path length of 10 cm, and the acetylene of different known concentrations were measured. As a result, the detection limit obtained reached 1.46 cm3 x m(-3). Finally the dynamic detection experiment was carried out, and the measurement result is stable and reliable, so the design of the system is practicable through experiment analysis. On-line acetylene leakage monitoring system was developed based on the experiment, and it is suitable for giving a leakage alarm of acetylene during its storage, transportation and use.

  17. The Magnetic Sensitivity of the Ba II D1 and D2 Lines of the Fraunhofer Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belluzzi, Luca; Trujillo Bueno, Javier; Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2007-09-01

    The physical interpretation of the spectral line polarization produced by the joint action of the Hanle and Zeeman effects offers a unique opportunity to obtain empirical information about hidden aspects of solar and stellar magnetism. To this end, it is important to achieve a complete understanding of the sensitivity of the emergent spectral line polarization to the presence of a magnetic field. Here we present a detailed theoretical investigation on the role of resonance scattering and magnetic fields on the polarization signals of the Ba II D1 and D2 lines of the Fraunhofer spectrum at 4934 and 4554 Å, respectively. We adopt a three-level model of Ba II, and we take into account the hyperfine structure that is shown by the 135Ba and 137Ba isotopes. Despite their relatively small abundance (18%), the contribution coming from these two isotopes is indeed fundamental for the interpretation of the polarization signals observed in these lines. We consider an optically thin slab model, through which we can investigate in a rigorous way the essential physical mechanisms involved (resonance polarization, Zeeman, Paschen-Back, and Hanle effects), avoiding complications due to radiative transfer effects. We assume the slab to be illuminated from below by the photospheric solar continuum radiation field, and we investigate the radiation scattered at 90°, both in the absence and in the presence of magnetic fields, deterministic and microturbulent. We show in particular the existence of a differential magnetic sensitivity of the three-peak Q/I profile that is observed in the D2 line in quiet regions close to the solar limb, which is of great interest for magnetic field diagnostics.

  18. Patterns Prediction of Chemotherapy Sensitivity in Cancer Cell lines Using FTIR Spectrum, Neural Network and Principal Components Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendehdel, Rezvan; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali; H Shirazi, Farshad

    2012-01-01

    Drug resistance enables cancer cells to break away from cytotoxic effect of anticancer drugs. Identification of resistant phenotype is very important because it can lead to effective treatment plan. There is an interest in developing classifying models of resistance phenotype based on the multivariate data. We have investigated a vibrational spectroscopic approach in order to characterize a sensitive human ovarian cell line, A2780, and its cisplatin-resistant derivative, A2780-cp. In this study FTIR method have been evaluated via the use of principal components analysis (PCA), ANN (artificial neuronal network) and LDA (linear discriminate analysis). FTIR spectroscopy on these cells in the range of 400-4000 cm(-1) showed alteration in the secondary structure of proteins and a CH stretching vibration. We have found that the ANN models correctly classified more than 95% of the cell lines, while the LDA models with the same data sets could classify 85% of cases. In the process of different ranges of spectra, the best classification of data set in the range of 1000-2000 cm(-1) was done using ANN model, while the data set between 2500-3000 cm(-1) was more correctly classified with the LDA model. PCA of the spectral data also provide a good separation for representing the variety of cell line spectra. Our work supports the promise of ANN analysis of FTIR spectrum as a supervised powerful approach and PCA as unsupervised modeling for the development of automated methods to determine the resistant phenotype of cancer classification.

  19. [The new method monitoring crop water content based on NIR-Red spectrum feature space].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao-juan; Xu, Xin-gang; Chen, Tian-en; Yang, Gui-jun; Li, Zhen-hai

    2014-06-01

    Moisture content is an important index of crop water stress condition, timely and effective monitoring of crop water content is of great significance for evaluating crop water deficit balance and guiding agriculture irrigation. The present paper was trying to build a new crop water index for winter wheat vegetation water content based on NIR-Red spectral space. Firstly, canopy spectrums of winter wheat with narrow-band were resampled according to relative spectral response function of HJ-CCD and ZY-3. Then, a new index (PWI) was set up to estimate vegetation water content of winter wheat by improveing PDI (perpendicular drought index) and PVI (perpendicular vegetation index) based on NIR-Red spectral feature space. The results showed that the relationship between PWI and VWC (vegetation water content) was stable based on simulation of wide-band multispectral data HJ-CCD and ZY-3 with R2 being 0.684 and 0.683, respectively. And then VWC was estimated by using PWI with the R2 and RMSE being 0.764 and 0.764, 3.837% and 3.840%, respectively. The results indicated that PWI has certain feasibility to estimate crop water content. At the same time, it provides a new method for monitoring crop water content using remote sensing data HJ-CCD and ZY-3.

  20. Power spectrum analysis of limb and disk spicule using Hinode Ca H line broadband filter

    CERN Document Server

    Tavabi, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    We present observations of a solar quiet region obtained using Hinode Solar Optical telescope (SOT) in Ca II H line with broadband filter taken on November 2006. We study offlimb and on disk spicules to find a counterpart of limb spicule on the disk. This investigation shows a strong correspondence between the limb and near limb spicules (ondisk spicules that historically were called dark or bright mottles especially when observed in Halpha rather cool line) from the dynamical behavior (e.g., periodicity). An excellent time sequence of images obtained near the equatorial region with a cadence of 8 s was selected for analysis. 1D Fourier power spectra made at different positions on the disk and above the limb are shown. We take advantage of the so-called madmax operator to reduce effects of overlapping and improve the visibility of these hair like features. A definite signature with strong power in the 3 min. (5.5 mHz) and 5 min. (3.5 mHz) oscillations for both places exist. A full range of oscillations was fo...

  1. The quantum interference effects in the Sc II 4247 $\\AA$ line of the Second Solar Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Smitha, H N; Stenflo, J O; Bianda, M; Ramelli, R

    2014-01-01

    The Sc II 4247 $\\AA$ line formed in the chromosphere is one of the lines well known, like the Na I D$_2$ and Ba II D$_2$, for its prominent triple peak structure in $Q/I$ and the underlying quantum interference effects governing it. In this paper, we try to study the nature of this triple peak structure using the theory of $F$-state interference including the effects of partial frequency redistribution (PRD) and radiative transfer (RT). We compare our results with the observations taken in a quiet region near the solar limb. In spite of accounting for PRD and RT effects it has not been possible to reproduce the observed triple peak structure in $Q/I$. While the two wing PRD peaks (on either side of central peak) and the near wing continuum can be reproduced, the central peak is completely suppressed by the enhanced depolarization resulting from the hyperfine structure splitting. This suppression remains for all the tested widely different 1D model atmospheres or for any multi-component combinations of them. W...

  2. Properties of flat-spectrum radio-loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Foschini, L; Caccianiga, A; Ciroi, S; Cracco, V; Peterson, B M; Angelakis, E; Braito, V; Fuhrmann, L; Gallo, L; Grupe, D; Järvelä, E; Kaufmann, S; Komossa, S; Kovalev, Y Y; Lähteenmäki, A; Lisakov, M M; Lister, M L; Mathur, S; Richards, J L; Romano, P; Sievers, A; Tagliaferri, G; Tammi, J; Tibolla, O; Tornikoski, M; Vercellone, S; La Mura, G; Maraschi, L; Rafanelli, P

    2014-01-01

    We have conducted a multiwavelength survey of 42 radio loud narrow-1ine Seyfert 1 galaxies (RLNLS1s), selected by searching among all the known sources of this type and omitting those with steep radio spectra. We analyse data from radio frequencies to X-rays, and supplement these with information available from online catalogs and the literature in order to cover the full electromagnetic spectrum. This is the largest known multiwavelength survey for this type of source. We detected 90% of the sources in X-rays and found 17% at gamma rays. Extreme variability at high energies was also found, down to timescales as short as hours. In some sources, dramatic spectral and flux changes suggest interplay between a relativistic jet and the accretion disk. The estimated masses of the central black holes are in the range $\\sim 10^{6-8}M_{\\odot}$, smaller than those of blazars, while the accretion luminosities span a range from $\\sim 0.01$ to $\\sim 0.49$ times the Eddington limit, with an outlier at $0.003$. The distribu...

  3. Confined Metastable 2-Line Ferrihydrite for Affordable Point-of-Use Arsenic-Free Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Avula Anil; Som, Anirban; Longo, Paolo; Sudhakar, Chennu; Bhuin, Radha Gobinda; Gupta, Soujit Sen; Anshup; Sankar, Mohan Udhaya; Chaudhary, Amrita; Kumar, Ramesh; Pradeep, Thalappil

    2017-02-01

    Arsenic-free drinking water, independent of electrical power and piped water supply, is possible only through advanced and affordable materials with large uptake capacities. Confined metastable 2-line ferrihydrite, stable at ambient temperature, shows continuous arsenic uptake in the presence of other complex species in natural drinking water and an affordable water-purification device is made using the same.

  4. Multiwavelength survey of a sample of flat-spectrum radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Foschini, L; Caccianiga, A; Ciroi, S; Cracco, V; Peterson, B M; Angelakis, E; Braito, V; Fuhrmann, L; Gallo, L; Grupe, D; Järvelä, E; Kaufmann, S; Komossa, S; Kovalev, Y Y; Lähteenmäki, A; Lisakov, M M; Lister, M L; Mathur, S; Richards, J L; Romano, P; Sievers, A; Tagliaferri, G; Tammi, J; Tibolla, O; Tornikoski, M; Vercellone, S; La Mura, G; Maraschi, L; Rafanelli, P

    2015-01-01

    We report on a multiwavelength survey of a sample of 42 flat-spectrum radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (RLNLS1s). This is the largest known sample of this type of active galactic nucleus (AGN) to date. We found that 17% of sources were detected at high-energy gamma rays (E>100 MeV), and 90% at X-rays (0.3-10 keV). The masses of the central black holes are in the range $\\sim 10^{6-8}M_{\\odot}$, smaller than the values of blazars. The disk luminosities are about 1-49% of the Eddington value, with one outlier at 0.3%, comparable with the luminosities observed in flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). The jet powers are $\\sim 10^{42-46}$ erg s$^{-1}$, comparable with BL Lac Objects, yet relatively smaller than FSRQs. However, once renormalized by the mass of the central black hole, the jet powers of RLNLS1s, BL Lacs, and FSRQs are consistent each other, indicating the scalability of the jets. We found episodes of extreme variability at high energies on time scales of hours. In some cases, dramatic spectral...

  5. Spectrum response estimation for deep-water floating platforms via retardation function representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fushun; Liu, Chengcheng; Chen, Jiefeng; Wang, Bin

    2017-08-01

    The key concept of spectrum response estimation with commercial software, such as the SESAM software tool, typically includes two main steps: finding a suitable loading spectrum and computing the response amplitude operators (RAOs) subjected to a frequency-specified wave component. In this paper, we propose a nontraditional spectrum response estimation method that uses a numerical representation of the retardation functions. Based on estimated added mass and damping matrices of the structure, we decompose and replace the convolution terms with a series of poles and corresponding residues in the Laplace domain. Then, we estimate the power density corresponding to each frequency component using the improved periodogram method. The advantage of this approach is that the frequency-dependent motion equations in the time domain can be transformed into the Laplace domain without requiring Laplace-domain expressions for the added mass and damping. To validate the proposed method, we use a numerical semi-submerged pontoon from the SESAM. The numerical results show that the responses of the proposed method match well with those obtained from the traditional method. Furthermore, the estimated spectrum also matches well, which indicates its potential application to deep-water floating structures.

  6. Water vapor in the spectrum of the extrasolar planet HD 189733b. II. The eclipse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crouzet, Nicolas [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4 (Canada); McCullough, Peter R. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku, E-mail: crouzet@dunlap.utoronto.ca [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-10

    Spectroscopic observations of exoplanets are crucial to infer the composition and properties of their atmospheres. HD 189733b is one of the most extensively studied exoplanets and is a cornerstone for hot Jupiter models. In this paper, we report the dayside emission spectrum of HD 189733b in the wavelength range 1.1-1.7 μm obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) in spatial scan mode. The quality of the data is such that even a straightforward analysis yields a high-precision Poisson noise-limited spectrum: the median 1σ uncertainty is 57 ppm per 0.02 μm bin. We also build a white-light curve correcting for systematic effects and derive an absolute eclipse depth of 96 ± 39 ppm. The resulting spectrum shows marginal evidence for water vapor absorption, but can also be well explained by a blackbody spectrum. However, the combination of these WFC3 data with previous Spitzer photometric observations is best explained by a dayside atmosphere of HD 189733b with no thermal inversion and a nearly solar or subsolar H{sub 2}O abundance in a cloud-free atmosphere. Alternatively, this apparent subsolar abundance may be the result of clouds or hazes that future studies need to investigate.

  7. Water vapor in the spectrum of the extrasolar planet HD 189733b: 2. The eclipse

    CERN Document Server

    Crouzet, Nicolas; Deming, Drake; Madhusudhan, Nikku

    2014-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of exoplanets are crucial to infer the composition and properties of their atmospheres. HD 189733b is one of the most extensively studied exoplanets and is a corner stone for hot Jupiter models. In this paper, we report the day-side emission spectrum of HD 189733b in the wavelength range 1.1 to 1.7 $\\mu$m obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 in spatial scan mode. The quality of the data is such that even a straightforward analysis yields a high precision Poisson noise limited spectrum: the median 1-$\\sigma$ uncertainty is 57 ppm per 0.02 $\\mu$m bin. We also build a white-light curve correcting for systematic effects and derive an absolute eclipse depth of 96$\\pm$39 ppm. The resulting spectrum shows marginal evidence for water vapor absorption, but can also be well explained by a blackbody spectrum. However, the combination of these WFC3 data with previous Spitzer photometric observations is best explained by a day-side atmosphere of HD 189733b with no thermal...

  8. WATER QUALITY AND TREATMENT CONSIDERATIONS FOR CEMENT-LINED AND A-C PIPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both cement mortar lined (CML) and asbestos-cement pipes (A-C) are widely used in many water systems. Cement linings are also commonly applied in-situ after pipe cleaning, usually to prevent the recurrence of red water or tuberculation problems. Unfortunately, little consideratio...

  9. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor for monitoring drinking water quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højris, Bo; Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen;

    2016-01-01

    Today, microbial drinking water quality is monitored through either time-consuming laboratory methods or indirect on-line measurements. Results are thus either delayed or insufficient to support proactive action. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor with a 10-minute time resolution has been...... conditions such as pollution events in drinking water....

  10. Water Vapor in the Spectrum of the Extrasolar Planet HD 189733b: 1. the Transit

    CERN Document Server

    McCullough, P R; Deming, D; Madhusudhan, N

    2014-01-01

    We report near-infrared spectroscopy of the gas giant planet HD 189733b in transit. We used the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (HST WFC3) with its G141 grism covering 1.1 um to 1.7 um and spatially scanned the image across the detector at 2\\arcsec$s^{-1}$. When smoothed to 75 nm bins, the local maxima of the transit depths in the 1.15 um and 1.4 um water vapor features respectively are 83+/-53 ppm and 200+/-47 ppm greater than the local minimum at 1.3 um. We compare the WFC3 spectrum with the composite transit spectrum of HD 189733b assembled by Pont et al. (2013), extending from 0.3 um to 24 um. Although the water vapor features in the WFC3 spectrum are compatible with the model of non-absorbing, Rayleigh-scattering dust in the planetary atmosphere (Pont et al. 2013), we also re-interpret the available data with a clear planetary atmosphere. In the latter interpretation, the slope of increasing transit depth with shorter wavelengths from the near infrared, through the visible and into the ultravi...

  11. Low Redshift Intergalactic Absorption Lines in the Spectrum of HE0226-4110

    CERN Document Server

    Lehner, N; Sembach, K R; Tripp, T M; Wakker, B P

    2006-01-01

    We present an analysis of the FUSE and STIS E140M spectra of HE0226-4110 (z=0.495). We detect 56 Lyman absorbers and 5 O VI absorbers. The number of intervening O VI systems per unit redshift with W>50 m\\AA is dN(O VI)/dz~ 11. The O VI systems unambiguously trace hot gas only in one case. For the 4 other O VI systems, photoionization and collisional ionization models are viable options to explain the observed column densities of the O VI and the other ions. If the O VI systems are mostly photoionized, only a fraction of the observed O VI will contribute to the baryonic density of the warm-hot ionized medium (WHIM) along this line of sight. Combining our results with previous ones, we show that there is a general increase of N(O VI) with increasing b(O VI). Cooling flow models can reproduce the N-b distribution but fail to reproduce the observed ionic ratios. A comparison of the number of O I, O II, O III, O IV, and O VI systems per unit redshift show that the low-z IGM is more highly ionized than weakly ioniz...

  12. Interstellar absorption lines in the spectrum of sigma Sco using Copernicus observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. M.; Snow, T. P.

    1986-01-01

    Since the launch of Copernicus in 1972, studies have been made of the depletion of gas-phase elements onto dust grains. A few stars have been studied in detail, resulting in a standard depletion pattern which has since been used for comparison. Recent developments, however, have suggested that this standard pattern may need to be re-examined. Some weak, semi-forbidden lines were detected recently which may be able to resolve some of the ambiguities. Studies of single elements have shown that depletion of carbon and oxgyen are much smaller than previously determined. The high resolution ultraviolet spectral scans of sigma Sco were originally made in 1973, but have only recently been analyzed. All these stars are bright and moderately reddened. All four stars will be analyzed in detail, but sigma Sco is the first one completed. The data has broad coverage of ions, making these stars excellent candidates for determination of accurate depletions. A profile-fitting analysis was used rather than curves-of-growth in order to determine separate abundances and depletions in components separated by several km/sec.

  13. Correlations among Jet, Accretion Disk, and Broad Line Region of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jin; He, Jian-Jian; Liang, En-Wei; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2015-01-01

    The SEDs of 18 GeV FSRQs are collected and compiled from literature, in which both the jet emission and the accretion disk radiation can be observed, in order to investigate the correlations among their jet power (P_jet), accretion disk luminosity (L_disk), and luminosity of broad line region (BLR, L_BLR). On the basis of the SED fits with the jet radiation and accretion disk radiation models, we calculate P_jet and L_disk. No correlation between P_jet with either L_disk or L_BLR is found. With a sub-sample of L_BLR for 13 GeV FSRQs, it is observed that L_BLR is strongly correlated with their L_disk. We also study the BLR covering factors of the GeV FSRQs in our sample, averagely which are smaller than that of the large samples of radio-loud and radio-quiet quasars. P_jet of some GeV FSRQs is higher than L_disk, but P_jet of all the GeV FSRQs is lower than the accretion power of black hole (BH), which is estimated by \\dot{M}c^2=L_disk/0.1, indicating that the total accretion power of BH is sufficient to drive...

  14. ExoMol molecular line lists - XIII: The spectrum of CaO

    CERN Document Server

    Yurchenko, Sergei N; Asari, Usama; Vasilios, Marcus; Hill, Christian; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    An accurate line list for calcium oxide is presented covering transitions between all bound ro-vibronic levels from the five lowest electronic states \\X, \\Ap, \\A, \\astate, and \\bstate. The ro-vibronic energies and corresponding wavefunctionts were obtained by solving the fully coupled Schr\\"{o}dinger equation. \\textit{Ab initio} potential energy, spin-orbit, and electronic angular momentum curves were refined by fitting to the experimental frequencies and experimentally derived energies available in the literature. Using our refined model we could (i) reassign the vibronic states for a large portion of the experimentally derived energies [van Groenendael A., Tudorie M., Focsa C., Pinchemel B., Bernath P. F., 2005, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 234, 255], (ii) extended this list of energies to $J=79-118$ and (iii) suggest a new description of the resonances from the \\A--\\X\\ system. We used high level \\textit{ab initio} electric dipole moments reported previously [Khalil H., Brites V., Le Quere F., Leonard C., 2011, Chem...

  15. Comparison of path integral molecular dynamics methods for the infrared absorption spectrum of liquid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habershon, Scott; Fanourgakis, George S.; Manolopoulos, David E.

    2008-08-01

    The ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) and partially adiabatic centroid molecular dynamics (PA-CMD) methods are compared and contrasted in an application to the infrared absorption spectrum of a recently parametrized flexible, polarizable, Thole-type potential energy model for liquid water. Both methods predict very similar spectra in the low-frequency librational and intramolecular bending region at wavenumbers below 2500 cm-1. However, the RPMD spectrum is contaminated in the high-frequency O-H stretching region by contributions from the internal vibrational modes of the ring polymer. This problem is avoided in the PA-CMD method, which adjusts the elements of the Parrinello-Rahman mass matrix so as to shift the frequencies of these vibrational modes beyond the spectral range of interest. PA-CMD does not require any more computational effort than RPMD and it is clearly the better of the two methods for simulating vibrational spectra.

  16. Survey of Cold Water Lines in Protoplanetary Disks: Indications of Systematic Volatile Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fujun; Bergin, Edwin Anthony; Hogerheijde, Michiel; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Blake, Geoff; Bruderer, Simon; Cleeves, Ilse; Dominik, Carsten; Fedele, Davide; Lis, Dariusz C.; Melnick, Gary; Neufeld, David; Pearson, John; Yıldız, Umut

    2017-06-01

    We performed very deep searches for 2 ground-state water transitions in 13 protoplanetary disks with the HIFI instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory, with integration times up to 12 hr per line. We also searched for, with shallower integrations, two other water transitions that sample warmer gas. The detection rate is low, and the upper limits provided by the observations are generally much lower than predictions of thermo-chemical models with canonical inputs. One ground-state transition is newly detected in the stacked spectrum of AA Tau, DM Tau, LkCa 15, and MWC 480. We run a grid of models to show that the abundance of gas-phase oxygen needs to be reduced by a factor of at least ∼ 100 to be consistent with the observational upper limits (and positive detections) if a dust-to-gas mass ratio of 0.01 were to be assumed. As a continuation of previous ideas, we propose that the underlying reason for the depletion of oxygen (hence the low detection rate) is the freeze-out of volatiles such as water and CO onto dust grains followed by grain growth and settling/migration, which permanently removes these gas-phase molecules from the emissive upper layers of the outer disk. Such depletion of volatiles is likely ubiquitous among different disks, though not necessarily to the same degree. The volatiles might be returned back to the gas phase in the inner disk (≲ 15 au), which is consistent with current constraints. Comparison with studies on disk dispersal due to photoevaporation indicates that the timescale for volatile depletion is shorter than that of photoevaporation.

  17. The - - and Submm-Wave Spectrum of Allyl Isocyanide and Radioastronomical Observations in Orion KL and the Primos Line Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haykal, I.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margules, L.; Huet, T. R.; Ecija, P.; Cocinero, E. J.; Basterretxea, F.; Fernandez, J. A.; Castano, F.; Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Lesarri, A.; Guillemin, J. C.

    2013-06-01

    Last year we presented the first rotational analysis of the ground state of the two conformers of allyl isocyanide from 4 GHz to 905 GHz. The analysis of the rotational spectrum of the cis conformer of allyl isocyanide was extended. We resolved Coriolis interactions of a and b types between the excited vibrational states ν_1=1 and ν_2=1, calculated to be at 156 cm^{-1} (A^{'}) and 167 cm^{-1} (A^{''}) respectively (MP2/aug-cc-pvtz), from 150 GHz to 600 GHz. Strong perturbations were observed in the 150-310 GHz range for low values of the quantum number K_a starting from K_a = 0, 1. The anharmonicities appeared as well at higher frequencies for larger quantum numbers. The two modes were fitted together with the SPFIT/SPCAT suite of programs and a set of Coriolis parameters was accurately determined. The fit contains more than 3000 lines up to J = 99 and K_a = 12 for both modes. We did not detect these species neither in the IRAM 30-m line survey of Orion KL nor in the PRIMOS survey towards SgrB2. Nevertheless, we provided upper limits to their column density in Orion KL. This work was supported by the CNES and the Action sur Projets de l'INSU, PCMI. I. Haykal et al. manuscript in preparation H. Pickett J. Mol. Spec.{148}, 371-377, 1991.

  18. Genetic variability for iron and zinc content in common bean lines and interaction with water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, H S; Del Peloso, M J; Bassinello, P Z; Guimarães, C M; Melo, L C; Faria, L C

    2014-08-28

    The common bean is an important source of iron and zinc in humans. Increases in the contents of these minerals can combat mineral deficiencies, but these contents are influenced by environmental conditions. Thus, the objectives of this study were to investigate the interaction between common bean lines and water availability on iron and zinc contents (CFe and CZn, respectively), identify superior lines with stable CFe and CZn, and test for a genetic relationship between CFe and CZn. Six crop trials were performed using a randomized block design with three replications. The trials were performed during the winter sowing period for three different combinations of year and site in Brazil. For each combination, 53 lines were evaluated across two parallel trials; one trial was irrigated according to the crop requirements, and the other trial operated under a water deficit. Interaction was detected between lines and environments, and between lines and water availability for CFe and CZn. However, some lines exhibited high CFe and CZn in both conditions. Lines G 6492 and G 6490 exhibited high mean values, stability, and adaptability for both minerals. Other lines exhibited high CFe (Xamego) or CZn (Bambuí and Iapar 65). A moderate genetic correlation (0.62) between CFe and CZn was detected. Water availability during the common bean cycle had an effect on CFe and CZn; however, lines with high CFe and CZn in different conditions of water availability and environment were detected.

  19. Water Distribution Lines, water mtr, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Distribution Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as...

  20. Water Distribution Lines, water mh, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Distribution Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as...

  1. Water Distribution Lines, water ln, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Distribution Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as...

  2. Water Distribution Lines, water dist 10, Published in 2003, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Distribution Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2003. It is described as...

  3. The influence of South-North Water Diversion Middle-Line Project on agricultural water in Jingmen and countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li

    2017-08-01

    Based on the investigation, the author puts forward a variety of adverse impacts of South-North Water Diversion Middle-Line Project on agricultural water in Jingmen. For examples, the land resource utilization is reduced; the farmland irrigation water cannot be guaranteed; the pollution of agricultural water is very serious. Combining the characteristics of South - North Water Diversion Project with the agricultural development in Jingmen, some countermeasures are provided in this paper, such as enhancing soil-water protection relying on related laws and policies, developing water resources and optimizing the use of water sources, adjusting the planting structure by adopting water-saving irrigation projects, developing dry farming and water-saving agriculture, controlling water pollution, and so on.

  4. Water use of tree lines: importance of leaf area and micrometeorology in sub-humid Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radersma, S.; Ong, C.K.; Coe, R.

    2006-01-01

    In this research the relative importance of leaf area and microclimatic factors in determining water use of tree lines was examined in sub-humid Western Kenya. Measurements of tree water-use by a heat-balance technique, leaf area, bulk air saturation deficit, daily radiation, and soil water content

  5. A first-principle calculation of the XANES spectrum of Cu{sup 2+} in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Penna, G. [CNR–Institute for Chemistry of Organometallic Compounds, Sesto Fiorentino 50019 (Italy); Minicozzi, V.; Morante, S.; Stellato, F., E-mail: stellato@roma2.infn.it [INFN, Rome “Tor Vergata,” Rome 00133 (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Rome “Tor Vergata,” Rome 00133 (Italy); Rossi, G. C. [INFN, Rome “Tor Vergata,” Rome 00133 (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Rome “Tor Vergata,” Rome 00133 (Italy); Centro Studi e Ricerche “Enrico Fermi,” Roma 00184 (Italy)

    2015-09-28

    The progress in high performance computing we are witnessing today offers the possibility of accurate electron density calculations of systems in realistic physico-chemical conditions. In this paper, we present a strategy aimed at performing a first-principle computation of the low energy part of the X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) spectrum based on the density functional theory calculation of the electronic potential. To test its effectiveness, we apply the method to the computation of the X-ray absorption near edge structure part of the XAS spectrum in the paradigmatic, but simple case of Cu{sup 2+} in water. In order to keep into account the effect of the metal site structure fluctuations in determining the experimental signal, the theoretical spectrum is evaluated as the average over the computed spectra of a statistically significant number of simulated metal site configurations. The comparison of experimental data with theoretical calculations suggests that Cu{sup 2+} lives preferentially in a square-pyramidal geometry. The remarkable success of this approach in the interpretation of XAS data makes us optimistic about the possibility of extending the computational strategy we have outlined to the more interesting case of molecules of biological relevance bound to transition metal ions.

  6. Effect of heavy hydrogen isotopes on the vibrational line shape for supercritical water through rotational couplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ken; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki; Uosaki, Yasuhiro; Nakahara, Masaru

    2013-04-07

    The rotational couplings, which determine the infrared spectral line shape in the low-density supercritical water, were analyzed as functions of the density and the temperature by applying molecular dynamics simulation to a flexible water model, SPC∕Fw and by varying the moment of inertia of the water through substitution for the H atom in H2O by heavy hydrogen isotopes. The differences in the frequency and the relative intensity between the sharp center peak and the rotational broad side-bands were analyzed for the O-H, O-D, and O-T stretch spectra. The frequency differences between the sharp center peak and the rotational broad side-bands are linearly correlated with the inverse of the moment of inertia of the isotope-substituted water species. The intensity of the sharp peak is associated with the long-time component of the reorientational time correlation function for the stretching bond vector. At 400 °C, where a substantial amount of hydrogen bonds are dynamically persisting, an intensity decrease in the rotational broad side-bands was observed with increasing density from 0.01 to 0.40 g cm(-3), respectively, corresponding to 0.56 and 22.2 M (=mol dm(-3)), orders of magnitude higher than the ideal gas densities. This arises from the decrease in the correlation time of the angular velocity and the rotational couplings due to an increase in the hydrogen-bonding perturbation. The intensity decrease of the rotational side-bands with increasing density is more significant for the water isotopes with heavier hydrogens. At a high temperature of 1200 °C, the rotational side-bands at 0.01 to 0.05 g cm(-3) were more distinct than those at 400 °C, and even at a medium density of 0.40 g cm(-3) a significant signal broadening due to the rotational couplings was clearly observed because of the accelerated rotational momentum. The vibrational spectrum cannot be decomposed into definite chemical clusters for the thermodynamic and kinetic analysis because of the dynamic

  7. A Parameterized yet Accurate Model of Ozone and Water Vapor Transmittance in the Solar-to-near-infrared Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Weiyi; QIU Jinhuan

    2012-01-01

    A parameterized transmittance model (PTR) for ozone and water vapor monochromatic transmittance calculation in the solar-to-near-infrared spectrum 0.3-4 μm with a spectral resolution of 5 cm-1 was developed based on the transmittance data calculated by Moderate-resolution Transmittance model (MODTRAN).Polynomial equations were derived to represent the transmittance as functions of path length and airmass for every wavelength based on the least-squares method.Comparisons between the transmittances calculated using PTR and MODTRAN were made,using the results of MODTRAN as a reference.Relative root-mean-square error (RMSre) was 0.823% for ozone transmittance.RMSre values were 8.84% and 3.48% for water vapor transmittance ranges of 1-1 × 10-18and 1-1× 10-3,respectively.In addition,the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGEII) ozone profiles and University of Wyoming (UWYO)water vapor profiles were applied to validate the applicability of PTR model.RMSre was 0.437% for ozone transmittance.RMSre values were 8.89% and 2.43% for water vapor transmittance ranges of 1-1 × 10-18and 1-1 × 10-6,respectively.Furthermore,the optical depth profiles calculated using the PTR model were compared to the results of MODTRAN.Absolute RMS errors (RMSab) for ozone optical depths were within 0.0055 and 0.0523 for water vapor at all of the tested altitudes.Finally,the comparison between the solar heating rate calculated from the transmittance of PTR and Line-by-Line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM) was performed,showing a maximum deviation of 0.238 K d-1 (6% of the corresponding solar heating rate calculated using LBLRTM).In the troposphere all of the deviations were within 0.08 K d-1.The computational speed of PTR model is nearly two orders of magnitude faster than that of MODTRAN.

  8. Vibrational spectrum at a water surface: a hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics molecular dynamics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Hideaki; Morita, Akihiro

    2012-03-28

    A hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is applied to the calculation of surface orientational structure and vibrational spectrum (second-order nonlinear susceptibility) at the vapor/water interface for the first time. The surface orientational structure of the QM water molecules is consistent with the previous MD studies, and the calculated susceptibility reproduces the experimentally reported one, supporting the previous results using the classical force field MD simulation. The present QM/MM MD simulation also demonstrates that the positive sign of the imaginary part of the second-order nonlinear susceptibility at the lower hydrogen bonding OH frequency region originates not from individual molecular orientational structure, but from cooperative electronic structure through the hydrogen bonding network.

  9. Frontal dermoid cyst coexisting with suprasellar craniopharyngioma: a spectrum of ectodermally derived epithelial-lined cystic lesions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Al-Shaar, Hussam; Abd-El-Barr, Muhammad M; Zaidi, Hasan A; Russell-Goldman, Eleanor; Folkerth, Rebecca D; Laws, Edward R; Antonio Chiocca, E

    2016-12-01

    There is a wide group of lesions that may exist in the sellar and suprasellar regions. Embryologically, there is varying evidence that many of these entities may in fact represent a continuum of pathology deriving from a common ectodermal origin. The authors report a case of a concomitant suprasellar craniopharyngioma invading the third ventricle with a concurrent frontal lobe cystic dermoid tumor. A 21-year-old man presented to the authors' service with a 3-day history of worsening headache, nausea, vomiting, and blurry vision. Magnetic resonance imaging depicted a right frontal lobe lesion associated with a separate suprasellar cystic lesion invading the third ventricle. The patient underwent a right pterional craniotomy for resection of both lesions. Gross-total resection of the right frontal lesion was achieved, and subtotal resection of the suprasellar lesion was accomplished with some residual tumor adherent to the walls of the third ventricle. Histopathological examination of the resected right frontal lesion documented a diagnosis of dermoid cyst and, for the suprasellar lesion, a diagnosis of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma. The occurrence of craniopharyngioma with dermoid cyst has not been reported in the literature before. Such an association might indeed suggest the previously reported hypothesis that these lesions represent a spectrum of ectodermally derived epithelial-lined cystic lesions.

  10. Base-line water quality of the river Narmada (Gujarat)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Zingde, M.D.; Sureshchander; Rokade, M.A.; Desai, B.N.

    , tide dependant, suspended load which decreased appreciably in fresh water region. High overall DO and low BOD indicated the absence of gross organic pollution in the estuarine and riverine zones. NO3u- -N decreased in the downstream direction while PO3d...

  11. Survey of Outer Galaxy Molecular Lines Associated with Water Masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, N.; Hachisuka, K.; Umemoto, T.

    2009-08-01

    H_2O masers in Young stellar objects (YSOs) in our Galaxy are one of the targets of the VSOP-2 science. The advantage of VSOP-2 observation is the highest angular resolution which can detect a proper motion of H_2O masers for distant objects over short time intervals. To find candidate sources, we observed H2O maser sources in the outer Galaxy using the VLA, and we surveyed the molecular lines toward these sources to understand the environment of YSOs. Higher H2 column densities of YSOs were found for objects with active H2O masers.

  12. Water-deficit tolerant classification in mutant lines of indica rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriyan Cha-um

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage is a major abiotic stress for crop production worldwide, limiting the productivity of crop species, especially in dry-land agricultural areas. This investigation aimed to classify the water-deficit tolerance in mutant rice (Oryza sativa L. spp. indica genotypes during the reproductive stage. Proline content in the flag leaf of mutant lines increased when plants were subjected to water deficit. Relative water content (RWC in the flag leaf of different mutant lines dropped in relation to water deficit stress. A decrease RWC was positively related to chlorophyll a degradation. Chlorophyll a , chlorophyll b , total chlorophyll , total carotenoids , maximum quantum yield of PSII , stomatal conductance , transpiration rate and water use efficiency in mutant lines grown under water deficit conditions declined in comparison to the well-watered, leading to a reduction in net-photosynthetic rate. In addition, when exposed to water deficit, panicle traits, including panicle length and fertile grains were dropped. The biochemical and physiological data were subjected to classify the water deficit tolerance. NSG19 (positive control and DD14 were identified as water deficit tolerant, and AA11, AA12, AA16, BB13, BB16, CC12, CC15, EE12, FF15, FF17, G11 and IR20 (negative control as water deficit sensitive, using Ward's method.

  13. Dental unit water lines decontamination with the aid of nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Paramashivaiah

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Biofilm formation in DUWLs is inevitable with the subsequent release of part of microbiota into the otherwise sterile dental settings. These consequences can be quite serious on clinicians and dental patients. Though conventional measures in water decontamination have been partly successful, the quest for more foolproof methods has led to the use of latest technology, i.e., nanotechnology. The most practical option has to be chosen based on the ease of their usage.

  14. Dental unit water lines decontamination with the aid of nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Paramashivaiah; M. L. V. Prabhuji; Roopalakshmi Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This article reviews the issue of dental unit waterline (DUWL) contamination which affects all the clinical and hospital settings. The contaminating microorganisms commonly isolated from these settings and the most pathogenic among them have serious consequences. Over the years several measures are inculcated for decontamination of water, their advantages and shortcomings have been addressed. Options using nanotechnology which are available in the market are described briefly. Materi...

  15. Water consumption and biomass production of protoplast fusion lines of poplar hybrids under drought stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eHennig

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Woody crops such as poplars (Populus can contribute to meet the increasing energy demand of a growing human population and can therefore enhance the security of energy supply. Using energy from biomass increases ecological sustainability as biomass is considered to play a pivotal role in abating climate change. Because areas for establishing poplar plantations are often confined to marginal sites drought tolerance is one important trait for poplar genotypes cultivated in short rotation coppice. We tested nine-month-old plants of four tetraploid Populus tremula (L. x P. tremuloides (Michx. lines that were generated by protoplast fusion and their diploid counterpart for water consumption and drought stress responses in a greenhouse experiment. The fusion lines showed equivalent or decreased height growth, stem biomass and total leaf area compared to the diploid line. The relative height increment of the fusion lines was not reduced compared to the diploid line when the plants were exposed to drought. The fusion lines were distinguished from the diploid counterpart by stomatal characteristics such as increased size and lower density. The changes in the stomatal apparatus did not affect the stomatal conductance. When exposed to drought the carbohydrate concentrations increased more strongly in the fusion lines than in the diploid line. Two fusion lines consumed significantly less water with regard to height growth, producing equivalent or increased relative stem biomass under drought compared to their diploid relative. Therefore, these tetraploid fusion lines are interesting candidates for short rotation biomass plantation on dry sites.

  16. Water consumption and biomass production of protoplast fusion lines of poplar hybrids under drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Anne; Kleinschmit, Jörg R G; Schoneberg, Sebastian; Löffler, Sonja; Janßen, Alwin; Polle, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Woody crops such as poplars (Populus) can contribute to meet the increasing energy demand of a growing human population and can therefore enhance the security of energy supply. Using energy from biomass increases ecological sustainability as biomass is considered to play a pivotal role in abating climate change. Because areas for establishing poplar plantations are often confined to marginal sites drought tolerance is one important trait for poplar genotypes cultivated in short rotation coppice. We tested 9-month-old plants of four tetraploid Populus tremula (L.) × P. tremuloides (Michx.) lines that were generated by protoplast fusion and their diploid counterpart for water consumption and drought stress responses in a greenhouse experiment. The fusion lines showed equivalent or decreased height growth, stem biomass and total leaf area compared to the diploid line. The relative height increment of the fusion lines was not reduced compared to the diploid line when the plants were exposed to drought. The fusion lines were distinguished from the diploid counterpart by stomatal characteristics such as increased size and lower density. The changes in the stomatal apparatus did not affect the stomatal conductance. When exposed to drought the carbohydrate concentrations increased more strongly in the fusion lines than in the diploid line. Two fusion lines consumed significantly less water with regard to height growth, producing equivalent or increased relative stem biomass under drought compared to their diploid relative. Therefore, these tetraploid fusion lines are interesting candidates for short rotation biomass plantation on dry sites.

  17. Modeling the water line emission from the high-mass star-forming region AFGL2591

    CERN Document Server

    Poelman, D R

    2007-01-01

    Context: observations of water lines are a sensitive probe of the geometry, dynamics and chemical structure of dense molecular gas. The launch of Herschel with on board HIFI and PACS allow to probe the behaviour of multiple water lines with unprecedented sensitivity and resolution. Aims: we investigate the diagnostic value of specific water transitions in high-mass star-forming regions. As a test case, we apply our models to the AFGL2591 region. Results: in general, for models with a constant water abundance, the ground state lines, i.e., 1_(10)-1_(01), 1_(11)-0_(00), and 2_(12)-1_(01), are predicted in absorption, all the others in emission. This behaviour changes for models with a water abundance jump profile in that the line profiles for jumps by a factor of ~10-100 are similar to the line shapes in the constant abundance models, whereas larger jumps lead to emission profiles. Asymmetric line profiles are found for models with a cavity outflow and depend on the inclination angle. Models with an outflow cav...

  18. Impact of lining material on chemical and microbial irrigation water quality of Nubaria canal, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Azzam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effect of lining material (cement of Nubaria canal (Beheira Governorate, Egypt on its water quality. Methods: Trace metal ions (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd and bacterial indictors for water samples collected from two types of stations (lined and unlined during successive four seasons were analyzed. The effect of lining on bacterial indicators; total viable bacterial count at 22 and 37 °C, total coliform, fecal coliform and fecal streptococci and presence of some bacterial species were studied. Results: Bacterial indicators and trace metals showed seasonal variations, where the highest values were recorded during summer. A significant reduction for Cu (P < 0.05, Zn (P < 0.01 and Cd (P < 0.001 was recorded in lined stations compared to those of unlined ones. Bacterial indicators recorded the lowest counts in lined stations during all seasons, while there was a significant reduction (P < 0.05 between total coliform values (1.70 ± 0.50 in lined stations and unlined ones (3.57 ± 1.01 during summer. Escherichia coli bacteria were predominant in water samples of Nubaria canal, where it recorded 34.4% of bacterial isolates. Conclusions: Lined material plays a role for reducing the bacterial growth and metals concentration, therefore the lining of canal helps in preventing the discharge of sewage pollution into canal.

  19. Widom line and dynamical crossovers as routes to understand supercritical water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, P.; Corradini, D.; Rovere, M.

    2014-12-01

    Supercritical water is fundamental in many fields of applications and a precise characterization of the supercritical state is of uttermost importance for this liquid. In a fluid, when moving from the critical point into the single-phase region, the thermodynamic response functions show maxima reminiscent of the critical divergence. Here we study the thermodynamic properties of water in the supercritical region by analysing both available experimental data and our computer simulation results. We find that the lines connecting the maxima of the response functions converge on approaching the critical point in a single line, the Widom line. We further show that the Widom line coincides with a crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behaviour clearly visible in the transport properties. These thermodynamic and dynamic features show that the supercritical state in water is far more complex than what was so far believed, indicating a new perspective in the characterization of the thermodynamics of this state.

  20. Widom line and dynamical crossovers as routes to understand supercritical water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, P; Corradini, D; Rovere, M

    2014-12-16

    Supercritical water is fundamental in many fields of applications and a precise characterization of the supercritical state is of uttermost importance for this liquid. In a fluid, when moving from the critical point into the single-phase region, the thermodynamic response functions show maxima reminiscent of the critical divergence. Here we study the thermodynamic properties of water in the supercritical region by analysing both available experimental data and our computer simulation results. We find that the lines connecting the maxima of the response functions converge on approaching the critical point in a single line, the Widom line. We further show that the Widom line coincides with a crossover from a liquid-like to a gas-like behaviour clearly visible in the transport properties. These thermodynamic and dynamic features show that the supercritical state in water is far more complex than what was so far believed, indicating a new perspective in the characterization of the thermodynamics of this state.

  1. Development of a centrifugal in-line separator for oil-water flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    The world energy consumption will increase in the next decades. However, many aging oil fields are showing a steady decline in oil production. And they are producing increasing amounts of water, making the separation of the oil from the oil-water mixture an important processing step. In-line separa

  2. Impact of water quality change on corrosion scales in full and partially replaced lead service lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    BackgroundChanges in water qualities have been associated with an increase in lead release from full and partial lead service lines (LSLs), such as the cases of Washington D.C. or more recently of Flint (Mi). Water qualities affect the mineralogy of the scales. Furthermore, follo...

  3. The Influence of Chain Dynamics on the Far Infrared Spectrum of Liquid Methanol-Water Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, K.N.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-07-12

    Far-infrared absorption spectroscopy has been used to study the low frequency ({center_dot} 100 cm{sup -1}) intermolecular modes of methanol in mixtures with water. With the aid of a first principles molecular dynamics simulation on an equivalent system, a detailed understanding about the origin of the low frequency IR modes has been established. The total dipole spectrum from the simulation suggests that the bands appearing in the experimental spectra at approximately 55 cm{sup -1} and 70 cm{sup -1} in methanol and methanol-rich mixtures arise from both fluctuations and torsional motions occurring within the methanol hydrogen-bonded chains. The influence of these modes on both the solvation dynamics and the relaxation mechanisms in the liquid are discussed within the context of recent experimental and theoretical results that have emerged from studies focusing on the short time dynamics in the methanol hydrogen bond network.

  4. Traditional and non-traditional treatments for autism spectrum disorder with seizures: an on-line survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenivasula Swapna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the high prevalence of seizure, epilepsy and abnormal electroencephalograms in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, there is little information regarding the relative effectiveness of treatments for seizures in the ASD population. In order to determine the effectiveness of traditional and non-traditional treatments for improving seizures and influencing other clinical factor relevant to ASD, we developed a comprehensive on-line seizure survey. Methods Announcements (by email and websites by ASD support groups asked parents of children with ASD to complete the on-line surveys. Survey responders choose one of two surveys to complete: a survey about treatments for individuals with ASD and clinical or subclinical seizures or abnormal electroencephalograms, or a control survey for individuals with ASD without clinical or subclinical seizures or abnormal electroencephalograms. Survey responders rated the perceived effect of traditional antiepileptic drug (AED, non-AED seizure treatments and non-traditional ASD treatments on seizures and other clinical factors (sleep, communication, behavior, attention and mood, and listed up to three treatment side effects. Results Responses were obtained concerning 733 children with seizures and 290 controls. In general, AEDs were perceived to improve seizures but worsened other clinical factors for children with clinical seizure. Valproic acid, lamotrigine, levetiracetam and ethosuximide were perceived to improve seizures the most and worsen other clinical factors the least out of all AEDs in children with clinical seizures. Traditional non-AED seizure and non-traditional treatments, as a group, were perceived to improve other clinical factors and seizures but the perceived improvement in seizures was significantly less than that reported for AEDs. Certain traditional non-AED treatments, particularly the ketogenic diet, were perceived to improve both seizures and other clinical

  5. Performance evaluation of non-line-of-sight optical communication system operating in the solar-blind ultraviolet spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, Nikos; Pikasis, Evangelos; Syvridis, Dimitris

    2016-10-01

    For several years, it has been examined if the attributes of the wavelengths in C band of the Ultraviolet (UV) spectrum that lie between 200 and 280 nm can be exploited in order to set up short range covert links of low rate in a Non-Line-of-Sight (NLOS) regime. In the present work, it is experimentally investigated and verified that using this band, short range and low rate NLOS links using the same transmitter/receiver pair under different atmospheric conditions without applying extreme power levels can be implemented rather effectively. The transmitter was composed of four Light Emitting Diodes. At the receiving side, an optical filter was followed by a Photo-Multiplier Tube. Initially, we measured the power losses of the channels with and without fog (artificially generated) for ranges up to 20 meters and several transmitters/receiver configurations. Secondly, the performance of Fourth-order Pulse Position Modulation (4-PPM) and Flip Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (Flip-OFDM) was evaluated for such channels and 10 Kbit/s rate. Applying emissions at 265 nm, NLOS links can operate efficiently especially in harsh environments, as the power losses were lowered when fog appeared. In terms of the modulation formats, 4-PPM performed better in most cases. Better results were obtained for both schemes when the medium became thicker due to the presence of fog. Finally, some initial measurements were realized with a Silicon Carbide PiN photodiode for the same rate but low elevation angles. The performance was exactly the opposite compared to a receiver with inherent gain when the atmosphere thickened.

  6. Spectrum of Singly Charged Uranium (U II : Theoretical Interpretation of Energy Levels, Partition Function and Classified Ultraviolet Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Meftah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to improve U II analysis, the lowest configurations of both parities have been interpreted by means of the Racah-Slater parametric method, using Cowan codes. In the odd parity, including the ground state, 253 levels of the interacting configurations 5 f 3 7 s 2 + 5 f 3 6 d 7 s + 5 f 3 6 d 2 + 5 f 4 7 p + 5 f 5 are interpreted by 24 free parameters and 64 constrained ones, with a root mean square (rms deviation of 60 cm − 1 . In the even parity, the four known configurations 5 f 4 7 s , 5 f 4 6 d , 5 f 2 6 d 2 7 s , 5 f 2 6 d 7 s 2 and the unknown 5 f 2 6 d 3 form a basis for interpreting 125 levels with a rms deviation of 84 cm − 1 . Due to perturbations, the theoretical description of the higher configurations 5 f 3 7 s 7 p + 5 f 3 6 d 7 p remains unsatisfactory. The known and predicted levels of U II are used for a determination of the partition function. The parametric study led us to a re-investigation of high resolution ultraviolet spectrum of uranium recorded at the Meudon Observatory in the late eighties, of which the analysis was unachieved. In the course of the present study, a number of 451 lines of U II has been classified in the region 2344 –2955 Å. One new level has been established as 5 f 3 6 d 7 p ( 4 I 6 K ( J = 5.5 at 39113.98 ± 0.1 cm − 1 .

  7. The absorption spectrum of water vapor in the 1.25 μm atmospheric window (7911-8337 cm-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campargue, A.; Mikhailenko, S. N.; Lohan, Benoit Guillo; Karlovets, E. V.; Mondelain, D.; Kassi, S.

    2015-05-01

    The absorption spectrum of water vapor in "natural" isotopic abundance has been recorded at room temperature by high sensitivity Continuous Wave Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CW-CRDS) between 7911 and 8337 cm-1. The investigated region covers most of the 1.25 μm transparency window of importance for atmospheric applications. The recordings were performed with sensitivity on the order of αmin 2×10-11 cm-1, more than two orders of magnitude better than previous investigations by Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (FTS). Measured line intensities cover a range of seven orders of magnitude (3×10-30-2×10-23 cm/molecule at room temperature). The experimental line list provided as Supplementary Material includes more than 5000 transitions. As a result of the achieved sensitivity, more than 1150 lines of the experimental list were identified as being due to ammonia present as an impurity at the 5 ppm concentration level in the water sample. Although incomplete, the obtained ammonia line list seems to be the first one in the region. More than 3193 water lines were assigned to 3560 transitions of five water isotopologues (H216O, H218O, H217O, HD16O and HD18O). The assignments were performed using known experimental energy levels and calculated spectra based on variational calculations by Schwenke and Partridge. The obtained results are compared to the most relevant previous studies by Fourier Transform Spectroscopy in the region and to the exhaustive review of rovibrational line positions and levels performed recently by an IUPAC sponsored task group. Two-hundred and sixty-six levels are newly determined and 46 are corrected by more than 0.015 cm-1 compared to those recommended by the water IUPAC task group. The overall agreement between variational and measured intensities is satisfactory. A complete empirical list of 4473 transitions incorporating all the experimental information at disposal was constructed for water in the studied region. The intensity cut-off was fixed

  8. Practical Impacts of Galvanic Corrosion in Water Service Lines and Premise Plumbing

    OpenAIRE

    StClair, Justin Monroe

    2013-01-01

    There is emerging concern about the potential for elevated lead in water after water utilities conduct EPA mandated (or voluntary) partial replacements of existing lead service lines. Connections between dissimilar metals results in the accelerated corrosion of the less noble metal via galvanic attack, increasing metal concentrations in water and posing potential public health risks. Many practical problems associated with stopping galvanic attack between copper:galvanized iron and copper:lea...

  9. Contact-line dynamics for water waves and high-Re flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Liu, Ziyuan; Perlin, Marc; Schultz, William W.

    1997-11-01

    An appropriate contact-line model at the gas/liquid/solid trijunction is critical to the prediction of both low-Re flows and high-Re flows such as occur with water waves. Contact-line condition for water waves was proposed by Hocking (1987) and later by Miles (1991) based on Navier's slip relation. However, Cocciaro et al. (1993) and Ting & Perlin (1995) showed that strongly nonlinear contact-line dynamics are present experimentally, and that these dynamics are more complex than Hocking and Miles' models. We present results on the frequency and damping of Faraday water waves in various wave tanks and under different wetting conditions. The surface-elevation decay is analyzed with a complex demodulation technique. Frequency detuning and contact-line damping are found to obey power laws in the wave amplitude. The power-law exponent depends on the wetting condition and the material of which the tank is constructed. A preliminary analysis suggests that an averaged contact-line condition similar to the Tanner's law gives the correct amplitude dependence in frequency and damping. This condition also agrees qualitatively with contact-line data from Ting & Perlin. Preliminary analysis of the boundary layer structure near a moving contact line is carried out in the large-Re limit. Influence of corner flow and some implications from the self-similar Falkner-Skan equation are presented. This research is supported by ONR and NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Program.

  10. Water Distribution Lines, Water System Water Mains, Published in 2011, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, CITY OF PORTAGE.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Distribution Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2011. It is described...

  11. Water Environment Assessment as an Ecological Red Line Management Tool for Marine Wetland Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinan; Chu, Chunli; Liu, Lei; Xu, Shengguo; Ruan, Xiaoxue; Ju, Meiting

    2017-08-02

    A 'red line' was established, identifying an area requiring for ecological protection in Tianjin, China. Within the protected area of the red line area, the Qilihai wetland is an important ecotope with complex ecological functions, although the ecosystem is seriously disturbed due to anthropogenic activities in the surrounding areas. This study assesses the water quality status of the Qilihai wetlands to identify the pollution sources and potential improvements based on the ecological red line policy, to improve and protect the waters of the Qilihai wetlands. An indicator system was established to assess water quality status using single factor evaluation and a comprehensive evaluation method, supported by data from 2010 to 2013. Assessment results show that not all indicators met the requirement of the Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB3838-2002) and that overall, waters in the Qilihai wetland were seriously polluted. Based on these findings we propose restrictions on all polluting anthropogenic activities in the red line area and implementation of restoration projects to improve water quality.

  12. Analysis of {sup 2}H NMR spectra of water molecules on the surface of nano-silica material MCM-41: Deconvolution of the signal into a Lorentzian and a powder pattern line shapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, J., E-mail: jamal.hassan@kustar.ac.ae [Applied Mathematics and Sciences, KUSTAR, UAE and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    Water {sup 2}H NMR signal on the surface of nano-silica material MCM-41 consists of two overlapping resonances. The {sup 2}H water spectrum shows a superposition of a Lorentzian line shape and the familiar NMR powder pattern line shape, indicating the existence of two spin components. Exchange occurs between these two groups. Decomposition of the two signals is a crucial starting point to study the exchange process. In this article we have determined these spin component populations along with other important parameters for the {sup 2}H water NMR signal over a temperature range between 223 K and 343 K.

  13. Effect of New Water-Soluble Dendritic Phthalocyanines on Human Colorectal and Liver Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru YABAŞ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells and colorectal adenocarcinoma (DLD-1 cells were treated with the synthesized water soluble phthalocyanine derivatives to understand the effect of the compounds both on colorectal and liver cancer cells. The compounds inhibited cell proliferation and displayed cytotoxic effect on these cancer cell lines however; the effect of the compounds on healthy control fibroblast cell line was comparatively lower. The compounds can be employed for cancer treatment as anticancer agents.

  14. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  15. Effects of Water Exercise Swimming Program on Aquatic Skills and Social Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 10 week water exercise swimming program (WESP) on the aquatic skills and social behaviors of 16 boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the first 10 week phase (phase I), eight children (group A) received the WESP while eight children (group B) did not. A second 10 week phase…

  16. Circular dichroism spectrum of [Co(en)(3)](3+) in water : A discrete solvent reaction field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, L.; Swart, Marcel; Van Duijnen, Piet Th.; Autschbach, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this work we investigate the circular dichroism (CD) spectrum of [Co(en)(3)](3+) in water, using the discrete solvent reaction field (DRF) model. The DRF model is a polarizable quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) model. The implementation of the DRF model for CD spectra calculations bas

  17. Effects of Water Exercise Swimming Program on Aquatic Skills and Social Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 10 week water exercise swimming program (WESP) on the aquatic skills and social behaviors of 16 boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the first 10 week phase (phase I), eight children (group A) received the WESP while eight children (group B) did not. A second 10 week phase…

  18. Water Masers in the Andromeda Galaxy: I. A Survey for Water Masers, Ammonia, and Hydrogen Recombination Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Darling, Jeremy; Amiri, Nikta; Lawrence, Kelsey

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of a Green Bank Telescope survey for water masers, ammonia (1,1) and (2,2), and the H66-alpha recombination line toward 506 luminous compact 24 micron-emitting regions in the Andromeda Galaxy (M31). We include the 206 sources observed in the Darling (2011) water maser survey for completeness. The survey was sensitive enough to detect any maser useful for ~10 microarcsecond/yr astrometry. No new water masers, ammonia lines, or H66-alpha recombination lines were detected individually or in spectral stacks reaching rms noise levels of ~3 mJy and ~0.2 mJy, respectively, in 3.1-3.3 km/s channels. The lack of detections in individual spectra and in the spectral stacks is consistent with Galactic extrapolations. Contrary to previous assertions, there do not seem to be additional bright water masers to be found in M31. The strong variability of water masers may enable new maser detections in the future, but variability may also limit the astrometric utility of known (or future) masers since flar...

  19. Disinfection of dental unit water line using aloe vera: in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareek, Sonia; Nagaraj, Anup; Sharma, Prateek; Atri, Mansi; Walia, Satinder; Naidu, Shravani; Yousuf, Asif

    2013-01-01

    Context. Dental unit waterlines may be heavily contaminated with microorganisms and are a potential source of infection for both practicing staff and immunocompromised patients particularly. Contamination of dental unit water lines could be inhibited with the use of disinfectants. The present study investigates the effect of aloe-vera-based disinfectant in reducing the microbial growth in dental unit water lines (DUWLs). Aims. To compare the efficacy of aloe vera, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) in controlling microbial contamination of DUWLs. Materials and Methods. After obtaining baseline water samples, the dental unit waterlines were treated with aloe vera, 10% hydrogen peroxide, and 5% sodium hypochlorite. Each of the three disinfectants was used in increasing concentrations and their inhibiting effect was compared. Water samples were analyzed for microbiological quality by the total viable count (TVC) method. Statistical Analysis Used. SPSS 16. Results. There was significant reduction in mean CFU/ml when treated with disinfectants each for a period of one week. Aloe-vera solution was found to be the most effective in reducing the microbial colonies. Conclusions. Improving the water quality from dental unit water lines is of considerable importance; chemical-based disinfectants can be replaced with herbal disinfectants for treating microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines.

  20. Disinfection of Dental Unit Water Line Using Aloe Vera: In Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Pareek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. Dental unit waterlines may be heavily contaminated with microorganisms and are a potential source of infection for both practicing staff and immunocompromised patients particularly. Contamination of dental unit water lines could be inhibited with the use of disinfectants. The present study investigates the effect of aloe-vera-based disinfectant in reducing the microbial growth in dental unit water lines (DUWLs. Aims. To compare the efficacy of aloe vera, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, and 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl in controlling microbial contamination of DUWLs. Materials and Methods. After obtaining baseline water samples, the dental unit waterlines were treated with aloe vera, 10% hydrogen peroxide, and 5% sodium hypochlorite. Each of the three disinfectants was used in increasing concentrations and their inhibiting effect was compared. Water samples were analyzed for microbiological quality by the total viable count (TVC method. Statistical Analysis Used. SPSS 16. Results. There was significant reduction in mean CFU/ml when treated with disinfectants each for a period of one week. Aloe-vera solution was found to be the most effective in reducing the microbial colonies. Conclusions. Improving the water quality from dental unit water lines is of considerable importance; chemical-based disinfectants can be replaced with herbal disinfectants for treating microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines.

  1. Water Environment Assessment as an Ecological Red Line Management Tool for Marine Wetland Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinan Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A ‘red line’ was established, identifying an area requiring for ecological protection in Tianjin, China. Within the protected area of the red line area, the Qilihai wetland is an important ecotope with complex ecological functions, although the ecosystem is seriously disturbed due to anthropogenic activities in the surrounding areas. This study assesses the water quality status of the Qilihai wetlands to identify the pollution sources and potential improvements based on the ecological red line policy, to improve and protect the waters of the Qilihai wetlands. An indicator system was established to assess water quality status using single factor evaluation and a comprehensive evaluation method, supported by data from 2010 to 2013. Assessment results show that not all indicators met the requirement of the Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water (GB3838-2002 and that overall, waters in the Qilihai wetland were seriously polluted. Based on these findings we propose restrictions on all polluting anthropogenic activities in the red line area and implementation of restoration projects to improve water quality.

  2. In-Line Oil-Water Separation in Swirling Flow (USB stick)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, J.J.; van Campen, L.J.A.M.; Hoeijmakers, Hendrik Willem Marie; Mudde, R.F.; Johansen, S.T.

    2011-01-01

    An in-line oil-water separator has been designed and is investigated for single- and two-phase flow. Numerical single-phase flow results show an annular reversed flow region. This flow pattern agrees qualitatively with results from measurements. In the two-phase flow simulations two different drag

  3. Evaluation of Bacterial Contamination of Water Supply in Dental Unit Water Lines at Zahedan Dental School 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollashahi Leila

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment of microbial contamination in dental unit waterlines has been focused on because of high risk of dangerous infections in immunocompromised patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bacterial contamination of water supply in dental unit water lines at Zahedan Dental School.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study we investigated 400 water samples collected from four parts of each unit including air/water syringe, turbine handpiece (before & after flushing, cup filler and 1 water sample collected from city water reservoir in Zahedan faculty of dentistry during 2008. Water samples were taken on Saturdays (the first working day in a week and Wednesdays (the last working day in a week, before and after treatment on the same unit. Samples were transported in closed sterile containers to microbiology laboratory. All samples were incubated on blood agar and McCankey plates for 72 hours at 37°C. Bacterial contamination were then evaluted. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and t-test.Results: Total mean bacterial count was 6914 cfu/ml. Mean bacterial contamination on Saturdays (8859 cfu/ml were higher than Wednesdays (4969 cfu/ml. Mean bacterial contamination before treatment was (5155 cfu/ml less than the end of treatment (8673 cfu/ml on the same unit. Mean bacterial contaminations of prosthetics clinic (13439cfu/ml was higher than other clinics. The mean of periodentology clinic bacterial contaminations (3012 cfu/ml was the least.Conclusion: The result of this study demonstrated that microbiological level of dental unit water lines is high. The dentists must be aware of the high level of microorganisms in the dental unit's water and thus minimize the risk of infection in both staff and patients.

  4. Occurrence of Mycobacteria in Water Treatment Lines and in Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dantec, Corinne; Duguet, Jean-Pierre; Montiel, Antoine; Dumoutier, Nadine; Dubrou, Sylvie; Vincent, Véronique

    2002-01-01

    The frequency of recovery of atypical mycobacteria was estimated in two treatment plants providing drinking water to Paris, France, at some intermediate stages of treatment. The two plants use two different filtration processes, rapid and slow sand filtration. Our results suggest that slow sand filtration is more efficient for removing mycobacteria than rapid sand filtration. In addition, our results show that mycobacteria can colonize and grow on granular activated carbon and are able to enter distribution systems. We also investigated the frequency of recovery of mycobacteria in the water distribution system of Paris (outside buildings). The mycobacterial species isolated from the Paris drinking water distribution system are different from those isolated from the water leaving the treatment plants. Saprophytic mycobacteria (present in 41.3% of positive samples), potentially pathogenic mycobacteria (16.3%), and unidentifiable mycobacteria (54.8%) were isolated from 12 sites within the Paris water distribution system. Mycobacterium gordonae was preferentially recovered from treated surface water, whereas Mycobacterium nonchromogenicum was preferentially recovered from groundwater. No significant correlations were found among the presence of mycobacteria, the origin of water, and water temperature. PMID:12406720

  5. High-Resolution {\\it Chandra} Spectroscopy of tau Scorpii A Narrow-Line X-ray Spectrum From a Hot Star

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, D H; MacFarlane, J J; Miller, N A; Cassinelli, J P; Owocki, S P; Liedahl, D A; Cohen, David H.; Messi\\`{e}res, Genevi\\`{e}ve E. de; Farlane, Joseph J. Mac; Miller, Nathan A.; Cassinelli, Joseph P.; Owocki, Stanley P.; Liedahl, Duane A.

    2003-01-01

    Long known to be an unusual early-type star by virtue of its hard and strong X-ray emission, tau Scorpii poses a severe challenge to the standard picture of O star wind-shock X-ray emission. The Chandra HETGS spectrum now provides significant direct evidence that this B0.2 star does not fit this standard wind-shock framework. The many emission lines detected with the Chandra gratings are significantly narrower than what would be expected from a star with the known wind properties of tau Sco, although they are broader than the corresponding lines seen in late-type coronal sources. While line ratios are consistent with the hot plasma on this star being within a few stellar radii of the photosphere, from at least one He-like complex there is evidence that the X-ray emitting plasma is located more than a stellar radius above the photosphere. The Chandra spectrum of tau Sco is harder and more variable than those of other hot stars, with the exception of the young magnetized O star theta Ori C. We discuss these new...

  6. Health concerns of heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria in dental equipment water lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Martin J; Edberg, Stephen C

    2016-06-01

    There is an unsubstantiated concern as to the health relevance of HPC (heterotrophic plate count) bacteria in dental equipment waterlines. The American Dental Association (ADA) web site includes guidelines for controlling HPC populations and implies that HPC populations >500 CFU/mL as a "health" benchmark. The world-wide published literature including the United Nations fully examined this situation and concluded that HPC bacteria are not a health risk, but merely a general water quality parameter for all waters including dental water lines. This review provides documentation that the standard measurement of HPC bacteria in waters alone do not pose a health risk and the ADA already provides appropriate practices to minimize HPC bacteria in dental equipment water.

  7. Microscopic structure and gas-gas critical line of the Ar-water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, M.A. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Amaldi' , Universita degli Studi ' Roma Tre' , Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: riccim@fis.uniroma3.it; Mancinelli, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Amaldi' , Universita degli Studi ' Roma Tre' , Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Lu Russo, M. [ESRF, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Botti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Amaldi' , Universita degli Studi ' Roma Tre' , Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Bruni, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Amaldi' , Universita degli Studi ' Roma Tre' , Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Rome (Italy); Soper, A.K. [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2006-11-15

    The dependence of the derivative of the gas-gas critical temperature on the microscopic structure of a mixture is analyzed using neutron diffraction on the Ar-water system at two solute concentrations. At low Ar concentration the critical line departs from the critical point of the solvent with negative derivative: at a microscopic level this corresponds to a repulsive solute-solvent interaction, keeping Ar atoms outside the first water-water neighboring shell. As the solute concentration increases at constant temperature and pressure, the critical temperature goes through a minimum and eventually Ar atoms enter the first neighbor water shell. At this point, no H-bonding between water molecules is visible.

  8. Pathogenic Escherichia coli producing Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases isolated from surface water and wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Eelco; Veenman, Christiaan; van Hoek, Angela H A M; de Roda Husman, Ana; Blaak, Hetty

    2015-09-24

    To assess public health risks from environmental exposure to Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBL)-producing bacteria, it is necessary to have insight in the proportion of relative harmless commensal variants and potentially pathogenic ones (which may directly cause disease). In the current study, 170 ESBL-producing E. coli from Dutch wastewater (n = 82) and surface water (n = 88) were characterized with respect to ESBL-genotype, phylogenetic group, resistance phenotype and virulence markers associated with enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), extraintesinal E. coli (ExPEC), and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Overall, 17.1% of all ESBL-producing E. coli were suspected pathogenic variants. Suspected ExPECs constituted 8.8% of all ESBL-producing variants and 8.3% were potential gastrointestinal pathogens (4.1% EAEC, 1.8% EPEC, 1.2% EIEC, 1.2% ETEC, no STEC). Suspected pathogens were significantly associated with ESBL-genotype CTX-M-15 (X(2) = 14.7, P < 0.001) and phylogenetic group B2 (X(2) = 23.5, P < 0.001). Finally, 84% of the pathogenic ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were resistant to three or more different classes of antibiotics. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the aquatic environment is a potential reservoir of E. coli variants that combine ESBL-genes, a high level of multi-drug resistance and virulence factors, and therewith pose a health risk to humans upon exposure.

  9. Countercurrent Air-Water Flow in a Scale-Down Model of a Pressurizer Surge Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Futatsugi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam generated in a reactor core and water condensed in a pressurizer form a countercurrent flow in a surge line between a hot leg and the pressurizer during reflux cooling. Characteristics of countercurrent flow limitation (CCFL in a 1/10-scale model of the surge line were measured using air and water at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The experimental results show that CCFL takes place at three different locations, that is, at the upper junction, in the surge line, and at the lower junction, and its characteristics are governed by the most dominating flow limitation among the three. Effects of inclination angle and elbows of the surge line on CCFL characteristics were also investigated experimentally. The effects of inclination angle on CCFL depend on the flow direction, that is, the effect is large for the nearly horizontal flow and small for the vertical flow at the upper junction. The presence of elbows increases the flow limitation in the surge line, whereas the flow limitations at the upper and lower junctions do not depend on the presence of elbows.

  10. Improved Ligand-Field Calculation of Energy Spectrum and R-Line Thermal Shift of MgO:Cr3+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zheng-Jie; MA Dong-Ping

    2007-01-01

    Traditional ligand-field theory has to be improved by taking into account both pure electronic contribution and electron-phonon interaction one (including lattice-vibrational relaxation energy). By means of improved ligand-field theory, the R-line, t322T1 lines, t22(3T1)e4T2, and t22(3T1)e4T1 bands, ground-state g factor, four strain-induced levelsplittings, and R-line thermalshift of MgO:Cr3+ have been calculated. The results are in very good agreement with the experimental data. It is found that for MgO:Cr3+, the contributions due to electron-phonon interaction (EPI) come from the first-order term. In thermal shift of R-line of MgO:Cr3+, the temperature-dependent contribution due to EPI is dominant.

  11. Wavelet packet decomposition entropy threshold method for discrete spectrum interferences rejection of on-line partial discharge monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The frequency domain division theory of dyadic wavelet decomposition and wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) with orthogonal wavelet base frame are presented. The WPD coefficients of signals are treated as the outputs of equivalent bandwidth filters with different center frequency. The corresponding WPD entropy values of coefficients increase sharply when the discrete spectrum interferences (DSIs), frequency spectrum of which is centered at several frequency points existing in some frequency region. Based on WPD, an entropy threshold method (ETM) is put forward, in which entropy is used to determine whether partial discharge (PD) signals are interfered by DSIs. Simulation and real data processing demonstrate that ETM works with good efficiency, without pre-knowing DSI information. ETM extracts the phase of PD pulses accurately and can calibrate the quantity of single type discharge.

  12. A upper limit for water dimer absorption in the 750 nm spectral region and a revised water line list

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. L. Shillings

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The absorption of solar radiation by water dimer molecules in the Earth's atmosphere can potentially act as a positive feedback effect for climate change. There seems little doubt from the results of previous laboratory and theoretical studies that significant concentrations of the water dimer should be present in the atmosphere, yet attempts to detect water dimer absorption signatures in atmospheric field studies have so far yielded inconclusive results. Here we report spectral measurements in the near-infrared in the expected region of the third overtone of the water dimer hydrogen-bonded OHb stretching vibration around 750 nm. The results were obtained using broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy (BBCRDS, a methodology that allows absorption measurements to be made under controlled laboratory conditions but over absorption path lengths representative of atmospheric conditions. In order to account correctly and completely for overlapping absorption of monomer molecules in the same spectral region, we have also constructed a new list of spectral data (UCL08 for the water monomer in the 750–20 000 cm−1 (13 μm–500 nm range.

    Our results show that the additional lines included in the UCL08 spectral database provide a substantially improved representation of the measured water monomer absorption in the 750 nm region, particularly at wavelengths dominated by weak monomer absorption features. No absorption features which could not be attributed to the water monomer were detected in the BBCRDS experiments up to water mixing ratios more than an order of magnitude greater than those in the ambient atmosphere. The absence of detectable water dimer features leads us to conclude that, in the absence of significant errors in calculated dimer oscillator strengths or monomer/dimer equilibrium constants, the widths of water dimer features present around 750 nm must be substantially greater (~100 cm−1 HWHM than

  13. FTS Measurements of Submillimeter-Wave Atmospheric Opacity at Pampa la Bola: III. Water Vapor, Liquid Water, and 183GHz Water Vapor Line Opacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Satoki; Matsuo, Hiroshi

    2003-02-01

    Further analysis has been made on the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave (100-1600GHz or 3mm-188 μm) atmospheric opacity data taken with the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) at Pampa la Bola, 4800 m above the sea level in northern Chile, which is the site of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Time-sequence plots of millimeter- and submillimeter-wave opacities show similar variations to each other, except for during the periods with liquid water (fog or clouds) in the atmosphere. Using millimeter- and submillimeter-wave opacity correlations under two conditions, which are affected and not affected by liquid water, we succeeded to separate the measured opacity into water vapor and liquid water opacity components. The water vapor opacity shows a good correlation with the 183GHz water vapor line opacity, which is also covered in the measured spectra. On the other hand, the liquid water opacity and the 183GHz line opacity show no correlation. S ince only the water vapor component is expected to affect the phase of interferometers significantly, and the submillimeter-wave opacity is less affected by the liquid water component, it may be possible to use the submillimeter-wave opacity for a phase correction of submillimeter interferometers.

  14. Vertically oriented Ti-Fe-O nanotube array films: toward a useful material architecture for solar spectrum water photoelectrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Gopal K; Prakasam, Haripriya E; Varghese, Oomman K; Shankar, Karthik; Grimes, Craig A

    2007-08-01

    In an effort to obtain a material architecture suitable for high-efficiency visible spectrum water photoelectrolysis, herein we report on the fabrication and visible spectrum (380-650 nm) photoelectrochemical properties of self-aligned, vertically oriented Ti-Fe-O nanotube array films. Ti-Fe metal films of variable composition, iron content ranging from 69% to 3.5%, co-sputtered onto FTO-coated glass are anodized in an ethylene glycol + NH4F electrolyte. The resulting amorphous samples are annealed in oxygen at 500 degrees C, resulting in nanotubes composed of a mixed Ti-Fe-O oxide. Some of the iron goes into the titanium lattice substituting titanium ions, and the rest either forms alpha-Fe2O3 crystallites or remains in the amorphous state. Depending upon the Fe content, the band gap of the resulting films ranges from about 380 to 570 nm. The Ti-Fe oxide nanotube array films are utilized in solar spectrum water photoelectrolysis, demonstrating 2 mA/cm2 under AM 1.5 illumination with a sustained, time-energy normalized hydrogen evolution rate by water splitting of 7.1 mL/W.hr in a 1 M KOH solution with a platinum counter electrode under an applied bias of 0.7 V. The surface morphology, structure, elemental analysis, optical, and photoelectrochemical properties of the Ti-Fe oxide nanotube array films are considered.

  15. Water quality in water lines of dental units in the public dental health service in Göteborg, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Alenäs-Jarl, Elna; Hjort, Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    Presence of bacteria in high levels in the water lines of dental units is well known. The extent of this problem is however less well studied.This study was conducted to evaluate the water quality of all dental units within the Public Dental Health Service (Folktandvården, FTV) of the city of Göteborg, Sweden. 405 dental units in 35 clinics were tested.The evaluation included both "fast growing" (2 days incubation) and "slow growing" (7 days incubation) bacteria in 50 ml water sample from the units. The presence of potential pathogens, e.g., coliforms, Pseudomonas spp and Legionella pneumophila were also examined. Of the 405 dental units, 303 (75%) did not have acceptable (desinfection of all units of the Public Dental Health Service is needed.

  16. Can the bump in the composite spectrum of GRB 910503 be an emission line feature of gamma-ray bursts?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Ping Qin; Fu-Wen Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Appearing in the composite spectral data of BATSE, EGRET and COMPTEL for GRB 910503, there is a bump at around 1600keV. We perform a statistical analysis on the spectral data, trying to find out if the bump could be accounted for by a blue-shifted and significantly broadened rest frame line due to the Doppler effect of an expanding fireball surface. We made an F-test and adopted previously proposed criteria. The study reveals that the criteria are well satisfied and the feature can be interpreted as the blue shifted 6.4 keV line. From the fit with this line taken into account, we find the Lorentz factor of this source to be Γ = 116+9-9 (at the 68% confident level,△X2 = 1) and the rest frame spectral peak energy to be EO,p= 2.96+0.24-0.18 keV. Although the existence of the emission line feature requires other independent tests to confirm, the analysis suggests that it is feasible to detect emission line features in the high energy range of GRB spectra when taking into account the Doppler effect of fireball expansion.

  17. Spectrum of the sound produced by a jet impinging on the gas-water interface of a supercavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, A. W.; Howe, M. S.; Brungart, T. A.

    2010-02-01

    An analysis is made of the sound generated by the impingement of an air jet on the gas-water interface of a supercavity. The water is in uniform low Mach number motion over the interface. The interface is rippled by the jet, which produces an unsteady surface force on the water that behaves as a dipole or monopole acoustic source, respectively, at high and low frequencies. In a first approximation the very large difference in the gas density and that of water implies that the surface force is similar to that occurring when a jet impinges on a rigid wall. Data from recent measurements by Foley (2009, Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Boston University) of the frequency spectrum of the surface force produced by the impact of a turbulent jet on a wall are used to formulate an analytical representation of the spectrum and thence to predict the sound produced in water when the same jet impinges on the cavity interface. The prediction is used to estimate the characteristics of gas jet impingement noise for an experimental supercavitating vehicle in use at the Applied Research Laboratory of Penn State University.

  18. Modeling the quantum interference signatures of the Ba II D2 4554 A line in the second solar spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Smitha, H N; Stenflo, J O; Sampoorna, M

    2013-01-01

    Quantum interference effects play a vital role in shaping the linear polarization profiles of solar spectral lines. The Ba II D2 line at 4554 A is a prominent example, where the F-state interference effects due to the odd isotopes produce polarization profiles, which are very different from those of the even isotopes that have no F-state interference. It is therefore necessary to account for the contributions from the different isotopes to understand the observed linear polarization profiles of this line. Here we do radiative transfer modeling with partial frequency redistribution (PRD) of such observations while accounting for the interference effects and isotope composition. The Ba II D2 polarization profile is found to be strongly governed by the PRD mechanism. We show how a full PRD treatment succeeds in reproducing the observations, while complete frequency redistribution (CRD) alone fails to produce polarization profiles that have any resemblance with the observed ones. However, we also find that the li...

  19. Percolation line, response functions, and Voronoi polyhedra analysis in supercritical water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Škvor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of a physical relevance (meaning of percolation in supercritical fluids is addressed considering a primitive model of water. Two different criteria, physical and configurational, are used for the cluster definition in Monte Carlo simulations over a range of pressures to determine the percolation line and skewness, and a theoretical analytic equation of state is used to evaluate response functions. It is found that both criteria yield practically the same percolation line. However, unlike the findings for simple fluids, the loci of the response function extrema exhibit density/pressure dependence quite different from that of the percolation line. The only potential coincidence between the loci of the extrema of a thermodynamic property and a detectable structural change is found for the coefficient of isothermal compressibility and Voronoi neighbors distribution skewness maximum.

  20. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor for monitoring drinking water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højris, Bo; Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Smith, Christian; Dahlqvist, Mathis

    2016-04-04

    Today, microbial drinking water quality is monitored through either time-consuming laboratory methods or indirect on-line measurements. Results are thus either delayed or insufficient to support proactive action. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor with a 10-minute time resolution has been developed. The sensor is based on 3D image recognition, and the obtained pictures are analyzed with algorithms considering 59 quantified image parameters. The sensor counts individual suspended particles and classifies them as either bacteria or abiotic particles. The technology is capable of distinguishing and quantifying bacteria and particles in pure and mixed suspensions, and the quantification correlates with total bacterial counts. Several field applications have demonstrated that the technology can monitor changes in the concentration of bacteria, and is thus well suited for rapid detection of critical conditions such as pollution events in drinking water.

  1. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor for monitoring drinking water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højris, Bo; Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Smith, Christian; Dahlqvist, Mathis

    2016-04-01

    Today, microbial drinking water quality is monitored through either time-consuming laboratory methods or indirect on-line measurements. Results are thus either delayed or insufficient to support proactive action. A novel, optical, on-line bacteria sensor with a 10-minute time resolution has been developed. The sensor is based on 3D image recognition, and the obtained pictures are analyzed with algorithms considering 59 quantified image parameters. The sensor counts individual suspended particles and classifies them as either bacteria or abiotic particles. The technology is capable of distinguishing and quantifying bacteria and particles in pure and mixed suspensions, and the quantification correlates with total bacterial counts. Several field applications have demonstrated that the technology can monitor changes in the concentration of bacteria, and is thus well suited for rapid detection of critical conditions such as pollution events in drinking water.

  2. High power testing of water-cooled waveguide for ITER-like ECH transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. P.; Doane, J. L.; Grunloh, H. J.; O'Neill, R. C.; Ikeda, R.; Oda, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Sakamoto, K.

    2017-05-01

    The results of high power testing of new water-cooled ECH waveguide components for ITER are presented. The components are a precision-coupled 4.2 m waveguide assembly, a short expansion joint, and water-cooled waveguide for gyrotron commissioning. The testing was conducted at the QST Naka Fusion Institute using gyrotron pulses of 450 kW at 170 GHz for 300 s. Analysis shows that the power absorbed per unit length for the various waveguide components are dependent on location in the transmission line with respect to high order mode generators, such as miter bends. Additionally, larger-than-expected reflections from the load led to high absorption levels in the transmission line.

  3. On-line determination of oxygen isotope ratios of water or ice by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, M; Huber, C

    2002-09-15

    Oxygen isotope ratio determination on any of the water phases (water vapor, water, ice) is of great relevance in different research fields such as climate and paleoclimate studies, geological surveys, and hydrological studies. The conventional technique for oxygen isotope measurement involves equilibration with carbon dioxide gas for a given time with a subsequent isotope determination. The equilibration technique is available in different layouts, but all of them are rather time-consuming. Here we report a new on-line technique that processes water samples as well as ice samples. The same principal, CO2 hydration, is used but speeded up by (i) a direct injection and full dissolution of CO2 in the water, (ii) an increased isotope exchange temperature at 50 degrees C, and (iii) a rapid gas extraction by means of an air-permeable membrane into a continuous helium flux supplying the isotope ratio mass spectrometer with the sample gas. The precision is better than 0.1/1000 which is only slightly larger than with the conventional equilibration technique. This on-line technique allows analysis of 1 m of ice with a resolution of 1-3 cm, depending on the meltwater flux, within 1 h. Similarly, continuous and fast analysis can be performed for aqueous samples for hydrological, geological, and perhaps medical applications.

  4. Raman Spectroscopy for In-Line Water Quality Monitoring—Instrumentation and Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyun Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the access to safe drinking water is a huge problem. In fact, the number of persons without safe drinking water is increasing, even though it is an essential ingredient for human health and development. The enormity of the problem also makes it a critical environmental and public health issue. Therefore, there is a critical need for easy-to-use, compact and sensitive techniques for water quality monitoring. Raman spectroscopy has been a very powerful technique to characterize chemical composition and has been applied to many areas, including chemistry, food, material science or pharmaceuticals. The development of advanced Raman techniques and improvements in instrumentation, has significantly improved the performance of modern Raman spectrometers so that it can now be used for detection of low concentrations of chemicals such as in-line monitoring of chemical and pharmaceutical contaminants in water. This paper briefly introduces the fundamentals of Raman spectroscopy, reviews the development of Raman instrumentations and discusses advanced and potential Raman techniques for in-line water quality monitoring.

  5. ExoMol molecular line lists - XVI: The rotation-vibration spectrum of hot H$_2$S

    CERN Document Server

    Azzam, Ala'a A A; Yurchenko, Sergei N; Naumenko, Olga V

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the AYT2 line list: a comprehensive list of 114 million $^{1}$H$_2$$^{32}$S vibration-rotation transitions computed using an empirically-adjusted potential energy surface and an {\\it ab initio} dipole moment surface. The line list gives complete coverage up to 11000 \\cm\\ (wavelengths longer than 0.91 $\\mu$m) for temperatures up to 2000 K. Room temperature spectra can be simulated up to 20000 \\cm\\ (0.5 $\\mu$m) but the predictions at visible wavelengths are less reliable. AYT2 is made available in electronic form as supplementary data to this article and at \\url{www.exomol.com}.

  6. ExoMol molecular line lists - XVI. The rotation-vibration spectrum of hot H2S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Ala'a. A. A.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Naumenko, Olga V.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents the AYT2 line list: a comprehensive list of 115 million 1H232S vibration-rotation transitions computed using an empirically adjusted potential energy surface and an ab initio dipole moment surface. The line list gives complete coverage up to 11 000 cm-1 (wavelengths longer than 0.91 μm) for temperatures up to 2000 K. Room temperature spectra can be simulated up to 20 000 cm-1 (0.5 μm) but the predictions at visible wavelengths are less reliable. AYT2 is made available in electronic form as supplementary data to this paper at www.exomol.com.

  7. Water Absorption From Line-of-Sight Clouds Toward W49A

    CERN Document Server

    Plume, R; Neufeld, D A; Snell, R L; Hollenbach, D J; Goldsmith, P F; Howe, J; Bergin, E A; Melnick, G J; Bensch, F; Plume, Rene; Kaufman, Michael J.; Neufeld, David A.; Snell, Ronald L.; Hollenbach, David J.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Howe, John; Bergin, Edwin A.; Melnick, Gary J.; Bensch, Frank

    2004-01-01

    We have observed 6 clouds along the line-of-sight toward W49A using the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS) and several ground-based observatories. The ortho-H2O 1-0 and OH (1665 and 1667 MHz) transitions are observed in absorption, whereas the low-J CO, 13CO, and C18O lines, as well as the [CI] 1-0 transition, are seen in emission. By using both the o-H218O and o-H2O absorption lines, we are able to constrain the column-averaged o-H_2O abundances in each line-of-sight cloud to within about an order of magnitude. Assuming the standard N(H2)/N(CO) ratio of 10^4, we find N(o-H2O)/N(H2) = 8.1 x 10^-8 - 4 x 10^-7 for three clouds with optically thin water lines. In three additional clouds, the H$_2$O lines are saturated so we have used observations of the H218O ground-state transition to find upper limits to the water abundance of 8.2x 10^-8 - 1.5x10^-6. We measure the OH abundance from the average of the 1665 and 1667 MHz observations and find N(OH)/N(H2) = 2.3x10^-7 - 1.1x10^-6. The o-H2O and OH abund...

  8. Environmental Assessment of the Prather Water Line Improvement Project Otero County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    remaining two sites has not been determined (LA II244I, LA I55866). From June II to June 13, 2008, archeologists from Ecological Communications...the pipeline on wildlife, vegetation, sensitive ecological features, and sensitive species. 4.4.2 Potential Impacts 4.4.2.1 Alternative A: U.S...Assessment - Prather Water Line Improvement Project April 2009 5-1 6.0 LIST OF PREP ARERS Victor Palma , EComm Quality Assurance Officer B.S. in Biology

  9. A Relativistic Fe K-alpha Emission Line in the Intermediate Luminosity BeppoSAX Spectrum of the Galactic Microquasar V4641 Sgr

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, J M; in 't Zand, J J M; Reynolds, C S; Wijnands, R; Nowak, M A; Lewin, W H G

    2002-01-01

    Broad Fe K-alpha emission lines have recently been reported in a number of Galactic black holes. Such lines are useful accretion flow diagnostics because they may be produced at the inner accretion disk and shaped by relativistic effects, but in general they have only been observed at luminosities of L_X = 10^(37-38) erg/s in soft X-rays. The Galactic microquasar V4641 Sgr -- widely known for its 12.2 Crab (1.5-12 keV) outburst in 1999 September -- displayed low-level activity in 1999 March. BeppoSAX observed the source in this state and Fe K-alpha line emission was found (in 't Zand et al. 2000). In re-analyzing these data, we find strong evidence that the Fe K-alpha line profile is broadened. For the most likely values of the source distance and black hole mass measured by Orosz et al. (2001), our fits to the total spectrum indicate that the source was observed at a luminosity of L_X = 1.9 (+1.0, -0.8) * 10^(36) erg/s (2-10 keV), or L_(2-10)/L_(Eddington) = 1.8 (+0.9, -0.8) * 10^(-3). Advection-dominated ac...

  10. Food, water, and fault lines: Remote sensing opportunities for earthquake-response management of agricultural water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Jenna, E-mail: jmmartin@ucdavis.edu; Ustin, Susan; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel; O' Geen, Anthony Toby

    2016-09-15

    Earthquakes often cause destructive and unpredictable changes that can affect local hydrology (e.g. groundwater elevation or reduction) and thus disrupt land uses and human activities. Prolific agricultural regions overlie seismically active areas, emphasizing the importance to improve our understanding and monitoring of hydrologic and agricultural systems following a seismic event. A thorough data collection is necessary for adequate post-earthquake crop management response; however, the large spatial extent of earthquake's impact makes challenging the collection of robust data sets for identifying locations and magnitude of these impacts. Observing hydrologic responses to earthquakes is not a novel concept, yet there is a lack of methods and tools for assessing earthquake's impacts upon the regional hydrology and agricultural systems. The objective of this paper is to describe how remote sensing imagery, methods and tools allow detecting crop responses and damage incurred after earthquakes because a change in the regional hydrology. Many remote sensing datasets are long archived with extensive coverage and with well-documented methods to assess plant-water relations. We thus connect remote sensing of plant water relations to its utility in agriculture using a post-earthquake agrohydrologic remote sensing (PEARS) framework; specifically in agro-hydrologic relationships associated with recent earthquake events that will lead to improved water management. - Highlights: • Remote sensing to improve agricultural disaster management • Introduce post-earthquake agrohydrologic remote sensing (PEARS) framework • Apply PEARS framework to 2010 Maule Earthquake in Central Chile.

  11. Food, water, and fault lines: Remote sensing opportunities for earthquake-response management of agricultural water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jenna; Ustin, Susan; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel; O'Geen, Anthony Toby

    2016-09-15

    Earthquakes often cause destructive and unpredictable changes that can affect local hydrology (e.g. groundwater elevation or reduction) and thus disrupt land uses and human activities. Prolific agricultural regions overlie seismically active areas, emphasizing the importance to improve our understanding and monitoring of hydrologic and agricultural systems following a seismic event. A thorough data collection is necessary for adequate post-earthquake crop management response; however, the large spatial extent of earthquake's impact makes challenging the collection of robust data sets for identifying locations and magnitude of these impacts. Observing hydrologic responses to earthquakes is not a novel concept, yet there is a lack of methods and tools for assessing earthquake's impacts upon the regional hydrology and agricultural systems. The objective of this paper is to describe how remote sensing imagery, methods and tools allow detecting crop responses and damage incurred after earthquakes because a change in the regional hydrology. Many remote sensing datasets are long archived with extensive coverage and with well-documented methods to assess plant-water relations. We thus connect remote sensing of plant water relations to its utility in agriculture using a post-earthquake agrohydrologic remote sensing (PEARS) framework; specifically in agro-hydrologic relationships associated with recent earthquake events that will lead to improved water management.

  12. Recirculation pump discharge line break tests at ROSA-III for a boiling water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.; Anoda, Y.; Kumamaru, H.; Nakamura, H.; Shiba, M.; Tasaka, K.

    1985-08-01

    Three loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) tests were conducted at the Rig of Safety Assessment (ROSA)-III test facility, which simulates boiling water reactor (BWR)/6-251 with a volumetric scaling factor of 1/424. The fundamental features of the recirculation pump discharge line break LOCA and the effects of break areas on the features are investigated. It has been confirmed experimentally that the LOCA phenomena in the discharge line break are analogous to those in the suction line break with the same effective choking flow area, which is a sum of the least choking flow areas along the break flow paths and controls the system pressure responses. In general, the maximum effective choking flow area is (A /SUB j/ + A /SUB p/ ) for discharge line breaks and (A /SUB j/ + A /SUB o/ ) for suction line breaks, where A /SUB j/ , A /SUB p/ , and A /SUB o/ are the flow areas of the jet pump drive nozzles, the main recirculation pump discharge nozzle, and the break, respectively. The similarity between the ROSA-III test and a BWR LOCA has been confirmed in the key phenomena by the analyses using the RELAP5/MOD1 code. An atypical behavior is observed in the fuel rod surface temperature transient in the early phase of blowdown due to the limitation of the ROSA-III initial core power.

  13. Dynamic response analysis of the equivalent water depth truncated point of the catenary mooring line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huo-ming; Kong, Ling-bin; Guan, Wei-bing; Huang, Sai-hua; Fang, Gui-sheng

    2017-03-01

    The real-time computer-controlled actuators are used to connect the truncated parts of moorings and risers in the active hybrid model testing system. This must be able to work in model-scale real time, based on feedback input from the floater motions. Thus, mooring line dynamics and damping effects are artificially simulated in real time, based on a computer-based model of the problem. In consideration of the nonlinear characteristics of the sea platform catenary mooring line, the equations of the mooring line motion are formulated by using the lumped-mass method and the dynamic response of several points on the mooring line is investigated by the time and frequency domain analysis method. The dynamic response of the representative point on the mooring line is analyzed under the condition of two different corresponding upper endpoint movements namely sine wave excitation and random wave excitation. The corresponding laws of the dynamic response between the equivalent water depth truncated points at different locations and the upper endpoint are obtained, which can provide technical support for further study of the active hybrid model test.

  14. An upper limit for water dimer absorption in the 750 nm spectral region and a revised water line list

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. L. Shillings

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Absorption of solar radiation by water dimer molecules in the Earth's atmosphere has the potential to act as a positive feedback effect for climate change. There seems little doubt from the results of previous laboratory and theoretical studies that significant concentrations of the water dimer should be present in the atmosphere, yet attempts to detect water dimer absorption signatures in atmospheric field studies have so far yielded inconclusive results. Here we report spectral measurements in the near-infrared around 750 nm in the expected region of the | 0〈f | 4〉b|0 〉 overtone of the water dimer's hydrogen-bonded OH stretching vibration. The results were obtained using broadband cavity ringdown spectroscopy (BBCRDS, a methodology that allows absorption measurements to be made under controlled laboratory conditions but over absorption path lengths representative of atmospheric conditions. In order to account correctly and completely for the overlapping absorption of monomer molecules in the same spectral region, we have also constructed a new list of spectral data (UCL08 for the water monomer in the 750–20 000 cm−1 (13 μm–500 nm range.

    Our results show that the additional lines included in the UCL08 spectral database provide an improved representation of the measured water monomer absorption in the 750 nm region. No absorption features other than those attributable to the water monomer were detected in BBCRDS experiments performed on water vapour samples containing dimer concentrations up to an order of magnitude greater than expected in the ambient atmosphere. The absence of detectable water dimer features leads us to conclude that, in the absence of significant errors in calculated dimer oscillator strengths or monomer/dimer equilibrium constants, the widths of any water dimer absorption features present around 750 nm are of the order of 100 cm−1 HWHM, and certainly greater

  15. Line-of-Sight Anisotropies in the Cosmic Dawn and Epoch of Reionization 21-cm Power Spectrum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Suman Majumdar; Kanan K. Datta; Raghunath Ghara; Rajesh Mondal; T. Roy Choudhury; Somnath Bharadwaj; Sk. Saiyad Ali; Abhirup Datta

    2016-12-01

    The line-of-sight direction in the redshifted 21-cm signal coming from the cosmic dawn and the epoch of reionization is quite unique in many ways compared to any other cosmological signal. Different unique effects, such as the evolution history of the signal, non-linear peculiar velocities of the matter etc. will imprint their signature along the line-of-sight axis of the observed signal. One of the major goals of the future SKA-LOW radio interferometer is to observe the cosmic dawn and the epoch of reionization through this 21-cm signal. It is thus important to understand how these various effects affect the signal for its actual detection and proper interpretation. For more than one and half decades, various groups in India have been actively trying to understand and quantify the different line-of-sight effects that are present in this signal through analytical models and simulations. In many ways the importance of this sub-field under 21-cm cosmology have been identified, highlighted and pushed forward by the Indian community. In this article, we briefly describe their contribution and implication of these effects in the context of the future surveys of the cosmic dawn and the epoch of reionization that will be conducted by the SKA-LOW.

  16. ExoMol line lists VII: The rotation-vibration spectrum of phosphine up to 1500 K

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa-Silva, Clara; Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive hot line list is calculated for $^{31}$PH$_3$ in its ground electronic state. This line list, called SAlTY, contains almost 16.8 billion transitions between 7.5 million energy levels and it is suitable for simulating spectra up to temperatures of 1500~K. It covers wavelengths longer than 1~$\\mu$m and includes all transitions to upper states with energies below $hc \\cdot 18\\,000$~cm$^{-1}$ and rotational excitation up to $J=46$. The line list is computed by variational solution of the Schr\\"odinger equation for the rotation-vibration motion employing the nuclear-motion program TROVE. A previously reported {\\it ab initio} dipole moment surface is used as well as an updated `spectroscopic' potential energy surface (PES), obtained by refining an existing \\textit{ab initio} surface through least-squares fitting to the experimentally derived energies. Detailed comparisons with other available sources of phosphine transitions confirms SAlTY's accuracy and illustrates the incompleteness of previous ex...

  17. Drinking Water Disinfection by In-line Electrolysis: Product and Inorganic By-Product Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, M. E. Henry

    This section covers peculiarities of so-called in-line electrolysis when drinking water is electrolysed to produce disinfection species killing microorganisms. Mainly mixed oxide electrodes (MIO) based on IrO2 and/or RuO2 coatings and boron-doped diamond electrodes were used in the studies. Artificial and real drinking water systems were electrolysed in continuous and discontinuous operating mode, varying water composition, current density and electrode materials. Results show, besides the ability of producing active chlorine, risks of inorganic disinfection by-products (DBPs) such as chlorate, perchlorate, nitrite, ammonium, chloramines, hydrogen peroxide and others. DBPs are responsible for analysis errors using DPD method for active chlorine measurements. Geometry may influence by-product yield. As a conclusion, the necessity of developing test routines for practical cell applications must be underlined.

  18. Enhancing Chlorination Fundamentals for Water Treatment Technology IV Course Using On-Line Multi-Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masengo Ilunga

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current paper demonstrates the use of on-line multi-media, i.e. "chlorination of natural waters" and "dissociation of weak acids" from Merlot database, to enhance teaching and learning for Water Treatment Technology IV course material. This database focuses on fundamental concepts for chlorination as one of the most prominent disinfection treatment technology processes in the world and in South Africa. The course is part of the curriculum for the bachelor of technology degree in civil engineering, water specialisation at the University of South Africa (Unisa. The evaluation of these Merlot learning objects shows that accessibility, interaction usability, learning goal alignment, adaptation and motivation may be achieved during learning.

  19. Detection of copper in water using on-line plasma-excited atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porento, Mika; Sutinen, Veijo; Julku, Timo; Oikari, Risto

    2011-06-01

    A measurement method and apparatus was developed to measure continuously toxic metal compounds in industrial water samples. The method was demonstrated by using copper as a sample metal. Water was injected into the sample line and subsequently into a nitrogen plasma jet, in which the samples comprising the metal compound dissolved in water were decomposed. The transmitted monochromatic light was detected and the absorbance caused by copper atoms was measured. The absorbance and metal concentration were used to calculate sensitivity and detection limits for the studied metal. The sensitivity, limit of detection, and quantification for copper were 0.45 ± 0.02, 0.25 ± 0.01, and 0.85 ± 0.04 ppm, respectively.

  20. Stirring by deep cyclones and the evolution of Denmark strait overflow water observed at line W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, M.; Toole, J. M.; Torres, D. J.; Smethie, W. M.; Joyce, T. M.; Curry, R. G.

    2016-03-01

    Shipboard velocity and water property data from 18 transects across the North Atlantic Deep Western Boundary Current (DWBC) near 40 °N are examined to study the evolution of the Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) component of the DWBC and mixing between DSOW and the interior. The examined transects along Line W - which stretches from the continental shelf south of New England to Bermuda - were made between 1994 and 2014. The shipboard data comprise measurements at regular stations of velocity from lowered acoustic Doppler current profilers, CTD profiles and trace gas chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) concentrations from bottle samples at discrete depths. Comparison of the Line W velocity sections with concurrent sea surface height maps from satellite altimetry indicates that large cyclones in the deep ocean accompany intermittent quasi-stationary meander troughs in the Gulf Stream path at Line W. A composite of 5 velocity sections along Line W suggests that a typical cyclone reaches swirl speeds of greater than 30 cm s-1 at 3400-m depth and has a radius (distance between the center and the maximum velocity) of 75 km. Tracer data suggest that these cyclones affect not only the deep velocity structure along Line W, but also provide a mechanism for water exchange between the DWBC's DSOW and the interior. Vigorous exchange is corroborated by a mismatch in the CFC-11:CFC-12 and CFC-113:CFC-12 ratio ages calculated for DSOW at Line W. During the most recent 5-year period (2010-2014), a decrease in DSOW density has been driven by warming (increasing by almost 0.1 °C) as salinity has increased only slightly (by 0.003, which is close to the 0.002 uncertainty of the measurements). The abyssal ocean offshore of the DWBC and Gulf Stream and deeper than 3000-m depth has freshened at a rate of 6×10-4 yr-1 since at least 2003. Density here remains nearly unchanged over this period, due to temperature compensation, though a linear cooling trend in the abyssal ocean (to compensate the

  1. The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, S. R. [ORNL; Daniel, A. [Southwire Company

    2013-10-31

    The purpose of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and Southwire Company was to jointly develop a low cost, commercially viable, water-repellant anti-icing coating system for high voltage transmission lines. Icing of power lines and other structures caused by freezing rain events occurs annually in the United States, and leads to severe and prolonged power outages. These outages cause untold economic and personal distress for many American families and businesses. Researchers at the Department of Energy?s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee have previously developed a set of superhydrophobic coatings with remarkable anti-icing properties that could potentially be sprayed or painted onto high-tension power lines and pylons. These coatings drastically reduce ice accumulation on these structures during freezing rain events. The project involved obtaining technical input, supplies and test high voltage cables from Southwire, along with the joint development of anti-icing coating techniques, which would result in a commercial license agreement between Southwire and ORNL, and potentially other companies requiring water repellent anti-icing coatings.

  2. The commercial development of water repellent coatings for high voltage transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, Scott Robert [ORNL

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC and Southwire Company was to jointly develop a low cost, commercially viable, water-repellant anti-icing coating system for high voltage transmission lines. Icing of power lines and other structures caused by freezing rain events occurs annually in the United States, and leads to severe and prolonged power outages. These outages cause untold economic and personal distress for many American families and businesses. Researchers at the Department of Energy s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee have previously developed a set of superhydrophobic coatings with remarkable anti-icing properties that could potentially be sprayed or painted onto high-tension power lines and pylons. These coatings drastically reduce ice accumulation on these structures during freezing rain events. The project involved obtaining technical input, supplies and test high voltage cables from Southwire, along with the joint development of anti-icing coating techniques, which would result in a commercial license agreement between Southwire and ORNL, and potentially other companies requiring water repellent anti-icing coatings.

  3. The variable 6307A emission line in the spectrum of Eta Carinae: blueshifted [S III] 6313A from the interacting winds

    CERN Document Server

    Gull, T R

    2009-01-01

    The 6307A emission line in the spectrum of Eta Car (Martin et al. 2006) is blue-shifted [S III] 6313A emission originating from the outer wind structures of the massive binary system. We realized the identfication while analyzing multiple forbidden emission lines not normally seen in the spectra of massive stars. The high spatial and moderate spectral resolutions of HST/STIS resolve forbidden lines of Fe+, N+, Fe++, S++, Ne++ and Ar++ into spatially and velocity-resolved rope-like features originating from collisionally-excited ions photo-ionized by UV photons or collisions. While the [Fe II] emission extends across a velocity range of +/-500 km/s out to 0."7, more highly ionized forbidden emissions are systematically blue-shifted (-500 to +200 km/s) and extend only to 0."4. The [Fe II] defines the outer regions of the massive primary wind. The [N II], [Fe III] emission define the the outer wind interaction regions directly photo-ionized by far-UV radiation. Variations in emission of [S III] 9533A, 9071A and ...

  4. The absorption spectrum of water vapor in the 2.2 μm transparency window: High sensitivity measurements and spectroscopic database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campargue, A.; Mikhailenko, S. N.; Vasilchenko, S.; Reynaud, C.; Béguier, S.; Čermák, P.; Mondelain, D.; Kassi, S.; Romanini, D.

    2017-03-01

    The weak absorption spectrum of water vapor in the important 2.2 μm transparency window is investigated with very high sensitivity. Overall, about 400 absorption lines were measured by Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) and Optical-Feedback-Cavity Enhanced Laser Spectroscopy (OF-CEAS) in five spectral intervals: 4248.2-4257.3, 4298.4-4302.6, 4336.8.5-4367.5, 4422.4-4441.2 and 4514.6-4533.7 cm-1. The achieved sensitivity of the recordings (noise equivalent absorption, αmin, on the order of 2×10-10 cm-1) allowed detecting transitions with intensity values down to 1×10-28 cm/molecule, more than one order of magnitude better than previous studies by Fourier Transform spectroscopy. The rovibrational assignment was performed on the basis of variational calculations and of previously determined empirical energy values. Most of the newly assigned lines correspond to transitions of the ν1, ν3 and 3ν2 bands of H217O in natural isotopic abundance. Fourteen energy levels of H217O, H218O and HD18O are newly determined. An accurate and complete spectroscopic database is constructed for natural water in the 4190-4550 cm-1 region (2.39-2.20 μm). The list includes about 4500 transitions with intensity greater than 1×10-29 cm/molecule, for the six most abundant isotopologues in natural isotopic abundance. Line positions were obtained by difference of empirical energy values determined from literature data and complemented with the present CRDS results. The list is made mostly complete by including weak transitions not yet detected, with positions calculated from empirical levels and variational intensities. The variational intensities computed by a collaboration between the University College London and the Institute of Applied Physics in Nizhny Novgorod are found to improve significantly previous results by Schwenke and Partridge. Examples of comparison of the constructed line list to CRDS spectra and to simulations based on the HITRAN2012 list illustrate the advantages

  5. The soft X-ray spectrum of the luminous narrow line Seyfert galaxy PG1211+143

    CERN Document Server

    Pounds, K A

    2013-01-01

    An XMM-Newton observation of the luminous Seyfert galaxy PG1211+143 in 2001 showed the first evidence for a highly ionised high speed wind (in a non-BAL AGN), with a velocity of v~0.1c based on the identification of blue-shifted absorption lines in both EPIC and RGS spectra. An order-of-magnitude lower velocity was subsequently claimed based on an ion-by-ion model fit to the soft X-ray data. Although repeated observations with XMM-Newton, Chandra and Suzaku confirmed a high velocity, all were based on detection of blue-shifted absorption lines of highly ionised Fe. We show here, in a new analysis of the XMM-Newton RGS data, that the high velocity is indeed present in the soft X-ray spectra, with the higher spectral resolution providing evidence for a second, lower ionisation component close to the systemic velocity of PG1211+143. Variability of the more highly ionised absorption component conforms with that found previously in EPIC spectra in excluding a local origin, while broad emission features are identif...

  6. The Absorption Spectrum of High-Density Stellar Ejecta in the Line-of-Sight to Eta Carinae

    CERN Document Server

    Gull, T R; Bruhweiler, F C; Nielsen, K E; Verner, E; Danks, A

    2004-01-01

    Using the high dispersion NUV mode of the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to observe Eta Carinae, we have resolved and identified over 500 sharp, circumstellar absorption lines of iron-group singly-ionized and neutral elements with ~20 velocity components ranging from -146 km/s to -585 km/s. These lines are from transitions originating from ground and metastable levels as high as 40,000 cm-1 above ground. The absorbing material is located either in dense inhomogeneities in the stellar wind, the warm circumstellar gas immediately in the vicinity of Eta Carinae, or within the cooler foreground lobe of the Homunculus. We have used classical curve-of-growth analysis to derive atomic level populations for FeII at -146 km/s and for TiII at -513 km/s. These populations, plus photoionization and statistical equilibrium modeling, provide electron temperatures, Te, densities, n, and constraints on distances from the stellar source, r. For the -146 km/s component, we d...

  7. Detection of water molecules in inert gas based plasma by the ratios of atomic spectral lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatskiy, A. V.; Ochkin, V. N.

    2017-01-01

    A new approach is considered to detect the water leaks in inert plasma-forming gas present in the reactor chamber. It is made up of the intensity ratio of D α and H α spectral lines in combination with O, Ar and Xe lines intensity. The concentrations of H2O, O, H and D particles have been measured with high sensitivity. At the D2 admixture pressure {{p}{{\\text{D}\\text{2}}}}   =  0.025 mbar, we used the acquisition time of 10 s to measure the rate of water molecules injected from the outside, Γ0  =  1.4 · 10-9 mbar · m3 · s-1, and the incoming water molecules to plasma, Γ  =  5 ·10-11 mbar · m3 · s-1. The scaling proves that at small D2 admixtures (10-4 mbar), the leaks with the rates Γ0  ≈  6 · 10-12 mbar · m3 · s-1 and Γ  ≈  2 · 10-13 mbar · m3 · s-1 can be detected and measured. The difference between Γ0 and Γ values is due to the high degree of H2O dissociation, which can be up to 97-98%.

  8. Upper Limits on the 21 cm Power Spectrum at z = 5.9 from Quasar Absorption Line Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Pober, Jonathan C; Mesinger, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    We present upper limits on the 21 cm power spectrum at $z = 5.9$ calculated from the model-independent limit on the neutral fraction of the intergalactic medium of $x_{\\rm H{\\small I }} < 0.06 + 0.05\\ (1\\sigma)$ derived from dark pixel statistics of quasar absorption spectra. Using 21CMMC, a Markov chain Monte Carlo Epoch of Reionization analysis code, we explore the probability distribution of 21 cm power spectra consistent with this constraint on the neutral fraction. We present 99 per cent confidence upper limits of $\\Delta^2(k) < 10$ to $20\\ {\\rm mK}^2$ over a range of $k$ from 0.5 to $2.0\\ h{\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$, with the exact limit dependent on the sampled $k$ mode. This limit can be used as a null test for 21 cm experiments: a detection of power at $z=5.9$ in excess of this value is highly suggestive of residual foreground contamination or other systematic errors affecting the analysis.

  9. Methods of Fitting a Straight Line to Data: Examples in Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Robert M.; Gilroy, Edward J.

    1984-01-01

    Three methods of fitting straight lines to data are described and their purposes are discussed and contrasted in terms of their applicability in various water resources contexts. The three methods are ordinary least squares (OLS), least normal squares (LNS), and the line of organic correlation (OC). In all three methods the parameters are based on moment statistics of the data. When estimation of an individual value is the objective, OLS is the most appropriate. When estimation of many values is the objective and one wants the set of estimates to have the appropriate variance, then OC is most appropriate. When one wishes to describe the relationship between two variables and measurement error is unimportant, then OC is most appropriate. Where the error is important in descriptive problems or in calibration problems, then structural analysis techniques may be most appropriate. Finally, if the problem is one of describing some geographic trajectory, then LNS is most appropriate.

  10. Detection of artificial water flows by the lateral line system of a benthic feeding cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Margot A B; Sevey, Benjamin J; Webb, Jacqueline F

    2016-04-01

    The mechanosensory lateral line system of fishes detects water motions within a few body lengths of the source. Several types of artificial stimuli have been used to probe lateral line function in the laboratory, but few studies have investigated the role of flow sensing in benthic feeding teleosts. In this study, we used artificial flows emerging from a sandy substrate to assess the contribution of flow sensing to prey detection in the peacock cichlid, Aulonocara stuartgranti, which feeds on benthic invertebrates in Lake Malawi. Using a positive reinforcement protocol, we trained fish to respond to flows lacking the visual and chemical cues generated by tethered prey in prior studies with A. stuartgranti Fish successfully responded to artificial flows at all five rates presented (characterized using digital particle image velocimetry), and showed a range of flow-sensing behaviors, including an unconditioned bite response. Immediately after lateral line inactivation, fish rarely responded to flows and the loss of vital fluorescent staining of hair cells (with 4-di-2-ASP) verified lateral line inactivation. Within 2 days post-treatment, some aspects of flow-sensing behavior returned and after 7 days, flow-sensing behavior and hair cell fluorescence both returned to pre-treatment levels, which is consistent with the reported timing of hair cell regeneration in other vertebrates. The presentation of ecologically relevant water flows to assess flow-sensing behaviors and the use of a positive reinforcement protocol are methods that present new opportunities to study the role of flow sensing in the feeding ecology of benthic feeding fishes.

  11. The calibration and initial results of the HeI D3 line flash spectrum obtained during the 2008 total solar eclipse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; ZHOU TuanHui; LI JingWei; SHEN JinHua; JI HaiSheng; NI HouKun; ZHANG HaiYing; ZHANG YaNan; LIU HongRui; DENG YuanYong; WANG DongGuang; DU QiuSheng

    2009-01-01

    The flash spectra in the Hel D3 line were obtained during the 2008 total solar eclipse. This paper describes the instrument and the calibration of the obtained flash spectrum, and presents our initial results.The average integrated intensity is E_(ave)=8.13×10~(13)erg·cm~(-1)·s~(-1)·ster~(-1)ath=1100km,which confirms that the Hel D3 emission is negatively correlated with the solar activity. The surface brightness reaches a maximum of F_(ave)=8.25×10~5 erg·cm~(-2)·s~(-1)·ster(-1) at about h≈(1290±75) km and then decreases exponentially with height when h > 1800 km with an exponential index β= 1.63×10~(-8)cm~(-1).

  12. The calibration and initial results of the HeI D3 line flash spectrum obtained during the 2008 total solar eclipse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The flash spectra in the HeI D3 line were obtained during the 2008 total solar eclipse. This paper describes the instrument and the calibration of the obtained flash spectrum, and presents our initial results. The average integrated intensity is Eave = 8.13×1013 erg·cm-1· s-1·ster-1 at h = 1100 km, which confirms that the HeI D3 emission is negatively correlated with the solar activity. The surface brightness reaches a maximum of F ave = 8.25×105 erg·cm-2·s-1·ster-1 at about h ≈ (1290 ± 75) km and then decreases exponentially with height when h >1800 km with an exponential index β = 1.63×10-8 cm-1.

  13. Effects of soil heterogeneity on steady state soil water pressure head under a surface line source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. Fred; Parkin, Gary W.; Kachanoski, R. Gary; Smith, James E.

    2002-07-01

    There are numerous analytical solutions available for flow in unsaturated homogeneous porous media. In this paper, the stream tube model for one-dimensional water movement is extended to two-dimensional (2-D) water movement from a line source as the stream plane model. As well, new solutions are derived to predict the mean and variance of pressure head of water movement under a surface line source in heterogeneous soil using the perturbation method with first-order approximation (PM1) and with second-order approximation (PM2). A variance expression was also developed based on the spectral relationship presented by Yeh et al. [1985a]. The new solutions were tested using the 2-D stream plane model with parameters A = ln(α) and Y = ln(KS) and measurements from field experiments. Results show that the mean of steady state pressure head below the line source is not only a function of the mean parameter values but also a function of the variances of A and Y and the linear cross-correlation coefficient (ρ) between A and Y. The PM2 model can predict the mean pressure head accurately in heterogeneous soils at any level of correlation between A and Y, except when both the soil variability and ρ are high. The pressure head variance estimation based on the PM1 model predicts the measured variance well only when both the soil variability and ρ are low. The field experimental results show that both the PM1 and the spectral models give reasonable predictions of the pressure head variance. Both the measured and predicted values of the variance of pressure head using the two models increase with the depth of soil. Both models show that the variance of pressure head decreases as the source strength increases, but on average, the pressure head variance was underestimated by both models.

  14. Water vapor absorption line intensities in the 1900-6600 cm{sup -1} region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailenko, S.N. [Laboratory of Theoretical Spectroscopy, Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1, Akademicheskaya Avenue, 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation)], E-mail: semen@lts.iao.ru; Keppler Albert, K.A. [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 58, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Physical Chemistry, ETH Zuerich, Hoenggerberg, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Mellau, G.; Klee, S. [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 58, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Winnewisser, B.P.; Winnewisser, M. [Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 58, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Tyuterev, Vl.G. [Groupe de Spectrometrie Moleculaire et Atmospherique, UMR CNRS 6089, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Reims, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, 51687 Reims Cedex 2 (France)

    2008-11-15

    Water vapor infrared spectra have been measured using the Bruker IFS 120 HR Fourier transform spectrometer at the Physikalisch-Chemisches Institut of the Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen. Spectra were recorded at pressure-broadening-limited resolution and at room temperature in the range of 1900-6600 cm{sup -1}. The use of fully evacuated transfer optics and a White-type multireflection cell made it possible to obtain pressurexpathlength products up to 31.27 mbarx288.5 m. These spectra have previously been used to determine experimental values of rovibrational line positions and upper energy levels of the 2{nu}{sub 2}, {nu}{sub 1}, and {nu}{sub 3} bands [Mikhailenko SN, Tyuterev VlG, Keppler KA, Winnewisser BP, Winnewisser M, Mellau G, et. al. The 2{nu}{sub 2} band of water: analysis of new FTS measurements and high-K{sub a} transitions and energy levels. J Mol Spectrosc 1997;184: 330-49] and of the 3{nu}{sub 2}, {nu}{sub 1}+{nu}{sub 2}, and {nu}{sub 2}+{nu}{sub 3} bands [Mikhailenko SN, Tyuterev VlG, Starikov VI, Albert KK, Winnewisser BP, Winnewisser M, et al. Water spectra in the region 4200-6250 cm{sup -1}, extended analysis of {nu}{sub 1}+{nu}{sub 2}, {nu}{sub 2}+{nu}{sub 3}, and 3{nu}{sub 2} bands and confirmation of highly excited states from flame spectra and from atmospheric long-path observations. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 2002; 213: 91-121]. This work presents the intensities of 3769 lines for the weak and medium transitions in the spectral range indicated. These data provide an independent source of experimental information which is complementary to intensity data available in the literature and can thus help to evaluate experimental errors and the reliability of these spectral line parameters.

  15. Research of On-line Analytical Method of Trace Oxygen and Water in Argon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Metal sodium has an active chemical quality. When it is used as a coolant in a fast neutron reactor, it must be protected by a cover gas argon for safety operation of the reactor. But oxygen and water in argon can produce chemical reaction with sodium. Then sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide and hydrogen can be produced. This will be harmful to the safety operation of reactor. The purpose of controlling a level of impurity in the cover gas is for controlling a level of impurity in sodium. The research is to find an on-line determining method and a sampling system to monitor

  16. Water Distribution Lines, Published in 2001, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, North Georgia Regional Development Center.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Distribution Lines dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2001. Data by this...

  17. Water Distribution Lines, pipe features, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Distribution Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as...

  18. Water Distribution Lines, spriceline, Published in 1997, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Carbon County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Distribution Lines dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 1997. It is described as...

  19. A far wing line shape theory and its application to the water vibrational bands (II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Tipping, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to a far wing line shape theory based on binary collision and quasi-static approximations. The theory is applicable for both the LF and HF wings of vibrational-rotational bands. It is used to calculate the frequency and temperature dependence of the continuous absorption coefficient for frequencies up to 10,000/cm for pure water vapor. The results are compared with existing laboratory data in the 2400-2700/cm window and in the 3000-4300/cm band center region, with field measurements in the 2000-2225/cm region and with a recent experimental measurement near 9466/cm. It is concluded that both the magnitude and temperature dependence of the water vapor continuum can be accounted for by the present theory without the introduction of any adjustable parameters. Refinements of the theory and extension to foreign-broadened absorption are also discussed.

  20. Enhanced small-angle scattering connected to the Widom line in simulations of supercooled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikfeldt, K T; Huang, C; Nilsson, A; Pettersson, L G M

    2011-06-07

    We present extensive simulations on the TIP4P∕2005 water model showing significantly enhanced small-angle scattering (SAS) in the supercooled regime. The SAS is related to the presence of a Widom line (T(W)) characterized by maxima in thermodynamic response functions and Ornstein-Zernike correlation length. Recent experimental small-angle x-ray scattering data [Huang et al., J. Chem. Phys. 133, 134504 (2010)] are excellently reproduced, albeit with an increasing temperature offset at lower temperatures. Assuming the same origin of the SAS in experiment and model this suggests the existence of a Widom line also in real supercooled water. Simulations performed at 1000 bar show an increased abruptness of a crossover from dominating high-density (HDL) to dominating low-density (LDL) liquid and strongly enhanced SAS associated with crossing T(W), consistent with a recent determination of the critical pressure of TIP4P∕2005 at 1350 bar. Furthermore, good agreement with experimental isothermal compressibilities at 1000, 1500, and 2000 bar shows that the high pressure supercooled thermodynamic behavior of water is well described by TIP4P∕2005. Analysis of the tetrahedrality parameter Q reveals that the HDL-LDL structural transition is very sharp at 1000 bar, and that structural fluctuations become strongly coupled to density fluctuations upon approaching T(W). Furthermore, the tetrahedrality distribution becomes bimodal at ambient temperatures, an observation that possibly provides a link between HDL-LDL fluctuations and the structural bimodality in liquid water indicated by x-ray spectroscopic techniques. Computed x-ray absorption spectra are indeed found to show sensitivity to the tetrahedrality parameter.

  1. [Microbial settlement of paint- and building-materials in the sphere of drinking water. 5. Communication: Macrocolonies on the cement mortar lining in a water main (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenen, D

    1980-09-01

    It is reported a microbial growth in form of macrocolonies on a cement mortar line in a potable water main. Simultaneously an increase of bacterial content in the water could be observed. The bacterial content could be reduced by chlorination, but the microbial growth on the surface of the lining was not suppressed. Macrocolonies could be observed the same as before at the last inspection 6 1/2 years after opening of the main.

  2. On-line strategies for determining trace levels of nitroaromatic explosives and related compounds in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzi, C; Albiñana, J; Carlsson, H; Holmgren, E; Batlle, R

    2007-06-15

    We report the development and tests of several systems for the simultaneous determination of 18 energetic compounds and related congeners in untreated water samples. In these systems a Restricted Access Material trap or liquid-chromatography precolumn (with a C(18) or porous graphitic carbon, PGC, stationary phase) followed by a PGC analytical column are used for sample clean-up, enrichment and separation of the trace level analytes, which are then analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS). The relative merits of two MS ionization interfaces (atmospheric pressure chemical ionization, APCI, and atmospheric pressure photoionization, APPI) were also compared for the MS identification and quantification of these analytes. APCI was found to be superior in cases where both alternatives are applicable. A major drawback when applying APPI is that no signal is obtained for the cyclic nitramines and nitrate esters. Using APCI, a wide spectrum of unstable compounds can be determined in a single analysis, and the feasibility of using large volume samples (up to 100 mL) in combination with the sensitivity of the MS detection system provide method detection limits ranging from 2.5 pg/mL (for 2,4-dinitrotoluene and 2,6-diamino-6-nitrotoluene) to 563 pg/mL (for pentaerythritol tetranitrate, PETN), with repeatability ranging from 2 to 7%. Other chemometric parameters such as robustness, selectivity, repeatability, and intermediate precision were also evaluated in the validation of the extraction methods for use in water analysis. Tests with untreated groundwater and drinking water samples, spiked with 20 ng of the analytes, yielded results similar to those obtained with high purity water samples.

  3. Enhanced lines and box-shaped features in the gamma-ray spectrum from annihilating dark matter in the NMSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Cerdeno, D G; Robles, S

    2015-01-01

    We study spectral features in the gamma-ray emission from dark matter (DM) annihilation in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), with either neutralino or right-handed (RH) sneutrino DM. We perform a series of scans over the NMSSM parameter space, compute the DM annihilation cross section into two photons and the contribution of box-shaped features, and compare them with the limits derived from the Fermi-LAT search for gamma-ray lines using the latest Pass 8 data. We implement the LHC bounds on the Higgs sector and on the masses of supersymmetric particles as well as the constraints on low-energy observables. We also consider the recent upper limits from the Fermi-LAT satellite on the continuum gamma-ray emission from dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). We show that in the case of the RH sneutrino the constraint on gamma-ray spectral features can be more stringent than the dSphs bounds. This is due to the Breit-Wigner enhancement near the ubiquitous resonances with a CP even Higgs and the ...

  4. Physical parameters for Orion KL from modelling its ISO high resolution far-IR CO line spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Lerate, M R; Viti, S; Barlow, M J; Swinyard, B M; White, G J; Cernicharo, J; Goicoechea, J R

    2008-01-01

    As part of the first high resolution far-IR spectral survey of the Orion KL region (Lerate et al. 2006), we observed 20 CO emission lines with Jup=16 to Jup=39 (upper levels from approx 752 K to 4294 K above the ground state). Observations were taken using the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), in its high resolution Fabry-Perot (FP) mode (approx 33 km s$^{-1}$). We present here an analysis of the final calibrated CO data, performed with a more sophisticated modelling technique than hitherto, including a detailed analysis of the chemistry, and discuss similarities and differences with previous results. The inclusion of chemical modelling implies that atomic and molecular abundances are time-predicted by the chemistry. This provides one of the main differences with previous studies in which chemical abundances needed to be assumed as initial condition. The chemistry of the region is studied by simulating the conditions of the different known components of the KL r...

  5. Phase transitions in the coal-water-methane system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeev, A.D.; Ulyanova, E.V.; Kalugina, N.A.; Degtyar, S.E. [Institute of Physical & Mining Processes, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    2006-07-01

    Low temperature phase transitions in water and methane occurring in fossil coals were studied experimentally using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques. Contributions of constituent fluids into narrow line of {sup 1}H NMR wide line spectrum were analyzed.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Water masers in M31. I. Recombination lines (Darling+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, J.; Gerard, B.; Amiri, N.; Lawrence, K.

    2016-09-01

    We constructed a catalog of 506 unresolved 24um sources from the Spitzer 24um map of M31 (Gordon et al. 2006ApJ...638L..87G); see Figure 1. Darling (2011ApJ...732L...2D) observed 206 24um sources in M31 using the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in 2010 October through December. The 616-523 22.23508GHz ortho-water maser line observations were reported in Darling (2011ApJ...732L...2D), but simultaneous observations of the para-ammonia (NH3) rotational ground-state inversion transitions in the metastable states (J,K)=(1,1) and (2,2) at 23.6945 and 23.72263GHz, respectively, and the hydrogen recombination line H66α at 22.36417GHz were not. We subsequently observed all four of these lines toward an additional 300 24um sources in 2011 October through 2012 January. The resolution of the 24um Spitzer image is 6" (Gordon et al. 2006ApJ...638L..87G), so the unresolved IR sources remained within the 33" GBT beam even during the largest pointing drifts. The 33" beam (FWHM) at 22GHz spans 125pc in M31. (1 data file).

  7. Effects of fuzzless cottonseed phenotype on cottonseed nutrient composition in near isogenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. mutant lines under well-watered and water stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacer eBellaloui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no information available on the effect of fuzzless seed trait on cottonseed nutrient composition (minerals, N, S, protein, and oil under drought stress. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of the fuzzless seed trait on cottonseed nutrients using four sets of near-isogenic lines (NILs. Each set consists of two lines that share the same genetic background, but differ in seed fuzziness (fuzzy, F; fuzzless, N. The near isogenic lines will enable us to compare the effect of the trait without confounding the genotypic background effects. We hypothesized that since the fuzzless trait involved in fiber initiation development, and was reported to be involved in biochemical, molecular, and genetic processes, this trait may also alter cottonseed nutrient composition. Results showed that NIL sets accumulated different levels of minerals in seeds and leaves, and the fuzzless trait (NF in most of the lines altered seed and leaf mineral accumulations when compared with fuzzy lines (FN or the control line. For example, K, P, Mg, Cu, and Na concentrations in seeds were higher in MD N and STV N than in their equivalent MD F and STV F lines. Leaf concentrations of Ca, K, Mg, S, B, Cu, and Fe in MD N lines were higher than MD F line. Lower levels of nutrients in seeds and leaves were observed under water stress conditions, especially Ca, Mg, N, and B in seeds. Generally and with few exceptions, seed protein was higher in fuzzy lines that in fuzzless lines; however, seed oil was higher in fuzzless lines than in fuzzy lines. Our research demonstrated that fuzzless trait altered the composition and level of nutrients in seed and leaves in well watered and water stressed plants. Differences in protein and oil between fuzzy and fuzzless seeds may indicate alteration in nitrogen and carbon fixation and metabolism. The differential accumulation of seed nutrients in this germplasm could be used by cotton breeders to select for higher

  8. Applying ultrasonic in-line inspection technology in a deep water environment: exploring the challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thielager, N.; Nadler, M.; Pieske, M.; Beller, M. [NDT Systems and Services AG, Stutensee (Germany)

    2009-12-19

    The demand for higher inspection accuracies of in-line inspection tools (ILI tools) is permanently growing. As integrity assessment procedures are being refined, detection performances, sizing accuracies and confidence levels regarding detection and sizing play an ever increasing role. ILI tools utilizing conventional ultrasound technology are at the forefront of technology and fulfill the market requirements regarding sizing accuracies and the ability to provide quantitative measurements of wall thickness as well as crack inspection capabilities. Data from ultrasonic tools is ideally suited for advanced integrity assessment applications and run comparisons. Making this technology available for a deep-water environment of heavy wall, high pressures and temperatures comes with a wide range of challenges which have to be addressed. This paper will introduce developments recently made in order to adapt and modify ultrasonic in-line inspection tools for the application in a heavy wall, high pressure and high temperature environment as encountered in deep offshore pipelines. The paper will describe necessary design modifications and new conceptual approaches especially regarding tool electronics, cables, connectors and the sensor carrier. A tool capable of deep-water inspection with a pressure bearing capability of 275 bar will be introduced and data from inspection runs will be presented. As an outlook, the paper will also discuss future inspection requirements for offshore pipelines with maximum pressure values of up to 500 bar. (author)

  9. THE CM-, MM-, AND SUB-MM-WAVE SPECTRUM OF ALLYL ISOCYANIDE AND RADIOASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS IN ORION KL AND THE SgrB2 LINE SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haykal, I.; Margulès, L.; Huet, T. R.; Motyienko, R. A. [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Atomes, et Molécules, UMR CNRS 8523, Université de Lille 1, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cédex (France); Écija, P.; Cocinero, E. J.; Basterretxea, F.; Fernández, J. A.; Castaño, F. [Departamento de Química Física, Facultad de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad del País Vasco, Barrio Sarriena s/n, E-48940 Leioa (Spain); Lesarri, A. [Departamento de Química Física y Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Guillemin, J. C. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS, UMR 6226, Allèe de Beaulieu, CS 50837, F-35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J., E-mail: laurent.margules@univ-lille1.fr [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Laboratory of Molecular Astrophysics, Department of Astrophysics, Ctra. De Ajalvir, km 4, E-28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-10

    Organic isocyanides have an interesting astrochemistry and some of these molecules have been detected in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, rotational spectral data for this class of compounds are still scarce. We provide laboratory spectra of the four-carbon allyl isocyanide covering the full microwave region, thus allowing a potential astrophysical identification in the ISM. We assigned the rotational spectrum of the two cis (synperiplanar) and gauche (anticlinal) conformations of allyl isocyanide in the centimeter-wave region (4-18 GHz), resolved its {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling (NQC) hyperfine structure, and extended the measurements into the millimeter and submillimeter-wave (150-900 GHz) ranges for the title compound. Rotational constants for all the monosubstituted {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N isotopologues are additionally provided. Laboratory observations are supplemented with initial radioastronomical observations. Following analysis of an extensive dataset (>11000 rotational transitions), accurate ground-state molecular parameters are reported for the cis and gauche conformations of the molecule, including rotational constants, NQC parameters, and centrifugal distortion terms up to octic contributions. Molecular parameters have also been obtained for the two first excited states of the cis conformation, with a dataset of more than 3300 lines. The isotopic data allowed determining substitution and effective structures for the title compound. We did not detect allyl isocyanide either in the IRAM 30 m line survey of Orion KL or in the PRIMOS survey toward SgrB2. Nevertheless, we provided an upper limit to its column density in Orion KL.

  10. Enhanced lines and box-shaped features in the gamma-ray spectrum from annihilating dark matter in the NMSSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdeño, D. G.; Peiró, M.; Robles, S.

    2016-04-01

    We study spectral features in the gamma-ray emission from dark matter (DM) annihilation in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), with either neutralino or right-handed (RH) sneutrino DM . We perform a series of scans over the NMSSM parameter space, compute the DM annihilation cross section into two photons and the contribution of box-shaped features, and compare them with the limits derived from the Fermi-LAT search for gamma-ray lines using the latest Pass 8 data. We implement the LHC bounds on the Higgs sector and on the masses of supersymmetric particles as well as the constraints on low-energy observables. We also consider the recent upper limits from the Fermi-LAT satellite on the continuum gamma-ray emission from dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs). We show that in the case of the RH sneutrino the constraint on gamma-ray spectral features can be more stringent than the dSph bounds. This is due to the Breit-Wigner enhancement near the ubiquitous resonances with a CP even Higgs and the contribution of scalar and pseudoscalar Higgs final states to box-shaped features. By contrast, for neutralino DM, the di-photon final state is only enhanced in the resonance with a Z boson and box-shaped features are even more suppressed. Therefore, the observation of spectral features could constitute a discriminating factor between both models. In addition, we compare our results with direct DM searches, including the SuperCDMS and LUX limits on the elastic DM-nucleus scattering cross section and show that some of these scenarios would be accessible to next generation experiments. Thus, our findings strengthen the idea of complementarity among distinct DM search strategies.

  11. Water Distribution Lines, City of Emporia Water distribution. The point feature identifies valves, reducers, tees, etc. The line feature indicates the size of the line. We have water meters identified. Valves and meters are in process of being GPSed., Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, City of Emporia/Lyon County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Distribution Lines dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2010. It is described...

  12. Drip Line Flushing with Chlorine May Not Be Effective in Reducing Bacterial Loads in Irrigation Water Distribution Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Mary Theresa; Marine, Sasha C; Everts, Kathryne L; Micallef, Shirley A

    2016-06-01

    Irrigation water distribution systems are used to supply water to produce crops, but the system may also provide a protected environment for the growth of human pathogens present in irrigation water. In this study, the effects of drip tape installation depth and sanitization on the microbial quality of irrigation groundwater were evaluated. Drip tape lines were installed on the soil surface or 5 or 10 cm below the soil surface. Water samples were collected from the irrigation source and the end of each drip line every 2 weeks over an 11-week period, and the levels of Escherichia coli, total coliforms, aerobic mesophilic bacteria, and enterococci were quantified. Half of the lines installed at each depth were flushed with sodium hypochlorite for 1 h during week 6 to achieve a residual of 10 ppm at the end of the line. There was a statistically significant (P = 0.01) effect of drip tape installation depth and sanitizer application on the recovery of E. coli, with increased levels measured at the 5-cm depth and in nonsanitized lines, although the levels were at the limit of detection, potentially confounding the results. There was no significant effect of drip tape depth on total coliforms, aerobic mesophiles, or enterococci. In contrast, a statistically significant increase (P < 0.01) in the recovery of total coliforms was recorded from the ends of lines that received chlorine. This may be indicative of shedding of cells owing to degradation of biofilms that formed on the inner walls of the lines. These findings emphasize the need to better understand conditions that may lead to corrosion and increases in bacterial loads inside drip lines during flushing. Recommendations to growers should suggest collecting groundwater samples for testing at the end of drip lines rather than at the source. Guidelines on flushing drip lines with chlorine may need to include water pH monitoring, a parameter that influences the corrosive properties of chlorine.

  13. Multidrug resistance found in extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae from rural water reservoirs in Guantao, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongna eZhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae have been isolated from humans and animals across the world. However, data on prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae from rural water reservoirs is limited. This study aimed to isolate and characterize ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in rural water reservoirs in Guantao, China. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were found in 5 (16.7% of 30 sampled rural water reservoirs. 66 individual isolates expressing an ESBL phenotype were obtained in the present study. Species identification showed that 42 representatives of Escherichia coli, 17 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 4 Raoultella planticola, and 3 Enterobacter cloacae. 20 isolates contained a single bla gene, including CTX-M (17 strains, TEM (2 strains, and SHV (1 strain. 46 isolates contained more than one type of beta-lactamase genes. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated in this study were all multidrug resistant. These findings indicated that the seroius contamination of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in rural water resevoirs existed in Guantao, China.

  14. Experimental Line List of Water Vapor Absorption Lines in the Spectral Ranges 1850 - 2280 CM-1 and 2390-4000 CM-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, Joep; Birk, Manfred; Wagner, Georg

    2017-06-01

    A new experimental line parameter list of water vapor absorption lines in the spectral ranges 1850 - 2280 cm-1 and 2390 - 4000 cm-1 is presented. The line list is based on the analysis of several transmittance spectra measured using a Bruker IFS 125 HR high resolution Fourier transform spectrometer. A total of 54 measurements of pure water and water/air-mixtures at 296 K as well as water/air-mixtures at high and low temperatures were performed. A multispectrum fitting approach was used applying a quadratic speed-dependent hard collision line shape model in the Hartmann-Tran implementation extended to account for line mixing in the Rosenkranz approximation in order to retrieve line positions, intensities, self- and air-broadening parameters, their speed-dependence, self- and air-shifts as well as line mixing and in some cases collisional narrowing parameters. Additionally, temperature dependence parameters for widths, shifts and in a few cases line mixing were retrieved. For every parameter an extensive error estimation calculation was performed identifying and specifying systematic error sources. The resulting parameters are compared to the databases HITRAN12 as well as experimental values. For intensities, a detailed comparison to results of recent ab initio calculations performed at University College London was done showing an agreement within 2 % for a majority of the data. However, for some bands there are systematic deviations attributed to ab initio calculation errors. .H. Ngo et al. JQSRT 129, 89-100 (2013) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.05.034; JQSRT 134, 105 (2014) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.10.016. H. Tran et al. JQSRT 129, 199-203 (2013) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.06.015; JQSRT 134, 104 (2014) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.10.015. L.S. Rothman et al. JQSRT 130, 4-50 (2013) doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2013.07.002. N. Jacquinet-Husson et al. JMS 112, 2395-2445 (2016) doi:10.1016/j.jms.2016.06.007.

  15. Widom line and the liquid-liquid critical point for the TIP4P/2005 water model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abascal, José L F; Vega, Carlos

    2010-12-21

    The Widom line and the liquid-liquid critical point of water in the deeply supercooled region are investigated via computer simulation of the TIP4P/2005 model. The Widom line has been calculated as the locus of compressibility maxima. It is quite close to the experimental homogeneous nucleation line and, in the region studied, it is almost parallel to the curve of temperatures of maximum density at fixed pressure. The critical temperature is determined by examining which isotherm has a region with flat slope. An interpolation in the Widom line gives the rest of the critical parameters. The computed critical parameters are T(c)=193 K, p(c)=1350 bar, and ρ(c)=1.012 g/cm(3). Given the performance of the model for the anomalous properties of water and for the properties of ice phases, the calculated critical parameters are probably close to those of real water.

  16. New on-line method for water isotope analysis of speleothem fluid inclusions using laser absorption spectroscopy (WS-CRDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, S.; Fleitmann, D.; Leuenberger, M.

    2014-01-01

    A new online method to analyse water isotopes of speleothem fluid inclusions using a wavelength scanned cavity ring down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) instrument is presented. This novel technique allows us to simultaneously measure hydrogen and oxygen isotopes for a released aliquot of water. To do so, we designed a new simple line that allows the on-line water extraction and isotope analysis of speleothem samples. The specificity of the method lies in the fact that fluid inclusions release is made on a standard water background, which mainly improves the δD reliability. To saturate the line, a peristaltic pump continuously injects standard water into the line that is permanently heated to 140 °C and flushed with dry nitrogen gas. This permits instantaneous and complete vaporisation of the standard water resulting in an artificial water background with well-known δD and δ18O values. The speleothem sample is placed into a copper tube, attached to the line and after system stabilisation is crushed using a simple hydraulic device to liberate speleothem fluid inclusions water. The released water is carried by the nitrogen/standard water gas stream directly to a Picarro L1102-i for isotope determination. To test the accuracy and reproducibility of the line and to measure standard water during speleothem measurements a syringe injection unit was added to the line. Peak evaluation is done similarly as in gas chromatography to obtain δD and δ18O isotopic composition of measured water aliquots. Precision is better than 1.5‰ for δD and 0.4‰ for δ18O for water measurement for an extended range (-210 to 0‰ for δD and -27 to 0‰ for δ18O) primarily dependent on the amount of water released from speleothem fluid inclusions and secondarily on the isotopic composition of the sample. The results show that WS-CRDS technology is suitable for speleothem fluid inclusion measurements and gives results that are comparable to Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) technique.

  17. Laser absorption spectroscopy of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina: wall collision line broadening and gas diffusion dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Tomas; Lewander, Märta; Svanberg, Sune

    2010-08-02

    We demonstrate high-resolution tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) of water vapor confined in nanoporous alumina. Strong multiple light scattering results in long photon pathlengths (1 m through a 6 mm sample). We report on strong line broadening due to frequent wall collisions (gas-surface interactions). For the water vapor line at 935.685 nm, the HWHM of confined molecules are about 4.3 GHz as compared to 2.9 GHz for free molecules (atmospheric pressure). Gas diffusion is also investigated, and in contrast to molecular oxygen (that moves rapidly in and out of the alumina), the exchange of water vapor is found very slow.

  18. Leak Detection for Potable Water Lines at Fort Hood: Final Report on Project AR-F-313 for FY05

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    cables, gas lines, etc., sometimes run close to water pipelines , and it is important to be certain that digging will not cause damage to these...sensors to find leaks in the potable water pipelines of West Fort Hood has been demon- strated to be quite good. Two leaks were discovered during the...the Army consider installing PermaLog permanent leak sensors at other installations where potable water pipelines run in sel- dom traveled areas. The

  19. Report from the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on On-Line Monitoring Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Baldwin; Magdy Tawfik; Leonard Bond

    2010-06-01

    In support of expanding the use of nuclear power, interest is growing in methods of determining the feasibility of longer term operation for the U.S. fleet of nuclear power plants, particularly operation beyond 60 years. To help establish the scientific and technical basis for such longer term operation, the DOE-NE has established a research and development (R&D) objective. This objective seeks to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, which addresses the needs of this objective, is being developed in collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of nuclear power plants. The LWRS Program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy and environmental security. In moving to identify priorities and plan activities, the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on On-Line Monitoring (OLM) Technologies was held June 10–12, 2010, in Seattle, Washington. The workshop was run to enable industry stakeholders and researchers to identify the nuclear industry needs in the areas of future OLM technologies and corresponding technology gaps and research capabilities. It also sought to identify approaches for collaboration that would be able to bridge or fill the technology gaps. This report is the meeting proceedings, documenting the presentations and discussions of the workshop and is intended to serve as a basis for a plan which is under development that will enable the I&C research pathway to achieve its goals. Benefits to the nuclear industry accruing from On Line Monitoring Technology cannot be ignored. Information gathered thus far has contributed significantly to the Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. DOE has

  20. The Water Abundance of the Directly Imaged Substellar Companion κ And b Retrieved from a Near Infrared Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Kamen O.; Line, Michael R.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Meyer, Michael R.; Quanz, Sascha P.; Hinkley, Sasha; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2016-05-01

    Spectral retrieval has proven to be a powerful tool for constraining the physical properties and atmospheric compositions of extrasolar planet atmospheres based on observed spectra, primarily for transiting objects but also for directly imaged planets and brown dwarfs. Despite its strengths, this approach has been applied to only about a dozen targets. Determining the abundances of the main carbon- and oxygen-bearing compounds in a planetary atmosphere can lead to the C/O ratio of the object, which is crucial for understanding its formation and migration history. We present a retrieval analysis of the published near-infrared spectrum of κ \\quad {Andromedae} b, a directly imaged substellar companion to a young B9 star. We fit the emission spectrum model utilizing a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm. We estimate the abundance of water vapor, and its uncertainty, in the atmosphere of the object. In addition, we place an upper limit on the abundance of CH4. We qualitatively compare our results with studies that have applied model retrieval on multiband photometry and emission spectroscopy of hot Jupiters (extrasolar giant planets with orbital periods of several days) and the directly imaged giant planet HR 8799b.

  1. The Water Abundance of the Directly Imaged Substellar Companion {\\kappa} And b Retrieved from a Near Infrared Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Todorov, Kamen O; Pineda, Jaime E; Meyer, Michael R; Quanz, Sascha P; Hinkley, Sasha; Fortney, Jonathan J

    2015-01-01

    Recently, spectral retrieval has proven to be a powerful tool for constraining the physical properties and atmospheric compositions of extrasolar planet atmospheres from observed spectra, primarily for transiting objects but also increasingly for directly imaged planets and brown dwarfs. Despite its strengths, this approach has been applied to only about a dozen targets. Determining the abundances of the main carbon and oxygen-bearing compounds in a planetary atmosphere can lead to the C/O ratio of the object, which is crucial in understanding its formation and migration history. We present a retrieval analysis on the published near-infrared spectrum of {\\kappa} And b, a directly imaged substellar companion to a young B9 star. We fit the emission spectrum model utilizing a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm. We estimate the abundance of water vapor, and its uncertainty, in the atmosphere of the object. We also place upper limits on the abundances of carbon dioxide and methane and constrain the pressure-temper...

  2. The Sensitivity of West African Squall Line Water Budgets to Land Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Karen I.; Baker, R. David; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Famiglietti, James S.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This study used a two-dimensional coupled land/atmosphere (cloud-resolving) model to investigate the influence of land cover on the water budgets of squall lines in the Sahel. Study simulations used the same initial sounding and one of three different land covers, a sparsely vegetated semi-desert, a grassy savanna, and a dense evergreen broadleaf forest. All simulations began at midnight and ran for 24 hours to capture a full diurnal cycle. In the morning, the latent heat flux, boundary layer mixing ratio, and moist static energy in the boundary layer exhibited notable variations among the three land covers. The broadleaf forest had the highest latent heat flux, the shallowest, moistest, slowest growing boundary layer, and significantly more moist static energy per unit area than the savanna and semi-desert. Although all simulations produced squall lines by early afternoon, the broadleaf forest had the most intense, longest-lived squall lines with 29% more rainfall than the savanna and 37% more than the semi-desert. The sensitivity of the results to vegetation density, initial sounding humidity, and grid resolution was also assessed. There were greater differences in rainfall among land cover types than among simulations of the same land cover with varying amounts of vegetation. Small changes in humidity were equivalent in effect to large changes in land cover, producing large changes in the condensate and rainfall. Decreasing the humidity had a greater effect on rainfall volume than increasing the humidity. Reducing the grid resolution from 1.5 km to 0.5 km decreased the temperature and humidity of the cold pools and increased the rain volume.

  3. On-line Measurement of Water-Soluble Ions in Ambient Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Combining the system of rapid collection of ambient particles and ion chromatography, the system of rapid collection of fine particles and ion chromatography (RCFP-IC) was established to automatically analyze on-line the concentrations of water-soluble ions in ambient particles. Here, the general scheme of RCFP-IC is described and its basic performance is tested. The detection limit of RCFP-IC for SO42-,NO-3, NO-2, Cl- and F- is below 0.3 μg m-3. The collection efficiency of RCFP-IC increases rapidly with increasing sized particles. For particles larger than 300 nm, the collection efficiency approaches 100%. The precision of RCFP-IC is more than 90% over 28 repetitions. The response of RCFP-IC is very sensitive and no obvious cross-pollution is found during measurement. A comparison of RCFP-IC with an integrated filter measurement indicates that the measurement of RCFP-IC is comparable in both laboratory experiments and field observations. The results of the field experiment prove that RCFP-IC is an effective on-line monitoring system and is helpful in source apportionment and pollution episode monitoring.

  4. Study of energy transfer in table-top X-pinch driven by a water line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beg, F N [Mechanical and Aerospace Department, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA92093-0411 (United States); Zhang, T [Mechanical and Aerospace Department, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA92093-0411 (United States); Fedin, D [Mechanical and Aerospace Department, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA92093-0411 (United States); Beagen, B [Anglo Chinese Junior College, 25 Dover Close East, Singapore 139745 (Singapore); Chua, E [Anglo Chinese Junior College, 25 Dover Close East, Singapore 139745 (Singapore); Lee, J Y [Anglo Chinese Junior College, 25 Dover Close East, Singapore 139745 (Singapore); Rawat, R S [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore); Lee, P [National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, 1 Nanyang Walk, Singapore 637616 (Singapore)

    2007-08-15

    The current passing through X-pinches and the energy transferring from the pulse forming line to the load are modelled using a simple LCR circuit. A comparison of the electrical properties of two table-top X-pinch devices is made. It was found that up to 25% of the stored energy is transferred from the water transmission line to the load in the University of California,San Diego (UCSD) table-top X-pinch before x-ray emission starts. The highest energy transmitted (75%) is found after the current peak. In comparison, only 3% of the energy is transferred to the load in the National Institute of Education (NIE) X-pinch device just after the maximum current peak. The highest energy (25%) transmitted to the plasma occurs long after the current peak. The plasma in both devices is visually and qualitatively similar. However, the UCSD device emits intense x-rays with no x-rays observed in the NIE device. This observation is consistent with the electrical circuit analysis.

  5. Simulations of the THz spectrum of liquid water incorporating the effects of intermolecular charge fluxes through hydrogen bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torii, Hajime, E-mail: torii.hajime@shizuoka.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education, and Department of Optoelectronics and Nanostructure Science, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    The intensity of the band at ∼200 cm{sup −1} (∼6 THz) in the Terahertz spectrum of liquid water mainly arises from the modulations of the extent of intermolecular charge transfer through hydrogen bonds, called intermolecular charge fluxes, occurring upon molecular translations along the O…H hydrogen bonds. To obtain reasonable spectral profiles from simulations, it is necessary to effectively incorporate the effects of those intermolecular charge fluxes, but apparently it is not possible by simple classical molecular dynamics simulations with fixed atomic partial charges even if they are amended by molecular induced dipoles due to intermolecular electrostatic interactions. The present paper shows how we can do reasonably correct spectral simulations, without resorting to fully ab initio molecular dynamics.

  6. Effects of water exercise swimming program on aquatic skills and social behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 10 week water exercise swimming program (WESP) on the aquatic skills and social behaviors of 16 boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the first 10 week phase (phase I), eight children (group A) received the WESP while eight children (group B) did not. A second 10 week phase (phase II) immediately followed, with the treatments reversed. Both groups continued their regular treatment/ activity throughout the study. Improvements were seen in aquatic skills for both groups subsequent to the WESP. Following phase I, significant social improvements were seen in group A. Following phase II, social improvements were seen for group B, whereas group A merely maintained the improvements they attained through the implementation of the WESP during phase I. Results indicate that the WESP improved aquatic skills in the participants, and holds potential for social improvements.

  7. Differential Response of Grain Quality to Cold Water Irrigation in Cold Tolerant and Sensitive Lines of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Long-zhi; PIAO Zhong-ze; Koh Hee-jong

    2005-01-01

    Three rice varieties and several F3 lines with high and low cold tolerance, selected from F3 segregation lines of two crosses Milyang 23/Tong 88-7 and Milyang 23/TR22183 were used to analyze the effects of cold tolerance on the response of grain quality to cold water irrigation. The result showed that cold water irrigation led to the decrease of rice grain size. The length, length-width ratio and weight of brown rice grain were more sensitively affected by cold water irrigation than the width and thickness. The shape of brown rice grain was not significantly affected by the selection for cold tolerance at the seedling stage (CTS). The gel consistency, amylose content, peak viscosity, cool viscosity, breakdown viscosity and consistency viscosity were decreased, while alkali digestibility value and protein content were increased by cold water irrigation. Under normal irrigation condition the physicochemical properties of milled rice and viscogram components of milled rice flour were not significantly different between lines with high and low cold tolerance. Under cold water irrigation the amylose content, peak viscosity, hot viscosity, final viscosity of rice lines with high CTS or high cold tolerance at the booting stage (CTB) were higher, while the protein content, setback viscosity, breakdown ratio and setback ratio were lower, than those of rice lines with low cold tolerance. This implied that the cold water response of rice grain quality was less sensitive in the lines with high cold tolerance than in the lines with low cold tolerance, and the varietal improvement for cold tolerance would be important for grain quality improvement at the same time.

  8. Evaluation of the Fourier Frequency Spectrum Peaks of Milk Electrical Conductivity Signals as Indexes to Monitor the Dairy Goats’ Health Status by On-Line Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Agazzi, Alessandro; Costa, Annamaria; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Rossi, Luciana; Savoini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is a further characterization of the electrical conductivity (EC) signal of goat milk, acquired on-line by EC sensors, to identify new indexes representative of the EC variations that can be observed during milking, when considering not healthy (NH) glands. Two foremilk gland samples from 42 Saanen goats, were collected for three consecutive weeks and for three different lactation stages (LS: 0–60 Days In Milking (DIM); 61–120 DIM; 121–180 DIM), for a total amount of 1512 samples. Bacteriological analyses and somatic cells counts (SCC) were used to define the health status of the glands. With negative bacteriological analyses and SCC 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as NH. For each milk EC signal, acquired on-line and for each gland considered, the Fourier frequency spectrum of the signal was calculated and three representative frequency peaks were identified. To evaluate data acquired a MIXED procedure was used considering the HS, LS and LS × HS as explanatory variables in the statistical model.Results showed that the studied frequency peaks had a significant relationship with the gland’s health status. Results also explained how the milk EC signals’ pattern change in case of NH glands. In fact, it is characterized by slower fluctuations (due to the lower frequencies of the peaks) and by an irregular trend (due to the higher amplitudes of all the main frequency peaks). Therefore, these frequency peaks could be used as new indexes to improve the performances of algorithms based on multivariate models which evaluate the health status of dairy goats through the use of gland milk EC sensors. PMID:26307993

  9. Evaluation of the Fourier Frequency Spectrum Peaks of Milk Electrical Conductivity Signals as Indexes to Monitor the Dairy Goats’ Health Status by On-Line Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Zaninelli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is a further characterization of the electrical conductivity (EC signal of goat milk, acquired on-line by EC sensors, to identify new indexes representative of the EC variations that can be observed during milking, when considering not healthy (NH glands. Two foremilk gland samples from 42 Saanen goats, were collected for three consecutive weeks and for three different lactation stages (LS: 0–60 Days In Milking (DIM; 61–120 DIM; 121–180 DIM, for a total amount of 1512 samples. Bacteriological analyses and somatic cells counts (SCC were used to define the health status of the glands. With negative bacteriological analyses and SCC < 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as healthy. When bacteriological analyses were positive or showed a SCC > 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as NH. For each milk EC signal, acquired on-line and for each gland considered, the Fourier frequency spectrum of the signal was calculated and three representative frequency peaks were identified. To evaluate data acquired a MIXED procedure was used considering the HS, LS and LS × HS as explanatory variables in the statistical model.Results showed that the studied frequency peaks had a significant relationship with the gland’s health status. Results also explained how the milk EC signals’ pattern change in case of NH glands. In fact, it is characterized by slower fluctuations (due to the lower frequencies of the peaks and by an irregular trend (due to the higher amplitudes of all the main frequency peaks. Therefore, these frequency peaks could be used as new indexes to improve the performances of algorithms based on multivariate models which evaluate the health status of dairy goats through the use of gland milk EC sensors.

  10. Evaluation of the Fourier Frequency Spectrum Peaks of Milk Electrical Conductivity Signals as Indexes to Monitor the Dairy Goats' Health Status by On-Line Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Agazzi, Alessandro; Costa, Annamaria; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Rossi, Luciana; Savoini, Giovanni

    2015-08-21

    The aim of this study is a further characterization of the electrical conductivity (EC) signal of goat milk, acquired on-line by EC sensors, to identify new indexes representative of the EC variations that can be observed during milking, when considering not healthy (NH) glands. Two foremilk gland samples from 42 Saanen goats, were collected for three consecutive weeks and for three different lactation stages (LS: 0-60 Days In Milking (DIM); 61-120 DIM; 121-180 DIM), for a total amount of 1512 samples. Bacteriological analyses and somatic cells counts (SCC) were used to define the health status of the glands. With negative bacteriological analyses and SCC 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as NH. For each milk EC signal, acquired on-line and for each gland considered, the Fourier frequency spectrum of the signal was calculated and three representative frequency peaks were identified. To evaluate data acquired a MIXED procedure was used considering the HS, LS and LS × HS as explanatory variables in the statistical model.Results showed that the studied frequency peaks had a significant relationship with the gland's health status. Results also explained how the milk EC signals' pattern change in case of NH glands. In fact, it is characterized by slower fluctuations (due to the lower frequencies of the peaks) and by an irregular trend (due to the higher amplitudes of all the main frequency peaks). Therefore, these frequency peaks could be used as new indexes to improve the performances of algorithms based on multivariate models which evaluate the health status of dairy goats through the use of gland milk EC sensors.

  11. Applications of MODIS Fluorescent Line Height Measurements to Monitor Water Quality Trends and Algal Bloom Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andrew; Moreno-Mardinan, Max; Ryan, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in satellite and airborne remote sensing, such as improvements in sensor and algorithm calibrations, processing techniques and atmospheric correction procedures have provided for increased coverage of remote-sensing, ocean-color products for coastal regions. In particular, for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensor calibration updates, improved aerosol retrievals and new aerosol models has led to improved atmospheric correction algorithms for turbid waters and have improved the retrieval of ocean color in coastal waters. This has opened the way for studying ocean phenomena and processes at finer spatial scales, such as the interactions at the land-sea interface, trends in coastal water quality and algal blooms. Human population growth and changes in coastal management practices have brought about significant changes in the concentrations of organic and inorganic, particulate and dissolved substances entering the coastal ocean. There is increasing concern that these inputs have led to declines in water quality and have increase local concentrations of phytoplankton, which cause harmful algal blooms. In two case studies we present MODIS observations of fluorescence line height (FLH) to 1) assess trends in water quality for Tampa Bay, Florida and 2) illustrate seasonal and annual variability of algal bloom activity in Monterey Bay, California as well as document estuarine/riverine plume induced red tide events. In a comprehensive analysis of long term (2003-2011) in situ monitoring data and satellite imagery from Tampa Bay we assess the validity of the MODIS FLH product against chlorophyll-a and a suite of water quality parameters taken in a variety of conditions throughout a large optically complex estuarine system. A systematic analysis of sampling sites throughout the bay is undertaken to understand how the relationship between FLH and in situ chlorophyll-a responds to varying conditions and to develop a near decadal trend in

  12. Inhibition spectrum studies of microthecin and other anhydrofructose derivatives using selected strains of Gram-positive and –negative bacteria, yeast and moulds, and investigation of the cytotoxicity of microthecin to malignant blood cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiskesund, R.; Thomas, L.V.; Schobert, M.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To prepare 1,5-anhydro-d-fructose (AF) derivatives, test their microbial inhibition spectrum, and to further examine the most effective AF derivative against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and malignant blood cell lines. Methods and Results: Microthecin and nine other AF derivatives were synthesize...

  13. On-line classification of pollutants in water using wireless portable electronic noses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, José Luis; Lozano, Jesús; Santos, José Pedro; Suárez, José Ignacio

    2016-06-01

    A portable electronic nose with database connection for on-line classification of pollutants in water is presented in this paper. It is a hand-held, lightweight and powered instrument with wireless communications capable of standalone operation. A network of similar devices can be configured for distributed measurements. It uses four resistive microsensors and headspace as sampling method for extracting the volatile compounds from glass vials. The measurement and control program has been developed in LabVIEW using the database connection toolkit to send the sensors data to a server for training and classification with Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). The use of a server instead of the microprocessor of the e-nose increases the capacity of memory and the computing power of the classifier and allows external users to perform data classification. To address this challenge, this paper also proposes a web-based framework (based on RESTFul web services, Asynchronous JavaScript and XML and JavaScript Object Notation) that allows remote users to train ANNs and request classification values regardless user's location and the type of device used. Results show that the proposed prototype can discriminate the samples measured (Blank water, acetone, toluene, ammonia, formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, benzene, dichloromethane, acetic acid, xylene and dimethylacetamide) with a 94% classification success rate.

  14. Perforated mechanism of a water line outlet tee pipe for an oil well drilling rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Cheng-hong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A corroded tee pipe belonging to a 10-in new separator water line outlet installed in an offshore oil well drilling rig was investigated. The configuration of the large corroded pit had the shape of an imperfect horse's hoof with a completely corroded interior and a honeycomb-like cavity. There is a badly corroded pit at the welded seam at the joint connecting the tee pipe and flange. The material strength of the tee pipe meets the requirement of ASTM-A234 Gr. WPR, but its chemical composition does not meet the stipulated requirements. A deformed streamline structure or twin crystal in the ferrite phase can be seen near the surface or sub-surface of the perforated corrosion puncture edge. The micro-hardness is also different from that of the original material. The SEM results show that the puncture appears to have been a mode of quasi-cleavage fractures with secondary cracks along the direction of the crystal grain; thus, the failure has the features of mechanical and chemical corrosion. The corroded surface contains high amounts of O, C, and N, as well as S, Cl, Si, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ti, etc., all of which are corrosion products caused by sea water. The penetrating puncture hole at the turn of the tee pipe is likely the result of cavitation erosion accompanied by chemical/electrochemical corrosion, and the corrosion on the seam connecting the tee pipe and flange is likely the result of electrochemical corrosion.

  15. SDSSJ143244.91+301435.3: a link between radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies and compact steep-spectrum radio sources?

    CERN Document Server

    Caccianiga, A; Ballo, L; Dallacasa, D; Della Ceca, R; Fanali, R; Foschini, L; Hamilton, T; Kraus, A; Maccacaro, T; Mack, K -H; Marchã, M J; Paulino-Afonso, A; Sani, E; Severgnini, P

    2014-01-01

    We present SDSSJ143244.91+301435.3, a new case of radio-loud narrow line Seyfert 1 (RL NLS1) with a relatively high radio power (P1.4GHz=2.1x10^25 W Hz^-1) and large radioloudness parameter (R1.4=600+/-100). The radio source is compact with a linear size below ~1.4 kpc but, contrary to most of the RL NLS1 discovered so far with such a high R1.4, its radio spectrum is very steep (alpha=0.93) and not supporting a 'blazar-like' nature. Both the small mass of the central super-massive black-hole and the high accretion rate relative to the Eddington limit estimated for this object (3.2x10^7 Msun and 0.27, respectively, with a formal error of ~0.4 dex on both quantities) are typical of the class of NLS1. Through a modeling of the spectral energy distribution of the source we have found that the galaxy hosting SDSSJ143244.91+301435.3 is undergoing a quite intense star-formation (SFR=50 Msun y^-1) which, however, is expected to contribute only marginally (~1 per cent) to the observed radio emission. The radio propert...

  16. An Fe XXIV Absorption Line in the Persistent Spectrum of the Dipping Low-Mass X-Ray Binary 1A 1744-361

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriil, Fotis P.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2012-01-01

    We report on Chandra X-ray Observatory (Chandra) High Energy Transmission Grating spectra of the dipping low-mass X-ray binary 1A 1744-361 during its 2008 July outburst. We find that its persistent emission is well modeled by a blackbody (kT approx. 1.0 keV) plus power law (Gamma approx. 1.7) with an absorption edge. In the residuals of the combined spectrum, we find a significant absorption line at 6.961 +/- 0.002 keV, consistent with the Fe xxvi (hydrogen-like Fe) 2-1 transition.We place an upper limit on the velocity of a redshifted flow of nu 103.6 erg cm/s. We discuss what implications the feature has on the system and its geometry. We also present Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer data accumulated during this latest outburst and, via an updated color-color diagram, clearly show that 1A 1744-361 is an "atoll" source

  17. Similarity of Jet Radiation between Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars and GeV Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies: A Universal $\\delta$-$L_{\\rm c}$ Correlation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Yong-Kai; Zhang, Hai-Ming; Liang, En-Wei; Yan, Da-Hai; Cui, Wei; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2016-01-01

    By modeling the broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of a typical flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ, 3C 279) and two GeV narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s, PMN J0948+0022 and 1H 0323+342) in different flux stages with the one-zone leptonic models, we find a universal correlation between their Doppler factors ($\\delta$) and peak luminosities ($L_{\\rm c}$) of external Compton scattering bumps. Compiling a combined sample of FSRQs and GeV NLS1s, it is found that both FSRQs and GeV NLS1s in different stages and in different sources well follow the same $\\delta$-$L_{\\rm c}$ correlation. This indicates that the variations of observed luminosities may be essentially due to the Doppler boosting effect. And the universal $\\delta$-$L_{\\rm c}$ relation between FSRQs and GeV NLS1s in different stages may be further evidence that the particle acceleration and radiation mechanisms for the two kinds of sources are similar. In addition, by replacing $L_{\\rm c}$ with the observed luminosity in the Fermi/LAT band ...

  18. A fosmid cloning strategy for detecting the widest possible spectrum of microbes from the international space station drinking water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sangdun; Chang, Mi Sook; Stuecker, Tara; Chung, Christine; Newcombe, David A; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2012-12-01

    In this study, fosmid cloning strategies were used to assess the microbial populations in water from the International Space Station (ISS) drinking water system (henceforth referred to as Prebiocide and Tank A water samples). The goals of this study were: to compare the sensitivity of the fosmid cloning strategy with that of traditional culture-based and 16S rRNA-based approaches and to detect the widest possible spectrum of microbial populations during the water purification process. Initially, microbes could not be cultivated, and conventional PCR failed to amplify 16S rDNA fragments from these low biomass samples. Therefore, randomly primed rolling-circle amplification was used to amplify any DNA that might be present in the samples, followed by size selection by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. The amplified high-molecular-weight DNA from both samples was cloned into fosmid vectors. Several hundred clones were randomly selected for sequencing, followed by Blastn/Blastx searches. Sequences encoding specific genes from Burkholderia, a species abundant in the soil and groundwater, were found in both samples. Bradyrhizobium and Mesorhizobium, which belong to rhizobia, a large community of nitrogen fixers often found in association with plant roots, were present in the Prebiocide samples. Ralstonia, which is prevalent in soils with a high heavy metal content, was detected in the Tank A samples. The detection of many unidentified sequences suggests the presence of potentially novel microbial fingerprints. The bacterial diversity detected in this pilot study using a fosmid vector approach was higher than that detected by conventional 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

  19. Presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in waste waters, Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boeck, H; Lunguya, O; Muyembe, J-J; Glupczynski, Y; Jacobs, J

    2012-11-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are a major public health concern. We previously demonstrated the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in sachet-packaged water bags sold in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In complement to the previous study, we aimed to assess the presence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in waste waters in Kinshasa.Enterobacteriaceae isolates recovered from environmental water samples were screened and phenotypically confirmed as ESBL-producers by disk diffusion according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines (CLSI M100-S21). Final identification to the species level and further antimicrobial susceptibility testing were carried out with MicroScan® NBC42 panels and the identification of bla (ESBL) coding genes was performed by a commercial multiplex ligation polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microarray (Check-Points CT 101, Wageningen, the Netherlands). Overall, 194 non-duplicate Enterobacteriaceae were recovered from several sewer and river sites in nine out of 24 municipalities of Kinshasa. Fourteen isolates (7.4 %) were confirmed as ESBL-producers, the main species being Enterobacter cloacae (46.6 %) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (40.0 %). Associated resistance to both aminoglycoside and fluoroquinolone antibiotics was observed in ten isolates; the remaining isolates showed co-resistance to either fluoroquinolone (n = 3) or to aminoglycoside (n = 1) alone. All but one isolate carried bla (CTX-M) genes belonging to the CTX-M-1 group. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are increasingly being reported from various sources in the community. The present results suggest that ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are widespread in the environment in the community of Kinshasa. Cities in Central Africa should be added to the map of potentially ESBL-contaminated environments and highlight the need to reinforce safe water supply and public sanitation.

  20. Free energy of formation of small ice nuclei near the Widom line in simulations of supercooled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhariwalla, Connor R C; Bowles, Richard K; Saika-Voivod, Ivan; Sciortino, Francesco; Poole, Peter H

    2015-05-01

    The ST2 interaction potential has been used in a large number of simulation studies to explore the possibility of a liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) in supercooled water. Using umbrella sampling Monte Carlo simulations of ST2 water, we evaluate the free energy of formation of small ice nuclei in the supercooled liquid in the vicinity of the Widom line, the region above the critical temperature of the LLPT where a number of thermodynamic anomalies occur. Our results show that in this region there is a substantial free-energy cost for the formation of small ice nuclei, demonstrating that the thermodynamic anomalies associated with the Widom line in ST2 water occur in a well-defined metastable liquid phase. On passing through the Widom line, we identify changes in the free energy to form small ice nuclei that illustrate how the thermodynamic anomalies associated with the LLPT may influence the ice nucleation process.

  1. Excitation wavelength dependence of water-window line emissions from boron-nitride laser-produced plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, M; Harilal, S S; Hassan, S M; Hassanein, A

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the effects of laser excitation wavelength on water-window emission lines of laser-produced boron-nitride plasmas. Plasmas are produced by focusing 1064 nm and harmonically generated 532 and 266 nm radiation from a Nd:YAG laser on BN target in vacuum. Soft x-ray emission lines in the water-window region are recorded using a grazing-incidence spectrograph. Filtered photodiodes are used to obtain complementary data for water-window emission intensity and angular dependence. Spectral emission intensity changes in nitrogen Ly-α and He-α are used to show how laser wavelength affects emission. Our results show that the relative intensity of spectral lines is laser wavelength dependent, with the ratio of Ly-α to He-α emission intensity decreasing as laser wavelength is shortened. Filtered photodiode measurements of angular dependence showed that 266 and 532 nm laser wavelengths produce uniform emission.

  2. [Water disinfection: comparative activities of ozone and chlorine on a wide spectrum of bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, S; Fortunato, M S; Paz, M; Sanahuja, M C; Lazaro, E; Santini, P; D'Aquino, M

    1995-01-01

    Ozone and chlorine are agents that disinfect by destroying, neutralizing or inhibiting the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The treatment of drinking water with ozone has shown to be more efficient against spores of Bacillus subtilis. It was observed that the ozone already in dose of 0.35 mg/l produced the reduction of at least 5 log in populations of approximately 1 x 10(6) cells/ml of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella typhi, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aeromonas hydrophila, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. With a dose of 0.50 mg/l of chlorine, the reduction was much smaller for the tested microorganisms (except Vibrio cholerae), while the effect of 2 mg/l of chlorine was similar to the ozone treatment. For spores of Bacillus subtilis, the reduction observed with ozone concentrations of 0.35 and 0.70 mg/l was of almost 3 log, while no considerable effect was obtained with chlorine in the tested conditions. Our results have shown that both disinfectans were consumed during the treatment period, probably because of the own water demand and the added bacterial mass.

  3. Evaluation and Bulked Segregant Analysis of Major Yield QTL qtl12.1 Introgressed into Indigenous Elite Line for Low Water Availability under Water Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N.Manikanda BOOPATHI; Gat SWAPNASHRI; P.KAVITHA; S.SATHISH; R.NITHYA; Wickneswari RATNAM; Arvind KUMAR

    2013-01-01

    Near isogenic lines carrying large-effect QTL (qtl12.1),which has a consistent influence on grain yield under upland drought stress conditions in a wide range of environments,were evaluated under water stress in the fields.The line which gave higher yield under drought was crossed with a local elite line,PMK3,and forwarded to F2:3 generation.Significant variation was found among the F2:3 lines for agronomic traits under water stress in the fields.Low to high broad sense heritability (H) for investigated traits was also found.Water stress indicators such as leaf rolling and leaf drying were negatively correlated with plant height,biomass and grain yield under stress.Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) was performed with the markers in the vicinity of qtl12.1,and RM27933 was found to be segregated perfectly well in individual components of drought resistant and drought susceptible bulks which were bulked based on yield under water stress among F2:3 lines.Hence,this simple and breeder friendly marker,RM27933,may be useful as a potentially valuable candidate marker for the transfer of the QTL qtl12.1 in the regional breeding program.Bioinformatic analysis of the DNA sequence of the qtl12.1 region was also done to identify and analyze positional candidate genes associated with this QTL and to ascertain the putative molecular basis of qtl12.1.

  4. China's water, energy and food nexus - an assessment of the sustainability of the "3 Red Lines" water policies in the Haihe Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ying; Allwood, Julian; Richards, Keith

    2016-04-01

    Population growth and economic development continue to put increasing pressures on China's limited resources which are further exacerbated by the country's substantial regional variations in both natural and socioeconomic conditions. China's pursuit of water, energy and food security faces trade-offs and tensions and the Haihe Basin exemplifies these issues. The river basin contains the capital region of Beijing, Hebei and Tianjin which are already experiencing stress and shortfalls of water resources as a result of intense competition for limited resources. To tackle water scarcity and promote more sustainable use of water, the government has implemented national and regional "3 Red Lines" water policies but they are not integrated with energy and food policies. The aim of this analysis is to assess the sustainability of the regional "3 Red Lines" water targets and their compatibility with energy and food security. This study uses a spatially-explicit, integrated resource model which integrates a hydrological model (GWAVA) with energy and food sub-models in order to analyse current and future resource availability and demand. To assess resource futures, different demand and supply scenarios were analysed up to 2030. Results are visualised as maps and connected Sankey diagrams and outputs are compared with the "3 Red Lines" water targets as well as against indicators related to land and energy policies. The results show that under a business-as-usual scenario, total water demands for Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei are unlikely to comply with future water targets. Reducing water use in the industry and agriculture sectors will be critical in this water-scarce region and whilst efficiency improvements are important, technology choices appear to make the most significant impact e.g. irrigation method for agriculture and cooling technology for power generation. However, both these water saving-measures have trade-offs in energy consumption. Proposed water saving plans of

  5. Data-Derived Estimation of Source Depth Using Vertical Line Array Data in Shallow Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao-Zhong; WANG Ning; GAO Da-Zhi

    2011-01-01

    Following the closure relation of normal mode theory, the source depth can be estimated approximately provided that the eigenfunction and the excited amplitude with correct polarity of each effective mode are given. Both the eigenfunction and the excited amplitude of each effective mode can be extracted using the data-derived method, which does not require a priori knowledge about ocean environment and source range but the sound pressure data observed by vertical line array. The polarities, undetermined by data-derived method, can be estimated using a cost function. Then, the source depth is determined by locating the peak of the object function defined by the closure relation with the correct polarities. Numerical simulation and experiment are carried out to illustrate the performance of this method.%Following the closure relation of normal mode theory,the source depth can be estimated approximately provided that the eigenfunction and the excited amplitude with correct polarity of each effective mode are given.Both the eigenfunction and the excited amplitude of each effective mode can be extracted using the data-derived method,which does not require a priori knowledge about ocean environment and source range but the sound pressure data observed by vertical line array.The polarities,undetermined by data-derived method,can be estimated using a cost function.Then,the source depth is determined by locating the peak of the object function defined by the closure relation with the correct polarities.Numerical simulation and experiment are carried out to illustrate the performance of this method.Long-range source depth estimation using a vertical line array (VLA) is desirable in practice.By finding the peak in the correlation function between the modeled acoustic field (for an assumed source depth) and the received pressure field at a VLA,the matched field processing technique (MFP) can be used to estimate source depth.[1-3] Assuming that the pressure field can be

  6. The wide spectrum high biocidal potency of Bioxy formulation when dissolved in water at different concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Fadi

    2017-01-01

    Traditional surface disinfectants that have long been applied in medicine, animal husbandry, manufacturing and institutions are inconvenient at best and dangerous at worst. Moreover, some of these substances have adverse environmental impacts: for example, quaternary ammonium compounds (“quats”) are reproductive toxicants in both fish and mammals. Halogens are corrosive both to metals and living tissues, are highly reactive, can be readily neutralized by metals, and react with organic matter to form toxic, persistent by-products such as dioxins and furans. Aldehydes may be carcinogenic to both human and animals upon repeated exposures, are corrosive, cross-link living tissues and many synthetic materials, and may lose efficacy when pathogens enzymatically adapt to them. Alcohols are flammable and volatile and can be enzymatically degraded by certain bacterial pathogens. Quats are highly irritating to mucous membranes and over time can induce pathogen resistance, especially if they are not alternated with functionally different disinfectants. In contrast, peracetic acid (PAA), a potent oxidizer, liberates hydrogen peroxide (itself a disinfectant), biodegrades to carbon dioxide, water and oxygen, and is at least as efficacious as contact biocides e.g., halogens and aldehydes. Nevertheless, the standard form of liquid PAA is highly corrosive, is neutralized by metals and organic matter, gives off noxious odours and must be stored in vented containers. For the reasons stated above, Bioxy formulations were developed, a series of powder forms of PAA, which are odourless, stable in storage and safe to transport and handle. They generate up to 10% PAA in situ when dissolved in water. A 0.2% aqueous solution of Bioxy (equivalent to 200 ppm PAA) effected a 6.76 log reduction in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) within 2 minutes after application. A 5% aqueous solution of Bioxy achieved a 3.93 log reduction in the bovine tuberculosis bacillus

  7. Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from food and drinking water: hemagglutination, hemolysis, and cytotoxicity for a human intestinal cell line (HT-29).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handfield, M; Simard, P; Couillard, M; Letarte, R

    1996-09-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from food and drinking water was tested for pathogenicity by studying its hemolysis, hemagglutination, and cytotoxicity. Hemolysis, tested on erythrocytes from six different species, was more frequently seen with water isolates (64%) than with food isolates (48%). Hemagglutination was more frequently encountered with food isolates (92%) than with water isolates (73%). Cytotoxicity, evaluated on seven cell lines, was frequently observed with food isolates (92%) and with water isolates (73%). Heat treatment (56 degrees C for 10 min) of culture supernatant fluids inhibited the toxicity of some but not all toxin-producing isolates. Our results suggest that the human intestinal cell line HT-29 could be a useful complement for testing A. hydrophila exotoxins and for studying the enteropathogenicity of this species for humans.

  8. Prevalence and diversity of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae from marine beach waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravić, Ana; Skočibušić, Mirjana; Cvjetan, Svjetlana; Šamanić, Ivica; Fredotović, Željana; Puizina, Jasna

    2015-01-15

    A total of 1,351 Enterobacteriaceae isolates from 144 seawater samples were collected over a four-year period from three public beaches in the eastern Adriatic Sea in Croatia. Approximately 35% of the strains were multidrug-resistant. BlaESBL genes were detected in 4.2% of the isolated Enterobacteriaceae, the main species of which were Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. BlaTEM-1+SHV-12 was the most dominant genotype, followed by blaCTX-M-15.Raoultella terrigena and E. intermedius simultaneously harboured blaTEM-1,blaSHV-11/12 and blaCTX-M-15. Isolate fingerprinting revealed that marine E. coli isolates were clonally related to CTX-M-producing strains from a regional university hospital. These results indicate that marine beach waters are reservoirs of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and thus constitute a public health problem with further potential to act as mediators in gene flow between marine coastal areas and clinical settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Paraffin dispersant application for cleaning subsea flow lines in the deep water Gulf of Mexico cottonwood development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, David; White, Jake; Pogoson, Oje [Baker Hughes Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Barros, Dalmo; Ramachandran, Kartik; Bonin, George; Waltrich, Paulo; Shecaira, Farid [PETROBRAS America, Houston, TX (United States); Ziglio, Claudio [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (CENPES/PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento

    2012-07-01

    This paper discusses a paraffin dispersant (in seawater) application to clean paraffin deposition from a severely restricted 17.4-mile dual subsea flow line system in the Gulf of Mexico Cottonwood development. In principle, dispersant treatments are simple processes requiring effective dispersant packages and agitation to break-up and disperse deposition. Dispersants have been used onshore for treating wax deposition for decades. Implementation of a treatment in a long deep water production system, however, poses numerous challenges. The Cottonwood application was one of the first ever deep water dispersant applications. The application was designed in four separate phases: pre-treatment displacement for hydrate protection, dispersant treatment for paraffin deposition removal, pigging sequence for final flow line cleaning, and post-treatment displacement for hydrate protection. In addition, considerable job planning was performed to ensure the application was executed in a safe and environmentally responsible manner. Two dynamically positioned marine vessels were used for pumping fluids and capturing returns. The application was extremely successful in restoring the deep water flow lines back to near pre-production state. Final pigging operations confirmed the flow lines were cleaned of all restrictions. Significant paraffin deposition was removed in the application. Approximately 900 bbls of paraffin sludge was recovered from the 4000 bbl internal volume flow line loop. Furthermore, the application was completed with zero discharge of fluids. The application provided significant value for the Cottonwood development. It allowed production from wells to be brought on-line at a higher capacity, thereby generating increased revenue. It also allowed resumption of routine pigging operations. As such, the Cottonwood dispersant application illustrates that with proper planning and execution, paraffin dispersant treatments can be highly effective solutions for cleaning

  10. Master equation theory applied to the redistribution of polarized radiation in the weak radiation field limit. IV. Application to the second solar spectrum of the Na i D1 and D2 lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bommier, Véronique

    2016-06-01

    Context. The spectrum of the linear polarization, which is formed by scattering and observed on the solar disk close to the limb, is very different from the intensity spectrum and thus able to provide new information, in particular about anisotropies in the solar surface plasma and magnetic fields. In addition, a large number of lines show far wing polarization structures assigned to partial redistribution (PRD), which we prefer to denote as Rayleigh/Raman scattering. The two-level or two-term atom approximation without any lower level polarization is insufficient for many lines. Aims: In the previous paper of this series, we presented our theory generalized to the multilevel and multiline atom and comprised of statistical equilibrium equations for the atomic density matrix elements and radiative transfer equation for the polarized radiation. The present paper is devoted to applying this theory to model the second solar spectrum of the Na i D1 and D2 lines. Methods: The solution method is iterative, of the lambda-iteration type. The usual acceleration techniques were considered or even applied, but we found these to be unsuccessful, in particular because of nonlinearity or large number of quantities determining the radiation at each depth. Results: The observed spectrum is qualitatively reproduced in line center, but the convergence is yet to be reached in the far wings and the observed spectrum is not totally reproduced there. Conclusions: We need to investigate noniterative resolution methods. The other limitation lies in the one-dimensional (1D) atmosphere model, which is unable to reproduce the intermittent matter structure formed of small loops or spicules in the chromosphere. This modeling is rough, but the computing time in the presence of hyperfine structure and PRD prevents us from envisaging a three-dimensional (3D) model at this instant.

  11. Infrared spectrum involving forbidden transitions & coriolis interaction and identification of optically pumped far infrared laser lines in asymmetrically mono-deuterated methanol (Methanol-D1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Indra

    2016-05-01

    In this paper new type of ΔK = 2 and 0 transitions have been identified in the Fourier Transform spectrum of Methanol-D1 (CH2DOH). These transitions are normally forbidden but a "Coriolis" type interaction with nearby states is believed to be contributing sufficient transition strength through intensity borrowing effect. This is the first time such forbidden transitions are reported to be identified in the excited states, in this molecule. The present conjecture is supported by observation of a many strong allowed transitions to upper terminating levels which are seen to be highly perturbed. This conclusion has been reached by comparing calculated energy levels using known molecular parameters (Pearson et al., 2012; Coudert et al., 2014; El Hilali et al., 2011; Quade et al., 1998; Richard Quade, 1998, 1999; Mukhopadhyay, 1997) and the actually observed FIR lines. The upper levels are seen to be upshifted from expected position. A closer look at the calculated energy values seems to indicate a possible interaction between the above states and other proximate torsional-rotational states could occur. The possible candidates for the interacting level manifolds are narrowed down through the presence of the forbidden transition. We also take the opportunity to propose alternate rotational quantum numbers for some of the assignments recently reported in the literature (El Hilali et al., 2011). Some ambiguities are pointed out on the data and the reported analysis. There remain too many such irregularities and we propose to gather a large body assigned transitions in a future catalog. Assignments and relevant comments on optically pumped FIR laser radiation are also made.

  12. Water ice lines and the formation of giant moons around super-Jovian planets

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, René

    2014-01-01

    Most of the exoplanets with known masses at Earth-like distances to Sun-like stars are heavier than Jupiter, which raises the question of whether such planets are accompanied by detectable, possibly habitable moons. Here we simulate the accretion disks around super-Jovian planets and find that giant moons with masses similar to Mars can form. Our results suggest that the Galilean moons formed during the final stages of accretion onto Jupiter, when the circumjovian disk was sufficiently cool. But in contrast to other studies, we show that Jupiter was still feeding from the circumsolar disk and that its principal moons cannot have formed after the complete photoevaporation of the circumsolar nebula. To counteract the steady loss of moons into the planet due to type I migration, we propose that the water ice line around Jupiter and super-Jovian exoplanets acted as a migration trap for moons. Heat transitions, however, cross the disk during the gap opening within 10^4 yr, which makes them inefficient as moon trap...

  13. Quantum calculations of the IR spectrum of liquid water using ab initio and model potential and dipole moment surfaces and comparison with experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hanchao; Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M. [Cherry L. Emerson Center for Scientific Computation and Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

    2015-05-21

    The calculation and characterization of the IR spectrum of liquid water have remained a challenge for theory. In this paper, we address this challenge using a combination of ab initio approaches, namely, a quantum treatment of IR spectrum using the ab initio WHBB water potential energy surface and a refined ab initio dipole moment surface. The quantum treatment is based on the embedded local monomer method, in which the three intramolecular modes of each embedded H{sub 2}O monomer are fully coupled and also coupled singly to each of six intermolecular modes. The new dipole moment surface consists of a previous spectroscopically accurate 1-body dipole moment surface and a newly fitted ab initio intrinsic 2-body dipole moment. A detailed analysis of the new dipole moment surface in terms of the coordinate dependence of the effective atomic charges is done along with tests of it for the water dimer and prism hexamer double-harmonic spectra against direct ab initio calculations. The liquid configurations are taken from previous molecular dynamics calculations of Skinner and co-workers, using the TIP4P plus E3B rigid monomer water potential. The IR spectrum of water at 300 K in the range of 0–4000 cm{sup −1} is calculated and compared with experiment, using the ab initio WHBB potential and new ab initio dipole moment, the q-TIP4P/F potential, which has a fixed-charged description of the dipole moment, and the TTM3-F potential and dipole moment surfaces. The newly calculated ab initio spectrum is in very good agreement with experiment throughout the above spectral range, both in band positions and intensities. This contrasts to results with the other potentials and dipole moments, especially the fixed-charge q-TIP4P/F model, which gives unrealistic intensities. The calculated ab initio spectrum is analyzed by examining the contribution of various transitions to each band.

  14. Quantum calculations of the IR spectrum of liquid water using ab initio and model potential and dipole moment surfaces and comparison with experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanchao; Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M

    2015-05-21

    The calculation and characterization of the IR spectrum of liquid water have remained a challenge for theory. In this paper, we address this challenge using a combination of ab initio approaches, namely, a quantum treatment of IR spectrum using the ab initio WHBB water potential energy surface and a refined ab initio dipole moment surface. The quantum treatment is based on the embedded local monomer method, in which the three intramolecular modes of each embedded H2O monomer are fully coupled and also coupled singly to each of six intermolecular modes. The new dipole moment surface consists of a previous spectroscopically accurate 1-body dipole moment surface and a newly fitted ab initio intrinsic 2-body dipole moment. A detailed analysis of the new dipole moment surface in terms of the coordinate dependence of the effective atomic charges is done along with tests of it for the water dimer and prism hexamer double-harmonic spectra against direct ab initio calculations. The liquid configurations are taken from previous molecular dynamics calculations of Skinner and co-workers, using the TIP4P plus E3B rigid monomer water potential. The IR spectrum of water at 300 K in the range of 0-4000 cm(-1) is calculated and compared with experiment, using the ab initio WHBB potential and new ab initio dipole moment, the q-TIP4P/F potential, which has a fixed-charged description of the dipole moment, and the TTM3-F potential and dipole moment surfaces. The newly calculated ab initio spectrum is in very good agreement with experiment throughout the above spectral range, both in band positions and intensities. This contrasts to results with the other potentials and dipole moments, especially the fixed-charge q-TIP4P/F model, which gives unrealistic intensities. The calculated ab initio spectrum is analyzed by examining the contribution of various transitions to each band.

  15. DIRECT IMAGING OF THE WATER SNOW LINE AT THE TIME OF PLANET FORMATION USING TWO ALMA CONTINUUM BANDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banzatti, A.; Pontoppidan, K. M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Pinilla, P. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Ricci, L.; Birnstiel, T. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ciesla, F., E-mail: banzatti@stsci.edu [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, The University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Molecular snow lines in protoplanetary disks have been studied theoretically for decades because of their importance in shaping planetary architectures and compositions. The water snow line lies in the planet formation region at ≲10 AU, and so far its location has been estimated only indirectly from spatially unresolved spectroscopy. This work presents a proof-of-concept method to directly image the water snow line in protoplanetary disks through its physical and chemical imprint on the local dust properties. We adopt a physical disk model that includes dust coagulation, fragmentation, drift, and a change in fragmentation velocities of a factor of 10 between dry silicates and icy grains as found by laboratory work. We find that the presence of a water snow line leads to a sharp discontinuity in the radial profile of the dust emission spectral index α{sub mm} due to replenishment of small grains through fragmentation. We use the ALMA simulator to demonstrate that this effect can be observed in protoplanetary disks using spatially resolved ALMA images in two continuum bands. We explore the model dependence on the disk viscosity and find that the spectral index reveals the water snow line for a wide range of conditions, with opposite trends when the emission is optically thin rather than thick. If the disk viscosity is low (α{sub visc} < 10{sup −3}), the snow line produces a ringlike structure with a minimum at α{sub mm} ∼ 2 in the optically thick regime, possibly similar to what has been measured with ALMA in the innermost region of the HL Tau disk.

  16. Direct Imaging of the Water Snow Line at the Time of Planet Formation using Two ALMA Continuum Bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzatti, A.; Pinilla, P.; Ricci, L.; Pontoppidan, K. M.; Birnstiel, T.; Ciesla, F.

    2015-12-01

    Molecular snow lines in protoplanetary disks have been studied theoretically for decades because of their importance in shaping planetary architectures and compositions. The water snow line lies in the planet formation region at ≲10 AU, and so far its location has been estimated only indirectly from spatially unresolved spectroscopy. This work presents a proof-of-concept method to directly image the water snow line in protoplanetary disks through its physical and chemical imprint on the local dust properties. We adopt a physical disk model that includes dust coagulation, fragmentation, drift, and a change in fragmentation velocities of a factor of 10 between dry silicates and icy grains as found by laboratory work. We find that the presence of a water snow line leads to a sharp discontinuity in the radial profile of the dust emission spectral index αmm due to replenishment of small grains through fragmentation. We use the ALMA simulator to demonstrate that this effect can be observed in protoplanetary disks using spatially resolved ALMA images in two continuum bands. We explore the model dependence on the disk viscosity and find that the spectral index reveals the water snow line for a wide range of conditions, with opposite trends when the emission is optically thin rather than thick. If the disk viscosity is low (αvisc < 10-3), the snow line produces a ringlike structure with a minimum at αmm ˜ 2 in the optically thick regime, possibly similar to what has been measured with ALMA in the innermost region of the HL Tau disk.

  17. Microwave Spectrum of Hexafluoroisopropanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Abhishek; Mani, Devendra; Arunan, E.

    2012-06-01

    Hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) is an important organic solvent and probably the only solvent which can dissolve polythene. IR studies, on this molecule confirm the existence of antiperiplanar (ap) and synclinical (sc) conformers. We have observed pure rotational spectrum of this molecule and the fitted rotational constants (A= 2105.1208(11) MHz, B= 1053.9942(3) MHz, C= 932.3398(3) MHz) confirm the presence of ap conformer. There are many other observed lines which most probably corresponds to sc structure and due to the large amplitude motion of H-atom, some of these transitions show tunneling splitting. Work is in progress for the deuterated (OD) and C-13 isotopologues of the monomer. HFIP is expected to exhibit interesting hydrogen bonding properties and we are planning to investigate them by studying its complex with water. The results will be presented in this talk. H. Schaal, T. Höber, and M. A. Suhm, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 265 (2000).

  18. On-line detection of Escherichia coli intrusion in a pilot-scale drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonen, Jenni; Pitkänen, Tarja; Kosse, Pascal; Ciszek, Robert; Kolehmainen, Mikko; Miettinen, Ilkka T

    2017-08-01

    Improvements in microbial drinking water quality monitoring are needed for the better control of drinking water distribution systems and for public health protection. Conventional water quality monitoring programmes are not always able to detect a microbial contamination of drinking water. In the drinking water production chain, in addition to the vulnerability of source waters, the distribution networks are prone to contamination. In this study, a pilot-scale drinking-water distribution network with an on-line monitoring system was utilized for detecting bacterial intrusion. During the experimental Escherichia coli intrusions, the contaminant was measured by applying a set of on-line sensors for electric conductivity (EC), pH, temperature (T), turbidity, UV-absorbance at 254 nm (UVAS SC) and with a device for particle counting. Monitored parameters were compared with the measured E. coli counts using the integral calculations of the detected peaks. EC measurement gave the strongest signal compared with the measured baseline during the E. coli intrusion. Integral calculations showed that the peaks in the EC, pH, T, turbidity and UVAS SC data were detected corresponding to the time predicted. However, the pH and temperature peaks detected were barely above the measured baseline and could easily be mixed with the background noise. The results indicate that on-line monitoring can be utilized for the rapid detection of microbial contaminants in the drinking water distribution system although the peak interpretation has to be performed carefully to avoid being mixed up with normal variations in the measurement data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The 1.7- to 4.2-micron spectrum of asteroid 1 Ceres - Evidence for structural water in clay minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Feierberg, M. A.; Larson, H. P.; Johnson, J. R.; Tokunaga, A. T.

    1981-01-01

    A high-resolution Fourier spectrum (1.7-3.5 microns) and medium-resolution spectrophotometry (2.7-4.2 microns) were obtained for Asteroid 1 Ceres. The presence of the 3-micron absorption feature due to water of hydration was confirmed. The 3-micron feature is compared with the 3-micron bands due to water of hydration in clays and salts. It is concluded that the spectrum of Ceres shows a strong absorption at 2.7-2.8 microns due to structural OH groups in clay minerals. The dominant minerals on the surface of Ceres are therefore hydrated clay minerals structurally similar to terrestrial montmorillonites. There is also a narrow absorption feature at 3.1 microns which is attributable to a very small amount of water ice on Ceres. This is the first evidence for ice on the surface of an asteroid.

  20. High-resolution measurement, line identification, and spectral modeling of the K{beta} spectrum of heliumlike argon emitted by a laser-produced plasma using a gas-puff target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skobelev, I.Y.; Faenov, A.Y.; Dyakin, V.M. [Multicharged Ion Spectra Data Center, VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo, 141570 (Russia); Fiedorowicz, H.; Bartnik, A.; Szczurek, M. [Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 01-489 Warsaw (Poland); Beiersdorfer, P.; Nilsen, J.; Osterheld, A.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    1997-03-01

    We present an analysis of the spectrum of satellite transitions to the He-{beta} line in ArXVII. High-resolution measurements of the spectra from laser-heated Ar-gas-puff targets are made with spectral resolution of 10000 and spatial resolution of better than 50 {mu}m. These are compared with tokamak measurements. Several different lines are identified in the spectra and the spectral analysis is used to determine the plasma parameters in the gas-puff laser-produced plasma. The data complement those from tokamak measurements to provide more complete information on the satellite spectra. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Utilities:Water:Sewer Line Nodes at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (Utilities.gdb:Water:sewer_node)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents sewer line nodes at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The data were collected using Trimble Global Positioning System (GPS) units...

  2. Direct imaging of the water snow line at the time of planet formation using two ALMA continuum bands

    CERN Document Server

    Banzatti, Andrea; Ricci, Luca; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Birnstiel, Til; Ciesla, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Molecular snow lines in protoplanetary disks have been studied theoretically for decades because of their importance in shaping planetary architectures and compositions. The water snow line lies in the planet formation region at < 10 AU, and so far its location has been estimated only indirectly from spatially-unresolved spectroscopy. This work presents a proof-of-concept method to directly image the water snow line in protoplanetary disks through its physical and chemical imprint in the local dust properties. We adopt a physical disk model that includes dust coagulation, fragmentation, drift, and a change in fragmentation velocities of a factor 10 between dry silicates and icy grains as found by laboratory work. We find that the presence of a water snow line leads to a sharp discontinuity in the radial profile of the dust emission spectral index {\\alpha}_mm, due to replenishment of small grains through fragmentation. We use the ALMA simulator to demonstrate that this effect can be observed in protoplaneta...

  3. Global methylation profiling of lymphoblastoid cell lines reveals epigenetic contributions to autism spectrum disorders and a novel autism candidate gene, RORA, whose protein product is reduced in autistic brain

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Anhthu; Rauch, Tibor A; Pfeifer, Gerd P.; Hu, Valerie W.

    2010-01-01

    Autism is currently considered a multigene disorder with epigenetic influences. To investigate the contribution of DNA methylation to autism spectrum disorders, we have recently completed large-scale methylation profiling by CpG island microarray analysis of lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from monozygotic twins discordant for diagnosis of autism and their nonautistic siblings. Methylation profiling revealed many candidate genes differentially methylated between discordant MZ twins as well ...

  4. Line profiles of water for the photon dominated region and embedded sources in the S140 region

    CERN Document Server

    Poelman, D R

    2006-01-01

    A radiative transfer method for the treatment of molecular lines is presented. We apply this method to previous SWAS and ISO observations of water vapor in the source S140 in order to make models to plan for, and to interpret, HIFI data. Level populations are calculated with the use of a three-dimensional (multi-zone) escape probability method and with a long characteristic code that uses Monte Carlo techniques with fixed directions. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous models are used to compute the differences between water line profiles across the S140 region. We find that when an outflow or infall velocity field with a gradient of a few kms^{-1} is adopted, line profiles with a FWHM of 6 kms^{-1} are found, in agreement with observations. Inhomogeneous models are favoured to produce a single-peaked line profile. When zooming in on smaller regions within the PDR, the shapes of the line profiles start to differ due to the different temperature and density distributions there. The embedded sources are traced by hig...

  5. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes.

  6. Heat Transfer Modeling of an Annular On-Line Spray Water Cooling Process for Electric-Resistance-Welded Steel Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zejun; Han, Huiquan; Ren, Wei; Huang, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    On-line spray water cooling (OSWC) of electric-resistance-welded (ERW) steel pipes can replace the conventional off-line heat treatment process and become an important and critical procedure. The OSWC process improves production efficiency, decreases costs, and enhances the mechanical properties of ERW steel pipe, especially the impact properties of the weld joint. In this paper, an annular OSWC process is investigated based on an experimental simulation platform that can obtain precise real-time measurements of the temperature of the pipe, the water pressure and flux, etc. The effects of the modes of annular spray water cooling and related cooling parameters on the mechanical properties of the pipe are investigated. The temperature evolutions of the inner and outer walls of the pipe are measured during the spray water cooling process, and the uniformity of mechanical properties along the circumferential and longitudinal directions is investigated. A heat transfer coefficient model of spray water cooling is developed based on measured temperature data in conjunction with simulation using the finite element method. Industrial tests prove the validity of the heat transfer model of a steel pipe undergoing spray water cooling. The research results can provide a basis for the industrial application of the OSWC process in the production of ERW steel pipes. PMID:26201073

  7. B-lines quantify the lung water content: a lung ultrasound versus lung gravimetry study in acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambrik, Zoltán; Gargani, Luna; Adamicza, Agnes; Kaszaki, József; Varga, Albert; Forster, Tamás; Boros, Mihály; Picano, Eugenio

    2010-12-01

    B-lines (also termed ultrasound lung comets) obtained with lung ultrasound detect experimental acute lung injury (ALI) very early and before hemogasanalytic changes, with a simple, noninvasive, nonionizing and real-time method. Our aim was to estimate the correlation between B-lines number and the wet/dry ratio of the lung tissue, measured by gravimetry, in an experimental model of ALI. Seventeen Na-pentobarbital anesthetized, cannulated (central vein and carotid artery) minipigs were studied: five sham-operated animals served as controls and, in 12 animals, ALI was induced by injection of oleic acid (0.1 mL/kg) via the central venous catheter. B-lines were measured by echographic scanner in four predetermined chest scanning sites in each animal. At the end of each experiment, both lungs were dissected, weighed and dried to determine wet/dry weight ratio by gravimetry. After the injection of oleic acid, B-lines number increased over time. A significant correlation was found between the wet/dry ratio and B-lines number (r = 0.91, p < 0.001). These data suggest that in an experimental pig model of ALI/ARDS, B-lines assessed by lung ultrasound provide a simple, semiquantitative, noninvasive index of lung water accumulation, strongly correlated to invasive gravimetric assessment.

  8. Predicted effects on 100-D Area water supply from 100-K Area outfall line failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConiga, M.W.; Soldat, J.K.

    1958-02-10

    The 100-K Area reactor effluent discharge lines in the Columbia River were damaged, soon after startup, by surges of air, which entered during the basin cycling procedure. The buoyancy and pulsations of air caused several minor breaks in each line. During repair, vents were cut in the top of the pipes for escape of the air. Concrete and rip-rap were used to seal and anchor the lines. The original proposal to perform scope and detail design for replacement of the lines was modified into a program of study of their present condition and the consequences attendant to their possible failure. The program of study was divided into two parts, however the concern of this report is only with the radiological aspects of an outfall line failure. 12 figs., 17 tabs.

  9. Reduced TiO2-Graphene Oxide Heterostructure As Broad Spectrum-Driven Efficient Water-Splitting Photocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lihua; Yu, Lili; Lin, Zhaoyong; Yang, Guowei

    2016-04-06

    The reduced TiO2-graphene oxide heterostructure as an alternative broad spectrum-driven efficient water splitting photocatalyst has become a really interesting topic, however, its syntheses has many flaws, e.g., tedious experimental steps, time-consuming, small scale production, and requirement of various additives, for example, hydrazine hydrate is widely used as reductant to the reduction of graphene oxide, which is high toxicity and easy to cause the second pollution. For these issues, herein, we reported the synthesis of the reduced TiO2-graphene oxide heterostructure by a facile chemical reduction agent-free one-step laser ablation in liquid (LAL) method, which achieves extended optical response range from ultraviolet to visible and composites TiO(2-x) (reduced TiO2) nanoparticle and graphene oxide for promoting charge conducting. 30.64% Ti(3+) content in the reduced TiO2 nanoparticles induces the electronic reconstruction of TiO2, which results in 0.87 eV decrease of the band gap for the visible light absorption. TiO(2-x)-graphene oxide heterostructure achieved drastically increased photocatalytic H2 production rate, up to 23 times with respect to the blank experiment. Furthermore, a maximum H2 production rate was measured to be 16 mmol/h/g using Pt as a cocatalyst under the simulated sunlight irradiation (AM 1.5G, 135 mW/cm(2)), the quantum efficiencies were measured to be 5.15% for wavelength λ = 365 ± 10 nm and 1.84% for λ = 405 ± 10 nm, and overall solar energy conversion efficiency was measured to be 14.3%. These findings provided new insights into the broad applicability of this methodology for accessing fascinate photocatalysts.

  10. In-Line Measurement of Water Content in Ethanol Using a PVA-Coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Chul Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An in-line device for measuring the water content in ethanol was developed using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance. Bio-ethanol is widely used as the replacement of gasoline, and its water content is a key component of its specifications. When the PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance is contacted with ethanol containing a small amount of water, the water is absorbed into the PVA increasing the load on the microbalance surface to cause a frequency drop. The determination performance of the PVA-coated microbalance is examined by measuring the frequency decreases in ethanol containing 2% to 10% water while the ethanol flows through the measurement device. The measurements indicates that the higher water content is the more the frequency reduction is, though some deviation in the measurements is observed. This indicates that the frequency measurement of an unknown concentration of water in ethanol can be used to determine the water content in ethanol. The PVA coating is examined by microscopy and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  11. In-line measurement of water content in ethanol using a PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung Chul; Yamamoto, Takuji; Kim, Young Han

    2014-01-16

    An in-line device for measuring the water content in ethanol was developed using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-coated quartz crystal microbalance. Bio-ethanol is widely used as the replacement of gasoline, and its water content is a key component of its specifications. When the PVA-coated quartz crystal microbalance is contacted with ethanol containing a small amount of water, the water is absorbed into the PVA increasing the load on the microbalance surface to cause a frequency drop. The determination performance of the PVA-coated microbalance is examined by measuring the frequency decreases in ethanol containing 2% to 10% water while the ethanol flows through the measurement device. The measurements indicates that the higher water content is the more the frequency reduction is, though some deviation in the measurements is observed. This indicates that the frequency measurement of an unknown concentration of water in ethanol can be used to determine the water content in ethanol. The PVA coating is examined by microscopy and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy.

  12. Effect of temperature on the low-frequency vibrational spectrum and relative structuring of hydration water around a single-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2015-01-07

    Molecular dynamics simulations of the single-stranded DNA oligomer (5'-CGCGAAT TCGCG-3') in aqueous solution have been carried out at different temperatures between 160 K and 300 K. The effects of temperature on the low-frequency vibrational spectrum and local structural arrangements of water molecules hydrating the DNA strand have been explored in detail. The low-frequency density of states distributions reveal that increasingly trapped transverse water motions play a dominant role in controlling the band corresponding to O⋯O⋯O bending or transverse oscillations of hydration water at supercooled temperatures. In addition, presence of a broad band around 260 (±20) cm(-1) under supercooled conditions indicates transformation from high density liquid-like structuring of hydration water at higher temperatures to that of a low density liquid at lower temperatures. It is found that long-range correlations between the supercooled hydration water molecules arise due to such local structural transition around the DNA oligomer.

  13. Alternative least squares methods for determining the meteoric water line, demonstrated using GNIP data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jagoda; Hughes, Catherine E.; Lykoudis, Spyros

    2014-11-01

    The relationship between δ2H and δ18O in precipitation at a site, known as the local meteoric water line (LMWL), is normally defined using an ordinary least squares regression (OLSR). However, it has been argued that this form of minimisation is more appropriate when a predictive model is being developed (and there are no measurement errors associated with the independent variable) and that orthogonal regression, also known as major axis regression (MA), or reduced major axis regression (RMA) may be better suited when a relationship is being sought between two variables which are related by underlying physical processes. The slope of the LMWLs for the GNIP data is examined using the three linear regressions, and the corresponding precipitation weighted regressions. The MA and RMA regressions generally produced larger slopes, with the largest differences for oceanic islands and coastal sites. The difference between the various methods was the least for continental sites. In all considered cases, both for the standard and precipitation weighted regressions, the slope produced by RMA was in between those determined by OLSR and MA, with OLSR producing the smaller slope. Further, the results of both RMA and precipitation weighted RMA were less sensitive to the removal of outliers and values with high leverage statistic. The results indicate that when a good linear relationship exists between δ2H and δ18O, all considered regressions result in a close fit. When the values are distributed within circles or ellipses on the δ18O-δ2H bivariate plot, as would appear in coastal and oceanic sites from first stage rainout, care needs to be taken as to which regression is utilised. However, in some of these cases, it appears the precipitation weighted MA (and in some cases MA) produces large slopes. In these cases the average Root Mean Sum of Squared Error (rmSSEav) value of the fit can be used as a guide of the suitability of the MA and PWMA for each site. Where the slope

  14. Thermographic Imaging of Material Loss in Boiler Water-Wall Tubing by Application of Scanning Line Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Winfree, William P.

    2000-01-01

    Localized wall thinning due to corrosion in utility boiler water-wall tubing is a significant inspection concern for boiler operators. Historically, conventional ultrasonics has been used for inspection of these tubes. This technique has proven to be very manpower and time intensive. This has resulted in a spot check approach to inspections, documenting thickness measurements over a relatively small percentage of the total boiler wall area. NASA Langley Research Center has developed a thermal NDE technique designed to image and quantitatively characterize the amount of material thinning present in steel tubing. The technique involves the movement of a thermal line source across the outer surface of the tubing followed by an infrared imager at a fixed distance behind the line source. Quantitative images of the material loss due to corrosion are reconstructed from measurements of the induced surface temperature variations. This paper will present a discussion of the development of the thermal imaging system as well as the techniques used to reconstruct images of flaws. The application of the thermal line source coupled with the analysis technique represents a significant improvement in the inspection speed for large structures such as boiler water-walls. A theoretical basis for the technique will be presented which explains the quantitative nature of the technique. Further, a dynamic calibration system will be presented for the technique that allows the extraction of thickness information from the temperature data. Additionally, the results of applying this technology to actual water-wall tubing samples and in situ inspections will be presented.

  15. Fourier transform measurements of water vapor line parameters in the 4200-6600 cm{sup -1} region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenouvrier, Alain [Groupe de Spectrometrie Moleculaire et Atmospherique, UMR CNRS 6089, UFR Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, B.P. 1039, 51067 Reims Cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: alain.jenouvrier@univ-reims.fr; Daumont, Ludovic [Groupe de Spectrometrie Moleculaire et Atmospherique, UMR CNRS 6089, UFR Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, B.P. 1039, 51067 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Regalia-Jarlot, Laurence [Groupe de Spectrometrie Moleculaire et Atmospherique, UMR CNRS 6089, UFR Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, B.P. 1039, 51067 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Tyuterev, Vladimir G. [Groupe de Spectrometrie Moleculaire et Atmospherique, UMR CNRS 6089, UFR Sciences, Moulin de la Housse, B.P. 1039, 51067 Reims Cedex 2 (France); Carleer, Michel [Service de Chimie Quantique et de Photophysique, CP 160/09, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 50 Av. F.D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Vandaele, Ann Carine [Institut d' Aeronomie Spatiale de Belgique, Av. Circulaire 3, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium); Mikhailenko, Semen [Laboratory of Theoretical Spectroscopy, Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1, Av. Akademichesskii, 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Fally, Sophie [Service de Chimie Quantique et de Photophysique, CP 160/09, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, 50 Av. F.D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2007-06-15

    New high-resolution water vapor absorption spectra were obtained at room temperature in the 4200-6600 cm{sup -1} spectral region by combining Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) with single and multiple reflection cells. With absorption paths from 0.3 to 1800 m in pure and air diluted water vapor, accurate measurements of about 10400 lines in an intensity range from 10{sup -29} to 10{sup -19} cm/molecule have been performed. Positions, intensities, self- and air-broadening coefficients and air-induced shifts were determined for the H{sub 2} {sup 16}O, H{sub 2} {sup 17}O, H{sub 2} {sup 18}O and HDO isotopologues. The rovibrational assignment of the observed lines was performed with the use of global variational predictions and allowed the identification of several new energy levels. One major contribution of this work consists of the identification of 3280 new weak lines. A very close agreement between the new measured parameters and those listed in the database is reported as well as between the observations and the most recent variational calculations for the positions and the intensities. The present parameters provide an extended and homogeneous data set for water vapor, which is shown to significantly improve the databases for atmospheric applications, especially in the transmission windows on both sides of the band centered at 5400 cm{sup -1}.

  16. The Conformation and Assignment of the Proton NMR Spectrum in Water of DX600, a Bioactive Peptide with a Random Coil Conformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne E. Steinmetz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available DX600, a small peptide with 26 residues, is a potent, highly selective inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2. A range of NMR methods including TOCSY and ROESY yield an assignment of its proton spectrum in water and constraints on its conformation. Constrained molecular dynamics simulations of solvated DX600 show that the peptide's most abundant conformer adopts a predominantly random coil conformation. Constrained by the disulfide bond, its backbone defines an overhand knot with frayed ends.

  17. Extended-Spectrum beta (β)-Lactamases and Antibiogram in Enterobacteriaceae from Clinical and Drinking Water Sources from Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abera, Bayeh; Kibret, Mulugeta; Mulu, Wondemagegn

    2016-01-01

    Background The spread of Extended-Spectrum beta (β)-Lactamases (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae has become a serious global problem. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae vary based on differences in antibiotic use, nature of patients and hospital settings. This study was aimed at determining ESBL and antibiogram in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from clinical and drinking water sources in Bahir Dar City, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods Enterobacteriaceae species were isolated from clinical materials...

  18. Water Pipelines, Major, DG Water Lines, Published in 2005, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Pipelines, Major dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2005. It is...

  19. The features of the use of GIS technologies for monitoring of the situation of main water lines in Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojamanov, M. H.; Z, Qurbanov, Ch.

    2014-11-01

    The characteristic feature of the unified system of water supply of Azerbaijan is the large spatial remoteness between the main water sources (Greater and Small Caucasian mountains) and water-using economic areas (Baku, Ganja, Sumgait etc). When operating the pipelines arise accident and emergency situations, which are connected with interaction of the technological elements of the water supply and the natural environment. Often this process is a violation of dynamic equilibrium, and is accompanied by activation of dangerous natural and natural-anthropogenic processes that have a negative impact on the condition of pipelines. Given that in Azerbaijan the basis of the water supply network was put in the XIX century, it is necessary to pay close attention to the assessment of the ecological situation of main lines of water pipelines, i.e. to conduct their monitoring. Ensuring the reliability of existing and planned pipelines, a comprehensive study of the impacts on the natural environment during the construction and operation of the technical facilities, the organization of system of information and analytical monitoring requires a comprehensive attract the materials of the aerospace sensing and GIS technologies. In this paper describe the work experience and are the results of monitoring of pipelines of water supply in Azerbaijan.

  20. Water Stress and Foliar Boron Application Altered Cell Wall Boron and Seed Nutrition in Near-Isogenic Cotton Lines Expressing Fuzzy and Fuzzless Seed Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Our previous research, conducted under well-watered conditions without fertilizer application, showed that fuzziness cottonseed trait resulted in cottonseed nutrition differences between fuzzy (F) and fuzzless (N) cottonseed. Under water stress conditions, B mobility is further limited, inhibiting B movement within the plant, affecting seed nutrition (quality). Therefore, we hypothesized that both foliar B and water stress can affect B mobility, altering cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral nutrition. The objective of the current research was to evaluate the effects of the fuzziness seed trait on boron (B) and seed nutrition under water stress and foliar B application using near-isogenic cotton lines (NILs) grown in a repeated greenhouse experiment. Plants were grown under-well watered conditions (The soil water potential was kept between -15 to -20 kPa, considered field capacity) and water stress conditions (soil water potential between -100 and -150 kPa, stressed conditions). Foliar B was applied at a rate of 1.8 kg B ha-1 as H3BO3. Under well-watered conditions without B the concentrations of seed oil in N lines were higher than in F lines, and seed K and N levels were lower in N lines than in F lines. Concentrations of K, N, and B in leaves were higher in N lines than in F lines, opposing the trend in seeds. Water-stress resulted in higher seed protein concentrations, and the contribution of cell wall (structural) B to the total B exceeded 90%, supporting the structural role of B in plants. Foliar B application under well-watered conditions resulted in higher seed protein, oil, C, N, and B in only some lines. This research showed that cottonseed nutrition differences can occur due to seed fuzziness trait, and water stress and foliar B application can alter cottonseed nutrition. PMID:26098564

  1. Water Stress and Foliar Boron Application Altered Cell Wall Boron and Seed Nutrition in Near-Isogenic Cotton Lines Expressing Fuzzy and Fuzzless Seed Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Turley, Rickie B; Stetina, Salliana R

    2015-01-01

    Our previous research, conducted under well-watered conditions without fertilizer application, showed that fuzziness cottonseed trait resulted in cottonseed nutrition differences between fuzzy (F) and fuzzless (N) cottonseed. Under water stress conditions, B mobility is further limited, inhibiting B movement within the plant, affecting seed nutrition (quality). Therefore, we hypothesized that both foliar B and water stress can affect B mobility, altering cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral nutrition. The objective of the current research was to evaluate the effects of the fuzziness seed trait on boron (B) and seed nutrition under water stress and foliar B application using near-isogenic cotton lines (NILs) grown in a repeated greenhouse experiment. Plants were grown under-well watered conditions (The soil water potential was kept between -15 to -20 kPa, considered field capacity) and water stress conditions (soil water potential between -100 and -150 kPa, stressed conditions). Foliar B was applied at a rate of 1.8 kg B ha(-1) as H3BO3. Under well-watered conditions without B the concentrations of seed oil in N lines were higher than in F lines, and seed K and N levels were lower in N lines than in F lines. Concentrations of K, N, and B in leaves were higher in N lines than in F lines, opposing the trend in seeds. Water-stress resulted in higher seed protein concentrations, and the contribution of cell wall (structural) B to the total B exceeded 90%, supporting the structural role of B in plants. Foliar B application under well-watered conditions resulted in higher seed protein, oil, C, N, and B in only some lines. This research showed that cottonseed nutrition differences can occur due to seed fuzziness trait, and water stress and foliar B application can alter cottonseed nutrition.

  2. Water Stress and Foliar Boron Application Altered Cell Wall Boron and Seed Nutrition in Near-Isogenic Cotton Lines Expressing Fuzzy and Fuzzless Seed Phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacer Bellaloui

    Full Text Available Our previous research, conducted under well-watered conditions without fertilizer application, showed that fuzziness cottonseed trait resulted in cottonseed nutrition differences between fuzzy (F and fuzzless (N cottonseed. Under water stress conditions, B mobility is further limited, inhibiting B movement within the plant, affecting seed nutrition (quality. Therefore, we hypothesized that both foliar B and water stress can affect B mobility, altering cottonseed protein, oil, and mineral nutrition. The objective of the current research was to evaluate the effects of the fuzziness seed trait on boron (B and seed nutrition under water stress and foliar B application using near-isogenic cotton lines (NILs grown in a repeated greenhouse experiment. Plants were grown under-well watered conditions (The soil water potential was kept between -15 to -20 kPa, considered field capacity and water stress conditions (soil water potential between -100 and -150 kPa, stressed conditions. Foliar B was applied at a rate of 1.8 kg B ha(-1 as H3BO3. Under well-watered conditions without B the concentrations of seed oil in N lines were higher than in F lines, and seed K and N levels were lower in N lines than in F lines. Concentrations of K, N, and B in leaves were higher in N lines than in F lines, opposing the trend in seeds. Water-stress resulted in higher seed protein concentrations, and the contribution of cell wall (structural B to the total B exceeded 90%, supporting the structural role of B in plants. Foliar B application under well-watered conditions resulted in higher seed protein, oil, C, N, and B in only some lines. This research showed that cottonseed nutrition differences can occur due to seed fuzziness trait, and water stress and foliar B application can alter cottonseed nutrition.

  3. The broad-spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor BB-94 inhibits growth, HER3 and Erk activation in fulvestrant-resistant breast cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Tove; Yde, Christina Westmose; Kveiborg, Marie

    2014-01-01

    cells. This was prevented by treatment of resistant cells with the metalloproteinase inhibitor TAPI-2. Only the broad-spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor BB-94, and not the more selective inhibitors GM6001 or TAPI-2, which inhibited shedding of the HER ligands produced by the fulvestrant...... of ligands. Only the broad-spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor BB-94 could abrogate HER3 and Erk activation in the resistant cells, which stresses the complexity of the resistance mechanisms and the requirement of targeting signaling from HER receptors by multiple strategies....

  4. A strong and broad iron line in the XMM-Newton spectrum of the new X-ray transient and black-hole candidate XTE J1652-453

    CERN Document Server

    Hiemstra, Beike; Done, Chris; Trigo, Maria Diaz; Altamirano, Diego; Casella, Piergiorgio

    2010-01-01

    We observed the new X-ray transient and black-hole candidate XTE J1652-453 simultaneously with XMM-Newton and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The observation was done during the decay of the 2009 outburst, when XTE J1652-453 was in the hard-intermediate state. The spectrum shows a strong and broad iron emission line with an equivalent width of ~ 450 eV. The profile is consistent with that of a line being produced by reflection off the accretion disk, broadened by relativistic effects close to the black hole. The best-fitting inner radius of the accretion disk is ~ 4 gravitational radii. Assuming that the accretion disk is truncated at the radius of the innermost stable circular orbit, the black hole in XTE J1652-453 has a spin parameter of ~ 0.5. The power spectrum of the RXTE observation has an additional variability component above 50 Hz, which is typical for the hard-intermediate state. No coherent quasi-periodic oscillations at low frequency are apparent in the power spectrum, which may imply that...

  5. On-Line Monitoring of Escherichia coli in Raw Water at Oset Drinking Water Treatment Plant, Oslo (Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingun Tryland

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The fully automated Colifast ALARMTM has been used for two years for daily monitoring of the presence/absence of Escherichia coli in 100 mL raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant in Oslo, Norway. The raw water is extracted from 35 m depth from the Lake Maridalsvannet. E. coli was detected in 18% of the daily samples. In general, most samples positive for E. coli were observed during the autumn turnover periods, but even in some samples taken during warm and dry days in July, with stable temperature stratification in the lake, E. coli was detected. The daily samples gave useful additional information compared with the weekly routine samples about the hygienic raw water quality and the hygienic barrier efficiency of the lake under different weather conditions and seasons. The winter 2013/2014 was much warmer than the winter 2012/2013. The monitoring supported the hypothesis that warmer winters with shorter periods with ice cover on lakes, which may be a consequence of climate changes, may reduce the hygienic barrier efficiency in deep lakes used as drinking water sources.

  6. On-line monitoring of Escherichia coli in raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant, Oslo (Norway).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryland, Ingun; Eregno, Fasil Ejigu; Braathen, Henrik; Khalaf, Goran; Sjølander, Ingrid; Fossum, Marie

    2015-02-04

    The fully automated Colifast ALARM™ has been used for two years for daily monitoring of the presence/absence of Escherichia coli in 100 mL raw water at Oset drinking water treatment plant in Oslo, Norway. The raw water is extracted from 35 m depth from the Lake Maridalsvannet. E. coli was detected in 18% of the daily samples. In general, most samples positive for E. coli were observed during the autumn turnover periods, but even in some samples taken during warm and dry days in July, with stable temperature stratification in the lake, E. coli was detected. The daily samples gave useful additional information compared with the weekly routine samples about the hygienic raw water quality and the hygienic barrier efficiency of the lake under different weather conditions and seasons. The winter 2013/2014 was much warmer than the winter 2012/2013. The monitoring supported the hypothesis that warmer winters with shorter periods with ice cover on lakes, which may be a consequence of climate changes, may reduce the hygienic barrier efficiency in deep lakes used as drinking water sources.

  7. The Effectiveness of Aquatic Group Therapy for Improving Water Safety and Social Interactions in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaniz, Michele L; Rosenberg, Sheila S; Beard, Nicole R; Rosario, Emily R

    2017-09-01

    Drowning is the number one cause of accidental death in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Few studies have examined the effectiveness of swim instruction for improving water safety skills in children with moderate to severe ASD. This study examines the feasibility and effectiveness of an aquatic therapy program on water safety and social skills in children with mild to severe ASD (n = 7). Water safety skills were evaluated using the Aquatics Skills Checklist and social skills were measured using the Social Skills Improvement Scale. We provide preliminary evidence that children with ASD can improve water safety skills (p = 0.0002), which are important for drowning prevention after only 8 h of intervention. However, social skills did not respond to intervention (p = 0.6409).

  8. A strong and broad Fe line in the XMM-Newton spectrum of the new X-ray transient and black hole candidate XTE J1652-453

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Beike; Méndez, Mariano; Done, Chris; Díaz Trigo, María; Altamirano, Diego; Casella, Piergiorgio

    2011-01-01

    We observed the new X-ray transient and black hole candidate XTE J1652-453 simultaneously with XMM-Newton and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The observation was done during the decay of the 2009 outburst, when XTE J1652-453 was in the hard-intermediate state. The spectrum shows a strong and

  9. A strong and broad Fe line in the XMM-Newton spectrum of the new X-ray transient and black hole candidate XTEJ1652-453

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Beike; Méndez, Mariano; Done, Chris; Díaz Trigo, María; Altamirano, Diego; Casella, Piergiorgio

    2011-01-01

    We observed the new X-ray transient and black hole candidate XTEJ1652-453 simultaneously with XMM-Newton and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The observation was done during the decay of the 2009 outburst, when XTEJ1652-453 was in the hard-intermediate state. The spectrum shows a strong and b

  10. Water-supply potential from an asphalt-lined catchment near Holualoa Kona, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Salwyn S.W.

    1965-01-01

    The Jenkins-Whitesburg area includes approximately 250 square miles In Letcher and Pike Counties in the southeastern part of the Eastern Coal Field. In this area ground water is the principal source of water for nearly all rural families, most public supplies, several coal mines and coal processing plants, and one bottling plant. The major aquifers in the Jenkins-Whitesburg area are the Breathitt and Lee Formations of Pennsylvanian age. Other aquifers range in age from Devonian to Quaternary but are not important in this area because they occur at great depth or yield little or no water. The Breathitt Formation occurs throughout the area except along the crest and slopes of Pine Mountain and where it is covered by unconsolidated material of Quaternary age. The Breathitt Formation consists of shale, sandstone, and lesser amounts of coal and associated underclay. The yield of wells penetrating the Breathitt Formation ranges from less than 1 to 330 gallons per minute. Well yield is controlled by the type and depth of well, character of the aquifer, and topography of the well site. Generally, deep wells drilled in valleys of perennial streams offer the best potential for high yields. Although enough water for a minimum domestic supply (more than 100 gallons per day) may be obtained from shale, all high-yielding wells probably obtain water from vertical joints and from bedding planes which are best developed in sandstone. About 13 percent of the wells inventoried in the Breathitt Formation failed to supply enough water for a minimum domestic supply. Most of these are shallow dug wells or drilled wells on hillsides or hilltops. Abandoned coal mines are utilized as large infiltration galleries and furnish part of the water for several public supplies. The chemical quality of water from the Breathitt Formation varies considerably from place to place, but the water generally is acceptable for most domestic and industrial uses. Most water is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate

  11. Green energy : enabling technologies : international trends in utility wireless spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moroney, W. [Utilities Telecom Council, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The Utilities Telecom Council (UTC) is an international trade association that represents the interests of electric, gas and water utilities in the area of information and communications technology (ICT). This presentation provided background information on the UTC, with particular reference to its history; reporting relationships of the Board of Directors and the various divisions of the association; and radio spectrum. The UTC has been the leading advocate for critical infrastructure industries access to the spectrum since its creation in 1948. The radio spectrum was outlined in detail, including global efforts; Canadian, American, and European frequency allocations; the need for the spectrum; and the bottom-line. It was concluded that governments around the globe are moving to understand that utilities require access to interference-free radio spectrum if the benefits of intelligence in the grid are to be fully realized in a timely and cost-effective manner. 7 figs.

  12. Comparison of different methods for measuring water holding capacity and juiciness of pork versus on-line screening methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oeckel, M J; Warnants, N; Boucqué, C V

    1999-04-01

    The extent to which water holding capacity (WHC) techniques: filter paper press method, drip loss and filter paper method, are related to the sensory juiciness appreciation of pork was studied. Additionally four on-line methods: pH1, FOP1 (light scattering), PQM1 (conductivity) and DDLT (Double Density Light Transmission), were evaluated for their ability to predict WHC and juiciness scores. One-hundred and twenty samples of m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum, from animals of different genotypes, were involved in this study. Only WHC results, determined by the filter paper press method, were significantly correlated with juiciness scores (r=-0.24). The results of the filter paper method, either by weighing or visual judging, could not be predicted by the on-line methods. The results of the filter paper press method (F.p.p.-RZ) and drip loss were slightly better correlated with DDLT (respectively, r=0.56 and 0.45) than with PQM1 (r=0.51 and 0.36), FOP1 (r=0.48 and 0.34) and pH1 (r=0.41 and 0.34), although the standard error of estimate of the linear regressions was similar for the four on-line methods. Unfortunately, the on-line techniques incorrectly predicted several WHCs. Juiciness was slightly or not related to the on-line methods. The DDLT technique, which is analogous to the CGM (Capteur Gras/Maigre), an officially accepted carcass grading apparatus in France and Belgium, is as good or better than the classical on-line instruments: pH, FOP and PQM, in predicting WHC.

  13. Piercing the water surface with a blade: Singularities of the contact line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alimov, Mars M. [Kazan Federal University, Kazan 420008 (Russian Federation); Kornev, Konstantin G. [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    An external meniscus on a narrow blade with a slit-like cross section is studied using the hodograph formulation of the Laplace nonlinear equation of capillarity. On narrow blades, the menisci are mostly shaped by the wetting and capillary forces; gravity plays a secondary role. To describe a meniscus in this asymptotic case, the model of Alimov and Kornev [“Meniscus on a shaped fibre: Singularities and hodograph formulation,” Proc. R. Soc. A 470, 20140113 (2014)] has been employed. It is shown that at the sharp edges of the blade, the contact line makes a jump. In the wetting case, the contact line sitting at each side of the blade is lifted above the points where the meniscus first meets the blade edges. In the non-wetting case, the contact line is lowered below these points. The contours of the constant height emanating from the blade edges generate unusual singularities with infinite curvatures at some points at the blade edges. The meniscus forms a unique surface made of two mirror-symmetric sheets fused together. Each sheet is supported by the contact line sitting at each side of the blade.

  14. Effects of Water Temperature on Male Fertility Alternation of the Sensitive TGMS Lines in Rice under the Simulated Low Air Temperature in High Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The effects of water temperature on male fertility alternation of TGMS lines in rice were studied under the simulated low air temperature conditions in summer. The results indicate that warm water with temperature higher than the critical temperature of TGMS lines is able to keep the lines' male sterility stable under the air temperature below the critical temperature. These results provide theoretic basis for applying warm water as an effective measure to prevent the lines from the negative effects of the low air temperature occuring in summer in the course of seed production.

  15. A Detection of Water in the Transmission Spectrum of the Hot Jupiter WASP-12b and Implications for its Atmospheric Composition

    CERN Document Server

    Kreidberg, Laura; Bean, Jacob L; Stevenson, Kevin B; Desert, Jean-Michel; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Fortney, Jonathan J; Barstow, Joanna K; Henry, Gregory W; Williamson, Michael; Showman, Adam P

    2015-01-01

    Detailed characterization of exoplanets has begun to yield measurements of their atmospheric properties that constrain the planets' origins and evolution. For example, past observations of the dayside emission spectrum of the hot Jupiter WASP-12b indicated that its atmosphere has a high carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O $>$ 1), suggesting it had a different formation pathway than is commonly assumed for giant planets. Here we report a precise near-infrared transmission spectrum for WASP-12b based on six transit observations with the Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3. We bin the data in 13 spectrophotometric light curves from 0.84 - 1.67 $\\mu$m and measure the transit depths to a median precision of 51 ppm. We retrieve the atmospheric properties using the transmission spectrum and find strong evidence for water absorption (7$\\sigma$ confidence). This detection marks the first high-confidence, spectroscopic identification of a molecule in the atmosphere of WASP-12b. The retrieved 1$\\sigma$ water volume mixin...

  16. A new chemical formulation for control of dental unit water line contamination: An 'in vitro' and clinical 'study'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolci Giovanni

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Water delivered by dental units during routine dental practice is highly contaminated. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a new chemical solution flushed through Dental Unit Water Lines (DUWL for the control of contamination inside dental units. Materials and methods Six old dental units equipped with a device designed to automatically flush disinfecting solutions through the water system (Castellini Autosteril were selected. Water samples from DUWL effluents were collected in each dental unit for 10 randomly selected days, before and after a 5 minute DUWL disinfecting cycle with TetraAcetylEthileneDiamine (TAED and persalt (Ster4spray produced by Farmec spa, and distributed by Castellini spa. Water samples were plated in R2A Agar and cultured at room temperature for 7 days, and the total number of heterotrophic microorganisms counted and expressed in Log10 CFU/mL A general linear model was fitted and multiple regression ANOVA for repeated measures was used for the statistical analysis. Results The mean contamination in DUWL effluent at baseline was 5.45 ± 0.35 CFU/mL (range 4.79 to 5.93 CFU/mL. When water samples were tested "in vitro" against the chemical, no growth of heterotrophic bacteria was detected after a 5 minute contact in any of the water samples tested. After undergoing a 5 minute disinfecting cycle with the chemical, DUWL mean contamination in water effluents was 2.01 ± 0.32 CFU/mL (range 1.30 to 2.74 CFU/mL (significant difference with respect to baseline. Conclusions An inbetween patient disinfecting procedure consisting of flushing DUWL with TAED and persalt equivalent to 0.26% peracetic acid could be useful in routine dental practice for cross-contamination control.

  17. modelling for optimal number of line storage reservoirs in a water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    the reservoir system location be integrated into the ... systems experience (figure 1), storage facilities within the system .... Therefore, a computer programme for designing cost effective water distribution net works called Economic Number of.

  18. Fano lines in the reflection spectrum of directly coupled systems of waveguides and cavities: measurements, modeling and manipulation of the Fano asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Lian, Jin; Yüce, Emre; Combrié, Sylvain; De Rossi, Alfredo; Mosk, Allard P

    2016-01-01

    We measure and analyze reflection spectra of directly coupled systems of waveguides and cavities. The observed Fano lines offer insight in the reflection and coupling processes. We show their shape can be understood and manipulated by varying experimental parameters.

  19. SDSS J143030.22-001115.1: A Misclassified Narrow-line Seyfert 1 Galaxy with Flat X-ray Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Hao Bian; Quan-Ling Cui; Li-Hua Chao

    2006-01-01

    We used multi-component profiles to model the Hβ and [O Ⅲ]λλ4959,5007 lines of SDSS J143030.22-001115.1, a narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLS1) in a sample of 150 NLS1 candidates selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Early Data Release (EDR). After subtracting the Hβ contribution from narrow line regions (NLRs), we found that its full width half maximum (FWHM) of broad Hβ line is nearly 2900km s-1, significantly larger than the customarily adopted criterion of 2000km s-1. With its weak Fe Ⅱ multiples,we believe that SDSS J143030.22-001115.1 should not be classified as a genuine NLS1.When we calculate the virial black hole masses of NLS1s, we should use the Hβ linewidth after subtracting the NLR component.

  20. The Infrared Spectrum of Uranium Hollow Cathode Lamps from 850 nm to 4000 nm: Wavenumbers and Line Identifications from Fourier Transform Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Redman, Stephen L; Nave, Gillian; Ramsey, Lawrence W; Mahadevan, Suvrath

    2011-01-01

    We provide new measurements of wavenumbers and line identifications of 10 100 UI and UII near-infrared (NIR) emission lines between 2500 cm-1 and 12 000 cm-1 (4000 nm to 850 nm) using archival FTS spectra from the National Solar Observatory (NSO). This line list includes isolated uranium lines in the Y, J, H, K, and L bands (0.9 {\\mu}m to 1.1 {\\mu}m, 1.2 {\\mu}m to 1.35 {\\mu}m, 1.5 {\\mu}m to 1.65 {\\mu}m, 2.0 {\\mu}m to 2.4 {\\mu}m, and 3.0 {\\mu}m to 4.0 {\\mu}m, respectively), and provides six times as many calibration lines as thorium in the NIR spectral range. The line lists we provide enable inexpensive, commercially-available uranium hollow-cathode lamps to be used for high-precision wavelength calibration of existing and future high-resolution NIR spectrographs.

  1. Spectrum and network measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Witte, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    This new edition of Spectrum and Network Measurements enables readers to understand the basic theory, relate it to measured results, and apply it when creating new designs. This comprehensive treatment of frequency domain measurements successfully consolidates all the pertinent theory into one text. It covers the theory and practice of spectrum and network measurements in electronic systems. It also provides thorough coverage of Fourier analysis, transmission lines, intermodulation distortion, signal-to-noise ratio and S-parameters.

  2. An adaptive quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics method for the infrared spectrum of water: incorporation of the quantum effect between solute and solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi C; Banno, Misa; Sakurai, Minoru

    2016-03-14

    Quantum effects in solute-solvent interactions, such as the many-body effect and the dipole-induced dipole, are known to be critical factors influencing the infrared spectra of species in the liquid phase. For accurate spectrum evaluation, the surrounding solvent molecules, in addition to the solute of interest, should be treated using a quantum mechanical method. However, conventional quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods cannot handle free QM solvent molecules during molecular dynamics (MD) simulation because of the diffusion problem. To deal with this problem, we have previously proposed an adaptive QM/MM "size-consistent multipartitioning (SCMP) method". In the present study, as the first application of the SCMP method, we demonstrate the reproduction of the infrared spectrum of liquid-phase water, and evaluate the quantum effect in comparison with conventional QM/MM simulations.

  3. A search for TiO in the optical high-resolution transmission spectrum of HD 209458b: Hindrance due to inaccuracies in the line database

    CERN Document Server

    Hoeijmakers, H J; Snellen, I A G; Brogi, M; Birkby, J L; Schwarz, H

    2014-01-01

    The spectral signature of an exoplanet can be separated from the spectrum of its host star using high-resolution spectroscopy. During such observations, the radial component of the planet's orbital velocity changes, resulting in a significant Doppler shift which allows its spectral features to be extracted. Aims: In this work, we aim to detect TiO in the optical transmission spectrum of HD 209458b. Gaseous TiO has been suggested as the cause of the thermal inversion layer invoked to explain the dayside spectrum of this planet. Method: We used archival data from the 8.2m Subaru Telescope taken with the High Dispersion Spectrograph of a transit of HD209458b in 2002. We created model transmission spectra which include absorption by TiO, and cross-correlated them with the residual spectral data after removal of the dominating stellar absorption features. We subsequently co-added the correlation signal in time, taking into account the change in Doppler shift due to the orbit of the planet. Results: We detect no si...

  4. Line Shape Parameters of Water Vapor Transitions in the 3645-3975 cm^{-1} Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, V. Malathy; Benner, D. Chris; Gamache, Robert R.; Vispoel, Bastien; Renaud, Candice L.; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Sams, Robert L.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2017-06-01

    A Bruker IFS 120HR Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington was used to record a series of spectra in the regions of the ν_1 and ν_3 bands of H_2O. The samples included low pressures of pure H_2O as well as H_2O broadened by air at different pressures, temperatures and volume mixing ratios. We fit simultaneously 16 high-resolution (0.008 cm^{-1}), high S/N ratio absorption spectra recorded at 268, 296 and 353 K (L=19.95 cm), employing a multispectrum fitting technique to retrieve accurate line positions, relative intensities, Lorentz air-broadened half-width and pressure-shift coefficients and their temperature dependences for more than 220 H_2O transitions. Self-broadened half-width and self-shift coefficients were measured for over 100 transitions. For select sets of transition pairs for the H_2O-air system we determined collisional line mixing coefficients via the off-diagonal relaxation matrix element formalism, and we also measured speed dependence parameters for 85 transitions. Modified Complex Robert Bonamy (MCRB) calculations of the half-widths, line shifts, and temperature dependences were made for self-, N_2-, O_2-, and air-broadening. The measurements and calculations are compared with each other and with similar parameters reported in the literature. D. C. Benner, C. P. Rinsland, V. Malathy Devi, M. A. H. Smith, D. Atkins, JQSRT 53 (1995) 705-721. A. Levy, N. Lacome, C. Chackerian, Collisional line mixing, in Spectroscopy of the Earth's Atmosphere and Interstellar Medium, Academic Press, Inc., Boston (1992) 261-337.

  5. Evaluation of Ozone Application in Dental Unit Water Lines Con¬taminated with Pathogenic Acanthamoeba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa HIKAL

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study morphological and molecular characterization of Acan­thamoeba strains, isolated from dental unit waterlines (DUWLs were surveyed and the levels of disinfection achievable in vitro by the application of ozone disinfect­ant to DUWLs were evaluate.Methods: Water samples were collected from air-water syringes, cup fillers and tap water before and at the end of the working day. They were cultured on non-nutrient agar (NNA plates. Species identification was carried out with a PCR assay based on sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene. The cellular response to ozone was tested on Acanthamoeba cyst with different doses at different contact time in vitro twice.Results: Prevalence rates for Acanthamoeba contamination were 100, 100 and 72% for air-water syringes, cup fillers and tap water, respectively. The morphological analysis revealed the presence of A. castellanii, A. griffin, A. hatchitti and A. lenticulata. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequences showed the four strains to be closely related to a sequence type (T3, T4, T5 and T11. Acanthamoeba cells were stained with try­pan blue, which revealed killed of Acanthamoeba instantaneously after 10 minutes in ozonized water. There was no growth of Acanthamoeba occurred after ozone treat­ment in water bottles for 5 minutes with a flow rate of 500 mg/hour.Conclusion: Ozone can play an important role in controlling the problem of contami­nation of DUWLs as a potent disinfectant.

  6. Improvement of Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat by Breeding Lines with Low Rate of Water Loss of Excised-Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Rui-kun; JIA Xiu-ling; ZHANG Quan-guo

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted with the objective of improvement of water use efficiency (WUE) andyield of winter wheat for Lowland Dryland Farming systems through a breeding approach. Various genotypeswere screened in 1988 for rate of water loss of excised leaves (RWL), followed by inter-crossing of diverseparents in 1993. Analysis of the relationship between RWL and yield components and plant traits demon-strated significant differences in RWL among genotypes. Under most circumstances, RWL was correlatednegatively with yield and grain weight, and positively with plant height. The results demonstrated a basis forsimultaneous selection for high yield and low RWL. It was found that genotypic rank varied with the dura-tion of water loss. Correlation between RWL and yield was reduced by extended water loss duration. Analy-sis of the genetic variation and segregation of RWL of progenies and the effect of simultaneous screening forRWL and agronomic traits showed that good lines with improved yield and water use performance could beobtained.

  7. Comparison of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli Isolates from Drinking Well Water and Pit Latrine Wastewater in a Rural Area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanxia

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to gain insights into the occurrence and characteristics of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- (ESBL-) producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) from drinking well water in the rural area of Laiwu, China, and to explore the role of the nearby pit latrine as a contamination source. ESBL-producing E. coli from wells were compared with isolates from pit latrines in the vicinity. The results showed that ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, with the same antibiotic resistance profiles, ESBL genes, phylogenetic group, plasmid replicon types, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) fingerprints, were isolated from well water and the nearby pit latrine in the same courtyard. Therefore, ESBL-producing E. coli in the pit latrine may be a likely contributor to the presence of ESBL-producing E. coli in rural well water. PMID:27965975

  8. Facile synthesis of Fe3O4 nanoparticles decorated on 3D graphene aerogels as broad-spectrum sorbents for water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Ruofang; Tian, Xike; Yang, Chao; Zhou, Zhaoxin

    2016-04-01

    In order to develop efficient and environment benign sorbents for water purification, the macroscopic multifunctional magnetite-reduced graphene oxides aerogels (M-RGOs) with strong interconnected networks were prepared via a one pot solvothermal method of graphene oxide sheets adsorbing iron ions and in situ simultaneous deposition of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in ethylene glycol or triethylene glycol solvents. Such M-RGOs exhibited excellent sorption capacity to different contaminants, including oils, organic solvents, arsenite ions, as well as dyes. In addition, it was demonstrated that the M-RGOs could be used as column packing materials to manufacture column for water purification by filtration. The method proposed was proved to be versatile to induce synergistic assembly of RGO sheets with other functional metal oxides nanoparticles and as a kind of broad-spectrum sorbents for removing different types of contaminants in water purification, simultaneously.

  9. Cavity-ring-down spectroscopy on water vapor in the range 555-604 nm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Levelt, P.F.; Polyansky, O.L.; Zobov, N.F.; Tennyson, J.

    2001-01-01

    The method of pulsed cavity-ring-down spectroscopy was employed to record the water vapor absorption spectrum in the wavelength range 555-604 nm. The spectrum consists of 1830 lines, calibrated against the iodine standard with an accuracy of 0.01 cm(-1); 800 of these lines are not obtained in the HI

  10. Retrieval of the ocean wave spectrum in open and thin ice covered ocean waters from ERS Synthetic Aperture Radar images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Carolis, G. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Tecnologia Informatica Spaziale, Centro di Geodesia Spaziale G. Colombo, Terlecchia, MT (Italy)

    2001-02-01

    This paper concerns with the task of retrieving ocean wave spectra form imagery provided by space-borne SAR systems such as that on board ERS satellite. SAR imagery of surface wave fields travelling into open ocean and into thin sea ice covers composed of frazil and pancake icefields is considered. The major purpose is to gain insight on how the spectral changes can be related to sea ice properties of geophysical interest such as the thickness. Starting from SAR image cross spectra computed from Single Look Complex (SLC) SAR images, the ocean wave spectrum is retrieved using an inversion procedure based on the gradient descent algorithm. The capability of this method when applied to satellite SAR sensors is investigated. Interest in the SAR image cross spectrum exploitation is twofold: first, the directional properties of the ocean wave spectra are retained; second, external wave information needed to initialize the inversion procedure may be greatly reduced using only information included in the SAR image cross spectrum itself. The main drawback is that the wind waves spectrum could be partly lost and its spectral peak wave number underestimated. An ERS-SAR SLC image acquired on April 10, 1993 over the Greenland Sea was selected as test image. A pair of windows that include open-sea only and sea ice cover, respectively, were selected. The inversions were carried out using different guess wave spectra taken from SAR image cross spectra. Moreover, care was taken to properly handle negative values eventually occurring during the inversion runs. This results in a modification of the gradient descending the technique that is required if a non-negative solution of the wave spectrum is searched for. Results are discussed in view of the possibility of SAR data to detect ocean wave dispersion as a means for the retrieval of ice thickness.

  11. Water Distribution Lines, wMains, wLaterals, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Distribution Lines dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2010. It is described...

  12. Determination of triazine herbicide residues in water samples by on-line sweeping concentration in micellar electrokinetic chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new method for the determination of atrazine, simazine and prometryn in water samples by on-line sweeping concentration technique in micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) was developed. Various parameters affecting sample enrichment and separation efficiency were systematically studied. Compared with the conventional MEKC method, up to 60-200-fold improve-merit in concentration sensitivity was achieved in terms of peak height by using this sweeping injection technique. The compound strychnine was used as the internal standard for the improvement of the experimental reproducibility. The limits of detection (S/ N = 3:1) for atrazine, simazine and prometryn were 9, 10 and 0.5 ng mL-1, respectively. This method has been successfully applied to the analysis of atrazine, simazine and prometryn in lake, steam and ground water.

  13. 15 review article biofilm, dental unit water line and its control

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    Dental unit waterlines (DUWL) are an integral part of dental surgery equipment, supplying water as a ... At present, the goal of this review is to discuss various aspects of biofilm formation and .... in adhesion for both cell-surface and cell-cell.

  14. A small-scale air-cathode microbial fuel cell for on-line monitoring of water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Mirella; Thomson, Alexander R; Schneider, Kenneth; Cameron, Petra J; Ieropoulos, Ioannis

    2014-12-15

    The heavy use of chemicals for agricultural, industrial and domestic purposes has increased the risk of freshwater contamination worldwide. Consequently, the demand for efficient new analytical tools for on-line and on-site water quality monitoring has become particularly urgent. In this study, a small-scale single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cell (SCMFC), fabricated by rapid prototyping layer-by-layer 3D printing, was tested as a biosensor for continuous water quality monitoring. When acetate was fed as the rate-limiting substrate, the SCMFC acted as a sensor for chemical oxygen demand (COD) in water. The linear detection range was 3-164 ppm, with a sensitivity of 0.05 μA mM(-1) cm(-2) with respect to the anode total surface area. The response time was as fast as 2.8 min. At saturating acetate concentrations (COD>164 ppm), the miniature SCMFC could rapidly detect the presence of cadmium in water with high sensitivity (0.2 μg l(-1) cm(-2)) and a lower detection limit of only 1 μg l(-1). The biosensor dynamic range was 1-25 μg l(-1). Within this range of concentrations, cadmium affected only temporarily the electroactive biofilm at the anode. When the SCMFCs were again fed with fresh wastewater and no pollutant, the initial steady-state current was recovered within 12 min.

  15. On-Line Derivatization Gas Chromatography Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry for Determination of Endocrine Disruptors in Surface Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzing, Shin-Hwa; Chang, Jia-Yaw; Ling, Yong-Chien

    2004-03-31

    A method has been developed for the determination of endocrine disruptors (EDs) (containing hydroxyl groups) in surface water from different sources. The surface water samples from different sites including school and local dormitory sewage effluents, lake water and river water were collected and analyzed. In this method, the pretreated sample is directly analyzed by GC-MS using on-line derivatization, where tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMA-OH) was used as the derivatizing agent. Use of large-volume direct sample introduction (DSI) and co-injection of the sample and TMAOH avoids external contaminations as observed in conventional derivatization protocols. Additionally, the use of chemical ionization (CI) and CI-MS/MS could enable detection of EDs at lower concentrations and reduce the matrices' interference thereby enhancing detection sensitivity of EDs for quantification. In this work, the use of dichloromethane as CI reagent for EDs is reported for the first time and could detect EDs to concentrations as low as 0.5 pg/mL. The recovery ranged from 74 to 112 % and the relative standard derivations for replicate analyses ranged from 5 to 17 %. We hope that this method will be applicable for routine analysis of EDs with hydroxyl functional groups.

  16. Distributed In-Line Analysis of Water Pollution in a Spanish Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan V. Capella

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the architecture and implementation of a set of novel sensor nodes designed to measure ammonium, nitrate and chloride in real time, sending the data, by means of a network, to the base station in order to control the pollution in a lake. The results obtained being compared with those provided by the corresponding reference methods. Recovery analyses with ion selective electrodes and standard methods, study of interferences, and evaluation of major sensor features have also been carried out. The use of a wireless system for monitoring purposes will not only reduce the overall monitoring system cost in term of facilities setup and labor cost, but will also provide flexibility in terms of distance. The major advantages of the proposed in-line analysis compared with the classical off-line procedures are the elimination of contaminants due to sample handling, the minimization of the overall cost of data acquisition, the possibility of real-time analysis, allowing the rapid detection of pollutants, the ability to obtain detailed spatial and temporal data sets of complete environments, obtaining the spatial distribution of the analyzed parameters, as well as its variation with the passing of time, and finally the possibility of performing measurements in locations which are difficult to access (in this case a deep lake.

  17. The Near-infrared Spectrum of the Brown Dwarf Gliese 229B

    OpenAIRE

    Geballe, T. R.; Kulkarni, S.R.; Woodward, C. E.; Sloan, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    A medium resolution 1.0-2.5um spectrum of the brown dwarf, Gliese 229B has been obtained using CGS4 on UKIRT. In addition to the broad spectral structure seen in earlier low resolution observations, the new spectrum reveals a large number of absorption lines, many of which can be identified with water vapor. Water and methane are both shown to be strong absorbers in the near-infrared spectrum of the object. Several spectral features in Gl 229B that are attributable to methane match ones seen ...

  18. Exploring embryonic germ line development in the water flea, Daphnia magna, by zinc-finger-containing VASA as a marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagawa, Kazunori; Yamagata, Hideo; Shiga, Yasuhiro

    2005-06-01

    VASA is an ATP-dependent RNA helicase belonging to the DEAD-box family that, in many organisms, is specifically expressed in germ line cells throughout the life cycle, making it a powerful molecular marker to study germ line development. To obtain further information on germ line development in crustaceans, we cloned VASA cDNAs from three branchiopod species: water fleas Daphnia magna and Moina macrocopa, and brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. RNA helicase domains in branchiopod VASA were highly conserved among arthropod classes. However, N-terminal RNA-binding domains in branchiopod VASA were highly diverged and, unlike other arthropod VASA reported so far, possessed repeats of retroviral-type zinc finger (CCHC) motifs. Raising specific antibodies against Daphnia VASA revealed that the primordial germ cells (PGCs) in this organism segregate at a very early cleavage stage of embryogenesis in parthenogenetic and sexual eggs. Clusters of PGCs then start to migrate inside the embryo and finally settle at both sides of the intestine, the site of future gonad development. RNA analyses suggested that maternally supplied vasa mRNA was responsible for early VASA expression, while zygotic expression started during blastodermal stage of development.

  19. Evaluating the Effects of Full and Partial Lead Service Line Replacement on Lead Levels in Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueman, Benjamin F; Camara, Eliman; Gagnon, Graham A

    2016-07-19

    Lead service line replacement (LSLR) is an important strategy for reducing lead exposure via drinking water, but jurisdictional issues can sometimes interfere with full replacement of the lead line. The effects of full and partial LSLR on lead levels were assessed using 5 × 1-L sample profiles collected at more than 100 single-unit residences. Profiles comprised four sequential standing samples (L1-L4) and a free-flowing sample (L5) drawn after a 5 min flush of the outlet. At 45 sites with full lead service lines, 90th percentile lead levels in standing samples ranged from 16.4 to 44.5 μg L(-1) (L1 and L4, respectively). In the free-flowing sample (L5), 90th percentile lead was 9.8 μg L(-1). Within 3 days, full LSLR had reduced L3-L5 lead levels by more than 50%, and within 1 month, lead levels were significantly lower in every liter of the sample profile. Conversely, partial LSLR more than doubled premises plumbing (L1, L2) lead release in the short term and did not reduce L1, L2 lead release in the long term. Even 6 months after partial LSLR, 27% of first-draw lead levels were greater than 15 μg L(-1) (the U.S. EPA action level), compared with 13% pre-replacement.

  20. An On-Line Monitoring System for Nitrate in Seawater Based on UV Spectrum%一种基于紫外光谱法的海水硝酸盐在线监测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 冯巍巍; 陈令新; 张骏

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate is one of the evaluation indicators of water quality ,which is particularly important for water quality monito-ring .A real-time on-line monitoring system of nitrate in water is introduced in this paper .And the ultraviolet absorption technol-ogy (190~370 nm) with partial least squares method is used to detect nitrate concentration .The automated online system based on ultraviolet absorption spectrum is capable of analyzing samples without any sample preservation and without contamination problems .This system is fast ,reliable ,and sensitive enough for continuous use on monitoring stations and nitrate concentration can also be determined directly via its ultraviolet absorption spectrum .This system uses flow sample cell with 1cm optical path length ,and a reference light is used to eliminate system error .The correlation coefficient for a linear function of the nitrate con-centrations is 0 .999 98 .So the results of the system model test are in good correlation with the laboratory ones .Data collected has been analyzed statistically to determine how system model behave throughout the test ,with special attention being paid to er-ror analysis .As the average relative error is 0.65% ,this system has greater stability and higher accuracy .The results of nitrate measurements by the field seawater tests in Yantai coast are obtained ,which nitrate concentrations are about 0.2 mg · L -1 in seawater ,and the recoveries of samples for standard recovery tests are in 95% ~110% ,it shows that this system is accurate ,re-liability and practicability and could be developed for detected nitrate concentration in natural water .%硝酸盐含量是水体质量指标之一 ,对于水质质量监测尤其重要.本文搭建了一种水体中硝酸盐在线原位监测系统 ,采用紫外吸收光谱法(190~240 nm )计算水样吸光度 ,并通过建立的偏最小二乘模型测定硝酸盐浓度 ,可用于海洋 ,河流 ,湖泊等多种水体.该自动在线监测系统

  1. The center-to-limb variation across the Fraunhofer lines of HD 189733. Sampling the stellar spectrum using a transiting planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czesla, S.; Klocová, T.; Khalafinejad, S.; Wolter, U.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2015-10-01

    The center-to-limb variation (CLV) describes the brightness of the stellar disk as a function of the limb angle. Across strong absorption lines, the CLV can vary quite significantly. We obtained a densely sampled time series of high-resolution transit spectra of the active planet host star HD 189733 with UVES. Using the passing planetary disk of the hot Jupiter HD 189733 b as a probe, we study the CLV in the wings of the Ca ii H and K and Na i D1 and D2 Fraunhofer lines, which are not strongly affected by activity-induced variability. In agreement with model predictions, our analysis shows that the wings of the studied Fraunhofer lines are limb brightened with respect to the (quasi-)continuum. The strength of the CLV-induced effect can be on the same order as signals found for hot Jupiter atmospheres. Therefore, a careful treatment of the wavelength dependence of the stellar CLV in strong absorption lines is highly relevant in the interpretation of planetary transit spectroscopy. Based on observations made with UVES at the ESO VLT Kueyen telescope under program 089.D-0701(A).

  2. Continuous on-line determination of methyl tert-butyl ether in water samples using ion mobility spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsdorf, H; Rämmler, A

    2005-04-22

    A rapid analytical procedure for the on-line determination of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in water samples was developed. A new membrane extraction unit was used to extract the MTBE from water samples. The concentration of MTBE was determined using ion mobility spectrometry with 63Ni ionization and corona discharge ionization without chromatographic separation. Both ionization methods permit the sensitive determination of MTBE. A detection limit of 100 microg/L was established for the on-line procedure. Neither the inorganic compounds, humic substances nor gasoline were found to exert a significant influence on the peak intensity of the MTBE. The screening procedure can be used for concentrations of monoaromatic compounds (benzene, toluene, xylene) up to 600 microg/L. No sample preparation is required and the analysis results are available within 5 min. In order to determine concentrations between 10 microg/L and 100 microg/L, a discontinuous procedure was developed on the basis of the same experimental set-up.

  3. New cold-water coral occurrences in the Eastern Ionian Sea: Results from experimental long line fishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytilineou, Ch.; Smith, C. J.; Anastasopoulou, A.; Papadopoulou, K. N.; Christidis, G.; Bekas, P.; Kavadas, S.; Dokos, J.

    2014-01-01

    Our knowledge on the cold-water corals (CWCs) occurring in the deep waters of Eastern Ionian Sea (E. Mediterranean) has improved with new species records and information related to their occurrence, abundance, distribution, morphological and other characteristics. Data were collected from accidental coral catches during experimental long-line fishing using two different hook sizes (No. 7 targeting hake and No. 9 targeting blackspot seabream). Eight coral taxa were identified, with new records for the E. Ionian Sea for Antipathes dichotoma, Desmophyllum dianthus, Swiftia pallida and Pennatula phosphorea. CWCs occurred in 72% of the long lines and most of them were entire and live (except Leiopathes glaberrima). The most frequently caught coral group was Antipatharia. Isidella elongata and A. dichotoma presented the highest abundance. The main bulk of the corals was caught between 500 and 600 m depth. Some of the identified corals (L. glaberrima and I. elongata) seemed to have more close relationships with some species of the fish assemblage (Galeus melastomus, Helicolenus dactylopterus) inhabiting the study area. Species richness and coral catch in numbers were higher for the smaller hook size (No. 9), which caught the larger entire living colonies of A. dichotoma, L. glaberrima and I. elongata. As a result, the corals collected during the present study, characterized by slow growth rates and high longevities, could be considered vulnerable to the gear used in blackspot seabream fishery; this implies the need for more research, monitoring, protection and sustainable management.

  4. On-line technique for measuring stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes from microliter quantities of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socki, R. A.; Romanek, C. S.; Gibson, E. K. Jr; Gibson EK, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Detailed here is a method for extracting and analyzing oxygen and hydrogen isotopes from 10 microL-sized water samples. Based on the traditional CO2-H2O equilibration technique, the oxygen isotope exchange reaction is done exclusively in sealed 6-mm (o.d.) Pyrex tubes at 25 degrees C, with full isotope exchange completed in at least 28 h. Using the same water sample employed in the 18O equilibration, D/H extractions are done in separate sealed 6-mm (o.d.) Pyrex tubes by reaction with Zn at 450 degrees C to form H2(g). Provided that a correction factor is applied to 18O analyses, accuracy and precision for both 18O and D/H are comparable to standard techniques using much larger samples.

  5. On line monitoring systems of MIICON Cu-10Ni alloy in brackish water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, M. F. de; Duque, Z.; Rincon, O.T. de; Araujo, I.; Perez, O. [Centro de Estudios de Corrosion. Facultad de Ingenieria. Universidad de Zulia, Venezuela (Venezuela)

    1998-12-31

    The alloy ASTM B-III UNS C70600 (Cu-1ONi) has been extensively used for surface condenser tubes in power stations. However, there have been cases of Microbiologically Induced Corrosion (MIC) in this alloy caused by Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB). This paper presents the evaluation of Alloy C70600 in a dynamic monitoring system with one-way circulation using brackish water (Lake Maracaibo water) with and without chlorine treatment, for 3,6,8 and 12 months exposure period. The physical-chemical results indicated favorable conditions for microbial development with planktonic SRB present in the order of 107 cell/ml SEM, EDXA, WDX and XRD analysis evidenced organic and inorganic fouling, Cu{sub 2}S (Chalcocite) and Cu{sub 2}O (Cuprite) as the corrosion product and the characteristic MIC onset morphology. The electrochemical tests indicated that the corrosion current increased with the chlorine content (4.0 A/cm{sup 2}/0.0 ppm Cl{sub 2}, 6.0 u A/cm{sup 2}/0.1 ppm Cl{sub 2} and 16.0 A/cm{sup 2}/2.0 ppm Cl{sub 2}). Furthermore, the polarization curves did not show passivation of this alloy. All these results suggest that Alloy C70600 is not resistant to MIC in brackish water even with chlorine treatment. (Author)

  6. [Study on Trace Water Influence on Electrical Properties of Insulating Oil Based on the Mid-Infrared Spectrum Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Wu, Hong-yang; Han, Chao; Yan, Huan; Liu, Ge

    2015-10-01

    Trace water has a significant impact on the electrical performances of the insulating oil, such as the dielectric loss factor, resistivity. So there is an important significance to investigate the influence of insulating oil by trace water, and monitor its operating status with effective measures. First, it is necessary to prepare the insulating oil samples with different water content and treat them 8 hours with ultrasonic oscillator, and observe microscopic images about the water-oil mixtures in order to study their relative uniformity and stable time, in the way it can be concluded that the relative uniformity can be kept favorable during the 25 min stable time for free water and emulsification water in oil; Based on this conclusion, the dielectric loss factor, resistivity were tested and the electrical performances of insulating oil with different water content in oil can obtained by analyzing these data; Then, the absorbance value of the different water content in oil at the spectral wave number of 1 640, 3 400, 3 450, 3 615 cm(-1), with the mid-infrared spectral scanning and analyzing to the different water content in oil, Therefore, combined the water absorbance values by the mid-infrared spectral scanning and analyzing with the experimental data of dielectric loss factor value, resistivity value of oil samples. The results shows that the absorbance value of the different water content in oil has a significant difference at the spectral wave number of 1 640, 3 400, 3450, 3 615 cm(-1), their correlation coefficient are 0.964 1, 0.984 8, 0.984 5, 0.944 0 between the absorbance value and water content at the spectral wave number of 1 640, 3 400, 3 450, 3 615 cm(-1), it can be obtained that the absorbance value of sample of moisture in the corresponding characteristic wave number can better reflect the change trend of water content; there is the highly relative of water absorbance values at the spectral wave number of 3 400 and 3 450 cm(-1) with the trends of

  7. Establishment of HEK293 cell line expressing GFPAQP1 to determine water osmotic permeability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-weiGAO; He-mingYU; Qian-liuSONG; Shu-xinLI; Xue-junLI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To develop an osmotic water permeability assay.METHODS: We subcloned the rat AQP1 cDNA into pEGFPC3 vector. HEK293 cells were transfected with pEGFP-C3/AQP 1 or pEGFP-C3 and selected by G418. The expression of AQP1was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. Confocal laser fluorescence microscopy was used to record the change of fluorescent density corresponding to the volume change of the cells

  8. The Spectrum of the Line Graph of the Subdivision Graph of the Complete Graph%完全图的剖分图的线图的谱

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力工; 李学良; HOEDE Cornetlis

    2007-01-01

    A graph G is called integral if all eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix A(a)of G are integers. Let L2(Kp)=L(S(Kp))be the line graph of the subdivision graph S(Kp) of the complete graph Kp. In this paper, we shall give the spectra and characteristic polynomials of S(Kp) and L2(Kp)from the theory on graphs. For the graph L2(Kp),we derive the characteristic polynomials for its complement graph, its line graph, the complement graph of its line graph and the line graph of its complement graph.We also prove these graphs are integral graphs.The discovery of these integral graphs is a new contribution to the research of integral graphs.%如果一个图G的邻接矩阵A(G)的特征多项式的所有特征值全为整数,则称图G是整的.设图L2(Kp):L(s(Kp))是完全图Kp的剖分图S(Kp)的线图.在这篇文章里,我们利用图的理论给出了S(Kp)和L2(Kp)的特征多项式及其谱.对于图L2(Kp),得到了其补图、线图、线图的补图及补图的线图的特征多项式.也证明了这些图都是整图.这些整图的发现是对整图的研究的一个新贡献.

  9. Evaluating the potential of 'on-line' constructed wetlands for mitigating pesticide transfers from agricultural land to surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Michael; Ramos, Andre; Guymer, Ian; Villa, Raffaella; Jefferson, Bruce

    2016-04-01

    Pesticides make important contributions to modern agriculture but losses from land to water can present problems for environmental management, particularly in catchments where surface waters are abstracted for drinking water. Where artificial field drains represent a dominant pathway for pesticide transfers, buffer zones provide little mitigation potential. Instead, "on-line" constructed wetlands have been proposed as a potential means of reducing pesticide fluxes in drainage ditches and headwater streams. Here, we evaluate the potential of small free-surface wetlands to reduce pesticide concentrations in surface waters using a combination of field monitoring and numerical modelling. Two small constructed wetland systems in a first order catchment in Cambridgeshire, UK, were monitored over the 2014-2015 winter season. Discharge was measured at several flow control structures and samples were collected every eight hours and analysed for metaldehyde, a commonly-used molluscicide. Metaldehyde is moderately mobile and, like many other compounds, it has been regularly detected at high concentrations in surface water samples in a number of drinking water supply catchments in the UK over the past few years. However, it is unusually difficult to remove via conventional drinking water treatment which makes it particularly problematical for water companies. Metaldehyde losses from the upstream catchment were significant with peak concentrations occurring in the first storm events in early autumn, soon after application. Concentrations and loads appeared to be unaffected by transit through the wetland over a range of flow conditions - probably due to short solute residence times (quantified via several tracing experiments employing rhodamine WT - a fluorescent dye). A dynamic model, based on fugacity concepts, was constructed to describe chemical fate in the wetland system. The model was used to evaluate mitigation potential and management options under field conditions and

  10. The Snow Line in Viscous Disks around Low-mass Stars: Implications for Water Delivery to Terrestrial Planets in the Habitable Zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, G.D.; Ciesla, F.J.; Min, M.; Pascucci, I.

    2015-01-01

    The water-ice or snow line is one of the key properties of protoplanetary disks that determines the water content of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone. Its location is determined by the properties of the star, the mass accretion rate through the disk, and the size distribution of dust suspen

  11. A common genetic determinism for sensitivities to soil water deficit and evaporative demand: meta-analysis of quantitative trait Loci and introgression lines of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcker, Claude; Sadok, Walid; Dignat, Grégoire; Renault, Morgan; Salvi, Silvio; Charcosset, Alain; Tardieu, François

    2011-10-01

    Evaporative demand and soil water deficit equally contribute to water stress and to its effect on plant growth. We have compared the genetic architectures of the sensitivities of maize (Zea mays) leaf elongation rate with evaporative demand and soil water deficit. The former was measured via the response to leaf-to-air vapor pressure deficit in well-watered plants, the latter via the response to soil water potential in the absence of evaporative demand. Genetic analyses of each sensitivity were performed over 21 independent experiments with (1) three mapping populations, with temperate or tropical materials, (2) one population resulting from the introgression of a tropical drought-tolerant line in a temperate line, and (3) two introgression libraries genetically independent from mapping populations. A very large genetic variability was observed for both sensitivities. Some lines maintained leaf elongation at very high evaporative demand or water deficit, while others stopped elongation in mild conditions. A complex architecture arose from analyses of mapping populations, with 19 major meta-quantitative trait loci involving strong effects and/or more than one mapping population. A total of 68% of those quantitative trait loci affected sensitivities to both evaporative demand and soil water deficit. In introgressed lines, 73% of the tested genomic regions affected both sensitivities. To our knowledge, this study is the first genetic demonstration that hydraulic processes, which drive the response to evaporative demand, also have a large contribution to the genetic variability of plant growth under water deficit in a large range of genetic material.

  12. Cytotoxicity of water-soluble fraction from biodiesel and its diesel blends to human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leme, Daniela Morais; Grummt, Tamara; Heinze, Rita; Sehr, Andrea; Skerswetat, Matthias; de Marchi, Mary Rosa Rodrigues; Machado, Marcos Canto; de Oliveira, Danielle Palma; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2011-11-01

    The designation of biodiesel as a green fuel has increased its commercialization and use, making its fate in the environment a matter of concern. Fuel spills constitute a major source of aquatic pollution and, like diesel spills, biodiesel can produce adverse effects on aquatic environments, animals and humans. The present study assessed cytotoxic effects of water systems contaminated with neat biodiesel and its diesel blends by means of different procedures on human T cell leukemia (Jurkat) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells [detection of changes in mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)) using tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE), apoptosis recognition by Annexin V and impedance real-time cell analyzer (xCELLigence™ system)]. The data obtained showed concordance across the different bioassays, with cytotoxic effects observed as a dose-dependent response only for waters contaminated with pure diesel (D100) and B5 blend, which is characterized by a mixture of 95% diesel and 5% biodiesel. The data can also lead us to hypothesize that diesel accounts for the harmful effects observed, and that biodiesel does not worsen the impacts caused by diesel pollution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. On-line Determination of Zinc in Water and Biological Samples after Its Preconcentration onto Zincon Anchored Polyurethane Foam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeem, Sami M Abdel; Hanafi, Hassan A; El-Shahat, M F

    2015-01-01

    A fast and sensitive on-line procedure for the determination of zinc in water and biological samples was developed. Zinc was preconcentrated in a mini-column packed with polyurethane foam (PUF) chemically modified with zincon via -N=N- bonding. The optimal conditions for preconcentration were pH 8.5 and sample flow rate of 4.0 mL min(-1). Quantitative desorption of Zn(II) was obtained by 0.1 mol L(-1) hydrochloric acid and subsequent spectrophotmetric determination using 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol at 498 nm. The obtained detection limit was found to be 3.0 ng mL(-1), precision (RSD) was 4.8 and 6.7% at 20 and 110 ng mL(-1), respectively, for 60 s preconcentration time and enrichment factor was 31. The linearity range was from 10 to 120 ng mL(-1) and maximum sample throughput was 20 h(-1). Finally, the method was successfully applied to the determination of zinc in tap water, Nile River water and human urine samples with RSD in the range of 1.1 - 8.3%.

  14. Evaluation Of Method Of Line (MOL For Solution Of Soil Water Flow Equations And Comparison With Finite Element Method (FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISAM M. Mahammed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to evaluate Method of Line (MOL used for solution of  water flow equations through porous media using MATLAB package functions for solution of ordinary differential equations ODE,s  , instead of writing long programs codes.  sink & source term to MOL model were included. Then Comparing MOL model with another model that uses finite element method in solving water flow equations (FEM in one dimensional flow using computer program code in FORTRAN.  Two cases were examined for evaluation and comparison of these two models. Firstly, infiltration phenomena using sandy soil was studied with the same parameter for both models.  Results show that there is a divergence between the two models along time of 60 minutes of infiltration. Changes of moisture content with soil depth were sharp with FEM model. Second case, data of  the volume  of water content for wheat field where used taking irrigation and evaporation into account, along the growth period of wheat crop and different depths up to  100 cm. Results show that output of  FEM model has  high degree of agreement with  the measured data for all depths and along all period of growth. Data given by MOL model were less in values than measured data for all depths and along all period of wheat growth time.

  15. Water Distribution Lines, Water distribution system details Including pumps, storage tanks, valves, and mains, Published in Not Provided, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Town of Franklin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Distribution Lines dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of Not Provided. It is...

  16. Reduction of Biological Sludge Production Applying an Alternating Oxic/anoxic Process in Water Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebi, Anna Laura; Panigutti, Maximiliano; Battistoni, Paolo

    2016-06-01

    Alternating oxic/anoxic process, applied for the main objective of the improvement of nitrogen performances, was studied in terms of secondary effect of biomass reduction. The process was carried out in one real water resource recovery facility and the data were compared with the previous conventional period when a conventional process was adopted. The main mechanism of the process for the sludge minimization is recognized in the metabolic uncoupling. In fact, an increase of the specific oxygen uptake rate in the biological reactor was recorded stimulated by the change of the oxidation reduction potential environment. Moreover, the heterotrophic growth yield was measured equal to 0.385 kgVSS/kgCOD. The global percentage of reduction was tested with the mass balance of solids. The process is able to decrease the observed sludge yield up to 20%. The specific energy consumption was evaluated.

  17. Monitoring of bacterial contamination of dental unit water lines using adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, A; Tamaki, N; Yokota, K; Matsuyama, M; Kokeguchi, S

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial contamination of dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) was evaluated using ATP bioluminescence analysis and a conventional culture method. Water samples (N=44) from DUWLs were investigated for heterotrophic bacteria by culture on R2A agar, which gave counts ranging from 1.4×10(3) to 2.7×10(5) cfu/mL. The ATP bioluminescence results for DUWL samples ranged from 6 to 1189 relative light units and could be obtained within 1min; these correlated well with the culture results (r=0.727-0.855). We conclude that the results of the ATP bioluminescence assay accurately reflect the results of conventional culture-based testing. This method is potentially useful for rapid and simple monitoring of DUWL bacterial contamination.

  18. A Soft Discretization Method of Celestial Spectrum Characteristic Line Based on Fuzzy C-Means Clustering%基于模糊C均值聚类的天文光谱特征线软离散化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继福; 李鑫; 杨海峰

    2012-01-01

    连续数值属性离散化是天文光谱数据预处理中的主要研究内容之一.针对天文光谱特征线,提出了一种基于改进模糊C均值聚类的天文光谱特征线软离散化算法.该算法首先利用样本的密度值选取特征线的候选初始模糊聚类中心,有效地克服了对噪声数据敏感的缺陷;其次采用决策表中的相容性作为评判标准,动态的调节聚类参数,以达到优化的光谱特征线离散化效果;最后采用晚型星、类星体、高红移类星体SDSS天文光谱特征线数据集.实验验证了该算法具有较高的识别率,为天文光谱特征线数据预处理提供了一种新途径.%Discretization of continuous numerical attribute is one of the important research works in the preprocessing of celestial spectrum data. For characteristic line of celestial spectrum, a soft discretization algorithm is presented by using improved fuzzy C-means clustering. Firstly, candidate fuzzy clustering centers of characteristic line are chosen by using density values of sample data, so that its anti-noise ability is improved. Secondly, parameters in the fuzzy clustering are dynamically adjusted by taking compatibility of decision table as criteria, so that optimal discretization effect of the characteristic line is achieved. In the end, experimental results effectively validate that the algorithm has higher correct recognition rate of the algorithm by using three SDSS celestial spectrum data sets of high-redshift quasars, late-type star and quasars.

  19. On-line technique for preparingand measuring stable carbon isotopeof total dissolved inorganic carbonin water samples ( d13CTDIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Inguaggiato

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A fast and completely automated procedure is proposed for the preparation and determination of d13C of total inorganic carbon dissolved in water ( d13CTDIC. This method is based on the acidification of water samples transforming the whole dissolved inorganic carbon species into CO2. Water samples are directly injected by syringe into 5.9 ml vials with screw caps which have a pierciable rubber septum. An Analytical Precision «Carbonate Prep System» was used both to flush pure helium into the vials and to automatically dispense a fixed amount of H3PO4. Full-equilibrium conditions between produced CO2 and water are reached at a temperature of 70°C (± 0.1°C in less than 24 h. Carbon isotope ratios (13C/ 12C were measured on an AP 2003 continuous flow mass spectrometer, connected on-line with the injection system. The precision and reproducibility of the proposed method was tested both on aqueous standard solutions prepared using Na2CO3 with d13C=-10.78 per mil versus PDB (1 s= 0.08, n = 11, and at five different concentrations (2, 3, 4, 5 and 20 mmol/l and on more than thirty natural samples. Mean d13CTDIC on standard solution samples is ?10.89 < per mil versus PDB (1 s= 0.18, n = 50, thus revealing both a good analytical precision and reproducibility. A comparison between average d13CTDIC values on a quadruplicate set of natural samples and those obtained following the chemical and physical stripping method highlights a good agreement between the two analytical methods.

  20. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of J55ERW Steel Pipe Processed by On-Line Spray Water Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejun Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An on-line spray water cooling (OSWC process for manufacturing electric resistance welded (ERW steel pipes is presented to enhance their mechanical properties and performances. This technique reduces the processing needed for the ERW pipe and overcomes the weakness of the conventional manufacturing technique. Industrial tests for J55 ERW steel pipe were carried out to validate the effectiveness of the OSWC process. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the J55 ERW steel pipe processed by the OSWC technology were investigated. The optimized OSWC technical parameters are presented based on the mechanical properties and impact the performance of steel pipes. The industrial tests show that the OSWC process can be used to efficiently control the microstructure, enhance mechanical properties, and improve production flexibility of steel pipes. The comprehensive mechanical properties of steel pipes processed by the OSWC are superior to those of other published J55 grade steels.

  1. Design and daytime performance of laser-induced fluorescence spectrum lidar for simultaneous detection of multiple components, dissolved organic matter, phycocyanin, and chlorophyll in river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yasunori; Kakuda, Kei; Yokoyama, Mizuho; Kubota, Tomoki; Tomida, Takayuki; Park, Ho-Dong

    2016-08-20

    In this work, we developed mobile laser-induced fluorescence spectrum (LIFS) lidar based on preliminary experiments on the excitation emission matrix of a water sample and a method for reducing solar background light using the synchronous detection technique. The combination of a UV short-pulse laser (355 nm, 6 ns) for fluorescence excitation with a 10-100 ns short-time synchronous detection using a gated image-intensified multi-channel CCD of the fluorescence made the LIFS lidar operation possible even in daytime. The LIFS lidar with this construction demonstrated the potential of natural river/lake water quality monitoring at the Tenryu River/Lake Suwa. Three main components in the fluorescence data of the water, dissolved organic matter, phycocyanin, and chlorophyll, were extracted by spectral analysis using the standard spectral functions of these components. Their concentrations were estimated by adapting experimentally calibrated data. Results of long-term field observations using our LIFS lidar from 2010 to 2012 show the necessity of simultaneous multi-component detection to understand the natural water environment.

  2. Probing the Lone Pair···π-Hole Interaction in Perfluorinated Heteroaromatic Rings: The Rotational Spectrum of Pentafluoropyridine·Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Camilla; Gou, Qian; Maris, Assimo; Caminati, Walther; Melandri, Sonia

    2016-04-21

    The rotational spectrum of the weakly bound complex pentafluoropyridine·water has been investigated with pulsed jet Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. From the analysis of the rotational parameters of the parent species and of three water isotopologues, the structural arrangement of the adduct has been unambiguously established. The results show that the full ring fluorination of pyridine has a dramatic effect on its binding properties: It inverts the electron density distribution above the ring, creating a π-hole, with respect to the typical π-cloud of benzene and pyridine. In the complex the water moiety lies above the aromatic ring with the oxygen lone pairs pointing toward its center. This lone pair···π-hole interaction stabilizes the adduct, and it is more stable than the in-plane O-H···N hydrogen bond normally found in the complexes involving nitrogen heterocyclic aromatic rings. Evidence of a large amplitude motion involving the weakly bound water molecule has also been observed and discussed.

  3. A Theoretical Investigaon on the Motion of a Straight Vortex Line in Water Tunnel%水筒中直线涡运动的理论探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭永松

    1985-01-01

    本文讨论了正方形截面水筒中直线涡的运动.当涡线不位于水筒中心线上时,数值计算表明,涡线在水筒截面平面上将沿近似螺旋线的轨迹运动.若涡线接近水筒中心线,则轨迹接近圆.文章详细分析了位于水筒中心线直涡线的运动稳定性,其结论是除了零波数的扰动,在其他任何波数的扰动下,涡线总可保持在水筒中心线上.对于零波数扰动,则与不位于水筒中心线的涡线运动情况一样,将逐步偏离水筒中心.%In this paper the motion of a straight vortex line in a water tunnel having a square cross section is discussed. When the vortex line is not positioned at the centric Iine of water tunnel, it is found through numerical calculation that this vortex line will move along a trace of approximate spiral in the cross section plane. If the vortex line is close to the centric line of water tunnel the trace is nearly a circle. As for the vortex line located in the centric line of water tunnel,its stability of motion is analysed in detail and the conclusion is that it can be always kept at the centric line of water tunnel for any different wavenumber purturbation except zero wavenumber. In the case of the perturbation of zero wavenumber the situation is the same as a vortex line which is not located at the centric line of water tunnel and it will gradually depart from the centric line of water tunnel.

  4. Selection of the optimal combination of water vapor absorption lines for detection of temperature in combustion zones of mixing supersonic gas flows by diode laser absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironenko V.R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of a gas medium temperature by diode laser absorption spectrometry (DLAS is based on the measurement of integral intensities of the absorption lines of a test molecule (generally water vapor molecule. In case of local thermodynamic equilibrium temperature is inferred from the ratio of the integral intensities of two lines with different low energy levels. For the total gas pressure above 1 atm the absorption lines are broadened and one cannot find isolated well resolved water vapor absorption lines within relatively narrow spectral interval of fast diode laser (DL tuning range (about 3 cm−1. For diagnostics of a gas object in the case of high temperature and pressure DLAS technique can be realized with two diode lasers working in different spectral regions with strong absorption lines. In such situation the criteria of the optimal line selection differs significantly from the case of narrow lines. These criteria are discussed in our work. The software for selection the optimal spectral regions using the HITRAN-2012 and HITEMP data bases is developed. The program selects spectral regions of DL tuning, minimizing the error of temperature determination δТ/T, basing on the attainable experimental error of line intensity measurement δS. Two combinations of optimal spectral regions were selected – (1.392 & 1.343 μm and (1.392 & 1.339 μm. Different algorithms of experimental data processing are discussed.

  5. Effects of deuteration of the methyl and phenyl hydrogens on the rotational spectrum of anisole-water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliano, Barbara M.; Melandri, Sonia; Caminati, Walther

    2017-07-01

    The role of non-covalent interactions in determining the structure of the 1:1 anisole-water molecular complex has been investigated by the analysis of the rotational spectra of the complex formed by the C6H5OCD3 and C6D5OCH3 deuterated species of anisole recorded with pulsed jet Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. The deuteration of the methyl and phenyl hydrogens does not affect the structure and the internal dynamics of the complex, differently from the deuteration of the water moiety, which leads to large isotopic effects (Giuliano et al., 2005).

  6. Modeling Soluble and Particulate Lead Release into Drinking Water from Full and Partially Replaced Lead Service Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abokifa, Ahmed A; Biswas, Pratim

    2017-03-07

    Partial replacement of lead service lines (LSLs) often results in the excessive long-term release of lead particulates due to the disturbance of pipe scale and galvanic corrosion. In this study, a modeling approach to simulate the release and transport of particulate and dissolved lead from full and partially replaced LSLs is developed. A mass-transfer model is coupled with a stochastic residential water demand generator to investigate the effect of normal household usage flow patterns on lead exposure. The model is calibrated by comparing simulation results against experimental measurements from pilot-scale setups where lead release under different flow rates and water chemistry scenarios was reported. Applying the model within a Monte Carlo simulation framework, partial replacement of the LSL was predicted to result in releasing spikes with significantly high concentrations of particulate lead (1011.9 ± 290.3 μg/L) that were five times higher than those released from the simulated full LSL. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the intensity of flow demands significantly affects particulate lead release, while dissolved lead levels are more dependent on the lengths of the stagnation periods. Preflushing of the LSL prior to regulatory sampling was found to underestimate the maximum monthly exposure to dissolved lead by 19%, while sampling at low flow rates (<5.2 LPM) was found to consistently suppress the high spikes induced by particulate lead mobilization.

  7. Atmospheric profiling via satellite to satellite occultations near water and ozone absorption lines for weather and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Ward, D.; Otarola, A. C.; McGhee, J.; Stovern, M.; Sammler, K.; Reed, H.; Erickson, D.; McCormick, C.; Griggs, E.

    2016-05-01

    Significantly reducing weather and climate prediction uncertainty requires global observations with substantially higher information content than present observations provide. While GPS occultations have provided a major advance, GPS observations of the atmosphere are limited by wavelengths chosen specifically to minimize interaction with the atmosphere. Significantly more information can be obtained via satellite to satellite occultations made at wavelengths chosen specifically to characterize the atmosphere. Here we describe such a system that will probe cm- and mmwavelength water vapor absorption lines called the Active Temperature, Ozone and Moisture Microwave Spectrometer (ATOMMS). Profiling both the speed and absorption of light enables ATOMMS to profile temperature, pressure and humidity simultaneously, which GPS occultations cannot do, as well as profile clouds and turbulence. We summarize the ATOMMS concept and its theoretical performance. We describe field measurements made with a prototype ATOMMS instrument and several important capabilities demonstrated with those ground based measurements including retrieving temporal variations in path-averaged water vapor to 1%, in clear, cloudy and rainy conditions, up to optical depths of 17, remotely sensing turbulence and determining rain rates. We conclude with a vision of a future ATOMMS low Earth orbiting satellite constellation designed to take advantage of synergies between observational needs for weather and climate, ATOMMS unprecedented orbital remote sensing capabilities and recent cubesat technological innovations that enable a constellation of dozens of very small spacecraft to achieve many critical, but as yet unfulfilled, monitoring and forecasting needs.

  8. Low contribution of PbO2-coated lead service lines to water lead contamination at the tap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Schock, Michael R; DeSantis, Michael K; White, Colin

    2015-03-17

    To determine if residential water sampling corroborates the expectation that formation of stable PbO2 coatings on lead service lines (LSLs) provides an effective lead release control strategy, lead profile sampling was evaluated for eight home kitchen taps in three U.S. cities with observed PbO2-coated LSLs (Newport, Rhode Island; Cincinnati and Oakwood, Ohio). After various water standing times, these LSLs typically released similar or lower peak lead levels (1 to 18 μg/L) than the lead levels from the respective kitchen faucets (1 to 130 μg/L), and frequently 50-80% lower than the lead levels typically reported from Pb(II)-coated LSLs in comparable published sampling studies. Prolonged stagnation (10-101 h) at the Cincinnati sites produced varying results. One site showed minimal (0-4 μg/L) increase in lead release from the PbO2-coated LSL, and persistence of free chlorine residual. However, the other site showed up to a 3-fold increase proportional to standing time, with essentially full depletion of the chlorine residual. Overall, lead release was consistently much lower than that reported in studies of Pb(II)-coated LSL scales, suggesting that natural formation of PbO2 in LSLs is an effective lead "corrosion" control strategy.

  9. Development of upland rice introgression lines and identification of QTLs for basal root thickness under different water regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junzhou Li; Deping Wang; Yan Xie a; Hongliang Zhang; Guanglong Hu; Jinjie Li; Anyong Dai; Lifeng Liu; Zichao Li

    2011-01-01

    Introgression lines (ILs) are valuable materials for identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs),evaluating genetic interactions,and marker assisted breeding.A set of 430 ILs (BC5F3) containing segments from upland tropical japonica cultivar IRAT109 in a lowland temperate japonica cultivar Yuefu background were developed.One hundred and seventy-six polymorphic markers were used to identify introgressed segments.No segment from IRAT 109 was found in 160 lines.Introgressed segments of the other 270 lines covered 99.1% of the donor genome.The mean number of introgressed donor segments per individual was 3.3 with an average length of 14.4 cM.QTL analysis was conducted on basal root thickness (BRT) of the 270 ILs grown under irrigated lowland,upland and hydroponic conditions.A total of 22 QTLs affecting BRT were identified,six QTLs (qBRT3.1,qBRT3.2,qBRT6.1,qBRT8.2,qBRT9.1,and qBRT9.2) were consistently expressed under at least two environments (location and water regime),and qBRT7.2 was a new BRT QTL identified under lowland conditions.IL255 containing qBRT9.1 showed an increase of 10.09% and 7.07% BRT over cultivar Yuefu when grown under upland and lowland conditions,respectively.Using a population of 304 F2:3 lines derived from the cross IL255 × Yuefu,qBRT9.1 was validated and mapped to a 1.2 cM interval between RM24271 and RM566.The presence of qBRT9.1 explained 12% of BRT variation.The results provide upland rice ILs and BRT QTLs for analyzing the genetic basis of drought resistance,detecting favorable genes from upland rice,and rice drought resistance breeding.

  10. Differential Transcriptional Regulation in Roots of Tomato Near-Isogenic Lines in Response to Rapid-Onset Water Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arms, Erin M.; Yan, Zhanghang; St.Clair, Dina A.

    2017-01-01

    Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is susceptible to abiotic stresses, including drought and chilling stress, while its wild relative (Solanum habrochaites) exhibits tolerance to many abiotic stresses. Chilling roots to 6°C induces rapid-onset water stress by impeding water movement from roots to shoots. Wild S. habrochaites responds to root chilling by closing stomata and maintaining shoot turgor, while cultivated tomato fails to close stomata and wilts. This phenotypic response (shoot turgor maintenance under root chilling) is controlled by a major QTL stm9 on chromosome 9 from S. habrochaites that was previously high-resolution mapped to a 0.32 cM region, but its effects on transcriptional regulation were unknown. Here we used paired near isogenic lines (NILs) differing only for the presence or absence of the S. habrochaites introgression containing stm9 in an otherwise S. lycopersicum background to investigate global transcriptional regulation in response to rapid-onset water stress induced by root chilling. NIL175 contains the S. habrochaites introgression and exhibits tolerance to root chilling stress, while NIL163 does not contain the introgression and is susceptible. RNA from roots of the two NILs was obtained at five time points during exposure to root chilling and mRNA-Seq performed. Differential expression analysis and hierarchical clustering of transcript levels were used to determine patterns of and changes in mRNA levels. Our results show that the transcriptional response of roots exposed to chilling stress is complex, with both overlapping and unique responses in tolerant and susceptible lines. In general, susceptible NIL 163 had a more complex transcriptional response to root chilling, while NIL175 exhibited a more targeted response to the imposed stress. Our evidence suggests that both the tolerant and susceptible NILs may be primed for response to root-chilling, with many of these response genes located on chromosome 9. Furthermore

  11. Multidrug-Resistant and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Dutch Surface Water and Wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaak, Hetty; Lynch, Gretta; Italiaander, Ronald; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A; Schets, Franciska M; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/139498281

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of the current study was to gain insight into the prevalence and concentrations of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) Escherichia coli in Dutch surface water, and to explore the role of wastewater as AMR contamination source. METHODS: The prevalence of AMR E. coli was determined in

  12. Multidrug-Resistant and Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli in Dutch Surface Water and Wastewater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaak, Hetty; Lynch, Gretta; Italiaander, Ronald; Hamidjaja, Raditijo A; Schets, Franciska M; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of the current study was to gain insight into the prevalence and concentrations of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) Escherichia coli in Dutch surface water, and to explore the role of wastewater as AMR contamination source. METHODS: The prevalence of AMR E. coli was determined in 11

  13. Extremely Strong ^{13}CO J=3-2 Line in the "Water Fountain" IRAS 16342-3814: Evidence for the Hot-Bottom Burning

    CERN Document Server

    Imai, Hiroshi; He, Jin-Hua; Nakashima, Jun-ichi; Hsia, Chih-Hao; Sakai, Takeshi; Deguchi, Shuji; Koning, Nico

    2012-01-01

    We observed four "water fountain" sources in the CO J=3-2 line emission with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) 10 m telescope in 2010-2011. The water fountain sources are evolved stars that form high-velocity collimated jets traced by water maser emission. The CO line was detected only from IRAS 16342-3814. The present work confirmed that the ^{12}CO to ^{13}CO line intensity ratio is ~1.5 at the systemic velocity. We discuss the origins of the very low ^{12}CO to ^{13}CO intensity ratio, as possible evidence for the "hot-bottom burning" in an oxygen-rich star, and the CO intensity variation in IRAS 16342-3814.

  14. Methodology of comprehensive evaluation of the effectiveness and reliability of production lines of preparation of sea water for the cultivation of aquatic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Ugryumova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors affecting the efficiency and reliability of technical systems. Set stages of development and modernization of production lines that correspond to specific stages of evaluating the effectiveness and reliability. Considered several methods of definition of indicators of indicators of efficiency and reliability of the equipment in technological lines of fisheries sector: forecasting methods, structural methods, physical methods, logical-probability method (method by I.A. Ryabinin and topological method. Advantages and disadvantages, allowing you to work out the most suitable method, process lines preparation of sea water for the cultivation of aquatic organisms, connected in series. Modernized technological line of preparation of sea water for the cultivation of aquatic organisms differing from the typical line of seawater in hatcheries (Far East, as the presence of a large number of instrumentation: sensors, salinity and temperature; motomeru that continuously monitor turbidity in the range of 50÷100 EMF (30÷60 mg/1 by kaolin; signaling the flow sensors volume level of the filtrate and the backfill layer; analyzers of chemical composition of sea water; analyzers of suspended mechanical impurities; signaling sensors of acidity and oxygen content and replacement filters coarse, fine cleaning and auxiliary equipment. A program of comprehensive evaluation of the effectiveness and reliability of production lines, revealed that conducted the modernization of production line preparation of sea water for the cultivation of aquatic organisms has improved its efficiency by an average of 1.71% to reduce the amount of manual labor by 15.1%; control the process; provide the most rapid, efficient purification of sea water; reduce the cost of replacement filter media.

  15. Extended-Spectrum beta (β)-Lactamases and Antibiogram in Enterobacteriaceae from Clinical and Drinking Water Sources from Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abera, Bayeh; Kibret, Mulugeta; Mulu, Wondemagegn

    2016-01-01

    Background The spread of Extended-Spectrum beta (β)-Lactamases (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae has become a serious global problem. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae vary based on differences in antibiotic use, nature of patients and hospital settings. This study was aimed at determining ESBL and antibiogram in Enterobacteriaceae isolates from clinical and drinking water sources in Bahir Dar City, Northwest Ethiopia. Methods Enterobacteriaceae species were isolated from clinical materials and tap water using standard culturing procedures from September 2013 to March 2015. ESBL-producing-Enterobacteriaceae were detected using double-disk method by E-test Cefotaxim/cefotaxim+ clavulanic acid and Ceftazidime/ceftazidime+ clavulanic acid (BioMerieux SA, France) on Mueller Hinton agar (Oxoid, UK). Results Overall, 274 Enterobacteriaceae were isolated. Of these, 210 (44%) were from patients and 64 (17.1%) were from drinking water. The median age of the patients was 28 years. Urinary tract infection and blood stream infection accounted for 60% and 21.9% of Enterobacteriaceae isolates, respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated from 9 (75%) of neonatal sepsis. The overall prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in clinical and drinking water samples were 57.6% and 9.4%, respectively. The predominant ESBL-producers were K. pneumoniae 34 (69.4%) and Escherichia coli 71 (58.2%). Statistically significant associations were noted between ESBL-producing and non- producing Enterobacteriaceae with regard to age of patients, infected body sites and patient settings (P = 0.001). ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae showed higher levels of resistance against chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and cotrimoxazole than non-ESBL producers (P = 0.001) Conclusions ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae coupled with high levels of other antimicrobials become a major concern for treatment of patients with invasive infections such as blood stream infections, neonatal sepsis and urinary

  16. The optically thick C III spectrum. 2: Level/term populations and line/multiplet intensities using an improved hybrid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Kastner, S. O.

    1993-01-01

    An improved hybrid level/term calculation is employed to obtain C III level/term populations and line/fractional multiplet intensities over the extended range of electron density 4.0 less than or equal log N(sub e) less than or equal 12.0, for column lengths L ranging from zero (optically thin) to 10(exp 20)/sq cm (moderately optically thick), at electron temperatures T(sub e) approximately 40,000 K(log T(sub e) = 4.6), T(sub e) approximately 63,000 K (log T(sub e) = 4.8), T(sub e) approximately 79,500 K (log T(sub e) = 4.9), and T(sub e) = 100,000 K (log T(sub e) = 5.0). The tabulated results are relevant to the interpretation of space observations obtained over extended spectral ranges by new and planned facilities including the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope (HUT) and the Far-Ultraviolet Spectrographic Explorer (FUSE).

  17. The Rotational Spectrum of CHF 3 in the Submillimeter-Wave and Far-Infrared Region: Observation of the K = 3 Line Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzoli, G.; Cludi, L.; Cotti, G.; Dore, L.; Esposti, C. D.; Bellini, M.; Denatale, P.

    1994-02-01

    The milimeter-wave, submillimeter-wave. and FIR spectra of the ground state of CHF 3 have been observed and analyzed up to J = 78. The resulting spectroscopic constants are: B0/MHz = 10 348.8706(2), D J/kHz= 11.34482(13), D JK/kHz = -18.11765(50), H JJJ/Hz= 0.020069(24), H JJK/Hz = -0.08598(10), H KKJ/Hz 0.11372(27), L J/mHz = -0.669(16) × 10 -4, L JJK/mHz = 0.4953(80) × 10 -3, L JK/mHz = -0.1189(17) × 10 -2, and L JKK/mHz = -0.1115(31) × 10 -2. The splitting of the K = 3 ground state lines has been observed starting from the J = 29 ← 28 transition and the determined values of the splitting constants are h3/Hz = 0.29689(45) ×10 -2 and δ h3/Hz = -0.2054(52) × 10 -7.

  18. Super Short Baseline Underwater Acoustic Positioning Supported by Inertial Navigation Data Using Spread Spectrum Communication for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle and Error Analysis in Deep Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshitaka; Ochi, Hiroshi; Shimura, Takuya; Hattori, Takehito

    2009-07-01

    A tracking and positioning method achieved by integration of the super short baseline (SSBL) and inertial navigation system (INS) data for an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) is introduced. The proposed method uses a continuous acoustic signal as the response signal from the target AUV. The INS data obtained in the AUV is transmitted with the acoustic signal by the direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) technique and the SSBL estimation is achieved using the same signal. The error of the SSBL, particularly the influence of a multipath, was analyzed. The use of a continuous signal showed that the multipath is influential even if its level is small relative to the direct wave. This influence was observed under actual conditions in an ocean experiment in a deep-water area. The proposed method was confirmed to be available and useful by simulations and experimental results.

  19. Bioremediation system on-line for removal radionuclides in radioactive waters; Sistema de biorremediation on-line pra la eliminacion de radionuclidos en aguas radiactivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belinchon, J. A.; Garcia, A. M.; Ruibal, C.; Moreno, D. A.

    2010-07-01

    In previous studies developed in Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant (Valencia, Spain), has been observed that the microorganisms in the radioactive waters of the spent nuclear fuel pool are capable of colonizing the metallic surfaces of the walls and pipes and perform biofilm. These biofilm retain the nuclides contributing to decontaminate the water. In this project, carried out in Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant, a pilot plant has been designed for the bio decontamination of the radioactive water. At present, the radioactive water coming from the spent nuclear fuel pools, pass through ionic exchange resins. After, these resins are managed as radioactive waste. In this project, the water passes through a bioreactor with stainless steel balls capable of being colonized by the microorganisms in the water. Inside the bioreactor the water gets in contact with the material of the balls, and a biofilm, which retains the nuclides in the water, is developed. The biofilm is easily removed by any conventional procedure of radiochemical decontamination of materials and the nuclides can be collected in a small volume for recovery final disposition or containment. Later, the material of the bioreactor could be managed as not radioactive material. (Author) 9 refs.

  20. A Broad Spectrum Catalytic System for Removal of Toxic Organics from Water by Deep Oxidation - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, Ayusman

    2000-12-01

    A most pressing need for the DOE environmental management program is the removal of toxic organic compounds present in groundwater and soil at specific DOE sites. While several remediation procedures have been proposed, they suffer from one or more drawbacks. The objective of the present research was to develop new catalytic procedures for the removal of toxic organic compounds from the environment through their deep oxidation to harmless products. In water, metallic palladium was found to catalyze the deep oxidation of a wide variety of toxic organic compounds by dioxygen at 80-90 C in the presence of carbon monoxide or dihydrogen. Several classes of organic compounds were examined: benzene, phenol and substituted phenols, nitro and halo organics, organophosphorus, and organosulfur compounds. In every case, deep oxidation to carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water occurred in high yields, resulting in up to several hundred turnovers over a 24 hour period. For substrates susceptible to hydrogenation, the conversions were generally high with dihydrogen than with carbon monoxide. It is clear from the results obtained that we have discovered an exceptionally versatile catalytic system for the deep oxidation of toxic organic compounds in water. This system possesses several attractive features not found simultaneously in other reported systems. These are (a) the ability to directly utilize dioxygen as the oxidant, (b) the ability to carry out the deep oxidation of a particularly wide range of functional organics, and (c) the ease of recovery of the catalyst by simple filtration.

  1. 纳米磁性膜微波磁谱测量微带线系统的优化设计%Optimization Design of Microstrip-Line System for Measurement of Permeability Spectrum of Nanostructural Magnetic Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓联文; 陈鸿飞; 安维; 江建军; 张秀成

    2009-01-01

    磁性薄膜微波磁导率的扫频测量对研究开发高频软磁材料和薄膜吸波材料都具有十分重要的意义.围绕微波磁谱测量微带线系统的优化设计,主要研究微带线短路法测量薄膜磁谱使用的测量夹具的设计与制作.首先根据测试要求确定夹具设计方案,再利用高频电磁场仿真软件HFSS对微带线结构夹具进行性能仿真与设计优化,最后按设计要求制作微带线结构夹具.并对测试效果进行了分析评价.结果表明,设计开发的微带线结构夹具能满足0.05-5 GHz频段磁导率的测量精度要求,反射系数S11的测量误差小于1.4%.%Measurement of permeability spectrum in the microwave range is essential to the development of soft magnetic film and thin microwave absorber. Focusing on optimization design of microstrip-line system for measurement of microwave permeability spectrum, design and manufacture of the testing clamp used in the microstrip-line short circuit method were discussed in this paper. Design scheme of the testing clamp was put forward firstly. Then, simulation and optimization of the testing clamp were accomplished with the software of HFSS for electromagnetic field emulation in the high frequency range. The testing clamp was processed and evaluated according to requirements of the design. Results show that the testing clamp can meet the measurement precision requirement in 0. 05-5 GHz of the microstrip-line short circuit method with error of reflection coefficient S11 less than 1. 4% .

  2. [Study on the concentration of mineral oil in water by online intelligent detection based on fluorescence spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yuan-he; Liu, Qing-song; Ivieng, Lei; Liu, Han-chen; Liu, Qian; Li, Cun-xia

    2015-02-01

    In order to monitor the oil pollution of water real time and accurately for the environmental protection, an intelligent online detection system for the mineral oil in water is put forward in the present paper, based on the technology of ultraviolet fluorescence and internet of things (IOT). For this system, the resolution can be improved by using the higher precision asymmetric Czemy-Turner monochromator; the impact of light fluctuations on the results of exploration can be corrected by a bunch reference light; the optical system deviation caused by the instrument vibration can be reduced by optical fiber transmission; the coupling efficiency of fiber and output signal can be increased by a special fiber beam; the real-time measurement, data processing and remote control can be achieved by the control module and wireless communication module. This system has characteristics of high integration, high precision and good stability etc. The concentration of the unknown sample can be accurately calculated by the methods of parallel algorithms of chemometric metrology and the calculation errors caused by different components can be reduced by the theory of chemical correction factor analysis. The fluorescence spectra of three kinds of sample solution, diesel, engine and crude oil in preparative concentration of 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg x L(-1) were measured by this system respectively. The absorption wavelengths of the above-mentioned three oils were measured to be 256, 365 and 397 nm by a grating spectrometer; their absorbances were measured to be 0.028, 0.036 and 0.041 by fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. Their fluorescence emission wavelengths are 355, 419 and 457 nm respectively. Finally the concentration detection limits of the mineral oil in water of diesel, engine and crude oil were obtained, i.e., 0.03, 0.04 and 0.06 mg x L(-1) respectively. Their relative errors are 2.1%, 1.0% and 2.8% respectively.

  3. Measurement of the 1s2l3l’ Dielectronic Recombination Emission Line in Li-Like Ar and Its Contribution to the Faint X-Ray Feature Found in the Stacked Spectrum of Galaxy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Amy Christina; Silwal, Roshani; Dreiling, Joan; Borovik, Alexander; Ajello, Marco; Gillaspy, John; Kilgore, Ethan; Ralchenko, Yuri; Takacs, Endre

    2016-06-01

    Driven by the recent detection of an unidentified emission line previously reported at 3.55-3.57 keV in a stacked spectrum of galaxy clusters, we investigated the resonant DR process in Li-like Ar as a possible source of, or contributor to, the emission line. The Li-like transition 1s22l-1s2l3l’ was suggested to produce a 3.62 keV photon [1] near the unidentified line at 3.57 keV and was the primary focus of our investigation. Apart from the mentioned transitions, we have found other features that can be possible contributors to the emission in this region. The Electron Beam Ion Trap at NIST was used to produce and trap the highly-charged ions of argon. The energy of the quasi-monoenergetic electron beam was incremented in steps of 15 eV to scan over all of the Li-like Ar DR resonances. A Johann-type crystal spectrometer and a solid-state germanium detector were used to take x-ray measurements perpendicular to the electron beam. The DR cross sections were measured and normalized to the well-known photoionization cross sections using radiative recombination peaks in the measured spectra. Corrections for different instrument and method related effects such as charge state balance, electron beam space charge, and charge exchange have been considered. Our high-resolution crystal spectra allowed the experimental separation of features that are less than 2 eV apart. We have used a collisional radiative model NOMAD [2] aided by atomic data calculations by FAC [3] to interpret our observations and account for the corrections and uncertainties. Experimental results were compared to the AtomDB theoretical emission lines used to fit the galaxy cluster spectra containing the unidentified 3.57 keV line. These data points can be added benchmarks in the database and used to accurately interpret spectra from current x-ray satellites, including Hitomi, Chandra, and XMM-Newton x-ray observatories.[1] Bulbul E. et al., 2014, ApJ, 789, 13[2] Ralchenko Yu. et al., 2014, JQSRT, 71

  4. Transthoracic ultrasound assessment of B-lines for identifying the increment of extravascular lung water in shock patients requiring fluid resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongdhep Theerawit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies have shown that the number of B-lines was related to the amount of extravascular lung water (EVLW. In our study, we aimed to demonstrate the magnitude of the incremental B-lines in shock patients with positive net fluid balance and the association with gas exchange impairment. Materials and Methods: We performed trans-thoracic ultrasound at admission (T 0 and at follow-up period (T FL to demonstrate the change of B lines ( B-lines after fluid therapy. We compared the total B-line score (TBS at T 0 and T FL and calculated the Pearson′s correlation coefficient between the B-lines and PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio. Results: A total of 20 patients were analyzed. All patients had septic shock. Net fluid balance was + 2228.05 ± 1982.15 ml. The TBS at T 0 and T FL were 36.6 ± 23.73 and 63.80 ± 29.25 (P < 0.01. The B-lines along anterior axillary line (AAL correlated to the TBS (r = 0.90, P < 0.01. The B-lines along AAL had inverse correlation to PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio (r = −0.704, P < 0.05. The increase of B-lines ≥ 10 was related to the decrease of PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio. The inter-observer reliability between two ultrasound readers was high (r = 0.92, P < 0.01. Discussion : The number of B-lines increased in shock patients with positive net fluid balance and correlated to impaired oxygenation. These data supported the benefit of ultrasound for assessing the EVLW.

  5. Analysis of cracked core spray injection line piping from the Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diercks, D.R.

    1983-12-01

    Elbow assemblies and adjacent piping from the loops A and B core spray injection lines of Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 Boiling Water Reactors have been examined in order to determine the nature and causes of coolant leakages and flaw indications detected during hydrostatic tests and subsequent ultrasonic inspections. The elbow assemblies were found to contain multiple intergranular cracks in the weld heat-affected zones. The cracking was predominantly axial in orientation in the forged elbow and wedge components, whereas mixed axial and circumferential cracking was seen in the wrought piping pieces. In at least two instances, axial cracks completely penetrated the circumferential weld joining adjacent components. Based upon the observations made in the present study, the failures were attributed to intergranular stress corrosion cracking caused by the weld-induced sensitized microstructure and residual stresses present; dissolved oxygen in the reactor coolant apparently served as the corrosive species. The predominantly axial orientation of the cracks present in the forged components is believed to be related to the banded microstructure present in these components. The metallographic studies reported are supplemented by x-radiography, chemical analysis and mechanical test results, determinations of the degree of sensitization present, and measurements of weld metal delta ferrite content.

  6. Investigating the effect of patulin, penicillic acid and EDTA on biofilm formation of isolates from dental unit water lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaqat, Iram; Bachmann, Robert Th; Sabri, Anjum Nasim; Edyvean, Robert G J; Biggs, Catherine A

    2008-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of patulin and penicillic acid, two known quorum-sensing inhibitors, and the common biocide ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the biofilm formation and auto-inducer (AI)-2 production of three isolates from dental unit water lines, Klebsiella sp., Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus. Penicillic acid on its own had no effect on the biofilm formation of all isolates, whereas in combination with EDTA, it enhanced biofilm formation significantly in Klebsiella sp. and B. cereus. EDTA at concentrations greater than 10 microM promoted biofilm formation in B. cereus and B. subtilis. Patulin was found to promote biofilm formation in B. cereus up to 25 microM. A significant increase in biofilm formation was observed in B. cereus and B. subtilis at concentrations greater than 10 microM of patulin when combined with EDTA. The Vibrio harveyi BB170 AI-2 bioassay showed a positive response for Klebsiella sp. AI-2 production with a maximum fold induction at the late exponential growth phase. Addition of glucose prolonged the AI-2 production phase considerably. No significant effect of patulin, penicillic acid alone as well as in combination with EDTA was observed on AI-2 production by Klebsiella sp. The findings have important implications for the design of biofilm prevention and eradication strategies.

  7. The snow line in viscous disks around low-mass stars: implications for water delivery to terrestrial planets in the habitable zone

    CERN Document Server

    Mulders, Gijs D; Min, Michiel; Pascucci, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    The water ice or snow line is one of the key properties of protoplanetary disks that determines the water content of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone. Its location is determined by the properties of the star, the mass accretion rate through the disk, and the size distribution of dust suspended in the disk. We calculate the snow line location from recent observations of mass accretion rates and as a function of stellar mass. By taking the observed dispersion in mass accretion rates as a measure of the dispersion in initial disk mass, we find that stars of a given mass will exhibit a range of snow line locations. At a given age and stellar mass, the observed dispersion in mass accretion rates of 0.4 dex naturally leads to a dispersion in snow line locations of 0.2 dex. For ISM-like dust sizes, the one-sigma snow line location among solar mass stars of the same age ranges from 2 to 5 au. For more realistic dust opacities that include larger grains, the snow line is located up to two times closer to the ...

  8. The Trace Analysis of DEET in Water using an On-line Preconcentration Column and Liquid Chromatography with UV Photodiode Array Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method for the detection of trace levels of N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) in water is discussed. The method utilizes an on-line preconcentration column in series with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV photodiode array detection. DEET, a common insect repel...

  9. Lambda-type sharp rise in the widths of Raman and infra-red line shape near the Widom line in super-critical water above its gas-liquid critical temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Samanta, Tuhin

    2016-01-01

    A lambda-type divergent rise of Raman linewidth of liquid nitrogen near its critical temperature has been a subject of many discussions in the past[1-5]. Here we explore the possibility of such an anomaly in infra-red and Raman spectroscopy of super-critical water (SCW) by varying the density across the Widom line just above its critical temperature. Vibrational phase relaxation is expected to be a sensitive probe of fluid dynamics. We carry out computer simulations of two different model potentials (SPC/E and TIP4P/2005) to obtain the necessary time correlation functions. An additional feature of this work is a quantum chemical calculation of the anharmonicity parameter that largely controls frequency fluctuations. We find a sharp rise in the vibrational relaxation rate (or the line widths) for both the models as we travel across the Widom line. The rise is noticeably less sharp in water than in nitrogen. We attribute this difference to the faster relaxation rate in water. We demonstrate that the anomalous r...

  10. A spectral line list for water isotopologues in the 1100-4100 cm-1 region for application to CO2-rich planetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamache, Robert R.; Farese, Michaella; Renaud, Candice L.

    2016-08-01

    A line list of transitions for seven isotopologues of water vapor in the 1100-4100 wavenumber range has been constructed for application to atmospheres rich in CO2. The quantum transitions for H216O, H218O, H217O, HD16O, HD18O, and HD17O are from the 2012 HITRAN database (Rothman et al., 2013) and those for D216O are from the ab initio line list of Shirin et al. (2008). The database was constructed using the best available measured parameters and augmented with theoretical calculations. The half-width, γ, its temperature dependence, n, and the line shift, δ, are for CO2 as the colliding partner or self-collisions and are determined using the Modified Complex Robert-Bonamy (MCRB) theory. The resulting line list contains 282 557 transitions and is available, in the HITRAN 2012 format, from the corresponding author or from the supplemental information of the journal.

  11. Upregulated expression of La ribonucleoprotein domain family member 6 and collagen type I gene following water-filtered broad-spectrum near-infrared irradiation in a 3-dimensional human epidermal tissue culture model as revealed by microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yohei; Nakayama, Jun

    2017-02-27

    Water-filtered broad-spectrum near-infrared irradiation can induce various biological effects, as our previous clinical, histological, and biochemical investigations have shown. However, few studies that examined the changes thus induced in gene expression. The aim was to investigate the changes in gene expression in a 3-dimensional reconstructed epidermal tissue culture exposed to water-filtered broad-spectrum near-infrared irradiation. DNA microarray and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis was used to assess gene expression levels in a 3-dimensional reconstructed epidermal model composed of normal human epidermal cells exposed to water-filtered broad-spectrum near-infrared irradiation. The water filter allowed 1000-1800 nm wavelengths and excluded 1400-1500 nm wavelengths, and cells were exposed to 5 or 10 rounds of near-infrared irradiation at 10 J/cm(2) . A DNA microarray with over 50 000 different probes showed 18 genes that were upregulated or downregulated by at least twofold after irradiation. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that, relative to control cells, the gene encoding La ribonucleoprotein domain family member 6 (LARP6), which regulates collagen expression, was significantly and dose-dependently upregulated (P < 0.05) by water-filtered broad-spectrum near-infrared exposure. Gene encoding transcripts of collagen type I were significantly upregulated compared with controls (P < 0.05). This study demonstrates the ability of water-filtered broad-spectrum near-infrared irradiation to stimulate the production of type I collagen. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  12. Effects of water hardness, alkalinity, and dissolved organic carbon on the toxicity of copper to the lateral line of developing fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linbo, Tiffany L; Baldwin, David H; McIntyre, Jenifer K; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2009-07-01

    Conventional water chemistry parameters such as hardness, alkalinity, and organic carbon are known to affect the acutely lethal toxicity of copper to fish and other aquatic organisms. In the present study, we investigate the influence of these water chemistry parameters on short-term (3 h), sublethal (0-40 microg/L) copper toxicity to the peripheral mechanosensory system of larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) using an in vivo fluorescent marker of lateral line sensory neuron (hair cell) integrity. We studied the influence of hardness (via CaCl2, MgSO4, or both at a 2:1 molar ratio), sodium (via NaHCO3 or NaCl), and organic carbon on copper-induced neurotoxicity to zebrafish lateral line neurons over a range of environmentally relevant water chemistries. For all water parameters but organic carbon, the reductions in copper toxicity, although statistically significant, were small. Increasing organic carbon across a range of environmentally relevant concentrations (0.1-4.3 mg/L) increased the EC50 for copper toxicity (the effective concentration resulting in a 50% loss of hair cells) from approximately 12 microg/L to approximately 50 microg/L. Finally, we used an ionoregulatory-based biotic ligand model to compare copper toxicity mediated by targets in the fish gill and lateral line. Relative to copper toxicity via the gill, we find that individual water chemistry parameters are less influential in terms of reducing cytotoxic impacts to the mechanosensory system.

  13. Novel Broad-Spectrum Antimicrobial Photoinactivation of In Situ Oral Biofilms by Visible Light plus Water-Filtered Infrared A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karygianni, L; Ruf, S; Follo, M; Hellwig, E; Bucher, M; Anderson, A C; Vach, K; Al-Ahmad, A

    2014-12-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) has gained increased attention as an alternative treatment approach in various medical fields. However, the effect of APDT using visible light plus water-filtered infrared A (VIS + wIRA) on oral biofilms remains unexplored. For this purpose, initial and mature oral biofilms were obtained in situ; six healthy subjects wore individual upper jaw acrylic devices with bovine enamel slabs attached to their proximal sites for 2 h or 3 days. The biofilms were incubated with 100 μg ml(-1) toluidine blue O (TB) or chlorin e6 (Ce6) and irradiated with VIS + wIRA with an energy density of 200 mW cm(-2) for 5 min. After cultivation, the CFU of half of the treated biofilm samples were quantified, whereas following live/dead staining, the other half of the samples were monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). TB- and Ce6-mediated APDT yielded a significant decrease of up to 3.8 and 5.7 log10 CFU for initial and mature oral biofilms, respectively. Quantification of the stained photoinactivated microorganisms confirmed these results. Overall, CLSM revealed the diffusion of the tested photosensitizers into the deepest biofilm layers after exposure to APDT. In particular, Ce6-aided APDT presented elevated permeability and higher effectiveness in eradicating 89.62% of biofilm bacteria compared to TB-aided APDT (82.25%) after 3 days. In conclusion, antimicrobial photoinactivation using VIS + wIRA proved highly potent in eradicating oral biofilms. Since APDT excludes the development of microbial resistance, it could supplement the pharmaceutical treatment of periodontitis or peri-implantitis.

  14. Moisture Analysis of a Squall Line Case Based on Precipitable Water Vapor Data from a Ground-Based GPS Network in the Yangtze River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Jincai; YANG Yinming; YE Qixin; HUANG Yan; MA Xiaoxing; MA Leiming; Y.R.GUO

    2007-01-01

    A squall line swept eastward across the area of the Yangtze River Delta and produced gusty winds and heavy rain from the afternoon to the evening of 24 August 2002. In this paper, the roles of moisture in the genesis and development of the squall line were studied. Based on the precipitable water vapor (PWV) data from a ground-based GPS network over the Yangtze River Delta in China, plus data from a Pennsylvania State University/National Atmospheric Center (PSU/NCAR) mesoscale model (MM5) simulation, initialized by three-dimensional variational (3D-VAR) assimilation of the PWV data, some interesting features are revealed. During the 12 hours prior to the squall line arriving in the Shanghai area, a significant increase in PWV indicates a favorable moist environment for a squall line to develop. The vertical profile of the moisture illustrates that it mainly increased in the middle levels of the troposphere, and not at the surface. Temporal variation in PWV is a better precursor for squall line development than other surface meteorological parameters. The characteristics of the horizontal distribution of PWV not only indicated a favorable moist environment, but also evolved a cyclonic wind field for a squall line genesis and development. The "+2 mm" contours of the three-hourly PWV variation can be used successfully to predict the location of the squall line two hours later.

  15. On-line application of near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring water levels in parts per million in a manufacturing-scale distillation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambertus, Gordon; Shi, Zhenqi; Forbes, Robert; Kramer, Timothy T; Doherty, Steven; Hermiller, James; Scully, Norma; Wong, Sze Wing; LaPack, Mark

    2014-01-01

    An on-line analytical method based on transmission near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the quantitative determination of water concentrations (in parts per million) was developed and applied to the manufacture of a pharmaceutical intermediate. Calibration models for water analysis, built at the development site and applied at the manufacturing site, were successfully demonstrated during six manufacturing runs at a 250-gallon scale. The water measurements will be used as a forward-processing control point following distillation of a toluene product solution prior to use in a Grignard reaction. The most significant impact of using this NIRS-based process analytical technology (PAT) to replace off-line measurements is the significant reduction in the risk of operator exposure through the elimination of sampling of a severely lachrymatory and mutagenic compound. The work described in this report illustrates the development effort from proof-of-concept phase to manufacturing implementation.

  16. A tentative detection of the 183-GHz water vapor line in the martian atmosphere: Constraints upon the H2O abundance and vertical distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Encrenaz, TH.; Lellouch, E.; Cernicharo, J.; Paubert, G.; Gulkis, S.

    1995-01-01

    The 183-GHz water vapor line was tentatively detected on Mars in January 1991, with the IRAM 30-m millimeter antenna, under extremely dry atmospheric conditions. The measurement refers to the whole disk. The spectral line, although marginally detected, can be fit with a constant H2O mixing ratio of 1.0 x 10(exp -5), which corresponds to a water abundance of 1 pr-microns; in any case, an upper limit of 3 pr-microns is inferred. This value is comparable to the very small abundances measured by Clancy (1992) 5 weeks before our observation and seems to imply both seasonal and long-term variations in the martian water cycle.

  17. Runs 800, 813, 842 and physics runs from 18.1.77 to 21.5.77, Development of a new set-up for working line measurements including a Fast Fourier Transform Spectrum Analyser and using weak beam excitiation with broad-band noise

    CERN Document Server

    Borer, J

    1977-01-01

    Runs 800, 813, 842 and physics runs from 18.1.77 to 21.5.77, Development of a new set-up for working line measurements including a Fast Fourier Transform Spectrum Analyser and using weak beam excitiation with broad-band noise

  18. Observation of an anomalous line shape of the $\\eta^{\\prime}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ mass spectrum near the $p\\bar{p}$ mass threshold in $J/\\psi\\rightarrow\\gamma\\eta^{\\prime}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$

    CERN Document Server

    Ablikim, M; Ahmed, S; Ai, X C; Albayrak, O; Albrecht, M; Ambrose, D J; Amoroso, A; An, F F; An, Q; Bai, J Z; Ferroli, R Baldini; Ban, Y; Bennett, D W; Bennett, J V; Berger, N; Bertani, M; Bettoni, D; Bian, J M; Bianchi, F; Boger, E; Boyko, I; Briere, R A; Cai, H; Cai, X; Cakir, O; Calcaterra, A; Cao, G F; Cetin, S A; Chang, J F; Chelkov, G; Chen, G; Chen, H S; Chen, H Y; Chen, J C; Chen, M L; Chen, S; Chen, S J; Chen, X; Chen, X R; Chen, Y B; Cheng, H P; Chu, X K; Cibinetto, G; Dai, H L; Dai, J P; Dbeyssi, A; Dedovich, D; Deng, Z Y; Denig, A; Denysenko, I; Destefanis, M; De Mori, F; Ding, Y; Dong, C; Dong, J; Dong, L Y; Dong, M Y; Dou, Z L; Du, S X; Duan, P F; Fan, J Z; Fang, J; Fang, S S; Fang, X; Fang, Y; Farinelli, R; Fava, L; Fedorov, O; Feldbauer, F; Felici, G; Feng, C Q; Fioravanti, E; Fritsch, M; Fu, C D; Gao, Q; Gao, X L; Gao, X Y; Gao, Y; Gao, Z; Garzia, I; Goetzen, K; Gong, L; Gong, W X; Gradl, W; Greco, M; Gu, M H; Gu, Y T; Guan, Y H; Guo, A Q; Guo, L B; Guo, R P; Guo, Y; Guo, Y P; Haddadi, Z; Hafner, A; Han, S; Hao, X Q; Harris, F A; He, K L; Heinsius, F H; Held, T; Heng, Y K; Holtmann, T; Hou, Z L; Hu, C; Hu, H M; Hu, J F; Hu, T; Hu, Y; Huang, G S; Huang, Y P; Huang, J S; Huang, X T; Huang, X Z; Huang, Y; Huang, Z L; Hussain, T; Ji, Q; Ji, Q P; Ji, X B; Ji, X L; Jiang, L W; Jiang, X S; Jiang, X Y; Jiao, J B; Jiao, Z; Jin, D P; Jin, S; Johansson, T; Julin, A; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N; Kang, X L; Kang, X S; Kavatsyuk, M; Ke, B C; Kiese, P; Kliemt, R; Kloss, B; Kolcu, O B; Kopf, B; Kornicer, M; Kupsc, A; Kühn, W; Lange, J S; Lara, M; Larin, P; Leithoff, H; Leng, C; Li, C; Li, Cheng; Li, D M; Li, F; Li, F Y; Li, G; Li, H B; Li, H J; Li, J C; Li, Jin; Li, K; Li, K; Li, Lei; Li, P R; Li, Q Y; Li, T; Li, W D; Li, W G; Li, X L; Li, X N; Li, X Q; Li, Y B; Li, Z B; Liang, H; Liang, Y F; Liang, Y T; Liao, G R; Lin, D X; Liu, B; Liu, B J; Liu, C X; Liu, D; Liu, F H; Liu, Fang; Liu, Feng; Liu, H B; Liu, H H; Liu, H H; Liu, H M; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, J P; Liu, J Y; Liu, K; Liu, K Y; Liu, L D; Liu, P L; Liu, Q; Liu, S B; Liu, X; Liu, Y B; Liu, Y Y; Liu, Z A; Liu, Zhiqing; Loehner, H; Lou, X C; Lu, H J; Lu, J G; Lu, Y; Lu, Y P; Luo, C L; Luo, M X; Luo, T; Luo, X L; Lyu, X R; Ma, F C; Ma, H L; Ma, L L; Ma, M M; Ma, Q M; Ma, T; Ma, X N; Ma, X Y; Ma, Y M; Maas, F E; Maggiora, M; Malik, Q A; Mao, Y J; Mao, Z P; Marcello, S; Messchendorp, J G; Mezzadri, G; Min, J; Mitchell, R E; Mo, X H; Mo, Y J; Morales, C Morales; Muchnoi, N Yu; Muramatsu, H; Musiol, P; Nefedov, Y; Nerling, F; Nikolaev, I B; Ning, Z; Nisar, S; Niu, S L; Niu, X Y; Olsen, S L; Ouyang, Q; Pacetti, S; Pan, Y; Patteri, P; Pelizaeus, M; Peng, H P; Peters, K; Pettersson, J; Ping, J L; Ping, R G; Poling, R; Prasad, V; Qi, H R; Qi, M; Qian, S; Qiao, C F; Qin, L Q; Qin, N; Qin, X S; Qin, Z H; Qiu, J F; Rashid, K H; Redmer, C F; Ripka, M; Rong, G; Rosner, Ch; Ruan, X D; Sarantsev, A; Savrié, M; Schnier, C; Schoenning, K; Schumann, S; Shan, W; Shao, M; Shen, C P; Shen, P X; Shen, X Y; Sheng, H Y; Shi, M; Song, W M; Song, X Y; Sosio, S; Spataro, S; Sun, G X; Sun, J F; Sun, S S; Sun, X H; Sun, Y J; Sun, Y Z; Sun, Z J; Sun, Z T; Tang, C J; Tang, X; Tapan, I; Thorndike, E H; Tiemens, M; Uman, I; Varner, G S; Wang, B; Wang, B L; Wang, D; Wang, D Y; Wang, K; Wang, L L; Wang, L S; Wang, M; Wang, P; Wang, P L; Wang, S G; Wang, W; Wang, W P; Wang, X F; Wang, Y; Wang, Y D; Wang, Y F; Wang, Y Q; Wang, Z; Wang, Z G; Wang, Z H; Wang, Z Y; Wang, Z Y; Weber, T; Wei, D H; Wei, J B; Weidenkaff, P; Wen, S P; Wiedner, U; Wolke, M; Wu, L H; Wu, L J; Wu, Z; Xia, L; Xia, L G; Xia, Y; Xiao, D; Xiao, H; Xiao, Z J; Xie, Y G; Xiu, Q L; Xu, G F; Xu, J J; Xu, L; Xu, Q J; Xu, Q N; Xu, X P; Yan, L; Yan, W B; Yan, W C; Yan, Y H; Yang, H J; Yang, H X; Yang, L; Yang, Y X; Ye, M; Ye, M H; Yin, J H; Yu, B X; Yu, C X; Yu, J S; Yuan, C Z; Yuan, W L; Yuan, Y; Yuncu, A; Zafar, A A; Zallo, A; Zeng, Y; Zeng, Z; Zhang, B X; Zhang, B Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, C C; Zhang, D H; Zhang, H H; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, J; Zhang, J J; Zhang, J L; Zhang, J Q; Zhang, J W; Zhang, J Y; Zhang, J Z; Zhang, K; Zhang, L; Zhang, S Q; Zhang, X Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, Y N; Zhang, Y T; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Z H; Zhang, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Zhao, G; Zhao, J W; Zhao, J Y; Zhao, J Z; Zhao, Lei; Zhao, Ling; Zhao, M G; Zhao, Q; Zhao, Q W; Zhao, S J; Zhao, T C; Zhao, Y B; Zhao, Z G; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, B; Zheng, J P; Zheng, W J; Zheng, Y H; Zhong, B; Zhou, L; Zhou, X; Zhou, X K; Zhou, X R; Zhou, X Y; Zhu, K; Zhu, K J; Zhu, S; Zhu, S H; Zhu, X L; Zhu, Y C; Zhu, Y S; Zhu, Z A; Zhuang, J; Zotti, L; Zou, B S; Zou, J H

    2016-01-01

    Using $1.09\\times10^{9}$ $J/\\psi$ events collected by the BESIII experiment in 2012, we study the $J/\\psi\\rightarrow\\gamma\\eta^{\\prime}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ process and observe a significant abrupt change in the slope of the $\\eta^{\\prime}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ invariant mass distribution at the proton-antiproton ($p\\bar{p}$) mass threshold. We use two models to characterize the $\\eta^{\\prime}\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ line shape around $1.85~\\text{GeV}/c^{2}$: one which explicitly incorporates the opening of a decay threshold in the mass spectrum (Flatt\\'{e} formula), and another which is the coherent sum of two resonant amplitudes. Both fits show almost equally good agreement with data, and suggest the existence of either a broad state around $1.85~\\text{GeV}/c^{2}$ with strong couplings to $p\\bar{p}$ final states or a narrow state just below the $p\\bar{p}$ mass threshold. Although we cannot distinguish between the fits, either one supports the existence of a $p\\bar{p}$ molecule-like state or bound state with greater than $7\\sigma...

  19. Global methylation profiling of lymphoblastoid cell lines reveals epigenetic contributions to autism spectrum disorders and a novel autism candidate gene, RORA, whose protein product is reduced in autistic brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, AnhThu; Rauch, Tibor A; Pfeifer, Gerd P; Hu, Valerie W

    2010-08-01

    Autism is currently considered a multigene disorder with epigenetic influences. To investigate the contribution of DNA methylation to autism spectrum disorders, we have recently completed large-scale methylation profiling by CpG island microarray analysis of lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from monozygotic twins discordant for diagnosis of autism and their nonautistic siblings. Methylation profiling revealed many candidate genes differentially methylated between discordant MZ twins as well as between both twins and nonautistic siblings. Bioinformatics analysis of the differentially methylated genes demonstrated enrichment for high-level functions including gene transcription, nervous system development, cell death/survival, and other biological processes implicated in autism. The methylation status of 2 of these candidate genes, BCL-2 and retinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA), was further confirmed by bisulfite sequencing and methylation-specific PCR, respectively. Immunohistochemical analyses of tissue arrays containing slices of the cerebellum and frontal cortex of autistic and age- and sex-matched control subjects revealed decreased expression of RORA and BCL-2 proteins in the autistic brain. Our data thus confirm the role of epigenetic regulation of gene expression via differential DNA methylation in idiopathic autism, and furthermore link molecular changes in a peripheral cell model with brain pathobiology in autism.

  20. On-Line Biosensor to Detect Genotoxic Compounds in Surface Water Using a 3D-Printed Microbioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, Martin; Euverink, Gert-Jan; Mink, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The quality of safe and clean drinking water is becoming more important. Therefore, harmful pollutants in the surface and ground water need to be detected before drinking water is prepared from this. With the current methods, it is not possible to continuously monitor the intake water for the presen

  1. On-Line Biosensor to Detect Genotoxic Compounds in Surface Water Using a 3D-Printed Microbioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, Martin; Euverink, Gert-Jan; Mink, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The quality of safe and clean drinking water is becoming more important. Therefore, harmful pollutants in the surface and ground water need to be detected before drinking water is prepared from this. With the current methods, it is not possible to continuously monitor the intake water for the

  2. An On-Line Solid Phase Extraction-Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Determination of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Drinking and Surface Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Mazzoni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An UHPLC-MS/MS multiresidue method based on an on-line solid phase extraction (SPE procedure was developed for the simultaneous determination of 9 perfluorinated carboxylates (from 4 to 12 carbon atoms and 3 perfluorinated sulphonates (from 4 to 8 carbon atoms. This work proposes using an on-line solid phase extraction before chromatographic separation and analysis to replace traditional methods of off-line SPE before direct injection to LC-MS/MS. Manual sample preparation was reduced to sample centrifugation and acidification, thus eliminating several procedural errors and significantly reducing time-consuming and costs. Ionization suppression between target perfluorinated analytes and their coeluting SIL-IS were detected for homologues with a number of carbon atoms less than 9, but the quantitation was not affected. Total matrix effect corrected by SIL-IS, inclusive of extraction efficacy, and of ionization efficiency, ranged between −34 and +39%. The percentage of recoveries, between 76 and 134%, calculated in different matrices (tap water and rivers impacted by different pollutions was generally satisfactory. LODs and LOQs of this on-line SPE method, which also incorporate recovery losses, ranged from 0.2 to 5.0 ng/L and from 1 to 20 ng/L, respectively. Validated on-line SPE-LC/MS/MS method has been applied in a wide survey for the determination of perfluoroalkyl acids in Italian surface and ground waters.

  3. Candidate Water Vapor Lines to Locate the H2O Snowline through High-dispersion Spectroscopic Observations. II. The Case of a Herbig Ae Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notsu, Shota; Nomura, Hideko; Ishimoto, Daiki; Walsh, Catherine; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Hirota, Tomoya; Millar, T. J.

    2017-02-01

    Observationally measuring the location of the {{{H}}}2{{O}} snowline is crucial for understanding planetesimal and planet formation processes, and the origin of water on Earth. In disks around Herbig Ae stars (T * ∼ 10,000 K, M * ≳ 2.5M ⊙), the position of the {{{H}}}2{{O}} snowline is farther from the central star compared with that around cooler and less massive T Tauri stars. Thus, the {{{H}}}2{{O}} emission line fluxes from the region within the {{{H}}}2{{O}} snowline are expected to be stronger. In this paper, we calculate the chemical composition of a Herbig Ae disk using chemical kinetics. Next, we calculate the {{{H}}}2{{O}} emission line profiles and investigate the properties of candidate water lines across a wide range of wavelengths (from mid-infrared to submillimeter) that can locate the position of the {{{H}}}2{{O}} snowline. Those lines identified have small Einstein A coefficients (∼ {10}-6{--}{10}-3 s‑1) and relatively high upper-state energies (∼1000 K). The total fluxes tend to increase with decreasing wavelengths. We investigate the possibility of future observations (e.g., ALMA, SPICA/SMI-HRS) locating the position of the {{{H}}}2{{O}} snowline. Since the fluxes of those identified lines from Herbig Ae disks are stronger than those from T Tauri disks, the possibility of a successful detection is expected to increase for a Herbig Ae disk.

  4. Estimation of Power Spectrum Density Track Irregularities of Low-speed Maglev Railway Lines%低速磁浮轨道不平顺功率谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张耿; 李杰; 杨子敬

    2011-01-01

    Track irregularity is the main excitation source to vibration of the maglev train, and it has direct influence on stability and ride quality of the train. The statistical specimens of track irregularities are collected from the TangShan low-speed maglev experimental line on the basis of the stationarity tests of the specimens, the Fast Fourier Transform(FFT) method was used to evaluate the spectra of the whole specimen space. Distribution of track irregularities in space wavelengths was found. Analysis results show that the structural parameters, installation precision and rolling technique of tracks are the main causes of track irregularity. Referring to the mature PSD( power spectrum density) expressions published athome and abroatl, the set fitting formulas of PSD for low-speed maglev railway lines were proposed. The parameter values of PSD fitting curves for low-speed maglev track irregularities were obtained by use of the damping curve-fitting algorithm in the least-squares sense. Significaul reference is provided to study on track irregularity PSD of low-speed maglev railway lines.%轨道不平顺是磁浮列车振动的主要激扰源,直接关系到列车运行的稳定性和舒适性.文章基于唐山低速磁浮试验线实测的轨道不平顺数据,采用周期图法进行样本空间的谱估计,得到轨道不平顺在各空间波长的分布.分析结果表明,轨道本身结构参数、轨道安装精度和F轨的轧制工艺是产生轨道不平顺的主要原因.参考国内外成熟的铁路轨道谱线表达形式,得到低速磁浮轨道谱的拟合曲线公式,应用阻尼最小二乘算法拟合轨道谱表达式的参数,对于研究我国磁浮轨道不平顺功率谱有重要的参考价值.

  5. Dysfunctions at human intestinal barrier by water-borne protozoan parasites: lessons from cultured human fully differentiated colon cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa

    2013-06-01

    Some water-borne protozoan parasites induce diseases through their membrane-associated functional structures and virulence factors that hijack the host cellular molecules and signalling pathways leading to structural and functional lesions in the intestinal barrier. In this Microreview we analyse the insights on the mechanisms of pathogenesis of Entamoeba intestinalis, Giardia and Cryptosporidium observed in the human colon carcinoma fully differentiated colon cancer cell lines, cell subpopulations and clones expressing the structural and functional characteristics of highly specialized fully differentiated epithelial cells lining the intestinal epithelium and mimicking structurally and functionally an intestinal barrier. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Mossambicus tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected from water bodies impacted by urban waste carries extended-spectrum beta-lactamases and integron-bearing gut bacteria

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    NACHIKET P MARATHE; SWAPNIL S GAIKWAD; ANKITA A VAISHAMPAYAN; MANDAR H RASANE; YOGESH S SHOUCHE; WASUDEV N GADE

    2016-09-01

    Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters 1852) (Tilapia) is one of the most consumed fish globally. Tilapia thrives well inenvironments polluted by urban waste, which invariably contain antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes(ARGs). Thus, Tilapia surviving in such polluted environments may serve as a potential source for dissemination of ARGs.To investigate this, we isolated bacterial strains from gut of Tilapia found in polluted rivers and lakes near Pune, India, andstudied the prevalence of resistance genes bymolecularmethods. A total of 91 bacterial strains were obtained, which includefish pathogens and human pathogens such as Aeromonas hydrophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, E. coli, Serratia marcescens,Enterobacter spp. and Shigella spp. Overall the prevalence of class 1 integrons, class 2 integrons, extended-spectrum betalactamases(ESBLs) bla_{CTX-M}, bla_{SHV} and aac(6')-Ib-cr gene was 38%, 24%, 38%, 31% and 31% respectively. Forty-twopercent of the Enterobacteriaceae strains carried bla_{CTX-M} gene, which is a common ESBL gene in clinics. The studydemonstrates that tilapia found in the polluted waters can serve as reservoirs and an alternative route for human exposure toclinically important ARG-carrying bacteria. The consumption and handling of these fish may pose a potential health risk.

  7. Pressure and velocity cross-spectrum of normal modes in low-frequency acoustic vector field of shallow water and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Yu; Qing Ling,; Jiang Xu

    2015-01-01

    The pressure and horizontal particle velocity combined descriptions in the very low frequency acoustic field of shal ow wa-ter integrated with the concept of effective depth of Pekeris wave-guide is proposed, especial y the active component of the pressure and horizontal particle velocity cross-spectrum, also cal ed ho-rizontal complex cross acoustic intensity, when only two normal modes are trapped in the waveguide. Both the approximate theo-retic analysis and the numerical results show that the sign of the horizontal complex cross acoustic intensity active component is independent of the range when vertical y deployed receiving dual sensors are placed in appropriate depths, the sum of which is equal to the waveguide effective depth, so it can be used to tel whether the sound source is near the surface or underwater;while the range rate is expected to be measured by utilizing the sign distribution characteristic of the reactive component. The further robustness analysis of the depth classification algorithm shows that the existence of shear waves in semi infinite basement and the change of acoustic velocity profiles have few effects on the application of this method, and the seabed attenuation wil limit the detection range, but the algorithm stil has a good robustness in the valid detection range.

  8. Zellweger Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... severe defect, resulting in essentially nonfunctional peroxisomes. This phenomenon produces the range of severity of the disorders. How is the Zellweger Spectrum Diagnosed? The distinctive shape of the head and face of a child born with one of the diseases of the ...

  9. On-line preconcentration and recovery of palladium from waters using polyaniline (PANI) loaded in mini-column and determination by ICP-MS; elimination of spectral interferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, M V Balarama; Ranjit, Manjusha; Chandrasekaran, K; Venkateswarlu, G; Karunasagar, D

    2009-10-15

    The applicability of polyaniline (PANI) for the on-line preconcentration and recovery of palladium from various water samples has been investigated. Batch experiments were performed to optimize conditions such as pH and contact time to achieve quantitative separation of Pd spiked at high (microg ml(-1)) and low levels (ng ml(-1)). During all the steps of the removal process, it was found that Pd was selectively removed by PANI even in the presence of various ions. Quantitative removal of Pd occured in the entire studied pH range (1-12) and the K(d) value was found to be >10(6). Kinetic studies show that a contact time of PANI has an excellent ability to accumulate up to approximately 120 mg g(-1) of Pd from synthetic sample solutions. A preconcentration factor of about 125 was achieved for Pd when 250 ml of water was passed. PANI columns prepared were used up to 10 times in consecutive retention-elution cycles without appreciable deterioration in their performance. The proposed on-line method also has the ability to remove interfering elements Cu and Y for the determination of Pd in waters by ICP-MS. The reported method has been applied successfully for the determination of Pd in ground water, lake water sea-water and waste water samples. The recoveries were found to be >95% in all cases. These studies indicate that PANI has an excellent ability to preconcentrate Pd from various waters making the method very promising for the determination of Pd.

  10. 在线水质分析仪器应用技术的发展%Development of application techniques of on-line water quality analysis instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程立

    2011-01-01

    The monitoring type and the process control type on-line water quality analysis instruments have different technical features and application requirements, and their application techniques also have different development orientations and different technical characteristics. The on-line water quality analysis systems and application techniques with self-learning function nad expert-like feature are attracting more and more attention of users.%监测型和过程型在线水质分析仪器具有不同的技术特点和应用要求,对应的在线水质分析仪器应用技术也有着不同发展方向的技术特点;具有自学习功能和专家型的在线水质分析仪器系统及应用技术开始得到了市场的重视

  11. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as an Analytical Process Technology for the On-Line Quantification of Water Precipitation Processes during Danhong Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper used near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy for the on-line quantitative monitoring of water precipitation during Danhong injection. For these NIR measurements, two fiber optic probes designed to transmit NIR radiation through a 2 mm flow cell were used to collect spectra in real-time. Partial least squares regression (PLSR was developed as the preferred chemometrics quantitative analysis of the critical intermediate qualities: the danshensu (DSS, (R-3, 4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid, protocatechuic aldehyde (PA, rosmarinic acid (RA, and salvianolic acid B (SAB concentrations. Optimized PLSR models were successfully built and used for on-line detecting of the concentrations of DSS, PA, RA, and SAB of water precipitation during Danhong injection. Besides, the information of DSS, PA, RA, and SAB concentrations would be instantly fed back to site technical personnel for control and adjustment timely. The verification experiments determined that the predicted values agreed with the actual homologic value.

  12. Triple bottom line assessment of raw water treatment: methodology and application to a case study in the municipality of Oppegård in south-eastern Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, G; Azrague, Kamal; Bell, Stig; Eikebrokk, Bjørnar

    2015-01-01

    There could be several options a water treatment plant (WTP) can select from, if an improvement in treated water quality (WQ) is desired. This paper outlines a methodology to test a variety of approaches to accomplish pre-set goals as regards WQ, while adopting a triple bottom line approach. This approach, in a nutshell, takes into consideration economic, environmental and social aspects in decision-making. The methodology has been applied to the Stangasen WTP in the town of Oppegård in south-eastern Norway. Among the seven alternative approaches compared were the use, as coagulant, of five different dosages of granulated aluminium sulphate, liquid aluminium sulphate (48%) and liquid ferric chloride (40%). Using the set of weighting factors obtained from experts, it was determined that increasing the dosage of granulated aluminium sulphate by 20% over the current one would be the most sustainable option from a triple bottom line point of view.

  13. Candidate Water Vapor Lines to Locate the H2O Snowline through High-dispersion Spectroscopic Observations. I. The Case of a T Tauri Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notsu, Shota; Nomura, Hideko; Ishimoto, Daiki; Walsh, Catherine; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Hirota, Tomoya; Millar, T. J.

    2016-08-01

    Inside the H2O snowline of protoplanetary disks, water evaporates from the dust-grain surface into the gas phase, whereas it is frozen out onto the dust in the cold region beyond the snowline. H2O ice enhances the solid material in the cold outer part of a disk, which promotes the formation of gas-giant planet cores. We can regard the H2O snowline as the surface that divides the regions between rocky and gaseous giant planet formation. Thus observationally measuring the location of the H2O snowline is crucial for understanding the planetesimal and planet formation processes, and the origin of water on Earth. In this paper, we find candidate water lines to locate the H2O snowline through future high-dispersion spectroscopic observations. First, we calculate the chemical composition of the disk and investigate the abundance distributions of H2O gas and ice, and the position of the H2O snowline. We confirm that the abundance of H2O gas is high not only in the hot midplane region inside the H2O snowline but also in the hot surface layer of the outer disk. Second, we calculate the H2O line profiles and identify those H2O lines that are promising for locating the H2O snowline: the identified lines are those that have small Einstein A coefficients and high upper state energies. The wavelengths of the candidate H2O lines range from mid-infrared to sub-millimeter, and they overlap with the regions accessible to the Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array and future mid-infrared high-dispersion spectrographs (e.g., TMT/MICHI, SPICA).

  14. Cultural Spectrum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Exorbitant Performance Fees ProhibitedThe Ministry of Culture has taken measures todiscourage performance artists from charging excessively for their stage appearances. According to the ministry, payment for performers and ticket prices must be in line with average con-

  15. Water-vapor line broadening and shifting by air, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon in the 720-nm wavelength region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Benoist E.; Browell, Edward V.

    1989-01-01

    High-resolution spectroscopic measurements of H2O vapor in the 720-nm wavelength region were conducted to investigate the broadening and shifting of H2O lines by air, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. For each of the buffer gases under study, a linear relationship was found between the widths and the shifts, with the broader lines having the smaller pressure shifts. The pressure shifts measured compared favorably with theoretical values reported by Bykov et al. (1988). The temperature-dependence exponents for air-broadening were found to be J-dependent, with the lower-J lines having the higher exponents.

  16. Intensities and self-broadening coefficients of the strongest water vapour lines in the 2.7 and 6.25 μm absorption bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptashnik, Igor V.; McPheat, Robert; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Shine, Keith P.; Smith, Kevin M.

    2016-07-01

    Intensities and self-broadening coefficients are presented for about 460 of the strongest water vapour lines in the spectral regions 1400-1840 cm-1 and 3440-3970 cm-1 at room temperature, obtained from rather unique measurements using a 5-mm-path-length cell. The retrieved spectral line parameters are compared with those in the HITRAN database ver. 2008 and 2012 and with recent ab-initio calculations. Both the retrieved intensities and half-widths are on average in reasonable agreement with those in HITRAN-2012. Maximum systematic differences do not exceed 4% for intensities (1600 cm-1 band) and 7% for self-broadening coefficients (3600 cm-1 band). For many lines however significant disagreements were detected with the HITRAN-2012 data, exceeding the average uncertainty of the retrieval. In addition, water vapour line parameters for 5300 cm-1 (1.9 μm) band reported by us in 2005 were also compared with HITRAN-2012, and show average differences of 4-5% for both intensities and half-widths.

  17. Development of a New Microextraction Fiber Combined to On-Line Sample Stacking Capillary Electrophoresis UV Detection for Acidic Drugs Determination in Real Water Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Espina-Benitez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A new analytical method coupling a (off-line solid-phase microextraction with an on-line capillary electrophoresis (CE sample enrichment technique was developed for the analysis of ketoprofen, naproxen and clofibric acid from water samples, which are known as contaminants of emerging concern in aquatic environments. New solid-phase microextraction fibers based on physical coupling of chromatographic supports onto epoxy glue coated needle were studied for the off-line preconcentration of these micropollutants. Identification and quantification of such acidic drugs were done by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE using ultraviolet diode array detection (DAD. Further enhancement of concentration sensitivity detection was achieved by on-line CE “acetonitrile stacking” preconcentration technique. Among the eight chromatographic supports investigated, Porapak Q sorbent showed higher extraction and preconcentration capacities. The screening of parameters that influence the microextraction process was carried out using a two-level fractional factorial. Optimization of the most relevant parameters was then done through a surface response three-factor Box-Behnken design. The limits of detection and limits of quantification for the three drugs ranged between 0.96 and 1.27 µg∙L−1 and 2.91 and 3.86 µg∙L−1, respectively. Recovery yields of approximately 95 to 104% were measured. The developed method is simple, precise, accurate, and allows quantification of residues of these micropollutants in Genil River water samples using inexpensive fibers.

  18. Explore Off Valve Water Hammer Problem with Long-distance Lines Filling Water Supply Project%长距离供水工程的关阀水锤与线路充填问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚财鸿

    2015-01-01

    主要分析了长距离供水工程中关阀水锤特性和出现的线路填充现象,在无摩阻输水系统水锤公式的基础上,分别探讨了长距离供水系统的直接水锤和间接水锤,以期能为相关管道设计和运行调度提供理论参考。%The analysis of the long-distance water supply project hammer feature off valve and the emergence of the phenomenon of filling lines, water supply systems on the basis of non-friction formula on water hammer, water hammer, respectively, discussed the direct and indirect long-distance water supply system hammer, with a view to provide theoretical reference for the associated piping design and operation scheduling.

  19. The Occurrence of Additional Giant Planets Inside the Water-Ice Line in Systems with Hot Jupiters: Evidence Against High-Eccentricity Migration

    CERN Document Server

    Schlaufman, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    The origin of Jupiter-mass planets with orbital periods of only a few days is still uncertain. It is widely believed that these planets formed near the water-ice line of the protoplanetary disk, and subsequently migrated into much smaller orbits. Most of the proposed migration mechanisms can be classified either as disk-driven migration, or as excitation of a very high eccentricity followed by tidal circularization. In the latter scenario, the giant planet that is destined to become a hot Jupiter spends billions of years on a highly-eccentric orbit, with apastron near the water-ice line. Eventually, tidal dissipation at periastron shrinks and circularizes the orbit. If this is correct, then it should be especially rare for hot Jupiters to be accompanied by another giant planet interior to the water-ice line. Using the current sample of giant planets discovered with the Doppler technique, we find that hot Jupiters with P_orb = 10 days. This result holds for exterior companions both inside and outside of the ap...

  20. Calculation of Reduction Coefficient of Water Pressure on Underwater Tunnel Lining%水底隧道衬砌水压力折减系数估算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑波; 王建宇; 吴剑

    2012-01-01

    水底隧道衬砌水压力是衬砌结构设计的关键参数之一,根据对衬砌水压力作用机制的探讨,"全堵型"隧道衬砌承担全部静水压力,而对于"排水型"隧道,衬砌只承受部分水压力,作用在衬砌上的水压力应该进行折减。根据渗流理论,推导了轴对称条件下衬砌水压力折减系数的理论公式及利用隧道衬砌前与衬砌后涌水量的反分析简化公式,并通过数值方法验证了其可靠性。计算结果表明:1)隧道涌水量随着衬砌渗透系数的减小而减少,当kl/ks=0.001时,涌水量几乎为0,而水压力折减系数近似等于1;2)对于不同的kl/ks值,水压力折减系数与涌水量存在一个公共点,这个交点范围为kl/ks=(0.02~0.03),对应的水压力折减系数约为0.5;3)对围岩进行注浆可以有效减少涌水量,但仍会有较大的水压力作用在注浆圈上,对注浆圈的长期耐久性提出了较高的要求;4)利用隧道衬砌前后涌水量推导的衬砌水压力折减系数反分析公式,其计算结果可靠、有效,可以在以后隧道结构设计中应用。%The water pressure on the tunnel lining is one of the key parameters of tunnel structure design. The water prooftype lining bears hydrostatic pressure. However, the drainagetype lining usually partially responds to the hydro static pressure. The hydrostatic pressure exerted on the lining should be reduced. The water pressure reduction coeffi cient of the lining under the conditions of axial symmetry is deduced, and its reliability is verified by means of numerical method, on basis of waterseepage theory. The calculation results show : 1 ) The water inflow decreases as the lining per meability reduces. When the value of kl/k,is 0. 001, there is almost no water inflow and the water pressure reduction coefficient is nearly equal to 1. 2) There is a public intersection between the water inflow and the water pressure reduc tion coefficient for

  1. Pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection for on-line enrichment in capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry: a sensitive method for measurement of ten haloacetic acids in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Zhu, Jiping; Aranda-Rodriguez, Rocio; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2011-11-07

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are by-products of the chlorination of drinking water containing natural organic matter and bromide. A simple and sensitive method has been developed for determination of ten HAAs in drinking water. The pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection (PAEKI), an on-line enrichment technique, was employed to introduce the sample into a capillary electrophoresis (CE)-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry system (ESI-MS/MS). HAAs were monitored in selected reaction monitoring mode. With 3 min of PAEKI time, the ten major HAAs (HAA10) in drinking water were enriched up to 20,000-fold into the capillary without compromising resolution. A simple solid phase clean-up method has been developed to eliminate the influence of ionic matrices from drinking water on PAEKI. Under conditions optimized for mass spectrometry, PAEKI and capillary electrophoresis, detection limits defined as three times ratio of signal to noise have been achieved in a range of 0.013-0.12 μg L(-1) for ten HAAs in water sample. The overall recoveries for all ten HAAs in drinking water samples were between 76 and 125%. Six HAAs including monochloro- (MCAA), dichloro- (DCAA), trichloro- (TCAA), monobromo- (MBAA), bromochloro- (BCAA), and bromodichloroacetic acids (BDCAA) were found in tap water samples collected.

  2. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  3. An on-line adaptive estimation method for water holdup measurement in oil-water two-phase flow with a conductance/capacitance sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Tan, Chao; Dong, Feng

    2016-07-01

    Oil-water two-phase flow widely exists in industrial processes such as petroleum engineering and chemical engineering. Accurate and real-time measurement of water holdup is an important problem requiring urgent solutions. In this work, a conductance and capacitance combination sensor (CCCS) system with four conductance rings and two concave capacitance plates was validated for its measurement performance of in situ water holdup through dynamic experiments. An online adaptive weight Kalman estimation (OAWKE) fusion algorithm for the CCCS system is proposed to fuse the conductance measurement and capacitance measurement. The algorithm has fast and dynamic response for the water holdup measurement of oil-water two-phase flow and has improved measurement precision by the adaptive data fusion method. The OAWKE fusion algorithm also has the ability to deal with the abrupt change of water holdup during the measurement process. Therefore, in the low water conductivity condition (tap water), the CCCS system with the OAWKE fusion algorithm can dynamically estimate the real-time full range water holdup of oil-water two-phase flow, which has prospects in the petroleum industry.

  4. Characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and pAmpC beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae of water samples in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Leila; Jouini, Ahlem; Alonso, Carla Andrea; Klibi, Naouel; Dziri, Raoudha; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Ben Slama, Karim; Torres, Carmen

    2016-04-15

    The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and plasmid-mediated AmpC beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-Eb and pAmpC-Eb, respectively) was analyzed in 57 wastewater and 57 surface-water samples in Tunisia. Twenty-four of the 57 wastewater samples (42.1%) and one of the 57 surface-water samples (1.7%, a river that received effluents of a wastewater-treatment-plant) contained ESBL-Eb or pAmpC-Eb; one ESBL/pAmpC-Eb per positive sample was further characterized. Beta-lactamase genes detected were as follows: blaCTX-M-1 (10 Escherichia coli),blaCTX-M-15 (eight E. coli, one Klebsiella pneumoniae, one Citrobacter freundii), blaCTX-M-14 (one E. coli) and blaCMY-2 (four E. coli). The blaTEM-1, blaOXA-1 or blaSHV-1 genes were also found in 72% of these isolates. The ISEcp1, orf477 or IS903 sequences were found upstream or downstream of blaCTX-M genes. Class 1 integrons were present in 16 of the 25 ESBL-Eb/pAmpC-Eb strains (64%), and contained five different gene-cassette arrays. Most of the strains (76%) showed a multiresistant phenotype and qnr genes were identified in four strains. Molecular typing of ESBL/CMY-2-producing E. coli isolates showed 23 different PFGE-patterns and 15 different sequence-types (ST10, ST46, ST48, ST58, ST69, ST101, ST117, ST131, ST141, ST288, ST359, ST399, ST405, ST617, and the new ST4530); these strains were ascribed to phylogroups A (11 isolates), B1 (3 isolates), D (6 isolates) and B2 (3 isolates). From one to five plasmids were detected in each strain (size from 30kb to >240kb) and ESBL or pAmpC genes were transferred by conjugation in 69.5% of the E. coli strains. In conclusion, ESBL-Eb and pAmpC-Eb strains are frequently detected in wastewater samples and they might be a source for dissemination in other environments with repercussion in public health.

  5. Using radiative transfer models to study the atmospheric water vapor content and to eliminate telluric lines from high-resolution optical spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Gardini, A; Pérez, E; Quesada, J A; Funke, B

    2012-01-01

    The Radiative Transfer Model (RTM) and the retrieval algorithm, incorporated in the SCIATRAN 2.2 software package developed at the Institute of Remote Sensing/Institute of Enviromental Physics of Bremen University (Germany), allows to simulate, among other things, radiance/irradiance spectra in the 2400-24 000 {\\AA} range. In this work we present applications of RTM to two case studies. In the first case the RTM was used to simulate direct solar irradiance spectra, with different water vapor amounts, for the study of the water vapor content in the atmosphere above Sierra Nevada Observatory. Simulated spectra were compared with those measured with a spectrometer operating in the 8000-10 000 {\\AA} range. In the second case the RTM was used to generate telluric model spectra to subtract the atmospheric contribution and correct high-resolution stellar spectra from atmospheric water vapor and oxygen lines. The results of both studies are discussed.

  6. Water Supply Intakes, County Line Meter - water is purchased from City of Savannah at Effingham/Chatham line, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Supply Intakes dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as...

  7. Water Pipelines, Major, wMains - major water lines are complete. subdivision lines are still being entered, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Pipelines, Major dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2010. It is described as...

  8. Comparison of corrosion scales in full and partially replaced lead service lines after changes in water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preliminary results from scales formed 38 weeks following the LSL replacement simulations revealed differences in scale formations amongst varying water qualities and pipe sequence. Rigs fed with dechlorinated tap water show distinct pH gradients between the galvanic and the back...

  9. Using an In Vitro Cell Line to Assess Source and Treated Drinking Water Extracts for Estrogenic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    While in vitro assays have been used to determine presence of estrogenic activity in many types of water, few studies have evaluated the potential estrogenic activity in source and treated drinking water samples. In a collaborative research study the U.S. Environmental Protection...

  10. Comparison of corrosion scales in full and partially replaced lead service lines after changes in water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preliminary results from scales formed 38 weeks following the LSL replacement simulations revealed differences in scale formations amongst varying water qualities and pipe sequence. Rigs fed with dechlorinated tap water show distinct pH gradients between the galvanic and the back...

  11. Accounting for subgroup structure in line-transect abundance estimates of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens in Hawaiian waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Bradford

    Full Text Available For biological populations that form aggregations (or clusters of individuals, cluster size is an important parameter in line-transect abundance estimation and should be accurately measured. Cluster size in cetaceans has traditionally been represented as the total number of individuals in a group, but group size may be underestimated if group members are spatially diffuse. Groups of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens can comprise numerous subgroups that are dispersed over tens of kilometers, leading to a spatial mismatch between a detected group and the theoretical framework of line-transect analysis. Three stocks of false killer whales are found within the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone of the Hawaiian Islands (Hawaiian EEZ: an insular main Hawaiian Islands stock, a pelagic stock, and a Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI stock. A ship-based line-transect survey of the Hawaiian EEZ was conducted in the summer and fall of 2010, resulting in six systematic-effort visual sightings of pelagic (n = 5 and NWHI (n = 1 false killer whale groups. The maximum number and spatial extent of subgroups per sighting was 18 subgroups and 35 km, respectively. These sightings were combined with data from similar previous surveys and analyzed within the conventional line-transect estimation framework. The detection function, mean cluster size, and encounter rate were estimated separately to appropriately incorporate data collected using different methods. Unlike previous line-transect analyses of cetaceans, subgroups were treated as the analytical cluster instead of groups because subgroups better conform to the specifications of line-transect theory. Bootstrap values (n = 5,000 of the line-transect parameters were randomly combined to estimate the variance of stock-specific abundance estimates. Hawai'i pelagic and NWHI false killer whales were estimated to number 1,552 (CV = 0.66; 95% CI = 479-5,030 and 552 (CV = 1.09; 95% CI = 97

  12. CORA: Emission Line Fitting with Maximum Likelihood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Jan-Uwe; Wichmann, Rainer

    2011-12-01

    CORA analyzes emission line spectra with low count numbers and fits them to a line using the maximum likelihood technique. CORA uses a rigorous application of Poisson statistics. From the assumption of Poissonian noise, the software derives the probability for a model of the emission line spectrum to represent the measured spectrum. The likelihood function is used as a criterion for optimizing the parameters of the theoretical spectrum and a fixed point equation is derived allowing an efficient way to obtain line fluxes. CORA has been applied to an X-ray spectrum with the Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS) on board the Chandra observatory.

  13. Record extension for short-gauged water quality parameters using a newly proposed robust version of the Line of Organic Correlation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Khalil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In many situations the extension of hydrological or water quality time series at short-gauged stations is required. Ordinary least squares regression (OLS of any hydrological or water quality variable is a traditional and commonly used record extension technique. However, OLS tends to underestimate the variance in the extended records, which leads to underestimation of high percentiles and overestimation of low percentiles, given that the data are normally distributed. The development of the line of organic correlation (LOC technique is aimed at correcting this bias. On the other hand, the Kendall-Theil robust line (KTRL method has been proposed as an analogue of OLS with the advantage of being robust in the presence of outliers. Given that water quality data are characterised by the presence of outliers, positive skewness and non-normal distribution of data, a robust record extension technique is more appropriate. In this paper, four record-extension techniques are described, and their properties are explored. These techniques are OLS, LOC, KTRL and a new technique proposed in this paper, the robust line of organic correlation technique (RLOC. RLOC includes the advantage of the LOC in reducing the bias in estimating the variance, but at the same time it is also robust in the presence of outliers. A Monte Carlo study and empirical experiment were conducted to examine the four techniques for the accuracy and precision of the estimate of statistical moments and over the full range of percentiles. Results of the Monte Carlo study showed that the OLS and KTRL techniques have serious deficiencies as record-extension techniques, while the LOC and RLOC techniques are nearly similar. However, RLOC outperforms OLS, KTRL and LOC when using real water quality records.

  14. Record extension for short-gauged water quality parameters using a newly proposed robust version of the line of organic correlation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Khalil

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In many situations the extension of hydrological or water quality time series at short-gauged stations is required. Ordinary least squares regression (OLS of any hydrological or water quality variable is a traditional and commonly used record extension technique. However, OLS tends to underestimate the variance in the extended records, which leads to underestimation of high percentiles and overestimation of low percentiles, given that the data is normally distributed. The development of the line of organic correlation (LOC technique is aimed at correcting this bias. On the other hand, the Kendall-Theil robust line (KTRL method has been proposed as an analogue of OLS with the advantage of being robust in the presence of outliers. Given that water quality data are characterised by the presence of outliers, positive skewness and non-normal distribution of data, a robust record extension technique is more appropriate. In this paper, four record-extension techniques are described, and their properties are explored. These techniques are OLS, LOC, KTRL and a new technique proposed in this paper, the robust line of organic correlation technique (RLOC. RLOC includes the advantage of the LOC in reducing the bias in estimating the variance, but at the same time it is also robust to the presence of outliers. A Monte Carlo study and empirical experiment were conducted to examine the four techniques for the accuracy and precision of the estimate of statistical moments and over the full range of percentiles. Results of the Monte Carlo study showed that the OLS and KTRL techniques have serious deficiencies as record-extension techniques, while the LOC and RLOC techniques are nearly similar. However, RLOC outperforms OLS, KTRL and LOC when using real water quality records.

  15. Fission Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, F.; Staub, H.

    1943-08-18

    Measurements of the spectrum of the fission neutrons of 25 are described, in which the energy of the neutrons is determined from the ionization produced by individual hydrogen recoils. The slow neutrons producing fission are obtained by slowing down the fast neutrons from the Be-D reaction of the Stanford cyclotron. In order to distinguish between fission neutrons and the remaining fast cyclotron neutrons both the cyclotron current and the pusle amplifier are modulated. A hollow neutron container, in which slow neutrons have a lifetime of about 2 milliseconds, avoids the use of large distances. This method results in much higher intensities than the usual modulation arrangement. The results show a continuous distribution of neutrons with a rather wide maximum at about 0.8 MV falling off to half of its maximum value at 2.0 MV. The total number of netrons is determined by comparison with the number of fission fragments. The result seems to indicate that only about 30% of the neutrons have energies below .8 MV. Various tests are described which were performed in order to rule out modification of the spectrum by inelastic scattering. Decl. May 4, 1951

  16. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafodatskaya, Daria; Chung, Brian; Szatmari, Peter; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Current research suggests that the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are multifactorial and include both genetic and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence suggest that epigenetics also plays an important role in ASD etiology and that it might, in fact, integrate genetic and environmental influences to dysregulate…

  17. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Epigenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafodatskaya, Daria; Chung, Brian; Szatmari, Peter; Weksberg, Rosanna

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Current research suggests that the causes of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are multifactorial and include both genetic and environmental factors. Several lines of evidence suggest that epigenetics also plays an important role in ASD etiology and that it might, in fact, integrate genetic and environmental influences to dysregulate…

  18. Low Contribution of PbO2-Coated Lead Service Lines to Water Lead Contamination at the Tap

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine if field experience corroborates that formation of stable PbO2 coatings on lead service lines (LSLs) provides an effective lead contamination control strategy, lead profile sampling was undertaken at eight home kitchen taps in three US cities (Newport, Rhode Island; ...

  19. 南水北调中线工程水源区水土流失估算%Evaluating Water Source Reserve of South-to-North Water Diversion Center Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雯; 杨爱荣; 蒋国富

    2011-01-01

    立足南水北调中线水源区独特的地理概况和水土流失的特征,利用GIS对空间数据处理和数值分析方法来估算当地的土壤侵蚀量.确定研究区域内土壤侵蚀量的各种不同等级,最终达到对水源区水土流失估算的目的,为南水北调中线工程水源区水土保持提供较为可靠的信息资源.%Based on the geography survey and the traits of soil erosion of south-to-north water diversion center line water source reserve, the article makes use of GIS to deal with spacial data and data analysis in order to evaluate local soil erosion situation, and make sure different classifications of it and at the end reach the aim of evaluating the water source reserve situation. To provide reliable information source for protecting the water source reserve of south-to-north water diversion center line.

  20. Evidence for Alteration in Chemical and Physical Properties of Water and Modulation of its Biological Functions by Sunlight Transmitted through Color Ranges of the Visible Spectrum-A Novel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajeswara Rao

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the changes in the properties of water when exposed to sunlight for 40 days. We hypothesize and prove that solar irradiation to water entraps electromagnetic radiation as potential energy, which becomes kinetic energy in various systems. It is postulated that photochemically-induced energy transfers, associated with individual spectral emission of visible spectrum of solar light, exert diverse influences on biological systems. Bottles of distilled water, individually wrapped in spectral-colored cellophane were exposed to sunlight and compared to an unwrapped bottle to determine chemical and physical changes as well as modifications of biological properties. Each bottle of water was named according to the color of cellophane paper with letter E (stands for exposed as a prefix with (E-violet, E-indigo, E-blue, E-green, E-yellow, E-orange, and Ered. E-control (without wrap was exposed to polychromatic sunlight. This study addresses two main issues viz., the chemical and physical changes in E-water and its effect on biological activities. Chemical and physical composition analysis using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry; physical conductance by a Wheatstone Bridge type conductivity meter; osmolarity by a vapor pressure osmometer; and, salt solubility profile of 10% sodium bicarbonate were determined. Furthermore, testing the effect of E-waters on human lymphocyte proliferation, mosquito larvae hatching and seed germination determined the functional role of solar radiation through specific spectrum/s of visible light on various biological processes. We found that water exposed to visible spectral emissions of sunlight had an altered elemental composition, electrical conductance, osmolarity and salt-solubility, as well as differences in bio-modulatory effects. A gradual increase in leaching of Boron from Eviolet to E-red was noted. E-indigo showed maximal increase in electrical conductance and maximal salt

  1. In line monitoring of the preparation of water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) type multiple emulsions via dielectric spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Sebastian; Dobler, Dorota; Gross, Alexander; Ost, Martin; Elseberg, Christiane; Maeder, Ulf; Schmidts, Thomas Michael; Keusgen, Michael; Fiebich, Martin; Runkel, Frank

    2013-01-30

    Multiple emulsions offer various applications in a wide range of fields such as pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food technology. Two features are known to yield a great influence on multiple emulsion quality and utility as encapsulation efficiency and prolonged stability. To achieve a prolonged stability, the production of the emulsions has to be observed and controlled, preferably in line. In line measurements provide available parameters in a short time frame without the need for the sample to be removed from the process stream, thereby enabling continuous process control. In this study, information about the physical state of multiple emulsions obtained from dielectric spectroscopy (DS) is evaluated for this purpose. Results from dielectric measurements performed in line during the production cycle are compared to theoretically expected results and to well established off line measurements. Thus, a first step to include the production of multiple emulsions into the process analytical technology (PAT) guidelines of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is achieved. DS proved to be beneficial in determining the crucial stopping criterion, which is essential in the production of multiple emulsions. The stopping of the process at a less-than-ideal point can severely lower the encapsulation efficiency and the stability, thereby lowering the quality of the emulsion. DS is also expected to provide further information about the multiple emulsion like encapsulation efficiency.

  2. New on-line method for water isotope analysis of fluid inclusions in speleothems using laser absorption spectroscopy: Application to stalagmites from Borneo and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, Stéphane; Fleitmann, Dominik; Nele Meckler, Anna; Leuenberger, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Speleothems are recognised as key continental archives for paleoclimate reconstructions. They contain fluid inclusions representing past drip water trapped in the calcite structure. Speleothem can be precisely dated and therefore the oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δD) isotopes of fluid inclusions constitute powerful proxies for paleotemperature or to investigate changes in the moisture source over several interglacial-glacial cycles. To liberate fluid inclusion water and to analyse its isotopic composition, a new online extraction method developed at Bern is used. The principle can be summarised as follows: Prior to crushing, the sample is placed into a copper tube, fixed to the line previously heated to 140° C and flushed with a nitrogen and standard water mixture. Thereafter, the speleothem sample is crushed using a simple hydraulic crushing device and the released water from fluid inclusions is transferred by the nitrogen-standard water mixture flow to a Picarro L1102-i isotopic liquid water and water vapor analyser. The measuring principle is based on wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) technology that allows us to simultaneously monitor hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. Reproducibility of standard water measurements is typically better than 1.5 o for δD and 0.4 o for δ18O. With this method, we successfully analysed δD and δ18O isotopic composition of a stalagmite from Northern Borneo (tropical West Pacific) covering almost two glacial-interglacial cycles from MIS 12 to early MIS 9 (460-330 ka) as well as recent samples from Switzerland and Borneo. These results are used in combination with calcite δ18O to reconstruct paleotemperature. Currently, we are measuring a stalagmite from Milandre cave (Jura, Switzerland) covering the Bølling-Allerød, Younger Dryas cold phase and the Holocene.

  3. The features of the use of GIS technologies for monitoring of the situation of main water lines in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Gojamanov

    2014-11-01

    a comprehensive attract the materials of the aerospace sensing and GIS technologies. In this paper describe the work experience and are the results of monitoring of pipelines of water supply in Azerbaijan.

  4. In-Line Measurement of Water Contents in Ethanol Using a Zeolite-Coated Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung Chul Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM was utilized to measure the water content in ethanol. For the improvement of measurement sensitivity, the QCM was modified by applying zeolite particles on the surface with poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA binder. The measurement performance was examined with ethanol of 1% to 5% water content in circulation. The experimental results showed that the frequency drop of the QCM was related with the water content though there was some deviation. The sensitivity of the zeolite-coated QCM was sufficient to be implemented in water content determination, and a higher ratio of silicon to aluminum in the molecular structure of the zeolite gave better performance. The coated surface was inspected by microscopy to show the distribution of zeolite particles and PMMA spread.

  5. Water Pipelines, Major, Line layer indicating water pipelines., Published in 1990, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Pitt County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Water Pipelines, Major dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 1990. It is described as...

  6. Hydrogen Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The series of absorption or emission lines that are characteristic of the hydrogen atom. According to the Bohr theory of the hydrogen atom, devised by Danish physicist Neils Bohr (1885-1962) in 1913, the hydrogen atom can be envisaged as consisting of a central nucleus (a proton) around which a single electron revolves. The electron is located in one of a number of possible permitted orbits, each...

  7. The challenge of global water access monitoring: evaluating straight-line distance versus self-reported travel time among rural households in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Jeff C; Russel, Kory C; Davis, Jennifer

    2014-03-01

    Support is growing for the incorporation of fetching time and/or distance considerations in the definition of access to improved water supply used for global monitoring. Current efforts typically rely on self-reported distance and/or travel time data that have been shown to be unreliable. To date, however, there has been no head-to-head comparison of such indicators with other possible distance/time metrics. This study provides such a comparison. We examine the association between both straight-line distance and self-reported one-way travel time with measured route distances to water sources for 1,103 households in Nampula province, Mozambique. We find straight-line, or Euclidean, distance to be a good proxy for route distance (R(2) = 0.98), while self-reported travel time is a poor proxy (R(2) = 0.12). We also apply a variety of time- and distance-based indicators proposed in the literature to our sample data, finding that the share of households classified as having versus lacking access would differ by more than 70 percentage points depending on the particular indicator employed. This work highlights the importance of the ongoing debate regarding valid, reliable, and feasible strategies for monitoring progress in the provision of improved water supply services.

  8. Stresses and Displacements in Steel-Lined Pressure Tunnels and Shafts in Anisotropic Rock Under Quasi-Static Internal Water Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachoud, Alexandre J.; Schleiss, Anton J.

    2016-04-01

    Steel-lined pressure tunnels and shafts are constructed to convey water from reservoirs to hydroelectric power plants. They are multilayer structures made of a steel liner, a cracked backfill concrete layer, a cracked or loosened near-field rock zone and a sound far-field rock zone. Designers often assume isotropic behavior of the far-field rock, considering the most unfavorable rock mass elastic modulus measured in situ, and a quasi-static internal water pressure. Such a conventional model is thus axisymmetrical and has an analytical solution for stresses and displacements. However, rock masses often have an anisotropic behavior and such isotropic assumption is usually conservative in terms of quasi-static maximum stresses in the steel liner. In this work, the stresses and displacements in steel-lined pressure tunnels and shafts in anisotropic rock mass are studied by means of the finite element method. A quasi-static internal water pressure is considered. The materials are considered linear elastic, and tied contact is assumed between the layers. The constitutive models used for the rock mass and the cracked layers are presented and the practical ranges of variation of the parameters are discussed. An extensive systematic parametric study is performed and stresses and displacements in the steel liner and in the far-field rock mass are presented. Finally, correction factors are derived to be included in the axisymmetrical solution which allow a rapid estimate of the maximum stresses in the steel liners of pressure tunnels and shafts in anisotropic rock.

  9. Real-time Dynamic Spectrum Management in OFDM-based High-data Rate Narrowband Power Line Communications%高速窄带OFDM电力线通信实时动态频谱分配

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张童飞; 郭静波

    2014-01-01

    A lot of challenges have to be solved in implementation of dynamic spectrum management (DSM) such as allocation strategy and the related real time algorithm, and yet there is no such work reported publicly. Architecture of an actual orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based high data rate narrowband power line communication (HDR NB PLC) system was defined and designed, and a novel strategy of DSM and the related real time algorithm suitable for the system was proposed. Under a given dimension of modulation, the algorithm partitioned the subcarriers, sorted them in power order,chose the available group, and finally determined the best modulation scheme and optimally allocated the power according to the rate maximization criteria. Comparing to the typical Hughes-Hartogs algorithm, the proposed algorithm has lower computational complexity and less signaling overhead. Comparing with conventional constant power allocation, the algorithm has a better performance of bit error rate. Simulation and experimental results verified the effectiveness and advantages of the algorithm.%动态频谱分配应用于实际电力线通信系统面临分配策略、实时算法等诸多挑战,到目前为止还未见有公开报道。定义并设计了一个实际的基于正交频分复用(orthogonal frequency division multiplexing,OFDM)的高速窄带电力线通信系统构架,并提出一种适用于该系统的动态频谱分配策略和对应的实时实现算法。该算法在任一种调制方式下将子载波进行分组,并对各个子载波组的功率进行排序,选择可用的子载波组,根据速率最大化准则确定最优的调制方式并分配功率。该算法与 Hughes-Hartogs 算法相比,具有较低的运算复杂度和较少的信令开销,与传统的等功率分配方式相比,误码性能更好。仿真结果和实验结果证明了该算法的有效性和优越性。

  10. [Disinfection and degradation of 2,4-DCP with UV-radiation and on-line ozone in drinking water treatmeant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaomin; Song, Qiang; Hu, Chun; Wang, Yizhong; Qu, Jiuhui

    2002-09-01

    A type reactor with on-line O3 was used to do further research of the disinfection of total bacteria, E. coli and degradation of 2,4-DCP. The result was obtained in the following conditions. Only UV-radiation, O3 applied by other machine and by the reactor itself, and other conditions were changed to study the disinfection and degradation. The result showed the satisfied effect of disinfection and degradation would be achieved by using UV/O3 applied outside and when the flow rate was about 400 L.h-1, on-line O3 could be produced and make high efforts to enhance disinfection and degradation. The method of UV/O3 was a promising technology in the treatment of drinking water.

  11. An in-situ Observation on Initial Aggregation Process of Colloidal Particles near Three-Phase Contact Line of Air, Water and Vertical Substrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Can; WANG Yu-Ren; LAN Ding; DUAN Li; KANG Qi

    2008-01-01

    The self-assembling process near the three-phase contact line of air, water and vertical substrate is widely used to produce various kinds of nanostructured materials and devices. We perform an in-situ observation on the selfassembling process in the vicinity of the three phase contact line. Three kinds of aggregations, i.e. particle-particle aggregation, particle-chain aggregation and chain-chain aggregation, in the initial stage of vertical deposition process are revealed by our experiments. It is found that the particle-particle aggregation and the particle-chain aggregation can be qualitatively explained by the theory of the capillary immersion force and mirror image force,while the chain-chain aggregation leaves an opening question for the further studies. The present study may provide more deep insight into the self-assembling process of colloidal particles.

  12. Comparison of quarter-hourly on-line dynamic headspace analysis to purge-and-trap analysis of varying volatile organic compounds in drinking water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnable, J G; Dussert, B; Suffet, I H; Hertz, C D

    1990-07-27

    On-line dynamic headspace analysis was refined for the quarter-hourly monitoring of select volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ground and surface waters, for extended periods of time. Hourly comparisons were made to on-line purge-and-trap analysis, and to purge-and-trap analysis after sample preservation and storage. Variations in VOC concentrations of 6047% biweekly, 222% daily, 97% hourly, and 35% quarter-hourly were observable, with the 15-min cycle of the dynamic headspace analysis. The headspace analyzer had superior retention time stability, required less maintenance, and had 1/4 the analysis time as a typical purge-and-trap-gas chromatograph system used for hourly comparisons.

  13. The Cu II Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kramida

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available New wavelength measurements in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, ultraviolet and visible spectral regions have been combined with available literature data to refine and extend the description of the spectrum of singly ionized copper (Cu II. In the VUV region, we measured 401 lines using a concave grating spectrograph and photographic plates. In the UV and visible regions, we measured 276 lines using a Fourier-transform spectrometer. These new measurements were combined with previously unpublished data from the thesis of Ross, with accurate VUV grating measurements of Kaufman and Ward, and with less accurate older measurements of Shenstone to construct a comprehensive list of ≈2440 observed lines, from which we derived a revised set of 379 optimized energy levels, complemented with 89 additional levels obtained using series formulas. Among the 379 experimental levels, 29 are new. Intensities of all lines observed in different experiments have been reduced to the same uniform scale by using newly calculated transition probabilities (A-values. We combined our calculations with published measured and calculated A-values to provide a set of 555 critically evaluated transition probabilities with estimated uncertainties, 162 of which are less than 20%.

  14. On-line micro-volume introduction system developed for lower density than water extraction solvent and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthemidis, Aristidis N., E-mail: anthemid@chem.auth.gr [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece); Mitani, Constantina; Balkatzopoulou, Paschalia; Tzanavaras, Paraskevas D. [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)

    2012-07-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction method for lead and copper determination. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A micro-volume transportation system for extractant solvent lighter than water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analysis of natural water samples. - Abstract: A simple and fast preconcentration/separation dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction (DLLME) method for metal determination based on the use of extraction solvent with lower density than water has been developed. For this purpose a novel micro-volume introduction system was developed enabling the on-line injection of the organic solvent into flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed system were demonstrated for lead and copper preconcentration in environmental water samples using di-isobutyl ketone (DBIK) as extraction solvent. Under the optimum conditions the enhancement factor for lead and copper was 187 and 310 respectively. For a sample volume of 10 mL, the detection limit (3 s) and the relative standard deviation were 1.2 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 3.3% for lead and 0.12 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 2.9% for copper respectively. The developed method was evaluated by analyzing certified reference material and it was applied successfully to the analysis of environmental water samples.

  15. Chemical and radiative transfer modeling of the ISO-LWS Fabry-Perot spectra of Orion-KL water line

    CERN Document Server

    Lerate, M R; Barlow, M J; Viti, S; Swinyard, B M

    2010-01-01

    We present chemical and radiative transfer models for the many far-IR ortho- and para-H$_{2}$O lines that were observed from the Orion-KL region in high resolution Fabry-Perot (FP) mode by the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) on board the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). The chemistry of the region was first studied by simulating the conditions in the different known components of Orion-KL: chemical models for a hot core, a plateau and a ridge were coupled with an accelerated Lambda$-iteration (ALI) radiative transfer model to predict H$_2$O line fluxes and profiles. Our models include the first 45 energy levels of ortho- and para-H$_{2}$O. We find that lines arising from energy levels below 560 K were best reproduced by a gas of density 3$\\times10^{5}$ cm$^{-3}$ at a temperature of 70-90 K, expanding at a velocity of 30 km s$^{-1}$ and with a H$_{2}$O/H$_{2}$ abundance ratio of the order of 2 - 3 $\\times$ 10$^{-5}$, similar to the abundance derived by Cernicharo et al. (2006). However, the model that best...

  16. An opacity-sampled treatment of water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David R.; Augason, Gordon C.; Johnson, Hollis R.

    1989-01-01

    Although the bands of H2O are strong in the spectra of cool stars and calculations have repeatedly demonstrated their significance as opacity sources, only approximate opacities are currently available, due both to the difficulty of accounting for the millions of lines involved and to the inadequacy of laboratory and theoretical data. To overcome these obstacles, a new treatment is presented, based upon a statistical representation of the water vapor spectrum derived from available laboratory data. This statistical spectrum of water vapor employs an exponential distribution of line strengths and random positions of lines whose overall properties are forced to reproduce the mean opacities observed in the laboratory. The resultant data set is then treated by the opacity-sampling method exactly as are all other lines, both molecular and atomic. Significant differences are found between the results of this improved treatment and the results obtained with previous treatments of water-vapor opacity.

  17. Organic extract contaminants from drinking water activate Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response in a human cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu; Zhang, Hao; Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Andersen, Melvin E; Pi, Jingbo; He, Gengsheng; Qu, Weidong

    2013-05-07

    Traditional risk assessment methods face challenges in estimating risks from drinking waters that contain low-levels of large numbers of contaminants. Here, we evaluate the toxicity of organic contaminant (OC) extracts from drinking water by examining activation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant response. In HepG2 cells, the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response-measured as Nrf2 protein accumulation, expression of antioxidant response element (ARE)-regulated genes and ARE-luciferase reporter gene assays were activated by OC extracts from drinking water sources that detected 25 compounds in 9 classification groups. Individual OCs induced oxidative stress at concentrations much higher than their environmental levels; however, mixtures of contaminants induced oxidative stress response at only 8 times the environmental levels. Additionally, a synthetic OC mixture prepared based on the contamination profiling of drinking water induced ARE activity to the same extent as the real-world mixture, reinforcing our conclusion that these mixture exposures produce responses relevant for human exposure situations. Our study tested the possibility of assessing toxicity of OCs of drinking water using a specific ARE-pathway measurement. This approach should be broadly useful in assisting risk assessment of mixed environmental exposure.

  18. The Use of MIMS-MS-MS in field locations as an on-line quantitative environmental monitoring technique for trace contaminants in air and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzkorn, J M; Davey, N G; Thompson, A J; Creba, A S; Leblanc, C W; Simpson, C D; Krogh, E T; Gill, C G

    2009-01-01

    Membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) is emerging as an important technique for on-line, real-time environmental monitoring. Because MIMS interfaces are simple and robust, they are ideally suited for operation in MS instrumentation used for in-field applications. We report the use of an on-line permeation tube to continuously infuse an isotopically labeled internal standard for continuous quantitative determinations in atmospheric and aqueous samples without the need for off-line calibration. This approach also provides important information on the operational performance of the analytical system during multi-day deployments. We report measured signal stability during on-line deployments in air and water of 7% based on variation of the internal standard response and have used this technique to quantify BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzenes, and xylenes), pinenes, naphthalene and 2-methoxyphenol (guaiacol) in urban air plumes at parts-per-billion by volume levels. Presented are several recent applications of MIMS-MS-MS for on-line environmental monitoring in atmospheric and aqueous environmental samples demonstrating laboratory, remote and mobile deployments. We also present the use of a thermally assisted MIMS interface for the direct measurement of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, and other SVOCs in the low ppb range in aqueous environmental samples and discuss improvements in both the sensitivity and response times for selected SVOCs. The work presented in this paper represents significant improvements in field deployable mass spectrometric techniques, which can be applied to direct on-site analytical measurements of VOC and SVOCs in environmental samples.

  19. Fate of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli from Faecal Sources in Surface Water and Probability of Human Exposure through Swimming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijven, Jack F; Blaak, Hetty; Schets, Franciska M; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the fate of ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) emitted from faecal sources in surface water, and the probability of human exposure through swimming. Concentrations of ESBL-EC were measured in recreational waters and in source waters, being water in ditc

  20. Application of Neural Network in the Measuring System On-line for Water Content of Crude Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengrong Zhao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to introduce a new way to measure the water content of Crude Oil. In this measurement system, capacitive sensor is used as sensitive element and BP neural network model is adopted to deal with data. Water content and temperature are used as input parameters to set up BP neural network model. By MATLAB simulation, a moisture content of crude oil is forecasted, so that the influence comes from temperature variation is compensated and the accuracy of the measurement result is improved.

  1. Sound spectrum of a pulsating optical discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grachev, G N; Smirnov, A L; Tishchenko, V N [Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Dmitriev, A K; Miroshnichenko, I B [Novosibirsk State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-28

    A spectrum of sound of an optical discharge generated by a repetitively pulsed (RP) laser radiation has been investigated. The parameters of laser radiation are determined at which the spectrum of sound may contains either many lines, or the main line at the pulse repetition rate and several weaker overtones, or a single line. The spectrum of sound produced by trains of RP radiation comprises the line (and overtones) at the repetition rate of train sequences and the line at the repetition rate of pulses in trains. A CO{sub 2} laser with the pulse repetition rate of f ≈ 3 – 180 kHz and the average power of up to 2 W was used in the experiments. (optical discharges)

  2. Food Waste to Energy: How Six Water Resource Recovery Facilities are Boosting Biogas Production and the Bottom Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRFs) with anaerobic digestion have been harnessing biogas for heat and power since at least the 1920’s. A few are approaching “energy neutrality” and some are becoming “energy positive” through a combination of energy efficiency measures and...

  3. Food Waste to Energy: How Six Water Resource Recovery Facilities are Boosting Biogas Production and the Bottom Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Resource Recovery Facilities (WRRFs) with anaerobic digestion have been harnessing biogas for heat and power since at least the 1920’s. A few are approaching “energy neutrality” and some are becoming “energy positive” through a combination of energy efficiency measures and...

  4. Relative humidity effects on water vapour fluxes measured with closed-path eddy-covariance systems with short sampling lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratini, Gerardo; Ibrom, Andreas; Arriga, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    and correction method proposed here is deemed applicable to closed-path systems featuring a broad range of sampling lines, and indeed applicable also to passive gases as a special case. The methods described in this paper are incorporated, as processing options, in the free and open-source eddy......, a composite of two existing approaches, for correcting eddy-covariance fluxes. By means of a comparison with parallel open-path measurements, we show that the mixed method leads to an improved estimation of latent heat fluxes, with respect to the method described by Ibrom et al. (2007). The quantification......-covariance software packages ECO2S and EddyPro....

  5. Spectrum Trading for Efficient Spectrum Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Xiong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The conventional command and control based spectrum management has led to substantial underutilization of some spectrum bands while severely crowding others due to the uneven and dynamic needs that vary over time and at different locations. Spectrum trading has emerged as a promising management approach to substantially improve spectrum utilization and user experience in wireless communications by taking advantage of market-based mechanisms. This article presents an overview of spectrum trading, including the fundamental characteristics of spectrum trading markets, the state-of-the-art techniques for modeling and resolving various spectrum trading issues, and trading based dynamic spectrum sharing and access. Moreover, some open issues in spectrum trading are identified for future research in this area.

  6. Source Water Management for Disinfection By-Product Control using New York City's Operations Support Tool and On-Line Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W. J.; Becker, W.; Schindler, S.

    2012-12-01

    simulation model (OASIS, HydroLogics, Inc.), reservoir water quality models, a near real-time monitoring network, and hydrologic forecasts to provide analytical support for both long-term planning and near-term operations. The OST helps managers and operators balance multiple objectives, including water supply reliability, water quality, and environmental and community release objectives. This paper will describe the results of initial testing to evaluate the potential to reduce DBP levels by managing source water withdrawals to minimize the transport of natural organic matter (NOM) precursors from upper reservoirs. Operating rules were developed that take advantage of selective withdrawal capabilities at some upstate reservoirs and the inherent flexibility of the overall water supply system, seeking to minimize DBPs within the larger framework of water supply, water quality, environmental, and regulatory objectives. The results demonstrated that there is substantial flexibility within the system to manage DBP levels, in some cases providing the potential for reductions of DBP precursors of nearly 10%. Additional research is underway that seeks to better understand the sources of natural organic matter in the NYC watershed to provide guidance for on-line monitoring to be used with the OST to support real-time operation support for DBP control.

  7. Ultraviolet vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometric determination of mercury in natural water with enrichment by on-line solid phase extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Deyuan; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Zhaohui; Zhao, Liqian; Liu, Jixin; Ye, Jianping; Li, Junwei; Zheng, Fengxi

    2013-10-01

    A novel method, which coupled an on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) enrichment with ultraviolet vapor generation (UVG) atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), was developed to improve the sensitivity of mercury determination and to remove the interference of some anion and organics to UVG of mercury. A high mercury retention efficiency and maximum exclusion of inorganic and organic matrix in water samples were achieved by using C18 SPE mini cartridge modified with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC). Fast and efficient elution from the cartridge was found by using L-cysteine mixing solution. Furthermore, through the investigation of different UV reactor designs, the most important factor was the structure of the reactor (which corresponded roughly to the photon flux) wherein the tubing was sintered into the UV lamp to give the highest UV generation efficiency. The second factor was the materials of the tubing (which roughly corresponded to the working wavelength). Synthetic quartz, characterized by the highest transparency at 185 nm, attained the highest UVG efficiency, suggesting that the most favorable wavelength for UVG was 185 nm. Under optimum conditions, the achievable detection limit (3σ) with sample loadings of 10.0 mL was 0.03 ng L- 1 and 0.08 ng L- 1 with different manifolds, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of Hg in tap water, river water and lake water samples.

  8. [Determination of estrogen residues in drinking water by on-line solid phase extraction based on sol-gel technique coupled with high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longfei; Su, Min; Shi, Xiaolei; Wang, Yana; Wang, Minmin; He, Jinxing

    2014-02-01

    A method for the determination of diethylstilbestrol (DES), hexestrol (HEX) and dienestrol (DS) residues in drinking water was established by on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The material synthesized on the base of sol-gel technology was employed as adsorbent. This material was prepared using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) as the functional monomer, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as the crosslinking agent, and acetic acid as the initiator. The synthesized adsorbent showed outstanding property for the estrogen extraction. The estrogen can be caught effectively from water samples and the extraction can be achieved rapidly. Some important parameters, such as pH of sample solution, eluent solvents, loading flow rate, which might influence extraction efficiency, were optimized. The results indicated that the limit of detection (S/N = 3) of the developed method could reach 0.07-0.13 microg/L under the conditions of pH 7.0 of sample solution, methanol and 1% (v/v) acetic acid aqueous solution as the eluent solvent and the loading flow rate of 2 mL/min. The recoveries of the three estrogens from the water samples at three spiked levels ranged from 82.31% to 99.43% with RSD of 1.61%-7.15%. The method was simple, rapid, and suitable to detect the trace residues of estrogens in drinking water.

  9. On the treatment of thermal cracks in lining concrete of water conveyance system of Three Gorges Project permanent ship locks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cong-feng; LIU De-fu; WANG Dong-dong; DUAN Ya-hui

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation was performed for repairing the different types of cracks appearing on the surface or inside the concrete lining at vadous depths. The mate-rial properties used in grouting and two methods for crack repair were discussed in details,and consequently reliable repair measures were proposed and implemented. It is a better choice to adopt the hole-drilling method for the relatively regular crack. The grouting pres-sure should not be too high and it is generally between 0.4~0.6 MPa. For the second time grouting, the pressure maybe increased to 0.8 MPa. Other method is the pasting nozzles method which is more suitable for irregular cracks such as cracks with intensive density and crossing cracks. Its grouting pressure is generally between 0.6~1.0 MPa. The in-situ tests in Three Gorges Project demonstrate favorably the feasibility and applicability of the proposed methods for crack repair within the lining concrete.

  10. Water in star forming regions with Herschel (WISH) III. Far-infrared cooling lines in low-mass young stellar objects

    CERN Document Server

    Karska, A; van Dishoeck, E F; Wampfler, S F; Kristensen, L E; Goicoechea, J R; Visser, R; Nisini, B; Garcia, I San-Jose; Bruderer, S; Sniady, P; Doty, S; Fedele, D; Yildiz, U A; Benz, A O; Bergin, E; Caselli, P; Herpin, F; Hogerheijde, M R; Johnstone, D; Jorgensen, J K; Liseau, R; Tafalla, M; van der Tak, F; Wyrowski, F

    2013-01-01

    (Abridged) Far-infrared Herschel-PACS spectra of 18 low-mass protostars of various luminosities and evolutionary stages are studied. We quantify their far-infrared line emission and the contribution of different atomic and molecular species to the gas cooling budget during protostellar evolution. We also determine the spatial extent of the emission and investigate the underlying excitation conditions. Most of the protostars in our sample show strong atomic and molecular far-infrared emission. Water is detected in 17 objects, including 5 Class I sources. The high-excitation H2O line at 63.3 micron is detected in 7 sources. CO transitions from J=14-13 up to 49-48 are found and show two distinct temperature components on Boltzmann diagrams with rotational temperatures of ~350 K and ~700 K. H2O has typical excitation temperatures of ~150 K. Emission from both Class 0 and I sources is usually spatially extended along the outflow direction but with a pattern depending on the species and the transition. The H2O line...

  11. An in-source stretched membrane inlet for on-line analysis of VOCs in water with single photon ionization TOFMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Keyong; Li, Fanglong; Chen, Wendong; Chen, Ping; Xie, Yuanyuan; Zhao, Wuduo; Hua, Lei; Pei, Kemei; Li, Haiyang

    2013-10-07

    An in-source, stretched, hollow fiber membrane (HFM) inlet has been developed to improve the sensitivity of on-line time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) with a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) lamp based single photon ionization (SPI) source for the direct analysis of liquid samples. A 2-cm HFM was stretched to 8 cm in length, and placed in the ion source and directly under the VUV lamp window with a distance of 15 mm. Compared with the conventional flow-through configuration under the same experimental conditions, the signal intensities of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), benzene, toluene and p-xylene were increased over 5-fold in magnitude, and the response time was shortened to one-third. The limits of detection (LOD) of MTBE, ETBE, benzene, toluene and p-xylene ranged from 0.25 to 1.3 μg L(-1) with a measurement time of 60 s, and three orders of linear range were obtained with correlation coefficients of 0.9972-0.9992. The present results suggest that the in-source stretched HFM is a simple and effective way to increase the sensitivity and shorten response time of the membrane inlet, and we believe that it will also be beneficial to other types of on-line mass spectrometer for the on-line analysis of VOCs in water with a VUV lamp based SPI ion source.

  12. Conditions for water ice lines and Mars-mass exomoons around accreting super-Jovian planets at 1 - 20 AU from Sun-like stars

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, René

    2015-01-01

    Exomoon detections might be feasible with NASA's Kepler or ESA's upcoming PLATO mission or the ground-based E-ELT. To use observational resources most efficiently we need to know where the largest, most easily detected moons can form. We explore the possibility of large exomoons by following the movement of water (H2O) ice lines in the accretion disks around young super-Jovian planets. We want to know how different heating sources in those disks affect the H2O ice lines. We simulate 2D rotationally symmetric accretion disks in hydrostatic equilibrium around super-Jovian exoplanets. The energy terms in our semi-analytical model -- (1) viscous heating, (2) planetary illumination, (3) accretional heating, and (4) stellar illumination -- are fed by precomputed planet evolution tracks. We consider planets accreting 1 to 12 Jupiter masses at distances between 1 and 20 AU to a Sun-like star. Accretion disks around Jupiter-mass planets closer than ~4.5 AU to Sun-like stars do not feature H2O ice lines, but the most m...

  13. Mid-IR spectra of Pre-Main Sequence Herbig stars: an explanation for the non-detections of water lines

    CERN Document Server

    Antonellini, S; Lahuis, F; Woitke, P; Thi, W -F; Meijerink, R; Aresu, G; Spaans, M; Güdel, M; Liebhart, A

    2016-01-01

    The mid-IR detection rate of water lines in disks around Herbig stars disks is about 5\\%, while it is around 50\\% for disks around TTauri stars. The reason for this is still unclear. In this study, we want to find an explanation for the different detection rates between low mass and high mass pre-main-sequence stars (PMSs) in the mid-IR regime. We run disk models with stellar parameters adjusted to spectral types B9 through M2, using the radiation thermo-chemical disk modeling code ProDiMo. We produce convolved spectra at the resolution of Spitzer IRS, JWST MIRI and VLT VISIR spectrographs. We apply random noise derived from typical Spitzer spectra for a direct comparison with observations. The strength of the mid-IR water lines correlates directly with the luminosity of the central star. We explored a small parameter space around a standard disk model, considering dust-to-gas mass ratio, disk gas mass, mixing coefficient for dust settling, flaring index, dust maximum size and size power law distribution inde...

  14. [Determination of trace and ultra-trace level bromate in water by large volume sample injection with enrichment column for on-line preconcentration coupled with ion chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; He, Qingqing; Yang, Lili; Hu, Enyu; Wang, Meifei

    2015-10-01

    A method for the determination of trace and ultra-trace level bromate in water by ion chromatography with large volume sample injection for on-line preconcentration was established. A high capacity Dionex IonPac AG23 guard column was simply used as the enrichment column instead of the loop for the preconcentration of bromate. High purity KOH solution used as eluent for gradient elution was on-line produced by an eluent generator automatically. The results showed that a good linear relationship of bromate was exhibited in the range of 0.05-51.2 μg/L (r ≥ 0.999 5), and the method detection limit was 0.01 μg/L. Compared with conventional sample injection, the injection volume was up to 5 mL, and the enrichment factor of this method was about 240 times. This method was successfully applied for several real samples of pure water which were purchased in the supermarket, and the recoveries of bromate were between 90%-100% with the RSDs (n = 6) of 2.1%-6.4% at two spiked levels. This method without pretreatment is simple, and of high accuracy and precision. The preconcentration can be achieved by large volume sample injection. It is suitable for the analysis of trace and ultra-trace level bromate.

  15. Determination of Aniline and Its Derivatives in Environmental Water by Capillary Electrophoresis with On-Line Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhi Sun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a simple, sensitive and environmentally benign method for the direct determination of aniline and its derivatives in environmental water samples by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE with field-enhanced sample injection. The parameters that influenced the enhancement and separation efficiencies were investigated. Surprisingly, under the optimized conditions, two linear ranges for the calibration plot, 1–50 ng/mL and 50–1000 ng/mL (R > 0.998, were obtained. The detection limit was in the range of 0.29–0.43 ng/mL. To eliminate the effect of the real sample matrix on the stacking efficiency, the standard addition method was applied to the analysis of water samples from local rivers.

  16. Air2Air{trademark} water-saving technology goes on line at PNM's San Juan station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    The US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory estimates that US power plant cooling towers evaporate a total of no less than three billion gallons of water each day. A new technology from SPX currently under test at Public Service of New Mexico's San Juan coal fired unit could provide a way of recovering some of this. 1 fig.

  17. On-line sequential injection dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction system for flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper and lead in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthemidis, Aristidis N; Ioannou, Kallirroy-Ioanna G

    2009-06-30

    A simple, sensitive and powerful on-line sequential injection (SI) dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) system was developed as an alternative approach for on-line metal preconcentration and separation, using extraction solvent at microlitre volume. The potentials of this novel schema, coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), were demonstrated for trace copper and lead determination in water samples. The stream of methanol (disperser solvent) containing 2.0% (v/v) xylene (extraction solvent) and 0.3% (m/v) ammonium diethyldithiophosphate (chelating agent) was merged on-line with the stream of sample (aqueous phase), resulting a cloudy mixture, which was consisted of fine droplets of the extraction solvent dispersed entirely into the aqueous phase. By this continuous process, metal chelating complexes were formed and extracted into the fine droplets of the extraction solvent. The hydrophobic droplets of organic phase were retained into a microcolumn packed with PTFE-turnings. A portion of 300 microL isobutylmethylketone was used for quantitative elution of the analytes, which transported directly to the nebulizer of FAAS. All the critical parameters of the system such as type of extraction solvent, flow-rate of disperser and sample, extraction time as well as the chemical parameters were studied. Under the optimum conditions the enhancement factor for copper and lead was 560 and 265, respectively. For copper, the detection limit and the precision (R.S.D.) were 0.04 microg L(-1) and 2.1% at 2.0 microg L(-1) Cu(II), respectively, while for lead were 0.54 microg L(-1) and 1.9% at 30.0 microg L(-1) Pb(II), respectively. The developed method was evaluated by analyzing certified reference material and applied successfully to the analysis of environmental water samples.

  18. Remote sensing with laser spectrum radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianhe; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong

    2016-10-01

    The unmanned airborne (UAV) laser spectrum radar has played a leading role in remote sensing because the transmitter and the receiver are together at laser spectrum radar. The advantages of the integrated transceiver laser spectrum radar is that it can be used in the oil and gas pipeline leak detection patrol line which needs the non-contact reflective detection. The UAV laser spectrum radar can patrol the line and specially detect the swept the area are now in no man's land because most of the oil and gas pipelines are in no man's land. It can save labor costs compared to the manned aircraft and ensure the safety of the pilots. The UAV laser spectrum radar can be also applied in the post disaster relief which detects the gas composition before the firefighters entering the scene of the rescue.

  19. Stochastic relaxation of the contact line of a water drop on a solid substrate subjected to white noise vibration: roles of hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettu, Srinivas; Chaudhury, Manoj K

    2010-06-01

    Relaxation of the three phase contact line of a sessile drop of water on a low energy surface is studied by subjecting it to a white noise vibration. While a spring force acts on the contact line whenever the contact angle deviates from its equilibrium value, it is opposed by hysteresis. The drop, therefore, remains pinned at a metastable state. With an appropriate amount of vibration, the drop can reach a global equilibrium state irrespective of its initial state, be it advanced or retreated. While the end state is free of hysteresis, the current study sheds light on the dynamics of relaxation that is analyzed in conjunction with a modified Langevin equation. Instead of exhibiting a smooth relaxation as predicted by the Langevin equation with a smooth background potential, stepwise relaxation is observed in most cases. These stepwise relaxations can be explained if the background potential is made slightly corrugated that signifies the existence of metastable states of a drop on a surface. The fluctuation of the displacement of the contact line is highly non-Gaussian. It is shown that an exponential distribution of the displacement fluctuation arises due to the nonlinear hysteresis term in the Langevin equation. The observations of stick-slip motion, the large time of relaxation, and the anomalous displacement fluctuation suggest that hysteresis is present during the relaxation process of the drop even though the final state reached by the drop is free of hysteresis. Finally, we compare the displacement fluctuations of the contact line on two different surfaces: a silicone rubber and a fluorocarbon monolayer. Although the displacement fluctuation is exponential in both cases, the later surface exhibits a greater variance of the distribution than the former plausibly due to differences in hysteresis. This result indicates that the fluctuation of displacement may be used as a tool to study the surface property of a low energy substrate.

  20. Spectrum Services 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, L.; Budavári, T.; Csabai, I.; Szalay, A. S.

    2008-10-01

    We present the Filter and Spectrum Services consisting of easy-to-use web applications and web services for searching, plotting and managing large collections of spectral energy distribution data and filter profiles as well as for performing various scientific operations on spectra in a unified framework. The services provide keyword search, advanced query forms and SQL query possibilities for selecting spectra or bandpass curves which may be retrieved in a variety of file formats including XML, VOTable and ASCII. All SDSS DR1-DR5 spectra had been loaded into a database as well as the entire 2dF catalog that adds up to more than 2.5 million SEDs of about a million spatial objects, but registered users can upload their own data making it available for the rest of the community and are free to modify or delete them at any time. Theoretical catalogs, such as the Bruzual-Charlot stochastic burst model spectrum library (100k spectra) and the BaSeL stellar library are also available. Scientific services allow building rest-frame composite spectra out of selected spectra; calculating synthetic magnitudes by convolving spectra with an arbitrary set of bandpass curves of optical instrument filters to generate simulated photometric catalogs on-the-fly; galactic extinction correction, fitting of the continuum using different set of templates (Bruzual-Charlot '03 templates, SDSS eigenspectra), line fitting. All scientific functionalities are available from the web user interface and via the SOAP web services for programmers. MySpectrum is a cross-platform version of the spectrum web service for setting up your own spectrum repository. It integrates into the main service allowing easy access to your data for the whole VO community. The main idea behind our web services is to move scientific functionalities physically close to the database in order to spare network bandwidth. This way scientists may do research without setting up expensive hardware, downloading large datasets