WorldWideScience

Sample records for water law science

  1. Water, law, science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  2. Is law science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolien MC Roos

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The question this contribution sets out to address is whether or not law can be regarded as a science. This notion is readily accepted by many, yet it is submitted that a proper theoretical justification for such an assumption is usually missing. The traditional primary sources of law, South African case law and legislation, distinguish between legal practice and legal science, but the basis of the distinction is not clear. However, an entire body of literature in the philosophy of science has developed around the question of when a discipline will amount to science. Various demarcation criteria proposed in the philosophy of science are considered. These include that science uses the scientific method, is susceptible to falsification, is puzzle-solving within a paradigm or renders beneficial results. None of these criteria offers a satisfactory solution to the problem. The proposition by a group of philosophers including Herman Dooyeweerd, Marinus Stafleu and DFM Strauss, that the answer to the demarcation question is to be found in modal abstraction, is then considered. Modal abstraction amounts to a consideration of reality (persons, things, theories and rules from one or more defined point(s of entry. It is an artificial and learnt manner of thinking as it approaches reality from the perspective of one of the modalities of being. For example, juridical abstraction would mean that a cow is considered as the object of someone's proprietary rights. An abstract idea of the cow's characteristics, from a juridical point of view, is formed and the rules of property law are applied. A number of South African legal philosophers, amongst others Van Zyl, Van der Vyver and LM du Plessis, have followed this approach. The South African legislature has also attempted to define the terms "science" and "research", mainly for funding purposes. These definitions are considered and the conclusion is that they do not provide the clear-cut answers one would expect

  3. Science without laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweber, Silvan S

    2009-01-01

    During the 1970s, something deeply consequential happened in the cultural, economic, and social relationships between science and technology. Paul Forman has proposed that the abrupt reversal of the culturally ascribed primacy in the science-technology relationship circa 1980 be taken as a demarcation of postmodernity from modernity. Modernity's most basic cultural presuppositions-the superiority of theory to practice, the elevation of the public over the private and that of the disinterested over the interested, and the belief that the means sanctify the ends-were ascribed to science. In postmodernity, science is subsumed under technology, and the status of technology relative to science reflects our pragmatic-utilitarian subordination of means to ends. These cultural changes have resonated with deep epistemological and ontological changes within the sciences themselves, and all these have manifested themselves in universities becoming entrepreneurial, and the consequences thereof. Science Without Laws insightfully illustrates some of the changes within the life and human sciences by analyzing the role played by model systems and case studies.

  4. General Laws and Centripetal Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagers Op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The large number of discoveries in the last few decades has caused a scientific crisis that is characterised by overspecialisation and compartmentalisation. To deal with this crisis, scientists look for integrating approaches, such as general laws and unifying theories. Representing what can be

  5. General Laws and Centripetal Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagers Op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The large number of discoveries in the last few decades has caused a scientific crisis that is characterised by overspecialisation and compartmentalisation. To deal with this crisis, scientists look for integrating approaches, such as general laws and unifying theories. Representing what can be cons

  6. Four basic laws in design science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Youbai

    2014-01-01

    A point on the distinction between design and science is given and the connotations of design science are discussed in the paper. Design should be understood as the first step of all human’s purposeful activity, which is a daily behavior for everyone. Four laws are summarized,which describe the basic patterns of design and are the constituents of design science. They are the law of design based on existed knowledge,law of in-completeness of design knowledge,law of design centered on new knowledge acquirement and law of competi-tiveness of design knowledge. The four basic laws show the knowledge essence of design. To enrich the existed knowledge,to make it convenient to be used,to teach designers with high intuition and inspiration in picking useful elements of existed knowledge and shaping competitive ideas and to have strong new knowledge acquire-ment facility are the basic conditions of good designs. Study of design science will promote the structure of tra-ditional engineering education. An important conclusion is derived that there will be no successful innovation without good design.

  7. On the Law Right of the Gas Water of Water Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shujun

    2007-01-01

    With the development of science and technology,there searches and application of water resources including the gas water have been constantly developed.Through an analysis on the flaws of the water right theory,and by executing reconstruction and renewal of the theory and system of water fight in modern society,the water right position of the gas water will be established,leading to the maturity of the whole law effectiveness and substantial results of water right.

  8. WATER LAW AND MODEL OF RESPONSIBLE WATER USAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Olegovitch Sivakov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As it is known, the water law regulates dynamic social relationships concerning study, usage and protection of water objects, as well as their transformation. The water law explicitly regulates water economic activities. The regulatory method of the water law has a mixed nature and thus is not distinctive. It predetermines in some cases equality and independence of subjects of relationships (water usage agreement and in other – power and submission (permissive nature of water usage. The aim of the publication is to promote scientific ideas about the fate of the water law in order to make a further polygonal and productive discussion in which the reader is invited to participate. Scientific novelty. In 2016 the monograph of D.O. Sivakov “Water law: dynamics, problems, perspectives: monograph” (second edition, reviewed and updated. Moscow: Stolitsa, 2016. 540 p. was published. In 2017 the author reconsidered some conclusions of his monograph and applied scientific achievements of theory of state and law in water sphere. In accordance with this, it is important to mention research of Petrov D.E. related to issues of differentiation and integration of structural formations of Russian legal system. The scientific novelty of the article includes the synthesis of ideas of the monograph and some achievements of theory of state and law. Methods of research. The author of the article relies on some collective and individual monographic studies in the sphere of theory of state and law, natural resource law, arctic law, financial law. Basic results of research. The author promotes the model of responsible water usage. This model shall be based not on the unstable balance of economic and environmental interests (which shall practically lead to the domination of economic interests, but on the obligatory combination of economic activities with technologies, ensuring maximal preservation of water resources. Responsible water usage shall mean a system of

  9. Truth, laws and the progress of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Dorato

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I analyze the difficult question of the truth of mature scientific theories by tackling the problem of the truth of laws. After introducing the main philosophical positions in the field of scientific realism, I discuss and then counter the two main arguments against realism, namely the pessimistic meta-induction and the abstract and idealized character of scientific laws. I conclude by defending the view that well-confirmed physical theories are true only relatively to certain values of the variables that appear in the laws.

  10. Newton's laws through a science adventure

    OpenAIRE

    Šuštar, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of my diploma thesis is to create a scientific adventure based on the Newton's laws. My aim has been to introduce this topic to the kids in elementary school as well as the general public. That is why the adventure will take place in the House of Experiments. The first part is dedicated to theory and various experiments, which lead to deeper understanding of the laws. I implemented experiments on rollerblades, such as free movement, movement with the help of springs which wer...

  11. Author: MC Roos IS LAW SCIENCE?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    2014-02-05

    Feb 5, 2014 ... society.9 Law is a product of custom, legislation and judicial development – it is a ... It is submitted that legal theory will benefit from and indeed requires the .... National Coalition for Gay and Lesbian Equality v Minister of Justice 1999 ...... marriage is concluded between a man and a woman, which led to the ...

  12. African Journals Online: Political Science & Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 18 of 18 ... La Revue sollicite des contributions, en anglais et en français, aussi bien d' ... The Haramaya Law Review (HLR) publishes original scholarly ... International Journal of Community Research (IJCR) [ISSN: 2315 .... and Jurisprudence (JILJ) is a scholarly, online/print, open access, .... OTHER RESOURCES.

  13. Renegotiating forensic cultures: between law, science and criminal justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul

    2013-03-01

    This article challenges stereotypical conceptions of Law and Science as cultural opposites, arguing that English criminal trial practice is fundamentally congruent with modern science's basic epistemological assumptions, values and methods of inquiry. Although practical tensions undeniably exist, they are explicable-and may be neutralised-by paying closer attention to criminal adjudication's normative ideals and their institutional expression in familiar aspects of common law trial procedure, including evidentiary rules of admissibility, trial by jury, adversarial fact-finding, cross-examination and the ethical duties of expert witnesses. Effective partnerships between lawyers and forensic scientists are indispensable for integrating scientific evidence into criminal proceedings, and must be renegotiated between individual practitioners on an on-going basis. Fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration between scholars with a shared interest in forensic science should dispense with reductive cultural stereotypes of Science and Law.

  14. An Interface between Law and Science: The Climate Change Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleshov, Y.; Grandbois, M.; Kaniaha, S.

    2012-04-01

    Law and Science are jointly building the international climate change regime. Up to date, international law and climate science have been unable to take into consideration both regional law and Pacific climate science in this process. Under the International Climate Change Adaptation Initiative (the Australian Government Initiative to assist with high priority climate adaptation needs in vulnerable countries in the Asia-Pacific region) significant efforts were dedicated to improve understanding of climate in the Pacific through the Pacific Climate Change Science Program (PCCSP) and through the Pacific Adaptation Strategy Assistance Program (PASAP). The first comprehensive PCCSP scientific report on the South Pacific climate has been published in 2011. Under the PASAP, web-based information tools for seasonal climate prediction have been developed and now outputs from dynamical climate model are used in 15 countries of the North-West and South Pacific for enhanced prediction of rainfall, air and sea surface temperatures which reduces countries' vulnerability to climate variability in the context of a changing climate. On a regional scale, the Meteorological and Geohazards Department of Vanuatu is preparing a full report on Climate change impacts on the country. These scientific reports and tools could lead to a better understanding of climate change in the South Pacific and to a better understanding of climate change science, for lawyers and policy-makers. The International climate change regime develops itself according to science findings, and at the pace of the four scientific reports issued by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). In return, Law is a contributing factor to climate change, a structural data in the development and perception of environmental issues and it exerts an influence on Science. Because of the dependency of law on science, the PCCSP and PASAP outcomes will also stimulate and orientate developments in law of the Pacific

  15. Twenty-five years of Social Science in Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, John; Walker, Laurens

    2011-02-01

    In this essay, we take the publication of the seventh edition of the casebook Social Science in Law (2010) as an opportunity to reflect on continuities and changes that have occurred in the application of social science research to American law over the past quarter-century. We structure these reflections by comparing and contrasting the original edition of the book with the current one. When the first edition appeared, courts' reliance on social science was often confused and always contested. Now, courts' reliance on social science is so common as to be unremarkable. What has changed--sometimes radically--are the substantive legal questions on which social science has been brought to bear.

  16. Author: MC Roos IS LAW SCIENCE?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    2014-02-05

    Feb 5, 2014 ... The term "lawyer" will be defined in s 5 of this article. ..... for "juridical science" resulted in four cases, but all four are references to articles ...... analogies of the modal aspects or typical structures that are discovered (this.

  17. (Virtual) Water-repellent Law? Why Legal Studies Should Be Brought Into the Virtual Water Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrini, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    Virtual water studies are a marvelous example of the much praised "interdisciplinary approach", efficaciously intertwining many threads woven by scholars of very diverse fields of research. After all, if water is an object of biological interest and the word "virtual" becomes especially significant in the framework of the international trade flows, why should agronomists and economists not work together? And, with them, hydrologists, environmental engineers, network analysis experts… either working side by side or, at least, following one another's steps. Browsing the relevant academic literature one may notice that a vast array of disciplines is dealing with the topic. As a consequence, it may come as a surprise that lawyers seem to have remained almost deaf to the charming call of virtual water. A social science thoroughly "social" even if sometimes deemed (also by its practitioners) akin to humanities - and for this reason not always timely in catching the hints by hard sciences - law has a lot to say about virtual water and its manifold aspects. And it is so, in my opinion, in at least two respects. First of all, legal provisions can be determinants of social facts no less than other types of norms, such as physical or economic laws. Law shapes the human behavior by giving incentives or establishing constraints to the conduct of virtually any kind of social actor, be they farmers needing to decide what to grow, entrepreneurs willing to invest in the water market, or governments requested to address their communities' problems. All of them will make their choices in consideration of the costs, opportunities, and limits set by a number of regulations. In the second place, and strictly connected with the first reason, law may offer some answers to the challenges that virtual water and, more in general, the water-food nexus bring with them. In fact, understanding the way legal provisions affect the taking of decisions in the water sector, one may try to devise

  18. Anticipation in Law and Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston P. Nagan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores a particular aspect of the role of anticipation in social and legal processes. The program begins by recognizing that social interaction happens within a time-space manifold of events. This means that society functions in terms of events located on the plane of time and the situation of space. This means that social process is a dynamic. As an ancient philosopher put it, change is so ubiquitous that you cannot jump into the same river twice. Since we tend to look at social dynamics in a more static way, one major theorist reminds us that the stable in social process is a special case of the unstable. The article underscores a point that the anticipatory perspective is a ubiquitous part of social dynamics and change. Indeed, it is a critical component of social coexistence. To briefly illustrate, if the members of a governing group come into power, they will immediately have to anticipate the security needs, the economic needs, the educational needs, the health and well-being needs, the skill and labor needs, the food needs of the body politic, the requirements of effective family relationships, the requirements of morality and ethics and the needs of aesthetics. The paper provides a framework in which anticipation is used to predict the problems that emerge from the social process. The value of a social science that facilitates anticipation before problems occur provides opportunities on the time-space manifold of society to develop problem-solving strategies with a better chance of those strategies being successful. To utilize this approach, the authors provide the sophisticated model of social process developed by WAAS Fellows Lasswell and McDougal: Human beings pursue values through institutions based on resources. Using this model the authors provide a provisional map of the social process with key markers at points likely to generate important problems. The markers in the maps are as follows: participators

  19. Public Values in Water Law: A Case of Substantive Fragmentation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ambrus

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal fragmentation, from a public-values perspective, is a quite well-documented phenomenon in international (water law. However, the literature does not provide any insight into vertical or substantive fragmentation, i.e. differences in the protection of public values at the various institutional levels. This article assesses whether there is substantive fragmentation in water law at the international, the European, the sub-regional (Danube River Basin, and the Dutch domestic level. To this end, first a working definition of the concept of ‘public water values’ will be formulated. Subsequently, this article will draw conclusions regarding the degree of substantive fragmentation in water law across the institutional levels mentioned, based on an in-depth analysis of relevant sources of water law. The article will not present an exhaustive overview of public water values, but elaborates on a number of core values in water law.

  20. New Monograph on Marine Science and International Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Marine Science Cooperation Program at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (Woods Hole, Mass.) announces its second publication, Marine Scientific Research Boundaries and the Law of the Sea: Discussion and Inventory of National Claims by David A. Ross and Therese A. Landry. The document is in two parts. The first section describes research boundaries and discusses specific articles of the Law of the Sea Treaty that bear on marine scientific research, while the second section is an inventory of the maritime claims by 139 countries.

  1. Science, Law, and the Pursuit of Knowledge: Should Unethical Research Be Considered for Scientific Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Randy

    2002-01-01

    Describes similarities and differences between science and law in terms of truth, validity of facts, objectives, and research designs. Discusses ethical issues in teaching science and law and presents two case studies, Nazi hypothermia research and phosgene. (KHR)

  2. Popper, laws, and the exclusion of biology from genuine science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamos, David N

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to argue that biologists should stop citing Karl Popper on what a genuinely scientific theory is. Various ways in which biologists cite Popper on this matter are surveyed, including the use of Popper to settle debates on methodology in phylogenetic systematics. It is then argued that the received view on Popper--namely, that a genuinely scientific theory is an empirically falsifiable one--is seriously mistaken, that Popper's real view was that genuinely scientific theories have the form of statements of laws of nature. It is then argued that biology arguably has no genuine laws of its own. In place of Popperian falsifiability, it is suggested that a cluster class epistemic values approach (which subsumes empirical falsifiability) is the best solution to the demarcation problem between genuine science and pseudo- or non-science.

  3. European water law in transition: the challenge of integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijswick, H.F.M.W. van

    2005-01-01

    European and domestic national water law have witnessed a number of developments, which can be described as the development from a national territorial approach towards a transnational integrated approach. Initially, Dutch water law for example, sought to offer protection against flooding. More rece

  4. Aggression, science, and law: The origins framework. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoroff, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Human societies have formalized instincts for compliance with reciprocal altruism in laws that sanction some aggression and not other aggression. Neuroscience makes steady advances toward measurements of various aspects of brain function pertinent to the aggressive behaviors that laws are designed to regulate. Consciousness, free will, rationality, intent, reality testing, empathy, moral reasoning, and capacity for self-control are somewhat subject to empirical assessment. The question becomes: how should law accommodate the wealth of information regarding these elements of mind that the science of aggression increasingly makes available? This essay discusses the evolutionary purpose of aggression, the evolutionary purpose of law, the problematic assumptions of the mens rea doctrine, and the prospects for applying the neuroscience of aggression toward the goal of equal justice for unequal minds. Nine other essays are introduced, demonstrating how each of them fits into the framework of the permanent debate about neuroscience and justice. It is concluded that advances in the science of human aggression will have vital, but biologically limited, impact on the provision of justice.

  5. Water Science Reviews 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Felix

    1991-02-01

    This volume is devoted to the solution behavior of the molecules of life: lipids, nucleotide bases, amino acids, and sugars. Theory is confronted by experiment and comparisons are made between the properties of molecules in crystals and in solution. Four excellent reviews are included. John and Lois Crowe consider the profound lyotropic effects of water on membrane phospholipids. E. Westhof and D.L. Beveridge discuss hydration of nucleic acids, concluding that the development of an adequate description of the solvation and electrostatic properties of the nucleic acids is essential for modeling and simulation of nucleic acid structures. T.H. Lilley examines the solvation of amino acids and small peptides, with the emphasis on those amino acids present in the proteins of higher organisms. The final contribution, from Felix Franks and J. Raul Grigera, summarizes and analyzes the influence of solvation interactions on the structural, equilibrium and dynamic properties of monomeric and oligomeric polyhydroxy compounds.

  6. Kansas Water Science Center bookmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2017-03-27

    The U.S. Geological Survey Kansas Water Science Center has collected and interpreted hydrologic information in Kansas since 1895. Data collected include streamflow and gage height, reservoir content, water quality and water quantity, suspended sediment, and groundwater levels. Interpretative hydrologic studies are completed on national, regional, statewide, and local levels and cooperatively funded through more than 40 partnerships with these agencies. The U.S. Geological Survey provides impartial scientific information to describe and understand the health of our ecosystems and environment; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life. These collected data are in the National Water Information System https://waterdata.usgs.gov/ks/nwis/rt, and all results are documented in reports that also are online at https://ks.water.usgs.gov/. Follow the USGS Kansas Water Science Center on Twitter for the most recent updates and other information: https://twitter.com/USGS_KS.

  7. Legal financial institutions in the Water Law Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some fees and payments are connected with obligatory participation in the cost of public projects and public investment. In the framework of the Water Law Act there are diverse public payments and fees. In this law there is the drainage fee and the investment fee. There are also contributions and other payments to the water companies. In the regulations of the Water Law Act there are also legal financial solutions for sharing the public costs, the use of budget subsidies, fixing and allocation of public expenditure.

  8. Public Values in Water Law: A Case of Substantive Fragmentation?

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Ambrus; Herman Kasper Gilissen; Jasper J.H. van Kempen

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal fragmentation, from a public-values perspective, is a quite well-documented phenomenon in international (water) law. However, the literature does not provide any insight into vertical or substantive fragmentation, i.e. differences in the protection of public values at the various institutional levels. This article assesses whether there is substantive fragmentation in water law at the international, the European, the sub-regional (Danube River Basin), and the Dutch domestic level. ...

  9. An Interdisciplinary Approach to Teaching International Law: Using the Tools of the Law School Classroom in Political Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zartner, Dana

    2009-01-01

    As the world has grown more interconnected, many political science programs have added courses on international law, international organizations, the laws of war and peace, international human rights, and comparative judicial politics. While in many cases these are relatively new offerings within international studies, all of these subjects have…

  10. An Interdisciplinary Approach to Teaching International Law: Using the Tools of the Law School Classroom in Political Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zartner, Dana

    2009-01-01

    As the world has grown more interconnected, many political science programs have added courses on international law, international organizations, the laws of war and peace, international human rights, and comparative judicial politics. While in many cases these are relatively new offerings within international studies, all of these subjects have…

  11. Law, Water and Sustainable Development: Framework of Nigerian Law - Country Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale Ajai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The central issues of economic development and environmental protection in the current social, political and economic environment relate to water – an overlooked or less glamorous natural resource. For example, topical and sometimes controversial issues such as crude oil and minerals extraction, pollution control, biodiversity protection, energy and power, resource control, revenue allocation and political participation, etc., relate directly or indirectly to water resources management. This paper seeks to identify and present in a schematic and conceptual manner and to highlight the usefulness of folklore for sustainable development and evaluate the usefulness of recruiting traditional institutions into the institutional framework for modern sustainable water resources management in Nigeria It also discusses the emergent law on water resources as well as the issues concerning the domestic and international riparian law, in particular the River Niger and Lake Chad basins and explores how folklore, comparative law and international law may be adopted and adapted to aid the development and application of water law, and by direct implication sustainable development in Nigeria.

  12. Thoughts on access to water in Peru within the new Water Resources Law framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Ruiz Ostoic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The difficulty involved addressing issues related with water management in Peru is the article’s starting point. Therefore, the water issue approach is introduced explaining its administrative procedures, the rights involved and making a critical analysis of 2008 Water Resources Law. Finally, the need for an integrated management analysis of the water resource is highlighted by integrally understanding the General Water Law as well as the current Water Resources Law, and encouraging dialogue among social actors involved in order to avoid future conflicts.

  13. Emerging Tensions at the Interface of Artificial Intelligence, IPRs & Competition Law in the Health & Life Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    This presentation: • describes the interface between Big Data, IPRs & competition law in the life sciences. • highlights selected life-science areas, where tensions and potential clashes are crystallizing. • discusses how these tensions could be addressed...

  14. Water Rockets. Get Funny With Newton's Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Roca Vicent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the movement of the rocket has been used for decades to encourage students in the study of physics. This system has an undeniable interest to introduce concepts such as properties of gases, laws of Newton,  exchange  between  different  types  of  energy  and  its  conservation  or fluid  mechanics.  Our  works has  been  to  build  and  launch  these  rockets  in  different  educational  levels  and  in  each  of  these  ones  have introduced  the  part  of  Physics  more  suited  to  the  knowledge  of  our  students.  The  aim  of  the  learning experience  is  to  launch  the  rocket  as  far  as  possible  and  learn  to  predict  the  travelled  distance,  using Newton's  laws  and fluid  mechanics.  After  experimentation  we  demonstrated  to  be  able  to  control  the parameters that improve the performance of our rocket, such as the  fill factor, the volume and mass of the empty  bottle,  liquid  density,  launch  angle,  pressure  prior  air  release.  In addition, it is a fun experience can be attached to all levels of education in primary and high school.

  15. The role of science in international trade law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugard, Maurits; Smart, Michael

    2006-02-01

    While the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade addressed overt barriers to international trade, the current focus of international trade rules has shifted to less obvious, but in many cases no less restrictive, barriers to trade, such as protectionist measures adopted under the guise of health and safety standards. The new agreements established under the World Trade Organization ("WTO"), including the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures ("SPS Agreement"), the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade ("TBT Agreement"), provide important tools that can be invoked by governments and used by stakeholders to address regulatory barriers that were once thought outside the purview of international trade rules. Non-science based regulations can be and have been successfully challenged under the SPS and TBT Agreements, which prohibit WTO Members from maintaining laws or regulations that adversely affect trade unless such measures are scientifically justified. Stakeholders should use to the fullest extent possible international trade rules to eliminate non-science based regulations that adversely affect trade in the goods that they produce.

  16. Governing GMOs in the USA: science, law and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y Tony; Chen, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Controversy surrounds the production and consumption of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Proponents argue that GMO food sources represent the only viable solution to food shortages in an ever-growing global population. Science reports no harm from GMO use and consumption so far. Opponents fear the potentially negative impact that GMO development and use could have on the environment and consumers, and are concerned about the lack of data on the long-term effects of GMO use. We discuss the development of GMO food sources, the history of legislation and policy for the labeling requirements of GMO food products, and the health, environmental, and legal rationale for and against GMO food labeling. The Food and Drug Administration regulates food with GMOs within a coordinated framework of federal agencies. Despite mounting scientific evidence that GMO foods are substantially equivalent to traditionally bred food sources, debate remains over the appropriateness of GMO food labeling. In fact, food manufacturers have mounted a First Amendment challenge against Vermont's passage of a law that requires GMO labeling. Mandatory GMO labeling is not supported by science. Compulsory GMO labels may not only hinder the development of agricultural biotechnology, but may also exacerbate the misconception that GMOs endanger people's health.

  17. Water law, with special reference to ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, C.L.

    1951-01-01

    This report was prepared in July 1950 at the request of the President's Water Resources Policy Commission. It followed the report entitled Water facts in relation to a national water-resources policy," which, in part, has been published as Geological Survey Circular 114 under the title "The water situation in the United States, with special reference to ground water.''

  18. Public Values in Water Law : A Case of Substantive Fragmentation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambrus, Monika; Gilissen, Herman Kasper; van Kempen, Jasper JH

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal fragmentation, from a public-values perspective, is a quite well-documented phenomenon in international (water) law. However, the literature does not provide any insight into vertical or substantive fragmentation, i.e. differences in the protection of public values at the various institut

  19. Public Values in Water Law: A Case of Substantive Fragmentation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambrus, M.; Gilissen, Herman Kasper|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314838732; van Kempen, Jasper|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314011900

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal fragmentation, from a public-values perspective, is a quite well-documented phenomenon in international (water) law. However, the literature does not provide any insight into vertical or substantive fragmentation, i.e. differences in the protection of public values at the various institut

  20. Public Values in Water Law : A Case of Substantive Fragmentation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambrus, Monika; Gilissen, Herman Kasper; van Kempen, Jasper JH

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal fragmentation, from a public-values perspective, is a quite well-documented phenomenon in international (water) law. However, the literature does not provide any insight into vertical or substantive fragmentation, i.e. differences in the protection of public values at the various

  1. Public Values in Water Law: A Case of Substantive Fragmentation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambrus, M.; Gilissen, Herman Kasper|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314838732; van Kempen, Jasper|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314011900

    2014-01-01

    Horizontal fragmentation, from a public-values perspective, is a quite well-documented phenomenon in international (water) law. However, the literature does not provide any insight into vertical or substantive fragmentation, i.e. differences in the protection of public values at the various

  2. Towards an integrated water management - Comparing German and Dutch water law from a spatial planning perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Hartmann; Spit, Tejo

    2015-01-01

    Water management increasingly deals with spatial aspects; spatial planning interferes and depends in various ways on water management. Particularly in urban areas, this interference calls for an integrated water management. As a result, water management and spatial planning meet. Laws frame the inte

  3. Water Pollution, Environmental Science Curriculum Guide Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Harold J.

    This curriculum guide is a 40-day unit plan on water pollution developed, in part, from the National Science Foundation Environmental Science Institutes' Ninth Grade Environmental Science Curriculum Guide. This unit contains teacher lesson plans, suggested teacher and student modules, case studies, and activities to be developed by teachers…

  4. Water Pollution, Environmental Science Curriculum Guide Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Harold J.

    This curriculum guide is a 40-day unit plan on water pollution developed, in part, from the National Science Foundation Environmental Science Institutes' Ninth Grade Environmental Science Curriculum Guide. This unit contains teacher lesson plans, suggested teacher and student modules, case studies, and activities to be developed by teachers…

  5. The Contingency of Laws of Nature in Science and Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Lydia

    2010-10-01

    The belief that laws of nature are contingent played an important role in the emergence of the empirical method of modern physics. During the scientific revolution, this belief was based on the idea of voluntary creation. Taking up Peter Mittelstaedt’s work on laws of nature, this article explores several alternative answers which do not overtly make use of metaphysics: some laws are laws of mathematics; macroscopic laws can emerge from the interplay of numerous subsystems without any specific microscopic nomic structures (John Wheeler’s “law without law”); laws are the preconditions of scientific experience (Kant); laws are theoretical abstractions which only apply in very limited circumstances (Nancy Cartwright). Whereas Cartwright’s approach is in tension with modern scientific methodology, the first three strategies count as illuminating, though partial answers. It is important for the empirical method of modern physics that these three strategies, even when taken together, do not provide a complete explanation of the order of nature. Thus the question of why laws are valid is still relevant. In the concluding section, I argue that the traditional answer, based on voluntary creation, provides the right balance of contingency and coherence which is in harmony with modern scientific method.

  6. NASA's Applied Sciences for Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorn, Bradley; Toll, David; Engman, Ted

    2011-01-01

    The Earth Systems Division within NASA has the primary responsibility for the Earth Science Applied Science Program and the objective to accelerate the use of NASA science results in applications to help solve problems important to society and the economy. The primary goal of the Earth Science Applied Science Program is to improve future and current operational systems by infusing them with scientific knowledge of the Earth system gained through space-based observation, assimilation of new observations, and development and deployment of enabling technologies, systems, and capabilities. This paper discusses one of the major problems facing water resources managers, that of having timely and accurate data to drive their decision support tools. It then describes how NASA?s science and space based satellites may be used to overcome this problem. Opportunities for the water resources community to participate in NASA?s Water Resources Applications Program are described.

  7. RE-AERATION LAW OF WATER FLOW OVER SPILLWAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Xiang-ju; LUO Lin; CHEN Yong-can; ZHAO Wen-qian

    2006-01-01

    In order to explore the re-aeration law of water flow over spillway, the transfer process of oxygen in water flow over spillway was studied. The interfacial mass transfer coefficients were obtained by experiments. The flow fields and the turbulence characteristics are simulated by numerical methods. The fractional volume of fluid model (VOF) of the air-water two phase flows was introduced to track the interface. Consequently, the quantitative expression of the interfacial mass transfer coefficients related with velocity and kinetic energy at the free surface was derived and the re-aeration model for the water flow over spillway was established. The examination with the experimental data of different conditions shows the validity of the re-aeration model for the water flow over spillways. This study will be important to evaluate the dissolved oxygen concentration and self-purification ability of rivers.

  8. Laws for Access to and Management of Drinking Water in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia K. Nkonya

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing human population, economic development and climatic changes in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA have fuelled water scarcity, hence there is an urgent need for effective water management laws and institutions. Unfortunately, national and local governments rarely possess enough personnel or money to enforce their laws adequately. In SSA countries formal water management laws and institutions tend to ignore the customary laws and institutions. Additionally, local communities both filter and ignore formal laws and institutions and use their customary laws and institutions to manage their water resources. Despite their importance, there are only few empirical studies on customary laws and institutions for water management in SSA. This study attempts to fill this gap by analysing the impact of customary (informal laws on water management in Tanzania and show how they might be used to complement the statutory (formal laws for management of drinking water in rural Tanzania. The study will use both qualitative and quantitative methods to achieve this objective. This study found that customary laws and institutions are the most influential in water access, prevention of pollution and abuse of water. The awareness of the customary and water user group laws was also generally high, perhaps due to the participatory nature of those institutions. The study also found that statutory laws were important for water development issues but community awareness of these laws was low. These results suggest the need of using both customary and statutory laws since the two instruments complement each other.

  9. Water: A Topic for All Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Malonne I.; Seimears, C. Matt

    2008-01-01

    The authors illustrate an effective lesson-planning technique known as unpacking for the broad topic of water. Interconnections among science disciplines are shown for numerous possible subtopics. Two lesson sets are included, the first dealing with properties of water and the second dealing with water as a resource. (Contains 1 table and 4…

  10. Science academy statements on water, health, and science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-05-01

    Several days prior to the Group of 8 (G8) summit of nations on 26-27 May in Deauville, France, science academies from those nations and five others issued joint statements calling for the governments to take actions regarding water and health as well as science education. The water and health statement indicates that nearly 3 billion people will be living in water-scarce countries by 2050 and that 2.6 billion already lack access to proper sanitation and nearly 900 million lack access to a clean water supply. The statement calls for developing basic infrastructure for sanitation, promoting education to change the behavior of populations regarding water supply, funding research and development to identify pathogens, and improving water management and hygiene standards, among other measures.

  11. Darwin's Theory, Mendel's Laws: Labels and the Teaching of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugler, Charles

    2002-01-01

    Explains how students' perceptions of validity is affected by the terminology used by teachers and scientists. Analyzes the use of the terms: hypothesis, theory, law, and principle in biology textbooks. (Contains 22 references.) (Author/YDS)

  12. Water security and the science agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheater, Howard S.; Gober, Patricia

    2015-07-01

    The freshwater environment is facing unprecedented global pressures. Unsustainable use of surface and groundwater is ubiquitous. Gross pollution is seen in developing economies, nutrient pollution is a global threat to aquatic ecosystems, and flood damage is increasing. Droughts have severe local consequences, but effects on food can be global. These current pressures are set in the context of rapid environmental change and socio-economic development, population growth, and weak and fragmented governance. We ask what should be the role of the water science community in addressing water security challenges. Deeper understanding of aquatic and terrestrial environments and their interactions with the climate system is needed, along with trans-disciplinary analysis of vulnerabilities to environmental and societal change. The human dimension must be fully integrated into water science research and viewed as an endogenous component of water system dynamics. Land and water management are inextricably linked, and thus more cross-sector coordination of research and policy is imperative. To solve real-world problems, the products of science must emerge from an iterative, collaborative, two-way exchange with management and policy communities. Science must produce knowledge that is deemed to be credible, legitimate, and salient by relevant stakeholders, and the social process of linking science to policy is thus vital to efforts to solve water problems. The paper shows how a large-scale catchment-based observatory can be used to practice trans-disciplinary science integration and address the Anthropocene's water problems.

  13. Maui Citizen Science Coastal Water Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A network of citizen science volunteers periodically monitors water quality at several beaches across the island of Maui in the State of Hawaii. This community-based...

  14. A Tale of Two Systems: Conflict, Law and the Development of Water Allocation in Two Common Law Jurisdictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Martin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how the law governing water has evolved in the United States and Australia. The evolution of water law in these jurisdictions demonstrates that the ‘scientific modernism’ that prioritises economics and hydrology as the pivots around which water institutions are designed may be an incomplete model. From the history we recount, we suggest that, ranking equally with these considerations in shaping water law and policy, is the broader framework of laws and institutions, and legal culture within a society. These factors shape the types of solutions to conflicts in a society and determine, to a substantial degree, the solutions to water conflicts that become law, which then in part determine future legal solutions. This observation is of more than theoretical importance. Towards the end of this paper we consider the latest water modernist experiment, the Australian Water Act. We suggest that closer attention to social factors and legal traditions would have resulted in a more effective law. We believe this holds important lessons for water policy generally.

  15. Constitutional Court's Review and the Future of Water Law in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Mova Al'Afghani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Enactment of the Water Law in Indonesia has arises public debate. The Judicial Review of the Law by the Constitutional added to this controversy as it puts the legality of the water regime in Indonesia in a "twilight zone". This article explained the historical background of the water regime in Indonesia and its development, analyze the position of water rights and human rights to water under Indonesian Constitution, elaborates the key provisions of Indonesian water law, elaborate water law's judicial review by the Constitutional Court, analyzes the legal consequences of the review and recommend the government on the parts of the law that needs to be amended or modified. The author also discusses several important issues that needs to be weighed by governments when creating the water law's implementing regulation, including regulating several standard contract provisions between government and water investors.

  16. Early Legal Education in the United States: Natural Law Theory and Law as a Moral Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Mark Warren

    1998-01-01

    An examination of the history of legal education covers the long period of law-office apprenticeship as the principal method of legal education in the United States and reviews trends in the period of formal education, the relationship between formal education and professional practice, the philosophical context for legal education, instruction in…

  17. USGS Colorado Water Science Center bookmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2016-12-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey Colorado Water Science Center conducts its water-resources activities primarily in Colorado in cooperation with more than 125 different entities. These activities include extensive data-collection efforts and studies of streamflow, water quality, and groundwater to address many specific issues of concern to Colorado water-management entities and citizens. The collected data are provided in the National Water Information System, and study results are documented in reports and information served on the Internet.

  18. Indigenous people's right to water under international law : A legal pluralism perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, Joyeeta; Hildering, Antoinette; Misiedjan, Daphina

    2014-01-01

    There are many sources of law, including international law, which support claims to water rights. This article looks at the different sources within international law and analyses the possibilities they have for substantiating the traditional rights of indigenous people to water and how states deal

  19. Indigenous people's right to water under international law: a legal pluralism perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.; Hildering, A.; Misiedjan, D.

    2014-01-01

    There are many sources of law, including international law, which support claims to water rights. This article looks at the different sources within international law and analyses the possibilities they have for substantiating the traditional rights of indigenous people to water and how states deal

  20. Indigenous people's right to water under international law : A legal pluralism perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, Joyeeta; Hildering, Antoinette; Misiedjan, Daphina

    2014-01-01

    There are many sources of law, including international law, which support claims to water rights. This article looks at the different sources within international law and analyses the possibilities they have for substantiating the traditional rights of indigenous people to water and how states deal

  1. The Human Right to Water in Law and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Brunner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent concerns about alleged insufficient water provision to the poor in Detroit, USA, has put the Human Right to Water (HRW into the international discussion. The paper asks: “To what extent did international human rights treaties make HRW judiciable?” and “How did government policies implement it?” In a cross-country comparison of performance indicators, merely accepting HRW has not been helpful in promoting affordable access to potable water or sanitation facilities close to the home, amongst the reasons being deficiencies in water-governance. Case-law confirmed that with respect to affordable access HRW obliges governments to a “progressive realization” only, also in countries accepting HRW (India, South Africa. The paper focuses on the resulting positive state obligation to establish funding programs for better water and sanitation services and analyzes funding policies by a mathematical model of policy goals. It identifies two viable goals namely the successful support for the poor, as in developing countries, and the most economic use of public funds, as in industrialized countries. Other goals conceivable for the model have been tried in the past and failed.

  2. Toward A Science of Sustainable Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C.

    2016-12-01

    Societal need for improved water management and concerns for the long-term sustainability of water resources systems are prominent around the world. The continued susceptibility of society to the harmful effects of hydrologic variability, pervasive concerns related to climate change and the emergent awareness of devastating effects of current practice on aquatic ecosystems all illustrate our limited understanding of how water ought to be managed in a dynamic world. The related challenges of resolving the competition for freshwater among competing uses (so called "nexus" issues) and adapting water resources systems to climate change are prominent examples of the of sustainable water management challenges. In addition, largely untested concepts such as "integrated water resources management" have surfaced as Sustainable Development Goals. In this presentation, we argue that for research to improve water management, and for practice to inspire better research, a new focus is required, one that bridges disciplinary barriers between the water resources research focus on infrastructure planning and management, and the role of human actors, and geophysical sciences community focus on physical processes in the absence of dynamical human response. Examples drawn from climate change adaptation for water resource systems and groundwater management policy provide evidence of initial progress towards a science of sustainable water management that links improved physical understanding of the hydrological cycle with the socioeconomic and ecological understanding of water and societal interactions.

  3. Efficiency in Western Water Law: The Development of the California Doctrine, 1850-1911.

    OpenAIRE

    Kanazawa, Mark T

    1998-01-01

    The development of water law in California has been heavily studied by legal historians. Much interest and controversy has surrounded the fact that early on, California adopted a system of water law that recognizes both riparian and appropriative rights and that persists to this day. How well this hybrid system has promoted in economic efficiency use of water in California has been poorly understood. This article examines the early development of California water law to understand how such a ...

  4. Deconstructing Free Energies in the Law of Matching Water Affinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Beck, Thomas

    2017-03-09

    The law of matching water affinities (LMWA) is explored in classical molecular dynamics simulations of several alkali halide ion pairs, spanning the size range from small kosmotropes to large chaotropes. The ion-ion potentials of mean force (PMFs) are computed using three methods: the local molecular field theory (LMFT), the weighted histogram analysis method (WHAM), and integration of the average force. All three methods produce the same total PMF for a given ion pair. In addition, LMFT-based partitioning into van der Waals and local and far-field electrostatic free energies and assessment of the enthalpic, entropic, and ion-water components yield insights into the origins of the observed free energy profiles in water. The results highlight the importance of local electrostatic interactions in determining the shape of the PMFs, while longer-ranged interactions enhance the overall ion-ion attraction, as expected in a dielectric continuum model. The association equilibrium constants are estimated from the smooth WHAM curves and compared to available experimental conductance data. By examining the variations in the average hydration numbers of ions with ion-ion distance, a correlation of the water structure in the hydration shells with the free energy features is found.

  5. Realism without truth: a review of Giere's science without laws and scientific perspectivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenberg, Timothy D

    2009-05-01

    An increasingly popular view among philosophers of science is that of science as action-as the collective activity of scientists working in socially-coordinated communities. Scientists are seen not as dispassionate pursuers of Truth, but as active participants in a social enterprise, and science is viewed on a continuum with other human activities. When taken to an extreme, the science-as-social-process view can be taken to imply that science is no different from any other human activity, and therefore can make no privileged claims about its knowledge of the world. Such extreme views are normally contrasted with equally extreme views of classical science, as uncovering Universal Truth. In Science Without Laws and Scientific Perspectivism, Giere outlines an approach to understanding science that finds a middle ground between these extremes. He acknowledges that science occurs in a social and historical context, and that scientific models are constructions designed and created to serve human ends. At the same time, however, scientific models correspond to parts of the world in ways that can legitimately be termed objective. Giere's position, perspectival realism, shares important common ground with Skinner's writings on science, some of which are explored in this review. Perhaps most fundamentally, Giere shares with Skinner the view that science itself is amenable to scientific inquiry: scientific principles can and should be brought to bear on the process of science. The two approaches offer different but complementary perspectives on the nature of science, both of which are needed in a comprehensive understanding of science.

  6. Evolving water science in the Anthropocene

    OpenAIRE

    Savenije, H. H. G.; A. Y. Hoekstra; Van der Zaag, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the changing relation between human beings and water since the Industrial Revolution, a period that has been called the Anthropocene because of the unprecedented scale at which humans have altered the planet during this time. We show how the rapidly changing world urges us to continuously improve our understanding of the complex interactions between humans and the water system. The paper starts by demonstrating that hydrology and the science of managing wa...

  7. Forensic science in the context of Islamic law: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkahtani, Theeb; Aljerian, Khaldoon; Golding, Bartholomew; Alqahtani, Sakher

    2015-08-01

    Even though it is still in its nascent phase, forensic science has already encountered strong resistance in Saudi Arabia due to its incompatibility with their present legal system. What follow is a review on the status of forensic medicine and its future in terms of acceptance and use in legal action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Science Letters:The Moore's Law for photonic integrated circuits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    THYL(E)N L.; HE Sai-ling; WOSINSKI L.; DAI Dao-xin

    2006-01-01

    We formulate a "Moore's law" for photonic integrated circuits (PICs) and their spatial integration density using two methods. One is decomposing the integrated photonics devices of diverse types into equivalent basic elements, which makes a comparison with the generic elements of electronic integrated circuits more meaningful. The other is making a complex component equivalent to a series of basic elements of the same functionality, which is used to calculate the integration density for functional components realized with different structures. The results serve as a benchmark of the evolution of PICs and we can conclude that the density of integration measured in this way roughly increases by a factor of 2 per year. The prospects for a continued increase of spatial integration density are discussed.

  9. Evolving water science in the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savenije, H. H. G.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; van der Zaag, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the changing relation between human beings and water since the Industrial Revolution, a period that has been called the Anthropocene because of the unprecedented scale at which humans have altered the planet during this time. We show how the rapidly changing world urges us to continuously improve our understanding of the complex interactions between humans and the water system. The paper starts by demonstrating that hydrology and the science of managing water resources have played key roles in human and economic development throughout history; yet these roles have often been marginalised or obscured. Knowledge of hydrology and water resources engineering and management helped to transform the landscape, and thus also the very hydrology within catchments itself. It is only fairly recent that water experts have become conscious of such mechanisms, exemplified by several concepts that try to incorporate them - integrated water resources management, eco-hydrology, socio-hydrology. We have reached a stage at which a more systemic understanding of scale interdependencies can inform the sustainable governance of water systems, using new concepts like precipitation sheds, virtual water transfers, water footprints, and water value flow.

  10. Contracts under administrative law in the areas of emission control and water protection law; Verwaltungsrechtliche Vertraege im Immissions- und Gewaesserschutzrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlhaus, Jens

    2011-07-01

    Using the fields of emission control and water protection as an example the author investigates how environmental law is executed by way of contracts between the citizen and the administration. The study encompasses fundamental theoretical deliberations as well as practical experiences. It undertakes a discussion in legal theory on the instrument of an administrative contract, taking into consideration the results of a survey among 100 companies. The study identifies application fields for administrative contracts in the field of emission control and water protection law. It carves out and illustrates by way of examples the advantages and drawbacks of the use of administrative contracts as compared with regulation through administrative acts.

  11. The Relevance of History of Biology to Teaching and Learning in the Life Sciences: The Case of Mendel's Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Zoubeida R.

    2014-01-01

    Using Mendel's laws as a case in point, the purpose of this paper is to bring historical and philosophical perspectives together to help students understand science as a human endeavor. Three questions as addressed: (1) how did the Mendelian scheme, principles, or facts become labeled as laws, (2) to what extent do Mendel's laws exhibit…

  12. The Relevance of History of Biology to Teaching and Learning in the Life Sciences: The Case of Mendel's Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Zoubeida R.

    2014-01-01

    Using Mendel's laws as a case in point, the purpose of this paper is to bring historical and philosophical perspectives together to help students understand science as a human endeavor. Three questions as addressed: (1) how did the Mendelian scheme, principles, or facts become labeled as laws, (2) to what extent do Mendel's laws exhibit…

  13. Hydrology: The interdisciplinary science of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Richard M.; Lall, Upmanu; Cai, Ximing; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Weiskel, Peter K.; Hooper, Richard P.; Matalas, Nicholas C.

    2015-06-01

    We live in a world where biophysical and social processes are tightly coupled. Hydrologic systems change in response to a variety of natural and human forces such as climate variability and change, water use and water infrastructure, and land cover change. In turn, changes in hydrologic systems impact socioeconomic, ecological, and climate systems at a number of scales, leading to a coevolution of these interlinked systems. The Harvard Water Program, Hydrosociology, Integrated Water Resources Management, Ecohydrology, Hydromorphology, and Sociohydrology were all introduced to provide distinct, interdisciplinary perspectives on water problems to address the contemporary dynamics of human interaction with the hydrosphere and the evolution of the Earth's hydrologic systems. Each of them addresses scientific, social, and engineering challenges related to how humans influence water systems and vice versa. There are now numerous examples in the literature of how holistic approaches can provide a structure and vision of the future of hydrology. We review selected examples, which taken together, describe the type of theoretical and applied integrated hydrologic analyses and associated curricular content required to address the societal issue of water resources sustainability. We describe a modern interdisciplinary science of hydrology needed to develop an in-depth understanding of the dynamics of the connectedness between human and natural systems and to determine effective solutions to resolve the complex water problems that the world faces today. Nearly, every theoretical hydrologic model introduced previously is in need of revision to accommodate how climate, land, vegetation, and socioeconomic factors interact, change, and evolve over time.

  14. Conservation laws and symmetries of the shallow water system above rough bottom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, A. V.; Druzhkov, K. P.

    2016-06-01

    The system of one-dimensional shallow water equations above the rough bottom is considered. All its hydrodynamic conservation laws are found, and a group classification is performed. A new conservation law additional to the two basic conservation laws is found. It is shown that the system of shallow water equations can be linearized by a point change of variables only in cases of constant and linear bottom profiles.

  15. Conservation laws and LETKF with 2D Shallow Water Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yuefei; Janjic, Tijana

    2016-04-01

    Numerous approaches have been proposed to maintain physical conservation laws in the numerical weather prediction models. However, to achieve a reliable prediction, adequate initial conditions are also necessary, which are produced by a data assimilation algorithm. If an ensemble Kalman filters (EnKF) is used for this purpose, it has been shown that it could yield unphysical analysis ensemble that for example violates principles of mass conservation and positivity preservation (e.g. Janjic et al 2014) . In this presentation, we discuss the selection of conservation criteria for the analysis step, and start with testing the conservation of mass, energy and enstrophy. The simple experiments deal with nonlinear shallow water equations and simulated observations that are assimilated with LETKF (Localized Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter, Hunt et al. 2007). The model is discretized in a specific way to conserve mass, angular momentum, energy and enstrophy. The effects of the data assimilation on the conserved quantities (of mass, energy and enstrophy) depend on observation covarage, localization radius, observed variable and observation operator. Having in mind that Arakawa (1966) and Arakawa and Lamb (1977) showed that the conservation of both kinetic energy and enstrophy by momentum advection schemes in the case of nondivergent flow prevents systematic and unrealistic energy cascade towards high wave numbers, a cause of excessive numerical noise and possible eventual nonlinear instability, we test the effects on prediction depending on the type of errors in the initial condition. The performance with respect to nonlinear energy cascade is assessed as well.

  16. Water Buffalo Genome Science Comes of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa N. Michelizzi, Michael V. Dodson, Zengxiang Pan, M Elisabete J Amaral, Jennifer J. Michal, Derek J. McLean, James E. Womack, Zhihua Jiang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The water buffalo is vital to the lives of small farmers and to the economy of many countries worldwide. Not only are they draught animals, but they are also a source of meat, horns, skin and particularly the rich and precious milk that may be converted to creams, butter, yogurt and many cheeses. Genome analysis of water buffalo has advanced significantly in recent years. This review focuses on currently available genome resources in water buffalo in terms of cytogenetic characterization, whole genome mapping and next generation sequencing. No doubt, these resources indicate that genome science comes of age in the species and will provide knowledge and technologies to help optimize production potential, reproduction efficiency, product quality, nutritional value and resistance to diseases. As water buffalo and domestic cattle, both members of the Bovidae family, are closely related, the vast amount of cattle genetic/genomic resources might serve as shortcuts for the buffalo community to further advance genome science and biotechnologies in the species.

  17. Water buffalo genome science comes of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelizzi, Vanessa N; Dodson, Michael V; Pan, Zengxiang; Amaral, M Elisabete J; Michal, Jennifer J; McLean, Derek J; Womack, James E; Jiang, Zhihua

    2010-06-17

    The water buffalo is vital to the lives of small farmers and to the economy of many countries worldwide. Not only are they draught animals, but they are also a source of meat, horns, skin and particularly the rich and precious milk that may be converted to creams, butter, yogurt and many cheeses. Genome analysis of water buffalo has advanced significantly in recent years. This review focuses on currently available genome resources in water buffalo in terms of cytogenetic characterization, whole genome mapping and next generation sequencing. No doubt, these resources indicate that genome science comes of age in the species and will provide knowledge and technologies to help optimize production potential, reproduction efficiency, product quality, nutritional value and resistance to diseases. As water buffalo and domestic cattle, both members of the Bovidae family, are closely related, the vast amount of cattle genetic/genomic resources might serve as shortcuts for the buffalo community to further advance genome science and biotechnologies in the species.

  18. Hydrological sciences and water security: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, G.; Demuth, S.; Mishra, A.; Cudennec, C.

    2015-04-01

    This paper provides an introduction to the concepts of water security including not only the risks to human wellbeing posed by floods and droughts, but also the threats of inadequate supply of water in both quantity and quality for food production, human health, energy and industrial production, and for the natural ecosystems on which life depends. The overall setting is one of constant change in all aspects of Earth systems. Hydrological systems (processes and regimes) are changing, resulting from varying and changing precipitation and energy inputs, changes in surface covers, mining of groundwater resources, and storage and diversions by dams and infrastructures. Changes in social, political and economic conditions include population and demographic shifts, political realignments, changes in financial systems and in trade patterns. There is an urgent need to address hydrological and social changes simultaneously and in combination rather than as separate entities, and thus the need to develop the approach of `socio-hydrology'. All aspects of water security, including the responses of both UNESCO and the International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS) to the concepts of socio-hydrology, are examined in detailed papers within the volume titled Hydrological Sciences and Water Security: Past, Present and Future.

  19. USGS California Water Science Center water programs in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulters, Michael V.

    2005-01-01

    California is threatened by many natural hazards—fire, floods, landslides, earthquakes. The State is also threatened by longer-term problems, such as hydrologic effects of climate change, and human-induced problems, such as overuse of ground water and degradation of water quality. The threats and problems are intensified by increases in population, which has risen to nearly 36.8 million. For the USGS California Water Science Center, providing scientific information to help address hazards, threats, and hydrologic issues is a top priority. To meet the demands of a growing California, USGS scientific investigations are helping State and local governments improve emergency management, optimize resources, collect contaminant-source and -mobility information, and improve surface- and ground-water quality. USGS hydrologic studies and data collection throughout the State give water managers quantifiable and detailed scientific information that can be used to plan for development and to protect and more efficiently manage resources. The USGS, in cooperation with state, local, and tribal agencies, operates more than 500 instrument stations, which monitor streamflow, ground-water levels, and surface- and ground-water constituents to help protect water supplies and predict the threats of natural hazards. The following are some of the programs implemented by the USGS, in cooperation with other agencies, to obtain and analyze information needed to preserve California's environment and resources.

  20. Developments in Water Pollution Law and Policy in China: Effective Enough to Cope with Water Pollution Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Du

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution is one of the most serious environmental issues facing China. In 2005, an exceptionally serious water pollution accident in the Songhua River — caused by an unintended and sudden chemicals explosion — heralded an official recognition of a water pollution crisis in China. Although there have been new initiatives in national law and policy concerning water pollution that attempt to respond to issues of: social conflict caused by water pollution; government accountability; liability of polluting entities; and citizens’ rights in cases of water pollution, the challenges for the rule of environmental law in effectively reducing water pollution accidents and resolving water pollution conflict still exist. There is an urgent need to strengthen compliance and enforcement. This paper discusses the issues of water pollution conflict and the possible resolutions offered through law and policy.

  1. International Human Rights Law and the Right to water: a Brazilian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Yip

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the recognition of the right to water in international human rights law and its implications. After demonstrating the disputes with respect to the interpretation of this right, it outlines the Brazilian contribution in regard to its incorporation in domestic law. Jurisprudence on the suspension of water supply due to non-payment is taken as a case study of the question of access to water and sanitation.

  2. Formal Law and Local Water Control in the Andean Region: A Fiercely Contested Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de H.; Boelens, R.A.; Bustamente, R.R.

    2006-01-01

    Water access and control rights of peasant and indigenous communities in Andean countries are threatened. Vertical state law and intervention practices, as well as new privatization policies generally ignore, discriminate or undermine local normative frameworks. Recognition of diverse local rights

  3. Memoirs of law, sciences and technologies - Law and climate thematic issue; Cahiers droit, sciences et technologies - Dossier thematique droit et climat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre-Schaub, M. [CNRS, IDHE ENS-Cachan (France); Jouzel, J. [IPSL-LSCE, CEA-CNRS, UVSQ, CE Saclay 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Boisson de Chazournes, L. [Faculte de droit, Geneve Univ. (Switzerland); Sadeleer, N. de; Denis, B. [Saint-Louis Univ., Brussels (Belgium); Godard, O. [CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, Dep. Humanites et Sciences Sociales (France); Le Prestre, P. [Laval univ. (Canada); Maljean-Dubois, S. [CNRS, CERIC, Paul Cezanne Univ., Aix-en-Provence (France); Wemaere, M. [IDDRI, Dep. Climat et Energie (France); Rousseaux, S. [CNRS, Droit et Changement Social, Association Climaterre (France); Louchard, O. [Reseau Action Climat (France)

    2009-07-01

    This dossier is organized around two essential points: 1 - climate is a scientific question which combines science and governance. In this context, the last IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) report gives an essential place to uncertainties with claiming that 'it is more probable than improbable that we may be in an irreversible process of global warming'. Therefore, it has become necessary to think about the management of uncertainties using law and to a massive mobilization of the precaution principle. The essential economical aspects to the implementation of a significant abatement of greenhouse gases cannot be passed over in silence as well. Finally, the civil society occupies a more and more important place, not only in international negotiations, but inside the countries as well. 2 - Global warming is thinkable at a World scale only. This implies that some kind of a climate geopolitics is emerging in the World, considering the existence at the same time of different sources and different problems to deal with (technical, economical) depending on the regions of the world. From the strictly legal point of view, the scenarios presented at Bali consider the World by 2012 onward. In this context, the fight against global warming mobilizes several legal instruments, some being new and the others being not. We assist to a real law genesis. The emissions trading markets, for instance, and other financial mechanisms, belong to these new instruments. However, using old legal means to solve new problems is another way to create law. It is also important to stress on the fact that the international law is not the only possible legal mean to square the fight against global warming. The liability right for the violation of a public property, i.e. the atmosphere, remains an instrument combining experience and novelty and has proved itself in several countries. Finally, in France, the 'Grenelle de l'Environnement' policy has led to an

  4. Law in the laboratory a guide to the ethics of federally funded science research

    CERN Document Server

    Charrow, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    The National Institutes of Health and the National Science Foundation together fund more than $40 billon of research annually in the United States and around the globe. These large public expenditures come with strings, including a complex set of laws and guidelines that regulate how scientists may use NIH and NSF funds, how federally funded research may be conducted, and who may have access to or own the product of the research. Until now, researchers have had little instruction on the nature of these laws and how they work. But now, with Robert P. Charrow’s Law in the Laboratory, they have a readable and entertaining introduction to the major ethical and legal considerations pertaining to research under the aegis of federal science funding. For any academic whose position is grant funded, or for any faculty involved in securing grants, this book will be an essential reference manual. And for those who want to learn how federal legislation and regulations affect laboratory research, Charrow’s primer wil...

  5. Viewpoint – The Washington Consensus, Chilean Water Monopolization and the Peruvian Draft Water Law of the 1990s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Solanes

    2013-06-01

    The managers of two public agencies in Peru were concerned about the impact that the Draft Law was to have on Peruvian public interests, such as agriculture, energy, and water supply and sanitation. They spearheaded a coalition, including United States universities (New Mexico, Colorado at Boulder, California at Davis the Water Directorate of Chile, the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean, agricultural water communities in Peru, and the technical offices dealing with water at the Inter-American Development Bank and the World Bank, to have a critical discussion of the Draft Law. The discussion took several years, at the end of which the Draft was rejected.

  6. Non formal mechanisms for public water allocation and the ineffectiveness of law in arid western Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liber Martin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzed the informal mechanisms of public water allocation and reallocation in western Argentina from a holistic conception of law. The paper refers to informal uses, its logical but ineffective repression and the continuous regularization processes from a non experimental observational method based on the use of qualitative strategies. The research work focused on the operation of water allocation mechanisms and management practices developed in the absence of law and against the law, at both the delivery and regulatory levels. The findings highlight the tensions and contradictions of these mechanisms under the formal legal system, demonstrating the crisis of both effectiveness and legitimacy of the law and the State in managing public waters.

  7. The Duty to Prevent Emotional Harm at Work: Arguments from Science and Law, Implications for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shain, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Although science and law employ different methods to gather and weigh evidence, their conclusions are remarkably convergent with regard to the effect that workplace stress has on the health of employees. Science, using the language of probability, affirms that certain stressors predict adverse health outcomes such as disabling anxiety and…

  8. Adaptation to Climate Change in European Water Law and Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keessen, Andrea M.; Rijswick, H.F.M.W. van

    2012-01-01

    Climate change exacerbates the challenges that water management nowadays has to deal with. This highlights the need for a legal framework that promotes adaptation by addressing the ecological value of water and the risks of flooding and drought. This paper analyzes to what extent the European legal

  9. Discrimination, developmental science, and the law: addressing dramatic shifts in civil rights jurisprudence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Roger J R

    2014-01-01

    The civil rights movement fostered dramatic shifts in legal responses to discrimination based on race, gender, and a host of other group characteristics. The legal system now evinces yet another dramatic shift, as it moves from considering difference to focusing on neutrality, from efforts that seek to counter subjugation to those that adopt a "color-blind" approach. The shifting approach already has reached laws regulating responses to the group that spurred massive civil rights reform: minority youth. The shift requires a different body of empirical evidence to address it and a new look at equality jurisprudence. This article notes the need to turn to the current understanding of prejudice and discrimination for guidance, and uses, as illustration, developmental science to shed light on the development, manifestation, and alleviation of invidious discrimination. Using that understanding, the analysis details how the legal system can benefit from that research and better address discrimination in light of dramatic changes in law. The article articulates the need to address discrimination by recognizing and enlisting the law's inculcative powers through multiple sites of inculcation, ranging from families, schools, health and justice systems to religious and community groups. The discussion concludes with brief suggestions for reform benefiting from understandings of prejudice and its expression.

  10. Stem cells and society: an undergraduate course exploring the intersections among science, religion, and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, Chris; Friedrichsen, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The intersection of science and our society has led to legal and ethical issues in which we all play a part. To support development of scientific literacy, college science courses need to engage students in difficult dialogues around ethical issues. We describe a new course, Stem Cells and Society, in which students explore the basic biology of stem cell research and the controversy surrounding it. As part of the course, we highlight the nature of science, looking at the methods and norms within the scientific community. To gain a perspective on the current stem cell controversy, we examine the public debates in the 1970s surrounding in vitro fertilization, the stem cell initiative in Missouri, and the personal and religious viewpoints that have emerged relative to the stem cell debate. In the Stem Cells and Society course, students are challenged to develop and clarify their own personal positions concerning embryonic stem cell research. These positions are grounded in science, religion or personal philosophy, and law.

  11. Water Science and Technology Board. Annual report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board during 1991. The WSTB is intended to be a dynamic forum, a mechanism by which the broad community of water science, technology, and policy professionals can help assure high-quality national water programs. The principal products of WSTB studies are written reports which cover a wide range of water resources issues of current national concern. A few recent examples are: Restoration of aquatic ecosystems - science, technologies and public policy; Water transfers in the West - efficiency, equity and the environment; Opportunities in the hydrologic sciences; and Ground water models - scientific and regulatory applications. Projects completed, ongoing studies and published reports are described in detail in their respective sections of this report.

  12. China’s Water Resources Law in Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, L.

    2015-01-01

    China has been on the road towards a transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy since 1978. The rapid industrialization and urbanization has put significant pressure on the environment. Water pollution in China is developing from traditional pollution with conventional pollutant

  13. Adaptation to Climate Change in European Water Law and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M. Keessen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Climate change exacerbates the challenges that water management nowadays has to deal with. This highlights the need for a legal framework that promotes adaptation by addressing the ecological value of water and the risks of flooding and drought. This paper analyzes to what extent the European legal framework meets this need. This is evaluated by analyzing to what extent the Water Framework Directive, the Floods Directive and the Water Scarcity and Drought Strategy build resilience. Resilience is an important concept in the adaptation to climate change discourse. It refers to the capacity of a social-ecological system to absorb disturbance and reorganize while undergoing change so as to still retain essentially the same function, structure, identity and feedbacks. This paper uses five criteria to measure this: (1 the flexibility of rules and (2 the adaptiveness of such rules (3 openness, public participation and access to the courts (4 multilevel governance at the bioregional scale and (5 effectiveness. The European legal framework partly meets these criteria. It offers a river basin approach and both the setting of goals and objectives and their achievement is a multilevel, cyclical process, which includes public participation. However, the achievement of the goals is not easily enforceable and coordination within international river basins is legally weak. This detracts from the expected effectiveness of the EU legal framework in promoting adaptation by protecting the aquatic ecosystem and reducing flood and drought risks.

  14. China’s Water Resources Law in Transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, L.

    2015-01-01

    China has been on the road towards a transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy since 1978. The rapid industrialization and urbanization has put significant pressure on the environment. Water pollution in China is developing from traditional pollution with conventional

  15. Nanoscaling laws of magnetic nanoparticles and their applicabilities in biomedical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Young-Wook; Seo, Jung-Wook; Cheon, Jinwoo

    2008-02-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles, which exhibit a variety of unique magnetic phenomena that are drastically different from those of their bulk counterparts, are garnering significant interest since these properties can be advantageous for utilization in a variety of applications ranging from storage media for magnetic memory devices to probes and vectors in the biomedical sciences. In this Account, we discuss the nanoscaling laws of magnetic nanoparticles including metals, metal ferrites, and metal alloys, while focusing on their size, shape, and composition effects. Their fundamental magnetic properties such as blocking temperature (Tb), spin life time (tau), coercivity (Hc), and susceptibility (chi) are strongly influenced by the nanoscaling laws, and as a result, these scaling relationships can be leveraged to control magnetism from the ferromagnetic to the superparamagnetic regimes. At the same time, they can be used in order to tune magnetic values including Hc, chi, and remanence (Mr). For example, life time of magnetic spin is directly related to the magnetic anisotropy energy (KuV) and also the size and volume of nanoparticles. The blocking temperature (Tb) changes from room temperature to 10 K as the size of cobalt nanoparticles is reduced from 13 to 2 nm. Similarly, H c is highly susceptible to the anisotropy of nanoparticles, while saturation magnetization is directly related to the canting effects of the disordered surface magnetic spins and follows a linear relationship upon plotting of ms (1/3) vs r(-1). Therefore, the nanoscaling laws of magnetic nanoparticles are important not only for understanding the behavior of existing materials but also for developing novel nanomaterials with superior properties. Since magnetic nanoparticles can be easily conjugated with biologically important constituents such as DNA, peptides, and antibodies, it is possible to construct versatile nano-bio hybrid particles, which simultaneously possess magnetic and biological functions

  16. China’s Water Resources Law in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    China has been on the road towards a transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy since 1978. The rapid industrialization and urbanization has put significant pressure on the environment. Water pollution in China is developing from traditional pollution with conventional pollutants to a compound type of pollution with new and old pollutants interacting with each other, and from a pollution-dominant industry to the coexistence of industrial pollution and agricultural polluti...

  17. Public law regulation of aqueducts and water supply in ancient Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sič Magdolna I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper tackles the sources of Roman law on construction and maintenance of public aqueducts and on the regulation of water usage. They show that in ancient Rome public aqueducts served public welfare (utilitas publica because their primary purpose was to supplying the urban population with free drinking water. Given that these ancient rules also contributed to the overall health of the population by securing drinking water and water for personal hygiene, they can also be regarded a significant environmental measures. Although contemporary engineering of water supply network and technology of water purification overcame the ancient Romans, in certain aspects this ancient example deserves to be followed. First, there could be free drinking water for general use. Second, private water usage could be controlled and rationalized. This could be achieved by installing separate water meters for each apartment in residual bundling.

  18. Bodies of science and law: forensic DNA profiling, biological bodies, and biopower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toom, Victor

    2012-01-01

    How is jurisdiction transferred from an individual's biological body to agents of power such as the police, public prosecutors, and the judiciary, and what happens to these biological bodies when transformed from private into public objects? These questions are examined by analysing bodies situated at the intersection of science and law. More specifically, the transformation of ‘private bodies’ into ‘public bodies’ is analysed by going into the details of forensic DNA profiling in the Dutch jurisdiction. It will be argued that various ‘forensic genetic practices’ enact different forensic genetic bodies'. These enacted forensic genetic bodies are connected with various infringements of civil rights, which become articulated in exploring these forensic genetic bodies’‘normative registers’.

  19. Water Science and Technology Board. Annual report 1992-1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board during 1992. The WSTB is intended to be a dynamic forum, a mechanism by which the broad community of water science, technology, and policy professionals can help assure high-quality national water programs. The principal products of WSTB studies are written reports which cover a wide range of water resources issues of current national concern. A few recent examples are: Managing wastewater in coastal urban areas; Ground water vulnerability assessment; Water transfers in the West - efficiency, equity and the environment; and Opportunities in the hydrologic sciences. Projects completed, ongoing studies and published reports are described in detail in their respective sections of this report.

  20. The Darwinian tension: Romantic science and the causal laws of nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greif, Hajo

    2015-10-01

    There have been attempts to subsume Charles Darwin's theory of evolution under either one of two distinct intellectual traditions: early Victorian natural science and its descendants in political economy (as exemplified by Herschel, Lyell, or Malthus) and the romantic approach to art and science emanating from Germany (as exemplified by Humboldt and Goethe). In this paper, it will be shown how these traditions may have jointly contributed to the design of Darwin's theory. The hypothesis is that their encounter created a particular tension in the conception of his theory which first opened up its characteristic field and mode of explanation. On the one hand, the domain of the explanandum was conceived of under a holistic and aesthetic view of nature that, in its combination with refined techniques of observation, was deeply indebted to Humboldt in particular. On the other hand, Darwin fashioned explanations for natural phenomena, so conceived, in order to identify their proper causes in a Herschelian spirit. The particular interaction between these two traditions in Darwin, it is concluded, paved the way for a transfer of the idea of causal laws to animate nature while salvaging the romantic idea of a complex, teleological and harmonious order of nature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Farmers' Laws and Irrigation, Water Rights and Dispute Management in the Hills of Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poudel, R.

    2000-01-01

    The title of my Thesis is "Farmers' Laws and Irrigation: Water Rights and Dispute Management in the Hills of Nepal". This is based on a research I conducted in the Thulotar Kulo irrigation system in Nepal, during 1997 and 1998. Thulotar Kulo is a farmer-managed irrigation system.Although this is a c

  2. Experimental study on water seepage constitutive law of fracture in rock under 3D stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵阳升; 杨栋; 郑少河; 胡耀青

    1999-01-01

    The test method and test result of water seepage constitutive law of fracture in rock under 3D stress are introduced. A permeability coefficient formula including the coefficient of fracture connection, normal stiffness, 3D stress, initial width of fracture and Poisson ratio is presented based on the analysis of the test theory and its result.

  3. Formal Law and Local Water Control in the Andean Region: A Fiercely Contested Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de H.; Boelens, R.A.; Bustamente, R.R.

    2006-01-01

    Water access and control rights of peasant and indigenous communities in Andean countries are threatened. Vertical state law and intervention practices, as well as new privatization policies generally ignore, discriminate or undermine local normative frameworks. Recognition of diverse local rights a

  4. Incentivising social science perspectives in the SADC water sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs-Mata, Inga M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the governance challenges facing the water sector necessitates expertise from a diverse set of interdisciplinary backgrounds. Creating a balance between technical, natural and social science is critical to developing relevant and impact...

  5. The Content of International Law Courses in Departments of Political Science: Some Comments. [Revised].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevis, Dimitris

    This paper discusses international law's nature and role and suggests that it can be studied from a number of different perspectives. The major topics include: (1) internationally relevant domestic law; (2) the relationship of law to justice; (3) international law's status and legitimacy; (4) the rights of governments, corporations, and…

  6. Environmental law. An introduction to the basic principles with special consideration of the law relating to water, pollution abatement, waste, and nature conservation. Umweltrecht. Eine Einfuehrung in die Grundlagen unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung des Wasser-, Immissionsschutz-, Abfall- und Naturschutzrechts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketteler, G.; Kippels, K. (Fachhochschule fuer Oeffentliche Verwaltung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Gelsenkirchen (Germany, F.R.))

    1988-01-01

    In section I 'Basic principles' the following topics are considered: Constitutional-legal aspects of environmental protection, e.g. nuclear hazards and the remaining risk; European environmental law; international environmental law; administrative law, private law and criminal law relating to the environment; basic principles of environmental law, the instruments of public environmental law. Section II 'Special areas of law' is concerned with the law on water and waste, prevention of air pollution, nature conservation and care of the countryside. Legal decisions and literature up to June 1988 have been taken into consideration. (orig./RST).

  7. Using Brain Imaging for Lie Detection: Where Science, Law and Research Policy Collide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langleben, Daniel D; Moriarty, Jane Campbell

    2013-05-01

    Progress in the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brain to evaluate deception and differentiate lying from truth-telling has created anticipation of a breakthrough in the search for technology-based methods of lie detection. In the last few years, litigants have attempted to introduce fMRI lie detection evidence in courts. This article weighs in on the interdisciplinary debate about the admissibility of such evidence, identifying the missing pieces of the scientific puzzle that need to be completed if fMRI-based lie detection is to meet the standards of either legal reliability or general acceptance. We believe that the Daubert's "known error rate" is the key concept linking the legal and scientific standards. We posit that properly-controlled clinical trials are the most convincing means to determine the error rates of fMRI-based lie detection and confirm or disprove the relevance of the promising laboratory research on this topic. This article explains the current state of the science and provides an analysis of the case law in which litigants have sought to introduce fMRI lie detection. Analyzing the myriad issues related to fMRI lie detection, the article identifies the key limitations of the current neuroimaging of deception science as expert evidence and explores the problems that arise from using scientific evidence before it is proven scientifically valid and reliable. We suggest that courts continue excluding fMRI lie detection evidence until this potentially useful form of forensic science meets the scientific standards currently required for adoption of a medical test or device. Given a multitude of stakeholders and, the charged and controversial nature and the potential societal impact of this technology, goodwill and collaboration of several government agencies may be required to sponsor impartial and comprehensive clinical trials that will guide the development of forensic fMRI technology.

  8. Power-law Growth and Punctuated Equilibrium Dynamics in Water Resources Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolari, A.; Katul, G. G.; Porporato, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The global rise in population-driven water scarcity and recent appreciation of strong dynamic coupling between human and natural systems has called for new approaches to predict the future sustainability of regional and global water resources systems. The dynamics of coupled human-water systems are driven by a complex set of social, environmental, and technological factors. Present projections of water resources systems range from a finite carrying capacity regulated by accessible freshwater, or `peak renewable water,' to punctuated evolution with new supplied and improved efficiency gained from technological and social innovation. However, these projections have yet to be quantified from observations or in a comprehensive theoretical framework. Using data on global water withdrawals and storage capacity of regional water supply systems, non-trivial dynamics are identified in water resources systems development over time, including power-law growth and punctuated equilibria. Two models are introduced to explain this behavior: (1) a delay differential equation and (2) a power-law with log-periodic oscillations, both of which rely on past conditions (or system memory) to describe the present rate of growth in the system. In addition, extension of the first model demonstrates how system delays and punctuated equilibria can emerge from coupling between human population growth and associated resource demands. Lastly, anecdotal evidence is used to demonstrate the likelihood of power-law growth in global water use from the agricultural revolution 3000 BC to the present. In a practical sense, the presence of these patterns in models with delayed oscillations suggests that current decision-making related to water resources development results from the historical accumulation of resource use decisions, technological and social changes, and their consequences.

  9. The regulation of diffuse pollution in the European Union: science, governance and water resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hendry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reducing diffuse pollution is a perpetuating problem for environmental regulators. This paper will consider novel ways to regulate its impacts on the aquatic environment, with particular reference to rural landuse. It will look at the relationship between science, policy and law, and the contributions of integrated water resources management and governance at regional, national and river basin scales. Regulatory frameworks for water in the European Union will be explored, along with their implementation nationally in Scotland and at catchment scale in the Tweed river basin. It will conclude that regulation has a role to play, but that it is necessary to take a visionary holistic and integrated approach, nesting regulation within a governance framework that involves all stakeholders and takes full account of developing science and socio-economic drivers to meet environmental objectives.

  10. The regulation of diffuse pollution in the European Union: science, governance and water resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hendry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Reducing diffuse pollution is a perpetuating problem for environmental regulators. This paper will consider novel ways to regulate its impacts on the aquatic environment, with particular reference to rural landuse. It will look at the relationship between science, policy and law, and the contributions of integrated water resources management and governance at regional, national and river basin scales. Regulatory frameworks for water in the European Union will be explored, along with their implementation nationally in Scotland and at catchment scale in the Tweed river basin. It will conclude that regulation has a role to play, but that it is necessary to take a visionary holistic and integrated approach, nesting regulation within a governance framework that involves all stakeholders and takes full account of developing science and socio-economic drivers to meet environmental objectives.

  11. Strategic plan for science-U.S. Geological Survey, Ohio Water Science Center, 2010-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    This Science Plan identifies specific scientific and technical programmatic issues of current importance to Ohio and the Nation. An examination of those issues yielded a set of five major focus areas with associated science goals and strategies that the Ohio Water Science Center will emphasize in its program during 2010-15. A primary goal of the Science Plan is to establish a relevant multidisciplinary scientific and technical program that generates high-quality products that meet or exceed the expectations of our partners while supporting the goals and initiatives of the U.S. Geological Survey. The Science Plan will be used to set the direction of new and existing programs and will influence future training and hiring decisions by the Ohio Water Science Center.

  12. Water Distribution in the Public Interest and the Human Right to Water: Swiss, South African and International Law Compared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Rüegger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The legal norms governing the distribution of water are integral to how access to water is determined. This paper analyses the idea that water should be used in the interest of the public from a legal point of view. Taking Swiss and South African law as examples it examines what the notion of 'public interest' actually means. A close look at the notion of 'water distribution in the public interest' reveals important insights: water distribution in the public interest balances a variety of different economic, ecological and social interests. In this process the human right to water is attributed the role as protective shield. Hence its effective implementation is crucial in order to safeguard water for basic human needs. After analysing how Swiss and South African water regimes are currently structured and the role of the public interest clause therein, the paper examines whether the human right to water as conceived in Swiss, South African and international law effectively ensures protection of domestic water users. The paper concludes that this is the case under some, but not all circumstances. Especially the interests of those users whose access to water is not yet sufficient do not always receive adequate legal protection by the respective legal orders. The paper concludes by stressing the necessity to evolve the concept of the human right to water to reach comprehensive protection of basic human needs. Consciousness of the social risks associated with using the human right to water as general placeholder for basic human needs despite its shortcomings will hopefully encourage efforts to establish substantive legal protection.

  13. Water Integration Project Science Strategies White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan K. Yonk

    2003-09-01

    This white paper has been prepared to document the approach to develop strategies to address Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) science and technology needs/uncertainties to support completion of INEEL Idaho Completion Project (Environmental Management [EM]) projects against the 2012 plan. Important Idaho Completion Project remediation and clean-up projects include the 2008 OU 10-08 Record of Decision, completion of EM by 2012, Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Tanks, INEEL CERCLA Disposal Facility, and the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. The objective of this effort was to develop prioritized operational needs and uncertainties that would assist Operations in remediation and clean-up efforts at the INEEL and develop a proposed path forward for the development of science strategies to address these prioritized needs. Fifteen needs/uncertainties were selected to develop an initial approach to science strategies. For each of the 15 needs/uncertainties, a detailed definition was developed. This included extracting information from the past interviews with Operations personnel to provide a detailed description of the need/uncertainty. For each of the 15 prioritized research and development needs, a search was performed to identify the state of the associated knowledge. The knowledge search was performed primarily evaluating ongoing research. The ongoing research reviewed included Environmental Systems Research Analysis, Environmental Management Science Program, Laboratory Directed Research and Development, Inland Northwest Research Alliance, United States Geological Survey, and ongoing Operations supported projects. Results of the knowledge search are documented as part of this document.

  14. NASA'S Water Resources Element Within the Applied Sciences Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, David; Doorn, Bradley; Engman, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Earth Systems Division has the primary responsibility for the Applied Science Program and the objective to accelerate the use of NASA science results in applications to help solve problems important to society and the economy. The primary goal of the NASA Applied Science Program is to improve future and current operational systems by infusing them with scientific knowledge of the Earth system gained through space-based observation, assimilation of new observations, and development and deployment of enabling technologies, systems, and capabilities. This paper discusses major problems facing water resources managers, including having timely and accurate data to drive their decision support tools. It then describes how NASA's science and space based satellites may be used to overcome this problem. Opportunities for the water resources community to participate in NASA's Water Resources Applications Program are described.

  15. Water Science and Technology Board annual report, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) during 1990, its eighth year of existence. It describes current and recently completed projects, new activities scheduled to begin in 1991, and plans for the future. The WSTB is intended to be a dynamic forum, a mechanism by which the board community of water science, technology, and policy professionals can help assure high-quality national water programs. As such, the Board considers out-reach and communications of much importance.

  16. Water Science and Technology Board annual report, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) during 1990, its eighth year of existence. It describes current and recently completed projects, new activities scheduled to begin in 1991, and plans for the future. The WSTB is intended to be a dynamic forum, a mechanism by which the board community of water science, technology, and policy professionals can help assure high-quality national water programs. As such, the Board considers out-reach and communications of much importance.

  17. Water Science and Technology Board. Annual report 1993-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Water Science and Technology Board during 1993-1994. The WSTB is intended to be a dynamic forum, a mechanism by which the broad community of water science, technology, and policy professionals can help assure high-quality national water programs. The principal products of WSTB studies are written reports which cover a wide range of water resources issues of current national concern. A few recent examples are: Alternatives for ground water cleanup; Managing wastewater in coastal urban areas; and, Water transfers in the West - efficiency, equity and the environment. Projects completed, ongoing studies and published reports are described in detail in their respective sections of this report.

  18. Medical profession changes between religion, science, skill, ethics, law and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, L R

    1997-01-01

    How has the medical profession changed during the centuries? How has the evolution of the profession been influenced by the balance of different issues, e.g. magic, religion, philosophy, science, technology, ethics, law and/or economics? One needs to examine many historical changes leading from the hierarchized medicine of Ancient Egypt to the Asklepiadic and Hippocratic medicine at the time of Plato, from the newly organized medicine of the Renaissance to the emerging social medicine of the XIX century, from the nosological medicine centered on the evaluation of the symptoms to the medicine which explores the human body through technologies. Furthermore, an overview from the past to the future should analyze the new doctor-patient relationship in a health system of managed care, between market and solidarity, between the efficientistic guidelines of the providers (hospitals, physicians, etc.) and an anthropocentric view of the rights of the citizen-customers. These problems are presented and discussed by many Authors in three issues of Medicina nei Secoli (II/III.1997-I, 1998) as an aid to understanding what it means to be a physician today, from the past to the future.

  19. Social Water Science Data: Dimensions, Data Management, and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. S.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Flint, C.; Jackson-Smith, D.

    2016-12-01

    Water systems are increasingly conceptualized as coupled human-natural systems, with growing emphasis on representing the human element in hydrology. However, social science data and associated considerations may be unfamiliar and intimidating to many hydrologic researchers. Monitoring social aspects of water systems involves expanding the range of data types typically used in hydrology and appreciating nuances in datasets that are well known to social scientists, but less understood by hydrologists. We define social water science data as any information representing the human aspects of a water system. We present a scheme for classifying these data, highlight an array of data types, and illustrate data management considerations and challenges unique to social science data. This classification scheme was applied to datasets generated as part of iUTAH (innovative Urban Transitions and Arid region Hydro-sustainability), an interdisciplinary water research project based in Utah, USA that seeks to integrate and share social and biophysical water science data. As the project deployed cyberinfrastructure for baseline biophysical data, cyberinfrastructure for analogous social science data was necessary. As a particular case of social water science data, we focus in this presentation on social science survey data. These data are often interpreted through the lens of the original researcher and are typically presented to interested parties in static figures or reports. To provide more exploratory and dynamic communication of these data beyond the individual or team who collected the data, we developed a web-based, interactive viewer to visualize social science survey responses. This interface is applicable for examining survey results that show human motivations and actions related to environmental systems and as a useful tool for participatory decision-making. It also serves as an example of how new data sharing and visualization tools can be developed once the

  20. The Fractional Power Law of Wind Wave Growth in Deep Water for Short Fetch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Changlong; SUN Qun; Philippe Fraunie

    2002-01-01

    Combining the 3/2 power law proposed by Toba with the significant wave energy balance equation for windwaves, wave growth in deep water for short fetch is investigated. It is found that the variations of wave height and periodwith fetch have the form of power function with fractional exponents 3/8 and 1/4 respectively. Using these exponents in thepower functions and through data fitting, the concise wind wave growth relations for short fetch are obtained.

  1. Evolving water science in the Anthropocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, H.H.G.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Van der Zaag, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the changing relation between man and water since the industrial revolution, the period that has been called the Anthropocene because of the unprecedented scale at which humans have altered the planet.We show how the rapidly changing reality urges us to continuously improve our un

  2. Evolving water science in the Anthropocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, H.H.G.; Hoekstra, A.Y.; Zaag, van der P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the changing relation between human beings and water since the Industrial Revolution, a period that has been called the Anthropocene because of the unprecedented scale at which humans have altered the planet during this time. We show how the rapidly changing world urges us to cont

  3. Water Watchers: Water Conservation Curriculum for Junior High School Science and Social Studies Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts State Water Resources Authority, Boston.

    Water is precious. It is also easy to take for granted. Many people recognize that water is scarce in desert areas, but it is harder to realize that places like Massachusetts could face a shortage of pure drinking water. This guide is designed for seventh and eighth grade science and social studies teacher. The lessons require 5 to 10 class…

  4. The water-energy nexus: an earth science perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Richard W.; Alley, William M.; Engle, Mark A.; McMahon, Peter B.; Bales, Jerad D.

    2015-01-01

    Water availability and use are closely connected with energy development and use. Water cannot be delivered to homes, businesses, and industries without energy, and most forms of energy development require large amounts of water. The United States faces two significant and sometimes competing challenges: to provide sustainable supplies of freshwater for humans and ecosystems and to ensure adequate sources of energy for future generations. This report reviews the complex ways in which water and energy are interconnected and describes the earth science data collection and research that can help the Nation address these important challenges.

  5. Analysis of Water Hammer with Different Closing Valve Laws on Transient Flow of Hydrogen-Natural Gas Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Norazlina Subani; Norsarahaida Amin

    2015-01-01

    Water hammer on transient flow of hydrogen-natural gas mixture in a horizontal pipeline is analysed to determine the relationship between pressure waves and different modes of closing and opening of valves. Four types of laws applicable to closing valve, namely, instantaneous, linear, concave, and convex laws, are considered. These closure laws describe the speed variation of the hydrogen-natural gas mixture as the valve is closing. The numerical solution is obtained using the reduced order m...

  6. Where Did the Water Go?: Boyle's Law and Pressurized Diaphragm Water Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimhall, James; Naga, Sundar

    2007-01-01

    Many homes use pressurized diaphragm tanks for storage of water pumped from an underground well. These tanks are very carefully constructed to have separate internal chambers for the storage of water and for the air that provides the pressure. One might expect that the amount of water available for use from, for example, a 50-gallon tank would be…

  7. Pre-Service Science Teachers' PCK: Inconsistency of Pre-Service Teachers' Predictions and Student Learning Difficulties in Newton's Third Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shaona; Wang, Yanlin; Zhang, Chunbin

    2016-01-01

    There is widespread agreement that science learning always builds upon students' existing ideas and that science teachers should possess knowledge of learners. This study aims at investigating pre-service science teachers' knowledge of student misconceptions and difficulties, a crucial component of PCK, on Newton's Third Law. A questionnaire was…

  8. Adaptive Governance of Water Resources Shared with Indigenous Peoples: The Role of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Cosens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive governance is an emergent phenomenon resulting from the interaction of locally driven collaborative efforts with a hierarchy of governmental regulation and management and is thought to be capable of navigating social−ecological change as society responds to the effects of climate change. The assertion of Native American water rights on highly developed water systems in North America has triggered governance innovations that resemble certain aspects of adaptive governance, and have emerged to accommodate the need for Indigenous water development and restoration of cultural and ecological resources. Similar innovations are observed in the assertion of Indigenous voices in Australia. This presents an opportunity to analyze the emergence of adaptive processes within complex legal systems. We explore the role of law in locally driven innovation in this context, concluding that any system of governance that requires greater flexibility will only be viewed as legitimate, and thus succeed, if attention is given not only to adaptive capacity, but also to aspects of good governance. Through examples of the assertion of Indigenous rights, we illustrate critical links between adaptive capacity in water management, good governance, and law.

  9. Nonlinear Self-Adjointness, Conservation Laws and Soliton-Cnoidal Wave Interaction Solutions of (2+1)-Dimensional Modified Dispersive Water-Wave System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ya-Rong; Xin, Xiang-Peng; Zhang, Shun-Li

    2017-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the (2+1)-dimensional modified dispersive water-wave (MDWW) system which will be proved nonlinear self-adjointness. This property is applied to construct conservation laws corresponding to the symmetries of the system. Moreover, via the truncated Painlevé analysis and consistent tanh-function expansion (CTE) method, the soliton-cnoidal periodic wave interaction solutions and corresponding images will be eventually achieved. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11371293, 11505090, the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province under Grant No. 2014JM2-1009, Research Award Foundation for Outstanding Young Scientists of Shandong Province under Grant No. BS2015SF009 and the Science and Technology Innovation Foundation of Xi’an under Grant No. CYX1531WL41

  10. Water Science and Technology Board Annual Report 2001-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-10-01

    This annual report marks the twentieth anniversary of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) (1982-2002). The WSTB oversees studies of water issues. The principal products of studies are written reports. These reports cover a wide range of water resources issues of national concern. The following three recently issued reports illustrate the scope of the WSTB's studies: Envisioning the Agenda for Water Resources Research in the Twenty-first Century. The Missouri River Ecosystem: Exploring the Prospects for Recovery, and Assessing the TMDL Approach to Water Quality Management. The WSTB generally meets three times each year where discussions are held on ongoing projects, strategic planning, and developing new initiatives. The meetings also foster communication within the water resources community. The annual report includes a discussion on current studies, completed studies 2001-2002, and future plans, as well as a listing of published reports (1983-2002).

  11. The agronomic science of spatial and temporal water management:How much, when and where

    Science.gov (United States)

    The agronomic sciences are those that are applied to soil and water management and crop production, including soil, water and plant sciences and related disciplines. The science of spatial and temporal water management includes many agronomic science factors, including soil physics, biophysics, plan...

  12. Science to support the understanding of Ohio's water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Kimberly; Kula, Stephanie; Bambach, Phil; Runkle, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Ohio’s water resources support a complex web of human activities and nature—clean and abundant water is needed for drinking, recreation, farming, and industry, as well as for fish and wildlife needs. The distribution of rainfall can cause floods and droughts, which affects streamflow, groundwater, water availability, water quality, recreation, and aquatic habitats. Ohio is bordered by the Ohio River and Lake Erie and has over 44,000 miles of streams and more than 60,000 lakes and ponds (State of Ohio, 1994). Nearly all the rural population obtain drinking water from groundwater sources. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) works in cooperation with local, State, and other Federal agencies, as well as universities, to furnish decisionmakers, policymakers, USGS scientists, and the general public with reliable scientific information and tools to assist them in management, stewardship, and use of Ohio’s natural resources. The diversity of scientific expertise among USGS personnel enables them to carry out large- and small-scale multidisciplinary studies. The USGS is unique among government organizations because it has neither regulatory nor developmental authority—its sole product is reliable, impartial, credible, relevant, and timely scientific information, equally accessible and available to everyone. The USGS Ohio Water Science Center provides reliable hydrologic and water-related ecological information to aid in the understanding of use and management of the Nation’s water resources, in general, and Ohio’s water resources, in particular. This fact sheet provides an overview of current (2012) or recently completed USGS studies and data activities pertaining to water resources in Ohio. More information regarding projects of the USGS Ohio Water Science Center is available at http://oh.water.usgs.gov/.

  13. Water, Resilience and the Law: From General Concepts and Governance Design Principles to Actionable Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill Clarvis, M.; Allan, A.; Hannah, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change has significant ramifications for water law and governance, yet, there is strong evidence that legal regulations have often failed to protect environments or promote sustainable development. Scholars have increasingly suggested that the preservation and restoration paradigms of legislation and regulation are no longer adequate for climate change related challenges in complex and cross-scale social-ecological systems. This is namely due to past assumptions of stationarity, uniformitarianism and the perception of ecosystem change as predictable and reversible. This paper reviews the literature on law and resilience and then presents and discusses a set of practical examples of legal mechanisms from the water resources management sector, identified according to a set of guiding principles from the literature on adaptive capacity, adaptive governance as well as adaptive and integrated water resources management. It then assesses the aptness of these different measures according to scientific evidence of increased uncertainty and changing ecological baselines. A review of the best practice examples demonstrates that there are a number of best practice examples attempting to integrate adaptive elements of flexibility, iterativity, connectivity and subsidiarity into a variety of legislative mechanisms, suggesting that there is not as significant a tension between resilience and the law as many scholars have suggested. However, while many of the mechanisms may indeed be suitable for addressing challenges relating to current levels of change and uncertainty, analysis across a broader range of uncertainty highlights challenges relating to more irreversible changes associated with greater levels of warming. Furthermore the paper identifies a set of pre-requisites that are fundamental to the successful implementation of such mechanisms, namely monitoring and data sharing, financial and technical capacity, particularly in nations that are most at risk with the

  14. Whitehead Policy Symposium. The Human Genome Project: Science, law, and social change in the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, E.K.

    2000-02-17

    Advances in the biomedical sciences, especially in human genomics, will dramatically influence law, medicine, public health, and many other sectors of our society in the decades ahead. The public already senses the revolutionary nature of genomic knowledge. In the US and Europe, we have seen widespread discussions about genetic discrimination in health insurance; privacy issues raised by the proliferation of DNA data banks; the challenge of interpreting new DNA diagnostic tests; changing definitions of what it means to be healthy; and the science and ethics of cloning animals and human beings. The primary goal of the Whitehead/ASLME Policy Symposium was to provide a bridge between the research community and professionals, who were just beginning to grasp the potential impact of new genetic technologies on their fields. The ''Human Genome Project: Science, Law, and Social Change in the 21st Century'' initially was designed as a forum for 300-500 physicians, lawyers, consumers, ethicists, and scientists to explore the impact of new genetic technologies and prepare for the challenges ahead.

  15. The Ultrashort laser pulses in water that violates the Lambert-Beer Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Joong; Kattawar, George; Naveira, Lucas; Sokolov, Alexei

    2007-10-01

    Recent experiments have opened the possibility that by using ultrashort Laser Pulse in H2O, it may be possible to propagate light (signal) over much further distance than predicted by the familiar Beer-Lambert Law. To explain it, the complete femtosecond-width pulse propagation process will be modeled and simulated by FDTD method in visible frequency range. We will show how the FDTD method can be used to accuately model the propagation of Ultrashort pulses in water. We will also show the development of the both the Sommerfeld and Brillouin optical precursors. We will, for the first time, use the actual absorption spectrum of water in these calculations and compare the results with experimental data.

  16. On the Position of the Science of Human Rights Law%论“人权法学”的定位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志强

    2012-01-01

    《人权法学》课程和教材,为“人权法学”学科的发展打下了坚实基础。人权和人权理论则是人权法规范研究的对象和内容。“人权法学”是关于人权法规范的理论学说,并以国际人权法标准来审视具体人权的理论体系,具有区别于其他学科的特点。在方法论上,“人权法学”可以划分为根本方法、普通方法以及具体方法。研究国际人权标准与具体人权的对接以及理论的解释,则是“人权法学”学科的主要任务。%The course and teaching materials of Human Rights Law have laid a solid foundation for the science of Human Rights Law. Human rights and their relevant theories constitute the object and contents of this course. The course of Human Rights Law establishes a theoretical system which examines specific human rights theories according to the international human rights standards. It possesses characteristics different from other disciplines. Methodologically, the science of Human Rights Law may be divided into basic methods, common methods and concrete methods. The main task of this course is to make research into the international human rights standards and their application to the examination of the specific human rights, and interpret the theories of human rights.

  17. The food-energy-water nexus: Transforming science for society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Ruddell, Ben L.; Reed, Patrick M.; Hook, Ruth I.; Zheng, Chunmiao; Tidwell, Vince C.; Siebert, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    Emerging interdisciplinary science efforts are providing new understanding of the interdependence of food, energy, and water (FEW) systems. These science advances, in turn, provide critical information for coordinated management to improve the affordability, reliability, and environmental sustainability of FEW systems. Here we describe the current state of the FEW nexus and approaches to managing resource conflicts through reducing demand and increasing supplies, storage, and transport. Despite significant advances within the past decade, there are still many challenges for the scientific community. Key challenges are the need for interdisciplinary science related to the FEW nexus; ground-based monitoring and modeling at local-to-regional scales; incorporating human and institutional behavior in models; partnerships among universities, industry, and government to develop policy relevant data; and systems modeling to evaluate trade-offs associated with FEW decisions.

  18. Water transport in bentonite: evaluation by molecular dynamics, homogenization analysis and similitude law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuaki, Ichikawa; Somehai, Prayongphan [Nagoya Univ., Dpt. of Environmental Engineering and Architecture, Chikusa, Nagoya (Japan); Kazumi, Kitayama [NUMO, Minato, Tokyo (Japan); Katsuyuki, Kawamura [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The major scenario of transport of radioactive nuclides is due to groundwater flow in most HLW projects. The phenomena of water flow and diffusion of chemical species in a bentonite buffer and surrounding rock mass have been treated mainly based on the classical porous media theories under the Darcy law and Fick law. The classical theories involve the following difficulties: 1) True velocity field is hard to be identified, especially in microscale sense. Note that it essentially affects the transport of chemical species. 2) The classical theories are not applicable to the problems in which experimental data are not available. Thus, the very long time behavior cannot be proven. We commonly recognize that the water flow in bentonite and mud-stone is strongly retarded. It is highly doubtful whether the above classical theories are applicable for such very low permeable materials. In this work we first show that the velocity and diffusion fields in pure smectite bentonite can be calculated by a coupled molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and the homogenization analysis (HA). The true velocity field can be calculated by applying HA to the Navier-Stokes equation, and the local distribution of viscosity used in this HA is obtained by MD. The diffusion field is also calculated under the same procedure of MD/HA by using the local diffusion equation with diffusivity calculated by MD. (authors)

  19. Historical Legacies, Information and Contemporary Water Science and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J. Vörösmarty

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrologic science has largely built its understanding of the hydrologic cycle using contemporary data sources (i.e., last 100 years. However, as we try to meet water demand over the next 100 years at scales from local to global, we need to expand our scope and embrace other data that address human activities and the alteration of hydrologic systems. For example, the accumulation of human impacts on water systems requires exploration of incompletely documented eras. When examining these historical periods, basic questions relevant to modern systems arise: (1 How is better information incorporated into water management strategies? (2 Does any point in the past (e.g., colonial/pre-European conditions in North America provide a suitable restoration target? and (3 How can understanding legacies improve our ability to plan for future conditions? Beginning to answer these questions indicates the vital need to incorporate disparate data and less accepted methods to meet looming water management challenges.

  20. Historical legacies, information and contemporary water science and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Daniel J.; Arrigo, Jennifer A.S.; Green, Mark B.; Pellerin, Brian A.; Vörösmarty, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrologic science has largely built its understanding of the hydrologic cycle using contemporary data sources (i.e., last 100 years). However, as we try to meet water demand over the next 100 years at scales from local to global, we need to expand our scope and embrace other data that address human activities and the alteration of hydrologic systems. For example, the accumulation of human impacts on water systems requires exploration of incompletely documented eras. When examining these historical periods, basic questions relevant to modern systems arise: (1) How is better information incorporated into water management strategies? (2) Does any point in the past (e.g., colonial/pre-European conditions in North America) provide a suitable restoration target? and (3) How can understanding legacies improve our ability to plan for future conditions? Beginning to answer these questions indicates the vital need to incorporate disparate data and less accepted methods to meet looming water management challenges.

  1. Model laws for water wheels and their application to overshot water wheels; Modellgesetze fuer Wasserraeder und ihre Anwendung auf das oberschlaechtige Wasserrad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuernbergk, Dirk M.

    2009-07-01

    For several years, water wheels as a technological drive increasingly gain attention. Water wheels with goitre drain and overshot water wheels have an efficiency of up to 80 %. The question of how this can be exploited on a real location rises. Furthermore, the question of conversion rules rises, if one calculates back a model wheel to a particular location. The required model laws are be derived again in the contribution under consideration. The application of these model laws on the overshot water wheel are explained.

  2. Water Science and Technology Board annual report 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    In 1982, the National Research Council chose to recognize the importance of water resource issues by establishing the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB). During the five years since its first meeting in November 1982, the WSTB has grown and matured. The WSTB has met 14 times to provide guidance and plan activities. Under the WSTB's direction, committees of experts have conducted approximately 30 studies on a broad array of topics, from dam safety to irrigation-induced water quality problems to ground water protection strategies. Studies have ranged in scope from the oversight of specific agency projects and programs to broader scientific reviews, such as a disciplinary assessment of the hydrologic sciences initiated in 1987. In all cases, studies have the general theme of ultimately improving the scientific and technological bases of programs of water management and environmental quality. This fifth annual report of the WSTB summarizes the Board's accomplishments during 1987, its current activities, and its plans for the future. The report also includes information on Board and committee memberships, program organizations, and the reports produced. The report should provide the reader with a basic understanding of the WSTB's interests, achievements, and capabilities. The WSTB welcomes inquiries and suggestions concerning its activities and will provide more detailed information on any aspects of its work to those interested.

  3. Modes of Collaboration in Modern Science - Beyond Power Laws and Preferential Attachment

    CERN Document Server

    Milojević, Staša

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the study is to determine the underlying processes leading to the observed collaborator distribution in modern scientific fields, with special attention to non-power law behavior. Nanoscience is used as a case study of a modern interdisciplinary field, and its coauthorship network for 2000-04 period is constructed from NanoBank database. We find three collaboration modes that correspond to three distinct ranges in the distribution of collaborators: (1) for authors with fewer than 20 collaborators (the majority) preferential attachment does not hold and they form a log-normal "hook" instead of a power law, (2) authors with more than 20 collaborators benefit from preferential attachment and form a power law tail, and (3) authors with between 250 and 800 collaborators are more frequent than expected because of the hyperauthorship practices in certain subfields.

  4. Mathematics and the Laws of Nature Developing the Language of Science (Revised Edition)

    CERN Document Server

    Tabak, John

    2011-01-01

    Mathematics and the Laws of Nature, Revised Edition describes the evolution of the idea that nature can be described in the language of mathematics. Colorful chapters explore the earliest attempts to apply deductive methods to the study of the natural world. This revised resource goes on to examine the development of classical conservation laws, including the conservation of momentum, the conservation of mass, and the conservation of energy. Chapters have been updated and revised to reflect recent information, including the mathematical pioneers who introduced new ideas about what it meant to

  5. How Important are the Laws of Definite and Multiple Proportions in Chemistry and Teaching Chemistry? A History and Philosophy of Science Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, Mansoor

    The main objectives of this study are:(1) to elaborate a framework based on a rational reconstruction of developments that led to the formulation of the laws of definite and multiple proportions; (2) to ascertain students' views of the two laws; (3) to formulate criteria based on the framework for evaluating chemistry textbooks' treatment of the two laws; and (4) to provide a rationale for chemistry teachers to respond to the question: Can we teach chemistry without the laws of definite and multiple proportions? Results obtained show that most of the textbooks present the laws of definite and multiple proportions within an inductivist perspective, characterized by the following sequence: experimental findings showed that chemical elements combined in fixed/multiple proportions, followed by the formulation of the laws of definite and multiple proportions, and finally Dalton's atomic theory was postulated to explain the laws. Students were found to be reluctant to question the laws that they learnt as the building blocks of chemistry. It is concluded that by emphasizing the laws of definite and multiple proportions, textbooks inevitably endorse the dichotomy between theories and laws, which is questioned by philosophers of science (Lakatos 1970; Giere 1995a, b). An alternative approach is presented which shows that we can teach chemistry without the laws of definite and multiple proportions.

  6. Stem Cells and Society: An Undergraduate Course Exploring the Intersections among Science, Religion, and Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, Chris; Friedrichsen, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The intersection of science and our society has led to legal and ethical issues in which we all play a part. To support development of scientific literacy, college science courses need to engage students in difficult dialogues around ethical issues. We describe a new course, Stem Cells and Society, in which students explore the basic biology of…

  7. Stem Cells and Society: An Undergraduate Course Exploring the Intersections among Science, Religion, and Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, Chris; Friedrichsen, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    The intersection of science and our society has led to legal and ethical issues in which we all play a part. To support development of scientific literacy, college science courses need to engage students in difficult dialogues around ethical issues. We describe a new course, Stem Cells and Society, in which students explore the basic biology of…

  8. Non-Science Oriented Students and the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    Describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a module called "Energy and the Human Being" within the framework of a program aimed at non-science-oriented students in senior high schools in Israel. Finds that students' attitudes toward science were positive and their understanding of the scientific concepts involved was…

  9. Virginia Water Central

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Water Resources Research Center

    2011-01-01

    This newsletter features articles on water-related science, policy, and law. Distributed to state agency representatives, faculty, students and interested citizens, it aims to provide current information, statistics, news, and notices related to water resources in Virginia.

  10. Are you an honest scientist? Truthfulness in science should be an iron law, not a vague aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2009-11-01

    Anyone who has been a scientist for more than a couple of decades will realize that there has been a progressive and pervasive decline in the honesty of scientific communications. Yet real science simply must be an arena where truth is the rule; or else the activity simply stops being science and becomes something else: Zombie science. Although all humans ought to be truthful at all times; science is the one area of social functioning in which truth is the primary value, and truthfulness the core evaluation. Truth-telling and truth-seeking should not, therefore, be regarded as unattainable aspirations for scientists, but as iron laws, continually and universally operative. Yet such is the endemic state of corruption that an insistence on truthfulness in science seems perverse, aggressive, dangerous, or simply utopian. Not so: truthfulness in science is not utopian and was indeed taken for granted (albeit subject to normal human imperfections) just a few decades ago. Furthermore, as Jacob Bronowski argued, humans cannot be honest only in important matters while being expedient in minor matters: truth is all of a piece. There are always so many incentives to lie that truthfulness is either a habit or else it declines. This means that in order to be truthful in the face of opposition, scientists need to find a philosophical basis which will sustain a life of habitual truth and support them through the pressure to be expedient (or agreeable) rather than honest. The best hope of saving science from a progressive descent into Zombiedom seems to be a moral Great Awakening: an ethical revolution focused on re-establishing the primary purpose of science: which is the pursuit of truth. Such an Awakening would necessarily begin with individual commitment, but to have any impact it would need to progress rapidly to institutional forms. The most realistic prospect is that some sub-specialties of science might self-identify as being engaged primarily in the pursuit of truth

  11. Land, water and mineral resources in science education

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    This volume, the fourth in a nine-volume series concerned with different aspects of science education at all levels, examines the value of teaching about natural resources; the content areas which might be included; and the teaching strategies that may be appropriate. Contents (partial): Preface; Introduction; Education for the use of land, water and mineral resources; Land Use; Viewpoint; Land use: its human uses; Environmental deterioration; Using local resources; Soil and land: activity module for the primary level; Water Resources; Possible activities; Water and health for the primary level; Sewage; Mineral Resources; Types of minerals, their uses and identification; Traditional prospecting; Techniques of mineral exploration; Student activities; Mining and processing; The impact of mineral resource development.

  12. Learning Science Through Guided Discovery: Liquid Water and Molecular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essmann, U.; Glotzer, S.; Gyure, M.; Ostrovsky, B.; Poole, P. H.; Sastry, S.; Schwarzer, S.; Selinger, R.; Shann, M. H.; Shore, L. S.; Stanley, H. E.; Taylor, E. F.; Trunfio, P.

    In every drop of water, down at the scale of atoms and molecules, there is a world that can fascinate anyone—ranging from a non-verbal young science student to an ardent science-phobe. The objective of Learning Science through Guided Discovery: Liquid Water and Molecular Networks is to use advanced technology to provide a window into this submicroscopic world, and thereby allow students to discover by themselves a new world. We have developed a coordinated two-fold approach in which a cycle of hands-on activities, games, and experimentation is followed by a cycle of advanced computer simulations employing the full power of computer animation to "ZOOM" into the depths of his or her newly-discovered world, an interactive experience surpassing that of an OMNIMAX theater. Pairing of laboratory experiments with corresponding simulations challenges students to understand multiple representations of concepts. Answers to student questions, resolution of student misconceptions, and eventual personalized student discoveries are all guided by a clear set of "cues" which we build into the computer display. We thereby provide students with the opportunity to work in a fashion analogous to that in which practicing scientists work—e.g., by using advanced technology to "build up" to general principles from specific experiences. Moreover, the ability to visualize "real-time" dynamic motions allows for student-controlled animated graphic simulations on the molecular scale and interactive guided lessons superior to those afforded by even the most artful of existing texts.

  13. Do Subject Matter Knowledge, and Pedagogical Content Knowledge Constitute the Ideal Gas Law of Science Teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Norman G.; Gess-Newsome, Julie

    1992-01-01

    Describes Pedagogical Content Knowledge and focuses on the empirical research directly concerned with the relationship between science teachers' subject matter knowledge or structures and actual classroom practice. Concludes there is little evidence that a relationship exists. (PR)

  14. AVOIDING MAZIBUKO: WATER SECURITY AND CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS IN SOUTHERN AFRICAN CASE LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Couzens

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The 2009 judgment by the Constitutional Court of South Africa in Mazibuko v City of Johannesburg is seen by many as a watershed in the interpretation of the fundamental constitutional right of access to water. The Constitutional Court ruled that the right of access to sufficient water does not require that the state provide every person upon demand and without more with sufficient water. Nor does the obligation confer on any person a right to claim "sufficient water" from the state immediately. Reactions to the judgment have been consistently negative, with criticisms largely focusing on the Court's apparent lack of appreciation for the situation of the very poor. It is not easy, however, to overturn a decision of the Constitutional Court and South Africa will need to work within the constraints of the precedent for many years to come. It is suggested in this article that two subsequent, recent judgments (one of the Supreme Court of Appeal in South Africa, City of Cape Town v Strümpher, 2012, and one of the High Court in Zimbabwe, Mushoriwa v City of Harare, 2014 show how it might be possible for courts to avoid the Mazibuko precedent and yet give special attention to water-related rights. Both cases concerned spoliation applications in common law, but both were decided as though access to water supply and water-related rights allow a court to give weight to factors other than the traditional grounds for a spoliation order. It can be argued that in both cases the unlawfulness necessary for a spoliation order arose from a combination of dispossession and breach of rights in respect of a very particular and special kind of property. In the arid and potentially water-stressed Southern African region, and in the context of extreme and apparently increasing poverty, there will undoubtedly be more court cases to come involving access to water. Conclusions are drawn as to how the two judgments considered might offer a way to ameliorate the harsh

  15. For a science of layered mechanisms: beyond laws, statistics, and correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelfranchi, Cristiano

    2014-01-01

    Two general claims are made in this work. First, we need several different layers of "theory," in particular for understanding human behavior. These layers should concern: the cognitive (mental) representations and mechanisms; the neural underlying processes; the evolutionary history and adaptive functions of our cognition and behaviors; the emergent and complex social structures and dynamics, their relation and feedbacks on individual minds and behaviors, and the relationship between internal regulating goals and the external functions/roles of our conduct; the historical and cultural mechanisms shaping our minds and behaviors; the developmental paths. Second, we do not just need "predictions" and "laws" but also "explanations"; that is, we need to identify the mechanisms producing (here-and-now, or diachronically) a given phenomenon. "Laws" are not enough; they are simply descriptive and predictive; we need the "why" and "how." Correlations are not enough (and they are frequently misleading). We need computational models of the processes postulated in our theories.

  16. USGS Water Availability and Use Science Program - research Towards a national water budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, M.

    2016-12-01

    A key part of achieving the US Department of the Interior's sustainability goals is informing the public and decision makers about the status and trends of the Nation's water resources. To achieve these goals the USGS has implemented a National Water Census (NWC) to provide a more accurate picture of the quantity of the Nation's water resources and improve forecasting of water availability for current and future economic, energy production, and environmental uses. In 2016, to streamline water sustainability activities, the USGS realigned all water availability and use oriented research, including the NWC, within a new Program - the Water Availability and Use Science Program (WAUSP). WAUSP supports producing a current, comprehensive scientific assessment of the factors that influence water availability through development of nationally consistent datasets on the status and trends of water budget components (precipitation, streamflow, groundwater, and evapotranspiration), as well as human water use; improving the current understanding of flow requirements for ecological purposes; and evaluating water-resource conditions in selected river basins, or Focus Area Studies, where competition for water is a local concern. In addition to supporting research that provides water budget component estimates at the smallest possible spatial and temporal scale, WAUSP has supported the development of new methods and techniques to improve estimation of water use through the National Water Use Science project. These efforts include developing a heat budget-based model to improve estimates of thermoelectric water use, evaluating direct and indirect water use associated with unconventional oil and gas production, and developing methods to estimate irrigation consumptive use at both the local and regional scale. Additionally, WAUSP collaborates with federal, State, local, and University partners on a number of other water use related research including the new Water Use Data and

  17. Practitioners' viewpoints on citizen science in water management: a case study in Dutch regional water resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minkman, E. (Ellen); Van Der Sanden, M. (Maarten); Rutten, M. (Martine)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, governmental institutes have started to use citizen science as a form of public participation. The Dutch water authorities are among them. They face pressure on the water governance system and a water awareness gap among the general public, and consider citizen science a

  18. Practitioners' viewpoints on citizen science in water management: a case study in Dutch regional water resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minkman, E. (Ellen); Van Der Sanden, M. (Maarten); Rutten, M. (Martine)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years, governmental institutes have started to use citizen science as a form of public participation. The Dutch water authorities are among them. They face pressure on the water governance system and a water awareness gap among the general public, and consider citizen science a

  19. Water resource quality policy: the approach adopted by the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry under the Water Law principles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harris, J

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available integrity as an indicator of sustainable use of the resource. While management's goal is to ensure all water users will benefit from access to the water resource, ecological integrity provides a good indication of sustainability in the use of the resource...

  20. Water Science and Technology Board annual report 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This annual report of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) summarizes the activities of the Board and its subgroups during 1988, its sixth year of existence. Included are descriptions of current and recently completed projects, new activities scheduled to begin in 1989, and plans for the future. The report also includes information on Board and committee memberships, program operational features, and reports produced during the past several years. This annual report is intended to provide an introduction to the WSTB and summary of its program for the year.

  1. Science dynamics and research production indicators, indexes, statistical laws and mathematical models

    CERN Document Server

    Vitanov, Nikolay K

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with methods to evaluate scientific productivity. In the book statistical methods, deterministic and stochastic models and numerous indexes are discussed that will help the reader to understand the nonlinear science dynamics and to be able to develop or construct systems for appropriate evaluation of research productivity and management of research groups and organizations. The dynamics of science structures and systems is complex, and the evaluation of research productivity requires a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods and measures. The book has three parts. The first part is devoted to mathematical models describing the importance of science for economic growth and systems for the evaluation of research organizations of different size. The second part contains descriptions and discussions of numerous indexes for the evaluation of the productivity of researchers and groups of researchers of different size (up to the comparison of research productivities of research communiti...

  2. Power laws, Pareto distributions and Zipf's law

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, M E J

    2004-01-01

    When the probability of measuring a particular value of some quantity varies inversely as a power of that value, the quantity is said to follow a power law, also known variously as Zipf's law or the Pareto distribution. Power laws appear widely in physics, biology, earth and planetary sciences, economics and finance, computer science, demography and the social sciences. For instance, the distributions of the sizes of cities, earthquakes, solar flares, moon craters, wars and people's personal ...

  3. Hidden Voices in Higher Education: Inclusive Policies and Practices in Social Science and Law Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Gavira, Rosario; Moriña, Anabel

    2015-01-01

    This paper pertains to a broader biographical-narrative research project which studies barriers and support as identified by students with disabilities at a Spanish University ["Barriers and Support That Disabled Students Identify in the University". Project funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (Dir. Dr Anabel Moriña;…

  4. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: When Science, Medicine, Public Policy, and Laws Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Kenneth R.; Hewitt, Brenda G.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, alcohol has been used for different purposes including as a part of religious observances, as a food, at times as a medicine and its well-known use as a beverage. Until relatively recently these purposes have not changed and have at times been at odds with one another, resulting in collisions among policies and practices in science,…

  5. Water Diplomacy: A Synthesis of Science, Policy and Politics for Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, S.; Susskind, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    While efforts to theorize about water systems have been vast, the traditional tools and techniques available to water managers have led to science that is "smart but not wise". Integration of "scientific learning" with "the complex political reality" of real-world water problem-solving remains desirable but an elusive goal. Yet, solutions to most real-world water problems demand such integration. The professionals who attempt to solve water problems cannot easily translate solutions born out of scientific findings into the messy context of the real world, where societal and political aspects are important. The solutions to water problems lie somewhere within these realms of knowledge, and effective solutions require bridging the divide between theory and practice. To bridge this divide and address complex water problems - where natural, societal, and political elements cross multiple boundaries and interact in unbounded, uncertain and nonlinear way - a new approach is needed. This new approach - called Water Diplomacy - is rooted in emerging ideas of complexity theory and multi-party negotiation. The Water Diplomacy Framework (WDF) posits that water resources might be more effectively managed if we focus in a different way on dominant societal and natural elements. In addition, WDF challenges traditional water management paradigm by invoking three key propositions: (a) water is not a fixed but a flexible resource; (b) water networks are open and continuously changing, not bounded and predictable; and (c) disagreements over water rights and the allocation of water need not be framed as zero-sum confrontations that most game theorists presume; instead they can be viewed as problem-solving opportunities in which additional value can be created to meaningfully address interests for all stakeholders.

  6. Bridging theory and practice: Mixed methods approach to instruction of law and ethics within the pharmaceutical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilby, Kyle John; Nasr, Ziad Ghantous

    2016-11-01

    Background: Professional responsibilities are guided by laws and ethics that must be introduced and mastered within pharmaceutical sciences training. Instructional design to teaching typically introduces concepts in a traditional didactic approach and requires student memorization prior to application within practice settings. Additionally, many centers rely on best practices from abroad, due to lack of locally published laws and guidance documents. Objectives: The aim of this paper was to summarize and critically evaluate a professional skills laboratory designed to enhance learning through diversity in instructional methods relating to pharmacy law and best practices regarding narcotics, controlled medications, and benzodiazepines. Setting: This study took place within the Professional Skills Laboratory at the College of Pharmacy at Qatar University. Method: A total of 25 students participated in a redesigned laboratory session administered by a faculty member, clinical lecturer, teaching assistant, and a professional skills laboratory technician. The laboratory consisted of eight independent stations that students rotated during the 3-h session. Stations were highly interactive in nature and were designed using non-traditional approaches such as charades, role-plays, and reflective drawings. All stations attempted to have students relate learned concepts to practice within Qatar. Main outcome measures: Student perceptions of the laboratory were measured on a post-questionnaire and were summarized descriptively. Using reflection and consensus techniques, two faculty members completed a SWOC (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Challenges) analysis in preparation for future cycles. Results: 100% (25/25) of students somewhat or strongly agreed that their knowledge regarding laws and best practices increased and that their learning experience was enhanced by a mixed-methods approach. A total of 96% (24/25) of students stated that the mixed

  7. Bridging theory and practice: Mixed methods approach to instruction of law and ethics within the pharmaceutical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle John Wilby

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professional responsibilities are guided by laws and ethics that must be introduced and mastered within pharmaceutical sciences training. Instructional design to teaching typically introduces concepts in a traditional didactic approach and requires student memorization prior to application within practice settings. Additionally, many centers rely on best practices from abroad, due to lack of locally published laws and guidance documents. Objectives: The aim of this paper was to summarize and critically evaluate a professional skills laboratory designed to enhance learning through diversity in instructional methods relating to pharmacy law and best practices regarding narcotics, controlled medications, and benzodiazepines. Setting: This study took place within the Professional Skills Laboratory at the College of Pharmacy at Qatar University. Method: A total of 25 students participated in a redesigned laboratory session administered by a faculty member, clinical lecturer, teaching assistant, and a professional skills laboratory technician. The laboratory consisted of eight independent stations that students rotated during the 3-h session. Stations were highly interactive in nature and were designed using non-traditional approaches such as charades, role-plays, and reflective drawings. All stations attempted to have students relate learned concepts to practice within Qatar. Main outcome measures: Student perceptions of the laboratory were measured on a post-questionnaire and were summarized descriptively. Using reflection and consensus techniques, two faculty members completed a SWOC (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Challenges analysis in preparation for future cycles. Results: 100% (25/25 of students somewhat or strongly agreed that their knowledge regarding laws and best practices increased and that their learning experience was enhanced by a mixed-methods approach. A total of 96% (24/25 of students stated that the mixed

  8. For a science of layered mechanisms: beyond laws, statistics, and correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano eCastelfranchi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two general claims are made in this work. First, we need several different layers of theory, in particular for understanding human behavior. These layers should concern: the cognitive (mental representations and mechanisms; the neural underlying processes; the evolutionary history and adaptive functions of our cognition and behaviors; the emergent and complex social structures and dynamics, their relation and feedbacks on individual minds and behaviors, and the relationship between internal regulating goals and the external functions/roles of our conduct; the historical and cultural mechanisms shaping our minds and behaviors; the developmental paths. Second, we do not just need predictions and laws but also explanations; that is, we need to identify the mechanisms producing (here-and-now, or diachronically a given phenomenon. Laws are not enough; they are simply descriptive and predictive; we need the why and how. Correlations are not enough (and they are frequently misleading. We need computational models of the processes postulated in our theories.Reductionism, Cognitive architecture, Emergence, Intentions, Functions, Computer modeling and simulation, Proximate causes

  9. Urban Water and Riverine Quality: Participatory Science in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgitt, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    Singapore is a highly urbanised environment experiencing tropical monsoon hydrological regimes. A heavily engineered fluvial system has been developed over time to provide efficient drainage and reduce the area subject to flood risk. However, recent interest in ecosystem-based approaches to river management and the enhancement of the aesthetic and ecological 'quality' of riverine landscape, coupled with concerns about climate change, has challenged the prevailing engineering view. This is reflected in the Public Utility Board (PUB) ABC Waters Programme, which also seeks to develop community interest in riverine environments and engagement with water-related concerns. As part of a programme developing participatory GIS (PGIS) with school and university students, we have undertaken applications involving participant observation, reporting and analysis of water quality data and habitat quality based on a simplified version of the UK Environment Agency's River Habitat Survey. From an educational perspective, there is evidence that these PGIS initiatives raise environmental awareness and enhance geospatial thinking, particularly in relation to catchment management concepts. The extent to which participant-derived data can contribute to a citizen science of urban water quality and hence deliver some aspects of the community engagement sought after by the authorities, is a topic of debate.

  10. Enhancing Science Teacher Training Using Water Resources and GLOBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, James W.

    2002-01-01

    Heritage College, located on the Yakama Indian Reservation in south central Washington state, serves a multicultural, underserved, rural population and trains teachers to staff the disadvantaged school districts on and surrounding the reservation. In-service teachers and pre-service teachers in the area show strength in biology but have weak backgrounds in chemistry and mathematics. We are addressing this problem by providing a 2-year core of courses for 3 groups of 25 students (15 pre-service and 10 in-service teachers) using GLOBE to teach integrated physical science and mathematics. At the conclusion of the program, the students will qualify for science certification by Washington State. Water resources are the focal point of the curriculum because it is central to life in our desert area. The lack or excess of water, its uses, quality and distribution is being studied by using GIS, remote sensing and historical records. Students are learning the methodology to incorporate scientific protocols and data into all aspects of their future teaching curriculum. In addition, in each of the three years of the project, pre-service teachers attended a seminar series during the fall semester with presentations by collaborators from industry, agriculture, education and government agencies. Students used NASA educational materials in the presentations that they gave at the conclusion of the seminar series. All pre- and in-service teachers continue to have support via a local web site for Heritage College GLOBE participants.

  11. GMO Reignited in Science but Not in Law: A Flawed Framework Fuels France's Stalemate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Patricia B

    2014-01-01

    Following a statement released by a multitude of prominent scientists contesting the idea that there is a consensus on the safety of genetically modified organisms ("GMO"), this article addresses the European Union's ("EU") GMO regulatory framework, which has reluctantly permitted France to maintain an illegal ban on. MON8 10 for over a decade now. It notes that while the statement did nothing more than reignite the debate on GMO, much could and should be done to improve the framework to accommodate for the lack of true scientific understanding about the effects of GMO. This article identifies the specific areas of weakness in the EU GMO regulatory framework and recommends specific alterations. It concludes that although France's MON810 ban is illegal under existing law, the country's fears are neither unfounded nor unsupported and that the EU should work to alter its existing legal structure to parallel today's scientific uncertainty regarding GMO safety.

  12. A Comparative Survey of Lotka and Pao’s Laws Conformity with the Number of Researchers and Their Articles in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Fields in Web of Science (1986-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Osareh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine the validity of Lotka and Pao’s laws with authorship distribution of "Computer Science" and "Artificial Intelligence" fields using Web of Science (WoS during 1986 to 2009 and comparing the results of examinations. This study was done by using the methods of citation analysis which are scientometrics techniques. The research sample includes all articles in computer science and artificial intelligence fields indexed in the databases accessible via Web of Science during 1986-2009; that were stored in 500 records files and added to "ISI.exe" software for analysis to be performed. Then, the required output of this software was saved in Excel. There were 19150 articles in the computer science field (by 45713 authors and 958 articles in artificial intelligence field (by 2487 authors. Then for final counting and analyzing, the data converted to “Excel” spreadsheet software. Lotka and Pao’s laws were tested using both Lotka’s formula: (for Lotka’s Law; also for testing Pao’s law the values of the exponent n and the constant c are computed and Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit tests were applied. The results suggested that author productivity distribution predicted in “Lotka's generalized inverse square law” was not applicable to computer science and artificial intelligence; but Pao’s law was applicable to these subject areas. Survey both literature and original examining of Lotka and Pao’s Laws witnessed some aspects should be considered. The main elements involved in fitting in a bibliometrics method have been identified: using Lotka or Pao’s law, subject area, period of time, measurement of authors, and a criterion for assessing goodness-of-fit.

  13. Analysis of Water Hammer with Different Closing Valve Laws on Transient Flow of Hydrogen-Natural Gas Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norazlina Subani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water hammer on transient flow of hydrogen-natural gas mixture in a horizontal pipeline is analysed to determine the relationship between pressure waves and different modes of closing and opening of valves. Four types of laws applicable to closing valve, namely, instantaneous, linear, concave, and convex laws, are considered. These closure laws describe the speed variation of the hydrogen-natural gas mixture as the valve is closing. The numerical solution is obtained using the reduced order modelling technique. The results show that changes in the pressure wave profile and amplitude depend on the type of closing laws, valve closure times, and the number of polygonal segments in the closing function. The pressure wave profile varies from square to triangular and trapezoidal shape depending on the type of closing laws, while the amplitude of pressure waves reduces as the closing time is reduced and the numbers of polygonal segments are increased. The instantaneous and convex closing laws give rise to minimum and maximum pressure, respectively.

  14. Hyphenated hydrology: Interdisciplinary evolution of water resource science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurley, Kathryn L.; Jawitz, James W.

    2017-04-01

    Hydrology has advanced considerably as a scientific discipline since its recognized inception in the mid-twentieth century. Modern water resource related questions have forced adaptation from exclusively physical or engineering science viewpoints toward a deliberate interdisciplinary context. Over the past few decades, many of the eventual manifestations of this evolution were foreseen by prominent expert hydrologists. However, their narrative descriptions have lacked substantial quantification. This study addressed that gap by measuring the prevalence of and analyzing the relationships between the terms most frequently used by hydrologists to define and describe their research. We analyzed 16,591 journal article titles from 1965-2015 in Water Resources Research, through which the scientific dialogue and its time-sensitive progression emerged. Our word frequency and term cooccurrence network results revealed the dynamic timing of the lateral movement of hydrology across multiple disciplines as well as the deepening of scientific discourse with respect to traditional hydrologic questions. The conversation among water resource scientists surrounding the hydrologic subdisciplines of catchment-hydrology, hydro-meteorology, socio-hydrology, hydro-climatology, and eco-hydrology gained statistically significant momentum in the analyzed time period, while that of hydro-geology and contaminant-hydrology experienced periods of increase followed by significant decline. This study concludes that formerly exotic disciplines can potentially modify hydrology, prompting new insights and inspiring unconventional perspectives on old questions that may have otherwise become obsolete.

  15. Benchmarking a first-principles thermal neutron scattering law for water ice with a diffusion experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Jesse; Zerkle, Michael; Heinrichs, David

    2017-09-01

    The neutron scattering properties of water ice are of interest to the nuclear criticality safety community for the transport and storage of nuclear materials in cold environments. The common hexagonal phase ice Ih has locally ordered, but globally disordered, H2O molecular orientations. A 96-molecule supercell is modeled using the VASP ab initio density functional theory code and PHONON lattice dynamics code to calculate the phonon vibrational spectra of H and O in ice Ih. These spectra are supplied to the LEAPR module of the NJOY2012 nuclear data processing code to generate thermal neutron scattering laws for H and O in ice Ih in the incoherent approximation. The predicted vibrational spectra are optimized to be representative of the globally averaged ice Ih structure by comparing theoretically calculated and experimentally measured total cross sections and inelastic neutron scattering spectra. The resulting scattering kernel is then supplied to the MC21 Monte Carlo transport code to calculate time eigenvalues for the fundamental mode decay in ice cylinders at various temperatures. Results are compared to experimental flux decay measurements for a pulsed-neutron die-away diffusion benchmark.

  16. Citizen science for water resources management: toward polycentric monitoring and governance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, Wouter; Dewulf, Art; De Bièvre, Bert; Clark, Julian; Hannah, David

    2016-04-01

    Novel and more affordable technologies are allowing new actors to engage increasingly in the monitoring of hydrological systems and the assessment of water resources. This trend may shift data collection from a small number of mostly formal institutions (e.g., statutory monitoring authorities, water companies) toward a much more dynamic, decentralized, and diverse network of data collectors (including citizens and other non-specialists). Such a move towards a more diverse and polycentric type of monitoring may have important consequences for the generation of knowledge about water resources and the way that this knowledge is used to govern these resources. An increasingly polycentric approach to monitoring and data collection will change inevitably the relation between monitoring and decision-making for water resources. On a technical level, it may lead to improve availability of, and access to, data. The opportunity for actors to design and implement monitoring may also lead to data collection strategies that are tailored better to locally specific management questions. However, in a policy context the evolution may also shift balances of knowledge and power. For example, it will be easier to collect data and generate evidence to support specific agendas, or for non-specialists to challenge existing agreements, laws, and statutory authorities. Analysing a case study in the Peruvian Andes, we identify strong links with polycentric models of river basin management and governance. Polycentric models recognize the existence of multiple centres of decision-making within a catchment and provide a potential alternative to the top-down centralizing tendencies of integrated water resources management. Although polycentric systems are often associated with data scarcity, we argue that citizen science provides a framework for data collection in such systems and that it provides opportunities for knowledge generation, institutional capacity building and policy support, in

  17. Quality-assurance and data-management plan for water-quality activities in the Kansas Water Science Center, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Bennett, Trudy J.; Foster, Guy M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Putnam, James E.

    2014-01-01

    As the Nation’s largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey is relied on to collect high-quality data, and produce factual and impartial interpretive reports. This quality-assurance and data-management plan provides guidance for water-quality activities conducted by the Kansas Water Science Center. Policies and procedures are documented for activities related to planning, collecting, storing, documenting, tracking, verifying, approving, archiving, and disseminating water-quality data. The policies and procedures described in this plan complement quality-assurance plans for continuous water-quality monitoring, surface-water, and groundwater activities in Kansas.

  18. Practitioners' viewpoints on citizen science in water management: a case study in Dutch regional water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkman, Ellen; van der Sanden, Maarten; Rutten, Martine

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, governmental institutes have started to use citizen science as a form of public participation. The Dutch water authorities are among them. They face pressure on the water governance system and a water awareness gap among the general public, and consider citizen science a possible solution. The reasons for practitioners to engage in citizen science, and in particular those of government practitioners, have seldom been studied. This article aims to pinpoint the various viewpoints of practitioners at Dutch regional water authorities on citizen science. A Q-methodological approach was used because it allows for exploration of viewpoints and statistical analysis using a small sample size. Practitioners (33) at eight different water authorities ranked 46 statements from agree to disagree. Three viewpoints were identified with a total explained variance of 67 %. Viewpoint A considers citizen science a potential solution that can serve several purposes, thereby encouraging citizen participation in data collection and analysis. Viewpoint B considers citizen science a method for additional, illustrative data. Viewpoint C views citizen science primarily as a means of education. These viewpoints show water practitioners in the Netherlands are willing to embrace citizen science at water authorities, although there is no support for higher levels of citizen engagement.

  19. Hyphenated hydrology: Multidisciplinary evolution of water resource science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurley, K. 4553; Jawitz, J. W.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrology has advanced considerably as a scientific discipline since its recognized inception in the mid-20th century. While hydrology may have evolved from the singular viewpoint of a more rigid physical or engineering science, modern water resource related questions have forced adaptation toward a deliberate interdisciplinary context. Over the past few decades, many of the eventual manifestations of this evolution have been foreseen by prominent expert hydrologists, though their narrative descriptions were not substantially quantified. This study addresses that gap by directly measuring and inspecting the words that hydrologists use to define and describe their research endeavors. We analyzed 16,591 journal article titles from 1965-2015 in Water Resources Research, through which the scientific dialogue and its time-sensitive progression emerges. Word frequency and term concurrence reveal the dynamic timing of the lateral movement of hydrology across multiple disciplines and a deepening of scientific discourse with respect to traditional hydrologic questions. This study concludes that formerly exotic disciplines are increasingly modifying hydrology, prompting new insights as well as inspiring unconventional perspectives on old questions.

  20. Science, law, and Hudson River power plants: A case study in environmental impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnthouse, L.W.; Klauda, R.J.; Vaughan, D.S.; Kendall, R.L. (eds.)

    1988-01-01

    Between 1963 and 1980, the Hudson River estuary was the focus of one of the most ambitious environmental research and assessment programs ever performed. The studies supported a series of US federal proceedings involving licenses and discharge permits for two controversial electric power generating facilities: the Cornwall pumped storage facility, and units 2 and 3 of the Indian Point nuclear generating station. Both facilities were to draw large volumes of water from a region of the Hudson used as spawning and nursery habitat by several fish species, including the striped bass. Fishermen and conservationists feared that a major fraction of the striped bass eggs and larvae in the Hudson would be entrained with the pumped water and killed. Additional fish would be killed on trash screens at the intakes. Scientists were asked to aid the utility companies and regulatory agencies in determining the biological importance of entrainment and impingement. This monograph contains both technical papers that present research results and synthesis papers that summarize and interpret the results. The intent was to: (1) summarize the scientific issues and approaches; (2) present the significant results of the Hudson River biological studies; (3) describe the role of the studies in the decision-making process; (4) evaluate the successes and failures of the studies; and (5) present recommendations for future estuarine impact assessments. Separate abstracts are processed for 22 papers for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  1. A post-genomic surprise. The molecular reinscription of race in science, law and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duster, Troy

    2015-03-01

    The completion of the first draft of the Human Genome Map in 2000 was widely heralded as the promise and future of genetics-based medicines and therapies - so much so that pundits began referring to the new century as 'The Century of Genetics'. Moreover, definitive assertions about the overwhelming similarities of all humans' DNA (99.9 per cent) by the leaders of the Human Genome Project were trumpeted as the end of racial thinking about racial taxonomies of human genetic differences. But the first decade of the new century brought unwelcomed surprises. First, gene therapies turned out to be far more complicated than any had anticipated - and instead the pharmaceutical industry turned to a focus on drugs that might be 'related' to population differences based upon genetic markers. While the language of 'personalized medicine' dominated this frame, research on racially and ethnically designated populations differential responsiveness to drugs dominated the empirical work in the field. Ancestry testing and 'admixture research' would play an important role in a new kind of molecular reification of racial categories. Moreover, the capacity of the super-computer to map differences reverberated into personal identification that would affect both the criminal justice system and forensic science, and generate new levels of concern about personal privacy. Social scientists in general, and sociologists in particular, have been caught short by these developments - relying mainly on assertions that racial categories are socially constructed, regionally and historically contingent, and politically arbitrary. While these assertions are true, the imprimatur of scientific legitimacy has shifted the burden, since now 'admixture research' can claim that its results get at the 'reality' of human differentiation, not the admittedly flawed social constructions of racial categories. Yet what was missing from this framing of the problem: 'admixture research' is itself based upon socially

  2. Water right and water resources protection based on property law%物权法视野下的水权与水资源保护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李园园; 田义文

    2012-01-01

    水资源具有经济、生态和社会等多重价值.以物权法为切入点,提出对取水权进行细化,扩大水资源用益物权范围、做好不同法律的衔接与分工、设立水资源担保物权制度等措施以求促进水资源节约和高效利用,倒逼主体合理配置和使用水资源,并最终实现保护水资源的目的.%Water resources have multiple values of economy,ecology and society.Based on the property law,some measures are proposed so as to save and efficiently utilize the water resources,that is,to specify water-drawing right,to enlarge usufructuary right range of water resources,to improve cooperation among various laws and to establish guarantee system of water resources, etc.Accordingly,they will promote and force water subjects to rationally allocate and utilize water resources and to achieve the purpose of protection of water resources.

  3. Fire and Water Make Steam - Redefining the Role of Competition Law in TRIPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2011-01-01

    The paper points out the relevance of competition law to international issues of Intellectual Property Law (IPR) and demonstrates how competition law internationally has come to function as an indispensable instrument to balance IPR. The perspective is international and focused on TRIPS. The rules...... that the weakness of the competition rules in TRIPS may be counterproductive towards the broader goals of IPR protection. From a development point of view it is pointed out that an effective and well function market is necessary in order for developing countries to reap any benefits arising out of IPR protection....... To innovation it is submitted that IPR protection e.g. of interfaces or in markets characterised by network effects may involve risks of monopolisation which require access to effective rules of competition law. The paper finally recommends concrete changes to TRIPS in the form of mandatory rules which prevent...

  4. Fire and Water Make Steam - Redefining the Role of Competition Law in TRIPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    The paper points out the relevance of competition law to international issues of Intellectual Property Law (IPR) and demonstrates how competition law internationally has come to function as an indispensable instrument to balance IPR. The perspective is international and focused on TRIPS. The rules...... that the weakness of the competition rules in TRIPS may be counterproductive towards the broader goals of IPR protection. From a development point of view it is pointed out that an effective and well function market is necessary in order for developing countries to reap any benefits arising out of IPR protection....... To innovation it is submitted that IPR protection e.g. of interfaces or in markets characterised by network effects may involve risks of monopolisation which require access to effective rules of competition law. The paper finally recommends concrete changes to TRIPS in the form of mandatory rules which prevent...

  5. Water Law, Mining and Hydro-Energy Conflicts in South America: Tales from the Andes and Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Tafur

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts in connection with hydro-energy and mining activities vis-à-vis other water uses, mainly human consumption, agriculture, industry, tourism, or even the essential flows needed for ecosystem protection, call into question whether South America’s path in the 21st Century will be characterized as ‘open veins’ (borrowing from the title of Uruguayan writer Eduardo Galeano’s book or sustainable development. In this era of ‘New Conquistadors’, as some have called it, the key question is whether water law and environmental legal frameworks in the region are fit to deal with the pressure posed by these extracting industries. The paper seeks to contribute to this debate by discussing legal issues in connection with a controversial gold mining project in the Argentina-Chile border and a hydro-energy project in the Chilean Patagonia. The goal of the paper is to provide a South American perspective of water law through the lens of conflict. The paper concludes that water-related conflicts in these projects reveal weaknesses in the regulatory scheme for such endeavours and underscores the need to adopt reforms or implement mechanisms to ensure that water resources are adequately assessed, protected, and monitored.

  6. Quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities in the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Huffman, Raegan L.; Barton, Cynthia

    2017-05-08

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Mission Area of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the Washington Water Science Center (WAWSC) in conducting water-quality activities. This qualityassurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the WAWSC for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities complement the quality-assurance plans for surface-water and groundwater activities at the WAWSC.

  7. A Wider Notion of the Scope of Water Services in EU Water LawBoosting Payment for Water-Related Ecosystem Services to Ensure Sustainable Water Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra E. Lindhout

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The services ecosystems on the Earth providing for mankind, like the provision of (clean water for drinking and other purposes, are under pressure. Payment for (water-related ecosystem services, incentive pricing policies and the recovery of service costs are instruments to attain a sustainable use of scarce environmental resources and ecosystems. Although the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, whose purpose explicitly includes striving for sustainable water use, includes an obligation to recover the costs of water services, the scope of application of this obligation depends on the width of the interpretation of 'water services' in the WFD. If 'water services' are interpreted broadly, the WFD embraces the concept of payment for water-related ecosystem services, but raises a number of questions that need to be addressed.

  8. What Role for Law, Human Rights, and Bioethics in an Age of Big Data, Consortia Science, and Consortia Ethics? The Importance of Trustworthiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S. Dove

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The global bioeconomy is generating new paradigm-shifting practices of knowledge co-production, such as collective innovation; large-scale, data-driven global consortia science (Big Science; and consortia ethics (Big Ethics. These bioeconomic and sociotechnical practices can be forces for progressive social change, but they can also raise predicaments at the interface of law, human rights, and bioethics. In this article, we examine one such double-edged practice: the growing, multivariate exploitation of Big Data in the health sector, particularly by the private sector. Commercial exploitation of health data for knowledge-based products is a key aspect of the bioeconomy and is also a topic of concern among publics around the world. It is exacerbated in the current age of globally interconnected consortia science and consortia ethics, which is characterized by accumulating epistemic proximity, diminished academic independence, “extreme centrism”, and conflicted/competing interests among innovation actors. Extreme centrism is of particular importance as a new ideology emerging from consortia science and consortia ethics; this relates to invariably taking a middle-of-the-road populist stance, even in the event of human rights breaches, so as to sustain the populist support needed for consortia building and collective innovation. What role do law, human rights, and bioethics—separate and together—have to play in addressing these predicaments and opportunities in early 21st century science and society? One answer we propose is an intertwined ethico-legal normative construct, namely trustworthiness. By considering trustworthiness as a central pillar at the intersection of law, human rights, and bioethics, we enable others to trust us, which in turns allows different actors (both nonprofit and for-profit to operate more justly in consortia science and ethics, as well as to access and responsibly use health data for public benefit.

  9. What Role for Law, Human Rights, and Bioethics in an Age of Big Data, Consortia Science, and Consortia Ethics? The Importance of Trustworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dove, Edward S; Özdemir, Vural

    2015-09-01

    The global bioeconomy is generating new paradigm-shifting practices of knowledge co-production, such as collective innovation; large-scale, data-driven global consortia science (Big Science); and consortia ethics (Big Ethics). These bioeconomic and sociotechnical practices can be forces for progressive social change, but they can also raise predicaments at the interface of law, human rights, and bioethics. In this article, we examine one such double-edged practice: the growing, multivariate exploitation of Big Data in the health sector, particularly by the private sector. Commercial exploitation of health data for knowledge-based products is a key aspect of the bioeconomy and is also a topic of concern among publics around the world. It is exacerbated in the current age of globally interconnected consortia science and consortia ethics, which is characterized by accumulating epistemic proximity, diminished academic independence, "extreme centrism", and conflicted/competing interests among innovation actors. Extreme centrism is of particular importance as a new ideology emerging from consortia science and consortia ethics; this relates to invariably taking a middle-of-the-road populist stance, even in the event of human rights breaches, so as to sustain the populist support needed for consortia building and collective innovation. What role do law, human rights, and bioethics-separate and together-have to play in addressing these predicaments and opportunities in early 21st century science and society? One answer we propose is an intertwined ethico-legal normative construct, namely trustworthiness. By considering trustworthiness as a central pillar at the intersection of law, human rights, and bioethics, we enable others to trust us, which in turns allows different actors (both nonprofit and for-profit) to operate more justly in consortia science and ethics, as well as to access and responsibly use health data for public benefit.

  10. The International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters: Finalization, Adoption and Law of the Sea Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Jensen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The most recent instrument specifically designed to make navigation in polar waters safer and more environmentally friendly is the International Maritime Organization's long-awaited “International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters” – the Polar Code. This article first briefly examines the legislative history of the Code, with emphasis on the final and consolidating phase of development. Second, an account is provided of the main contents of the Code as regards its regulations on safety measures and pollution prevention. Finally, the analysis places the new framework in the broader context of international law, including an examination of the Polar Code's relationship to specific provisions and legislative arrangements of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

  11. Managing uncertainty in environmental decision making: the risky business of establishing a relationship between science and the law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, L.A. [Department of Justice Canada, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada); Hrudey, S. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry

    2006-07-01

    Government institutions, courts and administrative tribunals have been entrusted with making critical decisions concerning environmental risks. The nature of these decisions and their underlying uncertainty inevitably involve reliance upon opinion evidence from environmental scientists. This analysis begins with a review of the evolution of scientific expert opinion as an evidentiary input to legal decision-making followed by the identification of problems arising with scientific evidence based upon those problems identified by the authors and/or reported in the literature. These problem issues were organised under five categories or 'interfaces' for both environmental trials and administrative hearings, being: the quality of scientific information introduced; the communication and comprehension/understanding of scientific information; scientific uncertainty; the use of scientific information to establish and enforce decision-making standards; the suitability of existing legal decision-making institutions and legal procedures for resolution of scientific issues in environmental decision-making. Finally, unique empirical research was conducted by performing a questionnaire survey with parallel questions on 93 problem issues identified under these five interfaces. The survey was completed by 18 judges (90% response), 63 tribunal members (40.6% response), 101 lawyers (6.1% response) and 107 expert scientific witnesses (30.9% response), who had actually participated in environmental trials and administrative hearings across five jurisdictions. The differing perspectives of these groups on several issues serve to highlight many of the fundamental incompatibilities that currently exist between science and the law in relation to environmental decision-making. Eighteen recommendations are offered to address the range of problem issues identified and discussed. (author)

  12. Law and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Toby E.

    2012-01-01

    In terms of political liberation and constitutional democracy, Americans cannot help but think back to 1776 and the Declaration of Independence. For the English, the mind reaches back to the English Declaration of Rights of 1689, and for those with somewhat longer historical memories, to Magna Carta of 1215. But the true origin of political…

  13. Law and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Toby E.

    2012-01-01

    In terms of political liberation and constitutional democracy, Americans cannot help but think back to 1776 and the Declaration of Independence. For the English, the mind reaches back to the English Declaration of Rights of 1689, and for those with somewhat longer historical memories, to Magna Carta of 1215. But the true origin of political…

  14. Universal power-law scaling of water diffusion in human brain defines what we see with MRI

    CERN Document Server

    Veraart, Jelle; Novikov, Dmitry S

    2016-01-01

    Development of successful therapies for neurological disorders depends on our ability to diagnose and monitor the progression of underlying pathologies at the cellular level. Physics and physiology limit the resolution of human MRI to millimeters, three orders of magnitude coarser than the cell dimensions of microns. A promising way to access cellular structure is provided by diffusion-weighted MRI (dMRI), a modality which exploits the sensitivity of the MRI signal to micron-level Brownian motion of water molecules strongly hindered by cell walls. By analyzing diffusion of water molecules in human subjects, here we demonstrate that biophysical modeling has the potential to break the intrinsic MRI resolution limits. The observation of a universal power-law scaling of the dMRI signal identifies the contribution from water specifically confined inside narrow impermeable axons, validating the overarching assumption behind models of diffusion in neuronal tissue. This scaling behavior establishes dMRI as an in vivo...

  15. Science Concepts Young Children Learn through Water Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    Water is fascinating, fun, and multifaceted. Children can play with it endlessly. But play, for play's sake, is not water's only value (Crosser, 1994, Tovey, 1993). Indeed, water play is a compelling focus of study for young children (Chalufour & Worth, 2005). The concepts that young children learn from water play are essential for early childhood…

  16. Science Concepts Young Children Learn through Water Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    Water is fascinating, fun, and multifaceted. Children can play with it endlessly. But play, for play's sake, is not water's only value (Crosser, 1994, Tovey, 1993). Indeed, water play is a compelling focus of study for young children (Chalufour & Worth, 2005). The concepts that young children learn from water play are essential for early childhood…

  17. 76 FR 22100 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board; Drinking Water Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... AGENCY Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board; Drinking Water Committee... Office announces a public teleconference of the SAB Drinking Water Committee Augmented for the Review of... through drinking water results primarily from the corrosion of lead pipes and plumbing materials....

  18. Engaging the creative to better build science into water resource solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, P. Z.

    2014-12-01

    Psychological thought suggests that social engagement with an environmental problem requires 1) cognitive understanding of the problem, 2) emotional engagement with the problem, and 3) perceived efficacy that there is something we can do to solve the problem. Within the water sciences, we form problem-focused, cross-disciplinary teams to help address complex water resource problems, but often we only seek teammates from other disciplines within the realms of engineering and the natural/social sciences. Here I argue that this science-centric focus fails to fully solve these water resource problems, and often the science goes unheard because it is heavily cognitive and lacks the ability to effectively engage the audience through crucial social-psychological aspects of emotion and efficacy. To solve this, future cross-disciplinary collaborations that seek to include creative actors from the worlds of art, humanities, and design can begin to provide a much stronger overlap of the cognition, emotion, and efficacy needed to communicate the science, engage the audience, and create the solutions needed to solve or world's most complex water resource problems. Disciplines across the arts, sciences, and engineering all bring unique strengths that, through collaboration, allow for uniquely creative modes of art-science overlap that can engage people through additions of emotion and efficacy that compliment the science and go beyond the traditional cognitive approach. I highlight examples of this art-science overlap in action and argue that water resource collaborations like these will be more likely to have their hydrologic science accepted and applied by those who decide on water resource solutions. For this Pop-up Talk session, I aim to share the details of this proposed framework in the context of my own research and the work of others. I hope to incite discussion regarding the utility and relevance of this framework as a future option for other water resource

  19. Mechanisms for water allocation and water rights in Europe and the Netherlands : lessons from a general public law perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijswick, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the allocation and regulation of water rights. Although there is a general concern about the allocation and restriction of the right to use scarce water resources, there is also a debate regarding the implementation of a public right to water in general and, in particular, th

  20. [People with a background in economic, political science and law have taken over in the Danish health care sector--or have they?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Mickael; Arendt, Jacob N; Kronborg, Christian; Lauridsen, Jørgen T

    2010-12-13

    The distribution of power in the Danish health care sector is debated. It is often claimed that persons with a social science background have taken over the most powerful positions. The aim of this study was to test whether doctors have lost their power to people with a background in economic, political science and law. Data of the 100 most powerful people in the health care sector published yearly by the newspaper "Dagens Medicin" from the period 2000-2010 was analysed using multiple regression. The primary independent variable was whether the person was a doctor or had a background in social science. Among the top 10 and the top 30 persons with a background in social science dominated over doctors. In the full top 100 list there was an equal number of doctors and social science educated. There was a tendency in the period that the number of social science educated increased whereas the number of doctors decreased. The multiple regressions showed that there was no difference in the two groups' relative power. Also, it was shown that the two groups' relative power varied in the period but showed the same pattern of variation. Persons with a background in social science seem not to have taken over power from doctors in the health care sector. Both groups have lost power in the period - but to whom is still an unanswered question.

  1. 33 CFR 209.170 - Violations of laws protecting navigable waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... tributary of any navigable water from which the same shall float or be washed into such navigable water, or... be liable to be washed into such navigable water, either by ordinary or high tides, or by storms or... District Engineer's money accounts by proper vouchers. With reference to the method of ascertaining the...

  2. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  3. Fifty years of Water Resources Research: Legacy and perspectives for the science of hydrology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Montanari, Alberto; Bahr, Jean; Blöschl, Günter; Cai, Ximing; Mackay, D. Scott; Michalak, Anna M; Rajaram, Harihar; Sander, Graham

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of the contributions collected to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of Water Resources Research along with a critical discussion of the legacy and perspectives for the science...

  4. Using Water Footprints for Examining the Sustainable Development of Science Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Shen Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Hsinchu Science Park was established in Taiwan in the 1980s, replacing traditional industries with high value-added and technology-intensive industries. Taiwan has become one of the Newly-Industrialized Economies (NIEs. However, the continued expansion of high-tech enterprises in science parks requires large amounts of resources to be consumed, deteriorating the quality of the environment, for which society must pay a high cost. In this study, the input-output model was used to explore the water footprints of the Hsinchu Science Park. The study results revealed that among the six industries at the Hsinchu Science Park, the integrated circuit industry (whether in 2001, 2004, or 2006 had the lowest total water consumption per unit of output. From a water footprint perspective, compared with the other industries of the science park, the development of the integrated circuit industry has had a lower impact on the environment. Furthermore, the integrated circuit industry, precision machinery industry, and biotechnology industry have become increasingly dependent on foreign water resources to alleviate the water shortage in Taiwan. In contrast to previous studies on water consumption, this study incorporated indirect water usage into the analysis; thus, a comprehensive view of the water consumption of each industry was analyzed from a broad perspective.

  5. The key indicators of transboundary water apportionment based on international laws and cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yan; HE Daming; LI Yungang

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary water,more competitive utilization and uncertain availability under the globalization trend,the issue of its apportionment which directly impacts national benefits of each riparian state is becoming one of the important topics in the world.Water is scarce in China,the most important upstream state in Asia,and this task has to be thought over in the coming future.Based on “International Freshwater Treaties Database” (1820-2007) by Oregon State University,and publications and reports on transboundary water utilization and management since 1999,28 indicators of water apportionment adopted in 49 international treaties and cases in 1864-2002 are divided into 6 types,the spatial and temporal characteristics of the adopted indicators are analyzed in order to find the key indicator(s) of transboundary water apportionment.The major results include:the major adopted indicators,have significant differences among 5 regions/continents,the indicators at rank first and second place in the developed region (North America and Europe) according to the adopted times are “keeping minimum water flow” and “mean annual runoff”,but in the developing region (Asia,Africa and South America),the ranking order of the above two indicators is reversed; the major adopted indicators in the watersheds with insufficient water are “mean annual runoff”and “keeping minimum water flow”,the ones in the watersheds with sufficient water are “keeping minimum water flow” and “maximum water intake”; the international treaties signed from the first phase to the fourth phase,the developing process shows a progress of “fewer-increasing a lot-decreasing rapidly-equation basically”,the regional distribution of the treaties shifts mainly from the developed region to the developing one,especially to Asia and Africa; the major adopted indicators shifts from “keeping minimum water flow” and “mean annual runoff” in 1864-1945,to “keeping minimum water flow” and

  6. Seepage laws in aquifer near a partially penetrating river with an intensive extraction of ground water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国东; 李俊亭

    1997-01-01

    The intensive extraction of ground water from aquifers near a river is an efficient way to exploit ground water resources. A lot of problems, however, have arisen because the mechanism of ground water flow in this way has not been clear. A sand-box model and a numerical model are respectively used to simulate the extraction of ground water near a partially penetrating river physically and theoretically. The results show that the ground water will lose saturated hydraulic connection with the river water as the pumping intensity increases. The broken point of hydraulic connection is located in the interior of aquifers rather than on the riverbed. After hydraulic disconnection occurs, two saturated zones, a suspended saturated zone linked with river and an unconfined aquifer, are formed.

  7. A Human right to water while the well runs dry: analyzing the legal and regulatory framework of Yemen water law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijswick, H.F.M.W.; Misiedjan, D.J.E.; Tjen A Kwoei, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Yemen is currently in the midst of great unrest. Amongst many different conflicts there is one that receives less attention than others, that of water. Yemen is expected to be the first country in the world to run out of water. By 2025 the estimated 4.2 million inhabitants of Yemen’s capital, Sana’a

  8. Regulating Water Quality: Policy, Standards, and Laws. January 1993 - January 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makuch, Joe

    The 127 citations in this annotated bibliography provide a substantial resource describing recent investigations on the regulation of water quality. The listing, prepared by NAL's Water Quality Information Center, is part of the Quick Bibliography Series of the National Agricultural Library (NAL), intended primarily for communicating current…

  9. REVIVAL OF SOVIET SCIENCE OF CORRECTIONAL LABOR LAW AND ITS IMPACT ON THE PENAL LEGISLATION DURING THE SECOND HALF OF THE 1950s.‒1960s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. UPOROV

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with issues related to the development of Soviet labor law during the "thaw". It is noted that since the mid-1950s. after a long break (almost thirty years the revival of science Forced labor law. Scientific outlook is largely determined the content of the new corrective labor laws (Fundamentals of Corrective Labour Legislation of the USSR and the Union Republics of 1969, the Corrective Labour Code of RSFSR, 1970. The paper analyzes the ruling Communist Party, the decisions of legislative bodies and various agencies, which defines the main directions of development of correctional labor law, which gives the corresponding evaluation. The sanctions of the new Criminal Code of the RSFSR was more than these types of punishment as correctional labor without imprisonment, a fine. The maximum penalty of imprisonmentis reduced from 25 to 15 years. In Forced Labor Act was quite clearly defined the legal status of convicted persons, strengthened the guarantee of their status, more attention has been paid to educational work with convicts. The use of labor condemned became the focus be placed on the development of its own production base. Political and ideological basis of corrective labor policy was the position of the CPSU Program that every stray from the employment gauge a person can return to honest work.

  10. Applying Climate Science to Urban Water Infrastructure Planning in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, K. O.; Khimsara, P.; Brown, K.

    2013-12-01

    Operators of urban water systems in California routinely develop long-range infrastructure plans to keep the communities they serve informed and to facilitate financing of planned projects. These plans compare baseline water supplies and demands to future projections, and they assess the adequacy of existing infrastructure for delivering water from raw water sources to customer connections under a variety of scenarios. In spite of these planning efforts, urban infrastructure projects are vulnerable to extreme climate and socioeconomic events. This paper examines the challenges facing infrastructure planners seeking to adapt urban water infrastructure to climate change using the current generation of climate predictions. A case study of small urban water systems in Lompoc Valley in California highlights the gap between climate variables available from global climate model predictions and decision parameters used in water infrastructure planning. Solutions are proposed for addressing some of the challenges encountered during climate impact analysis and vulnerability assessment. The paper also highlights outstanding gaps in our understanding of climate change and societal responses which could have profound impacts on urban water use and infrastructure needs.

  11. The Global Enery and Water Cycle Experiment Science Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahine, M. T.

    1997-01-01

    The distribution of water in the atmosphere and at the surface of the Earth is the most influential factor regulating our environment, not only because water is essential for life but also because through phase transitions it is the main energy source that control clouds and radiation and drives the global circulation of the atmosphere.

  12. Fair and Equitable Benefit-Sharing at the Cross-Roads of the Human Right to Science and International Biodiversity Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Morgera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As the debate about the need to clarify the content of the human right to science intensifies, this article assesses opportunities for opening a scholarly and policy dialogue on fair and equitable benefit-sharing between international human rights and biodiversity lawyers. To that end, the article contrasts the emerging conceptualizations of the right to science in the context of international cultural rights and of fair and equitable benefit-sharing under international biodiversity law. It then critically assesses the potential for cross-fertilization with specific regard to: the sharing of scientific information and promotion of scientific cooperation, the transfer of technology, and the protection and valorization of traditional knowledge of indigenous peoples and local communities. While acknowledging that both the right to science and fair and equitable benefit-sharing are far from being fully understood or operationalized, the article argues that developments in international biodiversity law concerning the latter may provide insights into how a vague and optimistic concept can (and when it cannot lead to tangible outcomes, rather than remaining merely rhetorical.

  13. Science in and out of the classroom: A look at Water Resource at Gammams Water Care Works, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iileka-Shinavene, Leena

    2016-04-01

    Primary school pupils in Van Rhyn School in Namibia are taught Natural Sciences from grade 4 at the age of 9. The curriculum is mainly theory/classroom based and natural science is taught through theory and various practical activities. However occasionally teachers have opportunities to supplement the pupils' learning experience through outdoor activities such as excursions to museums, municipal works and science fairs. Apart from enhancing the learning experience and improving understanding, such activities make the Natural science subject more interesting subject to learners. Water, a scarce/limited resource in Namibia, is one of the topics we cover in Natural sciences. Sustainable management of water is one of the top priorities of the government, which through various initiatives including the National Development Plan supports innovative ideas and technologies to reclaim water from sewage, recycling of industry and mining water and use semi-purified water for public recreational places. Most of the water used in Windhoek is reclaimed by City of Windhoek. To better illustrate this to the pupils, a school trip with 40 pupils of seventh grade was taken to the City of Windhoek's Gammams Water Care works. The aim of the trip was to show how the sewage purification process works and how the water is reclaimed from sewage. A guided tour of the water works was given by the resident scientists and the pupils were provided with the worksheet to complete after the tour around the Centre. They were encouraged to ask questions in all stages of water purification process and write down short notes. Most learners completed their worksheet during the tour session as they are getting information from the tour guide. The rest had to retrieve information and do further research as they got back to class so they could complete their worksheets. After the tour to Gammams, learners were asked to share what they had learned with the lower grades, 5 and 6, in a classroom

  14. LA RELACIÓN COMO OBJETO DE LA CIENCIA DEL DERECHO PENAL The relationship as a scientific object of criminal law science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Carrasco Jiménez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Por regla general, la "relación" como categoría central ha sido desestimada tanto por la filosofía como por la ciencia del derecho, cuestión que sin duda repercute en la ciencia del derecho penal. El presente artículo tiene por fin denotar este vacío, y presentar algunas claves por las que podría centrarse el estudio de la ciencia penal en la relación en cuanto objeto científico. Para ello, en primer lugar, se hará un estado de la cuestión en la tratativa de la relación por la filosofía y por la ciencia del derecho, para, en segundo lugar, centrarnos en las posibilidades de entender la relación como objeto de la ciencia del derecho penal.As a general rule, the "relationship" as a central theme has been overlooked as much by the field of philosophy as by legal science, which, without doubt, has repercussions on criminal justice science. This article will demonstrate this gap, and present some key points to show that the study of criminal law science of the relationship as a scientific object. Thus, in the first instance this article will explain the state of this matter (how "the relation" has been overlooked in relation to philosophy and legal science; and in the second instance, it will concentrate on the possibilities of understanding this relationship as a scientific object of criminal law science.

  15. Data and spatial studies of the USGS Texas Water Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burley, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrologists, geographers, geophysicists, and geologists with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Texas Water Science Center (TXWSC) work in the USGS Water Mission Area on a diverse range of projects built on a foundation of spatial data. The TXWSC has developed sophisticated data and spatial-studies-related capabilities that are an integral part of the projects undertaken by the Center.

  16. The influence of lithology on surface water sources | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability of surface water sources within a basin is vital to our ability to manage the impacts of climate variability and land cover change. Water stable isotopes can be used as a tool to determine geographic and seasonal sources of water at the basin scale. Previous studies in the Coastal Range of Oregon reported that the variation in the isotopic signatures of surface water does not conform to the commonly observed “rainout effect”, which exhibits a trend of increasing isotopic depletion with rising elevation. The primary purpose of this research is to investigate the mechanisms governing seasonal and spatial variations in the isotopic signature of surface waters within the Marys River Basin, located in the leeward side of the Oregon Coastal Range. Surface water and precipitation samples were collected every 2-3 weeks for isotopic analysis of δ18O and δ2H for one year. Results indicate a significant difference in isotopic signature between watersheds underlain by basalt and sandstone. The degree of separation was the most distinct during the summer when low flows reflect deeper groundwater sources, whereas isotopic signatures during the rainy season (fall and winter) showed a greater degree of similarity between the two lithologies. This indicates that baseflow within streams drained by sandstone versus basalt is being supplied from two distinctly separate water sources. In addition, Marys River flow at the outle

  17. Experimental Investigation on the Basic Law of Hydraulic Fracturing After Water Pressure Control Blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bingxiang; Li, Pengfeng; Ma, Jian; Chen, Shuliang

    2014-07-01

    Because of the advantages of integrating water pressure blasting and hydraulic fracturing, the use of hydraulic fracturing after water pressure control blasting is a method that is used to fully transform the structure of a coal-rock mass by increasing the number and range of hydraulic cracks. An experiment to study hydraulic fracturing after water pressure blasting on cement mortar samples (300 × 300 × 300 mm3) was conducted using a large-sized true triaxial hydraulic fracturing experimental system. A traditional hydraulic fracturing experiment was also performed for comparison. The experimental results show that water pressure blasting produces many blasting cracks, and follow-up hydraulic fracturing forces blasting cracks to propagate further and to form numerous multidirectional hydraulic cracks. Four macroscopic main hydraulic cracks in total were noted along the borehole axial and radial directions on the sample surfaces. Axial and radial main failure planes induced by macroscopic main hydraulic cracks split the sample into three big parts. Meanwhile, numerous local hydraulic cracks were formed on the main failure planes, in different directions and of different types. Local hydraulic cracks are mainly of three types: local hydraulic crack bands, local branched hydraulic cracks, and axial layered cracks. Because local hydraulic cracks produce multiple local layered failure planes and lamellar ruptures inside the sample, the integrity of the sample decreases greatly. The formation and propagation process of many multidirectional hydraulic cracks is affected by a combination of water pressure blasting, water pressure of fracturing, and the stress field of the surrounding rock. To a certain degree, the stress field of surrounding rock guides the formation and propagation process of the blasting crack and the follow-up hydraulic crack. Following hydraulic fracturing that has been conducted after water pressure blasting, the integrity of the sample is found to

  18. Hell and High Water: Practice-Relevant Adaptation Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Richard H.; Meehl, G.; Lemos, Maria Carmen; Smith, J. B.; Arnold, J. R.; Arnott, J. C.; Behar, D.; Brasseur, Guy P.; Broomell, S. B.; Busalacchi, Antonio; Dessai, S.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Edmonds, James A.; Furlow, J.; Goddard, L.; Hartmann, Holly; Hurrell, Jim; Katzenberger, J. W.; Liverman, D. M.; Mote, Phil; Moser, S. C.; Kumar, A.; Pulwarty, Roger; Seyller, E. A.; Turner, B.L.; Washington, Warren M.; Wilbanks, Thomas

    2013-11-08

    Recent extreme weather such as Hurricane Sandy and the 2012 drought demonstrate the vulnerability of the United States to climate extremes in the present and point to the potential for increased future damages under a changing climate. They also provide lessons for reducing harm and realizing any potential benefits. Preparedness measures – also referred to as adaptation – can cost-effectively increase resilience today and in the future. The upfront costs will be more than offset by reductions in property damage, lives and livelihoods lost, and expensive post-disaster recovery processes. While others have addressed use of science for adaptation in specific sectors including biodiversity (Heller and Zavaleta, 2009) and freshwater ecosystem management (Wilby et al., 2010), or by simply taking a more pragmatic approach to adaptation under uncertainty (Hallegatte, 2009), here the authors make the case that a new, comprehensive approach is needed to create and use science to inform adaptations with applicable and sound knowledge (Kerr et al., 2011).

  19. Does Studying Political Science Affect Civic Attitudes?: A Panel Comparison of Students of Politics, Law, and Mass Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaiasson, Peter; Persson, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    The article evaluates the civic implications of studying political science. Previous research has argued that learning rational choice models of political behavior could be detrimental to civic outcomes. However, results from our two panel surveys of students at Swedish universities show the opposite: studying political science has positive…

  20. Does Studying Political Science Affect Civic Attitudes?: A Panel Comparison of Students of Politics, Law, and Mass Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esaiasson, Peter; Persson, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    The article evaluates the civic implications of studying political science. Previous research has argued that learning rational choice models of political behavior could be detrimental to civic outcomes. However, results from our two panel surveys of students at Swedish universities show the opposite: studying political science has positive…

  1. Building of Kemijoki water system and the question of Vuotos reservoir. Thinking of the Law; Kemijoen vesistoen rakentaminen ja Vuotos - oikeuden ajattelu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeyttyjaervi, M.-L.

    2011-07-01

    The application for Vuotos reservoir and regulating project was denied by the Supreme Administrative Court (KHO 2002:86) by virtue of the Finnish Water Act (264/1961) because of the damages it would have caused to the environment (WA 2:5). The decision opens up two angles from which to examine the law. The first angle is directed towards the history of legal rules on building water power utilities and the weight of natural values in those rules and in legal decisions. The evolution of rules is in this study combined with permits on building Kemijoki water system. The Vuotos decision and the new Water Act (587/2011) becoming into force at the beginning of 2012 are studied in connection with different historical roots that are identified in them. The hegemony of water power in the use of water-courses lasted from the beginning of 1940s until the turn of the decade 1980, when the act protecting Ounasjoki (703/1983) was passed and the government decided (at that time) not to build Vuotos reservoir. In water law the legal weight of natural values has been gradually growing. As a result of recent reforms (implementing EU-directives 2000/60/EY and 2004/35/EY) the law has also meaningfully opened up in the direction of the rights of nature. The second angle that the Vuotos decision opens up is directed towards deeper layers of law. Biocentric and ecocentric materials have been identified to be imported into Finnish law by the constitutional environmental right (the Constitution of Finland section 20, 731/1999). In this research the deeper layers are studied by asking about the possibility of biocentric law and possibility to locate a category of biological community rights into law. The grounds for biocentric thinking are studied in the fields of ethics and both philosophy and theory of law. This study concludes that life is sufficient to justify the inherent worth and even moral and legal rights of a living being. The system of law can be assessed to include features and

  2. Water Availability for the Western United States: The Role for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M. T.; Woosley, L. H.

    2003-12-01

    In the American West, the availability of water has become a serious concern for many communities and rural homeowners. Water of acceptable quality is harder to find because local sources are allocated to prior uses, depleted by overuse, or diminished by drought stress. Some of the inherent characteristics of the West add complexity to the task. The most rapidly growing States in population are in the Southwest-the most arid region on the continent. There is evidence that the climate is warming, which will have consequences for the Western water supplies, such as increasing minimum streamflow and earlier snowmelt events in snow-dominated basins. Endangered species are disproportionately represented in the Western States, and water availability now means sustaining riparian ecosystems and individual endangered species. Periodic inventory and assessment of the amounts and trends of water available in surface water and ground water are needed to support water management. The widespread perception that the amount of water available is diminishing with time needs to be replaced with fact. For the major Western rivers, there is either no long-term streamflow trend or the trend is increasing. In contrast, systematic information is lacking to make broad assessments of ground-water availability, but for specific aquifers where data are available, the aquifers are being depleted. The complexity added to the issue of Western water availability by these and other factors gives rise to a significant role for science. Science has played a role in support of Western water development from the beginning, and the role has evolved and changed over time along with society's values. The role for science is discussed in three phases-development and construction, consequences and environmental awareness, and sustainability. The development and construction includes some historical accounting of water development for the West and how some precedents set then, still exist today. Science

  3. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 07: The "laws" of effective public education about fire hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Within the past 10 years, breakthrough research has identified factors that are most important for effectively communicating about wildland fire hazards. This fact sheet discusses seven "Laws" of effective public communication that should be considered in any state-of-the-art education campaign.

  4. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  5. Science & Technology for Sustainable Water in China A Perspective of the IAC Water Program and Studies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jun

    2012-01-01

    Water is a big issue in the world. As we enter the 21st century, a global water crisis threatens the security, stability and environmental sustainability of all nations, particularly those in the developing world. The Inter-Academy Council (IAC) proposed to undertake a study of the current and emerging challenges and opportunities for sustainable water resources management at its 2009 Board meeting. This paper gives a perspective of the IAC Water Program, and the case studies conducted by China Working Group of the IAC Water Program on three key issues, namely climate change & water adaptive management, agricultural water & ecology, and urban water & environment. The purpose is to show the role of science & technology for sustainable water in China. These studies are the 1st phase of the IAC Water Program in China. Perspectives of new challenges and opportunities on this Program for the water future in the world and China are also given in the paper.

  6. Mechanical balance laws for fully nonlinear and weakly dispersive water waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisch, Henrik; Khorsand, Zahra; Mitsotakis, Dimitrios

    2016-10-01

    The Serre-Green-Naghdi system is a coupled, fully nonlinear system of dispersive evolution equations which approximates the full water wave problem. The system is known to describe accurately the wave motion at the surface of an incompressible inviscid fluid in the case when the fluid flow is irrotational and two-dimensional. The system is an extension of the well known shallow-water system to the situation where the waves are long, but not so long that dispersive effects can be neglected. In the current work, the focus is on deriving mass, momentum and energy densities and fluxes associated with the Serre-Green-Naghdi system. These quantities arise from imposing balance equations of the same asymptotic order as the evolution equations. In the case of an even bed, the conservation equations are satisfied exactly by the solutions of the Serre-Green-Naghdi system. The case of variable bathymetry is more complicated, with mass and momentum conservation satisfied exactly, and energy conservation satisfied only in a global sense. In all cases, the quantities found here reduce correctly to the corresponding counterparts in both the Boussinesq and the shallow-water scaling. One consequence of the present analysis is that the energy loss appearing in the shallow-water theory of undular bores is fully compensated by the emergence of oscillations behind the bore front. The situation is analyzed numerically by approximating solutions of the Serre-Green-Naghdi equations using a finite-element discretization coupled with an adaptive Runge-Kutta time integration scheme, and it is found that the energy is indeed conserved nearly to machine precision. As a second application, the shoaling of solitary waves on a plane beach is analyzed. It appears that the Serre-Green-Naghdi equations are capable of predicting both the shape of the free surface and the evolution of kinetic and potential energy with good accuracy in the early stages of shoaling.

  7. Nitrate Water Activities, Science Study Aid No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Intended to supplement a regular program, this pamphlet provides background information, related activities, and suggestions for other activities on the subject of nitrate as a water pollutant. Two activities related to plant nutrient pollution, nitrate filtration and measuring mitrate used by plants, are explained in detail, outlining objectives,…

  8. Mechanical balance laws for fully nonlinear and weakly dispersive water waves

    CERN Document Server

    Kalisch, Henrik; Mitsotakis, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    The Serre-Green-Naghdi system is a coupled, fully nonlinear system of dispersive evolution equations which approximates the full water wave problem. The system is an extension of the well known shallow-water system to the situation where the waves are long, but not so long that dispersive effects can be neglected. In the current work, the focus is on deriving mass, momentum and energy densities and fluxes associated with the Serre-Green-Naghdi system. These quantities arise from imposing balance equations of the same asymptotic order as the evolution equations. In the case of an even bed, the conservation equations are satisfied exactly by the solutions of the Serre-Green-Naghdi system. The case of variable bathymetry is more complicated, with mass and momentum conservation satisfied exactly, and energy conservation satisfied only in a global sense. In all cases, the quantities found here reduce correctly to the corresponding counterparts in both the Boussinesq and the shallow-water scaling. One consequence o...

  9. Integrating science, policy and stakeholder perspectives for water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Emily; Allan, Andrew; Whitehead, Paul; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Lazzar, Attila; Lim, Michelle; Munsur Rahman, Md.

    2015-04-01

    Successful management of water resources requires an integrated approach considering the complex relationships between different biophysical processes, governance frameworks and socio-economic factors. The Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) Deltas project has developed a range of socio-economic scenarios using a participatory approach, and applied these across different biophysical models as well as an integrated environmental, socio-economic model of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Delta. This work demonstrates a novel approach through the consideration of multiple ecosystem services and related socio-economic factors in the development of scenarios; the application of these to multiple models at multiple scales; and the participatory approach to improve project outcomes and engage national level stakeholders and policy makers. Scenarios can assist in planning for an uncertain future through exploring plausible alternatives. To adequately assess the potential impacts of future changes and management strategies on water resources, the wider biophysical, socio-economic and governance context needs to be considered. A series of stakeholder workshops have been held in Bangladesh to identify issues of main concern relating to the GBM Delta; to iteratively develop scenario narratives for business as usual, less sustainable, and more sustainable development pathways; and to translate these qualitative scenarios into a quantitative form suitable for analysis. The combined impact of these scenarios and climate change on water quantity and quality within the GBM Basin are demonstrated. Results suggest that climate change is likely to impact on both peak and low flows to a greater extent than most socio-economic changes. However, the diversion of water from the Ganges and Brahmaputra has the potential to significantly impact on water availability in Bangladesh depending on the timing and quantity of diversions. Both climate change and socio

  10. A Spring without Water: The Conundrum of Anti-Dumping Duties in South African Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive Vinti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Agreement on the Implementation of Article VI of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (1994 (Anti-Dumping Agreement permits the imposition of anti-dumping duties for as long and to the extent necessary to counteract dumping which is causing injury, subject to the proviso that they must be terminated after five years unless a sunset review has been initiated. A sunset review has the purpose of either permitting or terminating the continuation of an anti-dumping duty. This is significant because if the sunset review is not initiated prior to the expiry of the five-year period, the anti-dumping duties will be terminated. Therefore, this places an emphasis on the determination of the precise date of commencement of the anti-dumping duties. This is because an incorrect determination of the date of the imposition of the anti-dumping duty has obvious financial implications for the interested parties. The Supreme Court of Appeal in South Africa has delivered two salient judgments in this regard: firstly, in Progress Office Machines CC v SARS 2008 2 SA 13 (SCA (POM, and then more recently, in Association of Meat Importers v ITAC 2013 4 All SA 253 (SCA (AMIE. This paper contends that these two judgments are in conflict and are riddled with inconsistencies. Secondly, the paper contends that the SCA has in the recent AMIE case virtually rewritten its earlier judgment of Progress Office Machines. Lastly, the paper shows that the approach of South African courts to whether the Anti-Dumping Agreement is binding on South African law is fraught with uncertainty and ambivalence. The case analysis also reflects on the impact of the newly minted but yet to be implemented Customs Duty Act with a view to assessing the impact of the new legislation on the issues currently plaguing the anti-dumping regime of South Africa.

  11. The Consensus Process at the Water Science and Technology Board, National Research Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, W. S.

    2001-12-01

    Whereas the very birth of the U.S. Geological Survey arose from the recommendations of a National Academy of Sciences report, water science has not always had a prominent place at that institution. Prior to the 1980s, water issues were dealt with on an ad hoc basis by various boards related to science, engineering, and policy. With the birth of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) in 1982, a diversity of water-related issues are now handled under one roof. The "business" of the WSTB is to produce consensus reports on a spectrum of topics in water science. Some of the projects that the WSTB works on are self-generated. The majority are generated either by Congress, or by government agencies. The WSTB takes on several different kinds of studies. Some of these are designed to advance the science of hydrology itself. This category would include the report Opportunities in the Hydrologic Sciences, which helped to establish hydrologic science as something separate from applied hydrology in Congress, the White House, and agencies such as NSF. However, the majority of the board's consensus studies involve hydrology in the interests of improving the natural and human environment. For example, Water for the Future: The West Bank and Gaza Strip, Israel, and Jordan outlined consensus principles backed by scientists from all of these entities for sustaining freshwater resources of the region. Closer to home, but no less controversial, a WSTB committee recently reached consensus on improving the process by which states determine which water bodies are polluted enough to require clean-up, and develop Total Maximum Daily Loads for these pollutants. Another committee recently sorted through the scientific bases for using natural attenuation for various contaminants in ground water and soil. And an ongoing committee is trying to help the South Florida scientific community to determine the best strategies for restoring the Everglades to some semblance of its former self

  12. The "Natural Law Tradition."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnis, John

    1986-01-01

    A discussion of natural law outlines some of the theory and tradition surrounding it and examines its relationship to the social science and legal curriculum and to the teaching of jurisprudence. (MSE)

  13. The science-policy interface: Perceptions and strategies of the Iberian 'new water culture' expert community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanie J. Bukowski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a normative consensus that science should contribute to decision-making in environmental policy, given that science provides a means of understanding natural systems, human impacts upon them, and the consequences of those impacts for human systems. Despite this general agreement, however, the means through which science is transmitted into policy is contested. This paper envisions several of the competing characterisations of the science-policy interface as a continuum with the endpoints of 'fortress science' and 'co-production', and applies this continuum in an empirical analysis of the transboundary expert community promoting a 'new water culture' on the Iberian Peninsula. In engaging directly with members of this community, the paper finds that these characterisations are better seen as strategies among which scientists and their communities may choose and over which they may disagree. These trade-offs and disagreements in turn have implications for policy impact.

  14. Surface-water quality-assurance plan for the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastin, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    This Surface-Water Quality-Assurance Plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center (WAWSC) for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of surface-water data. This plan serves as a guide to all WAWSC personnel involved in surface-water data activities, and changes as the needs and requirements of the WAWSC change. Regular updates to this plan represent an integral part of the quality-assurance process. In the WAWSC, direct oversight and responsibility by the hydrographer(s) assigned to a surface-water station, combined with team approaches in all work efforts, assure high-quality data, analyses, reviews, and reports for cooperating agencies and the public.

  15. Lotka's Law Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, William Gray

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the literature that has become associated with Lotka's Law of Scientific Productivity (a general theoretical estimate of author productivity in the sciences) and attempts to identify the important factors of Lotka's original methodology that should be considered when attempting to test applicability of Lotka's Law. Forty-seven references…

  16. Water Quality Standards for Coral Reef Protection | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Clean Water Act provides a legal framework to protect coastal biological resources such as coral reefs, mangrove forests, and seagrass meadows from the damaging effects of human activities. Even though many resources are protected under this authority, water quality standards have not been effectively applied to coral reefs. The Environmental Protection Agency is promoting biocriteria and other water quality standards through collaborative development of bioassessment procedures, indicators and monitoring strategies. To support regulatory action, bioassessment indicators must be biologically meaningful, relevant to management, responsive to human disturbance, and relatively immune to natural variability. A rapid bioassessment protocol for reef-building stony corals was developed and tested for regulatory applicability. Preliminary testing in the Florida Keys found indicators had sufficient precision and provided information relevant to coral reef management. Sensitivity to human disturbance was demonstrated in the U.S. Virgin Islands for five of eight indicators tested. Once established, monitoring programs using these indicators can provide valuable, long-term records of coral condition and regulatory compliance. Development of a rapid bioassement protocol for reef-building stony corals was tested for regulatory applicability.

  17. 我国海绵城市建设中的水科学难题%Water science issues in sponge city construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左其亭

    2016-01-01

    在总结我国海绵城市建设实践和相关研究成果的基础上,分析海绵城市建设提出的背景和承载的期望以及可能存在的问题,从水科学学科体系的10个方面(水文学、水资源、水环境、水安全、水工程、水经济、水法律、水文化、水信息、水教育),阐述水科学在海绵城市建设中的应用和海绵城市建设中可能遇到的6方面水科学难题:海绵城市建设水文效应与水系统模型、水资源高效利用机理及方案优选、面源污染物通过土壤渗虑消减机理及效应、“渗、蓄、滞”作用机理与城市雨洪计算、水安全风险管控及适应机制、水管理体系研究,并初步提出这些难题的解决途径,旨在为海绵城市建设的研究和实施提供参考。%Based on summarizing the practice and related research results regarding sponge city construction in China, we analyze the background, expectations, and possible problems regarding the construction of sponge cities, and elaborate on the application of water science to the construction of sponge cities according to the various water science disciplines, including hydrology, water resources, water environment, water security, water engineering, water economy, water law, water culture, water information, and water education. We also put forward six aspects of water science issues probably related to sponge city construction, which involve hydrological effects and water system models in sponge city construction, mechanisms and scheme optimization for effective utilization of water resources, the reduction mechanisms and effects of non-point source pollution through soil percolation, the infiltration-storage-stagnation interaction mechanism and design and calculation of urban rainfall floods, water security risk control and adaptation mechanisms, and water management system research. In addition, we propose solutions to these issues, in order to provide references for the

  18. Integration of hydrogeology and soil science for sustainable water resources-focus on water quantity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased biofuel production has heightened awareness of the strong linkages between crop water use and depletion of water resources. Irrigated agriculture consumed 90% of global fresh water resources during the past century. Addressing crop water use and depletion of groundwater resources requires ...

  19. “Superficial Water Concessions In Light Of The General Theory of the Administrative Act” The Incidence of the Public Law’s Dogmatic Tradition of Public Law Within Environmental Law

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Rey, Andrés

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks the determine the ways in which anomalous decisions derived from the particularization and constitutionalization of environmental law can arise given the general theory of administrative action. This is seen through the lens of a study and characterization of administrative decisions issued by the Regional Autonomous Corporation of Cundinamarca –CAR- within the superficial water concessions procedure. It also discusses the conceptual contents of these licenses.

  20. “Superficial Water Concessions In Light Of The General Theory of the Administrative Act” The Incidence of the Public Law’s Dogmatic Tradition of Public Law Within Environmental Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Gómez-Rey

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks the determine the ways in which anomalous decisions derived from the particularization and constitutionalization of environmental law can arise given the general theory of administrative action. This is seen through the lens of a study and characterization of administrative decisions issued by the Regional Autonomous Corporation of Cundinamarca –CAR- within the superficial water concessions procedure. It also discusses the conceptual contents of these licenses.

  1. Water and health. [Chapter 6 of 'Sustainable water: chemical science priorities summary report'

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Colin H.; Donner, Erica; Faulkner, Hazel P.; Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Revitt, D. Mike; Scholes, Lian N. L.

    2007-01-01

    Water transports contaminants, including inorganic, organic and biological materials, from various sources both natural and man-made. Such contaminants can enter the human body via water by ingestion, inhalation of water droplets and contact, particularly with broken skin. Water borne diseases have historically had the greatest impact upon human health and continue to contribute to millions of deaths globally per year. Water use and sanitation in the form of hygiene practices act as an imp...

  2. Water and health. [Chapter 6 of 'Sustainable water: chemical science priorities summary report'

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Colin H.; Donner, Erica; Faulkner, Hazel P.; Garelick, Hemda; Jones, Huw; Revitt, D. Mike; Scholes, Lian N. L.

    2007-01-01

    Water transports contaminants, including inorganic, organic and biological materials, from various sources both natural and man-made. Such contaminants can enter the human body via water by ingestion, inhalation of water droplets and contact, particularly with broken skin.\\ud Water borne diseases have historically had the greatest impact upon human health and continue to contribute to millions of deaths globally per year. Water use and sanitation in the form of hygiene practices act as an imp...

  3. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law...

  4. Thin power law film flow down an inclined plane: consistent shallow water models and stability under large scale perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Noble, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we derive consistent shallow water equations for thin films of power law fluids down an incline. These models account for the streamwise diffusion of momentum which is important to describe accurately the full dynamic of the thin film flows when instabilities like roll-waves arise. These models are validated through a comparison with Orr Sommerfeld equations for large scale perturbations. We only consider laminar flow for which the boundary layer issued from the interaction of the flow with the bottom surface has an influence all over the transverse direction to the flow. In this case the concept itself of thin film and its relation with long wave asymptotic leads naturally to flow conditions around a uniform free surface Poiseuille flow. The apparent viscosity diverges at the free surface which, in turn, introduces a singularity in the formulation of the Orr-Sommerfeld equations and in the derivation of shallow water models. We remove this singularity by introducing a weaker formulation of Cauc...

  5. Water Sciences - Connecting the dots to achieve the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlenbrook, Stefan; Ortigara, Angela; Minelli, Lucilla

    2017-04-01

    Land use change, urbanisation, climate change, demographic development and migration, conflicts and peace, change of diets, industry 4.0, globalisation etc. are among the challenges that water sciences need to address to serve societal needs. Water availability per capita is decreasing, water quality is deteriorating at many places, but water demand is continuously escalating. Business as usual in water science is not up to the related challenges. In fact, business as usual cannot be the answer in all aspects, i.e. also current policy making processes will need to improve and take stock of evidences provided by science in order to better address societal challenges. However, exciting developments have been taking place. The global community agreed on a new and ambitious agenda for development, which aims to be comprehensive and include the participation of all stakeholders in one integrated framework. The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development provides a stimulating new era, with unique opportunities to reconcile science, society and policy making. Hydrology and water management - in all its facets including wastewater - play a central role in the Agenda 2030, as it is not only central in Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6, but it is fundamental for the realization of other SDGs related to, for instance, poverty reduction, sustainable growth, health, food security, climate change, ecosystems (land and sea), gender equality, etc. Despite the recognition of the critical importance of water in this agenda, the implementation of related policies and use of scientific developments represent a difficult task. Two main challenges remain: (i) the utilization of the knowledge and developments already available, and (ii) the need to overcome current and future knowledge gaps ensuring that scientific results support sustainable development effectively. The UN system will produce a Synthesis Report for SDG 6, which is currently being prepared by a UN-Water Task Force that

  6. Science-policy interfacing in support of the Water Framework Directive implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaes, G; Willems, P; Swartenbroekx, P; Kramer, K; de Lange, W; Kober, K

    2009-01-01

    Many current water-related RTD projects have established operational links with practitioners, which allow the needs of policy makers to be taken into account. However, RTD results are not easily available to water policy implementers and research scientists may lack insight in the needs of policy makers and implementers (i.e. the European Commission and water managers). The SPI-Water project worked out a number of concrete actions to bridge these gaps in communication by developing and implementing a 'science-policy interface', enhancing the use of RTD results in the Water Framework Directive (WFD) implementation. This project is part of a wider EC perspective aiming to bridge the gap between science and policy, specifically with respect to the WFD implementation. As a first action, existing science-policy links are investigated. RTD and LIFE projects that are of direct relevance for the implementation of the WFD are identified and analysed. Secondly, an information system (Harmoni-CA's WISE RTD Web Portal) has been further developed to cater for an efficient and easy to use tool for dissemination as well as retrieval of RTD results. As third action, this science-policy interfacing of WFD related topics are extended to non-EU countries taking into account their specific needs.

  7. Adapting the law of water management to global climate change and other hydropolitical stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellapenna, J.W. [Villanova Univ. School of Law, Vallanova, PA (United States)]. E-mail: dellapen@law.vill.edu

    2002-06-15

    There is little reason for doubt today that the planet is undergoing significant and even alarming climate change. One study found that after nearly a millennium of a slow but steady cooling trend, the twentieth century has seen a dramatic and dramatically accelerating upsurge in average global temperatures. (Stevens, 1999b) Farmers are already experiencing measurably longer growing seasons across the Northern Hemisphere. (Stevens, 1999a) With growing evidence of the melting of the polar ice caps, there is little room left to argue that climate change is an illusion. (Stevens, 1999c) These changes - whether the result of human agency or otherwise - inevitably will have vast impact on the precipitation patterns around the world. The last time the planet underwent a global climate change of a comparable scale was the end of the last Ice Age - and that change was spread out over several thousand years compared to the present change that appears to be occurring over a period of only a few centuries. The change at the end of the last ice age - only some 12,000 years ago or so - turned the Middle East from a region of plentiful occupied by a relatively dense human population of hunters and gatherers to the largest dry region on earth. Facing the prospect of imminent starvation, presumably most of people in the region chose to migrate, yet some found a way to adapt without migrating. (Issar, 1990) Apparently, a few of the women (who would have been responsible for gathering and caring for seeds and berries while the men were off hunting) discovered that they could plant some of the seeds they gathered and thereby multiply the yield sufficiently to sustain their communities and even support an increase in population. (Jacobs, 1969) After a millennium or more, the farmers realized that they could dig ditches from the rivers out onto the remarkably flat plains of the land between or near the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers to bring water out to the now deep soils. This

  8. Water and life from snow: A trillion dollar science question

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Matthew; Goldstein, Michael A.; Parr, Charles

    2017-05-01

    Snow provides essential resources/services in the form of water for human use, and climate regulation in the form of enhanced cooling of the Earth. In addition, it supports a thriving winter outdoor recreation industry. To date, the financial evaluation of the importance of snow is incomplete and hence the need for accelerated snow research is not as clear as it could be. With snow cover changing worldwide in several worrisome ways, there is pressing need to determine global, regional, and local rates of snow cover change, and to link these to financial analyses that allow for rational decision making, as risks related to those decisions involve trillions of dollars.

  9. Building a Data Science capability for USGS water research and communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appling, A.; Read, E. K.

    2015-12-01

    Interpreting and communicating water issues in an era of exponentially increasing information requires a blend of domain expertise, computational proficiency, and communication skills. The USGS Office of Water Information has established a Data Science team to meet these needs, providing challenging careers for diverse domain scientists and innovators in the fields of information technology and data visualization. Here, we detail the experience of building a Data Science capability as a bridging element between traditional water resources analyses and modern computing tools and data management techniques. This approach includes four major components: 1) building reusable research tools, 2) documenting data-intensive research approaches in peer reviewed journals, 3) communicating complex water resources issues with interactive web visualizations, and 4) offering training programs for our peers in scientific computing. These components collectively improve the efficiency, transparency, and reproducibility of USGS data analyses and scientific workflows.

  10. Quality-assurance plan for groundwater activities, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington Water Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozar, Mark D.; Kahle, Sue C.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the standard procedures, policies, and field methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Washington Water Science Center staff for activities related to the collection, processing, analysis, storage, and publication of groundwater data. This groundwater quality-assurance plan changes through time to accommodate new methods and requirements developed by the Washington Water Science Center and the USGS Office of Groundwater. The plan is based largely on requirements and guidelines provided by the USGS Office of Groundwater, or the USGS Water Mission Area. Regular updates to this plan represent an integral part of the quality-assurance process. Because numerous policy memoranda have been issued by the Office of Groundwater since the previous groundwater quality assurance plan was written, this report is a substantial revision of the previous report, supplants it, and contains significant additional policies not covered in the previous report. This updated plan includes information related to the organization and responsibilities of USGS Washington Water Science Center staff, training, safety, project proposal development, project review procedures, data collection activities, data processing activities, report review procedures, and archiving of field data and interpretative information pertaining to groundwater flow models, borehole aquifer tests, and aquifer tests. Important updates from the previous groundwater quality assurance plan include: (1) procedures for documenting and archiving of groundwater flow models; (2) revisions to procedures and policies for the creation of sites in the Groundwater Site Inventory database; (3) adoption of new water-level forms to be used within the USGS Washington Water Science Center; (4) procedures for future creation of borehole geophysics, surface geophysics, and aquifer-test archives; and (5) use of the USGS Multi Optional Network Key Entry System software for entry of routine water-level data

  11. U.S. Geological Survey Virginia and West Virginia Water Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastram, John D.

    2017-08-22

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) serves the Nation by providing reliable scientific information to describe and understand the Earth; minimize loss of life and property from natural disasters; manage water, biological, energy, and mineral resources; and enhance and protect our quality of life. In support of this mission, the USGS Virginia and West Virginia Water Science Center works in cooperation with many entities to provide reliable, impartial scientific information to resource managers, planners, and the public.

  12. Air-Liquid Partition Coefficient for a Diverse Set of Organic Compounds: Henry’s Law Constant in Water and Hexadecane

    Science.gov (United States)

    The SPARC vapor pressure and activity coefficient models were coupled to estimate Henry’s Law Constant (HLC) in water and in hexadecane for a wide range of non-polar and polar solute organic compounds without modification to/or additional parameterization of the vapor pressure or...

  13. The Impact of Psychological Science on Policing in the United States: Procedural Justice, Legitimacy, and Effective Law Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Tom R; Goff, Phillip Atiba; MacCoun, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    The May 2015 release of the report of the President's Task Force on 21st Century Policing highlighted a fundamental change in the issues dominating discussions about policing in America. That change has moved discussions away from a focus on what is legal or effective in crime control and toward a concern for how the actions of the police influence public trust and confidence in the police. This shift in discourse has been motivated by two factors-first, the recognition by public officials that increases in the professionalism of the police and dramatic declines in the rate of crime have not led to increases in police legitimacy, and second, greater awareness of the limits of the dominant coercive model of policing and of the benefits of an alternative and more consensual model based on public trust and confidence in the police and legal system. Psychological research has played an important role in legitimating this change in the way policymakers think about policing by demonstrating that perceived legitimacy shapes a set of law-related behaviors as well as or better than concerns about the risk of punishment. Those behaviors include compliance with the law and cooperation with legal authorities. These findings demonstrate that legal authorities gain by a focus on legitimacy. Psychological research has further contributed by articulating and demonstrating empirical support for a central role of procedural justice in shaping legitimacy, providing legal authorities with a clear road map of strategies for creating and maintaining public trust. Given evidence of the benefits of legitimacy and a set of guidelines concerning its antecedents, policymakers have increasingly focused on the question of public trust when considering issues in policing. The acceptance of a legitimacy-based consensual model of police authority building on theories and research studies originating within psychology illustrates how psychology can contribute to the development of evidence

  14. Science center capabilities to monitor and investigate Michigan’s water resources, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, Julia A.; Givens, Carrie E.

    2016-09-06

    Michigan faces many challenges related to water resources, including flooding, drought, water-quality degradation and impairment, varying water availability, watershed-management issues, stormwater management, aquatic-ecosystem impairment, and invasive species. Michigan’s water resources include approximately 36,000 miles of streams, over 11,000 inland lakes, 3,000 miles of shoreline along the Great Lakes (MDEQ, 2016), and groundwater aquifers throughout the State.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) works in cooperation with local, State, and other Federal agencies, as well as tribes and universities, to provide scientific information used to manage the water resources of Michigan. To effectively assess water resources, the USGS uses standardized methods to operate streamgages, water-quality stations, and groundwater stations. The USGS also monitors water quality in lakes and reservoirs, makes periodic measurements along rivers and streams, and maintains all monitoring data in a national, quality-assured, hydrologic database.The USGS in Michigan investigates the occurrence, distribution, quantity, movement, and chemical and biological quality of surface water and groundwater statewide. Water-resource monitoring and scientific investigations are conducted statewide by USGS hydrologists, hydrologic technicians, biologists, and microbiologists who have expertise in data collection as well as various scientific specialties. A support staff consisting of computer-operations and administrative personnel provides the USGS the functionality to move science forward. Funding for USGS activities in Michigan comes from local and State agencies, other Federal agencies, direct Federal appropriations, and through the USGS Cooperative Matching Funds, which allows the USGS to partially match funding provided by local and State partners.This fact sheet provides an overview of the USGS current (2016) capabilities to monitor and study Michigan’s vast water resources. More

  15. The science, information, and engineering needed to manage water availability and quality in 2050: Chapter 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter explores four water resources issues: 1) hydrologic variability, hazards, water supply and ecosystem preservation; 2) urban landscape design; 3) non-point source water quality, and 4) climate change, resiliency, and nonstationarity. It also considers what science, technology, and engineering practice may be needed in the coming decades to sustain water supplies and ecosystems in the face of increasing stresses from a growing demand for water. Dealing with these four water resource issues in the highly uncertain future would will demand predictive models that are rooted in real-world data. In a non-stationary world, continuity of observations is crucial. All watersheds are influenced by human actions through changes in land use, water use, and climate. The focus of water planning and management between today and 2050 will depend more than ever on collection and analysis of long-term data to learn about the evolving state of the system, understanding ecosystem processes in the water and on the landscape, and finding innovative ways to manage water as a shared resource. This includes sharing water with our neighbors on the landscape, sharing with the other species that depend on water, and sharing with future generations.

  16. Where Theory and Law Meet: Trends in Establishment Clause Jurisprudence in the US Federal Courts and Implications for Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lance E.; Southerland, Sherry A.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, federal court opinions and writings of legal scholars, spanning 63 years of establishment clause jurisprudence in the US federal courts were analysed in an effort to determine dominant trends in judicial philosophy that are of significance to science educators. The study's findings suggest that the dominant legal theory underpinning…

  17. Human Genetics - Mendel's Laws Applied to You! [Aids to Individualize the Teaching of Science, Mini-Course Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheffield, Sharon

    This booklet, one of a series developed by the Frederick County Board of Education, Frederick, Maryland, provides an instruction module for an individualized or flexible approach to secondary science teaching. Subjects and activities in this series of booklets are designed to supplement a basic curriculum or to form a total curriculum, and relate…

  18. Science to support the understanding of Ohio's water resources, 2016-17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Kimberly; Kula, Stephanie P.; Shaffer, Kimberly; Kula, Stephanie P.

    2016-12-19

    Ohio’s water resources support a complex web of human activities and nature—clean and abundant water is needed for drinking, recreation, farming, and industry, as well as for fish and wildlife needs. Although rainfall in normal years can support these activities and needs, occasional floods and droughts can disrupt streamflow, groundwater, water availability, water quality, recreation, and aquatic habitats. Ohio is bordered by the Ohio River and Lake Erie; it has over 44,000 miles of streams and more than 60,000 lakes and ponds (State of Ohio, 1994). Nearly all of the rural population obtains drinking water from groundwater sources. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) works in cooperation with local, State, and other Federal agencies, as well as universities, to furnish decisionmakers, policy makers, USGS scientists, and the general public with reliable scientific information and tools to assist them in management, stewardship, and use of Ohio’s natural resources. The diversity of scientific expertise among USGS personnel enables them to carry out large- and small-scale multidisciplinary studies. The USGS is unique among government organizations because it has neither regulatory nor developmental authority—its sole product is impartial, credible, relevant, and timely scientific information, equally accessible and available to everyone. The USGS Ohio Water Science Center provides reliable hydrologic and water-related ecological information to aid in the understanding of the use and management of the Nation’s water resources, in general, and Ohio’s water resources, in particular. This fact sheet provides an overview of current (2016) or recently completed USGS studies and data activities pertaining to water resources in Ohio. More information regarding projects of the USGS Ohio Water Science Center is available at http://oh.water.usgs.gov/.

  19. Bacteriological Quality of Water Cooler Dispensers of Educational Settings in Zanjan University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hassanzadazar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Safe drinking water is one of the main factors in improving health status of the population. The aim of this study was assessment of the microbiological quality, determination of pH and residual chlorine in water coolers’ drinking water in educational centers of Zanjan University of medical Sciences in 2015 and comparing the results with the Iranian national standards. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, water samples of all used water cooler apparatuses were sampled and transferred rapidly to the laboratory. pH and residual free chlorine were measured by pH meter and Chlorine Residual Testing kit, respectively. Total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Mold and yeasts count were enumerated according to the Iranian national standards No. 1011, 3759, 5271 and 10899-1, respectively. Data were analyzed through the statistical soft wares. Results: The obtained results indicated that 44.44% of the samples were non-standard because of low residual chlorine. 44.44% and 27.8% of the taken water samples of water cooler dispensers were contaminated with mold or yeast and Escherichia coli, respectively. Conclusion: According to some microbial contamination in water samples of water cooler devices to ensure availability clean water to consumers (students and hospital’s visitors continuous monitoring, proper maintenance and regular inspection of the water cooler dispensers seems necessary.

  20. Citizen Science: Broadening Access and Engagement Through Community Partnerships, Aerospace Education and Water Quality Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    We applied a new approach to the design and development of citizen science learning opportunities to enhance outreach to diverse student populations, while advancing water quality research and aerospace education. This collaborative approach to informal science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) and aerospace education required innovative partnerships between private general aviation pilots, researchers, teachers, and students. This research explored the development of active partnerships required to facilitate community engaged science, with an emphasis on increased participation of women and girls and people of color, while creating new exploratory pathways for broadening access to and engagement in STEM learning experiences. We developed an outreach program through collaborative planning with local schools to create new STEM learning experiences based upon basic aerospace education concepts and an existing water quality research project designed to track harmful algal blooms (HAB) that can produce toxins called cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, which can impact drinking, fishing, and recreational waters. General aviation pilots functioning as citizen scientists obtained high-resolution aerial images while flying over potentially impacted waters. Aerial data was made available to teachers and students, as well as researchers participating in the existing water quality program lead by NASA Glenn Research Center. Teachers used the images and results to educate in climate change and the dangers of HAB. Students were able to compare aerial data with their own observations, and also gained experience in aeronautical science through field trips to local airports, hands-on experience with private research aircraft, specialized equipment used for data collection, and advanced ground instruction from research pilots. As a result of reaching out to local educators serving diverse student populations and facilitating collaborative planning, we

  1. Groundwater science in water-utility operations: global reflections on current status and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen; Sage, Rob

    2017-08-01

    The relevance of groundwater science to water-utility operations is analysed from a broad international perspective, identifying key concerns and specific opportunities for the future. The strategic importance worldwide of water utilities assuming the role of lead stakeholders for integrated groundwater resource management, recognizing their often considerable technical know-how and highly significant data holdings, is emphasized. Concurrently, the utilities themselves will need an ever-closer appreciation of groundwater-system behaviour if they are to manage efficiently their water-supply and wastewater operations.

  2. Water Resources Research supports water economics submissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Ronald C.

    2012-09-01

    AGU's international interdisciplinary journal Water Resources Research (WRR) publishes original contributions in hydrology; the physical, chemical, and biological sciences; and the social and policy sciences, including economics, systems analysis, sociology, and law. With the rising relevance of water economics and related social sciences, the editors of WRR continue to encourage submissions on economics and policy. WRR was originally founded in the mid 1960s by Walter Langbein and economist Allen Kneese. Several former WRR editors have been economists—including David Brookshire, Ron Cummings, and Chuck Howe—and many landmark articles in water economics have been published in WRR.

  3. Mars Exploration: Is There Water on Mars? An Educator's Guide with Activities for Physical and Earth and Space Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TERC, Cambridge, MA.

    This educator's guide discusses whether there is water on the planet Mars. The activities, written for grades 9-12, concern physical, earth, and space sciences. By experimenting with water as it changes state and investigating some effects of air pressure, students not only learn core ideas in physical science but can also deduce the water…

  4. Developing predictive insight into changing water systems: use-inspired hydrologic science for the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S. E.; Sivapalan, M.; Harman, C. J.; Srinivasan, V.; Hipsey, M. R.; Reed, P.; Montanari, A.; Blöschl, G.

    2013-12-01

    Globally, many different kinds of water resources management issues call for policy- and infrastructure-based responses. Yet responsible decision-making about water resources management raises a fundamental challenge for hydrologists: making predictions about water resources on decadal- to century-long timescales. Obtaining insight into hydrologic futures over 100 yr timescales forces researchers to address internal and exogenous changes in the properties of hydrologic systems. To do this, new hydrologic research must identify, describe and model feedbacks between water and other changing, coupled environmental subsystems. These models must be constrained to yield useful insights, despite the many likely sources of uncertainty in their predictions. Chief among these uncertainties are the impacts of the increasing role of human intervention in the global water cycle - a defining challenge for hydrology in the Anthropocene. Here we present a research agenda that proposes a suite of strategies to address these challenges from the perspectives of hydrologic science research. The research agenda focuses on the development of co-evolutionary hydrologic modeling to explore coupling across systems, and to address the implications of this coupling on the long-time behavior of the coupled systems. Three research directions support the development of these models: hydrologic reconstruction, comparative hydrology and model-data learning. These strategies focus on understanding hydrologic processes and feedbacks over long timescales, across many locations, and through strategic coupling of observational and model data in specific systems. We highlight the value of use-inspired and team-based science that is motivated by real-world hydrologic problems but targets improvements in fundamental understanding to support decision-making and management. Fully realizing the potential of this approach will ultimately require detailed integration of social science and physical science

  5. Social Change and Criminal Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, C. Ray

    1970-01-01

    The impact of urbanization on criminal law and the extension of law into the area of morality (value systems) are discussed in terms of social control via punishment and deterrence. The impact of the social sciences (psychotherapy, sociology, behavioral science) is covered in terms of social control via rehabilitation and environmental…

  6. Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  7. Environmental law: Course

    OpenAIRE

    Малярчук, Назар Вікторович

    2013-01-01

    In this course we tried to shed some light on the most important issues of the environmental law: notion, subject, method, system and sources of environmental law, we revealed the context of government management in the field of the protection of environment, legal regulation of conducting environmental examination. The separate subjects determines legal regime of each environmental law objects: lands, water, mineral wealth, forests, air, flora and fauna, natural protection fund of Ukraine. ...

  8. Operation Sophia in Uncharted Waters: European and International Law Challenges for the EU Naval Mission in the Mediterranean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Ratcovich, Martin

    2016-01-01

    States alike. Even if such strictures can be avoided by a broad United Nations mandate and/or the consent of the neighbouring government(s), international refugee law and international human rights law provide limitations on measures that Operation Sophia will be tasked with. A number of avenues...

  9. Teaching to the Next Generation Science Standards with Energy, Climate, and Water Focused Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, M. A.; Hall, M.; Civjan, N.

    2015-12-01

    We produced two fun-to-play card games with the theme, The Nexus of Energy, Water, and Climate, that directly support teaching to the NGSS. In the games, players come to understand how demand for energy, water use, and climate change are tightly intertwined. Analysis by scientists from the national laboratories ensured that the games are reflect current data and research. The games have been tested with high school and informal science educators and their students and have received a formal evaluation. The games website http://isenm.org/games-for-learning shows how the games align with the NGSS, the Common Core, and the NRC's Strands of Science Learning. It also contains an extensive collection of accessible articles on the nexus to support use of the games in instruction. Thirst for Power is a challenging resource management game. Players, acting as governors of regions, compete to be the first to meet their citizens' energy needs. A governor can choose from a variety of carbon-based or renewable energy sources, but each source uses water and has an environmental—including climate change—impact. Energy needs must be met using only the water resources allocated to the region and without exceeding the environmental impact limit. "ACTION" cards alter game play and increase competition. Challenge and Persuade is a game of scientific argumentation, using evidence on nexus-related fact cards. Players must evaluate information, develop fact-based arguments, and communicate their findings. One card deck contains a set of adjectives, a second a series of fact cards. Players use their fact cards to make the best argument that aligns with an adjective selected by the "Judge". Players take turns being the "Judge," who determines who made the best argument. The games particularly align with NGSS elements: Connections to Engineering, Technology, and Application of Science. Players come to understand the science and engineering behind many energy sources and their impacts

  10. European Law as a terminological issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Poremská

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Law is a multiple-value term which is used in several branches of law and other sciences and its understanding is not clear. There are four basic branches of law explaining the concept of the “European law.“ One of them is the European law as the law of the EU. Second meaning is the law of international organizations. Then the law of Europe as the continent and the last meaning is connected with functional concept of law. The function is the regulation of competition or public procurement etc. The aim of the article is to contribute to better understanding of different meanings of the European law. Not only for the purpose of legal science but for other sciences as well because the EU law is binding for all the Member states and their activities.

  11. Citizen science for water quality monitoring: Data implications of citizen perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jollymore, Ashlee; Haines, Morgan J; Satterfield, Terre; Johnson, Mark S

    2017-09-15

    Citizen science, where citizens play an active role in the scientific process, is increasingly used to expand the reach and scope of scientific research while also achieving engagement and educational goals. Despite the emergence of studies exploring data outcomes of citizen science, the process and experience of engaging with citizens and citizen-lead groups through participatory science is less explored. This includes how citizen perspectives alter data outcomes, a critical upshot given prevalent mistrust of citizen versus scientist data. This study uses a citizen science campaign investigating watershed impacts on water quality to interrogate the nature and implications of citizen involvement in producing scientifically and societally relevant data. Data representing scientific outcomes are presented alongside a series of vignettes that offer context regarding how, why, and where citizens engaged with the project. From these vignettes, six specific lessons are examined towards understanding how integration of citizen participation alters data outcomes relative to 'professional' science. In particular, elements of participant social identity (e.g., their motivation for participation), and contextual knowledge (e.g., of the research program itself) can shape participation and resulting data outcomes. Such scientific outcomes are particularly relevant given continued concerns regarding the quality of citizen data, which could hinder scientific acceptance of citizen sciences. Importantly, the potential for meaningful engagement with citizen and participants within citizen groups - given significant capacity within the community - represents a substantial and under-realized opportunity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  13. Students’ perception on teaching competences of teachers of the branch of social science and law of the University of Valencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz PÉREZ PÉREZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data from research conducted at the University of Valencia in order to analyse students' perception on teaching competences of teachers in the area of Social and legal Sciences. The study included a total of 389 university students from 10 different degrees of the University of Valencia. In general, the subjects in the sample rated the 32 competencies as very important in the teaching / learning process. Students assess personal skills as the most important competences, followed by scientific, methodological and social ones.Overall the two most valued competences refer to “the proper and respectful treatment of students”, as well as “creating a classroom atmosphere based on dialogue and communication”. This data is a constant that is repeated in all degrees tested, with minor variations. The competences which are less valued are "Maintaining a careful personal image" and "keep update on new information and communication technologies”.

  14. Is Law a Humanity: (Or Is It More like Engineering)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, David

    2004-01-01

    Law often appears to be in a limbo between the Social Sciences and the Humanities. Movements within legal scholarship itself, the law and economics movement and the law and literature movement, represent efforts to portray law as a social science or as a humanity. But if one looks at what lawyers do, one finds that law is more like…

  15. Earth science teachers' knowledge of the water system and its reflections in their lesson plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Younkyeong

    2011-12-01

    Over the last two decades, scientists have recognized the necessity of studying the earth as an integrated system. Consequently, the knowledge of physical earth systems and human interactions was integrated to form a new discipline, Earth System Science (ESS). Given the acceleration of environmental change, such as that of the global climate system, understanding the earth as a system has become essential in order to create a scientifically literate citizenry. However, our understanding of teachers' and students' conceptual understanding of earth as a system is still in its infancy. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of the ESS discipline as well as the complexity of the ESS knowledge structure, there is no consensus about important ESS knowledge for teachers or students. This study presents an analytical framework, Earth System Knowledge Framework (ESKF), to assess teachers' conceptual understanding of earth systems using the concept of water. By utilizing the framework, this study investigates five secondary earth science teachers' conceptual understandings of water in earth system. This study also probes how the teachers' conceptual understanding of water in the earth system affects their selection and organization of the topics and related content knowledge for lesson planning. Through intensive interviews with the teachers, this study employs multiple case studies using inductive and qualitative analysis methods. The findings of this study demonstrate that the teachers' conceptual understandings of water in earth system are highly related to their Earth System Knowledge (ESK). Furthermore, the science teachers' conceptual understanding of water in earth system directly affects the topic choices and content knowledge used for teaching the concept of water. This study implies that the teachers not only need to possess knowledge of physical earth systems but also knowledge of earth's biosphere and ecosystems to understand earth as a system. This study also

  16. Data Science Challenges at the Nexus of Food, Energy, and Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftelioglu, E.; Shekhar, S.

    2016-12-01

    Food, energy and water (FEW) systems were traditionally analyzed and planned independently to address the challenges of population growth, climate change and urbanization. However, such piece-meal approaches (e.g., bio-fuel subsidy, fertilizers in agriculture) to solving problems in one system (e.g., energy, food) led to unanticipated harms to other systems (e.g., food price increase, water resource depletion and degradation). Thus, understanding the interdependent and interconnected nature of food, energy, and water systems (FEW nexus) is a societal priority. Data Science is crucial for understanding the problem, the interconnections, and the impacts withing FEW nexus. It is also needed for monitoring a variety of Earth resources (e.g., agriculture fields, fresh water lakes, energy needs for cooling or heating, etc.), and trends (e.g., deforestation, pollution, etc.) for timely detection and management of risks, such as impending crop failures and crop-stress anywhere in the world. It is also needed to reduce waste and to improve efficiency, e.g., amount of water and energy needed to produce food. Data Science success stories go beyond the cyber-infrastructure for simulations (e.g., GCMs, AgMIP ) to include precision agriculture and GEOGLAM. Precision agriculture uses cyber-physical systems and data science to increase yield, and reduce fertilizer and pesticide runoffs. The Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) , an international system, uses remotely sensed satellite imagery to monitor major crops for yield forecasts to enable timely interventions to reduce disruptions in global food supply. However, the FEW nexus presents new challenges and opportunities. For example, data science methods need to not only re-examine assumptions such as non-stationarity (e.g., climate change) but also address nexus challenges such as high cost of false positives, (social) feedback loops, and multiple spatio-temporal scale. Acknowledgements: This work was supported in part by

  17. Doing Science That Matters to Address India’sWater Crisis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Veena Srinivasan

    2017-03-01

    India is one of the most water stressedcountries in the world. However, despiteappreciable increase in funding for waterresearch, high quality science that is usableby stakeholders remains elusive. I arguethat this can be attributed to the absenceof research on questions that actuallymatter to stakeholders, unwillingnessto transcend disciplinary boundaries, andthe demise of field-work research culture infavour of computer simulation.Conventional wisdom is these trends aredriven by what is publishable. However,there is an increasing interest in the internationalcommunity in interdisciplinary,problem driven, empirical research. Usingexamples of my own research in Chennaiand Bengaluru, on water scarcity in urbanisingwatersheds, I offer some methods andinsights.

  18. NASA UAV Airborne Science Capabilities in Support of Water Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fladeland, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    This workshop presentation focuses on potential uses of unmanned aircraft observations in support of water resource management and agriculture. The presentation will provide an overview of NASA Airborne Science capabilities with an emphasis on past UAV missions to provide context on accomplishments as well as technical challenges. I will also focus on recent NASA Ames efforts to assist in irrigation management and invasive species management using airborne and satellite datasets.

  19. Logical Fallacies and the Abuse of Climate Science: Fire, Water, and Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.

    2012-12-01

    Good policy without good science and analysis is unlikely. Good policy with bad science is even more unlikely. Unfortunately, there is a long history of abuse or misuse of science in fields with ideological, religious, or economically controversial policy implications, such as planetary physics during the time of Galileo, the evolution debate, or climate change. Common to these controversies are what are known as "logical fallacies" -- patterns of reasoning that are always -- or at least commonly -- wrong due to a flaw in the structure of the argument that renders the argument invalid. All scientists should understand the nature of logical fallacies in order to (1) avoid making mistakes and reaching unsupported conclusion, (2) help them understand and refute the flaws in arguments made by others, and (3) aid in communicating science to the public. This talk will present a series of logical fallacies often made in the climate science debate, including "arguments from ignorance," "arguments from error," "arguments from misinterpretation," and "cherry picking." Specific examples will be presented in the area of temperature analysis, water resources, and ice dynamics, with a focus on selective use or misuse of data.; "Argument from Error" - an amusing example of a logical fallacy.

  20. The science-policy interface : water and climate change, and the energy-water nexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Details of a bilateral meeting held by Canadian and American researchers to explore fresh water research related to climatic change were presented. Attendants at the meeting discussed policy research needs for improving research links between Canada and the United States. Options for improving data acquisition processes and improving modelling and integration techniques were reviewed. Watershed management strategies were outlined, and various policy options for increasing water efficiency and improving flow requirements were discussed. The meeting resulted in both Canadian and American researchers agreeing to establish adaptive management processes while assessing the implication of climatic change on planned actions. Researchers also agreed to adopt a 'soft path' methodology which focused on scenario-planning through the use of backcasting to define sustainable future states for the management of water sources and uses and working backwards to identify necessary policies and programs. It was concluded that distributed governance decision-making will result in a shift from water to watershed management. Place-based management approaches will help to engage stakeholders and increase cooperation among stakeholder groups and governments.

  1. 76 FR 13181 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the SAB Drinking Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... AGENCY Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Meeting of the SAB Drinking Water... Office announces a public meeting of the SAB Drinking Water Committee Augmented for the Review of the... appropriate SAB Staff Office procedural policies. Exposure to lead through drinking water results...

  2. Finding clean water habitats in urban landscapes: professional researcher vs citizen science approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGoff, Elaine; Dunn, Francesca; Cachazo, Luis Moliner; Williams, Penny; Biggs, Jeremy; Nicolet, Pascale; Ewald, Naomi C

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated patterns of nutrient pollution in waterbody types across Greater London. Nitrate and phosphate data were collected by both citizen scientists and professional ecologists and their results were compared. The professional survey comprised 495 randomly selected pond, lake, river, stream and ditch sites. Citizen science survey sites were self-selected and comprised 76 ponds, lakes, rivers and streams. At each site, nutrient concentrations were assessed using field chemistry kits to measure nitrate-N and phosphate-P. The professional and the citizen science datasets both showed that standing waterbodies had significantly lower average nutrient concentrations than running waters. In the professional datasets 46% of ponds and lakes had nutrient levels below the threshold at which biological impairment is likely, whereas only 3% of running waters were unimpaired by nutrients. The citizen science dataset showed the same broad pattern, but there was a trend towards selection of higher quality waterbodies with 77% standing waters and 14% of rivers and streams unimpaired. Waterbody nutrient levels in the professional dataset were broadly correlated with landuse intensity. Rivers and streams had a significantly higher proportion of urban and suburban land cover than other waterbody types. Ponds had higher percentage of semi-natural vegetation within their much smaller catchments. Relationships with land cover and water quality were less apparent in the citizen-collected dataset probably because the areas visited by citizens were less representative of the landscape as whole. The results suggest that standing waterbodies, especially ponds, may represent an important clean water resource within urban areas. Small waterbodies, including ponds, small lakesCitizen scientist data have the potential to partly fill this gap if they are co-ordinated to reduce bias in the type and location of the waterbodies selected. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  3. Research on TemporaI and Spatial Patterns and Dynamic Laws of Soil Water at Eco-tope between Oasis and Desert

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on long term and stationary research, the temporal and spatial patterns and dynamic laws of soil water content in Minqin desert area were studied. Some results are as follows:(1)The change of soil water content in different years is not obviously in shrub sand dune of Nitraria sibirica and Tamarix ramosissima, but it was great in shifting sand dune, the maximum is 2.538%; (2)The season dynamics can be divided into three stages: accumulating, consuming and stable; (3) The vertical change of soil wa...

  4. Marine mammals and ocean noise: future directions and information needs with respect to science, policy and law in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rob; Ashe, Erin; Blight, Louise; Jasny, Michael; Nowlan, Linda

    2014-09-15

    Marine mammals are ecologically and culturally important species, and various countries have specific legislation to protect the welfare of individual marine mammals and the conservation of their populations. Anthropogenic noise represents a particular challenge for conservation and management. There is a large and growing body of research to support the conclusion that anthropogenic noise can affect marine mammal behavior, energetics, and physiology. The legal, policy, and management issues surrounding marine mammals and noise are similarly complex. Our objective is twofold. First, we discuss how policy and legal frameworks in Canada have some important differences from other jurisdictions covered in previous reviews, and provide a useful general case study. Secondly, we highlight some priority research areas that will improve marine mammal conservation and management. Our examples focus on the research needed to meet stated conservation objectives for marine mammal species in waters under Canadian jurisdiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The 1991 Lead/Copper Drinking Water Rule and the 1995 Decision Not to Revise the Arsenic Drinking Water Rule: Two Case Studies in EPA's Use of Science

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Mark

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses EPA's acquisition and use of science in two decisions under the Safe Drinking Water Act: the 1991 revision of the lead drinking water regulations and the 1995 decision to pursue additional research instead of revising the arsenic in drinking water standard. In the first case, a committed band of policy entrepreneurs within EPA mobilized and supplemented scientific information which had accumulated in the agency's air program to force lead in drinking water up the agency's...

  6. Citizen Science: Participatory Monitoring of Water Resources Management in Mustang District, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, S.; Bhusal, J.; Gurung, P.; Ochoa-Tocachi, B. F.; Buytaert, W.

    2016-12-01

    Abstract The Mustang region of the Himalayas has unique geographical and climatic features. This region is characterized by a cold-arid climate with total annual precipitation of less than 300mm. Agriculture and livestock grazing lands are the major ecosystem services, which support directly the livelihoods of local populations yet, are strongly determined by low water availability. As a result, optimizing water resources management is paramount to support local development, but this is severely complicated by the lack of information about water availability. This problem is further aggravated by increasing pressure on the social, physical and climatic environments. In order to support the management of scarce water in irrigation and domestic uses, stream flow and precipitation monitoring networks were established using a participatory approach under the principle of citizen science. Data collection, and the following interpretation and application of the co-generated knowledge relies on local users, whereas the establishment of the system, knowledge co-generation, and development of application tools particularly is part of a collaboration of members of the general public with professional scientists. We show how the resulting data enable local users to quantify the water balance in the area and reduce the uncertainty associated to data-scarcity, which leads to the generation of useable information about water availability for irrigation, livestock grazing, and domestic demand. We contrast the current scenario of water use, under different conditions of natural variability and environmental change, with an optimized water management strategy generated and agreed with local users. This approach contributes to an optimal use of water, to an improvement in ecosystem services supporting to livelihood development and economic progress of local populations. Key words: ecosystem services, climate change, water balance, knowledge generation, irrigation

  7. A Study of Legal Regulations for Water Science Education%我国水科学知识教育的法律规制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡德胜

    2015-01-01

    Under the background of in-depth development of China's industrialization and urbanization and enhancing impact of global climate change, and the basic national situation of more people but less water re-sources, uneven distribution of water resources and of the basic national conditions, our country is facing big problems in six aspects:the shortage of water supply, the seriousness of water pollution, the deterioration of wa-ter environment, the frequency of floods, the backwardness of irrigation and water conservancy construction, and insufficiency of water conservancy facilities and other water issues, there is a water current scientific knowledge of education issues. According to the requirements of international policy and legal documents, learning foreign policy is beneficial to the provisions of law and effective practices. China has three local laws and regulations for environmental education. In accordance with the requirements of the CPC Central Committee and State Council policies and legal documents and to adapt the most stringent needs and requirements of water management sys-tem, we need to focus on five points related to China water science education legal regulation: enact law estab-lishment, set up organizational systems and mechanisms, strengthen the non -professional school education, strengthen non-school institutions and the non -professional education, and enhance safeguards and mecha-nisms, so as to work out institutional regulations for water science education.%在我国工业化和城镇化深入发展、全球气候变化影响不断加大的背景下,在人多水少、水资源时空分布不均的基本国情水情下,面对水资源短缺、水污染严重、水生态环境恶化、洪涝灾害频繁、农田水利建设滞后、水利设施薄弱等水事问题,我国目前的水科学知识教育存在6个方面的主要问题. 根据国际政策法律文件的要求,学习国外政策法律的有益规定及

  8. Using Citizen Science for Water Quality Monitoring: Preaching the Message Beyond the Choir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jollymore, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Citizen science has emerged a means for augmenting the scope of research while educating the community. Environmental research has a particularly strong motivation for engagement, given its often-local context. We implemented a citizen science campaign to investigate relationships between land use and dissolved organic matter (DOM) in surface water environments proximal to Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Citizen science was intended to increase sampling breadth, and engage the community about human activities and water quality effects. Participants were given a sample kit and a simple sampling protocol; we then used fast and economic absorbance and fluorescence spectrophotometry to determine DOM concentration and composition. Participants, including individuals from over 10 municipalities and community organizations, submitted over 200 samples; these were compared to investigator-led sampling, as well as data mining existing sources, to verify results. Analyzing the fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) with a five-component parallel factor (PARAFAC) model showed that samples from watersheds with increased urbanization had unique microbial-like peaks, suggesting variances in DOM lability and origins compared to more pristine watersheds. Community engagement was extended by making data available online in an interactive map, as well as by presenting the project to the public. Despite this, engagement occurred most with community organizations; these participants tended to have scientific training, with a higher knowledge baseline regarding their specific watershed and water quality issues generally. While this served scientific goals, our campaign was less successful at engaging citizens with less-developed scientific backgrounds. In this presentation we will discuss the merits and scientific milestones enabled by citizen science, and lessons learned about how to get beyond 'preaching to the choir' in crafting and implementing such projects.

  9. The Drainage Consolidation Modeling of Sand Drain in Red Mud Tailing and Analysis on the Change Law of the Pore Water Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-sheng Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent the occurring of dam failure and leakage, sand-well drainages systems were designed and constructed in red mud tailing. It is critical to focus on the change law of the pore water pressure. The calculation model of single well drainage pore water pressure was established. The pore water pressure differential equation was deduced and the analytical solution of differential equation using Bessel function and Laplace transform was given out. The impact of parameters such as diameter d, separation distance l, loading rate q, and coefficient of consolidation Cv in the function on the pore water pressure is analyzed by control variable method. This research is significant and has great reference for preventing red mud tailings leakage and the follow-up studies on the tailings stability.

  10. Dismantling the Justice Silos: avoiding the pitfalls and reaping the benefits of information-sharing between forensic science, medicine and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Ross, Alastair

    2013-07-10

    Forensic science is increasingly relied on by police and the courts to exonerate the innocent and to establish links to crime. With this increased reliance the potential for unjust outcomes increases, especially in serious matters for two reasons. The more serious the matter, the more likely that evidence mishandling can lead to wrongful imprisonment, and the more likely the personnel involved will be multi-disciplinary (police, medicine, law, forensic science), and multi-organisational (Health, Justice, private legal/medical, police). The importance of identifying effective multi-organisational interactions was highlighted in the recent wrongful imprisonment of an Australian male for a sexual assault he did not commit. One factor that led to this unjust outcome was the justice silo effect: where forensic practitioners from different agencies operate in isolation (rarely communicating or sharing information/knowledge). In this paper we discuss findings from the Interfaces Project designed to assess the extent of the justice silos within Australia. We interviewed 103 police, forensic scientists, lawyers, judges, coroners, pathologists and forensic physicians Australian-wide. Five main themes were identified in the data: the silo effect was only partial and in each jurisdiction some form of inter-agency communication was actively occurring; inter-agency meetings were more common in homicide than sexual assault cases; forensic physicians were semi-invisible; there had been considerable momentum over the past ten years for practice improvement groups, and; practitioners gain more benefits than pitfalls from inter-agency information-sharing. Based on these findings, five recommendations are made for improving practice.

  11. Let's Talk About Water: Film Screenings as an Entrée to Water Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, R. P.; Lilienfeld, L.; Arrigo, J.

    2011-12-01

    "Let's Talk about Water" is a film symposium designed to bring together experts and the public to talk about the complex water issues facing society. The format of the event is quite simple: a panel of experts and the audience view a water documentary (such as "FLOW", "Liquid Assets", or "Gasland") together and there is an extended moderated discussion period following the film between the panel and the audience. Properly handled, this simple format can be very effective. A film creates a context of subject and language for the discussion--it gets the audience and the panel on the same page. The moderators must actively manage the discussion, both challenging the panelists with follow up questions, asking questions to simplify the language the expert is using, and passing a question among panelists to bring out different points of view. The panelists are provided with the film in advance to view and, most importantly, meet the day before the event to discuss the film. This makes for a much more convivial discussion at the event. We have found that these discussions can easily be sustained for 90 to 120 minutes with active audience participation. This format has been applied at college campuses with a target audience of lower-level undergraduates. Student clubs are engaged to help with publicity before the event and to assist with registration and ushering during the event. Appropriate classes offer extra credit for student attendance to ensure a strong turnout. A Hollywood film ("Chinatown" in southern California, "A Civil Action" in Boston) is shown on campus during the week preceding the event to help advertise the event. The event itself is typically held on a Saturday with a morning screening of the film. The audience is provided with index cards and pencils to write down questions they have about the film. A lunch is provided during which the questions are organized and used to initiate different discussion themes. The discussion begins with points raised by

  12. Water-repellent soil and its relationship to granularity, surface roughness and hydrophobicity: a materials science view

    OpenAIRE

    McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael; Shirtcliffe, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Considerable soil water repellency has been observed at a wide range of locations worldwide. The soil exhibiting water repellency is found within the upper part of the soil profile. The reduced rate of water infiltration into these soils leads to severe run-off erosion, and reduction of plant growth. Soil water repellency is promoted by drying of soil, and can be induced by fire or intense heating of soil containing hydrophobic organic matter. Recent studies outside of soil science have shown...

  13. An Evaluation of the Scattering Law for Light and Heavy Water in ENDF-6 Format, Based on Experimental Data and Molecular Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez Damián, J. I.; Granada, J. R.; Malaspina, D. C.

    2014-04-01

    In this work we present an evaluation in ENDF-6 format of the scattering law for light and heavy water computed using the LEAPR module of NJOY99. The models used in this evaluation are based on experimental data on light water dynamics measured by Novikov, partial structure factors obtained by Soper, and molecular dynamics calculations performed with GROMACS using a reparameterized version of the flexible SPC model by Toukan and Rahman. The models use the Egelstaff-Schofield diffusion equation for translational motion, and a continuous spectrum calculated from the velocity autocorrelation function computed with GROMACS. The scattering law for H in H2O is computed using the incoherent approximation, and the scattering law D and O in D2O are computed using the Sköld approximation for coherent scattering. The calculations show significant improvement over ENDF/B-VI and ENDF/B-VII when compared with measurements of the total cross section, differential scattering experiments and quasi-elastic neutron scattering experiments (QENS).

  14. World law

    OpenAIRE

    Berman, Harold J.; Robert W. Woodruff; James Barr Ames

    1999-01-01

    In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the ...

  15. A Battle between Airbags and Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓郛

    2009-01-01

    @@ I Troublesome Relationship Law has had a long-term and troubled relationship with scionce.The misuse of science within the legal realm.as well as our failed attempts to make law more scientific.iS well documented.The cause of these problems.however,is less clear.People are confosed about the reasons.As I mention later,I would like to consider that the unsatisfying relationship between law and science can be attributed.at least in part,towards law's inadequate anderstanding of what constitutes science and law's inflated view of the potential benefits of science for law.In a fast-race development society,it is our failure to understand what science knows about its own enterprise.as well as our fervent hope that law could be something other than it is.which leads us astray,especially in the field of security standard.

  16. Water and Energy Consumption at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology

    KAUST Repository

    Wiche Latorre, Pia Alexandra

    2012-05-01

    Saudi Arabia is the greatest exporter of oil in the world and also the country with greatest desalination capacity. It is considered a rich country but not a developed one. Because water is scarce while energy is abundant, it becomes important to evaluate the environmental performance of populations in Saudi Arabia with regards to these two aspects. King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) is a gated community in Saudi Arabia with high living standards where water and energy are free of cost (no constraint over use). Four environmental sustainability indicators were used to determine the environmental performance of KAUST in comparison to other countries. It was found that per capita, KAUST is between the five greatest water and energy consumers in the world. Important factors to this result are the fact that KAUST is still under construction, that the peak capacity for permanent residents has not yet been reached and that there is little control over the water and energy systems at KAUST. It was concluded that KAUST should reduce its water and energy consumption per capita. To this means, some proposed solutions were to have wide-spread awareness-raising campaigns to all people working and living in KAUST, and to improve control over air conditioning control systems.

  17. Open data used in water sciences - Review of access, licenses and understandability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenroth, Esa; Lagerbäck Adolphi, Emma; Arheimer, Berit

    2016-04-01

    The amount of open data available for hydrology research is continually growing. In the EU-funded project SWITCH-ON (Sharing Water-related Information to Tackle Changes in the Hydrosphere - for Operational Needs: www.water-switch-on.eu), we are addressing water concerns by exploring and exploiting the untapped potential of these new open data. This work is enabled by many ongoing efforts to facilitate the use of open data. For instance, a number of portals provide the means to search for open data sets and open spatial data services (such as the GEOSS Portal, INSPIRE community geoportal or various Climate Services and public portals). However, in general, many research groups in water sciences still hesitate in using this open data. We therefore examined some limiting factors. Factors that limit usability of a dataset include: (1) accessibility, (2) understandability and (3) licences. In the SWITCH-ON project we have developed a search tool for finding and accessing data with relevance to water science in Europe, as the existing ones are not addressing data needs in water sciences specifically. The tool is filled with some 9000 sets of metadata and each one is linked to water related key-words. The keywords are based on the ones developed within the CUAHSI community in USA, but extended with non-hydrosphere topics, additional subclasses and only showing keywords actually having data. Access to data sets: 78% of the data is directly accessible, while the rest is either available after registration and request, or through a web client for visualisation but without direct download. However, several data sets were found to be inaccessible due to server downtime, incorrect links or problems with the host database management system. One possible explanation for this could be that many datasets have been assembled by research project that no longer are funded. Hence, their server infrastructure would be less maintained compared to large-scale operational services

  18. Applications of Continuous-Flow Photochemistry in Organic Synthesis, Material Science, and Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambié, Dario; Bottecchia, Cecilia; Straathof, Natan J W; Hessel, Volker; Noël, Timothy

    2016-09-14

    Continuous-flow photochemistry in microreactors receives a lot of attention from researchers in academia and industry as this technology provides reduced reaction times, higher selectivities, straightforward scalability, and the possibility to safely use hazardous intermediates and gaseous reactants. In this review, an up-to-date overview is given of photochemical transformations in continuous-flow reactors, including applications in organic synthesis, material science, and water treatment. In addition, the advantages of continuous-flow photochemistry are pointed out and a thorough comparison with batch processing is presented.

  19. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to Professor Djuvara “law can be a science, and legal knowledge can also become science when, referring to a number as large as possible of acts of those covered by law, sorts and connects them by their essential characters upon legal concepts or principles which are universally valid, just like the laws of nature”. The general principles of law take a privileged place in the positive legal order and represent the foundation of any legal construction. The essence of the legal principles resides in their generality. In respect of the term “general”, Franck Moderne raised the question on the degree of generality used in order to define a principle as being general – at the level of an institution, of a branch of the law or at the level of the entire legal order. The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics of law principles. In our opinion, four characteristics can be mentioned.

  20. National Courts and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    approaches and theories originating from law, political science, sociology and economics. The first section addresses issues relating to judicial dialogue and EU legal mandates, the second looks at the topic of EU law in national courts and the third considers national courts’ roles in protecting fundamental...... rights in the area of freedom, security and justice. The analysis of each is enriched through diverse research methods such as case-law analysis, citation network analysis, interviews, surveys and statistics. With its new legal and empirical assessment covering the newest member states of the EU......, National Courts and EU Law will hold strong appeal for scholars and students in the fields of EU law, social sciences and humanities. It will also be of use to legal practitioners interested in the issue of judicial application of EU law....

  1. Experimental Verification of Boyle's Law and the Ideal Gas Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dragia Trifonov

    2007-01-01

    Two new experiments are offered concerning the experimental verification of Boyle's law and the ideal gas law. To carry out the experiments, glass tubes, water, a syringe and a metal manometer are used. The pressure of the saturated water vapour is taken into consideration. For educational purposes, the experiments are characterized by their…

  2. Experimental Verification of Boyle's Law and the Ideal Gas Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Dragia Trifonov

    2007-01-01

    Two new experiments are offered concerning the experimental verification of Boyle's law and the ideal gas law. To carry out the experiments, glass tubes, water, a syringe and a metal manometer are used. The pressure of the saturated water vapour is taken into consideration. For educational purposes, the experiments are characterized by their…

  3. Level of the Environmental Risks' Awareness of Water Shortage for the Educational Sciences College's Student-Teachers at the World Islamic Sciences and Education University in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebous, Tahani

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at investigating the degree of awareness of environmental risks of water shortage of students-teachers in the majors of Classroom teachers, Counseling and Special education in the Education Sciences College at WISE and their degree of awareness according to major and gender. The sample of the study which was selected randomly…

  4. Level of the Environmental Risks' Awareness of Water Shortage for the Educational Sciences College's Student-Teachers at the World Islamic Sciences and Education University in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alebous, Tahani

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at investigating the degree of awareness of environmental risks of water shortage of students-teachers in the majors of Classroom teachers, Counseling and Special education in the Education Sciences College at WISE and their degree of awareness according to major and gender. The sample of the study which was selected randomly…

  5. Through the Looking Glass of Global Constitutionalism and Global Administrative Law : Different Stories About the Crisis in Global Water Governance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Ambrus (Mónika)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn addition to (or sometimes rather than primarily) attribut- ing it to water scarcity, water crisis has been described as a ‘crisis of governance’; with the word ‘crisis’ also indicating that water governance lacks (full) legitimacy. The article undertakes the task to analyse the curren

  6. Through the Looking Glass of Global Constitutionalism and Global Administrative Law : Different Stories About the Crisis in Global Water Governance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Ambrus (Mónika)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn addition to (or sometimes rather than primarily) attribut- ing it to water scarcity, water crisis has been described as a ‘crisis of governance’; with the word ‘crisis’ also indicating that water governance lacks (full) legitimacy. The article undertakes the task to analyse the

  7. On the calculation of Henry's law constants of chlorinated benzenes in water from semiempirical quantum chemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Eduardo J; Alderete, Joel

    2002-01-01

    The Henry's law constants for all 12 polychlorinated benzene congeners were calculated using semiempirical quantum chemical solvation models (SM2, SM2.1, and SM3), and their performances are discussed. The values obtained by the SM3 method are underestimated compared with the experimental values and those calculated by SM2 and SM2.1 methods. This underestimation is larger as the degree of chlorination of the benzenes increases. This bad performance of SM3 to calculate Henry's law constants is attributable to the PM3 Hamiltonian, due to its incapacity to give a good description of electron density in chlorinated benzenes. The best results, within the 95% confidence limit of error of the experimental mean, are obtained using SM2 method. The discussion includes analysis of the different contributions to the free energy of solvation, namely, polarization free energy, cavitation, dispersion, and structural rearrangement of the solvent effects as well as partial atomic charges.

  8. Constitutional Law and Liberal Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clor, Harry

    1985-01-01

    By studying constitutional law, students learn about the relationship between democratic theory and practice, one of the main concerns of liberal education. The mind is enlarged when it must apply ethical standards and political ideas to real human problems. How a political science professor teaches constitutional law is discussed. (RM)

  9. Spas, mineral waters, and hydrological science in twentieth-century France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, G

    2001-09-01

    This essay examines the survival of waters therapy in twentieth-century France with a view to understanding the conditions that make a therapy convincing in one national context and not in another. Part of the explanation for this survival has to do with the size and power of the spa industry. Where this industry was strong and economically powerful--as it was in France--its survival became a national priority. Of equal importance, however, was the role of the medical elite. In twentieth-century France, a small but influential group of elite physicians served as the chief architects of the continued survival and development of water cures. The primary mechanism for this process was a massive and successful campaign to introduce hydrology into the curriculum of medical schools. Once this was achieved, a large corps of academic hydrologists were in a position to produce significant amounts of convincing hydrological science that seemed to demonstrate the varied physiological effects of mineral waters. By the 1940s mineral waters had enough scientific visibility to ensure their inclusion without controversy in the national health insurance system that was being set up.

  10. High resolution stream water quality assessment in the Vancouver, British Columbia region: a citizen science study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupe, Scott M

    2017-12-15

    Changing land cover and climate regimes modify water quantity and quality in natural stream systems. In regions undergoing rapid change, it is difficult to effectively monitor and quantify these impacts at local to regional scales. In Vancouver, British Columbia, one of the most rapidly urbanizing areas in Canada, 750 measurements were taken from a total of 81 unique sampling sites representing 49 streams located in urban, forest, and agricultural-dominant watersheds at a frequency of up to 12 times per year between 2013 and 2016. Dissolved nitrate (NO3-N) and phosphate (PO4-P) concentrations, turbidity, water temperature, pH and conductivity were measured by citizen scientists in addition to observations of hydrology, vegetation, land use, and visible stream impacts. Land cover was mapped at a 15-m resolution using Landsat 8 OLI imagery and used to determine dominant land cover for each watershed in which a sample was recorded. Regional, seasonal, and catchment-type trends in measurements were determined using statistical analyses. The relationships of nutrients to land cover varied seasonally and on a catchment-type basis. Nitrate showed seasonal highs in winter and lows in summer, though phosphate had less seasonal variation. Overall, nitrate concentrations were positively associated to agriculture and deciduous forest and negatively associated with coniferous forest. In contrast, phosphate concentrations were positively associated with agricultural, deciduous forest, and disturbed land cover and negatively associated with urban land cover. Both urban and agricultural land cover were significantly associated with an increase in water conductivity. Increased forest land cover was associated with better water quality, including lower turbidity, conductivity, and water temperature. This study showed the importance of high resolution sampling in understanding seasonal and spatial dynamics of stream water quality, made possible with the large number of measurements

  11. Property Law

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Lueck; Thomas J. Miceli

    2004-01-01

    This chapter examines the economics of property rights and property law. Property law is a fundamental part of social organization and is also fundamental to the operation of the economy because it defines and protects the bundle of rights that constitute property. Property law thereby creates incentives to protect and invest in assets and establishes a legal framework within which market exchange of assets can take place. The purpose of this chapter is to show how the economics of property r...

  12. An Extensible, Modular Architecture Coupling HydroShare and Tethys Platform to Deploy Water Science Web Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J.; Ames, D. P.; Jones, N.; Tarboton, D. G.; Li, Z.; Qiao, X.; Crawley, S.

    2016-12-01

    As water resources data continue to move to the web in the form of well-defined, open access, machine readable web services provided by government, academic, and private institutions, there is increased opportunity to move additional parts of the water science workflow to the web (e.g. analysis, modeling, decision support, and collaboration.) Creating such web-based functionality can be extremely time-consuming and resource-intensive and can lead the erstwhile water scientist down a veritable cyberinfrastructure rabbit hole, through an unintended tunnel of transformation to become a Cyber-Wonderland software engineer. We posit that such transformations were never the intention of the research programs that fund earth science cyberinfrastructure, nor is it in the best interest of water researchers to spend exorbitant effort developing and deploying such technologies. This presentation will introduce a relatively simple and ready-to-use water science web app environment funded by the National Science Foundation that couples the new HydroShare data publishing system with the Tethys Platform web app development toolkit. The coupled system has already been shown to greatly lower the barrier to deploying of web based visualization and analysis tools for the CUAHSI Water Data Center and for the National Weather Service's National Water Model. The design and implementation of the developed web app architecture will be presented together key examples of existing apps created using this system. In each of the cases presented, water resources students with basic programming skills were able to develop and deploy highly functional web apps in a relatively short period of time (days to weeks) - allowing the focus to remain on water science rather on cyberinfrastructure. This presentation is accompanied by an open invitation for new collaborations that use the HydroShare-Tethys web app environment.

  13. Crossover behavior in the distance dependence of hydrophobic force law

    CERN Document Server

    Samanta, Tuhin; Bagchi, Biman

    2016-01-01

    Understanding about both the range and the strength of the effective force between two hydrophobic surfaces suspended in water is important in many areas of natural science but unfortunately has remained imperfect. Even the experimental observations have not been explained quantitatively. Here we find by varying distance (d) between two hydrophobic walls in computer simulations of water that the force exhibits a bi-exponential distance dependence. The long range part of the force can be fitted to an exponential force law with correlation length of 2 nm while the short range part displays a correlation length of only 0.5 nm. The crossover from shorter range to longer range force law is rather sharp. We show that the distance dependence of the tetrahedrality order parameter provides a reliable marker of the force law, and exhibits similar distance dependence.

  14. Alterations in land uses based on amendments to the Brazilian Forest Law and their influences on water quality of a watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL. Rodrigues-Filho

    Full Text Available The amendments to the Forest Law proposed by the Brazilian government that allow partial substitution of forested areas by agricultural activities raised deep concern about the integrity of aquatic ecosystems. To assess the impacts of this alteration in land uses on the watershed, diffuse loads of total nitrogen (Nt and total phosphorus (Pt were estimated in Lobo Stream watershed, southeastern Brazil, based on export coefficients of the Model of Correlation between Land Use and Water Quality (MQUAL. Three scenarios were generated: scenario 1 (present scenario, with 30-meter-wide permanent preservation areas along the shore of water bodies and 50-meter-radius in springs; scenario 2, conservative, with 100-meter-wide permanent preservation areas along water bodies; and scenario 3, with the substitution of 20% of natural forest by agricultural activities. Results indicate that a suppression of 20% of forest cover would cause an increase in nutrient loads as well as in the trophic state of aquatic ecosystems of the watershed. This could result in losses of ecosystem services and compromise the quality of water and its supply for the basin. This study underlines the importance of forest cover for the maintenance of water quality in Lobo Stream watershed.

  15. Science Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Included are 30 science activities that include computer monitoring, fieldwork, enzyme activity, pH, drugs, calorimeters, Raoult's Law, food content, solubility, electrochemistry, titration, physical properties of materials, gel filtration, energy, concepts in physics, and electricity. (KR)

  16. 社会科学与自然科学规律普适性初探 --从中国古代科技高峰出现在宋元时期说起%The approach to the universal applicability of the laws ofsocial sciences and natural science  --On the appearing of China's ancient science andtechnology in the Song and Yuan Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡增顺

    2001-01-01

    通过牛顿定律与中国古代科技高峰出现在宋元的事实的对比和研究,论述规律的普适性。%This paper expounds the universal applicability of the laws of science and technology, by means of the contrast and research between Newton's Law and the fact that China's ancient peak of science and technology appeared in the Song and Yuan Dynasties.

  17. Developing predictive insight into changing water systems: use-inspired hydrologic science for the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Thompson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, many different kinds of water resources management issues call for policy and infrastructure based responses. Yet responsible decision making about water resources management raises a fundamental challenge for hydrologists: making predictions about water resources on decadal-to-century long timescales. Obtaining insight into hydrologic futures over 100 yr timescales forces researchers to address internal and exogenous changes in the properties of hydrologic systems. To do this, new hydrologic research must identify, describe and model feedbacks between water and other changing, coupled environmental subsystems. These models must be constrained to yield useful insights, despite the many likely sources of uncertainty in their predictions. Chief among these uncertainties are the impacts of the increasing role of human intervention in the global water cycle – a defining challenge for hydrology in the Anthropocene. Here we present a research agenda that proposes a suite of strategies to address these challenges. The research agenda focuses on the development of co-evolutionary hydrologic modeling to explore coupling across systems, and to address the implications of this coupling on the long-time behavior of the coupled systems. Three research directions support the development of these models: hydrologic reconstruction, comparative hydrology and model-data learning. These strategies focus on understanding hydrologic processes and feedbacks over long timescales, across many locations, and through strategic coupling of observational and model data in specific systems. We highlight the value of use-inspired and team-based science that is motivated by real-world hydrologic problems but targets improvements in fundamental understanding to support decision-making and management.

  18. The Right to Water in the Case-Law of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena Murillo Chávarro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The human right to water is nowadays more broadly recognised, mainly due to the essential societal function that this resource plays; likewise, because of the present water scarcity is generating conflicts between its different uses. Thus, this right aims at protecting human beings by guaranteeing access to clean water that is essential to satisfy vital human needs. Similarly, access to clean water is an important element to guarantee other rights including the right to life and health. The recognition of the right to water is mainly achieved in two ways: as a new and independent right and as a subordinate or derivative right. Concerning the latter, the right to water can emanate from civil and political rights, such as the right to life; or can be derived from economic, social and cultural rights, including the right to health, the right to an adequate standard of living, and the right to housing. This contribution explores the position of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights regarding the right to water, and analyses whether the Court has recognised the right to water and, if so, in which manner.

  19. Inquiry into the Enforcement of the Ideological and Political Education for the Political Science and Law College Students%加强政法大学生思想政治教育探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈永革

    2011-01-01

    The political science and law college students are the reserve strength of the political science and law force of our country.Their qualities,especially the political quality,matter the success or failure of the socialism with Chinese characteristics.We must train them on the basis of the require of the country and Party,combining their actual condition and future career needs,we should pointed build them to form such kind of consciousness as loyalty to the country and the party,loyalty to the people and law,being honest in performing one's official duties,by which can shape their good qualities.At the same time,we must enhance the education of dialectical materialism epistemology,preparing the just ideological foundation for case analyzing and law enforcing to meet the need of the political and law work in the new period.%政法大学生是我国政法队伍的后备力量,他们的素质尤其是政治素质事关中国特色社会主义事业的兴衰成败。必须根据党和国家对政法人才的要求,紧密结合他们的实际和未来职业需要,在思想政治理论课程中有针对性地进行忠诚于党和国家、忠诚于人民和法律以及廉洁奉公教育,以砥砺品质、锤炼作风;必须加强辩证唯物主义认识论教育,打好正确认识案件事实、公正执法的思想基础,以适应新时期政法工作的需要。

  20. ORGANIZATION 6, NOVA SCIENCE UNIT 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964

    DIRECTIONS FOR CONDUCTING A SERIES OF SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS ARE PRESENTED. THE EXPERIMENTS CONCERN THE STUDY OF HEAT AND MOLECULAR MOTION, HEAT EXCHANGE IN A MIXTURE, SPECIFIC HEAT, HEAT AND SIZE, EXPANSION OF LIQUID, EXPANSION OF AIR, HEAT OF FUSION OF ICE, HEAT OF VAPORIZATION OF WATER, LIGHT AND SOUND, LAW OF REFLECTION, PLANE MIRROR IMAGES,…

  1. ORGANIZATION 6, NOVA SCIENCE UNIT 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964

    DIRECTIONS FOR CONDUCTING A SERIES OF SCIENCE EXPERIMENTS ARE PRESENTED. THE EXPERIMENTS CONCERN THE STUDY OF HEAT AND MOLECULAR MOTION, HEAT EXCHANGE IN A MIXTURE, SPECIFIC HEAT, HEAT AND SIZE, EXPANSION OF LIQUID, EXPANSION OF AIR, HEAT OF FUSION OF ICE, HEAT OF VAPORIZATION OF WATER, LIGHT AND SOUND, LAW OF REFLECTION, PLANE MIRROR IMAGES,…

  2. WATERS - Integrating Science and Education Through the Development of an Education & Outreach Program that Engages Scientists, Students and Citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenbach, E. A.; Conklin, M. H.

    2007-12-01

    The need to train students in hydrologic science and environmental engineering is well established. Likewise, the public requires a raised awareness of the seriousness of water quality and availability problems. The WATERS Network (WATer and Environmental Research Systems Network ) has the potential to significantly change the way students, researchers, citizens, policy makers and industry members learn about environmental problems and solutions regarding water quality, quantity and distribution. This potential can be met if the efforts of water scientists, computer scientists, and educators are integrated appropriately. Successful pilot projects have found that cyberinfrastructure for education and outreach needs to be developed in parallel with research related cyberinfrastructure. We propose further integration of research, education and outreach activities. Through the use of technology that connects students, faculty, researchers, policy makers and others, WATERS Network can provide learning opportunities and teaching efficiencies that can revolutionize environmental science and engineering education. However, there are a plethora of existing environmental science and engineering educational programs. In this environment, WATERS can make a greater impact through careful selection of activities that build upon its unique strengths, that have high potential for engaging the members, and that meet identified needs: (i) modernizing curricula and pedagogy (ii) integrating science and education, (iii) sustainable professional development, and (iv) training the next generation of interdisciplinary water and social scientists and environmental engineers. National and observatory-based education facilities would establish the physical infrastructure necessary to coordinate education and outreach activities. Each observatory would partner with local educators and citizens to develop activities congruent with the scientific mission of the observatory. An unprecedented

  3. Citizen science in hydrology and water resources: opportunities for knowledge generation, ecosystem service management, and sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, Wouter; Zulkafli, Zed; Grainger, Sam; Acosta, Luis; Bastiaensen, Johan; De Bièvre, Bert; Bhusal, Jagat; Chanie, Tilashwork; Clark, Julian; Dewulf, Art; Foggin, Marc; Hannah, David; Hergarten, Christian; Isaeva, Aiganysh; Karpouzoglou, Timos; Pandey, Bhopal; Paudel, Deepak; Sharma, Keshav; Steenhuis, Tammo; Tilahun, Seifu; Van Hecken, Gert; Zhumanova, Munavar

    2014-10-01

    The participation of the general public in the research design, data collection and interpretation process together with scientists is often referred to as citizen science. While citizen science itself has existed since the start of scientific practice, developments in sensing technology, data processing and visualisation, and communication of ideas and results, are creating a wide range of new opportunities for public participation in scientific research. This paper reviews the state of citizen science in a hydrological context and explores the potential of citizen science to complement more traditional ways of scientific data collection and knowledge generation for hydrological sciences and water resources management. Although hydrological data collection often involves advanced technology, the advent of robust, cheap and low-maintenance sensing equipment provides unprecedented opportunities for data collection in a citizen science context. These data have a significant potential to create new hydrological knowledge, especially in relation to the characterisation of process heterogeneity, remote regions, and human impacts on the water cycle. However, the nature and quality of data collected in citizen science experiments is potentially very different from those of traditional monitoring networks. This poses challenges in terms of their processing, interpretation, and use, especially with regard to assimilation of traditional knowledge, the quantification of uncertainties, and their role in decision support. It also requires care in designing citizen science projects such that the generated data complement optimally other available knowledge. Lastly, we reflect on the challenges and opportunities in the integration of hydrologically-oriented citizen science in water resources management, the role of scientific knowledge in the decision-making process, and the potential contestation to established community institutions posed by co-generation of new knowledge.

  4. Citizen science in hydrology and water resources: opportunities for knowledge generation, ecosystem service management, and sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter eBuytaert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The participation of the general public in the research design, data collection and interpretation process together with scientists is often referred to as citizen science. While citizen science itself has existed since the start of scientific practice, developments in sensing technology, data processing and visualisation, and communication of ideas and results, are creating a wide range of new opportunities for public participation in scientific research. This paper reviews the state of citizen science in a hydrological context and explores the potential of citizen science to complement more traditional ways of scientific data collection and knowledge generation for hydrological sciences and water resources management. Although hydrological data collection often involves advanced technology, the advent of robust, cheap and low-maintenance sensing equipment provides unprecedented opportunities for data collection in a citizen science context. These data have a significant potential to create new hydrological knowledge, especially in relation to the characterisation of process heterogeneity, remote regions, and human impacts on the water cycle. However, the nature and quality of data collected in citizen science experiments is potentially very different from those of traditional monitoring networks. This poses challenges in terms of their processing, interpretation, and use, especially with regard to assimilation of traditional knowledge, the quantification of uncertainties, and their role in decision support. It also requires care in designing citizen science projects such that the generated data complement optimally other available knowledge. Lastly, we reflect on the challenges and opportunities in the integration of hydrologically-oriented citizen science in water resources management, the role of scientific knowledge in the decision-making process, and the potential contestation to established community institutions posed by co-generation of

  5. Troubled Waters: where Multiple Streams of Inequality Converge in the Math and Science Experiences of Nonprivileged Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Laurel; Spatig, Linda; Kusimo, Patricia S.; Carter, Carolyn C.; Keyes, Marian

    Water is often hardest to navigate at the confluence of individual streams. As they experience math and science, nonprivileged girls maneuver through roiling waters where the streams of gender, ethnicity, poverty, place, and teaching practices converge. Just as waters of separate streams blend, these issues - too often considered separate factors - become blended and difficult to isolate, and the resulting turbulence produces a bumpy ride. We draw on 3 years of qualitative data collected as part of an intervention program to explore the math and science experiences and perceptions of a group of ethnically diverse, low socioeconomic status rural and urban adolescent Appalachian girls. After describing program and community contexts, we explore "opportunity to leant" issues - specifically, expectations, access to content, and support networks - and examine their schooling experiences against visions of science and math reform and pressures for accountability. Data are discussed within a framework of critical educational theory.

  6. Law 302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  7. CMCSN: Structure and dynamics of water and aqueous solutions in materials science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Car, Roberto [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Galli, Giulia [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Rehr, John J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-10-20

    This award has contributed to build a network of scientists interested in the structure and dynamics of water. Such network extends well beyond the PI and the co-PIs and includes both theoreticians and experimentalists. Scientific interactions within this community have been fostered by three workshops supported by the grant. The first workshop was held at Princeton University on December 6-8, 2010. The second workshop was held at the Talaris Conference Center in Seattle on February 10-12, 2012. The third workshop was held at UC Davis on June 19-22, 2013. Each workshop had 40-50 participants and about 20 speakers. The workshops have been very successful and stimulated ongoing discussions within the water community. This debate is lasting beyond the time frame set by the grant. The following events are just a few examples: (i) the month long activity on "Water: the most anomalous liquid" organized at NORDITA (Stockholm) in October- November 2014 by A. Nilsson and L. Petterson who participated in all the three CMCSN sponsored workshops; (ii) the workshop on "ice nucleation" organized by R. Car, P. Debenedetti and F. Stillinger at the Princeton Center for Theoretical Science in April 23- 24 2015; (iii) the 10 days workshop on water organized by R. Car and F. Mallamace at the E. Maiorana Centre in Erice (Sicily) in July 2016, an activity that will morph into a regular summer school of the E. Maiorana Centre in the years to come under the directorship of R. Car, F. Mallamace (U. Messina), A. Nilsson (U. Stockholm) and L. Xu (Beijing U.). All these activities were stimulated by the scientific discussions within the network initiated by this CMCSN grant.

  8. Protection of the Human Right to Water Under International Law - The Need for a New Legal Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Daci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The social sciences have inherited a not so clear relationship with the social politics throughout the history. At the first moment the concept of social sciences came into use in the 19th century the first organizations that were promoting them were not located in the universities. They were located in the Public Sector. They brought into the scenery not only professional of the area, but also politicians, clerics and businessmen. The main objective was the promoting of the reforms that consider the social politics able to improve the so defined social problems. These associations thought that by collecting different kind of data regarding these problems they would reach a clear insight on the directions the state should follow in the framework of different politics and reforms. As a result, the national research capacity is of the highest importance to the ability of a state to invent and implement successfully its politics based on evidences that concern and come as a reaction to the concerns and issues of the social problems as a whole. In this article I will be presenting first of all an overview of the scientific research in Albania in the area of the social sciences by pointing out the main areas that deserve to be the prior ones in the contest of developing activities that aim the implementation of the research in Social Sciences. Also, a great number of Institutions has been contacted with the aim of receiving official information and data on the functioning and on the potential problems that can be faced during the research processes. These institutions have been selected based on their involvement at the area of the scientific research of the social sciences. At first this will involve the policy makers at the central level, like the Ministry of Education and Sciences and the main research actors in the public and in the private sector. The criteria of the geographical and the subjects coverage has been also used in order to be able

  9. Protection of the Human Right to Water Under International Law - The Need for a New Legal Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Daci

    2012-06-01

    At first this will involve the policy makers at the central level, like the Ministry of Education and Sciences and the main research actors in the public and in the private sector. The criteria of the geographical and the subjects coverage has been also used in order to be able to present a public institutions of the higher education and research but even the enterprises that act in the research area are mainly focusing to the integration of these two systems which have been working separately for a long period of time and that must become efficient in order to adapt to the conditions of a country that has limited financial resources. This article is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific research in Albania, focusing in defining the priority areas for the research in social sciences. The information about the higher education and the potential problems that it faces, is based on a big number of research institutions, selected based on their involvement in scientific research in social sciences. This article brings into evidence the fact that in order to establish a stable and effective infrastructure in scientific research in Albania, is important to work in different directions. A successful way to increase the efficasity through the elements of the “innovative system” is by working with organizations that work in specific sectors of the economy, aiming for a possible cooperation in scientific search, for an important social contribution.

  10. Law and Inspiration--The laws of S&T Innovations of Originality as Reflected by Noble Prize Laureates in Natural Sciences and Major Scientific Accomplishments in the 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Yongxiang

    2002-01-01

    @@ Today in the 21st century, Science and technology (S&T)develops by leaps and bounds. Such progress has fundamentally changed the development pace of history, becoming the principal driving force for the progress of human civilization.

  11. Battle Brewing Over Arkansas Creationism Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rudy

    1981-01-01

    Reports recent proceedings regarding a new law enacted in early 1981 in Arkansas which requires schools that teach evolution to teach what the law calls "creation-science." Opposition to the law by the American Civil Liberties Union is discussed. (CS)

  12. Molecular tools for bathing water assessment in Europe: Balancing social science research with a rapidly developing environmental science evidence-base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, David M; Hanley, Nick D; van Niekerk, Melanie; Kay, David; Heathwaite, A Louise; Rabinovici, Sharyl J M; Kinzelman, Julie L; Fleming, Lora E; Porter, Jonathan; Shaikh, Sabina; Fish, Rob; Chilton, Sue; Hewitt, Julie; Connolly, Elaine; Cummins, Andy; Glenk, Klaus; McPhail, Calum; McRory, Eric; McVittie, Alistair; Giles, Amanna; Roberts, Suzanne; Simpson, Katherine; Tinch, Dugald; Thairs, Ted; Avery, Lisa M; Vinten, Andy J A; Watts, Bill D; Quilliam, Richard S

    2016-02-01

    The use of molecular tools, principally qPCR, versus traditional culture-based methods for quantifying microbial parameters (e.g., Fecal Indicator Organisms) in bathing waters generates considerable ongoing debate at the science-policy interface. Advances in science have allowed the development and application of molecular biological methods for rapid (~2 h) quantification of microbial pollution in bathing and recreational waters. In contrast, culture-based methods can take between 18 and 96 h for sample processing. Thus, molecular tools offer an opportunity to provide a more meaningful statement of microbial risk to water-users by providing near-real-time information enabling potentially more informed decision-making with regard to water-based activities. However, complementary studies concerning the potential costs and benefits of adopting rapid methods as a regulatory tool are in short supply. We report on findings from an international Working Group that examined the breadth of social impacts, challenges, and research opportunities associated with the application of molecular tools to bathing water regulations.

  13. Case - Case-Law - Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadl, Urska

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the European Union – Constr uction of arguments in the case-law of the Court – Citation technique – The use of formulas to transform case-law into ‘law’ – ‘Formulaic style’ – European citizenship as a fundamental status – Ruiz Zambrano – Reasoning from...

  14. Natural Law and Mechanical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Haarhoff

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available The first technological revolution, in the fourth millennium BC, was followed by immense social progress. The second revolution, which is now taking place, could lead to an even greater development in the human sciences, by setting men free from their daily struggle for existence while simultaneously exacting high social standards. Natural law - the “marriage between the ways of heaven and the ways of earth” of the Chinese - represents a route to such progress. In natural science and technology, natural law demands that conclusions be based on observation rather than speculation. The social sciences would do well to follow this example.

  15. Social.Water--Open Source Citizen Science Software for CrowdHydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienen, M. N.; Lowry, C.

    2013-12-01

    CrowdHydrology is a crowd-sourced citizen science project in which passersby near streams are encouraged to read a gage and send an SMS (text) message with the water level to a number indicated on a sign. The project was initially started using free services such as Google Voice, Gmail, and Google Maps to acquire and present the data on the internet. Social.Water is open-source software, using Python and JavaScript, that automates the acquisition, categorization, and presentation of the data. Open-source objectives pervade both the project and the software as the code is hosted at Github, only free scripting codes are used, and any person or organization can install a gage and join the CrowdHydrology network. In the first year, 10 sites were deployed in upstate New York, USA. In the second year, expansion to 44 sites throughout the upper Midwest USA was achieved. Comparison with official USGS and academic measurements have shown low error rates. Citizen participation varies greatly from site to site, so surveys or other social information is sought for insight into why some sites experience higher rates of participation than others.

  16. Realizing the potential of the CUAHSI Water Data Center to advance Earth Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, R. P.; Seul, M.; Pollak, J.; Couch, A.

    2015-12-01

    The CUAHSI Water Data Center has developed a cloud-based system for data publication, discovery and access. Key features of this system are a semantically enabled catalog to discover data across more than 100 different services and delivery of data and metadata in a standard format. While this represents a significant technical achievement, the purpose of this system is to support data reanalysis for advancing science. A new web-based client, HydroClient, improves access to the data from previous clients. This client is envisioned as the first step in a workflow that can involve visualization and analysis using web-processing services, followed by download to local computers for further analysis. The release of the WaterML library in the R package CRAN repository is an initial attempt at linking the WDC services in a larger analysis workflow. We are seeking community input on other resources required to make the WDC services more valuable in scientific research and education.

  17. The Delinquencies of Juvenile Law: A Natural Law Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Washington

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a substantive analysis tracing the legal, philosophical, social, historical, jurisprudence and political backgrounds of juvenile law, which is an outgrowth of the so-calledProgressive movement - a popular social and political movement of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. I also trace how this socio-political cause célèbre became a fixture in Americanculture and society due to existential child labor abuses which progressive intellectuals used as a pretext to codify juvenile law in federal law and in statutory law in all 50 states by 1925. Moreover the dubious social science and Machiavellian political efforts that created the juvenile justice system out of whole cloth has done much more harm to the Constitution and to the children it was mandated to protect than any of the Progressive ideas initially envisioned rooted in Positive Law (separation of law and morals. Finally, I present am impassioned argument for congressional repeal of all juvenile case law and statutes because they are rooted in Positive Law, contrary to Natural Law (integration of law and morals, the original intent of the constitutional Framers and are therefore patently unconstitutional.

  18. From flood protection to flood risk management: condition-based and performance-based regulations in German water law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, T.; Albrecht, J.

    2014-01-01

    In many European countries, a paradigm shift from technically oriented flood protection to a holistic approach of flood risk management is taking place. In Germany, this approach is currently being implemented after several amendments of the Federal Water Act. The paradigm shift is also reflected in

  19. Abundance and characteristics of lignin liquid intermediates in wood (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) during hot water extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel Raul Pelaez-Samaniego; Vikram Yadama; Manuel Garcia-Perez; Eini Lowell

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of the conditions of hot water extraction (HWE) on abundance, properties, and structure of lignin depolymerization products. HWE of extracted softwood (ponderosa pine) was conducted using temperatures from 140 to 320°C for 90 min. HWE materials were then subjected to a soxhlet...

  20. 76 FR 14424 - Office of the Assistant Secretary-Water and Science; Environmental Assessment for the Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Assistant Secretary--Water and Science; Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Restoration of a Portion of Lower Hobble Creek AGENCY: Central Utah Project Completion Act Completion Office...

  1. 78 FR 79707 - Office of the Assistant Secretary-Water and Science; Environmental Assessment of the Olmsted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 251 (Tuesday, December 31, 2013)] [Notices] [Page 79707] [FR Doc No: 2013-31304] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR [133R0680R1, RR.17549897.1000000.01, RC0ZCUPCA0] Office of the Assistant Secretary--Water and Science; Environmental Assessment of the Olmsted Hydroelectric...

  2. 78 FR 79706 - Office of the Assistant Secretary-Water and Science; Draft Environmental Assessment of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 251 (Tuesday, December 31, 2013)] [Notices] [Pages 79706-79707] [FR Doc No: 2013-31306] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR [133R0680R1, RR.17549897.1000000.01, RC0ZCUPCA0] Office of the Assistant Secretary--Water and Science; Draft Environmental Assessment of the Proposed...

  3. Advancing the Potential of Citizen Science for Urban Water Quality Monitoring: Exploring Research Design and Methodology in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, D.; Farnham, D. J.; Gibson, R.; McGillis, W. R.; Culligan, P. J.; Cooper, C.; Larson, L.; Mailloux, B. J.; Buchanan, R.; Borus, N.; Zain, N.; Eddowes, D.; Butkiewicz, L.; Loiselle, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Citizen Science is a fast-growing ecological research tool with proven potential to rapidly produce large datasets. While the fields of astronomy and ornithology demonstrate particularly successful histories of enlisting the public in conducting scientific work, citizen science applications to the field of hydrology have been relatively underutilized. We demonstrate the potential of citizen science for monitoring water quality, particularly in the impervious, urban environment of New York City (NYC) where pollution via stormwater runoff is a leading source of waterway contamination. Through partnerships with HSBC, Earthwatch, and the NYC Water Trail Association, we have trained two citizen science communities to monitor the quality of NYC waterways, testing for a suite of water quality parameters including pH, turbidity, phosphate, nitrate, and Enterococci (an indicator bacteria for the presence of harmful pathogens associated with fecal pollution). We continue to enhance these citizen science programs with two additions to our methodology. First, we designed and produced at-home incubation ovens for Enterococci analysis, and second, we are developing automated photo-imaging for nitrate and phosphate concentrations. These improvements make our work more publicly accessible while maintaining scientific accuracy. We also initiated a volunteer survey assessing the motivations for participation among our citizen scientists. These three endeavors will inform future applications of citizen science for urban hydrological research. Ultimately, the spatiotemporally-rich dataset of waterway quality produced from our citizen science efforts will help advise NYC policy makers about the impacts of green infrastructure and other types of government-led efforts to clean up NYC waterways.

  4. Toward Transparent and Reproducible Science: Using Open Source "Big Data" Tools for Water Resources Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, W.; Zulkafli, Z. D.; Vitolo, C.

    2014-12-01

    Transparency and reproducibility are fundamental properties of good science. In the current era of large and diverse datasets and long and complex workflows for data analysis and inference, ensuring such transparency and reproducibility is challenging. Hydrological science is a good case in point, because the discipline typically uses a large variety of datasets ranging from local observations to large-scale remotely sensed products. These data are often obtained from various different sources, and integrated using complex yet uncertain modelling tools. In this paper, we present and discuss methods of ensuring transparency and reproducibility in scientific workflows for hydrological data analysis for the purpose of water resources assessment, using relevant examples of emerging open source "big data" tools. First, we discuss standards for data storage, access, and processing that allow improving the modularity of a hydrological analysis workflow. In particular standards emerging from the Open Geospatial Consortium, such as the Sensor Observation Service, the Web Coverage Service, hold promise. However, some bottlenecks such as the availability of data models and the ability to work with spatio-temperal subsets of large datasets, need further development. Next, we focus on available methods to build transparent data processing workflows. Again, standards such as OGC's Web Processing Service are being developed to facilitate web-based analytics. Yet, in practice, the experimental nature of these standards and web services in general often requires a more pragmatic approach. The availability of web technologies in popular open source data analysis environments such as R and Python often makes them an attractive solution for workflow creation and sharing. Lastly, we elaborate on the potential of open source solutions hold in the context of participatory approaches to data collection and knowledge generation. Using examples from the tropical Andes and the Himalayas, we

  5. Experimental Investigation on the Basic Law of the Fracture Spatial Morphology for Water Pressure Blasting in a Drillhole Under True Triaxial Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bingxiang; Li, Pengfeng

    2015-07-01

    The present literature on the morphology of water pressure blasting fractures in drillholes is not sufficient and does not take triaxial confining stress into account. Because the spatial morphology of water pressure blasting fractures in drillholes is not clear, the operations lack an exact basis. Using a large true triaxial water pressure blasting experimental system and an acoustic emission 3-D positioning system, water pressure blasting experiments on cement mortar test blocks (300 mm × 300 mm × 300 mm) were conducted to study the associated basic law of the fracture spatial morphology. The experimental results show that water pressure blasting does not always generate bubble pulsation. After water pressure blasting under true triaxial stress, a crushed compressive zone and a blasting fracture zone are formed from the inside, with the blasting section of the naked drillhole as the center, to the outside. The shape of the outer edges of the two zones is ellipsoidal. The range of the blasting fracture is large in the radial direction of the drillhole, where the surrounding pressure is large, i.e., the range of the blasting fracture in the drillhole radial cross-section is approximately ellipsoidal. The rock near the drillhole wall is affected by a tensile stress wave caused by the test block boundary reflection, resulting in more flake fractures appearing in the fracturing crack surface in the drillhole axial direction and parallel to the boundary surface. The flake fracture is thin, presenting a small-range flake fracture. The spatial morphology of the water pressure blasting fracture in the drillhole along the axial direction is similar to a wide-mouth Chinese bottle: the crack extent is large near the drillhole orifice, gradually narrows inward along the drillhole axial direction, and then increases into an approximate ellipsoid in the internal naked blasting section. Based on the causes of the crack generation, the blasting cracks are divided into three

  6. Water-Quality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Water Quality? [1.7MB PDF] Past featured science... Water Quality Data Today's Water Conditions Get continuous real- ... list of USGS water-quality data resources . USGS Water Science Areas Water Resources Groundwater Surface Water Water ...

  7. Why Can't I Find Newton's Third Law? Case Studies of Students' Use of the Web as a Science Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MaKinster, James G.; Beghetto, Ronald A.; Plucker, Jonathan A.

    2002-01-01

    Examines searching patterns of students using the Web as science information resources. Attempts to provide detailed accounts of how students use the Web as a science resource and illuminate how the different levels of domain knowledge and expertise, and situational interest impact students' ability to find useful and relevant information on the…

  8. Models tasks of the municipality on the basis of laws: the collective water supply and discharge of wastewater, the public transport and on maintaining cleanliness and order in municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Cilak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The municipalities carry out numerous tasks of their own. For this purpose, they can create their own organizational units, as well as enter into contracts with private entrepreneurs. The rules of the various tasks are defined by the specific laws, which shows how the municipality can carry out these tasks. On the basis of special laws there are some models of conduct, eg. an obligation to conclude a civil law contract, to create their own entities or mixed solutions. The article attempts to analyze the models of carry out the municipalities own tasks on the basis of laws: the collective water supply and discharge of wastewater, the public transport and on maintaining cleanliness and order in municipalities.

  9. Uncertainty in Driftless Area Cold-Water Fishery Decision Making and a Framework for Stakeholder-Based Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The paradigm of stakeholder-based science is becoming more popular as organizations such as the U.S. Department of the Interior Climate Science Centers adopt it as a way of providing practicable climate change information to practitioners. One of the key issues stakeholders face in adopting climate change information into their decision processes is how uncertainty is addressed and communicated. In this study, we conducted a series of semi-structured interviews with managers and scientists working on stream habitat restoration of cold-water fisheries in the Driftless Area of Wisconsin that were focused on how they interpret and manage uncertainty and what types of information they need to make better decisions. One of the important lessons we learned from the interviews is that if researchers are going to provide useful climate change information to stakeholders, they need to understand where and how decisions are made and what adaptation measures are actually available in a given decision arena. This method of incorporating social science methods into climate science production can provide a framework for researchers from the Climate Science Centers and others who are interested in pursuing stakeholder-based science. By indentifying a specific ecological system and conducting interviews with actors who work on that system, researchers will be able to gain a better understanding of how their climate change science can fit into existing or shape new decision processes. We also interpreted lessons learned from our interviews via existing literature in areas such as stakeholder-based modeling and the decision sciences to provide guidance specific to the stakeholder-based science process.

  10. Adaptation of water resources systems to changing society and environment: a statement by the International Association of Hydrological Sciences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceola, Serena; Montanari, Alberto; Krueger, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    to develop effective solutions to support water resources systems adaptation. Finally, we call the scientific community to a renewed and unified effort to deliver an innovative message to stakeholders. Water science is essential to resolve the water crisis, but the effectiveness of solutions depends, inter......We explore how to address the challenges of adaptation of water resources systems under changing conditions by supporting flexible, resilient and low-regret solutions, coupled with on-going monitoring and evaluation. This will require improved understanding of the linkages between biophysical...... and social aspects in order to better anticipate the possible future co-evolution of water systems and society. We also present a call to enhance the dialogue and foster the actions of governments, the international scientific community, research funding agencies and additional stakeholders in order...

  11. Adventures in Citizen Science: Lessons learned engaging volunteer water quality monitors for over 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    The New Hampshire Lakes Lay Monitoring Program was originally designed by faculty at the University of New Hampshire in 1979 to provide the capacity to better monitor for long-term lake water quality changes and trends. As participants became educated, empowered and engaged the program soon evolved to also become a participatory research enterprise. This resulted in not only providing useful information for informed local stewardship and protection at the local level but also for state and region-wide decision-making, state and federal assessments/reporting and advancing our understanding of lake and watershed science. Our successes and failures have been more dependent on understanding the particular human dimensions that influence our volunteers and less to do with the typical project management, quality assurance, and communication concerns we typically deal with in professional based research efforts. Our participants are extremely diverse in terms of their life experiences, interests and motivations so the key to long-term commitment and high quality participation is understanding the difference between a citizen monitor and your archetypical research technician or student. This presentation will highlight some important lessons learned on how to involve various types of volunteers from school groups to retirees, as well as particular approaches and concerns regarding program management, retention, quality control and communications.

  12. Urban Nexus Science for Future Cities: Focus on the Energy-Water-Food-X Nexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperling, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Berke, Philip R. [Texas A& M University

    2017-08-25

    Rapid urban expansion of the world's cities is placing unprecedented demands on the energy, water, food, and other (X) systems (e.g., mobility) that each offer multiple life-supporting services. Coordination that considers inter-sectoral connections among these urban systems and services remains nascent in practice, yet are critical to the future well-being, resource/operational efficiency, and resilience of urban areas. This paper therefore proposes an applied 'urban nexus science' framework to identify integrated and synergistic pathways toward achieving urban sustainability. The design, planning, and operation of urban W-E-F systems can benefit from integrated analyses to accelerate infrastructure, land use, and hazard mitigation planning and decision-making. New knowledge quantifying the key effects of W-E-F systems designed in isolation versus an increasingly integrated systems, especially when exposed to hazards, health risks, or extreme events, are a critical need. Interactive system modeling and participatory technologies are needed to support stakeholder engagement and two-way (and multi-directional) information flow, for exploring outcomes of alternative solutions for integrating W-E-F sectors. To support such important efforts, research is needed to fill critical gaps in data, identify tradeoffs, and develop synergistic solutions that measure sustainability co-benefits based on different levels of urban integration among W-E-F systems and services.

  13. 刑法学实务案例教学方式探析%The Application of Case Teaching Method in the Science of Criminal Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆华; 王法

    2014-01-01

    Criminal cases should be considered in the selection of typical cases and criminal law practice ,major criminal cases should keep pace with the times and selecting the case should be moderate difficulty and other factors .The undergraduate teaching of criminal law should focus on criminal law theory study ,in order to make the theory of criminal law is more easily accepted by students ,it is necessary to complement by further explanation .Graduate teaching of criminal law without copying USA “case teaching method” and the German “into” teaching method ,no need to restart to explore“complementary teaching method teaching method” and other new , as long as we adhere to the application and improvement of “three three” teaching mode .%刑法学实务案例教学应选择较为典型与重大的刑法实务案例,刑法实务案例应与时俱进,所选案例应当难易适中。本科刑法学教学应把重点放在刑法理论的学习上,而为了使刑法理论更易被学生所接受,就有必要辅之以适当的案例作进一步说明、阐述。研究生刑法学教学既无需照搬美国的“判例教学法”与德国的“归入法”教学方式,也无需重新去探讨“互补式教学法”等新的教学方式,只要进一步坚持适用与完善“三三制”教学方式即可。

  14. Secrets Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Helena Guamanzara Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of the book The Law of Secrets, of the author Juan Carlos Martínez-Villalba Riofrío studying the secrets and how law does protect. To this end, the author has analyzed the general theory of secrecy, secrets and methodology, its overall rating, essential elements and their different legal dimensions, the secret as a subjective right. It also establishes that professional secrecy is protected by constitutional principles such as the right to privacy.

  15. A science plan for a comprehensive assessment of water supply in the region underlain by fractured rock in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Brandon J.; Hammond, Patrick A.; Stranko, Scott A.; Duigon, Mark T.; Kasraei, Saeid

    2012-01-01

    The fractured rock region of Maryland, which includes land areas north and west of the Interstate 95 corridor, is the source of water supply for approximately 4.4 million Marylanders, or approximately 76 percent of the State's population. Whereas hundreds of thousands of residents rely on wells (both domestic and community), millions rely on surface-water sources. In this region, land use, geology, topography, water withdrawals, impoundments, and other factors affect water-flow characteristics. The unconfined groundwater systems are closely interconnected with rivers and streams, and are affected by seasonal and climatic variations. During droughts, groundwater levels drop, thereby decreasing well yields, and in some cases, wells have gone dry. Low ground-water levels contribute to reduced streamflows, which in turn, can lead to reduced habitat for aquatic life. Increased demand, over-allocation, population growth, and climate change can affect the future sustainability of water supplies in the region of Maryland underlain by fractured rock. In response to recommendations of the 2008 Advisory Committee on the Management and Protection of the State's Water Resources report, the Maryland Department of the Environment's Water Supply Program, the Maryland Geological Survey, the Maryland Department of Natural Resources, Monitoring and Non-Tidal Assessment (MANTA) Division, and the U.S. Geological Survey have developed a science plan for a comprehensive assessment that will provide new scientific information, new data analysis, and new tools for the State to better manage water resources in the fractured rock region of Maryland. The science plan lays out five goals for the comprehensive assessment: (1) develop tools for the improved management and investigation of groundwater and surface-water resources; (2) characterize factors affecting reliable yields of individual groundwater and surface-water supplies; (3) investigate impacts on nearby water withdrawal users caused

  16. Water citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paerregaard, Karsten; Stensrud, Astrid Bredholt; Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the implementation of Peru’s new water law and discusses how it produces new forms of water citizenship. Inspired by the global paradigm of “integrated water resources management,” the law aims to include all citizens in the management of the country’s water resources...... by embracing a “new water culture.” We ask what forms of water citizenship emerge from the new water law and how they engage with local water practices and affect existing relations of inequality. We answer these questions ethnographically by comparing previous water legislation and how the new law currently...... is negotiated and contested in three localities in Peru’s southern highlands. We argue that the law creates a new water culture that views water as a substance that is measurable, quantifiable, and taxable, but that it neglects other ways of valuing water. We conclude that water citizenship emerges from...

  17. Engaging Remote Sensing and Citizen Science into Water Quality Monitoring: A Case Study in Nhue-Day River Basin, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi Van Le, Khoa; Minkman, Ellen; Nguyen Thi Phuong, Thuy; Rutten, Martine; Bastiaanssen, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing and citizen science can be utilized to fulfill the gap of conventional monitoring methods. However, how to engage these techniques, principally taking advantage of local capacities and of globally accessible data for satisfying the continuous data requirements and uncertainties are exciting challenges. Previous studies in Vietnam showed that official documents regulated towards responding the vital need of upgrading national water monitoring infrastructures do not put the huge potentials of free satellite images and crowd-based data collection into account, this factor also limits publications related to these techniques. In this research, a new water monitoring approach will be developed friendly with areas suffering poor quality monitoring works. Particularly, algorithms respecting to the relationship between temperature, total suspended sediment (TSS), chlorophyll and information collected by sensors onboard Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 MSI satellites are built in the study area in Northern Vietnam; additionally, undergraduate student volunteers were sent to the sites with all the measurement activities are designed to coincide with the time when the study area captured by the satellites to compare the results. While conventional techniques are proving their irreplaceable role in the water monitoring network, the utilization of remote sensing techniques and citizen science in this study will demonstrate highly supportive values, saving monitoring costs and time; advantaging local human resources to science; providing an inclusive assessment of water quality changes along with land-use change in the study area, these approaches are excellent alternatives to meet the demand of real-time, continuous data nationwide.

  18. 基于收益法的水权交易价值评估模型研究%Research on Value Assessment Model of Water Right Transaction Based on Profit Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庆华; 李山梅

    2011-01-01

    结合我国水权和水权交易的特点,基于资产评估收益法的理论提出了水权交易价值评估的收益法模型,并对收益额、折现率和收益期限等重要参数进行了说明,为水权交易价值评估提供了一种新思路、新方法.%Taking characters of water right and water right transaction of China into consideration, on the basis of theory of property appraisal profit law, the profit law model was put forward for value assessment model of water right transaction and its important parameters, such as profit amount, discount rate and profit deadline, were explained. This model provided a new train of thought and method for value assessment of water right transaction.

  19. ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF PROPOSED DISCHARGE OF DREDGED MATERIAL INTO OCEAN WATERS; IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL FOR SECTION 103 OF PUBLIC LAW 92-532 (MARINE PROTECTION, RESEARCH, AND SANCTUARIES ACT OF 1972)

    Science.gov (United States)

    According to Section 103 of Public Law 92-532 (Marine Protection ,Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972), any proposed dumping of dredged material into ocean waters must be evaluated through the use of criteria published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) i n the Federa...

  20. The Protection of Waters against Pollution Caused by Ships in the Light of the Criminal Law in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Rusu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine briefly the provisions of two European acts establishing acriminal penalty system for discharges of polluting substances in waters under the jurisdiction of EUMember State. Although the two European legislative acts were adopted in 2005, the conductedresearch represents a novelty, and it can be useful both to theorists, practitioners in the field, and tothe European legislator. Essential contribution to the field, is to examine the documents adopted atEU level, as well as critical opinions formulated, completed and the need to supplement or takinganother piece of legislation, given the new changes in the structure of crime in the area, and the needfor effective preventive measures. Also, the paper highlights the need for increased specific activitiesof judicial cooperation in criminal matters between Member States, by adopting effective legislation,including the territorial jurisdiction and resolve operational conflicts of competence Also, the paperhighlights the need for increased specific activities of judicial cooperation in criminal mattersbetween Member States, by adopting effective legislation, including the territorial jurisdiction andhence the operative resolving conflicts of jurisdiction arising between Member States or between aMember State or a state not a member of the European Union.

  1. Thoughts on Current Situation of Science and Technology Law System in China%我国科技法律制度现状思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范国强

    2005-01-01

    科技法(Technology Law)的概念大约是在20世纪80年代提出的,有专家认为是中国人最先提出的,也有专家认为是美国人最先提出的。比较而言,我国在科技法方面发展极为缓慢。在美国已有Harvard Journal of law & Technology,Stanford Technology law Review等研究科技法律制度的著名期刊,我国台湾也有专门研究机构,如台湾交通大学科技法律研究所等7个科技法研究中心。

  2. Law and individuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F.M. Strauss

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The main contours of the history of philosophical and scientific conceptions of law and individuality are portrayed. This includes an account of perspectives and views found in ancient Greece, the Graeco-Roman world, the medieval speculation and, via the Renaissance, in early modern developments that were continued in the Enlightenment era, in Romanticism and historicism, and were eventually manifested in the linguistic turn. What is important for a proper understanding of modern law conceptions is an acknowledgement of the all-pervading influence of modern nominalism. This orientation was characterised by employing two related distinctions, namely the distinction between conceptual knowledge and concept-transcending knowledge, and that between rationalism and irrationalism. From a systematic point of view, various aspectual terms provide a frame of reference for the idea of a law of nature as a compound basic concept of science. Special attention is given to the nature of normative principles and physical laws. In the last part of the article, these perspectives are applied to a brief assessment of differences and similarities in the thought of Dooyeweerd and Vollenhoven.

  3. 16th National Conference and Global Forum on Science, Policy and the Environment: The Food–Energy–Water Nexus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saundry, Peter [National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-06-07

    The National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) received $50,000 from the US Department of Energy to support the organization of the of the 16th National Conference and Global Forum on the theme of The Food-Energy-Water Nexus, held January 19-21, 2016 at the Hyatt Regency Crystal City in Crystal City, VA. Approximately 1,000 participants attended the event from the fields of science, engineering, federal and local government, business, and civil society. The conference developed and advanced partnerships focusing on strategies and initiatives to address the world’s interconnected food, water and energy systems, specifically how to provide these resources to a population of 9 billion people by midcentury without overwhelming the environment. The conference emphasized actionable outcomes—moving forward on policy and practice with a focus on “opportunities for impact” on the most critical issues in the relatively near term.

  4. Islamic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-German,the religious and respectively the communist law systems. The third main international law system is theMuslim one, founded on the Muslim religion – the Islam. The Islam promotes the idea that Allah createdthe law and therefore it must be preserved and observed as such. Etymologically, the Arabian word“Islam” means “to be wanted, to obey” implying the fact that this law system promotes total andunconditioned submission to Allah. The Islamic law is not built on somebody of laws or leading cases,but has as source. The Islam is meant as a universal religion, the Koran promoting the idea of the unityof mankind; thus, one of the precepts in the Koran asserts that “all men are equal (…, there is nodifference between a white man and a black man, between one who is Arabian and one who is not,except for the measure in which they fear God.” The Koran is founded mainly on the Talmud, Hebrewsource of inspiration, and only on very few Christian sources. The Islam does not forward ideas whichcannot be materialized; on the contrary its ideas are purely practical, easy to be observed by the commonman, ideas subordinated to the principle of monotheism. The uncertainties and gaps of the Koran, whichhave been felt along the years, imposed the need for another set of rules, meant to supplement it – that isSunna. Sunna represents a body of laws and, consequently, the second source of the Koran. Sunnanarrates the life of the prophet Mohamed, the model to

  5. Integrating History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences in Practice to Enhance Science Education: Swammerdam's Historia Insectorum Generalis and the Case of the Water Flea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendig, Catherine

    2013-08-01

    Hasok Chang (Sci Educ 20:317-341, 2011) shows how the recovery of past experimental knowledge, the physical replication of historical experiments, and the extension of recovered knowledge can increase scientific understanding. These activities can also play an important role in both science and history and philosophy of science education. In this paper I describe the implementation of an integrated learning project that I initiated, organized, and structured to complement a course in history and philosophy of the life sciences (HPLS). The project focuses on the study and use of descriptions, observations, experiments, and recording techniques used by early microscopists to classify various species of water flea. The first published illustrations and descriptions of the water flea were included in the Dutch naturalist Jan Swammerdam's, Historia Insectorum Generalis (1669) (Algemeene verhandeling van de bloedeloose dierkens. t'Utrrecht, Meinardus van Dreunen, ordinaris Drucker van d'Academie). After studying these, we first used the descriptions, techniques, and nomenclature recovered to observe, record, and classify the specimens collected from our university ponds. We then used updated recording techniques and image-based keys to observe and identify the specimens. The implementation of these newer techniques was guided in part by the observations and records that resulted from our use of the recovered historical methods of investigation. The series of HPLS labs constructed as part of this interdisciplinary project provided a space for students to consider and wrestle with the many philosophical issues that arise in the process of identifying an unknown organism and offered unique learning opportunities that engaged students' curiosity and critical thinking skills.

  6. Cyborgs, Protonen und die Gesetze der Thermodynamik: Einblicke in die feministische Naturwissenschaftskritik Cyborgs, Protons, and the Laws of Thermodynamics: Insights into Feminist Critiques of the Natural Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Spörri

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Eine neuere Publikation zur feministischen Naturwissenschaftsforschung liegt von den Freiburger Frauenstudien vor. In neun Aufsätzen werden höchst unterschiedliche Perspektiven feministischer Naturwissenschaftskritik eröffnet, welche die Bandbreite von momentan laufenden oder erst kürzlich abgeschlossenen Forschungsprojekten dokumentieren. Auch eine disziplinäre Vielfältigkeit lässt sich feststellen: Die Autorinnen stammen aus den Natur-, Sozial- und Geisteswissenschaften bzw. verbinden diese unterschiedlichen disziplinären Ausrichtungen teilweise miteinander.The nine essays in this anthology offer insights into a variety of “perspectives on feminist critiques of the natural sciences,” reflecting the broad spectrum of recent and on-going research projects. The contributors to this anthology differ greatly in terms of research backgrounds (natural sciences, social sciences, and the humanities, and some of them combine approaches from different disciplines in their research.

  7. Bradford's law: Part 1- an explanatory approach for librarians | Bikai ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bradford's law: Part 1- an explanatory approach for librarians. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... information science students and researchers, who might otherwise be put off by the usually highly mathematical exposition of the Law.

  8. Mapping science through bibliometric triangulation: an experimental approach applied to water research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, Bei; Horlings, Edwin; van der Zouwen, Marielle; Van den Besselaar, P.A.A.

    2016-01-01

    The idea of constructing science maps based on bibliographic data has intrigued researchers for decades, and various techniques have been developed to map the structure of research disciplines. Most science mapping studies use a single method. However, as research fields have various properties, a v

  9. Application of Ranganathans Laws to the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Amoohosseini

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Web and raises a significant question: Does the Web save the time of the users? This question is analyzed in the context of Five Laws of the Web. What do these laws mean? The laws are meant to be elemental, to convey a deep understanding and capture the essential meaning of the World Wide Web. These laws may seem simplistic, but in fact they express a simple, crystal-clear vision of what the Web ought to be. Moreover, we intend to echo the simplicity of Ranganathans Five Laws of Library Science which inspired them

  10. Application of Ranganathan's Laws to the Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Noruzi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the Web and raises a significant question: "Does the Web save the time of the users?" This question is analyzed in the context of Five Laws of the Web. What do these laws mean? The laws are meant to be elemental, to convey a deep understanding and capture the essential meaning of the World Wide Web. These laws may seem simplistic, but in fact they express a simple, crystal-clear vision of what the Web ought to be. Moreover, we intend to echo the simplicity of Ranganathan's Five Laws of Library Science which inspired them.

  11. Natural Law and Mechanical Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    P. C. Haarhoff

    1984-01-01

    The first technological revolution, in the fourth millennium BC, was followed by immense social progress. The second revolution, which is now taking place, could lead to an even greater development in the human sciences, by setting men free from their daily struggle for existence while simultaneously exacting high social standards. Natural law - the “marriage between the ways of heaven and the ways of earth” of the Chinese - represents a route to such progress. In natural science and technolo...

  12. Science commons

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  13. INDONESIAN SALVAGE LAW WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF CONTEMPORARY MARITIME LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiana Puspitawati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Located in a strategic position, that is between two great oceans and two land masses have made Indonesia a centre of international trade and shipping. In fact, 90% of international trades are carried out through the ocean. It is therefore crucial to assure that the activities in carrying goods across the ocean are incident free. However, if accident happens, assistance from professionals to preserve items of property is desirable. In such, salvage law emerged. This paper discusses comprehensively Indonesian salvage law within the framework of contemporary maritime law. While Indonesian maritime law is mostly based on its national law on the carriage of goods by the sea, in fact, the development of maritime law is highly affected by international practices which are largely based on international conventions and regulations. This research finds that while Indonesian salvage law can be found in Book II Chapter VII article 545-568k Wetboek Van Koophandel or known as Kitab Undang-undang Hukum Dagang (KUHD, which focused narrowly on the value of salved property as the primary measures of success, yet Indonesian salvage law has not been developed in accordance with current international salvage law, which adopted a broader and more balanced approached in both commercial and environmental aspects. Although it is believed that such approached is “culturally unrecognized” in Indonesia, this research argued that since Indonesian waters are part of international waters, all process by waters including salvage should confirm the relevant international practices and regulations. While Indonesia has taken out salvage law from KUHD and regulates it within Act Number 17/2008 on navigation, however, such act only provides one article for salvage stating that salvage will be regulates further by Ministry Regulation. Untill this paper was written no such government regulation produced yet by Indonesia. Since Indonesian waters is the centre of international

  14. Building Capacity to Integrate NASA Earth Science into Water Resources Management Applications in the Context of a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, A. I.; Mehta, A. V.

    2011-12-01

    The NASA Applied Sciences program provides technical capacity building activities to enable decision-makers to integrate NASA Earth Science into environmental management activities. This includes workshops tailored to end-user needs by working directly with agencies to 1) identify environmental management activities that could benefit from NASA Earth Science and 2) conducting workshops that teach the NASA products and decision-support tools best suited to the identified application area. Building on a successful 3-year effort on air pollution monitoring for environmental applications, the project has expanded into water resources. Climate Change has dramatically increased demand for observational and predictive data in support of decision making activities related to water supply and demand. However, a gap remains between NASA products and applied research and the entities who stand to benefit from their utilization. To fill this gap, the project has developed short courses on 1) impacts of climate change on water resources 2) hands-on exercises on access and interpretation of NASA imagery relevant to water resources management via the use of decision-support web tools and software and 3) case studies on the application of NASA products in the field. The program is currently focused on two areas 1) precipitation products over the central and southern U.S. that help communities and agencies improve flooding forecasts and 2) snow and snow/water equivalent products over the western U.S and Latin America that can provide end-users with improved stream flow prediction in Spring within a framework of decreasing snow availability.

  15. Adressing emerging transnational law and emerging world citizens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    Bidrag til debat om "The Future of Sociology of Law" ved 25 års jubilæum for Chair of Sociology and Anthropology of Custom and Law ved Institute of Applied Social Sciences, Warzawa Universitet.......Bidrag til debat om "The Future of Sociology of Law" ved 25 års jubilæum for Chair of Sociology and Anthropology of Custom and Law ved Institute of Applied Social Sciences, Warzawa Universitet....

  16. The Study of \\\\\\"Matthew Effect\\\\\\" on Science Productions of Iranian Medical Universities on the basis of \\\\\\"Power- law Relationship\\\\\\" in a Five Year Period in the Web of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Jalalzadeh Asrejadidi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Robert K. Merton has made up the expression of “Matthew effect" in sociology of Science that explains how the eminent scientists frequently get more acknowledgment than unknown researchers, even if their work was similar. The objective of this study is to analyze and visualize the influence of “Matthew effect" on the quantitative (papers and qualitative (citations of scientific publications originated by Iranian Medical Sciences Universities throughout 2002 – 2006. The method of current study was an analytical-descriptive review. All data about publications originated by Iranian Medical Sciences Universities were extracted from the database of Web of Science (WoS. The citations received by Medical Sciences Universities were extracted from the Citation Report. The relationship between the publications and citations was plotted by Excel. We found a non-linear correlation between the publications and citations of Iranian Medical Universities. The first class and other universities group showed a positive impact related to the Matthew effect; whereas this relationship among second class universities and third class universities were negative. Tehran University of Medical Sciences got the first place on the ranking order based on the scale independent indicator while Bushehr Medical Science University was the last one. Analysis of data indicated that there was a non-liner relationship between Iranian scientific profiles and the citations that they received. The Scale-independent Indicators were the most reliable metrics for normalizing the ranking of universities.

  17. A Relationship between Lotka's Law, Bradford's Law, and Zipf's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye-Sho; Leimkuhler, Ferdinand F.

    1986-01-01

    A common functional relationship among Lotka's law, Bradford's law, and Zipf's law is derived. The proof takes explicit account of the sequences of observed values of the variables by means of an index. This approach results in a more realistic and precise formulation of each law. (Author/EM)

  18. Climate Change in Colorado: Developing a Synthesis of the Science to Support Water Resources Management and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, A. J.; Barsugli, J. J.; Averyt, K. B.; Deheza, V.; Udall, B.

    2008-12-01

    In 2007 Colorado's Governor Ritter issued a Colorado Climate Action Plan, in response to the risks associated with climate change and sets a goal to adapt to those climate changes "that cannot be avoided." The Western Water Assessment, a NOAA funded RISA program, was commissioned to do a synthesis of the science on climate change aimed at planners, decisionmakers, and policymakers in water in Colorado. Changes in Colorado's climate and implications for water resources are occurring in a global context. The objective of the report is to communicate the state of the science regarding the physical aspects of climate change that are important for evaluating impacts on Colorado's water resources, and to support state efforts to develop a water adaptation plan. However, the identification of specific climate change impacts on water resources is beyond the scope of this report. Water managers have a long history of adapting to changing circumstances, including changes in economies and land use, environmental concerns, and population growth. Climate change will further affect the decisions made about use of water. However, current water management practices may not be robust enough to cope with this climate change. This presentation reports on the process of developing the report and challenges we faced. We developed the report based on ongoing interactions with the water management community and discussions with them about their decision processes and needs. A second presentation (see Barsugli et al) presents the synthesis findings from the report. We followed the IPCC WG1 model of observations, attribution, and projections. However, many published studies and datasets include information about Colorado, there are few climate studies that focus only on the state. Consequently, many important scientific analyses for Colorado have not been done, and Colorado- specific information is often imbedded in or averaged with studies of the larger Western U.S. We used findings from

  19. Transitions in urban water management and patterns of international, interdisciplinary and intersectoral collaboration in urban water science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wen, Bei; van der Zouwen, Marielle; Horlings, Edwin; van der Meulen, Barend; van Vierssen, Wim

    2014-01-01

    Practitioners and scientists dealing with urban water management call for a transition to adaptive regimes. Transition management theories claim that to induce transitions, new forms of research are necessary which cut across traditional disciplinary, organizational and sectoral boundaries. Are such

  20. The Joint Front Range Climate Change Vulnerability Study: Closing the Gap between Science and Water Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatz, L.; Yates, D.; Woodbury, M.

    2008-12-01

    There is increasing concern among metropolitan water providers in Colorado's Front Range about the possible impacts of global and regional climate changes on their future water supply. This is of particular worry given that recent studies indicate global warming may lead to unprecedented drought conditions in the Southwest U.S. (IPCC 2007). The City of Aurora, City of Boulder, Colorado Springs Utilities, Denver Water, City of Ft. Collins, and Northern Colorado Water Conservancy District, along with additional water agencies including the Colorado Water Conservation Board, the Water Research Foundation (formerly AwwaRF), and the NOAA-CIRES Western Water Assessment, have come together to participate in a study intended to provide the education, tools, and methodology necessary to examine possible effects of climate change on several common watersheds. The central objective of this project is to assess possible changes in the timing and volume of hydrologic runoff from selected climate change scenarios centered about the years 2040 and 2070. Two hydrologic models will be calibrated and implemented in the study for this purpose. The future temperature and precipitation scenarios used to generate corresponding future streamflow are based on regionally downscaled temperature and precipitation projections. The projected streamflow obtained by running varied sequences of temperature and precipitation through the hydrologic models, will be compared to historic streamflow to estimate the sensitivity of water supplies to climate change. This regional unified approach is intended to help Colorado water providers communicate with their customers and the media cohesively, by working with the same historic and projected hydrometeorological data, historic natural streamflow, and methodology. Lessons learned from this collaborative approach can be used to encourage and establish other regional efforts throughout the country. Furthermore, this study will set the stage for future

  1. Citizen science shows systematic changes in the temperature difference between air and inland waters with global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Mackay, Murray; Stockwell, Jason D.; Thiery, Wim; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Augusto-Silva, Pétala B.; Baulch, Helen M.; de Eyto, Elvira; Hejzlar, Josef; Kangur, Külli; Kirillin, Georgiy; Pierson, Don C.; Rusak, James A.; Sadro, Steven; Woolway, R. Iestyn

    2017-01-01

    Citizen science projects have a long history in ecological studies. The research usefulness of such projects is dependent on applying simple and standardized methods. Here, we conducted a citizen science project that involved more than 3500 Swedish high school students to examine the temperature difference between surface water and the overlying air (Tw-Ta) as a proxy for sensible heat flux (QH). If QH is directed upward, corresponding to positive Tw-Ta, it can enhance CO2 and CH4 emissions from inland waters, thereby contributing to increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The students found mostly negative Tw-Ta across small ponds, lakes, streams/rivers and the sea shore (i.e. downward QH), with Tw-Ta becoming increasingly negative with increasing Ta. Further examination of Tw-Ta using high-frequency temperature data from inland waters across the globe confirmed that Tw-Ta is linearly related to Ta. Using the longest available high-frequency temperature time series from Lake Erken, Sweden, we found a rapid increase in the occasions of negative Tw-Ta with increasing annual mean Ta since 1989. From these results, we can expect that ongoing and projected global warming will result in increasingly negative Tw-Ta, thereby reducing CO2 and CH4 transfer velocities from inland waters into the atmosphere. PMID:28262715

  2. Citizen science shows systematic changes in the temperature difference between air and inland waters with global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Mackay, Murray; Stockwell, Jason D.; Thiery, Wim; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Augusto-Silva, Pétala B.; Baulch, Helen M.; de Eyto, Elvira; Hejzlar, Josef; Kangur, Külli; Kirillin, Georgiy; Pierson, Don C.; Rusak, James A.; Sadro, Steven; Woolway, R. Iestyn

    2017-03-01

    Citizen science projects have a long history in ecological studies. The research usefulness of such projects is dependent on applying simple and standardized methods. Here, we conducted a citizen science project that involved more than 3500 Swedish high school students to examine the temperature difference between surface water and the overlying air (Tw-Ta) as a proxy for sensible heat flux (QH). If QH is directed upward, corresponding to positive Tw-Ta, it can enhance CO2 and CH4 emissions from inland waters, thereby contributing to increased greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. The students found mostly negative Tw-Ta across small ponds, lakes, streams/rivers and the sea shore (i.e. downward QH), with Tw-Ta becoming increasingly negative with increasing Ta. Further examination of Tw-Ta using high-frequency temperature data from inland waters across the globe confirmed that Tw-Ta is linearly related to Ta. Using the longest available high-frequency temperature time series from Lake Erken, Sweden, we found a rapid increase in the occasions of negative Tw-Ta with increasing annual mean Ta since 1989. From these results, we can expect that ongoing and projected global warming will result in increasingly negative Tw-Ta, thereby reducing CO2 and CH4 transfer velocities from inland waters into the atmosphere.

  3. Lotka's Law and Institutional Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suresh; Sharma, Praveen; Garg, K. C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the applicability of Lotka's Law, negative binomial distribution, and lognormal distribution for institutional productivity in the same way as it is to authors and their productivity. Results indicate that none of the distributions are applicable for institutional productivity in engineering sciences. (Author/LRW)

  4. Promoting science through science fiction and pseudoscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslund, C.

    1986-11-01

    A great deal of physics can be learned from reading good science fiction. Many writers of this genre have shown great talent in explaining the laws of physics in language that is both lucid and accessible. Their writings can readily be used by the science teacher to enhance and to stimulate student understanding of physics and science.

  5. Embodied experiences for science learning: A cognitive linguistics exploration of middle school students' language in learning about water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas Barrios, Ivan Eduardo

    I investigated linguistic patterns in middle school students' writing to understand their relevant embodied experiences for learning science. Embodied experiences are those limited by the perceptual and motor constraints of the human body. Recent research indicates student understanding of science needs embodied experiences. Recent emphases of science education researchers in the practices of science suggest that students' understanding of systems and their structure, scale, size, representations, and causality are crosscutting concepts that unify all scientific disciplinary areas. To discern the relationship between linguistic patterns and embodied experiences, I relied on Cognitive Linguistics, a field within cognitive sciences that pays attention to language organization and use assuming that language reflects the human cognitive system. Particularly, I investigated the embodied experiences that 268 middle school students learning about water brought to understanding: i) systems and system structure; ii) scale, size and representations; and iii) causality. Using content analysis, I explored students' language in search of patterns regarding linguistic phenomena described within cognitive linguistics: image schemas, conceptual metaphors, event schemas, semantical roles, and force-dynamics. I found several common embodied experiences organizing students' understanding of crosscutting concepts. Perception of boundaries and change in location and perception of spatial organization in the vertical axis are relevant embodied experiences for students' understanding of systems and system structure. Direct object manipulation and perception of size with and without locomotion are relevant for understanding scale, size and representations. Direct applications of force and consequential perception of movement or change in form are relevant for understanding of causality. I discuss implications of these findings for research and science teaching.

  6. Three Laws of Robotics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    经典的机器人三大定律,来自于科幻之父阿西莫夫的名著《I,Robot》The late Isaac Asimov(1920—1992),the prolific author of science fictionand books popularizing science,claimed credit for"robotics"as a term for thescience and technology of robots.In his 1942 sci-fi story"Runaround,"Asimovstated the ethical guidelines he called the"Three Laws of Robotics":1.A robot must not injure a human being,or,through inaction,allow a hu-man being to come to harm.2.A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except wherethose orders would ...

  7. Water in everyday life and in science classrooms: analysis of discursive interactions and teaching strategies in primary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreza Fortini da Silva

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how a primary teacher establishes links between students' initial contributions on the theme ‘water’ and the elements that will make up the teaching approach of this subject in the science classroom. For this purpose, we examine discursive interactions in the first lessons of a teaching sequence, looking for links between events that are being elicited and developed by the teacher with intense participation of the students. We shall also examine the teaching strategies conducted by the teacher, emphasizing the presence of visual resources in text production activities, understanding them as literacy practices in the context of science lessons. To examine the effectiveness of these strategies and mediational resources, we shall analyze some exemplars of the students' productions (texts and drawings. We will use as criteria of analysis: speech marks of the opening activity and of the preliminary discussions in the texts produced by the pupils; evidence of changes in the pupils’ initial repertoires about the theme; evidence of connections between the “water in our lives” and “water as a science subject”. The context of the research is a third year grade classroom in a public elementary school in Contagem / MG - Brazil.

  8. Science to support the understanding of Ohio's water resources, 2014-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Kimberly; Kula, Stephanie P.

    2014-01-01

    Ohio’s water resources support a complex web of human activities and nature—clean and abundant water is needed for drinking, recreation, farming, and industry, as well as for fish and wildlife needs. Although rainfall in normal years can support these activities and needs, occasional floods and droughts can disrupt streamflow, groundwater, water availability, water quality, recreation, and aquatic habitats. Ohio is bordered by the Ohio River and Lake Erie; it has over 44,000 miles of streams and more than 60,000 lakes and ponds. Nearly all the rural population obtain drinking water from groundwater sources.

  9. Environmental law. 2. rev. and enl. ed.; Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erbguth, W. [Rostock Univ. (Germany); Schlacke, S. [Bremen Univ. (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The text book under consideration is addressed to students of jurisprudence. It enables an entrance into the general environment law and into selected areas of the special environment law in a clear and systematic form. After an introduction of fundamental principles of the environment law, the book consists of the following topics: Basic principles of the environment law; environmental constitutional law; instruments of the environment law; legal protection in the environment law; environmental European right; environmental international law; pollution protection law; wilderness protection act and landscape conservation act, water protection right, act on recycling and waste management, soil conservation law and contaminated site law, genetic engineering law, sea environment law for the protection of the North Sea and Baltic Sea, energy right.

  10. The laws governing ionic liquid extraction of cations: partition of 1-ethylpyridinium monocation and paraquat dication in ionic liquid/water biphasic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Takuya; Okai, Miho; Katsuta, Shoichi

    2015-05-21

    To find the laws governing the extraction of cations from aqueous solutions into hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs), we investigated the partition of 1-ethylpyridinium monocation and paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium) dication in various IL/water biphasic systems. Ten different ILs of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-based or bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide-based salts were used. The distribution ratio of the target cations (T(n+)) was dependent on the initial concentration in the aqueous phase and also very sensitive to the kind of IL. The behavior was quantitatively explained on the basis of a model in which the extraction goes through both the ion exchange and ion pair transfer processes, while keeping the product of the aqueous concentrations of the IL constituent ions a constant value (solubility product, Ksp). The distribution ratio of T(n+) is expressed as a function of the difference between the initial and equilibrium concentrations of T(n+) in the aqueous phase (Δ[T(n+)]W), the aqueous solubility of IL (Ksp(1/2)), and the cation valence n. The distribution ratio is a nearly constant value (D0) when Δ[T(n+)]W ≪ Ksp(1/2)/n and decreases inversely proportional to the nth power of Δ[T(n+)]W when Δ[T(n+)]W ≫ Ksp(1/2)/n. The log D0 versus log Ksp(1/2) plot gives a linear relationship with a slope of +n for the ILs with the same anion but different cations and that with a slope of nearly -n for the ILs with the same cation but different anions. This means that the extractability dependence on the kinds of IL constituent ions is greater for the divalent cation than for the monovalent one.

  11. Administrative Law: The Hidden Comparative Law Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Peter L.

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the main contribution of the Administrative Law course to law students is that it presents problems which contrast with those of the standard court-centered curriculum and can illuminate other areas of law, repeatedly confronting students with doctrinal differences. Offers several examples from civil procedure, constitutional law, and…

  12. Design of Cycle 3 of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, 2013-23: Part 2: Science plan for improved water-quality information and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Gary L.; Belitz, Kenneth; Demas, Charlie R.; Essaid, Hedeff I.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Hamilton, Pixie A.; Hoos, Anne B.; Lee, Casey J.; Munn, Mark D.; Wolock, David W.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a science strategy for the third decade of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, which since 1991, has been responsible for providing nationally consistent information on the quality of the Nation's streams and groundwater; how water quality is changing over time; and the major natural and human factors that affect current water quality conditions and trends. The strategy is based on an extensive evaluation of the accomplishments of NAWQA over its first two decades, the current status of water-quality monitoring activities by USGS and its partners, and an updated analysis of stakeholder priorities. The plan is designed to address priority issues and national needs identified by NAWQA stakeholders and the National Research Council (2012) irrespective of budget constraints. This plan describes four major goals for the third decade (Cycle 3), the approaches for monitoring, modeling, and scientific studies, key partnerships required to achieve these goals, and products and outcomes that will result from planned assessment activities. The science plan for 2013–2023 is a comprehensive approach to meet stakeholder priorities for: (1) rebuilding NAWQA monitoring networks for streams, rivers, and groundwater, and (2) upgrading models used to extrapolate and forecast changes in water-quality and stream ecosystem condition in response to changing climate and land use. The Cycle 3 plan continues approaches that have been central to the Program’s long-term success, but adjusts monitoring intensities and study designs to address critical information needs and identified data gaps. Restoration of diminished monitoring networks and new directions in modeling and interpretative studies address growing and evolving public and stakeholder needs for water-quality information and improved management, particularly in the face of increasing challenges related to population growth, increasing demands for water, and changing land use and climate

  13. Contribution to Forensic Science aimed to Contribute in Probatory Law in the Risk of Life in the Crime of Attempted Murder in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Muñoz P.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of attempted murder requires the judicial inquiry to provide different evidences. Forensic technical report of nonfatal injuries at the request of the authorities can provide valuable medical concepts on the magnitude, location and severity of the injuries. So far, there has been no objective evidence built from medical science for the assessment of the likelihood of a fatal injury. In this article, we review the forensic and medical-legal concepts, which allow providing percentages of probability of fatal injury from world-renowned medical scales.

  14. Monitoring surface water quality using social media in the context of citizen science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hang; Hong, Yang; Long, Di; Jing, Hua

    2017-02-01

    Surface water quality monitoring (SWQM) provides essential information for water environmental protection. However, SWQM is costly and limited in terms of equipment and sites. The global popularity of social media and intelligent mobile devices with GPS and photography functions allows citizens to monitor surface water quality. This study aims to propose a method for SWQM using social media platforms. Specifically, a WeChat-based application platform is built to collect water quality reports from volunteers, which have been proven valuable for water quality monitoring. The methods for data screening and volunteer recruitment are discussed based on the collected reports. The proposed methods provide a framework for collecting water quality data from citizens and offer a primary foundation for big data analysis in future research.

  15. Let's Talk About Water: Using Film Screenings to Engage Students and the Public in Water Science and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem Arrigo, J. A.; Berry, K.; Hooper, R. P.; Lilienfeld, L.

    2013-12-01

    "Let's Talk about Water" is a film symposium designed to bring together experts and the public to talk about the complex water issues facing society. The format of the event is quite simple: a panel of experts and the audience view a water documentary (such as "FLOW", "Liquid Assets", or "Gasland") together and there is an extended moderated discussion period following the film between the panel and the audience. Over the course of several events, we have developed best practices that make this simple format very effective. A film creates a context of subject and language for the discussion--it gets the audience and the panel on the same page. The moderators must actively manage the discussion, both challenging the panelists with follow up questions, asking questions to simplify the language the expert is using, and passing a question among panelists to bring out different points of view. The panelists are provided with the film in advance to view and, most importantly, meet the day before the event to discuss the film. This makes for a much more convivial discussion at the event. We have found that these discussions can easily be sustained for 90 to 120 minutes with active audience participation. We have found key element of the event is local relevance. Films should be carefully chosen to resonate with the audience, and the local host is critical in defining the audience, goals and identified panel members. Having local experts from universities and representatives from local water authorities and environmental groups bring a sense of community and a confidence in the audience that the panel members have local knowledge that is important for sustaining discussion. The discussion begins with points raised by the movie (are these issues real? Do they apply here? What are the scientific, engineering, and policy solutions to these problems?) and then segues into a discussion about career opportunities in the water sector, volunteer opportunities in the community or

  16. Computational Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Li

    2007-01-01

    @@ Computer science is the discipline that anchors the computer industry which has been improving processor performance, communication bandwidth and storage capacity on the so called "Moore's law" curve or at the rate of doubling every 18 to 24 months during the past decades.

  17. Exploring the government society and science interfaces in integrated water resource management in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ashton, PJ

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available as the goods and services that are derived from or linked to such water use (Van Wyk et al. 2006). The focus on greater equity within South Africa’s new water policy requires stakeholders to shift away from rights-based water allocations to a system where.... These drivers can be represented as axes on a matrix (Figure 1), where the general trend of change is shown as a progressive broadening of the scope of water resource management envelopes from (A) to (C) over time. The upper left-hand quadrant represents...

  18. Urban infrastructure and water management—Science capabilities of the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Shawn C.; Fanelli, Rosemary M.; Selbig, William R.

    2016-04-29

    Managing the urban-water cycle has increasingly become a challenge for water-resources planners and regulators faced with the problem of providing clean drinking water to urban residents. Sanitary and combined sanitary and storm sewer networks convey wastewater to centralized treatment plants. Impervious surfaces, which include roads, parking lots, and buildings, increase stormwater runoff and the efficiency by which runoff is conveyed to nearby stream channels; therefore, impervious surfaces increase the risk of urban flooding and alteration of natural ecosystems. These challenges will increase with the expansion of urban centers and the probable effects of climate change on precipitation patterns. Understanding the urban-water cycle is critical to effectively manage water resources and to protect people, infrastructure, and urban-stream ecosystems. As a leader in water-supply, wastewater, and stormwater assessments, the U.S. Geological Survey has the expertise and resources needed to monitor, model, and interpret data related to the urban-water cycle and thereby enable water-resources managers to make informed decisions.

  19. WETLANDS AND WATER QUALITY TRADING: REVIEW OF CURRENT SCIENCE AND ECONOMIC PRACTICES WITH SELECTED CASE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluates the technical, economic, and administrative aspects of establishing water quality trading (WQT) programs where the nutrient removal capacity of wetlands is used to improve water quality. WQT is a potentially viable approach for wastewater dischargers to cost-e...

  20. Electrolysis of Water in the Secondary School Science Laboratory with Inexpensive Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T. A.; Athey, S. L.; Vandevender, M. L.; Crihfield, C. L.; Kolanko, C. C. E.; Shao, S.; Ellington, M. C. G.; Dicks, J. K.; Carver, J. S.; Holland, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    This activity allows students to visualize the electrolysis of water in a microfluidic device in under 1 min. Instructional materials are provided to demonstrate how the activity meets West Virginia content standards and objectives. Electrolysis of water is a standard chemistry experiment, but the typical laboratory apparatus (e.g., Hoffman cell)…

  1. Electrolysis of Water in the Secondary School Science Laboratory with Inexpensive Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T. A.; Athey, S. L.; Vandevender, M. L.; Crihfield, C. L.; Kolanko, C. C. E.; Shao, S.; Ellington, M. C. G.; Dicks, J. K.; Carver, J. S.; Holland, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    This activity allows students to visualize the electrolysis of water in a microfluidic device in under 1 min. Instructional materials are provided to demonstrate how the activity meets West Virginia content standards and objectives. Electrolysis of water is a standard chemistry experiment, but the typical laboratory apparatus (e.g., Hoffman cell)…

  2. Review on the science and technology of water desalination by capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porada, S.; Zhao, R.; Wal, van der A.; Presser, V.; Biesheuvel, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Porous carbon electrodes have significant potential for energy-efficient water desalination using a promising technology called Capacitive Deionization (CDI). In CDI, salt ions are removed from brackish water upon applying an electrical voltage difference between two porous electrodes, in which the

  3. WETLANDS AND WATER QUALITY TRADING: REVIEW OF CURRENT SCIENCE AND ECONOMIC PRACTICES WITH SELECTED CASE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluates the technical, economic, and administrative aspects of establishing water quality trading (WQT) programs where the nutrient removal capacity of wetlands is used to improve water quality. WQT is a potentially viable approach for wastewater dischargers to cost-e...

  4. 33 CFR 88.11 - Law enforcement vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Law enforcement vessels. 88.11... NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX V: PILOT RULES § 88.11 Law enforcement vessels. (a) Law enforcement vessels may display a flashing blue light when engaged in direct law enforcement or public safety activities. This...

  5. Civilizing the Conversation? Using Surveys to Inform Water Management and Science in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, E.; Phillips Chappelle, C.

    2013-12-01

    Improving ecosystem outcomes in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is a complex, high-stakes water resource management challenge. The Delta is a major hub for water supply conveyance and a valued ecological resource. Yet long-term declines in native fish populations have resulted in severe legal constraints on water exports and fueled growing public debates about the roles and responsibilities of flow modification and other sources of ecosystem stress. Meanwhile, scientific uncertainty, and the inability of the scientific community to effectively communicate what *is* known, has frustrated policymakers and encouraged 'combat science' - the commissioning and use of competing scientific opinions in the courtroom. This paper summarizes results from a study designed to inform the policy process through the use of confidential surveys of scientific researchers (those publishing in peer-reviewed journals, n=122) and engaged stakeholders and policymakers (n=240). The surveys, conducted in mid-2012, sought respondents' views on the sources of ecosystem stress and priority ecosystem management actions. The scientist survey is an example of the growing use of expert elicitation to address gaps in the scientific literature, particularly where there is uncertainty about priorities for decisionmaking (e.g., Cvitanovic et al. 2013, J. of Env. Mgmt; McDaniels et al. 2012, Risk Analysis). The stakeholder survey is a useful complement, enabling the identification of areas of consensus and divergence among stakeholder groups and between these groups and scientific experts. The results suggest such surveys are a promising tool for addressing complex water management problems. We found surprisingly high agreement among scientists on the relative roles of stressors and the most promising management actions; they emphasized restoring more natural processes through habitat and flow actions within the watershed, consistent with 'reconciliation ecology' approaches (Rosenzweig 2003

  6. CUAHSI-HIS: an Internet based system to facilitate public discovery, access, and exploration of different water science data sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, J. S.; Hooper, R. P.; Choi, Y.; Ames, D. P.; Kadlec, J.; Whiteaker, T.

    2011-12-01

    "Water is everywhere." This sentiment underscores the importance of instilling hydrologic and earth science literacy in educators, students, and the general public, but also presents challenges for water scientists and educators. Scientific data about water is collected and distributed by several different sources, from federal agencies to scientific investigators to citizen scientists. As competition for limited water resources increase, increasing access to and understanding of the wealth of information about the nation's and the world's water will be critical. The CUAHSI-HIS system is a web based system for sharing hydrologic data that can help address this need. HydroDesktop is a free, open source application for finding, getting, analyzing and using hydrologic data from the CUAHSI-HIS system. It works with HydroCatalog which indexes the data to find out what data exists and where it is, and then it retrieves the data from HydroServers where it is stored communicating using WaterOneFlow web services. Currently, there are over 65 services registered in HydroCatalog providing central discovery of water data from several federal and state agencies, university projects, and other sources. HydroDesktop provides a simplified GIS that allows users to incorporate spatial data, and simple analysis tools to facilitate graphing and visualization. HydroDesktop is designed to be useful for a number of different groups of users with a wide variety of needs and skill levels including university faculty, graduate and undergraduate students, K-12 students, engineering and scientific consultants, and others. This presentation will highlight some of the features of HydroDesktop and the CUAHSI-HIS system that make it particularly appropriate for use in educational and public outreach settings, and will present examples of educational use. The incorporation of "real data," localization to an area of interest, and problem-based learning are all recognized as effective strategies for

  7. Bridging Science and Public Understanding of Water-Energy Nexus: Opportunities for broader impact connections with InTeGrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, C. H.; Manduca, C. A.; Bruckner, M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding trade-offs and interactions between water and energy is crucial in understanding many issues of sustainability faced by society in our changing environment. Increasing capcity through public literacy and preparing the future workforce to address these challenges are key goals of the NSF STEP Center InTeGrate. We connect teaching about the Earth to societal issues for undergraduates across the curriculum. Understanding the interaction between engineering, sustainability and the geosciences and the role engineering plays in building a sustainable future, in areas such resource and energy use is a major foci of our work. Connecting this knowledge to societal issues that undergraduates can relate to, and improving interdisciplinary problem-solving are needed in addressing the Grand Challenges facing society. The project features interdisciplinary materials that engage students in learning about the Earth by focusing on pressing topics and using evidence-based teaching practice. These materials are designed for both science and non-science majors at the undergraduate level and have been rigorously reviewed and tested in the classroom. Topics include Environmental Justice and Freshwater Resources, Interactions between Water, Earth's Surface and Human Activity, and Human's Dependence on Earth's Mineral Resources. Upcoming, new topics include modules on Energy Environment and Our Future, Global Energy and Atmosphere, Ecosystem Services Approach to Water Resources and course-length material on Grand Challenges of Interdisciplinary Water Sustainability and Gateway to Renewable Energy and Environmental Sustainability. We invite you to partner with the InTeGrate project as you think about broader impacts related to your work. Examples include creating a case study detailing your project and how faculty can use it in their classroom, contributing example activities that utilize your datasets, and more. Check out the site at: serc.carleton.edu/integrate/

  8. Marketing the Rule of Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Looking back at the last three decades of reform and opening up in China, many components of this process can now be examined in an attempt to ascertain what part they have played in the country’s political,social and economic growth.Rule of law and a harmonious society are some of the issues at stake.Professor Jiang Ping,former President of China University of Political Science and Law,discusses these and other areas of reform in an interview with China Economic Weekly.

  9. Integration of atmospheric sciences and hydrology for the development of decision support systems in sustainable water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstmann, Harald; Jung, Gerlinde; Wagner, Sven; Clottey, H.

    Sustainable decisions in water resources management require scientifically sound information on water availability. Central support in hydrological decision making arises from hydrological modelling which in turn depends on meteorological input. This work intends to show how integration of atmospheric science and hydrology, particularly the joint modelling of atmospheric and terrestrial water cycle, allows to provide decision support for two fundamental problems in sustainable water management: (1) the impact of global climate change on water availability, and (2) the near-real time estimation of recent resources and fluxes. The performance of joint atmospheric-hydrological simulations and its application for decision support is demonstrated for the Volta Basin of West Africa. First, the impact of global warming on water availability in the Volta Basin is assessed by joint regional climate-hydrology simulations. Time slices of ECHAM4 global climate scenario IS92a are dynamically downscaled to a resolution of 9 × 9 km 2 with the mesoscale meteorological model MM5 and the terrestrial water balance is subsequently calculated by the distributed hydrological model WaSiM. Results indicate a slight increase in total annual precipitation by 5%, but also a significant decrease of precipitation in April (in total 20%, for specific regions up to 70%), at the beginning of the rainy season. Terrestrial water balance variables react highly nonlinear to changes in precipitation and temperature. Second, the performance of joint atmospheric-hydrological simulations as a tool for near-real-time, model based water monitoring system for the White Volta subcatchment is assessed. Operational available GFS (Global Forecasting System) global analyses are dynamically downscaled to 9 × 9 km 2 resolution and meteorological fields subsequently applied for calculating the terrestrial water balance. Albeit a bias in precipitation simulations can be observed when comparing to point

  10. Vernacular Knowledge and Water Management – Towards the Integration of Expert Science and Local Knowledge in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh Simpson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex environmental problems cannot be solved using expert science alone. Rather, these kinds of problems benefit from problem-solving processes that draw on 'vernacular' knowledge. Vernacular knowledge integrates expert science and local knowledge with community beliefs and values. Collaborative approaches to water problem-solving can provide forums for bringing together diverse, and often competing, interests to produce vernacular knowledge through deliberation and negotiation of solutions. Organised stakeholder groups are participating increasingly in such forums, often through involvement of networks, but it is unclear what roles these networks play in the creation and sharing of vernacular knowledge. A case-study approach was used to evaluate the involvement of a key stakeholder group, the agricultural community in Ontario, Canada, in creating vernacular knowledge during a prescribed multi-stakeholder problem-solving process for source water protection for municipal supplies. Data sources – including survey questionnaire responses, participant observation, and publicly available documents – illustrate how respondents supported and participated in the creation of vernacular knowledge. The results of the evaluation indicate that the respondents recognised and valued agricultural knowledge as an information source for resolving complex problems. The research also provided insight concerning the complementary roles and effectiveness of the agricultural community in sharing knowledge within a prescribed problem-solving process.

  11. Interactions between groundwater and surface water: The state of the science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophocleous, M.

    2002-01-01

    The interactions between groundwater and surface water are complex. To understand these interactions in relation to climate, landform, geology, and biotic factors, a sound hydrogeoecological framework is needed. All these aspects are synthesized and exemplified in this overview. In addition, the mechanisms of interactions between groundwater and surface water (GW-SW) as they affect recharge-discharge processes are comprehensively outlined, and the ecological significance and the human impacts of such interactions are emphasized. Surface-water and groundwater ecosystems are viewed as linked components of a hydrologic continuum leading to related sustainability issues. This overview concludes with a discussion of research needs and challenges facting this evolving field. The biogeochemical processes within the upper few centimeters of sediments beneath nearly all surface-water bodies (hyporheic zone) have a profound effect on the chemistry of the water interchange, and here is where most of the recent research has been focusing. However, to advance conceptual and other modeling of GW-SW systems, a broader perspective of such interactions across and between surface-water bodies is needed, including multidimensional analyses, interface hydraulic characterization and spatial variability, site-to-region regionalization approaches, as well as cross-disciplinary collaborations.

  12. The Second Law and Karl R. Popper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Guenri E.

    2002-11-01

    Popper's ideas are briefly presented on philosophy of Science hierarchy of particular sciences and his emergence principle. Main points of Popper's cognition theory are emphasized. Popper's thoughts are given in connection with struggle of scientific ideas in the XX century. The projection on the Second Law is done.

  13. Sci-Fi Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenrich, Craig C.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends using science fiction television episodes, novels, and films for teaching science and motivating students. Studies Newton's Law of Motion, principles of relativity, journey to Mars, interplanetary trajectories, artificial gravity, and Martian geology. Discusses science fiction's ability to capture student interest and the advantages of…

  14. Environmental health sciences center task force review on halogenated organics in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deinzer, M; Schaumburg, F; Klein, E

    1978-06-01

    The disinfection of drinking water by chlorination has in recent years come under closer scrutiny because of the potential hazards associated with the production of stable chlorinated organic chemicals. Organic chemical contaminants are common to all water supplies and it is now well-established that chlorinated by-products are obtained under conditions of disinfection, or during tertiary treatment of sewage whose products can ultimately find their way into drinking water supplies. Naturally occurring humic substances which are invariably present in drinking waters are probably the source of chloroform and other halogenated methanes, and chloroform has shown up in every water supply investigated thus far.The Environmental Protection Agency is charged with the responsibility of assessing the public health effects resulting from the consumption of contaminated drinking water. It has specifically undertaken the task of determining whether organic contaminants or their chlorinated derivatives have a special impact, and if so, what alternatives there are to protect the consumer against bacterial and viral diseases that are transmitted through infected drinking waters. The impetus to look at these chemicals is not entirely without some prima facie evidence of potential trouble. Epidemiological studies suggested a higher incidence of cancer along the lower Mississippi River where the contamination from organic chemicals is particularly high. The conclusions from these studies have, to be sure, not gone unchallenged.The task of assessing the effects of chemicals in the drinking water is a difficult one. It includes many variables, including differences in water supplies and the temporal relationship between contamination and consumption of the finished product. It must also take into account the relative importance of the effects from these chemicals in comparison to those from occupational exposure, ingestion of contaminated foods, inhalation of polluted air, and many

  15. Economic Analysis of Law

    OpenAIRE

    Louis Kaplow; Steven Shavell

    2005-01-01

    This entry for the forthcoming The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (Second Edition) surveys the economic analysis of five primary fields of law: property law; liability for accidents; contract law; litigation; and public enforcement and criminal law. It also briefly considers some criticisms of the economic analysis of law.

  16. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  17. Last Tribute to Professor Zheng Chengsi, Renowned IP Law Scholar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On 10 September 2006, Professor Zheng Chengsi, the renowned Chinese IP law scholar, Chairman of the IP Law Society of the China Law Society, Vice-President of the Copyright Society of China, and member of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, passed away in Beijing at the age of 62.

  18. Introduction of the Water Footprint Theme in Science Education: Perceptions and Perspectives of Changes from the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Lúcia Ferreira da Luz Culpi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of discussions about water consumptions in Science classes highlights the need of contextualization and expansion of the theme, in particular the need to deal with the theme according to more updated approaches due to the current water crisis lived in Brazil and in many other places around the world so that more profound discussions are carried out in the educational context; examples of this are discussions that focus on water footprint. This article refers to a study which main research question was: how does the use of didactic-methodological strategies based on elements of water footprint contribute to students´ understanding of issues related to the use and water preservation considering the current crisis of this natural resource? This qualitative investigation was carried out at a post-graduate level – Master´s degree – with the participation of 35 (thirty-five 6th grade students at a Basic Education school in the city of Curitiba, Paraná state, Brazil. The methodology involved participants and the use of multiple tools for data generation. In order to structure the teaching strategies, before the work in class, a survey was developed about issues related to water, especially students´ perception about the level of water consumption in various contexts (agriculture, industry and by the population in general. The survey supported the design of an investigative questionnaire about how students perceive, relate to and understand aspects related to water resources. In addition to the survey, tools that facilitate the generation of data such as: field diary (similar to memos, participants´ manuscripts and audio recordings were used. From this perspective, content analysis proposed by Laurence Bardin, seemed the appropriate approach for the data analysis, as this method represents a pre-analysis followed by the exploration of the material for later treatment of the data and, finally, the interpretation. The results of

  19. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  20. Teaching the third law of thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Klimenko, A Y

    2012-01-01

    This work gives a brief summary of major formulations of the third law of thermodynamics and their implications, including the impossibility of perpetual motion of the third kind. The last sections of this work review more advanced applications of the third law to systems with negative temperatures and negative heat capacities. The relevance of the third law to protecting the arrow of time in general relativity is also discussed. Additional information, which may useful in analysis of the third law, is given in the Appendices. This short review is written to assist lecturers in selecting a strategy for teaching the third law of thermodynamics to engineering and science students. The paper provides a good summary of the various issues associated with the third law, which are typically scattered over numerous research publications and not discussed in standard textbooks.

  1. Drought, Sustainability, and the Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Adler

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and responsible officials have made considerable progress in recent years in efforts to anticipate, plan for, and respond to drought. Some of those efforts are beginning to shift from purely reactive, relief-oriented measures to programs designed to prevent or to mitigate drought impacts. Considerably less attention has been given to laws that may affect practices and policies that either increase or decrease drought vulnerability. Water law regimes, drought response and relief legislation, and laws governing broader but related issues of economic policy—especially agricultural policy—should be evaluated more comprehensively to enhance incentives for more ―water sustainable‖ practices in agriculture and other sectors of the economy. Those changes will be increasingly important if current climate change models are correct in their prediction that many parts of the world can expect more frequent and more severe conditions of meteorological drought in the ensuing decades.

  2. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  3. Variability and Trends in the Global Water Cycle Based on Multi-Decadal Earth Science Data Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, E. F.; Coccia, G.; Pan, M.; Sheffield, J.

    2014-12-01

    Documentation of the global water cycle and its evolution over time has been a primary scientific goal of the Global Energy and Water Exchanges Project, and is fundamental to providing a benchmark for the present climate, to document inter-annual variability and global change impacts, and to validate models. In developed countries, observation systems that include in-situ, remote sensing and modeled data can provide long-term, consistent and generally high quality datasets of water cycle variables. In less developed, data sparse regions, in situ data alone are insufficient to develop a comprehensive picture of how the water cycle is changing, and strategies that merge in-situ, model and satellite observations within a framework that results in consistent water cycle records is essential. This presentation will utilize newly developed, multi-decadal water and energy cycles data sets to analyze and advance our understanding of the role of the terrestrial hydrosphere in Earth's climate system. The data sets include a 60-year global water cycle dataset developed through a NASA-sponsored multi-institutional effort under the NASA MEaSUREs program, multi-model terrestrial evapotranspiration data sets coordinated under the GEWEX Data and Assessments Panel (GDAP) as part of the LandFlux initiative, and ocean evaporation under SeaFlux. The foundations of the datasets are a variety of independent large-scale datasets of the hydrologic variables that are used to bridge the gap between sparse in-situ observations, including remote-sensing based retrievals, observation-forced hydrologic modeling, and weather model reanalyses. Analyses are carried out across a range of temporal and spatial scales from monthly to annual and decadal, and from ~250 river basins to continental and global scales, and will address long-standing GEWEX science questions that include (i) quantifying the nature and extent of changes (trends and variability) to the terrestrial hydrosphere over the last 60

  4. Science-society collaboration for robust adaptation planning in water management - The Maipo River Basin in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo Melgar, Anahí; Vicuña, Sebastián; Gironás, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    The Metropolitan Region (M.R.) in Chile is populated by over 6 million people and supplied by the Maipo River and its large number of irrigation channels. Potential environmental alterations caused by global change will extremely affect managers and users of water resources in this semi-arid basin. These hydro-climatological impacts combined with demographic and economic changes will be particularly complex in the city of Santiago, due to the diverse, counterpoised and equally important existing activities and demands. These challenges and complexities request the implementation of flexible plans and actions to adapt policies, institutions, infrastructure and behaviors to a new future with climate change. Due to the inherent uncertainties in the future, a recent research project entitled MAPA (Maipo Adaptation Plan for its initials in Spanish) has formed a collaborative science-society platform to generate insights into the vulnerabilities, challenges and possible mitigation measures that would be necessary to deal with the potential changes in the M.R. This large stakeholder platform conformed by around 30 public, private and civil society organizations, both at the local and regional level and guided by a Robust Decision Making Framework (RDMF) has identified vulnerabilities, future scenarios, performance indicators and mitigation measures for the Maipo River basin. The RDMF used in this project is the XLRM framework (Lempert et al. 2006) that incorporates policy levers (L), exogenous uncertainties (X), measures of performance standards (M) and relationships (R) in an interlinked process. Both stakeholders' expertise and computational capabilities have been used to create hydrological models for the urban, rural and highland sectors supported also by the Water Evaluation and Planning system software (WEAP). The identification of uncertainties and land use transition trends was used to develop future development scenarios to explore possible water management

  5. 科技保险市场信息不对称的经济法矫正※%On Rectification of Information Asymmetry of Science and Technology Insurance Market by Economic Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学忠

    2016-01-01

    Due to the uncertainty of the risk of science and technology, information asymmetry in science and technology insurance market is more complex than any other market. So it demands government, market and the society to work together to rectify the asymmetry. From the perspective of Economic law, the roles that government, market and the society play should be clarified following the principles of modest intervention, moderate intervention and justice intervention. On this basis, some specific systems are to be improved concerning such aspects: market access, industry intermediary organization development, government finance and tax incentives and public information service so as to rectify the information asymmetry.%由于科技风险的不确定性,科技保险市场中的信息不对称比其它市场更为复杂。信息不对称的复杂性决定需要政府、市场和社会在其中共同发挥矫正作用。经济法的完善思路是按照谦抑干预、适度干预和公正干预原则厘清政府与市场、社会的关系,并据此从市场准入、行业中介组织培育、政府财税激励和公共信息服务等方面完善具体制度,以达到矫正信息不对称的目的。

  6. Tenancy Law Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml......Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml...

  7. Democratic contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will be that also for contract law a democratic basis is a necessary condition for legitimacy. A fully democratic basis may also be a sufficient condition for a legitimate and just contract law. However,...

  8. Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness - A long history of management guided by science

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Cole

    2016-01-01

    The Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in northern Minnesota is one of the most iconic and cherished wilderness areas in the United States. One of the original wilderness areas established in 1964, the BWCAW protects a glaciated landscape of about 1,175 lakes, connected by several hundred miles of streams. Located adjacent to Canada's Quetico Provincial...

  9. State-of-Science Approaches to Determine Sensitive Taxa for Water Quality Criteria Derivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) guidelines specify pre-defined taxa diversity requirements, which has limited chemical-specific criteria development in the U.S. to less than 100 chemicals. A priori knowledge of sensitive taxa to toxicologically similar groups of che...

  10. Emerging tools for continuous nutrient monitoring networks: Sensors advancing science and water resources protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, Brian; Stauffer, Beth A; Young, Dwane A; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Bricker, Suzanne B.; Walbridge, Mark R; Clyde, Gerard A; Shaw, Denice M

    2016-01-01

    Sensors and enabling technologies are becoming increasingly important tools for water quality monitoring and associated water resource management decisions. In particular, nutrient sensors are of interest because of the well-known adverse effects of nutrient enrichment on coastal hypoxia, harmful algal blooms, and impacts to human health. Accurate and timely information on nutrient concentrations and loads is integral to strategies designed to minimize risk to humans and manage the underlying drivers of water quality impairment. Using nitrate sensors as an example, we highlight the types of applications in freshwater and coastal environments that are likely to benefit from continuous, real-time nutrient data. The concurrent emergence of new tools to integrate, manage and share large data sets is critical to the successful use of nutrient sensors and has made it possible for the field of continuous nutrient monitoring to rapidly move forward. We highlight several near-term opportunities for Federal agencies, as well as the broader scientific and management community, that will help accelerate sensor development, build and leverage sites within a national network, and develop open data standards and data management protocols that are key to realizing the benefits of a large-scale, integrated monitoring network. Investing in these opportunities will provide new information to guide management and policies designed to protect and restore our nation’s water resources.

  11. New Water Management Institutions in Mexico’s ‘New Culture of Water’: Emerging Opportunities and Challenges for Effective Use of Climate Knowledge and Climate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, M.; Varady, R. G.; Pineda Pablos, N.; Browning-Aiken, A.; Diaz Caravantes, R.; Garfin, G.

    2007-05-01

    Since 1992, Mexico has developed a new set of water management institutions to usher in a ‘new culture of water’ that focuses on decentralized governance and formalized participation of local water users. Reforms to the national water legislation in April 2004 regionalized the governance of water and highlighted the importance of river basin councils as a mechanism for integrated management of major watersheds across Mexico. As a result of the dramatic national water policy reforms, water service delivery in Mexico has been decentralized to the state and municipal level, resulting in a critical new role for municipal governments charged with this important function. A network of river basin councils accompanied and sub-basin councils has been developed to undertake watershed planning. Decentralization and local participation policies embody numerous significant goals and promises, including greater efficiency, more financial accountability, fostering the beginnings of a sense of local stewardship of precious resources, and enhanced environmental sustainability. This paper examines the implications of municipalized water services and emerging river basin councils for utilization of climate knowledge and climate science. We analyze whether these changes open new windows of opportunity for meaningful use of climate science (e.g., forecasts; models). How effectively are municipal water managers and river basin councils utilizing climate knowledge and climate science, and for what purposes? Are there ways to improve the fit between the needs of water managers and river basin councils and the science that is currently available? What is the role of local participation in water policy making in urban settings and river basin councils? The study found overall that the promises and potential for effective utilization of climate science/knowledge to enhance sustainability exists, but is not yet being adequately realized. Binational efforts to develop climate science and

  12. Henry’s Law Constant and Overall Mass Transfer Coefficient for Formaldehyde Emission from Small Water Pools under Simulated Indoor Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Henry’s law constant (HLC) and the overall mass transfer coefficient are both important parameters for modeling formaldehyde emissions from aqueous solutions. In this work, the apparent HLCs for aqueous formaldehyde solutions were determined in the concentration range from 0....

  13. Henry’s Law Constant and Overall Mass Transfer Coefficient for Formaldehyde Emission from Small Water Pools under Simulated Indoor Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Henry’s law constant (HLC) and the overall mass transfer coefficient are both important parameters for modeling formaldehyde emissions from aqueous solutions. In this work, the apparent HLCs for aqueous formaldehyde solutions were determined in the concentration range from 0....

  14. Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Page Brochures & Fact Sheets Environmental Health Topics Science Education Kids Environment | Kids Health Research Home Page At NIEHS ... Agents Water Pollution Environmental Science Basics Population Research Science Education Kids Environment | Kids Health Research Home Research At NIEHS ...

  15. 初探科學在環境法發展上所扮演的角色―以美國法為例 The Development of the Role of Science in Environmental Protection Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    宮文祥 Wen-Hsiang Kung

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 科學在環境規範上扮演極為重要的功能;但對於科學的使用,礙於科學本身的特性(不確定性、變異性、資訊缺口),使得程序上對於運用科學作為決策基礎的規範也往往呈現不足、甚至不當的情形,如此提供行政機關、甚至是利益團體有機會得以介入、並操控規範制定的程序以及規範制定的結果。這也是美國當前環境法上在面對科學及其使用,亟待解決的爭議。固然人們質疑美國環保法律充斥著利益權衡的色彩,但是相關法制在因應這些現代環境保護的問題上,確實也提供值得我們參考的研究課題。本文對美國法 制的初步探討,希望能提供國人在問題討論上的一點助益。 Science has an important role in enacting, implementing, and enforcing environmental law. Science can be used to restore the public confidence in the agency and provide good rational for its decisions. However, environmental issues are interdisciplinary in character and raise a variety of legal, social, economic, and ethical questions. These conflicts are not easy to be resolved only by science. In the 1960s, Rachel Carson had questioned the government’s manipulation of science to support the toxicological safety of pesticides, which therefore launched the beginning of the environmental movement in U.S. Even today, the continuing debate on regulatory reform has not yet reached consensus on how governmental institutions and procedures should be structured to make decisions better and more broadly acceptable for environmental protection. When science has been playing more important and complicated role in decision-making, what should we do to right the wrongs of the pasts and better environmental protection for our future? In this paper, I would like to discuss the role science plays in environmental protection and propose suggestions for its future development. As I believe, this study

  16. Challenge: Code of environmental law; Herausforderung Umweltgesetzbuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    Within the meeting ''Challenge: Code of environmental law'' at 16th February, 2007, in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany) and organized by the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) the new code of environmental law as a contribution to more modernness and efficiency in the environmental politics (Sigmar Gabriel); (b) The code of environmental law from the view of the economy (Martin Wansleben); (c) Significance of the code of environmental law from the view of jurisprudence (Michael Kloepfer); (d) Targets, content and utility of the code of environmental law: Summary of the panel discussion (Tanja Goenner, Klaus Mittelbach, Juergen Resch, Hans-Joachim Koch, Alfred Wirtz, Andreas Troge (moderator)); (e) Considerations to the coding of water law in the code of environmental law (Helge Wendenburg); (f) Considerations to the coding of water law: Summary of te discussion; (g) Considerations to the coding of nature conservation law (Jochen Flasbarth); (h) Considerations to the coding of nature conservation law: Summary of the discussion.

  17. Energy - Water Nexus -- Meeting the Energy and Water Needs of the Snake/Columbia River Basin in the 21st CenturyScience and Technology SummitConference Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul L. Wichlacz; Gerald Sehlke

    2008-02-01

    In June 2007, representatives from federal, state, and academic institutions met to discuss the role of innovative science, technology, and policy in meeting future energy and water demands in the Snake-Columbia River Basin. Conference members assessed the state-of-the-science, technology, and associated research to develop cost-effective and environmentally sound methodologies and technologies to maximize the production of energy and availability of water and to minimize the consumption of both water and energy in the Snake-Columbia River system. Information on all phases of science and technology development, theoretical analysis, laboratory experiments, pilot tests, and field applications were relevant topics for discussion. An overview of current management needs was presented the first day. On the second day, five focus groups were created: ? Energy Generation and Use ? Water Allocation and Use ? Energy/Water Storage ? Environmental Considerations ? Social, Economic, Political, and Regulatory Considerations. Each group started with a list of status items and trends, and discussed the future challenges and research needed to reach four goals: ? Balance energy production and resource consumption ? Balance water availability and competing needs ? Balance water consumption/energy production and competing needs ? Balance environmental impacts and water use/energy production ? Balance costs and benefits of water use. The resulting initiatives were further broken down into three categories of importance: critical, important, and nice to do but could be delayed. Each initiative was assigned a number of dots to show a more refined ranking. The results of each focus group are given in the pages that follow. These results are intended to help local and regional researchers 1. Develop a technical strategy for developing cost-effective science and technology to predict, measure, monitor, purify, conserve, and store water and to maximize power generation, storage, and

  18. Competitive water polo at this stage the main winning factor and its The law of the%现阶段竞技水球主要制胜因素及其发展规律探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许贵泉; 刘钦龙; 范德举

    2012-01-01

    The literature, expert interviews, mathematical statistics, comparative analysis, field observation and video recording method, and lessons learned, and other methods, the study of competitive water polo at this stage is the main factor in winning that " strong, fast, highprospective, wisdom, change, and spirit, and ruthless "is a key factor in winning competitive water polo; factor in winning competitive water polo and factors on the basis of research on a competitive water polo winning law put forward the winning of the modern competitive water polothe basic law designed to provide a reference to improve the level of competitive water polo.%采用文献资料、专家访谈法、数理统计法、对比分析法、现场观察与录像记录法和经验总结等方法,对现阶段竞技水球主要制胜因素进行了研究,认为"强、快、高、准、智、变、灵、狠"是竞技水球比赛制胜的关键因素;在对竞技水球的制胜因素及各因素间的联系进行研究的基础上,阐述竞技水球制胜规律,提出现代竞技水球的制胜基本规律,旨在为提高竞技水球运动水平提供参考。

  19. Efficacy of Ballast Water Treatment Systems: A Report by the EPA Science Advisory Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    tests. For example, the protist size class (≥ 10 µm to < 50 µm) includes many species ( microalgae , heterotrophic protists, metazoans) that form...Limnology and Oceanography 37:974-988. Burkholder, J.M. 1998. Implications of harmful marine microalgae and heterotrophic dinoflagellates in management of...Efficacy of three commercially available ballast water biocides against vegetative microalgae , dinoflagellate cysts and bacteria. Harmful Algae 6

  20. Three laws of robotics and surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael

    2008-08-01

    In 1939, Isaac Asimov solidified the modern science fiction genre of robotics in his short story "Strange Playfellow" but altered our thinking about robots in Runaround in 1942 by formulating the Three Laws. He took an engineer's perspective on advanced robotic technologies. Surgical robots by definition violate the first law, yet his discussions are poignant for our understanding of future potential of robotic urologic surgery. We sought to better understand Asimov's visions by reading his fiction and autobiography. We then sought to place his perceptions of science fact next to the Three Laws (he later added a fourth law, the zeroth). Asimov's Three Laws are often quoted in medical journals during discussions about robotic surgery. His First Law states: "A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. " This philosophy would directly conflict with the application in surgery. In fact, most of his robotic stories deal with robots that come into conflicts with the laws. Robots in his cleverly orchestrated works evolve unique solutions to complex hierarchical conflicts with these laws. Asimov anticipated the coming maelstrom of intelligent robotic technologies with prescient unease. Despite his scholarly intuitions, he was able to fathom medical/surgical applications in many of his works. These fictional robotic physicians were able to overcome the first law and aid in the care and management of the sick/injured. Isaac Asimov published over 500 books on topics ranging from Shakespeare to science. Despite his widespread influence, he refused to visit the MIT robotics laboratory to see current, state-of-the-art systems. He managed to lay the foundation of modern robotic control systems with a human-oriented safety mechanism in his laws. "If knowledge can create problems, it is not through ignorance that we can solve them " (I Asimov).

  1. But What Do the Data Say? Lessons in Integrating Science and Policy to Inform International and Domestic Water Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, K.

    2015-12-01

    As scientists we are often encouraged to describe our research in terms of its "broader impacts" - to link our results to a tangible action or change outside of our scientific discipline. Although writing these goals in a proposal is simple, actually executing the proposed "broader impacts" is often more complicated. This presentation will briefly describe several international and domestic experiences that sought to utilize scientific research to inform pressing policy decisions related to water management. The lessons draw from ongoing efforts to improve transboundary groundwater collaboration in the Middle East, mitigate the impact of glacial lake outburst floods in high mountain regions, and prompt a political response to the California drought and groundwater depletion. As current initiatives at the science-policy interface, key challenges and ideas for improvement will be discussed, particularly: effective, concise communication of scientific data, awareness of broader political/economic contexts, and long-term trust building with decision-makers. Finally, this presentation will highlight several opportunities and suggestions to promote graduate students' involvement in these activities and to build skills at the science-policy interface.

  2. Law, order and plunder at sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heebøll-Holm, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses the management of maritime plunder and conflict in the waters of England and France in the fourteenth century. It argues that during this century a fundamental change occurred. Around 1300, maritime conflict was handled by recourse to the strictly civil law merchant and law...... for the criminalisation of private maritime conflict....

  3. Continuous Water Quality Monitoring in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta to support Ecosystem Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, B. D.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Pellerin, B. A.; Saraceno, J.; Sauer, M.; Kraus, T. E.; Burau, J. R.; Fujii, R.

    2013-12-01

    Characterizing habitat quality and nutrient availability to food webs is an essential step for understanding and predicting the success of pelagic organisms in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Delta). The difficulty is that water quality and nutrient supply changes continuously as tidal and wind-driven currents move new water parcels to and from comparatively static geomorphic settings. Understanding interactions between nutrient cycling, suspended sediment, and plankton dynamics with flow and tidal range relative to position in the estuary is critical to predicting and managing bottom up effects on aquatic habitat in the Delta. Historically, quantifying concentrations and loads in the Delta has relied on water quality data collected at monthly intervals. Current in situ optical sensors for nutrients, dissolved organic matter (DOM) and algal pigments (chlorophyll-A, phycocyanin) allow for real-time, high-frequency measurements on time scales of seconds, and extending up to years. Such data is essential for characterizing changes in water quality over short and long term temporal scales as well as over broader spatial scales. High frequency water quality data have been collected at key stations in the Delta since 2012. Sensors that continuously measure nitrate, DOM, algal pigments and turbidity have been co-located at pre-existing Delta flow monitoring stations. Data from the stations are telemetered to USGS data servers and are designed to run autonomously with a monthly service interval, where sensors are cleaned and checked against calibration standards. The autonomous system is verified against discrete samples taken monthly and intensively over periodic ebb to flood tidal cycles. Here we present examples of how coupled optical and acoustic data from the sensor network to improve our understanding of nutrient and DOM dynamics and fluxes. The data offer robust quantitative estimates of concentrations and constituent fluxes needed to investigate biogeochemical

  4. STUDENT'S SCIENCE MISCONCEPTIONS CONCERNING THE STATE CHANGES OF WATER AND THEIR REMEDIATION USING THREE DIFFERENT LEARNING MODELS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taufiq

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Secara umum, kesalahpahaman yang dialami oleh mahasiswa dapat menyebabkan kesulitan dalam penelitian, sementara anakanakmemiliki kesadaran mereka sendiri. Tingkat kesalahpahaman yang dialami oleh siswa juga tidak sama, dalam kasus inisesuatu mengalami kesalahpahaman pengalaman tingkat tinggi, menengah, dan rendah. Untuk alasan itu, siswa memerlukanmodel pembelajaran yang tepat untuk masing-masing tingkat kesalahpahaman yang dialami untuk membuat studi menjadibermakna. Dalam makalah ini, peneliti mengeksplorasi informasi tentang; (1 tingkat kesalahpahaman ilmu siswa tentangperubahan wujud dari air, dan (2 model pembelajaran yang paling efektif untuk mengatasi kesalahpahaman siswa mengenaiperubahan wujud air. Model pembelajaran tiga dalam penelitian ini adalah: siklus belajar, penyelidikan dipandu, dan model konseppemetaan. Metode yang diterapkan dalam penelitian ini adalah wawancara klinis dan pretest-posttest. Informasi yangdikumpulkan dianalisis secara kuantitatif dengan percobaan uji ANOVA dan keuntungan rata-rata normal dihitung untuk setiapkelompok percobaan. In general, misconceptions experienced by student could cause difficulties in study, meanwhile children have their own sense.Level of misconceptions experienced by student also unequal, in this case something experiences high level misconceptions,medium, and low. For that reason, student requires correct learning model for each level of misconception experienced to make thestudy become meaningful. In this paper, the researcher explored information about; (1 the level of science misconceptions of thestudent concerning the state changes of water, and (2 the most effective learning model to remedy student's misconceptionsconcerning the state changes of water. The three learning models in this research are: learning cycle, guided inquiry, and conceptmapping model. The method applied in this research is the clinical interview and pretest-posttest. The information collected wasanalyzed in

  5. STUDENT'S SCIENCE MISCONCEPTIONS CONCERNING THE STATE CHANGES OF WATER AND THEIR REMEDIATION USING THREE DIFFERENT LEARNING MODELS IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taufiq

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Secara umum, kesalahpahaman yang dialami oleh mahasiswa dapat menyebabkan kesulitan dalam penelitian, sementara anakanakmemiliki kesadaran mereka sendiri. Tingkat kesalahpahaman yang dialami oleh siswa juga tidak sama, dalam kasus inisesuatu mengalami kesalahpahaman pengalaman tingkat tinggi, menengah, dan rendah. Untuk alasan itu, siswa memerlukanmodel pembelajaran yang tepat untuk masing-masing tingkat kesalahpahaman yang dialami untuk membuat studi menjadibermakna. Dalam makalah ini, peneliti mengeksplorasi informasi tentang; (1 tingkat kesalahpahaman ilmu siswa tentangperubahan wujud dari air, dan (2 model pembelajaran yang paling efektif untuk mengatasi kesalahpahaman siswa mengenaiperubahan wujud air. Model pembelajaran tiga dalam penelitian ini adalah: siklus belajar, penyelidikan dipandu, dan model konseppemetaan. Metode yang diterapkan dalam penelitian ini adalah wawancara klinis dan pretest-posttest. Informasi yangdikumpulkan dianalisis secara kuantitatif dengan percobaan uji ANOVA dan keuntungan rata-rata normal dihitung untuk setiapkelompok percobaan. In general, misconceptions experienced by student could cause difficulties in study, meanwhile children have their own sense.Level of misconceptions experienced by student also unequal, in this case something experiences high level misconceptions,medium, and low. For that reason, student requires correct learning model for each level of misconception experienced to make thestudy become meaningful. In this paper, the researcher explored information about; (1 the level of science misconceptions of thestudent concerning the state changes of water, and (2 the most effective learning model to remedy student's misconceptionsconcerning the state changes of water. The three learning models in this research are: learning cycle, guided inquiry, and conceptmapping model. The method applied in this research is the clinical interview and pretest-posttest. The information collected wasanalyzed in

  6. Beyond Reductionism Twice: No Laws Entail Biosphere Evolution, Formal Cause Laws Beyond Efficient Cause Laws

    CERN Document Server

    Kauffman, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Newton set the stage for our view of how science should be done. We remain in what I will call the `Newtonian Paradigm' in all of physics, including Newton, Einstein, and Schrodinger. As I will show shortly, Newton invented and bequeathed to us `efficient cause entailing laws' for the entire becoming of the universe. With Laplace this became the foundation of contemporary reductionism in which all that can happen in the world is due to efficient cause entailing laws. More this framework stands as our dominant way to do science. The Newtonian Paradigm has done enormous work in science, and helped lead to the Industrial Revolution, and even our entry into Modernity. In this paper I propose to challenge the adequacy of the Newtonian Paradigm on two ground: 1) For the evolution of the biosphere beyond the watershed of life, we can formulate no efficient cause entailing laws that allow us to deduce the evolution of the biosphere. A fortiori, the same holds for the evolution of the economy, legal systems, social sy...

  7. A Pedagogical Dimension to the Technocratic Problem of Water Management: Preschool Teacher Beliefs and Attitudes Towards Teaching Water Science and Sustainable Management of Water in the Context of Environmental Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bourotzoglou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Future generations are necessary to become conscious of water environmental problems, since preschool age, as they will be forced to manage them in the future. Experiential Environmental Education is a tool for sustainable management of water resources, but the key to this process is teachers and the factors that shape their readiness to fulfill their role. In this research their beliefs and attitudes are being investigated, as they influence the quality of teaching and environmental awareness of children. Specifically, 128 preschool teachers from North Greece were interviewed on how they perceive a their Willingness to improve their skills and knowledge on the scientific subject of water and its sustainable management, b their Comfort in teaching these subjects and c their Familiarity with the content knowledge, pedagogical teaching methods of preschool and environmental education and developmentally appropriate activities for teaching these subjects according to Psychology. In addition, it explores preschool teacher’s beliefs and attitudes d about whether water science and sustainable management of water could keep Child’s Interest and e if it contributes to Child Benefit, raising children’s awareness of environmental issues and developing his/her language, art, math, technological and social skills. Correlation Analysis showed that preschool teacher’s beliefs and attitudes towards teaching the subject of water were positive but under certain preconditions (they do not have the Willingness to spend time creating materials, they do not need more scientific knowledge, they do not consider children’s experimentation as the best way of learning, the ‘creative clutter’ caused by experimentation annoys them, they are not willing to engage in children’s experimentation with water, watching what children do, what they say or ask and they do not consider more activities with water necessary. However, these items of the Scale may

  8. Computer program to plot isotherms in bodies of water. Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 1199

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeAngelis, D.L.

    1978-06-01

    For purposes of graphic display it is convenient to represent temperature versus depth data in bodies of water in the form of isotherms (lines of equal temperature). Because it can be tedious to draw such lines by hand from raw data, a computer code has been devised to plot these lines automatically. The procedure assumes that the temperature can be linearly interpolated between the points at which measurements are taken. Details of the code are explained by means of examples. With minor changes, the program can be used to plot isoclines of other environmental parameters.

  9. Computer program to plot isotherms in bodies of water. Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 1199

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeAngelis, D.L.

    1978-06-01

    For purposes of graphic display it is convenient to represent temperature versus depth data in bodies of water in the form of isotherms (lines of equal temperature). Because it can be tedious to draw such lines by hand from raw data, a computer code has been devised to plot these lines automatically. The procedure assumes that the temperature can be linearly interpolated between the points at which measurements are taken. Details of the code are explained by means of examples. With minor changes, the program can be used to plot isoclines of other environmental parameters.

  10. Fish parasites as bioindicators of water pollution. Canadian translation of fisheries and aquatic sciences No. 5598

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuperman, B.I.

    1993-01-01

    This paper evaluates the use of monogenetic flukes of the species Diplozoon paradoxum and cestodes of the species Caryophyllaeus laticeps (parasites of bream) as bioindicators of water pollution resulting from human activity since they are highly resistant to toxins and increase significantly in number in a polluted zone. The data presented was obtained during a study on the effect of the effluent of the coal-tar chemical industry on the fish parasites in the Sheksna pool of the Rybinsk Reservoir after the breakdown of purification installations at the Cherepovets metallurgical combine in 1987.

  11. Contracting As A Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    and even demands the development of operational definitions for terms ( Dubin , 1978). Contracting faces the same definitional problems that plague...Paradigms The underpinning of science is theory ( Dubin , 1978). Theories provide a logical ordering of observations used for simplifying decision... Dubin , 1978). Scientific laws should meet the following criteria: (1) generalized conditionals—if/then relationship; (2) empirical content—laws must

  12. On Boolean Stable Laws

    CERN Document Server

    Arizmendi, Octavio

    2012-01-01

    We determine which Boolean stable law is freely infinitely divisible and which is not. Some positive Boolean stable laws and a mixture of them have completely monotonic densities and they are both freely and classically infinitely divisible. Freely infinitely divisible Boolean stable laws and the corresponding free stable laws are non trivial examples whose free divisibility indicators are infinity.

  13. Tax Law System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  14. Democratic contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will

  15. Operational Law Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Law* implications. R-5 3. Wills for both spouses. 4. Powers of Attorney. 5. Consumer law issues. B. 1ypically readiness exercises and rapid...Soldiers’ & Sailors’ Civil Relief Act JA 261 Real Property Guide JA 262 Wills Guide JA 263 Family Law Guide JA 265 Consumer Law Guide JA 267 Legal

  16. Taking the (southern) waters: science, slavery, and nationalism at the Virginia springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFauci, Lauren E

    2011-04-01

    'Taking the (southern) waters' argues that, in the pre-Civil War period, the space of Virginia's mineral water resorts and the philosophy of southern hydropathic medicine enabled--indeed, fostered--white southerners' constructions of a 'nationalist,' pro-slavery ideology. In the first half of the paper, the author explains how white southern health-seekers came to view the springs region as a medicinal resource peculiarly designed for the healing of southern diseases and for the restoration of white southern constitutions; in the second half, she shows how physical and social aspects of the resorts, such as architectural choices and political events, supported and encouraged pro-slavery ideologies. Taken together, these medical-social analyses reveal how elite white southerners in the antebellum period came to associate the health of their peculiarly 'southern' bodies with the future health of an independent southern nation, one that elided black bodily presence at the same time that its social structures and scientific apparatuses relied upon enslaved black labor.

  17. Principles of private law

    OpenAIRE

    Andraško, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Principles of private law The reason of choosing "Principles of private law" for my thesis is that private law is built on untouchable values. For example, basic values like freedom and equality, which are represented by these principles. Many of them are indispensable in the relation of functionality of the whole system of law. Most of them have Roman law origin. The purpose of my thesis is to describe and summarize the main principles of private law that mostly appear in Czech law, especial...

  18. Enhancing Drought Early Warning System for Sustainable Water Resources and Agricultural Management through Apllication of Space Science - Nigeria in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpara, J. N.; Akeh, L. E.; Anuforom, A. C.; Aribo, P. B.; Olayanju, S. O.

    Enhancing Drought Early Warning System for Sustainable Water Resources and Agriculture Management through Application of Space Science - Nigeria in Perspective BY J N Okpara L E Akeh Anuforom P B Aribo and S O Olayanju Directorate of Applied Meteorological Services Nigerian Meteorological Agency NIMET P M B 615 Garki Abuja Nigeria e-mail underline Juddy Okpara yahoo co uk and underline tonycanuforom yahoo com underline Abstract This paper attempts to highlight the importance of drought early warning system in water resources and agricultural management in Nigeria Various studies have shown that the negative impacts of droughts and other forms of extreme weather phenomena can be substantially reduced by providing early warning on any impending weather extremes X-rayed in this study are the various techniques presently used by the Nigerian Meteorological Agency NIMET in generating information for meteorological Early Warning System EWS which are based on models that make use of ground-based raingauge data and sea surface temperatures SST Komuscu standardized precipitation index SPI inclusive These methods are often limited by such factors as network density of stations limited communication infrastructure human inefficiency etc NIMET is therefore embarking on the development of a new Satellite Agrometeorological Information System SAMIS-Nigeria for famine and drought early warning The system combines satellite data with raingauge data to give a range of

  19. Law across nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of participants keen to work together to promote research and policy development in such a lively forum." - Professor Steve Saxby PhD, Cert Ed., MBCS Professor of IT Law and Public Policy, Solicitor, Deputy Head of School (Research), Faculty of Business and Law, University of Southampton, Editor...... not only the original themes of Legal, Security and Privacy Issues in IT Law and International Law and Trade but more recently two new conferences on International Public and Private Law. The papers in this volume then represent the contributions to all these fields and reflect the strong desire......-in-Chief, The Computer Law & Security Review - The International Journal of Technology Law and Practice (Elsevier), www.elsevier.com/locate/clsr, Editor, The Encyclopedia of Information Technology Law (Sweet & Maxwell), Director ILAWS - Institute for Law and the Web - School of Law, Southampton University, www...

  20. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  1. The Power of Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s draft Energy Law is now under consideration China’s draft Energy Law has been submitted to the State Council’s Legislative Affairs Office and will be considered at this year’s executive meeting, said a key member of the expert panel drafting the law. If the law makes it through the council, the National People’s Congress (NPC), China’s supreme law-making body, will vote on it.

  2. Law System in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea Lorena Ponaru

    2007-01-01

    This article attempts to present and explain the main features of the japanese law system. Japanese Law system was reformed during the domination of Tokugawa shogun family. In 1870, Foreign Governmental Systems Study Office was founded. By judicial sentences many french laws were introduced in Japanese law system. Roma-Tokyo-Berlin Alliance (1936) introduced a strong German influence in the law system. The Japanese judicial system has known five periods. In the first (1869-1888) were introduc...

  3. Fractal harmonic law and waterproof/dustproof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Hai-Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractal harmonic law admits that the friction between the pure water and the moving surface is the minimum when fractal dimensions of water in Angstrom scale are equal to fractal dimensions of the moving surface in micro scale. In the paper, the fractal harmonic law is applied to demonstrate the mechanism of waterproof/ dustproof. The waterproof phenomenon of goose feathers and lotus leaves is illustrated to verify our results and experimental results agree well with our theoretical analysis.

  4. Socio-Hydrologic Modeling: Characterizing the Dynamics of Coupled Human-Water Systems Using Natural Science Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapalan, M.; Elshafei, Y.; Srinivasan, V.

    2014-12-01

    A challenging research puzzle in the research on sustainable water management in the Anthropocene is why some societies successfully recover from "ecological destruction" to transition to "successful adaptation" over decadal timescales, while others fail. We present a conceptual modeling framework to understand and characterize these transitions. In this way, we aim to capture the potential drivers of the desired shift towards achieving sustainability of socio-hydrological systems. This is done through a synthesis of detailed socio-hydrological analyses of four river basins in three continents, carried out using different quantitative socio-hydrologic models: Murrumbidgee River Basin in eastern Australia, Lake Toolibin Catchment in Western Australia, Tarim River Basin in Western China and Kissimmee River Basin, in south-east United States. The case studies are analysed using either place-based models designed specifically to mimic observed long-term socio-hydrologic trends, or generic conceptual models with foundations in diverse strands of literature including sustainability science and resilience theory. A comparative analysis of the four case studies reveals a commonality in the building blocks employed to model these socio-hydrologic systems; including water balance, economic, environmental and human-feedback components. Each model reveals varying interpretations of a common organising principle that could explain the shift between productive (socio-economic) and restorative (environmental) forces that was evident in each of these systems observed over a long time frame. The emergent principle is related to the essential drivers of the human feedback component and rests with a general formulation of human well-being, as reflected by both their economic and environmental well-being. It is envisaged that the understanding of the system drivers gained from such a comparative study would enable more targeted water management strategies that can be administered in

  5. International Private Law and Communitarian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Posso Serrano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Private international law is justified at a time when the legal systems of nation states seeking a way to extend their areas and competencies. This desire led to the conflict between national laws, which grew smaller as did the novel concept of "international community", but did not suppress national relativism. A new law began to settle, then, with the progress of the integration process. Community laws have mechanisms to be applied, even when states would try to ignore them or to fulfill a relative way.

  6. 论专利法视域下专利引文的情报学意义%Study on the Signiifcance of the Patent Citation for Information Science on the View of Patent Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李睿; 张谙宁

    2016-01-01

    Patent is not only a scientific and technical literature but also a legal document. An objective study of patent laws in the specific provisions of the patent cited behavior around the world is a foundation and premise for correct understanding of the patent citing behavior and the significance of patent citation in information science. This article translated and interpreted the provisions of the US Patent Statute, the European Patent Statute, the Japanese Patent Statute and the Chinese Patent Statute on the patent citing behavior. The legal function of the patent citation was clearly explained in the patent law field for the first time. In view of the current evaluation system of patent citation information are usually based on the "citation", this paper proposed that based on the relevant provisions of the patent citation behavior from the patent laws, the value of the patent shall be closely related to the "application" of the patent. The results also suggested that the research in citation behavior of patents and the corresponding frequency of citation should be of great informational significance in the analysis and prediction of the value of patents.%专利不仅是科技文献,更是法律文件,客观研读世界各国专利法对专利引用行为的具体规定,是正确认识专利引用行为及其产出的专利引文的情报学意义的基础和前提。本文翻译并解读了美国专利法规、欧洲专利法规、日本专利法规和中国专利法规有关专利引用行为的条款,首次在专利法视域下清晰地阐述了专利引文的法定功能。鉴于目前情报学界的专利引文评价指标体系通常以计量“被引”为主,本文大胆地提出:基于专利法对专利引用行为的相关规定,专利的价值应当与专利的“施引”密切相关性,研究专利的引用行为及相应的施引频次,应当在分析和预见专利价值方面具有重要的情报学意义。

  7. Some of Indonesian Cyber Law Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machmuddin, D. D.; Pratama, B.

    2017-01-01

    Cyber regulation is very important to control human interaction within the Internet network in cyber space. On the surface, innovation development in science and technology facilitates human activity. But on the inside, innovation was controlled by new business model. In cyber business activities mingle with individual protection. By this condition, the law should keep the balance of the activities. Cyber law problems, were not particular country concern, but its global concern. This is a good opportunity for developing country to catch up with developed country. Beside this opportunity for talented people in law and technology is become necessity. This paper tries to describe cyber law in Indonesia. As a product of a developing country there are some of weakness that can be explained. Terminology and territory of cyber space is become interesting to discuss, because this two problems can give a broad view on cyber law in Indonesia.

  8. Agriculture and water quality, developments and challenges in science, management and policy in 2013-2017: Examples from a few countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper gives an overview of some of the major developments in science, management and policy since the first Land Use and Water Quality conference in The Hague in 2013 (LuWQ2013) using data from this first conference, from the second conference in Vienna 2015 (LuWQ2015) and from the upcoming con...

  9. Lessons learnt on implementing an interdisciplinary doctoral programme in water sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Gemma; Loucks, Daniel Pete; Blaschke, Alfred Paul; Bucher, Christian; Farnleitner, Andreas; Fürnkranz-Prskawetz, Alexia; Parajka, Juraj; Pfeifer, Norbert; Rechberger, Helmut; Wagner, Wolfgang; Zessner, Matthias; Blöschl, Günter

    2015-04-01

    Using the Vienna Doctoral Programme on Water Resource Systems as a case study, this work describes how the characteristics of the programme can be evaluated to identify which process features are important for developing interdisciplinary research at the doctoral level. The Programme has been running since 2009, and to date has engaged 35 research students, three post-docs and ten faculty members from ten research fields (aquatic microbiology, hydrology, hydro-climatology, hydro-geology, mathematical economics, photogrammetry, remote sensing, resource management, structural mechanics, and water quality). Collaborative, multi-disciplinary research is encouraged and supported through various mechanisms - shared offices, study programme, research cluster groups that hold regular meetings, joint study sites, annual and six-month symposia that bring all members of the programme together, seminar series, joint supervision, and social events. Interviews were conducted with 12 students and recent graduates to explore individual experiences of doing interdisciplinary research within the Programme, and to identify which mechanisms are perceived to be of the greatest benefit for collaborative work. Analysis revealed four important process features. Firstly, students noted that joint supervision and supervisors who are motivated to collaborate are essential for multi-disciplinary collaborative work. Secondly, interviewees described that they work with the people they sit close to or see most regularly. Physical places for collaboration between different discipline researchers such as shared offices and shared study sites are therefore important. Thirdly, the costs and benefits to doing interdisciplinary work were highlighted. Students make a trade-off when deciding if their time investment to develop their understanding of a new research field will support them in addressing their research question. The personal characteristics of the researcher seem to be particularly

  10. Selection of paddle length in flat -water kayak: Art or science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VASILIKI DIAMANTI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of personalizing the paddle length for flat - water kayakers based on their anthropometric characteristics. The sample consisted of 55 male (age 20.05 ± 4.67 yrs, height 176.2 ± 4.46 cm and weight 75.8 ± 7.89 Kg and 26 female highly trained kayak athletes (age 19.07 ± 3.64 yrs, height 165.5 ± 5.73 cm, weight 60.4 ± 7.65 kg. Anthropometric measurements were taken from all participants. Paddle length (horizontal distance between blade tips, blade length orizontal distance between the blade tip and that point on the shaft where the structure begins to flare outwards to form the blade, blade width (maximum width of the blade and paddle weight of each athlete were measured. In order to accomplish the aim of the study a factor analysis (varimax and multiple regression analysis was conducted. The results suggest that for the selection of correct paddle length for male kayakers the body morphology and body lengths are the factors they should take on account.

  11. Economics, political science, and law. Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Lasswel (harald); O. Schachter (Oscar); J. Tinbergen (Jan)

    1971-01-01

    textabstractLASSWELLT:h e first of our discussants is of the discipline that the rest of the social scientists examine with mixed feelings of respect and envy, namely, economics. Prof. Jan Tinbergen. TINBERGEIN p: ropose not only to give a very brief summary of my paper but to add a few remarks that

  12. Size-frequency and rank-frequency relations,power laws and exponentials: a unified approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Power laws, such as Zipf's law, and exponential relations, leading to straight lines in logarithmic or semi-logarithmic scales, are presented in a unified setting. It is shown that the class of size-frequency power laws is larger than the class of rank-frequency power laws. Their ubiquity in all fields of science is illustrated.

  13. Environmental law. 2. rev. and enl. ed.; Umweltrecht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, H.J. (ed.) [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Forschungsstelle Umweltrecht

    2007-07-01

    The text book under consideration already is addressed to lawyers and students of jurisprudence. It enables an introduction into the general environmental law and consists of sixteen autonomous chapters: (a) International law in the field of ecology (Matthias Buck, Roda Verheyen); (b) European and national environmental constitutional law (Johannes Caspar); (c) General environmental administrative law (Ulrich Ramsauer); (d) Pollution abatement law (Hans-Joachim Koch); (e) Water protection law (Silke Laskowski, Cornelia Ziehm); (f) Recycling economy law and waste management law (Martin Dieckmann, Moritz Reese); (g) Nature conservation law (Christian Maass, Peter Schuette); (h) Soil conservation law and contaminated sites law (Nikolaus Herrmann); (i) Energy legal regulations as an instrument of environmental protection (Wolfgang Ewer); (j) Atomic energy law (Klaus Jankowski); (k) Genetic engineering law (Ursula Prall); (l) Law of hazardous materials (Eckhard Pache); (m) Environmental law in planning law (Nikolaus Hermann); (n) Environment and traffic (Philipp Hermann, Ekkehard Hofmann); (o) Agriculture and ecology (Ulf-Henning Moeker); (p) Liberal trade and environmental protection (Matthias Buck).

  14. Preface to "Should animal welfare be law or market driven?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Bioethics Symposium, entitled “Should animal welfare be law or market driven?” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association, American Society of Animal Science, Poultry Science Association, Asociación Mexicana de Producción Animal, and Canadian Society of Animal...

  15. STEM Education Act of 2015 (Public Law 114-59)

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Congress, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The STEM Education Act of 2015 (Public Law 114-59) was put in place to define Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education to include computer science, and to support existing STEM education programs at the National Science Foundation. The act is organized into the following sections: (1) Short Title; (2) Definition of STEM…

  16. Creating a testing field where delta technology and water innovations are tested and demonstrated with the help of citizen science methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Sandra; Rutten, Martine; de Vries, Liselotte; Anema, Kim; Klop, Tanja; Kaspersma, Judith

    2017-04-01

    In highly populated deltas, much work is to be done. Complex problems ask for new and knowledge driven solutions. Innovations in delta technology and water can bring relief to managing the water rich urban areas. Testing fields form a fundamental part of the knowledge valorisation for such innovations. In such testing fields, product development by start-ups is coupled with researchers, thus supplying new scientific insights. With the help of tests, demonstrations and large-scale applications by the end-users, these innovations find their way to the daily practices of delta management. More and more cities embrace the concept of Smart Cities to tackle the ongoing complexity of urban problems and to manage the city's assets - such as its water supply networks and other water management infrastructure. Through the use of new technologies and innovative systems, data are collected from and with citizens and devices - then processed and analysed. The information and knowledge gathered are keys to enabling a better quality of life. By testing water innovations together with citizens in order to find solutions for water management problems, not only highly spatial amounts of data are provided by and/or about these innovations, they are also improved and demonstrated to the public. A consortium consisting of a water authority, a science centre, a valorisation program and two universities have joined forces to create a testing field for delta technology and water innovations using citizen science methods. In this testing field, the use of citizen science for water technologies is researched and validated by facilitating pilot projects. In these projects, researchers, start-ups and citizens work together to find the answer to present-day water management problems. The above mentioned testing field tests the use of crowd-sourcing data as for example hydrological model inputs, or to validate remote sensing applications, or improve water management decisions. Currently the

  17. Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in the aquatic environment as found in science park effluent, river water, rainwater, sediments, and biotissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Angela Yu-Chen; Panchangam, Sri Chandana; Tsai, Yu-Ting; Yu, Tsung-Hsien

    2014-05-01

    The current article maps perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) contamination in the largest Science Park of Taiwan. The occurrence of ten target PFAAs in the effluent of an industrial wastewater treatment plant (IWWTP), its receiving rivers, rainwater, sediment, and the muscles and livers of fish was investigated. All target PFAAs were found in effluent of IWWTP, in which perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) (6,930 ng/L), perfluorohexyl sulfonate (PFHxS) (2,662 ng/L) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) (3,298 ng/L) were the major constituents. Concentrations of PFBS and PFOS in the IWWTP downstream areas have exceeded safe concentration levels of avian and aquatic life, indicating a potential risk to wildlife in those areas. In sediment samples, predominant contaminants were PFOS (1.5-78 ng/g), PFOA (0.5-5.6 ng/g), and perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) (nd-5.4 ng/g). In biological tissue samples, concentrations as high as 28,933 ng/g of PFOS were detected in tilapia and catfish liver samples. A positive correlation for log (C sediment/C water) and log (C tissue/C water) was found. The concentration and proportion (percentage of all PFAAs) of PFOS found in biotissue samples from the Keya River (which receives industrial wastewater) were found to be much greater (200 times) than those of samples from the Keelung River (which receives mainly domestic wastewater). These findings suggest that the receiving aquatic environments and, in turn, the human food chain can be significantly influenced by industrial discharges.

  18. Building Collections: Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapp, JoAnn Vergona

    2005-01-01

    Fantasy and science fiction are two genres that are products of imagination. Both present alternate worlds governed by their own laws and values, but it is the plausibility of events in each world that sets the two apart. In fantasy, events happen by magic or inexplicable means. In science fiction, events could happen based on advanced…

  19. A Healthy Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The National People’s Congress(NPC)published China’s new draft Food Safety Law on April 20 for public discussion.The draft law covers food safety evaluation,monitoring, and recall and information release.

  20. Administrative Law Judges

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Administrative Law Judges conduct hearings and render decisions in proceedings between the EPA and persons, businesses, government entities, and other organizations which are or are alleged to be regulated under environmental laws.

  1. Recent Case Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petz, Thomas; Sagaert, Vincent; Østergaard, Kim

    2004-01-01

    In this section authors from various European countries report the recent case law in their country on the field of private patrimonial law, that is decisions on the law of property, juridical acts, the law of obligations, contract law and prescription. The European Review of Private Law (ERPL......) started this section in 2003. The section aims to give our readers an overview of what is happening in the most recent European case law. We have asked the national reporters to report the juridical essence of the decisions given by the highest courts in their country. These national reports...... not relate the facts of the decision, nor the personal opinion of the reporter. One can find discussions on the most important decisions of European courts in ERPL’s case note section. The recent case law section gives overviews of decisions published in periods of four months. The period of January...

  2. Recent Case Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petz, Thomas; Sagaert, Vincent; Østergaard, Kim

    2004-01-01

    In this section authors from various European countries report the recent case law in their country on the field of private patrimonial law, that is decisions on the law of property, juridical acts, the law of obligations, contract law and prescription. The European Review of Private Law (ERPL......) started this section in 2003. The section aims to give our readers an overview of what is happening in the most recent European case law. We have asked the national reporters to report the juridical essence of the decisions given by the highest courts in their country. These national reports...... not relate the facts of the decision, nor the personal opinion of the reporter. One can find discussions on the most important decisions of European courts in ERPL’s case note section. The recent case law section gives overviews of decisions published in periods of four months. The period of January...

  3. By Law Established

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017......An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017...

  4. Human Health and the Biological Effects of Tritium in Drinking Water: Prudent Policy Through Science - Addressing the ODWAC New Recommendation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingwall, S; Mills, C E; Phan, N; Taylor, K; Boreham, D R

    2011-02-22

    tritium exposure at 20 Bq/L would be orders of magnitude less than that from exposure to natural background sources of radiation. The new proposed standard would set the radiation dose limit for drinking water to 0.0003 mSv/year, which is equivalent to approximately three times the dose from naturally occurring tritium in drinking water. This new standard is incongruent with national and international standards for safe levels of radiation exposure, currently set at 1 mSv/year for the general public. Scientific research from leading authorities on the carcinogenic health effects of tritium exposure supports the notion that the current standard of 7,000 Bq/L (annual dose of 0.1 mSv) is a safe standard for human health.Policy-making for the purpose of regulating tritium levels in drinking water is a dynamic multi-stage process that is influenced by more than science alone. Ethics, economics, and public perception also play important roles in policy development; however, these factors sometimes undermine the scientific evidence that should form the basis of informed decision making. Consequently, implementing a new standard without a scientific basis may lead the public to perceive that risks from tritium have been historically underestimated. It was concluded that the new recommendation is not supported by any new scientific insight regarding negative consequences of low dose effects, and may be contrary to new data on the potential benefits of low dose effects. Given the lack of cost versus benefit analysis, this type of dramatic policy change could have detrimental effects to society from an ethical, economical, and public perception perspective.

  5. Linking Environmental Research and Practice: Lessons From The Integration of Climate Science and Water Management in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, D. B.; Rice, J.; Woodhouse, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Efforts to better connect scientific research with people and organizations involved in environmental decision making are receiving increased interest and attention. Some of the challenges we currently face, however—including complex questions associated with climate change—present unique challenges because of their scale and scope. Focused research on the intersections between environment and society has provided substantial insight into dynamics of large-scale environmental change and the related impacts on people, natural resources, and ecosystems, yet our ability to connect this research to real-world decision making remains limited. Addressing these complex environmental problems requires broad cooperation between scientists and those who may apply research results in decision making, but there are few templates for guiding the growing number of scientists and practitioners now engaging in this kind of cooperative work. This presentation will offer a set of heuristics for carrying out collaborative work between scientists and practitioners. These heuristics were derived from research that examined the direct experiences of water resources professionals and climate researchers who have been working to integrate science and practice.

  6. The California Seafloor and Coastal Mapping Program – Providing science and geospatial data for California's State Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine; Dartnell, Peter; Hartwell, Stephen; Cochran, Susan; Watt, Janet

    2017-01-01

    The California Seafloor and Coastal Mapping Program (CSCMP) is a collaborative effort to develop comprehensive bathymetric, geologic, and habitat maps and data for California's State Waters. CSCMP began in 2007 when the California Ocean Protection Council (OPC) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) allocated funding for high-resolution bathymetric mapping, largely to support the California Marine Life Protection Act and to update nautical charts. Collaboration and support from the U.S. Geological Survey and other partners has led to development and dissemination of one of the world's largest seafloor-mapping datasets. CSCMP provides essential science and data for ocean and coastal management, stimulates and enables research, and raises public education and awareness of coastal and ocean issues. Specific applications include:•Delineation and designation of marine protected areas•Characterization and modeling of benthic habitats and ecosystems•Updating nautical charts•Earthquake hazard assessments•Tsunami hazard assessments•Planning offshore infrastructure•Providing baselines for monitoring change•Input to models of sediment transport, coastal erosion, and coastal flooding•Regional sediment management•Understanding coastal aquifers•Providing geospatial data for emergency response

  7. The International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH): reflecting on 60 years of contributions to groundwater science and water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struckmeier, Willi; Howard, Ken; Chilton, John

    2016-08-01

    The 60th anniversary of the founding of the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) is an important milestone that allows pause for reflection on how the association has evolved over the years and the contributions it has made to groundwater science and water management. IAH was founded in 1956 at the 20th International Geological Congress and developed rapidly during the 1980s and 1990s in response to a growing global interest in groundwater mapping and in sound approaches to resource protection and sustainable aquifer management. Incorporated in 2000, IAH has now secured its position as the world's leading international association specialising in groundwater with over 4,100 members in 131 countries. Much credit for this success must go to members, past and present, whose individual efforts and collaboration with sister institutions are documented here. These members have shaped the association's goals and contributed selflessly to its scientific programmes, publications and educational and charitable activities. Looking ahead to the next 60 years, it is essential that IAH does not rest on past achievements but listens and adjusts to the needs of members while continuing to pursue its mission of furthering the understanding, wise use and protection of groundwater resources throughout the world.

  8. Two-Sides of the Same Coin: Communicating Climate Change Science to Water Utilities and Stakeholders in Florida and Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keener, V. W.; Staal, L.

    2011-12-01

    The NOAA-funded Regional Integrated Sciences and Assessment (RISA) programs act as boundary organizations that both conduct and translate academic climate research in the physical and social sciences for a variety of stakeholder applications, including for local and state governments, natural resource managers, non-climate scientists, and community members. For the past six years, I have worked with two RISAs-one in the southeast United States, and recently in the Pacific region. In confronting the most immediate impacts of climate change, Florida and Hawai'i are both currently dealing with saltwater intrusion effects on infrastructure and water supply, sea level rise impacts on vulnerable coastlines, and expect the problems to worsen in the future. Both RISAs have focused on water resource sustainability as a topic of interest, and held workshops on climate variability and change impacts for water utilities and a wider range of relevant stakeholders. Methods that have been used to communicate climate science, projected impacts, and risk have included: working groups/collaborative learning, scientific presentations and presentations of relevant case studies, beach management planning, in-depth interviews, and educational radio spots. Despite the similarities in the types of issues being confronted, stakeholders in each location have responded with differing levels of acceptance, which has resulted in the usage of different methods of communication of the same types of climate science information. This talk will focus on the success of a variety of different methods in communicating similar information on comparable risks to different audiences.

  9. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status.

  10. Biological observer-participation and Wheeler's `law without law'

    CERN Document Server

    Josephson, Brian D

    2011-01-01

    It is argued that at a sufficiently deep level the conventional quantitative approach to the study of nature runs into problems, and that biological processes should be seen as more fundamental, in a way that can be elaborated on the basis of Peircean semiotics. In such a world-view, Wheeler's observer-participation and emergent law arise naturally, rather than having to be imposed artificially. This points the way to a deeper understanding of nature, where meaning has a fundamental role to play that is invisible to quantitative science.

  11. On Teaching Natural Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, David F.

    1978-01-01

    A brief look at Columbia, Harvard, and Notre Dame law schools shows that the American tradition in teaching natural law has not been strong. The value of teaching natural law is discussed, a separate course or seminar is seen as the most effective option, and a selection of available sources for such a course is appended. (JMD)

  12. Contract law as fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Klijnsma

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the implications for contract law of Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. It argues that contract law as an institution is part of the basic structure of society and as such subject to the principles of justice. Discussing the basic structure in relation to contract law is par

  13. European tax law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, B.J.M.; Wattel, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    This book is intended as a reference book for tax law and EC law pratitioners, tax administrators, academics, the judiciary and tax or Community law policy makers. For students, an abridged student edition textbook is available. The book offers a systematic survey of the tax implications of the EC T

  14. The Laws Are Yours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawyers' Wives of Wisconsin, Racine.

    The pamphlet briefly describes various facets of the law and legal system in Wisconsin, and defines many legal terms. The objective is to further public understanding of the law and of the legal profession, particularly in Wisconsin. No attempt is made to answer specific legal questions. Sections cover civil and criminal law; the federal court…

  15. Operational Law Handbook 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-26

    designations (Note: Soldiers may no longer use the “By Law” designation.) 3. Wills for both spouses. 4. Powers of Attorney. 5. Consumer law issues. 6...Guide JA 263 Family Law Guide JA 265 Consumer Law Guide JA 267 Legal Assistance Office Directory JA 271 Legal Assistance Office Administration

  16. Environmental law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    Modern Danish environmental law has a strong international dimension due to membership of EU and participation in global and regional agreements. The concept of transnational law that includes EU environmental law that has vertical as well as horizontal effects across jurisdictions binding national...

  17. Law in Transition Biblioessay: Globalization, Human Rights, Environment, Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Marien

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As globalization continues, many transformations in international and domestic laws areunderway or called for. There are too many laws and too few, too much law that is inadequateor obsolete, and too much law-breaking. This biblioessay covers some 100 recentbooks, nearly all recently published, arranged in four categories. 1 International Lawincludes six overviews/textbooks on comparative law, laws related to warfare and security,pushback against demands of globalization, and gender perspectives; 2 Human Rightsencompasses general overviews and normative visions, several books on how some statesviolate human rights, five items on how good laws can end poverty and promote prosperity,and laws regulating working conditions and health rights; 3 Environment/Resources coversgrowth of international environmental law, visions of law for a better environmental future,laws to govern genetic resources and increasingly stressed water resources, two books onprospects for climate change liability, and items on toxic hazards and problems of compliance;4 Technology, Etc. identifies eight books on global crime and the failed war on drugs,books on the response to terrorism and guarding privacy and mobility in our high-tech age,seven books on how infotech is changing law and legal processes while raising intellectualproperty questions, biomedical technologies and the law, and general views on the need forupdated laws and constitutions. In sum, this essay suggests the need for deeper and timelyanalysis of the many books on changes in law.

  18. Integrating History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences in Practice to Enhance Science Education: Swammerdam's "Historia Insectorum Generalis" and the Case of the Water Flea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendig, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Hasok Chang ("Sci Educ" 20:317-341, 2011) shows how the recovery of past experimental knowledge, the physical replication of historical experiments, and the extension of recovered knowledge can increase scientific understanding. These activities can also play an important role in both science and history and philosophy of science…

  19. Integrating History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences in Practice to Enhance Science Education: Swammerdam's "Historia Insectorum Generalis" and the Case of the Water Flea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendig, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Hasok Chang ("Sci Educ" 20:317-341, 2011) shows how the recovery of past experimental knowledge, the physical replication of historical experiments, and the extension of recovered knowledge can increase scientific understanding. These activities can also play an important role in both science and history and philosophy of science…

  20. Exploring science through science fiction

    CERN Document Server

    Luokkala, Barry B

    2014-01-01

    How does Einstein’s description of space and time compare with Dr. Who? Can James Bond really escape from an armor-plated railroad car by cutting through the floor with a laser concealed in a wristwatch? What would it take to create a fully-intelligent android, such as Star Trek’s Commander Data? How might we discover intelligent civilizations on other planets in the galaxy? Is human teleportation possible? Will our technological society ever reach the point at which it becomes lawful to discriminate on the basis of genetic information, as in the movie GATTACA? Exploring Science Through Science Fiction addresses these and other interesting questions, using science fiction as a springboard for discussing fundamental science concepts and cutting-edge science research. The book is designed as a primary text for a college-level course which should appeal to students in the fine arts and humanities as well as to science and engineering students. It includes references to original research papers, landmark scie...